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Sample records for metals enabling production

  1. Liquid metal enabled microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Tang, Shi-Yang; Zhu, Jiu Yang; Schaefer, Samira; Mitchell, Arnan; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh; Dickey, Michael D

    2017-03-14

    Several gallium-based liquid metal alloys are liquid at room temperature. As 'liquid', such alloys have a low viscosity and a high surface tension while as 'metal', they have high thermal and electrical conductivities, similar to mercury. However, unlike mercury, these liquid metal alloys have low toxicity and a negligible vapor pressure, rendering them much safer. In comparison to mercury, the distinguishing feature of these alloys is the rapid formation of a self-limiting atomically thin layer of gallium oxide over their surface when exposed to oxygen. This oxide layer changes many physical and chemical properties of gallium alloys, including their interfacial and rheological properties, which can be employed and modulated for various applications in microfluidics. Injecting liquid metal into microfluidic structures has been extensively used to pattern and encapsulate highly deformable and reconfigurable electronic devices including electrodes, sensors, antennas, and interconnects. Likewise, the unique features of liquid metals have been employed for fabricating miniaturized microfluidic components including pumps, valves, heaters, and electrodes. In this review, we discuss liquid metal enabled microfluidic components, and highlight their desirable attributes including simple fabrication, facile integration, stretchability, reconfigurability, and low power consumption, with promising applications for highly integrated microfluidic systems.

  2. Enabling room temperature sodium metal batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Ruiguo; Mushra, Kuber; Li, Xiaolin; Qian, Jiangfeng; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bowden, Mark E.; Han, Kee Sung; Mueller, Karl T.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2016-12-01

    Rechargeable batteries based upon sodium (Na+) cations are at the core of many new battery chemistries beyond Li-ion batteries. Rather than using carbon or alloy-based anodes, the direct utilization of solid sodium metal as an anode would be highly advantageous, but its use has been highly problematic due to its high reactivity. In this work, however, it is demonstrated that, by tailoring the electrolyte formulation, solid Na metal can be electrochemically plated/stripped at ambient temperature with high efficiency (> 99%) on both copper and inexpensive aluminum current collectors thereby enabling a shift in focus to new battery chemical couples based upon Na metal operating at ambient temperature. These highly concentrated electrolytes has enabled stable cycling of Na metal batteries based on a Na metal anode and Na3V2(PO4)3 cathode at high rates with very high efficiency.

  3. Metals production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Theodore S.

    1992-02-01

    Existing procedures for design of electrochemical plants can be used for design of lunar processes taking into consideration the differences in environmental conditions. These differences include: 1/6 Earth gravity, high vacuum, solar electrical and heat source, space radiation heat sink, long days and nights, and different availability and economics of materials, energy, and labor. Techniques have already been developed for operation of relatively small scale hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell systems used in the U.S. lunar landing program. Design and operation of lunar aqueous electrolytic process plants appears to be within the state-of-the-art. Finding or developing compatible materials for construction and designing of fused-magma metal winning cells will present a real engineering challenge.

  4. Evaluation of a new optic-enabled portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry instrument for measuring toxic metals/metalloids in consumer goods and cultural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Diana; Praamsma, Meredith L.; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2016-08-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) is a rapid, non-destructive multi-elemental analytical technique used for determining elemental contents ranging from percent down to the μg/g level. Although detection limits are much higher for XRF compared to other laboratory-based methods, such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), ICP-optical emission spectrometry (OES) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), its portability and ease of use make it a valuable tool, especially for field-based studies. A growing necessity to monitor human exposure to toxic metals and metalloids in consumer goods, cultural products, foods and other sample types while performing the analysis in situ has led to several important developments in portable XRF technology. In this study, a new portable XRF analyzer based on the use of doubly curved crystal optics (HD Mobile®) was evaluated for detecting toxic elements in foods, medicines, cosmetics and spices used in many Asian communities. Two models of the HD Mobile® (a pre-production and a final production unit) were investigated. Performance parameters including accuracy, precision and detection limits were characterized in a laboratory setting using certified reference materials (CRMs) and standard solutions. Bias estimates for key elements of public health significance such as As, Cd, Hg and Pb ranged from - 10% to 11% for the pre-production, and - 14% to 16% for the final production model. Five archived public health samples including herbal medicine products, ethnic spices and cosmetic products were analyzed using both XRF instruments. There was good agreement between the pre-production and final production models for the four key elements, such that the data were judged to be fit-for-purpose for the majority of samples analyzed. Detection of the four key elements of interest using the HD Mobile® was confirmed using archived samples for which ICP-OES data were available based on digested sample materials. The HD

  5. Light metal production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qinbai

    2016-04-19

    An electrochemical process for the production of light metals, particularly aluminum. Such a process involves contacting a light metal source material with an inorganic acid to form a solution containing the light metal ions in high concentration. The solution is fed to an electrochemical reactor assembly having an anode side containing an anode and a cathode side containing a cathode, with anode side and the cathode side separated by a bipolar membrane, with the solution being fed to the anode side. Light metal ions are electrochemically transferred through the bipolar membrane to the cathode side. The process further involves reducing the light metal ions to light metal powder. An associated processing system is also provided.

  6. Production of magnesium metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blencoe, James G [Harriman, TN; Anovitz, Lawrence M [Knoxville, TN; Palmer, Donald A [Oliver Springs, TN; Beard, James S [Martinsville, VA

    2010-02-23

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention further relates to a process for production of magnesium metal or a magnesium compound where an external source of carbon dioxide is not used in any of the reactions of the process. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  7. LCA of metal nanomaterial production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miseljic, Mirko; Diaz, Elsa Gabriela Alvarado; Olsen, Stig Irving

    The use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in commercial product has reached a new stage, where consumers in their daily life are frequently encountered with products containing this new material class. Metal and metal-oxide nanomaterials are among the most commonly used ENMs in products. Potential...

  8. PRODUCTION OF HAFNIUM METAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elger, G.W.; Boubel, R.W.

    1963-01-01

    This patent deals with a process of producing pure Hf metal from oxygen- contaminated gaseous Hf chloride. The oxygen compounds in the chioride gas are halogenated by contacting the gas at elevated temperature with Cl/sub 2/ in the presence of C. The Hf chloride, still in gaseous form, is contacted with molten Mg whereby Hf metal is formed and condensed on the Mg. (AEC)

  9. Two techniques enable sampling of filtered and unfiltered molten metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, L., Jr.; Pierce, R. D.; Tobias, K. R.; Winsch, I. O.

    1967-01-01

    Filtered samples of molten metals are obtained by filtering through a plug of porous material fitted in the end of a sample tube, and unfiltered samples are obtained by using a capillary-tube extension rod with a perforated bucket. With these methods there are no sampling errors or loss of liquid.

  10. Novel in situ mechanical testers to enable integrated metal surface micro-machines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follstaedt, David Martin; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Hearne, Sean Joseph; Foiles, Stephen Martin; Buchheit, Thomas Edward; Dyck, Christopher William

    2005-10-01

    The ability to integrate metal and semiconductor micro-systems to perform highly complex functions, such as RF-MEMS, will depend on developing freestanding metal structures that offer improved conductivity, reflectivity, and mechanical properties. Three issues have prevented the proliferation of these systems: (1) warpage of active components due to through-thickness stress gradients, (2) limited component lifetimes due to fatigue, and (3) low yield strength. To address these issues, we focus on developing and implementing techniques to enable the direct study of the stress and microstructural evolution during electrodeposition and mechanical loading. The study of stress during electrodeposition of metal thin films is being accomplished by integrating a multi-beam optical stress sensor into an electrodeposition chamber. By coupling the in-situ stress information with ex-situ microstructural analysis, a scientific understanding of the sources of stress during electrodeposition will be obtained. These results are providing a foundation upon which to develop a stress-gradient-free thin film directly applicable to the production of freestanding metal structures. The issues of fatigue and yield strength are being addressed by developing novel surface micromachined tensile and bend testers, by interferometry, and by TEM analysis. The MEMS tensile tester has a ''Bosch'' etched hole to allow for direct viewing of the microstructure in a TEM before, during, and after loading. This approach allows for the quantitative measurements of stress-strain relations while imaging dislocation motion, and determination of fracture nucleation in samples with well-known fatigue/strain histories. This technique facilitates the determination of the limits for classical deformation mechanisms and helps to formulate a new understanding of the mechanical response as the grain sizes are refined to a nanometer scale. Together, these studies will result in a science

  11. Fast Surface Dynamics of Metallic Glass Enable Superlatticelike Nanostructure Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Cao, C. R.; Shi, J. A.; Lu, Z.; Sun, Y. T.; Luo, P.; Gu, L.; Bai, H. Y.; Pan, M. X.; Wang, W. H.

    2017-01-01

    Contrary to the formation of complicated polycrystals induced by general crystallization, a modulated superlatticelike nanostructure, which grows layer by layer from the surface to the interior of a Pd40Ni10Cu30P20 metallic glass, is observed via isothermal annealing below the glass transition temperature. The generation of the modulated nanostructure can be solely controlled by the annealing temperature, and it can be understood based on the fast dynamic and liquidlike behavior of the glass surface. The observations have implications for understanding the glassy surface dynamics and pave a way for the controllable fabrication of a unique and sophisticated nanostructure on a glass surface to realize the properties' modification.

  12. The Role of Laser Additive Manufacturing Methods of Metals in Repair, Refurbishment and Remanufacturing - Enabling Circular Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leino, Maija; Pekkarinen, Joonas; Soukka, Risto

    Circular economy is an economy model where products, components, and materials are aimed to be kept at their highest utility and value at all times. Repair, refurbishment and remanufacturing processes are procedures aiming at returning the value of the product during its life cycle. Additive manufacturing (AM) is expected to be an enabling technology in circular economy based business models. One of AM process that enables repair, refurbishment and remanufacturing is Directed Energy Deposition. Respectively Powder Bed Fusion enables manufacturing of replacement components on demand. The aim of this study is to identify the current research findings and state of art of utilizing AM in repair, refurbishment and remanufacturing processes of metallic products. The focus is in identifying possibilities of AM in promotion of circular economy and expected environmental benefits based on the found literature. Results of the study indicate significant potential in utilizing AM in repair, refurbishment and remanufacturing activities.

  13. A Fully Non-metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    The Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine project, funded by NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI), represents the first comprehensive evaluation of emerging materials and manufacturing technologies that will enable fully nonmetallic gas turbine engines. This will be achieved by assessing the feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies for fabricating polymer matrix composite (PMC) and ceramic matrix composite (CMC) gas turbine engine components. The benefits of the proposed effort include: 50 weight reduction compared to metallic parts, reduced manufacturing costs due to less machining and no tooling requirements, reduced part count due to net shape single component fabrication, and rapid design change and production iterations. Two high payoff metallic components have been identified for replacement with PMCs and will be fabricated using fused deposition modeling (FDM) with high temperature capable polymer filaments. The first component is an acoustic panel treatment with a honeycomb structure with an integrated back sheet and perforated front sheet. The second component is a compressor inlet guide vane. The CMC effort, which is starting at a lower technology readiness level, will use a binder jet process to fabricate silicon carbide test coupons and demonstration articles. The polymer and ceramic additive manufacturing efforts will advance from monolithic materials toward silicon carbide and carbon fiber reinforced composites for improved properties. Microstructural analysis and mechanical testing will be conducted on the PMC and CMC materials. System studies will assess the benefits of fully nonmetallic gas turbine engine in terms of fuel burn, emissions, reduction of part count, and cost. The proposed effort will be focused on a small 7000 lbf gas turbine engine. However, the concepts are equally applicable to large gas turbine engines. The proposed effort includes a multidisciplinary, multiorganization NASA - industry team that includes experts in

  14. Industrial production and professional application of manufactured nanomaterials-enabled end products in Dutch industries: potential for exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Cindy; Brouwer, Derk H; Tielemans, Erik; Pronk, Anjoeka

    2013-04-01

    In order to make full use of the opportunities while responsibly managing the risks of working with manufactured nanomaterials (MNM), we need to gain insight into the potential level of exposure to MNM in the industry. Therefore, the goal of this study was to obtain an overview of the potential MNM exposure scenarios within relevant industrial sectors, applied exposure controls, and number of workers potentially exposed to MNM in Dutch industrial sectors producing and applying MNM-enabled end products in the Netherlands. A survey was conducted in three phases: (i) identification of MNM-enabled end products; (ii) identification of relevant industrial sectors; and (iii) a tiered telephone survey to estimate actual use of the products among 40 sector organizations/knowledge centres (Tier 1), 350 randomly selected companies (Tier 2), and 110 actively searched companies (Tier 3). The most dominant industrial sectors producing or applying MNM-enabled end products (market penetration >5%) are shoe repair shops, automotive, construction, paint, metal, and textile cleaning industry. In the majority of the companies (76%), potential risks related to working with MNM are not a specific point of interest. The total number of workers potentially exposed to MNM during the production or application of MNM-enabled end products was estimated at approximately 3000 workers in the Netherlands. The results of this study will serve as a basis for in-depth exposure and health surveys that are currently planned in the Netherlands. In addition, the results can be used to identify the most relevant sectors for policy makers and future studies focussing on evaluating the risks of occupational exposure to MNM.

  15. A Semantically Enabled Metadata Repository for Solar Irradiance Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A.; Cox, M.; Lindholm, D. M.; Nadiadi, I.; Traver, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, LASP, has been conducting research in Atmospheric and Space science for over 60 years, and providing the associated data products to the public. LASP has a long history, in particular, of making space-based measurements of the solar irradiance, which serves as crucial input to several areas of scientific research, including solar-terrestrial interactions, atmospheric, and climate. LISIRD, the LASP Interactive Solar Irradiance Data Center, serves these datasets to the public, including solar spectral irradiance (SSI) and total solar irradiance (TSI) data. The LASP extended metadata repository, LEMR, is a database of information about the datasets served by LASP, such as parameters, uncertainties, temporal and spectral ranges, current version, alerts, etc. It serves as the definitive, single source of truth for that information. The database is populated with information garnered via web forms and automated processes. Dataset owners keep the information current and verified for datasets under their purview. This information can be pulled dynamically for many purposes. Web sites such as LISIRD can include this information in web page content as it is rendered, ensuring users get current, accurate information. It can also be pulled to create metadata records in various metadata formats, such as SPASE (for heliophysics) and ISO 19115. Once these records are be made available to the appropriate registries, our data will be discoverable by users coming in via those organizations. The database is implemented as a RDF triplestore, a collection of instances of subject-object-predicate data entities identifiable with a URI. This capability coupled with SPARQL over HTTP read access enables semantic queries over the repository contents. To create the repository we leveraged VIVO, an open source semantic web application, to manage and create new ontologies and populate repository content. A variety of ontologies were used in

  16. Can Differentiated Production Planning and Control enable both Responsiveness and Efficiency in Food Production?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Romsdal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the complex production planning and control (PPC challenges in food supply chains. The study illustrates how food producers' traditional make‐to‐stock (MTS approach is not well suited to meet the trends of increasing product variety, higher demand uncertainty, increasing sales of fresh food products and more demanding customers. The paper proposes a framework for differentiated PPC that combines MTS with make‐to‐order (MTO.The framework matches products with the most appropriate PPC approaches and buffering techniques depending on market and product characteristics. The core idea is to achieve more volume flexibility in the production system by exploiting favourable product and market characteristics (high demand predictability, long customer order leadtime allowances and low product perishability. A case study is used to demonstrate how the framework can enable food producers to achieve efficiency in production, inventory and PPC processes – and simultaneously be responsive to market requirements.

  17. Learning and improvement in product innovation processes: Enabling behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieskes, José F.B.; Langenberg, Ilse

    2001-01-01

    Product Innovation is described as a continuous and cross-functional process involving all stages in the product life cycle. This approach gives way to study product innovation processes from a continuous improvement and learning viewpoint. The Continuous Improvement in the global product MAnagement

  18. Learning and improvement in product innovation processes: Enabling behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieskes, J.F.B.; Langenberg, Ilse

    2001-01-01

    Product Innovation is described as a continuous and cross-functional process involving all stages in the product life cycle. This approach gives way to study product innovation processes from a continuous improvement and learning viewpoint. The Continuous Improvement in the global product MAnagement

  19. Metals Production Requirements for Rapid Photovoltaics Deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Kavlak, Goksin; Jaffe, Robert L; Trancik, Jessika E

    2015-01-01

    If global photovoltaics (PV) deployment grows rapidly, the required input materials need to be supplied at an increasing rate. In this paper, we quantify the effect of PV deployment levels on the scale of metals production. For example, we find that if cadmium telluride {copper indium gallium diselenide} PV accounts for more than 3% {10%} of electricity generation by 2030, the required growth rates for the production of indium and tellurium would exceed historically-observed production growth rates for a large set of metals. In contrast, even if crystalline silicon PV supplies all electricity in 2030, the required silicon production growth rate would fall within the historical range. More generally, this paper highlights possible constraints to the rate of scaling up metals production for some PV technologies, and outlines an approach to assessing projected metals growth requirements against an ensemble of past growth rates from across the metals production sector. The framework developed in this paper may be...

  20. High power laser for peening of metals enabling production technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, J.; Dane, C.B.; Hackel, L.A.; Harrison, J.

    1998-06-18

    Cryogenic energy-dispersive x-ray detectors are being developed because of their superior energy resolution ((less than or equal to) 10 eV FWHM for keV x rays) compared to semiconductor EDS systems. So far, their range of application is limited due to their comparably small size and low count rate. We present data on the development of superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector arrays to address both of these issues. A single STJ detector has a resolution around 10 eV below 1 keV and can be operated at count rates of order 10,000 counts/s. We show that the simultaneous operation of several STJ detectors does not diminish their energy resolution significantly, while increasing the detector area and the maximum count rate by a factor given by the total number of independent channels.

  1. Metal Production by Molten Salt Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grjotheim, K.; Kvande, H.; Qingfeng, Li

    Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed.......Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed....

  2. Metal Production by Molten Salt Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grjotheim, K.; Kvande, H.; Qingfeng, Li

    Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed.......Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed....

  3. A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2015-01-01

    In a NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI) sponsored program entitled "A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing", evaluation of emerging materials and additive manufacturing technologies was carried out. These technologies may enable fully non-metallic gas turbine engines in the future. This paper highlights the results of engine system trade studies which were carried out to estimate reduction in engine emissions and fuel burn enabled due to advanced materials and manufacturing processes. A number of key engine components were identified in which advanced materials and additive manufacturing processes would provide the most significant benefits to engine operation. In addition, feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies to fabricate gas turbine engine components from polymer and ceramic matrix composite were demonstrated. A wide variety of prototype components (inlet guide vanes (IGV), acoustic liners, engine access door) were additively manufactured using high temperature polymer materials. Ceramic matrix composite components included first stage nozzle segments and high pressure turbine nozzle segments for a cooled doublet vane. In addition, IGVs and acoustic liners were tested in simulated engine conditions in test rigs. The test results are reported and discussed in detail.

  4. Nano-enabled environmental products and technologies - opportunities and drawbacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Christensen, Frans; Brinch, Anna; Kjølholt, Jesper

    on the (Danish) market, as well as products and technologies, which are still in R&D and it will provide a qualitative overview of health and environmental pros and cons of these technologies. The project has focused on technologies applied in: 1) purification of water and wastewater, 2) remediation of soil...

  5. Measuring and enabling learning behavior in product innovation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieskes, J.F.B.; van der Heijden, Beatrice

    2004-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that innovation is one of the most important predictors of firm success or failure. Successful innovation processes require creating new organizational capabilities to handle the external pressure for new products and processes (fast, good and at low costs), and the

  6. Measuring and Enabling Learning Behaviour in Product Innovation Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieskes, José; Heijden, van der Beatrice

    2004-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that innovation is one of the most important predictors of firm success or failure. Successful innovation processes require creating new organizational capabilities to handle the external pressure for new products and processes (fast, good and at low costs), and the inte

  7. Unlocking the Constraints of Cyanobacterial Productivity: Acclimations Enabling Ultrafast Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Hans C.; McClure, Ryan S.; Hill, Eric A.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Chrisler, William B.; Romine, Margie F.; McDermott, Jason E.; Posewitz, Matthew C.; Bryant, Donald A.; Konopka, Allan E.; Fredrickson, James K.; Beliaev, Alexander S.

    2016-07-26

    ABSTRACT

    Harnessing the metabolic potential of photosynthetic microbes for next-generation biotechnology objectives requires detailed scientific understanding of the physiological constraints and regulatory controls affecting carbon partitioning between biomass, metabolite storage pools, and bioproduct synthesis. We dissected the cellular mechanisms underlying the remarkable physiological robustness of the euryhaline unicellular cyanobacteriumSynechococcussp. strain PCC 7002 (Synechococcus7002) and identify key mechanisms that allow cyanobacteria to achieve unprecedented photoautotrophic productivities (~2.5-h doubling time). Ultrafast growth ofSynechococcus7002 was supported by high rates of photosynthetic electron transfer and linked to significantly elevated transcription of precursor biosynthesis and protein translation machinery. Notably, no growth or photosynthesis inhibition signatures were observed under any of the tested experimental conditions. Finally, the ultrafast growth inSynechococcus7002 was also linked to a 300% expansion of average cell volume. We hypothesize that this cellular adaptation is required at high irradiances to support higher cell division rates and reduce deleterious effects, corresponding to high light, through increased carbon and reductant sequestration.

    IMPORTANCEEfficient coupling between photosynthesis and productivity is central to the development of biotechnology based on solar energy. Therefore, understanding the factors constraining maximum rates of carbon processing is necessary to identify regulatory mechanisms and devise strategies to overcome productivity constraints. Here, we interrogate the molecular mechanisms that operate at a systems level to allow cyanobacteria to achieve ultrafast growth. This was done by considering growth and photosynthetic kinetics with global transcription patterns. We have delineated

  8. Unlocking the Constraints of Cyanobacterial Productivity: Acclimations Enabling Ultrafast Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans C. Bernstein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Harnessing the metabolic potential of photosynthetic microbes for next-generation biotechnology objectives requires detailed scientific understanding of the physiological constraints and regulatory controls affecting carbon partitioning between biomass, metabolite storage pools, and bioproduct synthesis. We dissected the cellular mechanisms underlying the remarkable physiological robustness of the euryhaline unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 (Synechococcus 7002 and identify key mechanisms that allow cyanobacteria to achieve unprecedented photoautotrophic productivities (~2.5-h doubling time. Ultrafast growth of Synechococcus 7002 was supported by high rates of photosynthetic electron transfer and linked to significantly elevated transcription of precursor biosynthesis and protein translation machinery. Notably, no growth or photosynthesis inhibition signatures were observed under any of the tested experimental conditions. Finally, the ultrafast growth in Synechococcus 7002 was also linked to a 300% expansion of average cell volume. We hypothesize that this cellular adaptation is required at high irradiances to support higher cell division rates and reduce deleterious effects, corresponding to high light, through increased carbon and reductant sequestration.

  9. FINISHING FABRICATED METAL PRODUCTS WITH ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report provides a technical and economic evaluation of a polyester powder coating system applied to the exterior and interior surfaces of metal boxes fabricated for the telephone and cable industries. This evaluation summarized many of the requirements and benefits of a clean technology that effectively eliminates the use of hazardous solvents and prevents the generation of volatile organic emissions and hazardous solid waste. publish information

  10. A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    The Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine project, funded by NASA Aeronautics Research Institute, represents the first comprehensive evaluation of emerging materials and manufacturing technologies that will enable fully nonmetallic gas turbine engines. This will be achieved by assessing the feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies to fabricate polymer matrix composite and ceramic matrix composite turbine engine components. The benefits include: 50 weight reduction compared to metallic parts, reduced manufacturing costs, reduced part count and rapid design iterations. Two high payoff metallic components have been identified for replacement with PMCs and will be fabricated using fused deposition modeling (FDM) with high temperature polymer filaments. The CMC effort uses a binder jet process to fabricate silicon carbide test coupons and demonstration articles. Microstructural analysis and mechanical testing will be conducted on the PMC and CMC materials. System studies will assess the benefits of fully nonmetallic gas turbine engine in terms of fuel burn, emissions, reduction of part count, and cost. The research project includes a multidisciplinary, multiorganization NASA - industry team that includes experts in ceramic materials and CMCs, polymers and PMCs, structural engineering, additive manufacturing, engine design and analysis, and system analysis.

  11. Aromatic plant production on metal contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D. [Mississippi State, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences and North Mississippi Research and Extension Center, 5421 Highway 145 South, Verona, MS 38879 (United States)], E-mail: vj40@pss.msstate.edu; Craker, Lyle E.; Xing Baoshan [Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, 12 Stockbridge Hall, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Nielsen, Niels E. [Plant Nutrition and Soil Fertility Lab, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK1871, Copenhagen (Denmark); Wilcox, Andrew [Harper Adams University College, Newport, Shropshire, TF10 8NB (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-01

    Field and container experiments were conducted to assess the feasibility of growing aromatic crops in metal contaminated areas and the effect of metals on herbage and oil productivity. The field experiments were conducted in the vicinities of the Non-Ferrous Metals Combine (Zn-Cu smelter) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria using coriander, sage, dill, basil, hyssop, lemon balm, and chamomile grown at various distances from the smelter. Herbage essential oil yields of basil, chamomile, dill, and sage were reduced when they were grown closer to the smelter. Metal removal from the site with the harvestable plant parts was as high as 180 g ha{sup -1} for Cd, 660 g ha{sup -1} for Pb, 180 g ha{sup -1} for Cu, 350 g ha{sup -1} for Mn, and 205 g ha{sup -1} for Zn. Sequential extraction of soil demonstrated that metal fractionation was affected by the distance to the smelter. With decreasing distance to the smelter, the transfer factor (TF) for Cu and Zn decreased but increased for Cd, while the bioavailability factor (BF) for Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn decreased. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalyses of contaminated soil verified that most of the Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn were in the form of small (< 1 {mu}m) particles, although there were larger particles (1-5 {mu}m) with high concentrations of individual metals. This study demonstrated that high concentrations of heavy metals in soil or growth medium did not result in metal transfer into the essential oil. Of the tested metals, only Cu at high concentrations may reduce oil content. Our results demonstrated that aromatic crops may not have significant phytoremediation potential, but growth of these crops in metal contaminated agricultural soils is a feasible alternative. Aromatic crops can provide economic return and metal-free final product, the essential oil.

  12. Advanced metal artifact reduction MRI of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty implants: compressed sensing acceleration enables the time-neutral use of SEMAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Jan; Thawait, Gaurav K. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Section of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Fritz, Benjamin [University of Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Raithel, Esther; Nittka, Mathias [Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Gilson, Wesley D. [Siemens Healthcare USA, Inc., Baltimore, MD (United States); Mont, Michael A. [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Compressed sensing (CS) acceleration has been theorized for slice encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC), but has not been shown to be feasible. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that CS-SEMAC is feasible for MRI of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing implants. Following prospective institutional review board approval, 22 subjects with metal-on-metal hip resurfacing implants underwent 1.5 T MRI. We compared CS-SEMAC prototype, high-bandwidth TSE, and SEMAC sequences with acquisition times of 4-5, 4-5 and 10-12 min, respectively. Outcome measures included bone-implant interfaces, image quality, periprosthetic structures, artifact size, and signal- and contrast-to-noise ratios (SNR and CNR). Using Friedman, repeated measures analysis of variances, and Cohen's weighted kappa tests, Bonferroni-corrected p-values of 0.005 and less were considered statistically significant. There was no statistical difference of outcomes measures of SEMAC and CS-SEMAC images. Visibility of implant-bone interfaces and pseudocapsule as well as fat suppression and metal reduction were ''adequate'' to ''good'' on CS-SEMAC and ''non-diagnostic'' to ''adequate'' on high-BW TSE (p < 0.001, respectively). SEMAC and CS-SEMAC showed mild blur and ripple artifacts. The metal artifact size was 63 % larger for high-BW TSE as compared to SEMAC and CS-SEMAC (p < 0.0001, respectively). CNRs were sufficiently high and statistically similar, with the exception of CNR of fluid and muscle and CNR of fluid and tendon, which were higher on intermediate-weighted high-BW TSE (p < 0.005, respectively). Compressed sensing acceleration enables the time-neutral use of SEMAC for MRI of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing implants when compared to high-BW TSE and image quality similar to conventional SEMAC. (orig.)

  13. Recovery and use of fission product noble metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, G.A.; Rohmann, C.A.; Perrigo, L.D.

    1980-06-01

    Noble metals in fission products are of strategic value. Market prices for noble metals are rising more rapidly than recovery costs. A promising concept has been developed for recovery of noble metals from fission product waste. Although the assessment was made only for the three noble metal fission products (Rh, Pd, Ru), there are other fission products and actinides which have potential value. (DLC)

  14. Technical assessment of processes to enable recycling of low-level contaminated metal waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimann, G.A.

    1991-10-01

    Accumulations of metal waste exhibiting low levels of radioactivity (LLCMW) have become a national burden, both financially and environmentally. Much of this metal could be considered as a resource. The Department of Energy was assigned the task of inventorying and classifying LLCMW, identifying potential applications, and applying and/or developing the technology necessary to enable recycling. One application for recycled LLCMW is high-quality canisters for permanent repository storage of high-level waste (HLW). As many as 80,000 canisters will be needed by 2035. Much of the technology needed to decontaminate LLCMW has already been developed, but no integrated process has been described, even on a pilot scale, for recycling LLCMW into HLW canisters. This report reviews practices for removal of radionuclides and for producing low carbon stainless steel. Contaminants that readily form oxides may be reduced to below de minimis levels and combined with a slag. Most of the radioactivity remaining in the ingot is concentrated in the inclusions. Radionuclides that chemically resemble the elements that comprise stainless steel can not be removed effectively. Slag compositions, current melting practices, and canister fabrication techniques were reviewed.

  15. Globally sustainable manganese metal production and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelstein, Karen

    2009-09-01

    The "cradle to grave" concept of managing chemicals and wastes has been a descriptive analogy of proper environmental stewardship since the 1970s. The concept incorporates environmentally sustainable product choices-such as metal alloys utilized steel products which civilization is dependent upon. Manganese consumption is related to the increasing production of raw steel and upgrading ferroalloys. Nonferrous applications of manganese include production of dry-cell batteries, plant fertilizer components, animal feed and colorant for bricks. The manganese ore (high grade 35% manganese) production world wide is about 6 million ton/year and electrolytic manganese metal demand is about 0.7 million ton/year. The total manganese demand is consumed globally by industries including construction (23%), machinery (14%), and transportation (11%). Manganese is recycled within scrap of iron and steel, a small amount is recycled within aluminum used beverage cans. Recycling rate is 37% and efficiency is estimated as 53% [Roskill Metals and Minerals Reports, January 13, 2005. Manganese Report: rapid rise in output caused by Chinese crude steel production. Available from: http://www.roskill.com/reports/manganese.]. Environmentally sustainable management choices include identifying raw material chemistry, utilizing clean production processes, minimizing waste generation, recycling materials, controlling occupational exposures, and collecting representative environmental data. This paper will discuss two electrolytically produced manganese metals, the metal production differences, and environmental impacts cited to date. The two electrolytic manganese processes differ due to the addition of sulfur dioxide or selenium dioxide. Adverse environmental impacts due to use of selenium dioxide methodology include increased water consumption and order of magnitude greater solid waste generation per ton of metal processed. The use of high grade manganese ores in the electrolytic process also

  16. Metal stress in zooplankton diapause production: post-hatching response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aránguiz-Acuña, Adriana; Pérez-Portilla, Pablo

    2017-04-01

    Aquatic organisms commonly respond to harsh conditions by forming diapausing stages, which enable populations to survive adverse periods forming egg banks. Production of diapausing eggs is frequently observed in monogonont rotifers, previously changing from asexual to partial sexual reproduction (mixis). In despite that zooplankton are frequently used in ecotoxicological assessment because of their sensitivity to various toxicants and their important role in the ecosystems, toxicity evaluations often consider the directly exposed population produced by parthenogenetic reproduction, exclusively. We assessed experimentally effects of exposure to metals on mixis delay and fitness of hatchlings of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis obtained from a brackish water lagoon with high metal content, especially copper. We show that sub-lethal concentrations of copper affected traits related to sexual reproduction and diapausing egg production in the rotifer. Copper addition did not delay the start of mixis, suggesting that rapid initiation of mixis is promoted in risky environments, according to the hypothesis of mixis as an escape strategy. Higher investment in mixis was obtained when individuals were exposed to metal. Addition of copper negatively affected the hatching success of diapausing eggs and performance of hatchlings. Nevertheless, these effects were greater for individuals formed in non-metal conditions, suggesting an adaptive advantage of populations from natural sediments exposed to copper. These results highlight the ecological and evolutionary consequences of the presence of metals in freshwater environments by modulating diapause adaptive efficacy and the selective process in egg banks.

  17. Market projections of cellulose nanomaterial-enabled products- Part 1: Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo Anne Shatkin; Theodore H. Wegner; E.M. (Ted) Bilek; John Cowie

    2014-01-01

    Nanocellulose provides a new materials platform for the sustainable production of high-performance nano-enabled products in an array of applications. In this paper, potential applications for cellulose nanomaterials are identified as the first step toward estimating market volume. The overall study, presented in two parts, estimates market volume on the basis of...

  18. Enabling Overall Water Splitting on Photocatalysts by CO-Covered Noble Metal Co-catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berto, Tobias F.; Sanwald, Kai E.; Byers, J. Paige; Browning, Nigel D.; Gutiérrez, Oliver Y.; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2016-10-17

    Photocatalytic overall water splitting requires co-catalysts that efficiently promote the generation of H-2 but do not catalyze its reverse oxidation. We demonstrate that CO chemisorbed on metal co-catalysts (Rh, Pt, Pd) suppresses the back reaction while maintaining the rate of H-2 evolution. On Rh/GaN:ZnO, the highest H-2 production rates were obtained with 4-40 mbar of CO, the back reaction remaining suppressed below 7 mbar of O-2. The O-2 and H-2 evolution rates compete with CO oxidation and the back reaction. The rates of all reactions increased with increasing photon absorption. However, due to different dependencies on the rate of charge carrier generation, the selectivities for O-2 and H-2 formation increased in comparison to CO oxidation and the back reaction with increasing photon flux and/or quantum efficiency. Under optimum conditions, the impact of CO to prevent the back reaction is identical to that of a Cr2O3 layer covering the active metal particle.

  19. Lithium metal protection enabled by in-situ olefin polymerization for high-performance secondary lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yongling; Zhang, Zhen; Fei, Huifang; Xu, Xiaoyan; Xiong, Shenglin; Feng, Jinkui; Ci, Lijie

    2017-09-01

    Lithium metal is considered to be the optimal choice of next-generation anode materials due to its ultrahigh theoretical capacity and the lowest redox potential. However, the growth of dendritic and mossy lithium for rechargeable Li metal batteries lead to the possible short circuiting and subsequently serious safety issues during charge/discharge cycles. For the further practical applications of Li anode, here we report a facile method for fabricating robust interfacial layer via in-situ olefin polymerization. The resulting polymer layer effectively suppresses the formation of Li dendrites and enables the long-term operation of Li metal batteries. Using Li-S cells as a test system, we also demonstrate an improved capacity retention with the protection of tetramethylethylene-polymer. Our results indicate that this method could be a promising strategy to tackle the intrinsic problems of lithium metal anodes and promote the development of Li metal batteries.

  20. Productization and Commercialization of IT-Enabled Higher Education in Computer Science: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankaanpää, Irja; Isomäki, Hannakaisa

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews research literature on the production and commercialization of IT-enabled higher education in computer science. Systematic literature review (SLR) was carried out in order to find out to what extent this area has been studied, more specifically how much it has been studied and to what detail. The results of this paper make a…

  1. A designerly approach to enable organizations to deliver product-service systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lille, C.S.H.; Roscam Abbing, E.; Kleinsmann, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Design is not only just for products, logo’s or websites anymore. More and more companies are embracing design as a way to enable their organization to adapt to changes in society. One of the challenges many organizations face at the moment is how to create value for their customers by delivering ex

  2. Direct vacuum inlet system enabling highly sensitive in-situ analysis of chemical reaction products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trimarco, Daniel Bøndergaard; Scott, Søren Bertelsen; Pedersen, Thomas

    , a capillary maintaining a controlled flow over a pressure drop to ultra-high vacuum, and inlet and outlet channels for an inert make up gas. The use of a direct inlet enables orders of magnitude higher sensitivity than differentially pumped systems without a loss in time response for volatile products, while...

  3. Production of Liquid Metal Spheres by Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed G. Mohammed

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates a molding technique for producing spheres composed of eutectic gallium-indium (EGaIn with diameters ranging from hundreds of microns to a couple millimeters. The technique starts by spreading EGaIn across an elastomeric sheet featuring cylindrical reservoirs defined by replica molding. The metal flows into these features during spreading. The spontaneous formation of a thin oxide layer on the liquid metal keeps the metal flush inside these reservoirs. Subsequent exposure to acid removes the oxide and causes the metal to bead up into a sphere with a size dictated by the volume of the reservoirs. This technique allows for the production and patterning of droplets with a wide range of volumes, from tens of nanoliters up to a few microliters. EGaIn spheres can be embedded or encased subsequently in polymer matrices using this technique. These spheres may be useful as solder bumps, electrodes, thermal contacts or components in microfluidic devices (valves, switches, pumps. The ease of parallel-processing and the ability to control the location of the droplets during their formation distinguishes this technique.

  4. Enabling direct H2O2 production through rational electrocatalyst design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siahrostami, Samira; Verdaguer Casadevall, Arnau; Karamad, Mohammadreza;

    2013-01-01

    electrocatalysts are needed. Using density functional theory calculations, we identify Pt-Hg as a promising candidate. Electrochemical measurements on Pt-Hg nanoparticles show more than an order of magnitude improvement in mass activity, that is, A g(-1) precious metal, for H2O2 production, over the best...

  5. Microwave Plasma Production of Metal Nanopowders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Lik Hang Chau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Metal and metal alloy nanopowders were prepared by using the microwave plasma synthesis method. The microwave plasma was operated in atmospheric pressure at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. The precursor decomposed thermally in the plasma reaction region and the products were then condensed in the heat exchanger, were separated from the gas by the powder filter, and then finally collected in the powder collector. The effect of various processing parameters such as plasma gas, carrier gas, cooling gas, precursor raw materials and feeding rate were studied in this work. Cu, Mo, W, Mo-Ni and Fe-Co nanopowders were successfully prepared by using the microwave plasma synthesis method. The processing conditions can be tuned to manipulate the particle size of the nanopowders.

  6. Triboelectrification-Enabled Self-Powered Detection and Removal of Heavy Metal Ions in Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoling; Chen, Jun; Guo, Hengyu; Fan, Xing; Wen, Zhen; Yeh, Min-Hsin; Yu, Chongwen; Cao, Xia; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-04-20

    A fundamentally new working principle into the field of self-powered heavy-metal-ion detection and removal using the triboelectrification effect is introduced. The as-developed tribo-nanosensors can selectively detect common heavy metal ions. The water-driven triboelectric nanogenerator is taken as a sustainable power source for heavy-metal-ion removal by recycling the kinetic energy from flowing wastewater.

  7. Highly Stable Operation of Lithium Metal Batteries Enabled by the Formation of a Transient High Concentration Electrolyte Layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Mei, Donghai; Engelhard, Mark H.; Cartmell, Samuel S.; Polzin, Bryant; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2016-02-08

    Lithium (Li) metal has been extensively investigated as an anode for rechargeable battery applications due to its ultrahigh specific capacity and the lowest redox potential. However, significant challenges including dendrite growth and low Coulombic efficiency are still hindering the practical applications of rechargeable Li metal batteries. Here, we demonstrate that long-term cycling of Li metal batteries can be realized by the formation of a transient high concentration electrolyte layer near the surface of Li metal anode during high rate discharge process. The highly concentrated Li+ ions in this transient layer will immediately solvate with the available solvent molecules and facilitate the formation of a stable and flexible SEI layer composed of a poly(ethylene carbonate) framework integrated with other organic/inorganic lithium salts. This SEI layer largely suppresses the corrosion of Li metal anode by free organic solvents and enables the long-term operation of Li metal batteries. The fundamental findings in this work provide a new direction for the development and operation of Li metal batteries that could be operated at high current densities for a wide range of applications.

  8. Enabling Smart Manufacturing Research and Development using a Product Lifecycle Test Bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helu, Moneer; Hedberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Smart manufacturing technologies require a cyber-physical infrastructure to collect and analyze data and information across the manufacturing enterprise. This paper describes a concept for a product lifecycle test bed built on a cyber-physical infrastructure that enables smart manufacturing research and development. The test bed consists of a Computer-Aided Technologies (CAx) Lab and a Manufacturing Lab that interface through the product model creating a "digital thread" of information across the product lifecycle. The proposed structure and architecture of the test bed is presented, which highlights the challenges and requirements of implementing a cyber-physical infrastructure for manufacturing. The novel integration of systems across the product lifecycle also helps identify the technologies and standards needed to enable interoperability between design, fabrication, and inspection. Potential research opportunities enabled by the test bed are also discussed, such as providing publicly accessible CAx and manufacturing reference data, virtual factory data, and a representative industrial environment for creating, prototyping, and validating smart manufacturing technologies.

  9. Interface-enabled defect reduction in He ion irradiated metallic multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X; Fu, E G; Misra, A; Demkowicz, M J

    2010-12-24

    Metallic multilayers are good model systems to explore the effects of heterophase interfaces in reducing radiation damage in structural materials. We summarize recent studies on radiation damage in immiscible face-centered cubic/body-centered cubic metallic multilayers, in particular Cu/V and Cu/Nb. These multilayers have shown unique characteristics compared to bulk metals under irradiation, including several orders of magnitude higher He solid solubility, dramatic reduction of bubble density, interface confined growth of He bubbles, and much lower radiation hardening. The mechanisms for interface enhanced radiation tolerance are briefly discussed.

  10. Chemo- and site-selective derivatizations of natural products enabling biological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Omar; Romo, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Bioactive natural products and derivatives remain an enduring starting point for the discovery of new cellular targets for disease intervention and lead compounds for the development of new therapeutic agents. The former goal is accomplished through the synthesis of bioactive cellular probes from natural products, enabling insights into the mechanism of action of these natural products by classical affinity chromatography or more recent proteome profiling methods. However, the direct and selective modification of native natural products for these purposes remains a challenge due to the structural complexity and the wide functional group diversity found in these natural substances. The lack of selective synthetic methods available to directly manipulate unprotected complex small molecules, in particular to perform structure-activity relationship studies and prepare appropriate cellular probes, has recently begun to be addressed, benefitting from the broader emerging area of chemoselective synthetic methodology. Thus, new reagents, catalysts and reaction processes are enabling both chemo- and site-selective modifications of complex, native natural products. In this review, we describe selected recent examples of these functionalization strategies in this emerging area.

  11. Evaluation of the concentration of toxic metals in cosmetic products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the concentration of toxic metals in cosmetic products in Nigeria. ... exposure to pollutants common in the environment including the air, water, ... of toxic heavy metals which could constitute potential health risk to users since it ...

  12. China Metals Production Keeps the World First for Five Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>China’s production of the 10 major nonferrous metals in 2006 reached over 19 million tons and China has kept the position as the largest nonferrous metals producer country of the world for five successive years.

  13. WHAT CAN BE MORE ECOLOGICAL THAN WATER? CRYOTECHNOLOGY OF PRODUCTION OF METAL CASTINGS UNDER ICE MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Doroshenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryotechnology of founding from ferrous and nonferrous metals under ice models enables to remove organic materials from foundry. It increases the ecological safety of production, reduces cost of castings and promotes the solution of problems of resources-saving.

  14. Electrolyte additive enabled fast charging and stable cycling lithium metal batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Engelhard, Mark H.; Mei, Donghai; Jiao, Shuhong; Polzin, Bryant J.; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2017-03-01

    Lithium (Li) metal battery is an attractive energy storage system owing to the ultrahigh specific capacity and the lowest redox potential of Li metal anode. However, safety concern associated with dendrite growth and limited cycle life especially at a high charge current density are two critical challenges hindering the practical applications of rechargeable Li metal batteries. Here, we report for the first time that an optimal amount (0.05 M) of LiPF6 as additive in the LiTFSI-LiBOB dual-salt/carbonate-based electrolyte can significantly enhance the charging capability and the long-term cycle life of Li metal batteries with a moderately high cathode loading of 1.75 mAh cm-2. Unprecedented stable-cycling (97.1% capacity retention after 500 cycles) along with very limited increase in electrode over-potential has been achieved at a high current density of 1.75 mA cm-2. This unparalleled fast charging and stable cycling performance is contributed from both the stabilized Al cathode current collector, and, more importantly, the robust and conductive SEI layer formed on Li metal anode in the presence of the LiPF6 additive.

  15. Enabling low cost biopharmaceuticals: high level interferon alpha-2b production in Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landowski, Christopher P; Mustalahti, Eero; Wahl, Ramon; Croute, Laurence; Sivasiddarthan, Dhinakaran; Westerholm-Parvinen, Ann; Sommer, Benjamin; Ostermeier, Christian; Helk, Bernhard; Saarinen, Juhani; Saloheimo, Markku

    2016-06-10

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei has tremendous capability to secrete over 100 g/L of proteins and therefore it would make an excellent host system for production of high levels of therapeutic proteins at low cost. We have developed T. reesei strains suitable for production of therapeutic proteins by reducing the secreted protease activity. Protease activity has been the major hindrance to achieving high production levels. We have constructed a series of interferon alpha-2b (IFNα-2b) production strains with 9 protease deletions to gain knowledge for further strain development. We have identified two protease deletions that dramatically improved the production levels. Deletion of the subtilisin protease slp7 and the metalloprotease amp2 has enabled production levels of IFNα-2b up to 2.1 and 2.4 g/L, respectively. With addition of soybean trypsin protease inhibitor the level of production improved to 4.5 g/L, with an additional 1.8 g/L still bound to the secretion carrier protein. High levels of IFNα-2b were produced using T. reesei strains with reduced protease secretion. Further strain development can be done to improve the production system by reducing protease activity and improving carrier protein cleavage.

  16. A new photobioreactor concept enabling the production of desiccation induced biotechnological products using terrestrial cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhne, S; Strieth, D; Lakatos, M; Muffler, K; Ulber, R

    2014-12-20

    Cyanobacteria offer great potential for the production of biotechnological products for pharmaceutical applications. However, these organisms can only be cultivated efficiently using photobioreactors (PBR). Under submerged conditions though, terrestrial cyanobacteria mostly grow in a suboptimal way, which makes this cultivation-technique uneconomic and thus terrestrial cyanobacteria unattractive. Therefore, a novel emersed photobioreactor (ePBR) has been developed, which can provide the natural conditions for these organisms. Proof of concept as well as first efficiency tests are conducted using the terrestrial cyanobacteria Trichocoleus sociatus as a model organism. The initial maximum growth rate of T. sociatus (0.014±0.001h(-1)) in submerged systems could be increased by 35%. Furthermore, it is now possible to control desiccation-correlated product formation and related metabolic processes. This is shown for the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). In this case the yield of 0.068±0.006g of EPS/g DW could be increased by more than seven times.

  17. Initiator-integrated 3D printing enables the formation of complex metallic architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Guo, Qiuquan; Cai, Xiaobing; Zhou, Shaolin; Kobe, Brad; Yang, Jun

    2014-02-26

    Three-dimensional printing was used to fabricate various metallic structures by directly integrating a Br-containing vinyl-terminated initiator into the 3D resin followed by surface-initiated atomic-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and subsequent electroless plating. Cu- and Ni-coated complex structures, such as microlattices, hollow balls, and even Eiffel towers, were prepared. Moreover, the method is also capable of fabricating ultralight cellular metals with desired structures by simply etching the polymer template away. By combining the merits of 3D printing in structure design with those of ATRP in surface modification and polymer-assisted ELP of metals, this universal, robust, and cost-effective approach has largely extended the capability of 3D printing and will make 3D printing technology more practical in areas of electronics, acoustic absorption, thermal insulation, catalyst supports, and others.

  18. Innovation Barriers and Enablers that Affect Productivity in Uganda Building Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Mwanaki Alinaitwe, , and

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry has of recent been blamed for lack of innovation. Lack of innovation in the industry is believed to be responsible for the decreasing or stagnant levels of productivity in comparison with other industries. This paper reviews the major barriers and enablers to innovation in general. Propositions were made about the factors that affect innovation in the construction industry which were then formulated into a questionnaire. A survey was made on building contractors in Uganda, a developing country, targeting those with financial strength, large in size, and with high capacity to carry out big projects. The identified factors were then ranked and correlated. The level of training in science, engineering and technical education, and the level of research and development at the industry level are looked at as the greatest innovation enablers in building that will drive forward labour productivity. The size of the domestic market and the level of security are the worst innovation barriers that lead to low productivity in the building industry in Uganda. Contractors, policy makers and the government should address the identified factors in order to improve productivity.

  19. Lean production tools and decision latitude enable conditions for innovative learning in organizations: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerlind Ståhl, Anna-Carin; Gustavsson, Maria; Karlsson, Nadine; Johansson, Gun; Ekberg, Kerstin

    2015-03-01

    The effect of lean production on conditions for learning is debated. This study aimed to investigate how tools inspired by lean production (standardization, resource reduction, visual monitoring, housekeeping, value flow analysis) were associated with an innovative learning climate and with collective dispersion of ideas in organizations, and whether decision latitude contributed to these associations. A questionnaire was sent out to employees in public, private, production and service organizations (n = 4442). Multilevel linear regression analyses were used. Use of lean tools and decision latitude were positively associated with an innovative learning climate and collective dispersion of ideas. A low degree of decision latitude was a modifier in the association to collective dispersion of ideas. Lean tools can enable shared understanding and collective spreading of ideas, needed for the development of work processes, especially when decision latitude is low. Value flow analysis played a pivotal role in the associations.

  20. Electrolyte additive enabled fast charging and stable cycling lithium metal batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Engelhard, Mark H.; Mei, Donghai; Jiao, Shuhong; Polzin, Bryant J.; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2017-03-01

    Batteries using lithium (Li) metal as anodes are considered promising energy storage systems because of their high energy densities. However, safety concerns associated with dendrite growth along with limited cycle life, especially at high charge current densities, hinder their practical uses. Here we report that an optimal amount (0.05 M) of LiPF6 as an additive in LiTFSI-LiBOB dual-salt/carbonate-solvent-based electrolytes significantly enhances the charging capability and cycling stability of Li metal batteries. In a Li metal battery using a 4-V Li-ion cathode at a moderately high loading of 1.75mAh cm(-2), a cyclability of 97.1% capacity retention after 500 cycles along with very limited increase in electrode overpotential is accomplished at a charge/discharge current density up to 1.75 mA cm(-2). The fast charging and stable cycling performances are ascribed to the generation of a robust and conductive solid electrolyte interphase at the Li metal surface and stabilization of the Al cathode current collector.

  1. CRISPR EnAbled Trackable genome Engineering for isopropanol production in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Liya; Liu, Rongming; Garst, Andrew D.; Lee, Thomas; Nogué, Violeta Sànchez i.; Beckham, Gregg T.; Gill, Ryan T.

    2017-05-01

    Isopropanol is an important target molecule for sustainable production of fuels and chemicals. Increases in DNA synthesis and synthetic biology capabilities have resulted in the development of a range of new strategies for the more rapid design, construction, and testing of production strains. Here, we report on the use of such capabilities to construct and test 903 different variants of the isopropanol production pathway in Escherichia coli. We first constructed variants to explore the effect of codon optimization, copy number, and translation initiation rates on isopropanol production. The best strain (PA06) produced isopropanol at titers of 17.5 g/L, with a yield of 0.62 (mol/mol), and maximum productivity of 0.40 g/L/h. We next integrated the isopropanol synthetic pathway into the genome and then used the CRISPR EnAbled Trackable genome Engineering (CREATE) strategy to generate an additional 640 individual RBS library variants for further evaluation. After testing each of these variants, we constructed a combinatorial library containing 256 total variants from four different RBS levels for each gene. The best producing variant, PA14, produced isopropanol at titers of 7.1 g/L at 24 h, with a yield of 0.75 (mol/mol), and maximum productivity of 0.62 g/L/h (which was 0.22 g/L/h above the parent strain PA07). We demonstrate the ability to rapidly construct and test close to ~1000 designer strains and identify superior performers.

  2. Automated nutrient screening system enables high-throughput optimisation of microalgae production conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzun, Khairul Adzfa; Wolf, Juliane; Jakob, Gisela; Zhang, Eugene; Stephens, Evan; Ross, Ian; Hankamer, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae provide an excellent platform for the production of high-value-products and are increasingly being recognised as a promising production system for biomass, animal feeds and renewable fuels. Here, we describe an automated screen, to enable high-throughput optimisation of 12 nutrients for microalgae production. Its miniaturised 1,728 multiwell format allows multiple microalgae strains to be simultaneously screened using a two-step process. Step 1 optimises the primary elements nitrogen and phosphorous. Step 2 uses Box-Behnken analysis to define the highest growth rates within the large multidimensional space tested (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B, Se, V, Si) at three levels (-1, 0, 1). The highest specific growth rates and maximum OD750 values provide a measure for continuous and batch culture. The screen identified the main nutrient effects on growth, pairwise nutrient interactions (for example, Ca-Mg) and the best production conditions of the sampled statistical space providing the basis for a targeted full factorial screen to assist with optimisation of algae production.

  3. Metal hydride hydrogen and heat storage systems as enabling technology for spacecraft applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reissner, Alexander, E-mail: reissner@fotec.at [FOTEC Forschungs- und Technologietransfer GmbH, Viktor Kaplan Straße 2, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Johannes Gutenberg-Straße 3, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Pawelke, Roland H.; Hummel, Stefan; Cabelka, Dusan [FOTEC Forschungs- und Technologietransfer GmbH, Viktor Kaplan Straße 2, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Gerger, Joachim [University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Johannes Gutenberg-Straße 3, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Farnes, Jarle, E-mail: Jarle.farnes@prototech.no [CMR Prototech AS, Fantoftvegen 38, PO Box 6034, 5892 Bergen (Norway); Vik, Arild; Wernhus, Ivar; Svendsen, Tjalve [CMR Prototech AS, Fantoftvegen 38, PO Box 6034, 5892 Bergen (Norway); Schautz, Max, E-mail: max.schautz@esa.int [European Space Agency, ESTEC – Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk Zh (Netherlands); Geneste, Xavier, E-mail: xavier.geneste@esa.int [European Space Agency, ESTEC – Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk Zh (Netherlands)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • A metal hydride tank concept for heat and hydrogen storage is presented. • The tank is part of a closed-loop reversible fuel cell system for space application. • For several engineering issues specific to the spacecraft application, solutions have been developed. • The effect of water contamination has been approximated for Ti-doped NaAlH{sub 4}. • A novel heat exchanger design has been realized by Selective Laser Melting. - Abstract: The next generation of telecommunication satellites will demand a platform payload performance in the range of 30+ kW within the next 10 years. At this high power output, a Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems (RFCS) offers an efficiency advantage in specific energy density over lithium ion batteries. However, a RFCS creates a substantial amount of heat (60–70 kJ per mol H{sub 2}) during fuel cell operation. This requires a thermal hardware that accounts for up to 50% of RFCS mass budget. Thus the initial advantage in specific energy density is reduced. A metal hydride tank for combined storage of heat and hydrogen in a RFCS may overcome this constraint. Being part of a consortium in an ongoing European Space Agency project, FOTEC is building a technology demonstrator for such a combined hydrogen and heat storage system.

  4. Transition Metal-Oxide Free Perovskite Solar Cells Enabled by a New Organic Charge Transport Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sehoon; Han, Ggoch Ddeul; Weis, Jonathan G; Park, Hyoungwon; Hentz, Olivia; Zhao, Zhibo; Swager, Timothy M; Gradečak, Silvija

    2016-04-06

    Various electron and hole transport layers have been used to develop high-efficiency perovskite solar cells. To achieve low-temperature solution processing of perovskite solar cells, organic n-type materials are employed to replace the metal oxide electron transport layer (ETL). Although PCBM (phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) has been widely used for this application, its morphological instability in films (i.e., aggregation) is detrimental. Herein, we demonstrate the synthesis of a new fullerene derivative (isobenzofulvene-C60-epoxide, IBF-Ep) that serves as an electron transporting material for methylammonium mixed lead halide-based perovskite (CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x)) solar cells, both in the normal and inverted device configurations. We demonstrate that IBF-Ep has superior morphological stability compared to the conventional acceptor, PCBM. IBF-Ep provides higher photovoltaic device performance as compared to PCBM (6.9% vs 2.5% in the normal and 9.0% vs 5.3% in the inverted device configuration). Moreover, IBF-Ep devices show superior tolerance to high humidity (90%) in air. By reaching power conversion efficiencies up to 9.0% for the inverted devices with IBF-Ep as the ETL, we demonstrate the potential of this new material as an alternative to metal oxides for perovskite solar cells processed in air.

  5. Manufacture of Precious Metal Products:Advancement and Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOROZOVA L. E.; YASTREBOV V. A.; VASEKIN V. V.

    2012-01-01

    A survey about OJSC "SIC ‘Supermetal’" as a processor of secondary precious metal raw materials and a manufacturer of precious metal products for technical purposes,has been presented.Brief information has been given about the basic technologies and materials used in production,including dispersion-strengthened materials on the basis of platinum alloys and laminar composites.

  6. Fundamental mechanical and microstructural observations in metallic glass coating production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews, D.T.A.; Ocelik, V.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; DeHosson, JTM; Brebbia, CA; Nishida, SI

    2005-01-01

    The production of a wide range of metallic Glass Forming Alloys (GFA) has been investigated by several processing routes including simple arc-casting and melt-spinning to form Bulk Metallic Glasses (BMG). The concepts surrounding such alloys have been directed towards the production of thick (> 300

  7. Fundamental mechanical and microstructural observations in metallic glass coating production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews, D.T.A.; Ocelik, V.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; DeHosson, JTM; Brebbia, CA; Nishida, SI

    2005-01-01

    The production of a wide range of metallic Glass Forming Alloys (GFA) has been investigated by several processing routes including simple arc-casting and melt-spinning to form Bulk Metallic Glasses (BMG). The concepts surrounding such alloys have been directed towards the production of thick (> 300

  8. Effect of Metals, Metalloids and Metallic Nanoparticles on Microalgae Growth and Industrial Product Biosynthesis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystian Miazek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are a source of numerous compounds that can be used in many branches of industry. Synthesis of such compounds in microalgal cells can be amplified under stress conditions. Exposure to various metals can be one of methods applied to induce cell stress and synthesis of target products in microalgae cultures. In this review, the potential of producing diverse biocompounds (pigments, lipids, exopolymers, peptides, phytohormones, arsenoorganics, nanoparticles from microalgae cultures upon exposure to various metals, is evaluated. Additionally, different methods to alter microalgae response towards metals and metal stress are described. Finally, possibilities to sustain high growth rates and productivity of microalgal cultures in the presence of metals are discussed.

  9. Effect of Metals, Metalloids and Metallic Nanoparticles on Microalgae Growth and Industrial Product Biosynthesis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miazek, Krystian; Iwanek, Waldemar; Remacle, Claire; Richel, Aurore; Goffin, Dorothee

    2015-10-09

    Microalgae are a source of numerous compounds that can be used in many branches of industry. Synthesis of such compounds in microalgal cells can be amplified under stress conditions. Exposure to various metals can be one of methods applied to induce cell stress and synthesis of target products in microalgae cultures. In this review, the potential of producing diverse biocompounds (pigments, lipids, exopolymers, peptides, phytohormones, arsenoorganics, nanoparticles) from microalgae cultures upon exposure to various metals, is evaluated. Additionally, different methods to alter microalgae response towards metals and metal stress are described. Finally, possibilities to sustain high growth rates and productivity of microalgal cultures in the presence of metals are discussed.

  10. A biopolymer-like metal enabled hybrid material with exceptional mechanical prowess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junsong; Cui, Lishan; Jiang, Daqiang; Liu, Yinong; Hao, Shijie; Ren, Yang; Han, Xiaodong; Liu, Zhenyang; Wang, Yunzhi; Yu, Cun; Huan, Yong; Zhao, Xinqing; Zheng, Yanjun; Xu, Huibin; Ren, Xiaobing; Li, Xiaodong

    2015-02-01

    The design principles for naturally occurring biological materials have inspired us to develop next-generation engineering materials with remarkable performance. Nacre, commonly referred to as nature's armor, is renowned for its unusual combination of strength and toughness. Nature's wisdom in nacre resides in its elaborate structural design and the judicious placement of a unique organic biopolymer with intelligent deformation features. However, up to now, it is still a challenge to transcribe the biopolymer's deformation attributes into a stronger substitute in the design of new materials. In this study, we propose a new design strategy that employs shape memory alloy to transcribe the ``J-curve'' mechanical response and uniform molecular/atomic level deformation of the organic biopolymer in the design of high-performance hybrid materials. This design strategy is verified in a TiNi-Ti3Sn model material system. The model material demonstrates an exceptional combination of mechanical properties that are superior to other high-performance metal-based lamellar composites known to date. Our design strategy creates new opportunities for the development of high-performance bio-inspired materials.

  11. Enabling factors toward production of nanostructured steel on an industrial scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branagan, D. J.

    2005-02-01

    Utilizing the existing properties of steel, a modern technological society has been constructed. While there are over 25,000 worldwide equivalent steels based on manipulating the eutectoid transformation, there exist only a handful of commercial nanostructured steel alloys based on manipulating the more complex glass devitrification transformation. Thus, research on nanostructured steels is in its infancy, and many further developments are expected with the demonstrated promise of developing new combinations of superior properties. In this article, seven enabling metallurgical factors are presented that ultimately allow a variety of nanostructured steel products to be produced in an ever-increasing array of industrial processing techniques. Additionally, a case example of the formation of nanostructured steel are given showing how these factors can be harnessed on an industrial scale.

  12. Risk assessment of allergen metals in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipahi, Hande; Charehsaz, Mohammad; Güngör, Zerrin; Erdem, Onur; Soykut, Buğra; Akay, Cemal; Aydin, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetics are one of the most common reasons for hospital referrals with allergic contact dermatitis. Because of the increased use of cosmetics within the population and an increase in allergy cases, monitoring of heavy metals, especially allergen metals, is crucial. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentration of allergen metals, nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), and chromium (Cr), in the most commonly used cosmetic products including mascara, eyeliner, eye shadow, lipstick, and nail polish. In addition, for safety assessment of cosmetic products, margin of safety of the metals was evaluated. Forty-eight makeup products were purchased randomly from local markets and large cosmetic stores in Istanbul, Turkey, and an atomic absorption spectrometer was used for metal content determination. Risk assessment of the investigated cosmetic products was performed by calculating the systemic exposure dosage (SED) using Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety guideline. According to the results of this investigation in all the samples tested, at least two of the allergen metals, Ni and/or Co and/or Cr were detected. Moreover, 97% of the Ni-detected products, 96% of Cr- and 54% of Co-detected products, contained over 1 μg/g of this metals, which is the suggested ultimate target value for sensitive population and thereby can be considered as the possible allergen. On the basis of the results of this study, SED of the metals was negligible; however, contact dermatitis caused by cosmetics is most probably due to the allergen metal content of the products. In conclusion, to assess the safety of the finished products, postmarketing vigilance and routine monitoring of allergen metals are very important to protect public health.

  13. ESTABLISHING SUSTAINABLE US HEV/PHEV MANUFACTURING BASE: STABILIZED LITHIUM METAL POWDER, ENABLING MATERIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGH ENERGY LI-ION BATTERIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovleva, Marina

    2012-12-31

    FMC Lithium Division has successfully completed the project “Establishing Sustainable US PHEV/EV Manufacturing Base: Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary Technology for High Energy Li-ion Batteries”. The project included design, acquisition and process development for the production scale units to 1) produce stabilized lithium dispersions in oil medium, 2) to produce dry stabilized lithium metal powders, 3) to evaluate, design and acquire pilot-scale unit for alternative production technology to further decrease the cost, and 4) to demonstrate concepts for integrating SLMP technology into the Li- ion batteries to increase energy density. It is very difficult to satisfy safety, cost and performance requirements for the PHEV and EV applications. As the initial step in SLMP Technology introduction, industry can use commercially available LiMn2O4 or LiFePO4, for example, that are the only proven safer and cheaper lithium providing cathodes available on the market. Unfortunately, these cathodes alone are inferior to the energy density of the conventional LiCoO2 cathode and, even when paired with the advanced anode materials, such as silicon composite material, the resulting cell will still not meet the energy density requirements. We have demonstrated, however, if SLMP Technology is used to compensate for the irreversible capacity in the anode, the efficiency of the cathode utilization will be improved and the cost of the cell, based on the materials, will decrease.

  14. Microbial and heavy metal contamination of pineapple products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    Key words: Pineapple, juices, jams, microbial contamination, heavy metal, Rwanda. ..... material used. This was obvious ... sterilise the product employing boiling pots and package .... that post-harvest, processing and preservation techniques.

  15. Co-production of acetone and ethanol with molar ratio control enables production of improved gasoline or jet fuel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Zachary C; Bormann, Sebastian; Sreekumar, Sanil; Grippo, Adam; Toste, F Dean; Blanch, Harvey W; Clark, Douglas S

    2016-10-01

    The fermentation of simple sugars to ethanol has been the most successful biofuel process to displace fossil fuel consumption worldwide thus far. However, the physical properties of ethanol and automotive components limit its application in most cases to 10-15 vol% blends with conventional gasoline. Fermentative co-production of ethanol and acetone coupled with a catalytic alkylation reaction could enable the production of gasoline blendstocks enriched in higher-chain oxygenates. Here we demonstrate a synthetic pathway for the production of acetone through the mevalonate precursor hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA. Expression of this pathway in various strains of Escherichia coli resulted in the co-production of acetone and ethanol. Metabolic engineering and control of the environmental conditions for microbial growth resulted in controllable acetone and ethanol production with ethanol:acetone molar ratios ranging from 0.7:1 to 10.0:1. Specifically, use of gluconic acid as a substrate increased production of acetone and balanced the redox state of the system, predictively reducing the molar ethanol:acetone ratio. Increases in ethanol production and the molar ethanol:acetone ratio were achieved by co-expression of the aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE) from E. coli MG1655 and by co-expression of pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc) and alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhB) from Z. mobilis. Controlling the fermentation aeration rate and pH in a bioreactor raised the acetone titer to 5.1 g L(-1) , similar to that obtained with wild-type Clostridium acetobutylicum. Optimizing the metabolic pathway, the selection of host strain, and the physiological conditions employed for host growth together improved acetone titers over 35-fold (0.14-5.1 g/L). Finally, chemical catalysis was used to upgrade the co-produced ethanol and acetone at both low and high molar ratios to higher-chain oxygenates for gasoline and jet fuel applications. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2079-2087. © 2016 Wiley

  16. Techno-Economic Basis for Coproduct Manufacturing To Enable Hydrocarbon Fuel Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Davis, Ryan; Humbird, David; Tao, Ling; Dowe, Nancy; Guarnieri, Michael T.; Linger, Jeffrey G.; Karp, Eric M.; Salvachua, Davinia; Vardon, Derek R.; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2016-06-06

    coproducts, recovery and purification of fuels and coproducts, and coproduct selection and price. Overall, this analysis documents potential economics for both a hydrocarbon fuel and bioproduct process pathway and highlights prioritized research directions beyond the current benchmark to enable hydrocarbon fuel production via an oleaginous microbial platform with simultaneous coproduct manufacturing from lignocellulosic biomass.

  17. Production of metallic copper powder by autocatalytic reaction in suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Guilherme Rocha Poço

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of metallic powder by precipitation from solution was studied in laboratory scale as an alternative to the conventionally adopted processes, based on the atomization of molten material, for producing metal powders with small particle size. The process is based on the precipitation of metals from aqueous solutions by reduction under controlled conditions. Results of laboratory scale experiments are presented for the production of copper particles from aqueous solutions of copper sulfate, using formaldehyde as reducing reactant, and EDTA as complexing agent. The effect of the presence of nuclei was studied. Metallic particles with average sizes in the range from about 0.3 µm to about 15 µm were obtained. In the process, large particles are formed mainly by aggregation of submicrometric particles, indicating that the particle size distribution of the product depends on the control of particle agglomeration rate.

  18. Comparison of Eleven Heavy Metals in Moringa Oleifera Lam. Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmatvapirat, C; Limmatvapirat, S; Charoenteeraboon, J; Wessapan, C; Kumsum, A; Jenwithayaamornwech, S; Luangthuwapranit, P

    2015-01-01

    Eleven heavy metals in various products of Moringa oleifera were analyzed to determine eleven heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Zn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. The products of M. oleifera were purchased in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. All products were digested with nitric acid solution before determining the concentrations of heavy metals. The recoveries of all heavy metals were found to be in the range of 99.89-103.05%. Several criteria such as linearity, limits of detection, limits of quantification, specificity, precision under repeatability conditions and intermediate precision reproducibility were evaluated. Results indicate that this method could be used in the laboratory for determination of eleven heavy metals in M. oleifera products with acceptable analytical performance. The results of analysis showed that the highest concentrations of As, Cr, Hg, and Mn were found in tea leaves while the highest concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn were found in leaf capsules. Continuous monitoring of heavy metals in M. oleifera products is crucial for consumer health.

  19. Comparison of eleven heavy metals in moringa oleifera lam. products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Limmatvapirat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven heavy metals in various products of Moringa oleifera were analyzed to determine eleven heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Zn using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. The products of M. oleifera were purchased in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. All products were digested with nitric acid solution before determining the concentrations of heavy metals. The recoveries of all heavy metals were found to be in the range of 99.89-103.05%. Several criteria such as linearity, limits of detection, limits of quantification, specificity, precision under repeatability conditions and intermediate precision reproducibility were evaluated. Results indicate that this method could be used in the laboratory for determination of eleven heavy metals in M. oleifera products with acceptable analytical performance. The results of analysis showed that the highest concentrations of As, Cr, Hg, and Mn were found in tea leaves while the highest concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn were found in leaf capsules. Continuous monitoring of heavy metals in M. oleifera products is crucial for consumer health.

  20. Identification and assessment of the need to improve the operation of production systems in the metal sector enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Górska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt was made to identify the areas of metal products manufacturing processes that require improvement. Determination of such areas may become a source of a lot of valuable information for the enterprise, enabling the development of its improvement directions. The results of survey allowed also to define a model of implementation importance for tasks contributing to the metal sector enterprises improvement.

  1. Impact of heavy metals on the oil products biodegradation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukauskaite, Audrone; Jakubauskaite, Viktorija; Belous, Olga; Ambrazaitiene, Dalia; Stasiskiene, Zaneta

    2008-12-01

    Oil products continue to be used as a principal source of energy. Wide-scale production, transport, global use and disposal of petroleum have made them major contaminants in prevalence and quantity in the environment. In accidental spills, actions are taken to remove or remediate or recover the contaminants immediately, especially if they occur in environmentally sensitive areas, for example, in coastal zones. Traditional methods to cope with oil spills are confined to physical containment. Biological methods can have an advantage over the physical-chemical treatment regimes in removing spills in situ as they offer biodegradation of oil fractions by the micro-organisms. Recently, biological methods have been known to play a significant role in bioremediation of oil-polluted coastal areas. Such systems are likely to be of significance in the effective management of sensitive coastal ecosystems chronically subjected to oil spillage. For this reason the aim of this paper is to present an impact of Mn, Cu, Co and Mo quantities on oil biodegradation effectiveness in coastal soil and to determine the relationship between metal concentrations and degradation of two oil products (black oil and diesel fuel). Soil was collected in the Baltic Sea coastal zone oil products degradation area (Klaipeda, Lithuania). The experiment consisted of two parts: study on the influence of micro-elements on the oil product biodegradation process; and analysis of the influence of metal concentration on the number of HDMs. The analysis performed and results obtained address the following areas: impact of metal on a population of hydrocarbon degrading micro-organisms, impact of metals on residual concentrations of oil products, influence of metals on the growth of micro-organisms, inter-relation of metal concentrations with degradation rates. Statistical analysis was made using ;Statgraphics plus' software. The influence of metals on the growth of micro-organisms, the biodegradation process

  2. Enabling Manufacturing Competitiveness and Economic Sustainability : Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Changeable, Agile, Reconfigurable and Virtual production

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The changing manufacturing environment requires more responsive and adaptable manufacturing systems. The theme of the 4th International Conference on Changeable, Agile, Reconfigurable and Virtual production (CARV2011) is “Enabling Manufacturing Competitiveness and Economic Sustainability”. Leading edge research and best implementation practices and experiences, which address these important issues and challenges, are presented. The proceedings include advances in manufacturing systems design, planning, evaluation, control and evolving paradigms such as mass customization, personalization, changeability, re-configurability and flexibility. New and important concepts such as the dynamic product families and platforms, co-evolution of products and systems, and methods for enhancing manufacturing systems’ economic sustainability and prolonging their life to produce more than one product generation are treated. Enablers of change in manufacturing systems, production volume and capability scalability and man...

  3. State-of-art of modern technologies for metals production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holappa, L. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Metallurgy

    1995-12-31

    The future raw materials are becoming lower in metal content and more complex, multimetal concentrates will be utilized. This will give challenges for metallurgists to develop new, efficient and energy saving processes. The main impacts for current and future production technologies come from energy need and environmental issues of the production processes themselves as well as the inevitable energy production for the metal making. Metals production consumes huge amount of energy, roughly 10 pct of the global energy consumption is caused by metallurgists. That is the necessity but it also means energy saving is one of the metallurgical industry have been enormous when looking back to the history. Since the 1960`s the efforts of the industry together with the strict legislation in the industrialized countries have conducted to greatly decreased emissions and improved pollution control. Breakthrough of new processes like copper flash smelting has aided this positive progress

  4. Automobile sheet metal part production with incremental sheet forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail DURGUN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, effect of global warming is increasing drastically so it leads to increased interest on energy efficiency and sustainable production methods. As a result of adverse conditions, national and international project platforms, OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers, SMEs (Small and Mid-size Manufacturers perform many studies or improve existing methodologies in scope of advanced manufacturing techniques. In this study, advanced manufacturing and sustainable production method "Incremental Sheet Metal Forming (ISF" was used for sheet metal forming process. A vehicle fender was manufactured with or without die by using different toolpath strategies and die sets. At the end of the study, Results have been investigated under the influence of method and parameters used.Keywords: Template incremental sheet metal, Metal forming

  5. Metabolites Associated with Adaptation of Microorganisms to an Acidophilic, Metal-Rich Environment Identified by Stable-Isotope-Enabled Metabolomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosier, Annika C.; Justice, Nicholas B.; Bowen, Benjamin P.; Baran, Richard; Thomas, Brian C.; Northen, Trent R.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microorganisms grow under a remarkable range of extreme conditions. Environmental transcriptomic and proteomic studies have highlighted metabolic pathways active in extremophilic communities. However, metabolites directly linked to their physiology are less well defined because metabolomics methods lag behind other omics technologies due to a wide range of experimental complexities often associated with the environmental matrix. We identified key metabolites associated with acidophilic and metal-tolerant microorganisms using stable isotope labeling coupled with untargeted, high-resolution mass spectrometry. We observed >3,500 metabolic features in biofilms growing in pH ~0.9 acid mine drainage solutions containing millimolar concentrations of iron, sulfate, zinc, copper, and arsenic. Stable isotope labeling improved chemical formula prediction by >50% for larger metabolites (>250 atomic mass units), many of which were unrepresented in metabolic databases and may represent novel compounds. Taurine and hydroxyectoine were identified and likely provide protection from osmotic stress in the biofilms. Community genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data implicate fungi in taurine metabolism. Leptospirillum group II bacteria decrease production of ectoine and hydroxyectoine as biofilms mature, suggesting that biofilm structure provides some resistance to high metal and proton concentrations. The combination of taurine, ectoine, and hydroxyectoine may also constitute a sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon currency in the communities. PMID:23481603

  6. RFID-enabled traceability system for consignment and high value products: a case study in the healthcare sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendavid, Ygal; Boeck, Harold; Philippe, Richard

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a case study of a hospital operating room that evaluated a Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID)-enabled traceability system for the management of consignment and high value products requiring item level traceability. Results indicate that the traceability system in conjunction with the redesign of replenishment processes facilitates item level traceability, improves financial controls and case costing, upgrades service levels and reduces inventory shrinkage. Other benefits include time saved from non-value-added activities that can be transferred to patient care activities. The solution can be considered (i) as an alternative to RFID-enabled cabinets used in the replenishment of consignment and high value supplies in certain operating rooms, cardiac catheterization laboratories and interventional radiology departments, or (ii) as a complementary solution facilitating the tracking of medical devices removed from RFID-enabled cabinets. In short, the end-to-end traceability of medical products in the healthcare supply chain can be significantly enhanced.

  7. Immobilization of noble metal fission products in a metallic waste form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, S. M.; Bateman, K.; Marsden, K. C.; Keiser, D. D.; O' Holleran, T. P.; Hahn, P. A. [Idaho National Laboratory, Boise (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Development of the metallic waste form for the consolidation of spent-fuel cladding and the immobilization of specific fission-product radionuclides occurred as part of the larger Electrometallurgical Treatment Research and Demonstration conducted by Argonne National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy from 1996 to 1999. The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) proposal for advanced reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel also proposes to combine recovered fission-product technetium and other transition metal fission products, primarily the undissolved solid (UDS) residue from the dissolver vessels, into a metallic, high-level waste form for geological disposal. This approach is similar to the production of the MWF produced during the treatment of spent EBR-II fuel at the INL.

  8. Ignition of Metal Powders in Combustion Products of Model Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-13

    y AD/A-001 172 IGNITION OF METAL POWDERS IN COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF MODEL FUEL A. K. Klyauzov, et al Foreign Technology...S. Air Force UNCLASSIFIED »b. s»ouc » "I»0«T TITLE IGNITION OF METAL POWDERS IN COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF MODEL FUEL f* OCJCPIPTIVK NOTKI (Typ* o...report mnd Inclumiv «**»••) Translation S »UTMö«I|I ( Firn tSSS», rnlddl* Inltlml, faar .tarna; A. K. Klyauzov, M. M. Arsh, et al 6

  9. Consumer connectivity in a complex, technology-enabled, and mobile-oriented world with smart products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Peter C.; Stephen, Andrew T.; Kannan, P.K.; Luo, Xueming; Abishek, Vibhanshu; Andrews, Michelle; Bart, Yakov; Datta, Hannes; Fong, Nathan M.; Hoffman, Donna L.; Hu, Mandy; Novak, Thomas P.; Rand, William; Zhang, Yuchi

    2017-01-01

    Today’s consumers are immersed in a vast and complex array of networks. Each network features an interconnected mesh of people and firms, and now, with the rise of the Internet of Things (IoT), also objects. Technology (particularly mobile devices) enables such connections, and facilitates many kind

  10. Consumer connectivity in a complex, technology-enabled, and mobile-oriented world with smart products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Peter C.; Stephen, Andrew T.; Kannan, P.K.; Luo, Xueming; Abishek, Vibhanshu; Andrews, Michelle; Bart, Yakov; Datta, Hannes; Fong, Nathan M.; Hoffman, Donna L.; Hu, Mandy; Novak, Thomas P.; Rand, William; Zhang, Yuchi

    2017-01-01

    Today’s consumers are immersed in a vast and complex array of networks. Each network features an interconnected mesh of people and firms, and now, with the rise of the Internet of Things (IoT), also objects. Technology (particularly mobile devices) enables such connections, and facilitates many

  11. Laser penetration spike welding : A microlaser welding technique enabling novel product designs and constructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijken, DK; Hoving, W; De Hosson, JTM

    2003-01-01

    A novel method for laser penetration microspot welding of sheet metal is presented. With this so called "laser spike-welding," large gap tolerances are allowed. Depending on the ratio of laser spot radius to top plate thickness, gaps of 100% of the top layer thickness and more can be bridged. With c

  12. Laser penetration spike welding : A microlaser welding technique enabling novel product designs and constructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijken, D.K; Hoving, W.; de Hosson, J.T.M.

    A novel method for laser penetration microspot welding of sheet metal is presented. With this so called "laser spike-welding," large gap tolerances are allowed. Depending on the ratio of laser spot radius to top plate thickness, gaps of 100% of the top layer thickness and more can be bridged. With

  13. Toward responsible development and effective risk management of nano-enabled products in the U.S. construction industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Gavin H.; Lippy, Bruce E., E-mail: blippy@cpwr.com; Cooper, Michael R. [CPWR - The Center for Construction Research and Training (United States); Marsick, Daniel [Marsick Consulting, LLC (United States); Burrelli, Leonard G.; Griffin, Kelsey N. [Environmental Profiles, Inc. (United States); Segrave, Alan M. [Bureau Veritas North America, Inc. (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The global construction sector is experiencing major improvements to building materials used in large quantities through commercial applications of nanotechnology. Nano-enabled construction products hold great promise for energy efficiency and resource conservation, but risk assessments lag as new products emerge. This paper presents results from an inventory, survey, and exposure assessment conducted by the authors and explores these findings in the broader context of evolving research trends and responsible development of nanotechnology. An inventory of 458 reportedly nano-enabled construction products provided insight into product availability, potential exposures, and deficiencies in risk communication that are barriers to adoption of proactive safety measures. Seasoned construction trainers surveyed were largely unaware of the availability of nano-enabled construction products. Exposure assessment demonstrated the effectiveness of ventilation to reduce exposures during mechanical abrasion of photocatalytic tiles containing titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}). Dissociated particles of TiO{sub 2} just above the nanoscale (138 nm) were detected in the debris collected during cutting of the tiles, but measurements were below recommended exposure limits for TiO{sub 2}. Exposure assessments remain scarce, and toxicological understanding primarily pertains to unincorporated nanomaterials; less is known about the occupational risks of nano-enabled construction products across their life cycle. Further research is needed to characterize and quantify exposure to debris released from nanocomposite materials for realistic risk assessment, and to ascertain how nanocomposite matrices, fillers, and degradation forces interact to affect release dynamics. Improving risk communication strategies and implementing safe work practices will cultivate responsible development of nanotechnology in construction, as will multidisciplinary research efforts.

  14. Buyer beware? Does the information provided with herbal products available over the counter enable safe use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knapp Peter

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herbal products obtained over the counter are commonly used in Europe, North America and Australia. Although there is concern about a lack of information provided to consumers to allow the safe use of these products, there has been no published research to confirm these fears. In this study, we evaluated written information provided with commonly used herbal products in the UK in advance of a European Union Directive issued in April 2011 that tightened regulations for some herbal products, including requirements to provide safety information. Methods Five commonly used herbal products were purchased from pharmacies, health food shops and supermarkets: St John's wort, Asian ginseng, echinacea, garlic and ginkgo. Written information provided with the products (on the package or on a leaflet contained in the package was evaluated for inclusion of each of the key safety messages included in the monographs of the US National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Specifically, we looked for information on precautions (such as Asian ginseng not being suitable for people with diabetes, interactions with conventional medicines (such as St John's wort with the contraceptive pill and warfarin and side effects (such as ginkgo and allergic reactions. Results Our analysis showed that, overall, 51 (75% of 68 products contained none of the key safety messages. This included 4 of 12 St John's wort products, 12 of 12 ginkgo products, 6 of 7 Asian ginseng products, 20 of 21 garlic products and 9 of 13 echinacea products. The two products purchased that are registered under the new European Union regulations (for St John's wort contained at least 85% of the safety messages. Conclusions Most of the herbal medicine products studied did not provide key safety information which consumers need for their safe use. The new European Union legislation should ensure that St John's wort and echinacea products will include the previously

  15. Electrodialytic Removal of Heavy Metals from Different Solid Waste Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Pedersen, Anne Juul;

    2003-01-01

    that the method could be used for removal of different heavy metals from impregnated wood waste, fly ash from straw combustion, and fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration. The best result was obtained with the wood waste where more than 80% of each of the polluting elements Cu, Cr and As was removed......A variety of heavy metal polluted waste products must be handled today. Electrochemical methods have been developed for remediation of polluted soil. One of the methods is the electrodialytic remediation method that is based on electromigration of heavy metal ions and ionic species within the soil...... could be used when removing Cu and Cr from a soil with 25% carbonates. The final concentrations of the elements were below the target values after the remediation. A question of whether the electrodialytic remediation method can be used for other waste products arose. Preliminary experiments showed...

  16. Modular pathway rewiring of Saccharomyces cerevisiae enables high-level production of L-ornithine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Jiufu; Zhou, Yongjin J.; Krivoruchko, Anastasia;

    2015-01-01

    Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an attractive cell factory for production of chemicals and biofuels. Many different products have been produced in this cell factory by reconstruction of heterologous biosynthetic pathways; however, endogenous metabolism by itself involves many metabolite...... the potential to use yeast more extensively for low-cost production of many high-value amino-acid-derived chemicals.......Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an attractive cell factory for production of chemicals and biofuels. Many different products have been produced in this cell factory by reconstruction of heterologous biosynthetic pathways; however, endogenous metabolism by itself involves many metabolites...... of industrial interest, and de-regulation of endogenous pathways to ensure efficient carbon channelling to such metabolites is therefore of high interest. Furthermore, many of these may serve as precursors for the biosynthesis of complex natural products, and hence strains overproducing certain pathway...

  17. Enabling Product Design Reuse by Long-term Preservation of Engineering Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Brunsmann

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the highly competitive engineering industry, product innovations are created with the help of a product lifecycle management (PLM tool chain. In order to support fast-paced product development, a major company goal is the reuse of product designs and product descriptions. Due to the product’s complexity, the design of a product not only consists of geometry data but also of valuable engineering knowledge that is created during the various PLM phases. The need to preserve such intellectual capital leads engineering companies to introduce knowledge management and archiving their machine-readable formal representation. However, archived knowledge is in danger of becoming unusable since it is very likely that knowledge semantics and knowledge representation will evolve over long time periods, for example during the 50 operational years of some products. Knowledge evolution and knowledge representation technology changes are crucial issues since a reuse of the archived product information can only be ensured if its rationale and additional knowledge are interpretable with future software and technologies. Therefore, in order to reuse design data fully, knowledge about the design must also be migrated to be interoperable with future design systems and knowledge representation methods. This paper identifies problems, issues, requirements, challenges and solutions that arise while tackling the long-term preservation of engineering knowledge.

  18. The Value of Product-enabled Services in Top R&D Spenders in Canada and Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Liotta, Giacomo; Kleismantas, Andrius

    . The results show that the main service value attributes for Canadian firms are: better service effectiveness, higher market share, higher service quality, and customer satisfaction. The service value attributes for the European firms of the sample include, among others, product added-value, product......This paper is based on an empirical study addressing the value of product-enabled services in top R&D spenders from Canada and Europe. The focus is on product-driven firms for which new service development is particularly challenging. Existing literature on the value attributes of hybrid value...... offers is mostly conceptual and needs to be further developed through empirical studies. The research sample used in this work consists of 83 product-driven firms that were selected from the list of the top 100 R&D spenders in 2011. Several combinations of keywords linked to different aspects of service...

  19. A qualitative study of the challenges related to the development of product enabled services in technology driven start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren; Tanev, Stoyan; Ma, Zheng;

    of products and services to meet specific customer demands, thus generating additional value. This paper examines technology-based start-ups’ attitude towards the development of hybrid offerings as part of their business differentiation and positioning strategies. The main research question is answered within...... of product-enabled services as part of an integrated value proposition. The research findings indicate an insufficient approach towards hybrid offerings where start-ups initially focus on products or services, but not as an integrated hybrid solution. This decoupled approach seems to be linked to the fact...... that start-ups have limited human and financial resources that is often combined with lacking business and commercialization knowledge. The screening criteria from the new venture funding organisation appear to be very much product focused, as the tangibility of the products, as compared to services, makes...

  20. Van der Waals metal-semiconductor junction: Weak Fermi level pinning enables effective tuning of Schottky barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanyue; Stradins, Paul; Wei, Su-Huai

    2016-04-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors have shown great potential for electronic and optoelectronic applications. However, their development is limited by a large Schottky barrier (SB) at the metal-semiconductor junction (MSJ), which is difficult to tune by using conventional metals because of the effect of strong Fermi level pinning (FLP). We show that this problem can be overcome by using 2D metals, which are bounded with 2D semiconductors through van der Waals (vdW) interactions. This success relies on a weak FLP at the vdW MSJ, which is attributed to the suppression of metal-induced gap states. Consequently, the SB becomes tunable and can vanish with proper 2D metals (for example, H-NbS2). This work not only offers new insights into the fundamental properties of heterojunctions but also uncovers the great potential of 2D metals for device applications.

  1. Cyclic Sulfamidate Enabled Syntheses of Amino Acids, Peptides, Carbohydrates, and Natural Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article reviews the emergence of cyclic sulfamidates as versatile intermediatesfor the synthesis of unnatural amino acids, chalcogen peptides, modified sugars, drugs and drug candidates, and important natural products.

  2. Cyclic Sulfamidate Enabled Syntheses of Amino Acids, Peptides, Carbohydrates, and Natural Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article reviews the emergence of cyclic sulfamidates as versatile intermediatesfor the synthesis of unnatural amino acids, chalcogen peptides, modified sugars, drugs and drug candidates, and important natural products.

  3. EUCOM Keystone: Connecting Across Services Enabling Timely Horizontal & Vertical Integration, Product Reference Guide, Revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    geospatial data anywhere in the world. Keystone implants the Google Earth KML (Keyhole Markup Language) publishing interface to consume the Keystone Work...Product sharing. Client type Google Earth KML interface Data Format Consume Keystone Work Product XML data format Communication Flow...School Liaison o Clinic o AAFES (facilities include: PX, clothing store, laundromat, car care center, and school cafeteria) o Child and Youth

  4. Enabling continuous-flow chemistry in microstructured devices for pharmaceutical and fine-chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockmann, Norbert; Gottsponer, Michael; Zimmermann, Bertin; Roberge, Dominique M

    2008-01-01

    Microstructured devices offer unique transport capabilities for rapid mixing, enhanced heat and mass transfer and can handle small amounts of dangerous or unstable materials. The integration of reaction kinetics into fluid dynamics and transport phenomena is essential for successful application from process design in laboratory to chemical production. Strategies to implement production campaigns up to tons of pharmaceutical chemicals are discussed, based on Lonza projects.

  5. Enabling technologies: Supporting the development and use of innovative, energy-efficient, and environmentally friendly products and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    This pamphlet describes the Office of Industrial Technologies cooperative efforts to address industry needs for advanced materials, sensors and controls, process energy and energy efficiency. US industry needs enabling materials that are stronger and lighter, with resistance to high-temperature fatigue and improved resistance to corrosion and wear. New industrial materials such as intermetallic alloys and advanced ceramics have the potential to meet the challenges of the Industries of the Future. The manufacturing industries obtain over 85% of their energy from the on-site combustion of fuels. Enhancements to burners, boilers, and process heating systems can lower energy costs, reduce emissions, enhance fuel options, and increase safety and reliability. Robust, integrated measurement devices linked to intelligent control systems will enable US industry to use resources more efficiently and improve product quality. Through constant process monitoring and adjustment of parameters, these systems can reduce energy use and labor, minimize waste and pollution, and boost productivity. The Enabling Technologies Program is designed to address the cross-cutting needs of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT). OIT partners with industry to promote the development and use of energy-efficient, pollution-preventing technologies. The Nation`s environment benefits from greater use of these technologies, and industries benefit from cost savings, improved productivity, and increased competitiveness.

  6. Thermodynamic treatment of noble metal fission products in nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, M. H.; Lewis, B. J.; Thompson, W. T.

    2007-06-01

    Based on a critical evaluation of the literature, a comprehensive thermodynamic model has been developed for the complete quinary system involving the noble metal fission products in nuclear fuel: Mo-Pd-Rh-Ru-Tc. This treatment was based on the foundation of ten binary systems and an interpolation scheme. The thermodynamic model has been demonstrated to fit the available experimental data for the ternary sub-systems. This work can be used with other models for potentially non-stoichiometric UO 2+ x containing fission products, as well as data for other phases, to assess the chemical form of fission products in irradiated fuel material.

  7. Enabling Passive Immunization as an Alternative to Antibiotics for Controlling Enteric Infections in Production Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Hald, Birthe; Madsen, M.

    Enteric infections cause major problems in most intensive animal production sectors, including poultry, pigs and cattle, leading to disease, reduced production and compromised welfare. In addition some of these infections are zoonotic, and they are to a large extent responsible for the continued...... massive use of antibiotics in food animals. Thus there is a pressing need for economically feasible, efficient, non-antibiotics based means for controlling the problem. Passive immunization has been known for decades as an efficient way of endowing humans or animals with short-term (weeks) immunity....... To control enteric infections by passive immunization a bolus of immunoglobulin may simply be administered orally. For this to work, large amounts of active immunoglobulins are needed. To be a real alternative to antibiotics the price of the immunoglobulin product needs to be low. We combined an efficient...

  8. Emerging technology: A key enabler for modernizing pharmaceutical manufacturing and advancing product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Thomas F; Yu, Lawrence X; Lee, Sau L

    2016-07-25

    Issues in product quality have produced recalls and caused drug shortages in United States (U.S.) in the past few years. These quality issues were often due to outdated manufacturing technologies and equipment as well as lack of an effective quality management system. To ensure consistent supply of safe, effective and high-quality drug products available to the patients, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) supports modernizing pharmaceutical manufacturing for improvements in product quality. Specifically, five new initiatives are proposed here to achieve this goal. They include: (i) advancing regulatory science for pharmaceutical manufacturing; (ii) establishing a public-private institute for pharmaceutical manufacturing innovation; (iii) creating incentives for investment in the technological upgrade of manufacturing processes and facilities; (iv) leveraging external expertise for regulatory quality assessment of emerging technologies; and (v) promoting the international harmonization of approaches for expediting the global adoption of emerging technologies.

  9. PRODUCTION OF PROTOTYPE PARTS USING DIRECT METAL LASER SINTERING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Sedlak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Unconventional methods of modern materials preparation include additive technologies which involve the sintering of powders of different chemical composition, granularity, physical, chemical and other utility properties. The technology called Rapid Prototyping, which uses different technological principles of producing components, belongs to this type of material preparation. The Rapid Prototyping technology facilities use photopolymers, thermoplastics, specially treated paper or metal powders. The advantage is the direct production of metal parts from input data and the fact that there is no need for the production of special tools (moulds, press tools, etc.. Unused powder from sintering technologies is re-used for production 98% of the time, which means that the process is economical, as well as ecological.The present paper discusses the technology of Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS, which falls into the group of additive technologies of Rapid Prototyping (RP. The major objective is a detailed description of DMLS, pointing out the benefits it offers and its application in practice. The practical part describes the production and provides an economic comparison of several prototype parts that were designed for testing in the automotive industry.

  10. MALDI-imaging enables direct observation of kinetic and thermodynamic products of mixed peptide fiber assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medini, Karima; West, Brandi; Williams, David E; Brimble, Margaret A; Gerrard, Juliet A

    2017-02-04

    Controlling the self-assembly of multicomponent systems provides a key to designing new materials and understanding the molecular complexity of biology. Here, we demonstrate the first use of MALDI-imaging to characterize a multicomponent self-assembling peptide fiber. Observations of mixed peptide systems over time demonstrate how simple sequence variation can change the balance between kinetic and thermodynamic products.

  11. Market projections of cellulose nanomaterial-enabled products-- Part 2: Volume estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Cowie; E.M. (Ted) Bilek; Theodore H. Wegner; Jo Anne Shatkin

    2014-01-01

    Nanocellulose has enormous potential to provide an important materials platform in numerous product sectors. This study builds on previous work by the same authors in which likely high-volume, low-volume, and novel applications for cellulosic nanomaterials were identified. In particular, this study creates a transparent methodology and estimates the potential annual...

  12. Auto-flotation of heterocyst enables the efficient production of renewable energy in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Li, Jihong; Zhang, Lei; Chang, Sandra; Liu, Chen; Wang, Jianlong; Li, Shizhong

    2014-02-06

    Utilizing cyanobacteria as a bioenergy resource is difficult due to the cost and energy consuming harvests of microalgal biomass. In this study, an auto-floating system was developed by increasing the photobiological H2 production in the heterocysts of filamentous cyanobacteria. An amount of 1.0 μM of diuron, which inhibited O2 production in cyanobacteria, resulted in a high rate of H2 production in heterocysts. The auto-floating process recovered 91.71% ± 1.22 of the accumulated microalgal biomass from the liquid media. Quantification analysis revealed that 0.72-1.10 μmol H2 per mg dry weight microalgal biomass was necessary to create this auto-floating system. Further bio-conversion by using anaerobic digestion converted the harvested microalgal biomass into biogas. Through this novel coupled system of photobiological H2 production and anaerobic digestion, a high level of light energy conversion efficiency from solar energy to bioenergy was attained with the values of 3.79% ± 0.76.

  13. Ni foam cathode enables high volumetric H2 production in a microbial electrolysis cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeremiasse, A.W.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Saakes, M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Valuable, “green” H2 can be produced with a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). To achieve a high volumetric production rate of high purity H2, a continuous flow MEC with an anion exchange membrane, a flow through bioanode and a flow through Ni foam cathode was constructed. At an electrical energy in

  14. Organizing strategic entrepreneurship to enable product innovation in new and young technology-based firms.

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, M.; Hughes, P; Morgan, R. E.; Hodgkinson, I. R.

    2015-01-01

    We examine how strategic entrepreneurship affects explorative and exploitative product innovation and how their synthesis as innovation ambidexterity affects firm performance. We find that opportunityseeking through entrepreneurial orientation positively affects both explorative and exploitative innovation, but advantage-seeking through sourcing and managing relational resources show differential effects on innovation activity. Those that achieve innovation ambidexterity experienc...

  15. HEAVY METALS CONTENT IN SHEEP PRODUCTS FROM MIDLE SPIŠ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slávik Marek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we evaluated the risk of contamination of animal products by heavy metals. Samples of animal raw materials were obtained in 2013 in the municipalities of Porac and Matejovce nad Hornádom. Samples of muscle and internal organs were collected from domestic sheep (Ovis aries reared in the village of Rudnianska burdened area where mercury along with other heavy metals contamination is above the limit value of agricultural soil. Measuring the concentration of heavy metals in the samples was performed in accordance with the general requirements set out in the tenth chapter of the Food Code of the Slovak Republic. Mercury content in biological materials were assessed by total mercury as on the AMA 254 in fresh samples. The other heavy metal content, was determined after wet mineralization (HNO3: H2O - 1: 1 using the device AAS Varian 240 FS. The contamination of the environment showed increased accumulation of heavy metals in the - studiet sheep tissues intended for consumption. Such as Hg content in the kidneys of domestic sheep exceed the limit value by 1.3 times, whereas, in the case of cadmium 3 times exceeding the limit value in meat was recordered. Exceed limit was recorded in the case of lead and copper in the liver.

  16. The use of coded PCR primers enables high-throughput sequencing of multiple homolog amplification products by 454 parallel sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binladen, Jonas; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Bollback, Jonathan P

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The invention of the Genome Sequence 20 DNA Sequencing System (454 parallel sequencing platform) has enabled the rapid and high-volume production of sequence data. Until now, however, individual emulsion PCR (emPCR) reactions and subsequent sequencing runs have been unable to combine ...... be applied to PCR-based assays of multiple homologous PCR products. The new approach will be of value to a broad range of research areas, such as those of comparative genomics, complete mitochondrial analyses, population genetics, and phylogenetics.......BACKGROUND: The invention of the Genome Sequence 20 DNA Sequencing System (454 parallel sequencing platform) has enabled the rapid and high-volume production of sequence data. Until now, however, individual emulsion PCR (emPCR) reactions and subsequent sequencing runs have been unable to combine...... template DNA from multiple individuals, as homologous sequences cannot be subsequently assigned to their original sources. METHODOLOGY: We use conventional PCR with 5'-nucleotide tagged primers to generate homologous DNA amplification products from multiple specimens, followed by sequencing through...

  17. Metabolites associated with adaptation of microorganisms to an acidophilic, metal-rich environment identified by stable-isotope-enabled metabolomics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mosier, Annika C; Justice, Nicholas B; Bowen, Benjamin P; Baran, Richard; Thomas, Brian C; Northen, Trent R; Banfield, Jillian F

    2013-01-01

    ... associated with the environmental matrix. We identified key metabolites associated with acidophilic and metal-tolerant microorganisms using stable isotope labeling coupled with untargeted, high-resolution mass spectrometry. We observed...

  18. Additive manufacturing of metals the technology, materials, design and production

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Li; Baughman, Brian; Godfrey, Donald; Medina, Francisco; Menon, Mamballykalathil; Wiener, Soeren

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a unique guide to the three-dimensional (3D) printing of metals. It covers various aspects of additive, subtractive, and joining processes used to form three-dimensional parts with applications ranging from prototyping to production. Examining a variety of manufacturing technologies and their ability to produce both prototypes and functional production-quality parts, the individual chapters address metal components and discuss some of the important research challenges associated with the use of these technologies. As well as exploring the latest technologies currently under development, the book features unique sections on electron beam melting technology, material lifting, and the importance this science has in the engineering context. Presenting unique real-life case studies from industry, this book is also the first to offer the perspective of engineers who work in the field of aerospace and transportation systems, and who design components and manufacturing networks. Written by the leadin...

  19. Size characterization of metal oxide nanoparticles in commercial sunscreen products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairi, Venu Gopal; Lim, Jin-Hee; Fong, Andrew; Linder, Sean W.

    2017-07-01

    There is an increase in the usage of engineered metal oxide (TiO2 and ZnO) nanoparticles in commercial sunscreens due to their pleasing esthetics and greater sun protection efficiency. A number of studies have been done concerning the safety of nanoparticles in sunscreen products. In order to do the safety assessment, it is pertinent to develop novel analytical techniques to analyze these nanoparticles in commercial sunscreens. This study is focused on developing analytical techniques that can efficiently determine particle size of metal oxides present in the commercial sunscreens. To isolate the mineral UV filters from the organic matrices, specific procedures such as solvent extraction were identified. In addition, several solvents (hexane, chloroform, dichloromethane, and tetrahydrofuran) have been investigated. The solvent extraction using tetrahydrofuran worked well for all the samples investigated. The isolated nanoparticles were characterized by using several different techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, differential centrifugal sedimentation, and x-ray diffraction. Elemental analysis mapping studies were performed to obtain individual chemical and morphological identities of the nanoparticles. Results from the electron microscopy techniques were compared against the bulk particle sizing techniques. All of the sunscreen products tested in this study were found to contain nanosized (≤100 nm) metal oxide particles with varied shapes and aspect ratios, and four among the 11 products were showed to have anatase TiO2.

  20. The computer-aided design of rubber-metal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlo S. Shvets

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The important problem in design of rubber-metal products is the optimization of their mass without sacrificing of proportionality factor is in the limits of standard. Aim: The aim of this work is to improve the computer-aided systems by development and implementation of improved optimization method in rubber-metal CAD systems for designers based on the reverse optimization. Materials and Methods: The paper studies the matters of computer-aided structural design of technical composite products composed of anisotropic materials that are essentially different in properties. Results: The structure of CAD systems for designers solving the problems of such design is offered and the work principles of its subsystems are described. It is shown that complicated systems optimization in CAD systems must consider as restrictions the entitative connection between separate elements of these systems within the area of the optimizing arguments. Conclusions: The problem of the “reverse” optimization when objective functions are the connectivity area parameters is considered. In many cases, this allows receiving solutions that are more effective during the computer-aided design process. The developed CAD system for designers was used during the production of rubber-metal shock absorbers at the Odessa Rubber Technical Articles Plant. The positive technical and economic effect was obtained.

  1. Proposed industrial recovered materials utilization targets for the metals and metal products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    Set targets for increased utilization of energy-saving recovered materials in the metals and metal products industries (ferrous, aluminium, copper, zinc, and lead) are discussed. Data preparation and methodology development and analysis of the technological and economic factors in order to prepare draft targets for the use of recovered materials are covered. Chapter 2 provides an introductory discussion of the factors that affect the recovery and reuse of secondary materials and the competition between the primary and secondary metals industries. Chapter 3 presents general profiles for the major industrial segments comprising SIC 33, including industry structure, process technology, materials and recycling flow, and future trends for the 5 industries: ferrous, aluminium, copper, zinc, and lead. Chapter 4 presents the evaluation of recycling targets for those industries. (MCW)

  2. Frontline CALS - Extranet Enabled Support of Customer Relations Based on Product State Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm; Franck, Lesley Robert; Pedersen, Mogens Kühn

    1999-01-01

    The electronic economy has proliferated during the past decade. Many initiatives are launched in order to support customer's interaction with the company, however, often fragmented. A more holistic approach is provided in this article. The article suggests a business model in the era of electronic....... The essence of Frontline CALS is that it combines a product and a customer view with the aim of enhancing the service quality offered by the dealers in collaboration with the producer. The article further provides empirical insight from an early prototype implementation of a Web Service System intended...

  3. Recent developments in high purity niobium metal production at CBMM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, Gustavo Giovanni Ribeiro, E-mail: Gustavo.abdo@cbmm.com.br; Sousa, Clovis Antonio de Faria, E-mail: Clovis@cbmm.com.br; Guimarães, Rogério Contato, E-mail: Rogerio.guimaraes@cbmm.com.br; Ribas, Rogério Marques, E-mail: Rogerio.ribas@cbmm.com.br; Vieira, Alaércio Salvador Martins, E-mail: Alaercio.vieira@cbmm.com.b; Menezes, Andréia Duarte, E-mail: Amenezes@cbmm.com.br; Fridman, Daniel Pallos, E-mail: Daniel.fridman@cbmm.com.br; Cruz, Edmundo Burgos, E-mail: Edmundo@cbmm.com.br [CBMM – Companhia Brasileira de Metalurgia e Mineração Córrego da Mata, s/n Araxá, Minas Gerais 38183-903 Brazil (Brazil)

    2015-12-04

    CBMM is a global supplier of high quality niobium products including pure niobium, the focus of this paper. CBMM’s position has been consolidated over three decades of producing high purity niobium metal ingots. The company supplies, among other products, commercial and reactor grade niobium ingots. One of the main uses of CBMM’s ingots is for the manufacture of particle accelerators (superconducting radio frequency – SRF – cavities), where the purity and homogeneity of niobium metal is essentially important for good performance. CBMM constantly strives to improve process controls and product quality, and is currently implementing innovations in production, research and development to further improve ingot quality. The main aim is to reduce the content of interstitial elements, such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), carbon (C), and hydrogen (H), starting with the raw materials through the final step of ingot production. CBMM held the first trial to produce the world’s largest-diameter niobium ingot (as cast 535 mm). The results of this initial trial presented very low levels of interstitial impurities (N, O, C, H), allowing the achievement of residual resistivity ratio (RRR) values very close to 300 in a six-melt process in an electron beam furnace. These values were reached with 850 ppm of tantalum. SRF cavities will be produced with this material in order to study the effect of low impurities and high RRR on the Q factor and accelerating gradient.

  4. PRODUCTION METHODS AND APPLICATIONS FOR HIGH-QUALITY METAL POWDERS AND SPRAYFORMED PRODUCTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Hohmann; S.Pleier

    2005-01-01

    Metal powders of superlative quality, i.e.high cleanliness, rapidly solidified and spherical shape, have seen an increasing demand in the market.The leading technology for the production of such powders is the inert gas atomization of metal alloy melts.To fulfill these requirements, the metal alloy is usually produced in a vacuum induction melting furnace (VIGA = vacuum induction melting/gas atomization) and poured by means of a preheated tundish system into a gas nozzle where the metal stream is disintegrated by a high kinetic energy inert gas jet.The produced micro-droplets solidify in a free fall inside the atomization tower.For special applications, super-clean and ceramic-free metal powders can be produced by using the EIGA (electrode induction melting/gas atomization) melting- and atomizing system.As an alternative to the metal powder route, the sprayforming technology allows to produce semi-finished products in one step.In this case, the metal droplets produced by the highenergy inert gas nozzle system are directly solidified on a substrate, allowing to form billets,rolls and tubes.

  5. Systems biology of yeast: enabling technology for development of cell factories for production of advanced biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Bouke; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2012-08-01

    Transportation fuels will gradually shift from oil based fuels towards alternative fuel resources like biofuels. Current bioethanol and biodiesel can, however, not cover the increasing demand for biofuels and there is therefore a need for advanced biofuels with superior fuel properties. Novel cell factories will provide a production platform for advanced biofuels. However, deep cellular understanding is required for improvement of current biofuel cell factories. Fast screening and analysis (-omics) methods and metabolome-wide mathematical models are promising techniques. An integrated systems approach of these techniques drives diversity and quantity of several new biofuel compounds. This review will cover the recent technological developments that support improvement of the advanced biofuels 1-butanol, biodiesels and jetfuels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The use of coded PCR primers enables high-throughput sequencing of multiple homolog amplification products by 454 parallel sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Binladen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The invention of the Genome Sequence 20 DNA Sequencing System (454 parallel sequencing platform has enabled the rapid and high-volume production of sequence data. Until now, however, individual emulsion PCR (emPCR reactions and subsequent sequencing runs have been unable to combine template DNA from multiple individuals, as homologous sequences cannot be subsequently assigned to their original sources. METHODOLOGY: We use conventional PCR with 5'-nucleotide tagged primers to generate homologous DNA amplification products from multiple specimens, followed by sequencing through the high-throughput Genome Sequence 20 DNA Sequencing System (GS20, Roche/454 Life Sciences. Each DNA sequence is subsequently traced back to its individual source through 5'tag-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that this new approach enables the assignment of virtually all the generated DNA sequences to the correct source once sequencing anomalies are accounted for (miss-assignment rate<0.4%. Therefore, the method enables accurate sequencing and assignment of homologous DNA sequences from multiple sources in single high-throughput GS20 run. We observe a bias in the distribution of the differently tagged primers that is dependent on the 5' nucleotide of the tag. In particular, primers 5' labelled with a cytosine are heavily overrepresented among the final sequences, while those 5' labelled with a thymine are strongly underrepresented. A weaker bias also exists with regards to the distribution of the sequences as sorted by the second nucleotide of the dinucleotide tags. As the results are based on a single GS20 run, the general applicability of the approach requires confirmation. However, our experiments demonstrate that 5'primer tagging is a useful method in which the sequencing power of the GS20 can be applied to PCR-based assays of multiple homologous PCR products. The new approach will be of value to a broad range of research areas, such as those of

  7. To process or not to process? Factors enabling and constraining shea butter production and income in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouliot, Mariève; Elias, Marlène

    2013-01-01

    countries is commercialised unprocessed. This paper examines the factors enabling and constraining the processing of shea nuts into shea butter in Burkina Faso. Our analysis is based on socio-economic survey data collected from 536 households in the Zoundwéogo and Cascades provinces of Burkina Faso, as well...... as qualitative interview data collected from 74 shea butter producers in the province of Sissili. The factors affecting the selection of shea butter production as a livelihood activity as well as the economic success of this activity are analysed using a Heckman selection model. Moreover, we study the effect...

  8. Study of Wastewaters Contaminated with Heavy Metals in Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartošová Alica

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol as a substitute for traditional sources of energy, especially oil transport, is currently one of the most researched alternative motor fuels. Normally, bioethanol is produced from agricultural crops such as sugar cane or corn. However, this is counter-productive, because agriculture is primarily serving to ensure enough food for the people. It is therefore necessary to look for new production of appropriate non-food crops or find an added value to this process. Utilisation of contaminated water from metal industry could be one of them. Based on the hypothesis of reduction of some toxic metals with higher oxidation number is opening the possibility of using this wastewater in alcohol fermentation of any kind of biomass. In this study, hexavalent chromium Cr(VI was used as a model contaminant in the process of aerobic fermentation of corn to bioethanol. To determine the reduction potential of glucose to Cr(VI, and to quantitatively determinate the glucose content after saccharification, UV/VIS spectrophotometry was used. As a method of qualitative determination of fermentation product, gas chromatography with mass detection was used. Infrared spectrometry was used for qualitative analyses of produced ethanol. Based on the established results shown in this paper, we can conclude that the presence of hexavalent chromium in the fermentation process does not have a significant negative impact, while offering the opportunity of using the industrial wastewaters for the production of bioethanol fuel.

  9. Study of Wastewaters Contaminated with Heavy Metals in Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartošová, Alica; Blinová, Lenka

    2017-06-01

    Bioethanol as a substitute for traditional sources of energy, especially oil transport, is currently one of the most researched alternative motor fuels. Normally, bioethanol is produced from agricultural crops such as sugar cane or corn. However, this is counter-productive, because agriculture is primarily serving to ensure enough food for the people. It is therefore necessary to look for new production of appropriate non-food crops or find an added value to this process. Utilisation of contaminated water from metal industry could be one of them. Based on the hypothesis of reduction of some toxic metals with higher oxidation number is opening the possibility of using this wastewater in alcohol fermentation of any kind of biomass. In this study, hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) was used as a model contaminant in the process of aerobic fermentation of corn to bioethanol. To determine the reduction potential of glucose to Cr(VI), and to quantitatively determinate the glucose content after saccharification, UV/VIS spectrophotometry was used. As a method of qualitative determination of fermentation product, gas chromatography with mass detection was used. Infrared spectrometry was used for qualitative analyses of produced ethanol. Based on the established results shown in this paper, we can conclude that the presence of hexavalent chromium in the fermentation process does not have a significant negative impact, while offering the opportunity of using the industrial wastewaters for the production of bioethanol fuel.

  10. Heavy metal analysis in commercial Spirulina products for human consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    For consumption of health foods of Spirulina, by the general public, health food stores are increasingly offering more exotic products. Though Spirulina consumption is growing worldwide, relatively few studies have reported on the quantities of heavy metals/minerals they contain and/or their potential effects on the population’s health. This study reveals the concentrations of six typical heavy metals/minerals (Ni, Zn, Hg, Pt, Mg, and Mn) in 25 Spirulina products commercialized worldwide for direct human consumption. Samples were ground, digested and quantified by Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP–MS). The concentrations (mg/kg d.w.) were range from 0.001 to 0.012 (Pt) followed by 0.002–0.028 (Hg), 0.002–0.042 (Mg), 0.005–2.248 (Mn), 0.211–4.672 (Ni) and 0.533–6.225 (Zn). The inorganic elements of the present study were significantly lower than the recommended daily intake (RDI) level of heavy metal elements (mg/daily) Ni (0.4), Zn (13), Hg (0.01), Pt (0.002), Mg (400) and Mn (4). Based on this study the concentration of inorganic elements was not found to exceed the present regulation levels, and they can be considered as safe food. PMID:24235875

  11. Liquid-Metal Electrode to Enable Ultra-Low Temperature Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries for Renewable Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Mei, Donghai; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

    2014-08-01

    Metal electrodes have a high capacity for energy storage but have found limited applications in batteries because of dendrite formation and other problems. In this paper, we report a new alloying strategy that can significantly reduce the melting temperature and improve wetting with the electrolyte to allow the use of liquid metal as anode in sodium-beta alumina batteries (NBBs) at much lower temperatures (e.g., 95 to 175°C). Commercial NBBs such as sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery and sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) batteries typically operate at relatively high temperatures (e.g., 300-350°C) due to poor wettability of sodium on the surface of β"-Al2O3. Our combined experimental and computational studies suggest that Na-Cs alloy can replace pure sodium as the anode material, which provides a significant improvement in wettability, particularly at lower temperatures (i.e., <200°C). Single cells with the Na-Cs alloy anode exhibit excellent cycling life over those with pure sodium anode at 175 and 150°C. The cells can even operate at 95°C, which is below the melting temperature of pure sodium. These results demonstrate that NBB can be operated at ultra lower temperatures with successfully solving the wetting issue. This work also suggests a new strategy to use liquid metal as the electrode materials for advanced batteries that can avoid the intrinsic safety issues associated with dendrite formation on the anode.

  12. Low-loss sharp bends in polymer waveguides enabled by the introduction of a thin metal layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sefünç, Mustafa; Pollnau, Markus; García Blanco, Sonia Maria

    2013-01-01

    Embodying a thin metallic layer underneath the core of a sharply bent polymer waveguide is shown in this work to considerably reduce the total losses of both the quasi-transverse-electric and quasi-transversemagnetic modes. The computational results show a total loss as low as ~0.02 dB/90° for the q

  13. Consumer exposures to laser printer-emitted engineered nanoparticles: A case study of life-cycle implications from nano-enabled products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirela, Sandra V; Sotiriou, Georgios A; Bello, Dhimiter; Shafer, Martin; Bunker, Kristin Lee; Castranova, Vincent; Thomas, Treye; Demokritou, Philip

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that printers emit nanoparticles during their operation. To-date, however, the physicochemical and toxicological characterization of "real world" printer-emitted nanoparticles (PEPs) remains incomplete, hampering proper risk assessment efforts. Here, we investigate our earlier hypothesis that engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are used in toners and ENMs are released during printing (consumer use). Furthermore, we conduct a detailed physicochemical and morphological characterization of PEPs in support of ongoing toxicological assessment. A comprehensive suite of state of the art analytical methods and tools was employed for the physicochemical and morphological characterization of 11 toners widely utilized in printers from major printer manufacturers and their PEPs. We confirmed that a number of ENMs incorporated into toner formulations (e.g. silica, alumina, titania, iron oxide, zinc oxide, copper oxide, cerium oxide, carbon black among others) and released into the air during printing. All evaluated toners contained large amounts of organic carbon (OC, 42-89%), metals/metal oxides (1-33%), and some elemental carbon (EC, 0.33-12%). The PEPs possess a composition similar to that of toner and contained 50-90% OC, 0.001-0.5% EC and 1-3% metals. While the chemistry of the PEPs generally reflected that of their toners, considerable differences are documented indicative of potential transformations taking place during consumer use (printing). We conclude that: (i) Routine incorporation of ENMs in toners classifies them as nano-enabled products (NEPs); (ii) These ENMs become airborne during printing; (iii) The chemistry of PEPs is complex and it reflects that of the toner and paper. This work highlights the importance of understanding life-cycle (LC) nano-EHS implications of NEPs and assessing real world exposures and associated toxicological properties rather than focusing on "raw" materials used in the synthesis of an NEP.

  14. Metal-organic framework templated synthesis of Fe2O3/TiO2 nanocomposite for hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deKrafft, Kathryn E; Wang, Cheng; Lin, Wenbin

    2012-04-17

    A new metal-organic framework (MOF)-templated method has been developed for the synthesis of a metal oxide nanocomposite with interesting photophysical properties. Fe-containing nanoscale MOFs are coated with amorphous titania, then calcined to produce crystalline Fe(2)O(3)/TiO(2) composite nanoparticles. This material enables photocatalytic hydrogen production from water using visible light, which cannot be achieved by either Fe(2)O(3) or TiO(2) alone or a mixture of the two. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Titanium Metal Powder Production by the Plasma Quench Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Cordes; A. Donaldson

    2000-09-01

    The goals of this project included the scale-up of the titanium hydride production process to a production rate of 50 kg/hr at a purity level of 99+%. This goal was to be achieved by incrementally increasing the production capability of a series of reactor systems. This methodic approach was designed to allow Idaho Titanium Technologies to systematically address the engineering issues associated with plasma system performance, and powder collection system design and performance. With quality powder available, actual fabrication with the titanium hydride was to be pursued. Finally, with a successful titanium production system in place, the production of titanium aluminide was to be pursued by the simultaneously injection of titanium and aluminum precursors into the reactor system. Some significant accomplishments of the project are: A unique and revolutionary torch/reactor capable of withstanding temperatures up to 5000 C with high thermal efficiency has been operated. The dissociation of titanium tetrachloride into titanium powder and HC1 has been demonstrated, and a one-megawatt reactor potentially capable of producing 100 pounds per hour has been built, but not yet operated at the powder level. The removal of residual subchlorides and adsorbed HC1 and the sintering of powder to form solid bodies have been demonstrated. The production system has been operated at production rates up to 40 pounds per hour. Subsequent to the end of the project, Idaho Titanium Technologies demonstrated that titanium hydride powder can indeed be sintered into solid titanium metal at 1500 C without sintering aids.

  16. Considerations in designing a centrifugal atomiser for metal powder production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y.Y. [Department of Engineering, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: y.y.zhao@livepool.ac.uk

    2006-07-01

    In centrifugal atomisation for metal powder production, the key to the control of the particle sizes is the design of the atomiser. This paper studies the main issues concerned in designing a centrifugal atomiser and provides guidance on the selection of an electric motor, radius of atomiser, slope angle of atomiser wall and flow rate of cooling water. In the selection of the atomiser radius, the power and material constraints as well as the hydraulic jump radius need to be considered. A cup atomiser with a slope angle of 60-70{sup o} would result in small spray droplets and thus a fine powder. The water cooling system needs to be assessed by examining the heat flow in the solid metal layer and in the atomiser.

  17. Evaluation of Heavy Metals Influence on Biogas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestas Zaleckas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals play a very significant role in the performance and stability of biogas digesters, which are operated with organic fraction of municipal solid wastes or any other type of organic waste. For this reason this paper tries to evaluate the impact of heavy metals on biogas yield and quality. Anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and rapeseed cake mixture has been carried out for 14 days. The obtained data show that the greatest negative impact on biogas production was made by zinc additive. Meanwhile, methane content in biogas varied from 64.5 to 70%.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.62.4.2040

  18. Sonolysis induced decomposition of metal carbonyls: kinetics and product characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Devinder; Papish, Elizabeth T; Pandya, Kaumudi

    2004-09-01

    The decomposition kinetics of Fe(CO)5 and Mo(CO)6 induced by sonolysis in hexadecane solvent was studied as a function of temperature (303-343 K) under an inert atmosphere. The decomposition data, obtained over at least two half lives in most of the runs, yielded first-order rate constant (k) values with correlation co-efficient (R2) > 0.95. The products were characterized by various spectroscopic techniques. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) yielded images from which the mean particle diameter (MPD) of approximately 10 nm for Fe and Mo2C). The one-step production of high-yield pyrophoric products demonstrated the applicability of sonolysis to effectively produce gram-quantity of zero-valent metals.

  19. Towards zero waste production in the minerals and metals sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, William J.

    The production of mineral and metal commodities results in large quantities of wastes (solid, liquid and gaseous) at each stage of value-adding — from mining to manufacturing. Waste production (both consumer and non-consumer) is a major contributor to environmental degradation. Approaches to waste management in the minerals industry are largely `after the event'. These have moved progressively from foul-and-flee to dilute-and-disperse to end end-of-pipe treatments. There is now a need to move to approaches which aim to reduce or eliminate waste production at source. Modern waste management strategies include the application of cleaner production principles, the use of wastes as raw materials, the reengineering of process flowsheets to minimise waste production, and use of industrial symbioses through industrial ecology to convert wastes into useful by-products. This paper examines how these can be adopted by the minerals industry, with some recent examples. The financial, technical, systemic and regulatory drivers and barriers are also examined.

  20. Proposal for a Conceptual Model for Evaluating Lean Product Development Performance: A Study of LPD Enablers in Manufacturing Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osezua Aikhuele, Daniel; Mohd Turan, Faiz

    2016-02-01

    The instability in today's market and the emerging demands for mass customized products by customers, are driving companies to seek for cost effective and time efficient improvements in their production system and this have led to real pressure for the adaptation of new developmental architecture and operational parameters to remain competitive in the market. Among such developmental architecture adopted, is the integration of lean thinking in the product development process. However, due to lack of clear understanding of the lean performance and its measurements, many companies are unable to implement and fully integrate the lean principle into their product development process and without a proper performance measurement, the performance level of the organizational value stream will be unknown and the specific area of improvement as it relates to the LPD program cannot be tracked. Hence, it will result in poor decision making in the LPD implementation. This paper therefore seeks to present a conceptual model for evaluation of LPD performances by identifying and analysing the core existing LPD enabler (Chief Engineer, Cross-functional teams, Set-based engineering, Poka-yoke (mistakeproofing), Knowledge-based environment, Value-focused planning and development, Top management support, Technology, Supplier integration, Workforce commitment and Continuous improvement culture) for assessing the LPD performance.

  1. Metal-Organic Framework Thin Films as Platforms for Atomic Layer Deposition of Cobalt Ions To Enable Electrocatalytic Water Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Chung-Wei; Mondloch, Joseph E; Wang, Timothy C; Bury, Wojciech; Hoffeditz, William; Klahr, Benjamin M; Klet, Rachel C; Pellin, Michael J; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

    2015-12-30

    Thin films of the metal-organic framework (MOF) NU-1000 were grown on conducting glass substrates. The films uniformly cover the conducting glass substrates and are composed of free-standing sub-micrometer rods. Subsequently, atomic layer deposition (ALD) was utilized to deposit Co(2+) ions throughout the entire MOF film via self-limiting surface-mediated reaction chemistry. The Co ions bind at aqua and hydroxo sites lining the channels of NU-1000, resulting in three-dimensional arrays of separated Co ions in the MOF thin film. The Co-modified MOF thin films demonstrate promising electrocatalytic activity for water oxidation.

  2. Heavy Metals in the Vegetables Collected from Production Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Taghipour

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination of vegetable crops (as an important part of people's diet with heavy metals is a health concern. Therefore, monitoring levels of heavy metals in vegetables can provide useful information for promoting food safety. The present study was carried out in north-west of Iran (Tabriz on the content of heavy metals in vegetable crops. Methods: Samples of vegetables including kurrat (n=20 (Allium ampeloprasumssp. Persicum, onion (n=20 (Allium cepa and tomato (n=18 (Lycopersiconesculentum var. esculentum, were collected from production sites in west of Tabriz and analyzed for presence of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS after extraction by aqua regia method (drying, grounding and acid digestion. Results: Mean ± SD (mg/kg DW concentrations of Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni and Zn were 0.32 ± 0.58, 28.86 ± 28.79, 1.75 ± 2.05, 6.37± 5.61 and 58.01 ± 27.45, respectively. Cr, Cu and Zn were present in all the samples and the highest concentrations were observed in kurrat (leek. Levels of Cd, Cr and Cu were higher than the acceptable limits. There was significant difference in levels of Cr (P<0.05 and Zn (P<0.001 among the studied vegetables. Positive correlation was observed between Cd:Cu (R=0.659, P<0.001 Cr:Ni (R=0.326, P<0.05 and Cr:Zn (R=0.308, P<0.05. Conclusion: Level of heavy metals in some of the analyzed vegetables, especially kurrat samples, was higher than the standard levels. Considering the possible health outcomes due to the consumption of contaminated vegetables, it is required to take proper actions for avoiding people's chronic exposure.

  3. Liquid-metal electrode to enable ultra-low temperature sodium-beta alumina batteries for renewable energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Y; Mei, Donghai; Lemmon, John P; Sprenkle, Vincent L; Liu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Commercial sodium-sulphur or sodium-metal halide batteries typically need an operating temperature of 300-350 °C, and one of the reasons is poor wettability of liquid sodium on the surface of beta alumina. Here we report an alloying strategy that can markedly improve the wetting, which allows the batteries to be operated at much lower temperatures. Our combined experimental and computational studies suggest that addition of caesium to sodium can markedly enhance the wettability. Single cells with Na-Cs alloy anodes exhibit great improvement in cycling life over those with pure sodium anodes at 175 and 150 °C. The cells show good performance even at as low as 95 °C. These results demonstrate that sodium-beta alumina batteries can be operated at much lower temperatures with successfully solving the wetting issue. This work also suggests a strategy to use liquid metals in advanced batteries that can avoid the intrinsic safety issues associated with dendrite formation.

  4. Ligand-enabled multiple absolute stereocontrol in metal-catalysed cycloaddition for construction of contiguous all-carbon quaternary stereocentres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmatsu, Kohsuke; Imagawa, Naomichi; Ooi, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The development of a general catalytic method for the direct and stereoselective construction of contiguous all-carbon quaternary stereocentres remains a formidable challenge in chemical synthesis. Here, we report a highly enantio- and diastereoselective [3+2] annulation reaction of 5-vinyloxazolidinones and activated trisubstituted alkenes catalysed by a palladium complex bearing a newly devised phosphine ligand with a chiral ammonium salt component, which enables the single-step construction of three contiguous stereocentres, including vicinal all-carbon quaternary stereocentres, in a five-membered heterocyclic framework. This stereoselective cycloaddition protocol relies on the remarkable ability of the chiral ligand to rigorously control the absolute stereochemistry of each chiral centre associated with the multiple bond-forming events, and provides a reliable catalytic process for the asymmetric synthesis of densely functionalized pyrrolidines.

  5. High-performance GaAs metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors enabled by self-assembled nanodielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H. C.; Ye, P. D.; Xuan, Y.; Lu, G.; Facchetti, A.; Marks, T. J.

    2006-10-01

    High-performance GaAs metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MISFETs) fabricated with very thin self-assembled organic nanodielectrics (SANDs), deposited from solution at room temperature, are demonstrated. A submicron gate-length depletion-mode n-channel GaAs MISFET with SAND thicknesses ranging from 5.5to16.5nm exhibit a gate leakage current density <10-5A/cm2 at a gate bias smaller than 3V, a maximum drain current of 370mA/mm at a forward gate bias of 2V, and a maximum intrinsic transconductance of 170mS/mm. The importance of appropriate GaAs surface chemistry treatments on SAND/GaAs interface properties is also presented. Application of SANDs to III-V compound semiconductors affords more opportunities to manipulate the complex III-V surface chemistry with broad materials options.

  6. 75 FR 75694 - Certain Semiconductor Integration Circuits Using Tungsten Metallization and Products Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Semiconductor Integration Circuits Using Tungsten Metallization and Products Containing... United States after importation of certain semiconductor integrated circuits using tungsten metallization... following six respondents ] remained in the investigation: Tower Semiconductor, Ltd. of Israel;...

  7. Reversible CO binding enables tunable CO/H₂ and CO/N₂ separations in metal-organic frameworks with exposed divalent metal cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Eric D; Hudson, Matthew R; Mason, Jarad A; Chavan, Sachin; Crocellà, Valentina; Howe, Joshua D; Lee, Kyuho; Dzubak, Allison L; Queen, Wendy L; Zadrozny, Joseph M; Geier, Stephen J; Lin, Li-Chiang; Gagliardi, Laura; Smit, Berend; Neaton, Jeffrey B; Bordiga, Silvia; Brown, Craig M; Long, Jeffrey R

    2014-07-30

    Six metal-organic frameworks of the M2(dobdc) (M = Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn; dobdc(4-) = 2,5-dioxido-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) structure type are demonstrated to bind carbon monoxide reversibly and at high capacity. Infrared spectra indicate that, upon coordination of CO to the divalent metal cations lining the pores within these frameworks, the C-O stretching frequency is blue-shifted, consistent with nonclassical metal-CO interactions. Structure determinations reveal M-CO distances ranging from 2.09(2) Å for M = Ni to 2.49(1) Å for M = Zn and M-C-O angles ranging from 161.2(7)° for M = Mg to 176.9(6)° for M = Fe. Electronic structure calculations employing density functional theory (DFT) resulted in good agreement with the trends apparent in the infrared spectra and crystal structures. These results represent the first crystallographically characterized magnesium and zinc carbonyl compounds and the first high-spin manganese(II), iron(II), cobalt(II), and nickel(II) carbonyl species. Adsorption isotherms indicate reversible adsorption, with capacities for the Fe, Co, and Ni frameworks approaching one CO per metal cation site at 1 bar, corresponding to loadings as high as 6.0 mmol/g and 157 cm(3)/cm(3). The six frameworks display (negative) isosteric heats of CO adsorption ranging from 52.7 to 27.2 kJ/mol along the series Ni > Co > Fe > Mg > Mn > Zn, following the Irving-Williams stability order. The reversible CO binding suggests that these frameworks may be of utility for the separation of CO from various industrial gas mixtures, including CO/H2 and CO/N2. Selectivities determined from gas adsorption isotherm data using ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) over a range of gas compositions at 1 bar and 298 K indicate that all six M2(dobdc) frameworks could potentially be used as solid adsorbents to replace current cryogenic distillation technologies, with the choice of M dictating adsorbent regeneration energy and the level of purity of the resulting gases.

  8. Process model for carbothermic production of silicon metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, B.

    1995-09-12

    This thesis discusses an advanced dynamical two-dimensional cylinder symmetric model for the high temperature part of the carbothermic silicon metal process, and its computer encoding. The situation close to that which is believed to exist around one of three electrodes in full-scale industrial furnaces is modelled. This area comprises a gas filled cavity surrounding the lower tip of the electrode, the metal pool underneath and the lower parts of the materials above. The most important phenomena included are: Heterogeneous chemical reactions taking place in the high-temperature zone (above 1860 {sup o}C), Evaporation and condensation of silicon, Transport of materials by dripping, Turbulent or laminar fluid flow, DC electric arcs, Heat transport by convection, conduction and radiation. The results from the calculations, such as production rates, gas- and temperature distributions, furnace- and particle geometries, fluid flow fields etc, are presented graphically. In its present state the model is a prototype. The process is very complex, and the calculations are time consuming. The governing equations are coded into a Fortran 77 computer code applying the commercial 3D code FLUENT as a basis. 64 refs., 110 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Amorphous semiconducting and conducting transparent metal oxide thin films and production thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, John (Boulder, CO); Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David (Evergreen, CO); Taylor, Matthew (Golden, CO); Neuman, George A. (Holland, MI); Luten, Henry A. (Holland, MI); Forgette, Jeffrey A. (Hudsonville, MI); Anderson, John S. (Holland, MI)

    2010-07-13

    Metal oxide thin films and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a metal oxide thin film may comprise introducing at least two metallic elements and oxygen into a process chamber to form a metal oxide. The method may also comprise depositing the metal oxide on a substrate in the process chamber. The method may also comprise simultaneously controlling a ratio of the at least two metallic elements and a stoichiometry of the oxygen during deposition. Exemplary amorphous metal oxide thin films produced according to the methods herein may exhibit highly transparent properties, highly conductive properties, and/or other opto-electronic properties.

  10. Submicrometric Magnetic Nanoporous Carbons Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks Enabling Automated Electromagnet-Assisted Online Solid-Phase Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frizzarin, Rejane M; Palomino Cabello, Carlos; Bauzà, Maria Del Mar; Portugal, Lindomar A; Maya, Fernando; Cerdà, Víctor; Estela, José M; Turnes Palomino, Gemma

    2016-07-19

    We present the first application of submicrometric magnetic nanoporous carbons (μMNPCs) as sorbents for automated solid-phase extraction (SPE). Small zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 crystals are obtained at room temperature and directly carbonized under an inert atmosphere to obtain submicrometric nanoporous carbons containing magnetic cobalt nanoparticles. The μMNPCs have a high contact area, high stability, and their preparation is simple and cost-effective. The prepared μMNPCs are exploited as sorbents in a microcolumn format in a sequential injection analysis (SIA) system with online spectrophotometric detection, which includes a specially designed three-dimensional (3D)-printed holder containing an automatically actuated electromagnet. The combined action of permanent magnets and an automatically actuated electromagnet enabled the movement of the solid bed of particles inside the microcolumn, preventing their aggregation, increasing the versatility of the system, and increasing the preconcentration efficiency. The method was optimized using a full factorial design and Doehlert Matrix. The developed system was applied to the determination of anionic surfactants, exploiting the retention of the ion-pairs formed with Methylene Blue on the μMNPC. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate as a model analyte, quantification was linear from 50 to 1000 μg L(-1), and the detection limit was equal to 17.5 μg L(-1), the coefficient of variation (n = 8; 100 μg L(-1)) was 2.7%, and the analysis throughput was 13 h(-1). The developed approach was applied to the determination of anionic surfactants in water samples (natural water, groundwater, and wastewater), yielding recoveries of 93% to 110% (95% confidence level).

  11. HEAVY METALS IN PRODUCTIVE PARTS OF AGRICULTURAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Július Árvay

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The contents of heavy metals in plants were not in relation to contents of heavy metals in soil. Increased content of heavy metals in soils was not in consistency with content in plants. Usually content of heavy metals in plants according to our results were lower than their content in soil. Only the over limit contents of copper and cadmium were assessed in grain of barley and oat. The results of heavy metals content showed that dominant part on content of elements in plants have their mobile forms what depends on pH, content of organic matter in soil and portion of clay parts.

  12. HEAVY METALS IN PRODUCTIVE PARTS OF AGRICULTURAL PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Július Árvay; Ján Tomáš; Tomáš Tóth

    2012-01-01

    The contents of heavy metals in plants were not in relation to contents of heavy metals in soil. Increased content of heavy metals in soils was not in consistency with content in plants. Usually content of heavy metals in plants according to our results were lower than their content in soil. Only the over limit contents of copper and cadmium were assessed in grain of barley and oat. The results of heavy metals content showed that dominant part on content of elements in plants have their mobil...

  13. LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY ANALYSIS IN THE PRODUCTION OF METALS USED IN PHOTOVOLTAICS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FTHENAKIS,V.M.; KIM, H.C.; WANG, W.

    2007-03-30

    Material flows and emissions in all the stages of production of zinc, copper, aluminum, cadmium, indium, germanium, gallium, selenium, tellurium, and molybdenum were investigated. These metals are used selectively in the manufacture of solar cells, and emission and energy factors in their production are used in the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of photovoltaics. Significant changes have occurred in the production and associated emissions for these metals over the last 10 years, which are not described in the LCA databases. Furthermore, emission and energy factors for several of the by-products of the base metal production were lacking. This report aims in updating the life-cycle inventories associated with the production of the base metals (Zn, Cu, Al, Mo) and in defining the emission and energy allocations for the minor metals (Cd, In, Ge, Se, Te and Ga) used in photovoltaics.

  14. A study on compound contents for plastic injection molding products of metallic resin pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Whan; Kwak, Jae Seob [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gyu Sang [Alliance Molding Engineering TeamLG Electronics Inc., Osan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Injection molding process is widely used for producing most plastic products. In order to make a metal-colored plastic product especially in modern luxury home alliances, metallic pigments which are mixed to a basic resin material for injection molding are available. However, the process control for the metal-colored plastic product is extremely difficult due to non-uniform melt flow of the metallic resin pigments. To improve the process efficiency, a rapid mold cooling method by a compressed cryogenic fluid and electricity mold are also proposed to decrease undesired compound contents within a molded plastic product. In this study, a quality of the metal-colored plastic product is evaluated with process parameters; injection speed, injection pressure, and pigment contents, and an influence of the rapid cooling and heating system is demonstrated.

  15. Semi-quantitative analysis of solid waste flows from nano-enabled consumer products in Europe, Denmark and the United Kingdom - Abundance, distribution and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggelund, Laura; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard; Boldrin, Alessio

    2016-10-01

    Many nano-enabled consumer products are known to be in the global market. At the same, little is known about the quantity, type, location etc. of the engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) inside the products. This limits the scientific investigations of potential environmental effects of these materials, and especially the knowledge of ENM behaviour and potential effects at the end-of-life stage of the products is scarce. To gain a better understanding of the end-of-life waste treatment of nano-enabled consumer product, we provide an overview of the ENMs flowing into and throughout waste systems in Europe, Denmark and the United Kingdom. Using a nanoproduct inventory (nanodb.dk), we performed a four-step analysis to estimate the most abundant ENMs and in which waste fractions they are present. We found that in terms of number of products: (i) nano silver is the most used ENM in consumer products, and (ii) plastic from used product containers is the largest waste fraction also comprising a large variety of ENMs, though possibly in very small masses. Also, we showed that the local waste management system can influence the distribution of ENMs. It is recommended that future research focus on recycling and landfilling of nano-enabled products since these compartments represent hot spots for end-of-life nanoproducts.

  16. TECHNOLOGY OF PRODUCTION OF METAL-CONTAINING SLAGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Djakonov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Technological operations of mechanical squeezing of water-based final tailings from lubricoolants, washing of metal-abrasive final tailings on oil lubricoolants and their magnetic separation are offered and investigated. Advantages of technology washing and magnetic separation of final tailings are ecological cleanliness of the process, high degree of clearing of metal powder and qualitative division of mixture component.

  17. REMOVAL OF CERTAIN FISSION PRODUCT METALS FROM LIQUID BISMUTH COMPOSITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, O.E.; Howe, H.E.; Avrutik, E.R.

    1959-11-24

    A method is described for purifying a solution of urarium in liquid bismuth containing at least one metal from the group consisting of selenium, tellurium, palladium, ruthenium, rhodium, niobium, and zirconium. The solution is contacted with zinc in an inert atmosphere to form a homogeneous melt, a solid zinc phase is formed, and the zinc phase containing the metal is separated from the melt.

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 438 - Typical Products in Metal Products and Machinery Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Combustion Engines Measuring & Dispensing Pumps Mechanical Power Transmission Equipment Metal Working... Fasteners, Buttons, Needles & Pins Fluid Power Values & Hose Fittings Hand & Edge Tools Hand Saws & Saw... Forming Types Metal Shipping Barrels, Drums, Kegs, Pails Metal Stampings Power Driven Hand...

  19. Biogas production as affected by heavy metals in the anaerobic digestion of sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein I. Abdel-Shafy

    2014-12-01

    The sewage sludge samples were separated from the sewage water of the pilot plant at the National Research Centre, TDC site. The effect of heavy metals on the biogas production of the anaerobic digester was studied. The inhibitory effect on the biogas production and toxic level of metals was determined in this study. The general ranking of heavy metal toxicity appears to be Hg > Cd > Cr (III. The present investigation reveals that heavy metals in addition to the anaerobic digester decreased the biogas production as an indication of efficiency of the process. A significant decrease in gas production and volatile organic matter removal was obtained. It was also noted that an accumulation of organic acid intermediates was obtained as a result of methanogenic bacterial inhibition. This accumulation was limited during the pulse feed of metals. This is due to the rapid poisoning of the active bacterial forms in the digester.

  20. Predicting impurity gases and phases during hydrogen evolution from complex metal hydrides using free energy minimization enabled by first-principles calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Chul; Allendorf, Mark D; Stavila, Vitalie; Sholl, David S

    2010-09-07

    First-principles calculations represent a potent tool for screening metal hydride mixtures that can reversibly store hydrogen. A number of promising new hydride systems with high hydrogen capacity and favorable thermodynamics have been predicted this way. An important limitation of these studies, however, is the assumption that H(2) is the only gas-phase product of the reaction, which is not always the case. This paper summarizes new theoretical and numerical approaches that can be used to predict thermodynamic equilibria in complex metal hydride systems with competing reaction pathways. We report thermochemical equilibrium calculations using data obtained from density functional theory (DFT) computations to describe the possible occurrence of gas-phase products other than H(2) in three complex hydrides, LiNH(2), LiBH(4), and Mg(BH(4))(2), and mixtures of these with the destabilizing compounds LiH, MgH(2), and C. The systems under investigation contain N, C, and/or B and thus have the potential to evolve N(2), NH(3), hydrocarbons, and/or boranes as well as H(2). Equilibria as a function of both temperature and total pressure are predicted. The results indicate that significant amounts of these species can form under some conditions. In particular, the thermodynamic model predicts formation of N(2) and NH(3) as products of LiNH(2) decomposition. Comparison with published experimental data indicates that N(2) formation must be kinetically limited. Our examination of C-containing systems indicates that methane is the stable gas-phase species at low temperatures, not H(2). On the other hand, very low amounts of boranes (primarily BH(3)) are predicted to form in B-containing systems.

  1. Safety evaluation of the leaching of metals from the printed graphic product wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savka Adamović

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the technological development of the graphic production, the environment is being faced with a large amount of printed graphic product wastes, especially packaging materials (paper, cardboard, paper and plastic bags, films, etc, but it is also being faced with the problem of their disposal. Many printing inks and coatings used in the production of the printed graphic product contain metals which, after the disposal of graphic waste, can migrate to different systems and have a negative influence on the environment. Because of that, the concentration levels of metals (zinc, copper, chromium, cadmium, lead, and nickel in the printed graphic product wastes have firstly been determined, and then the impact of those metals, through their migration from the printed graphic product wastes to the simulated environmental mediums with different pH values (acidic and neutral, has been estimated. Based on the experimentally obtained concentrations of metals that have migrated from the printed graphic product wastes to the neutral solution and based on the theoretical distribution coefficient, the concentration of metals in the soil of illegal and municipal landfills, which represents the contribution to the overall metal concentration in the soil due to the migration from the waste printed graphic materials, has been calculated. Also, a comparison between the experimentally obtained metal concentrations and the literature values has been conducted, and an evaluation of their influence on the quality of soil has been given.

  2. Impact of Metals on Secondary Metabolites Production and Plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Morphological changes associated with metal-induced stress were also examined with a scanning electron ... transfers and other essential metabolic processes in plants;3 ... affect the development and health of plants by inhibiting vital.

  3. Experiments and Researches on Production of Highly Charged Metallic Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To satisfy the requirements of HIRFL (Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou), series of experiments have been done to produce metallic ion beams on the 14.5 GHz ECR ion source. By now, numerous methods have been tested, in which oven heating and MIVOC (Metallic Ion from Volatile Compounds) are both included.According to the experiments, the results show that oven heating is much better than MIVOC. In most of our

  4. Production Engineering Measure for Improved Reliability of Metallized Polycarbonate and Metallized Polysulfone Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-02-01

    particles both can result -308- in a conductive path to the adjacent film electrode metallization. Metallized film exhibits a self healing or...Michels Mr. H. Pentecost Mr. D, Smith Mr. D. Dicks - SECTION 8 DISTRIBUTION LIST Copies I Director Electronics Components Laboratory Fort Monrrouth

  5. Dealloying of Cu-Based Metallic Glasses in Acidic Solutions: Products and Energy Storage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dealloying, a famous ancient etching technique, was used to produce nanoporous metals decades ago. With the development of dealloying techniques and theories, various interesting dealloying products including nanoporous metals/alloys, metal oxides and composites, which exhibit excellent catalytic, optical and sensing performance, have been developed in recent years. As a result, the research on dealloying products is of great importance for developing new materials with superior physical and chemical properties. In this paper, typical dealloying products from Cu-based metallic glasses after dealloying in hydrofluoric acid and hydrochloric acid solutions are summarized. Several potential application fields of these dealloying products are discussed. A promising application of nanoporous Cu (NPC and NPC-contained composites related to the energy storage field is introduced. It is expected that more promising dealloying products could be developed for practical energy storage applications.

  6. New Solutions for Enabling Discovery of User-Centric Virtual Data Products in NASA's Common Metadata Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilone, D.; Gilman, J.; Baynes, K.; Shum, D.

    2015-12-01

    This talk introduces a new NASA Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) capability to automatically generate and maintain derived, Virtual Product information allowing DAACs and Data Providers to create tailored and more discoverable variations of their products. After this talk the audience will be aware of the new EOSDIS Virtual Product capability, applications of it, and how to take advantage of it. Much of the data made available in the EOSDIS are organized for generation and archival rather than for discovery and use. The EOSDIS Common Metadata Repository (CMR) is launching a new capability providing automated generation and maintenance of user-oriented Virtual Product information. DAACs can easily surface variations on established data products tailored to specific uses cases and users, leveraging DAAC exposed services such as custom ordering or access services like OPeNDAP for on-demand product generation and distribution. Virtual Data Products enjoy support for spatial and temporal information, keyword discovery, association with imagery, and are fully discoverable by tools such as NASA Earthdata Search, Worldview, and Reverb. Virtual Product generation has applicability across many use cases: - Describing derived products such as Surface Kinetic Temperature information (AST_08) from source products (ASTER L1A) - Providing streamlined access to data products (e.g. AIRS) containing many (>800) data variables covering an enormous variety of physical measurements - Attaching additional EOSDIS offerings such as Visual Metadata, external services, and documentation metadata - Publishing alternate formats for a product (e.g. netCDF for HDF products) with the actual conversion happening on request - Publishing granules to be modified by on-the-fly services, like GES-DISC's Data Quality Screening Service - Publishing "bundled" products where granules from one product correspond to granules from one or more other related products

  7. Daye Nonferrous Metals 300,000t/a copper rod project started production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>In early May,the 300,000 t/a Low Oxidizing Copper Rod Project of Hubei Daye Nonferrous Metals Co.,Ltd("Daye Nonferrous Metals")started production.As the first copper deep processing project independently invested and constructed by Daye Nonferrous Metals,this project can fully utilize its cathode copper raw material advantage to manufacture low oxidizing copper

  8. Heavy metal sorption by marine algae and algal by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandau, E. [IGV - Inst. fuer Getreideverarbeitung GmbH, Bergholz-Rehbruecke (Germany); Sandau, P. [IGV - Inst. fuer Getreideverarbeitung GmbH, Bergholz-Rehbruecke (Germany); Pulz, O. [IGV - Inst. fuer Getreideverarbeitung GmbH, Bergholz-Rehbruecke (Germany); Zimmermann, M. [Technische Hochschule Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich Chemie und Biotechnik

    1996-12-31

    All the oceans are plentiful with marine algae. Non-viable marine macroalgae are able to adsorb heavy metal ions. Compared with other biosorbents, such as fungi, bacteria, yeasts and microalgae, they have the advantage of being easily available, cheap and having high heavy metal sorption capacities. The by-products of marine phaeophyceae are even more cost-effective heavy metal biosorbers. Experiments of heavy metal sorption using non-viable Fucus vesiculosus, Ascophyllum nodosum and algal by-products were carried out to investigate the factors influencing and optimizing the heavy metal biosorption. The pH value, biomass concentration, heavy metal concentration, heavy metal species, competing ions, algal varieties and time were the most decisive parameters. The sorption isotherms showed increasing sorption capacities and decreasing sorption efficiencies with an increase in the initial heavy metal concentration. Sorption kinetics of different metals were established. Biomass concentration influenced the sorption efficiencies very much, but reduced the sorption capacity per g biomass. The pH value controlled the sorption (pH 3-7) and desorption (pH 1-2) decisively. Beside heavy metal contaminated model waters, actual industrial effluents were treated successfully by algal sorbents in batch experiments and continuous column tests. Transmission electron micrographs of different contaminated and untreated algal specimens are available. (orig.)

  9. Simple Methods for Production of Nanoscale Metal Oxide Films from Household Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dean J.; Baliss, Michelle S.; Hinman, Jordan J.; Ziegenhorn, John W.; Andrews, Mark J.; Stevenson, Keith J.

    2013-01-01

    Production of thin metal oxide films was recently explored as part of an outreach program with a goal of producing nanoscale structures with household items. Household items coated with various metals or titanium compounds can be heated to produce colorful films with nanoscale thicknesses. As part of a materials chemistry laboratory experiment…

  10. Phytoremediation of Metal Contaminated Soil Using Willow: Exploiting Plant-Associated Bacteria to Improve Biomass Production and Metal Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Jolien; Weyens, Nele; Croes, Sarah; Beckers, Bram; Meiresonne, Linda; Van Peteghem, Pierre; Carleer, Robert; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2015-01-01

    Short rotation coppice (SRC) of willow and poplar is proposed for economic valorization and concurrently as remediation strategy for metal contaminated land in northeast-Belgium. However, metal phytoextraction appears insufficient to effectuate rapid reduction of soil metal contents. To increase both biomass production and metal accumulation of SRC, two strategies are proposed: (i) in situ selection of the best performing clones and (ii) bioaugmentation of these clones with beneficial plant-associated bacteria. Based on field data, two experimental willow clones, a Salix viminalis and a Salix alba x alba clone, were selected. Compared to the best performing commercial clones, considerable increases in stem metal extraction were achieved (up to 74% for Cd and 91% for Zn). From the selected clones, plant-associated bacteria were isolated and identified. All strains were subsequently screened for their plant growth-promoting and metal uptake enhancing traits. Five strains were selected for a greenhouse inoculation experiment with the selected clones planted in Cd-Zn-Pb contaminated soil. Extraction potential tended to increase after inoculation of S. viminalis plants with a Rahnella sp. strain due to a significantly increased twig biomass. However, although bacterial strains showing beneficial traits in vitro were used for inoculation, increments in extraction potential were not always observed.

  11. The mineral base and productive capacities of metals and non-metals of Kosovo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizaj, M.; Beqiri, E.; McBow, I.; O' Brien, E.Z.; Kongoli, F. [University of Prishtina, Prishtina (Kosovo)

    2008-08-15

    All historical periods of Kosovo - Ilirik, Roman, Medieval, Turkish, and former Yugoslavian - are linked with the intensive development of mining and metallurgy. This activity influenced and still is influencing the overall position of Kosovo as a country. For example, according to a 2006 World Bank report as well as other studies, Kosovo has potential lignite resources (geological reserves) of about 1.5 billion tonnes, which are ranked fifth in the world in importance. Other significant Kosovan mineral resources include lead, zinc, gold, silver, bauxite, and uranium, and rare metals accompanying those minerals, including indium, cadmium, thallium, gallium, and bismuth. These rare metals are of particular importance in developing advanced industrial technologies. Kosovo also has reserves of high-quality non-metals, including magnesite, quartz grit, bentonite, argil, talc, and asbestos. No database exists for these non-metal reserves, and further research and studies are needed.

  12. The mineral base and productive capacities of metals and non-metals of Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizaj, M.; Beqiri, E.; McBow, I.; O'Brien, E. Z.; Kongoli, F.

    2008-08-01

    All historical periods of Kosovo—Ilirik, Roman, Medieval, Turkish, and former Yugoslavian—are linked with the intensive development of mining and metallurgy. This activity influenced and still is influencing the overall position of Kosovo as a country. For example, according to a 2006 World Bank report as well as other studies, Kosovo has potential lignite resources (geological reserves) of about 1.5 billion tonnes, which are ranked fifth in the world in importance. Other significant Kosovan mineral resources include lead, zinc, gold, silver, bauxite, and uranium, and rare metals accompanying those minerals, including indium, cadmium, thallium, gallium, and bismuth. These rare metals are of particular importance in developing advanced industrial technologies. Kosovo also has reserves of high-quality non-metals, including magnesite, quartz grit, bentonite, argil, talc, and asbestos. No database exists for these non-metal reserves, and further research and studies are needed.

  13. Effect of metal ions on the growth and metabolites production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    Sep 26, 2011 ... The effects of several metal ions on the cell growth, production of polysaccharides by ... in vegetarian diets and regarded as medicinal food that ... Many factors including nutrition ... in submerged fermentation is relatively poor.

  14. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in vegetables grown around battery production area

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Ying; Wu, Pingping; Shao, Yufang; Ying, Yibin

    2014-01-01

    ...) were measured in edible portions of vegetables and soils around a battery production area in China, and the potential health risk of heavy metal contamination to the local population via vegetable...

  15. Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Grown in Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jun Xie; Qiang Weng; Guangying Ye; Sishi Luo; Rui Zhu; Aiping Zhang; Xiaoyang Chen; Chuxia Lin

    2014-01-01

    ... species were used to mediate the processes. The preliminary research findings obtained from this study have implications for developing cost-effective technologies for simultaneous bioethanol production and soil clean-up using heavy metal...

  16. A qualitative study of the challenges related to the development of product enabled services in technology driven start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren; Tanev, Stoyan; Ma, Zheng

    of products and services to meet specific customer demands, thus generating additional value. This paper examines technology-based start-ups’ attitude towards the development of hybrid offerings as part of their business differentiation and positioning strategies. The main research question is answered within...... that start-ups have limited human and financial resources that is often combined with lacking business and commercialization knowledge. The screening criteria from the new venture funding organisation appear to be very much product focused, as the tangibility of the products, as compared to services, makes...... offerings and avoiding the pitfalls of a fragmented “product first and then service” strategy....

  17. Atomic scale modeling of defect production and microstructure evolution in irradiated metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Soneda, N.; Shimomura, Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Irradiation effects in materials depend in a complex way on the form of the as-produced primary damage state and its spatial and temporal evolution. Thus, while collision cascades produce defects on a time scale of tens of picosecond, diffusion occurs over much longer time scales, of the order of seconds, and microstructure evolution over even longer time scales. In this report the authors present work aimed at describing damage production and evolution in metals across all the relevant time and length scales. They discuss results of molecular dynamics simulations of displacement cascades in Fe and V. They show that interstitial clusters are produced in cascades above 5 keV, but not vacancy clusters. Next, they discuss the development of a kinetic Monte Carlo model that enables calculations of damage evolution over much longer time scales (1000`s of s) than the picosecond lifetime of the cascade. They demonstrate the applicability of the method by presenting predictions on the fraction of freely migrating defects in {alpha}Fe during irradiation at 600 K.

  18. A Diaminopropane-Appended Metal-Organic Framework Enabling Efficient CO2 Capture from Coal Flue Gas via a Mixed Adsorption Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Phillip J; Siegelman, Rebecca L; Forse, Alexander C; Gonzalez, Miguel I; Runčevski, Tomče; Martell, Jeffrey D; Reimer, Jeffrey A; Long, Jeffrey R

    2017-09-27

    A new diamine-functionalized metal-organic framework comprised of 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-diaminopropane (dmpn) appended to the Mg(2+) sites lining the channels of Mg2(dobpdc) (dobpdc(4-) = 4,4'-dioxidobiphenyl-3,3'-dicarboxylate) is characterized for the removal of CO2 from the flue gas emissions of coal-fired power plants. Unique to members of this promising class of adsorbents, dmpn-Mg2(dobpdc) displays facile step-shaped adsorption of CO2 from coal flue gas at 40 °C and near complete CO2 desorption upon heating to 100 °C, enabling a high CO2 working capacity (2.42 mmol/g, 9.1 wt %) with a modest 60 °C temperature swing. Evaluation of the thermodynamic parameters of adsorption for dmpn-Mg2(dobpdc) suggests that the narrow temperature swing of its CO2 adsorption steps is due to the high magnitude of its differential enthalpy of adsorption (Δhads = -73 ± 1 kJ/mol), with a larger than expected entropic penalty for CO2 adsorption (Δsads = -204 ± 4 J/mol·K) positioning the step in the optimal range for carbon capture from coal flue gas. In addition, thermogravimetric analysis and breakthrough experiments indicate that, in contrast to many adsorbents, dmpn-Mg2(dobpdc) captures CO2 effectively in the presence of water and can be subjected to 1000 humid adsorption/desorption cycles with minimal degradation. Solid-state (13)C NMR spectra and single-crystal X-ray diffraction structures of the Zn analogue reveal that this material adsorbs CO2 via formation of both ammonium carbamates and carbamic acid pairs, the latter of which are crystallographically verified for the first time in a porous material. Taken together, these properties render dmpn-Mg2(dobpdc) one of the most promising adsorbents for carbon capture applications.

  19. Production of Nanopowders of Platinum Metals Using the Chemical Reduction Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PYATAKHINA E. S.; BUSLAYEVA T. M.; VOLCHKOVA E. V.; KHRISTICH E. A.; SERGEYEVA T. Yu.

    2012-01-01

    The literary data on the application of various methods for the production of nanopowders of platinum metals and alloys have been summarized,and the selection of the method of chemical reduction from salt solutions has been substantiated as the simplest and most affordable.The optimum conditions for the production of nanoparticles of metal palladium and platinum/cobalt alloy,using the effect of boranes with various structures,have been selected.

  20. Chapter 23: Corrosion of Metals in Wood Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka

    2014-01-01

    The corrosion of metals in contact with wood has been studied for over 80 years, and in most situations wood is not corrosive [1]. Recently, however, the durability of fasteners in preservative--treated wood has become a concern. Changes in legislation and certification in the United States, the European Union, and Australasia have restricted the use of chromated...

  1. Semi-quantitative analysis of solid waste flows from nano-enabled consumer products in Europe, Denmark and the United Kingdom - Abundance, distribution and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heggelund, Laura Roverskov; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-01-01

    , and especially the knowledge of ENM behaviour and potential effects at the end-of-life stage of the products is scarce. To gain a better understanding of the end-of-life waste treatment of nano-enabled consumer product, we provide an overview of the ENMs flowing into and throughout waste systems in Europe......, Denmark and the United Kingdom. Using a nanoproduct inventory (nanodb.dk), we performed a four-step analysis to estimate the most abundant ENMs and in which waste fractions they are present. We found that in terms of number of products: (i) nano silver is the most used ENM in consumer products, and (ii......) plastic from used product containers is the largest waste fraction also comprising a large variety of ENMs, though possibly in very small masses. Also, we showed that the local waste management system can influence the distribution of ENMs. It is recommended that future research focus on recycling...

  2. Farther Export Tariff Laid on Some RE Metallic Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ To further regulate the export of high-energy-consumption and high-pollution products and resources products, promote the import of energy products, resource products and key components and facilitate the trade balance, and approved by the 9th Meeting of Tariff Regulations Commission of the State Council, China would adjust the import and export tariff rate of some commodities since June 1st, 2007.

  3. Optimization of Filler Metals Consumption in the Production of Welded Steel Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pańcikiewicz K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the some aspects of the optimization of filler metals consumption in the production of welded steel structures. Correct choice of beveling method can allow to decrease cost of production and increase quality. The review of calculation methods of filler metal consumption at the design stage was carried out. Moreover, the practical examples of amount of filler metals calculation were presented and analyzed. The article also contain examples of mobile apps which are makes it easy to see welding costs in just a few seconds. Apps as well as simple excel spreadsheets with correct mathematic equations allows to optimize welding process.

  4. Heavy metal content in flue cured and air cured tobaccos from main production areas in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojičić Vesna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to examine the influence of growing conditions on heavy metal content in virginia (flue cured and burley (air cured tobacco type. Moreover, some of these metals could appear in the tobacco cigarette smoke. This fact may cause negative consequences for cigarette consumers. Examinations were carried out in five various production areas, for each tobacco type, during two years, 1998 and 1999; those were extreme years for production.Considering the results, it can be concluded: The most important factor for heavy metal content in tobacco leaves are weather conditions especially the amount of rainfall, since there is a direct correlation between the rainfall and size of roots, a dominant vegetation organ. It is inevitable that the metals content in flue cured and air cured tobaccos grown at different experimental lots, is still below the legally prescribed values. Tobacco leaves from Šabac production area have a little higher metal content than tobacco grown in other production areas, because a larger amount of copper was found. The metal content in plants can increase because of its absorption from soil, atmosphere, or mineral fertilizers and pesticides, and, what is very important, the content of metals can be high due to the vicinity of large industrial centers.

  5. Proposed industrial recovered materials utilization targets for the metals and metal-products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    The introductory chapter provides a discussion of the factors that affect the recovery and reuse of secondary materials and the competition between the primary and secondary metals industries. It discusses these industries in terms of resource characteristics, industry technology, pollution control requirements, market structure, the economics of recycling, and the issues involved in econometrically estimating scrap supply response behavior. It further presents the methodology established by DOE for the metals, textiles, rubber, and pulp and paper industries. The areas in which government policies might have a significant impact on the utilization of primary and secondary metals and on any recycling targets between now and 1987 are noted. Chapter 3 presents general profiles for the major industrial segments comprising SIC 33. The profiles include such topics as industry structure, process technology, materials and recycling flow, and future trends. Chapter 4 specifically covers the evaluation of recycling targets for the ferrous, aluminum, copper, zinc, and lead industries. (MCW)

  6. Atomic scale modelling of hexagonal structured metallic fission product alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleburgh, S C; King, D M; Lumpkin, G R

    2015-04-01

    Noble metal particles in the Mo-Pd-Rh-Ru-Tc system have been simulated on the atomic scale using density functional theory techniques for the first time. The composition and behaviour of the epsilon phases are consistent with high-entropy alloys (or multi-principal component alloys)-making the epsilon phase the only hexagonally close packed high-entropy alloy currently described. Configurational entropy effects were considered to predict the stability of the alloys with increasing temperatures. The variation of Mo content was modelled to understand the change in alloy structure and behaviour with fuel burnup (Mo molar content decreases in these alloys as burnup increases). The predicted structures compare extremely well with experimentally ascertained values. Vacancy formation energies and the behaviour of extrinsic defects (including iodine and xenon) in the epsilon phase were also investigated to further understand the impact that the metallic precipitates have on fuel performance.

  7. Numerical assessment of residual formability in sheet metal products: towards design for sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falsafi, Javad; Demirci, Emrah; Silberschmidt, Vadim. V.

    2016-08-01

    A new computational scheme is presented to addresses cold recyclability of sheet- metal products. Cold recycling or re-manufacturing is an emerging area studied mostly empirically; in its current form, it lacks theoretical foundation especially in the area of sheet metals. In this study, a re-formability index was introduced based on post-manufacture residual formability in sheet metal products. This index accounts for possible levels of deformation along different strain paths based on Polar Effective Plastic Strain (PEPS) technique. PEPS is strain-path independent, hence provides a foundation for residual formability analysis. A user- friendly code was developed to implement this assessment in conjunction with advanced finite- element (FE) analysis. The significance of this approach is the advancement towards recycling of sheet metal products without melting them.

  8. Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Grown in Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Xie

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of bioethanol production using the juice of sugarcane grown in heavy metal-contaminated soils. The results suggest that the sugar concentration was not adversely affected when the sugarcane was grown in the heavy metal-contaminated soil. Although the juice of sugarcane grown in contaminated soil contained elevated levels of heavy metals, sugar fermentation and ethanol production were not adversely affected when five selected yeast species were used to mediate the processes. The preliminary research findings obtained from this study have implications for developing cost-effective technologies for simultaneous bioethanol production and soil clean-up using heavy metal-contaminated soils for energy sugarcane farming.

  9. Scientific and Technological Foundations for Scaling Production of Nanostructured Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Terry C.; Davis, Casey F.; Rovira, Peter M.; Hayne, Mathew L.; Campbell, Gordon S.; Grzenia, Joel E.; Stock, Paige J.; Meagher, Rilee C.; Rack, Henry J.

    2017-05-01

    Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD) has been explored in a wide range of metals and alloys. However, there are only a few industrial scale implementations of SPD for commercial alloys. To demonstrate and evolve technology for producing ultrafine grain metals by SPD, a Nanostructured Metals Manufacturing Testbed (NMMT) has been established in Golden, Colorado. Machines for research scale and pilot scale Equal Channel Angular Pressing-Conform (ECAP-C) technology have been configured in the NMMT to systematically evaluate and evolve SPD processing and advance the foundational science and technology for manufacturing. We highlight the scientific and technological areas that are critical for scale up of continuous SPD of aluminum, copper, magnesium, titanium, and iron-based alloys. Key areas that we will address in this presentation include the need for comprehensive analysis of starting microstructures, data on operating deformation mechanisms, high pressure thermodynamics and phase transformation kinetics, tribological behaviors, temperature dependence of lubricant properties, adaptation of tolerances and shear intensity to match viscoplastic behaviors, real-time process monitoring, and mechanics of billet/tooling interactions.

  10. Plant growth promotion, metabolite production and metal tolerance of dark septate endophytes isolated from metal-polluted poplar phytomanagement sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Charlotte; Leyval, Corinne; Foulon, Julie; Chalot, Michel; Blaudez, Damien

    2016-10-01

    Numerous studies address the distribution and the diversity of dark septate endophytes (DSEs) in the literature, but little is known about their ecological role and their effect on host plants, especially in metal-polluted soils. Seven DSE strains belonging to Cadophora, Leptodontidium, Phialophora and Phialocephala were isolated from roots of poplar trees from metal-polluted sites. All strains developed on a wide range of carbohydrates, including cell-wall-related compounds. The strains evenly colonized birch, eucalyptus and ryegrass roots in re-synthesis experiments. Root and shoot growth promotion was observed and was both plant and strain dependent. Two Phialophora and Leptodontidium strains particularly improved plant growth. However, there was no correlation between the level of root colonization by DSEs and the intensity of growth promotion. All strains produced auxin and six also stimulated plant growth through the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). SPME-GC/MS analyses revealed four major VOCs emitted by Cadophora and Leptodontidium The strains exhibited growth at high concentrations of several metals. The ability of metal-resistant DSE strains to produce both soluble and volatile compounds for plant growth promotion indicates interesting microbial resources with high potential to support sustainable production of bioenergy crops within the context of the phytomanagement of metal-contaminated sites.

  11. System and process for production of magnesium metal and magnesium hydride from magnesium-containing salts and brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrail, Peter B.; Nune, Satish K.; Motkuri, Radha K.; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra; Koech, Phillip K.; Adint, Tyler T.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Liu, Jian

    2016-11-22

    A system and process are disclosed for production of consolidated magnesium metal products and alloys with selected densities from magnesium-containing salts and feedstocks. The system and process employ a dialkyl magnesium compound that decomposes to produce the Mg metal product. Energy requirements and production costs are lower than for conventional processing.

  12. System and process for production of magnesium metal and magnesium hydride from magnesium-containing salts and brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrail, Peter B.; Nune, Satish K.; Motkuri, Radha K.; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra; Koech, Phillip K.; Adint, Tyler T.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Liu, Jian

    2016-11-22

    A system and process are disclosed for production of consolidated magnesium metal products and alloys with selected densities from magnesium-containing salts and feedstocks. The system and process employ a dialkyl magnesium compound that decomposes to produce the Mg metal product. Energy requirements and production costs are lower than for conventional processing.

  13. Two-stage (photoautotrophy and heterotrophy) cultivation enables efficient production of bioplastic poly-3-hydroxybutyrate in auto-sedimenting cyanobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshupanee, Tanakarn; Nimdach, Palida; Incharoensakdi, Aran

    2016-11-15

    Sustainable production of bioplastics by heterotrophic microbes has been restricted by the limited resources of organic substrates and the energy required for biomass harvest. Here, the easy-to-harvest cyanobacterium (Chlorogloea fritschii TISTR 8527), from which the biomass instantaneously settled to the bottom of liquid culture, was utilized to produce poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) using a two-stage cultivation strategy. The cells were first pre-grown under normal photoautotrophy to increase their biomass and then recultivated under a heterotrophic condition with a single organic substrate to produce the product. Through optimization of this two-stage cultivation, the mass conversion efficiency of acetate substrate to PHB was obtained at 51 ± 7% (w/w), the comparable level to the theoretical biochemical conversion efficiency of acetate to PHB. This two-stage cultivation that efficiently converted the substrate to the product, concurrent with a reduced culture biomass, may be applicable for the production of other biopolymers by cyanobacteria.

  14. Integrated oil production and upgrading using molten alkali metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John Howard

    2016-10-04

    A method that combines the oil retorting process (or other process needed to obtain/extract heavy oil or bitumen) with the process for upgrading these materials using sodium or other alkali metals. Specifically, the shale gas or other gases that are obtained from the retorting/extraction process may be introduced into the upgrading reactor and used to upgrade the oil feedstock. Also, the solid materials obtained from the reactor may be used as a fuel source, thereby providing the heat necessary for the retorting/extraction process. Other forms of integration are also disclosed.

  15. Integrated oil production and upgrading using molten alkali metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard

    2016-10-04

    A method that combines the oil retorting process (or other process needed to obtain/extract heavy oil or bitumen) with the process for upgrading these materials using sodium or other alkali metals. Specifically, the shale gas or other gases that are obtained from the retorting/extraction process may be introduced into the upgrading reactor and used to upgrade the oil feedstock. Also, the solid materials obtained from the reactor may be used as a fuel source, thereby providing the heat necessary for the retorting/extraction process. Other forms of integration are also disclosed.

  16. 76 FR 67793 - Notification of Expanded Pricing Grid for Precious Metals Products Containing Platinum and Gold...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... United States Mint Notification of Expanded Pricing Grid for Precious Metals Products Containing Platinum..., 2009, outlining the new pricing methodology for numismatic products containing platinum and gold. Since that time, the price of platinum and gold has increased considerably, and is approaching the...

  17. Heavy metals in intensive greenhouse vegetable production systems along Yellow Sea of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Wenyou; Huang, Biao; Tian, Kang;

    2017-01-01

    Recently, greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) has grown rapidly and counts a large proportion of vegetable production in China. In this study, the accumulation, health risk and threshold values of selected heavy metals were evaluated systematically. A total of 120 paired soil and vegetable samp...

  18. Elaboration of the technology of forming a conical product of sheet metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Matysiak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents a general knowledge about spinning draw pieces of sheets, one of multi-operational processes of spinning a sheet metal conical product without machining. The objective of the work was to elaborate both the technology of forming conical products of sheet metal and execution of technological tests as well as to determine the technological parameters for the process of spinning a conical insert. As a result of the investigations, the products with improved mechanical properties, stricter execution tolerance and low roughness have been obtained. The series of 200 prototype conical inserts for the shipbuilding industry have been made.

  19. Trace metal concentration in different Indian tobacco products and related health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S; Yadav, S; Singh, I

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of seven heavy metals, viz. Cd, Ni, Pb, Cr, Cu, Fe and Zn were determined in 30 samples of various brands of five different tobacco product types easily available in Indian markets. Three product types cigarettes, cigars and biri (tobacco rolled in dry leaf and smoked without filter) are consumed by smoking while chewing tobacco and snuff are consumed by chewing and sniffing, respectively. The metal content showed smoking and non-smoking type, brand and element specific variations. In the non-smoking type, chewing tobacco samples contained more heavy metals compared to snuff samples. Biri showed minimum metal content compared to cigarettes and cigars among the smoking types. This could be due to the metal enrichment during both chemical and physical processing in finished product; biri being the most raw and cheap product. The intra brand variations also indicate the same as the processing technologies are exclusive and different for each brand. The results are nearly comparable to the existing data with limited exceptions. We suggest that the smoke and ash produced could be significant contributor to metal load in the soil, air and water systems in addition to the adverse human health effects via direct tobacco consumption.

  20. Sintering products molded by injecting ceramic and metal powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ping-an; ZENG Ling-ke; LI Xiu-yan

    2005-01-01

    The injection molding products with different volume ratios of ZrO2 ceramic powder to 316L stainless steel powder were prepared. Properties and structure of the products were characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD),scanning electron microscope(SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results show that the compressive stress exists in the products and the bend strength reaches 300 MPa. ZrO2 phase and stainless steel phase are uniform in samples. The toughness of ceramic increases with the increasing the content of stainless steel.Through TEM study of the interface, some crystalline orientation relationships are determined.

  1. Induction of a dwarf phenotype with IBH1 may enable increased production of plant-made pharmaceuticals in plant factory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatoshi, Yukari; Ikeda, Miho; Kishi, Hiroyuki; Hiratsu, Keiichiro; Muraguchi, Atsushi; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2016-03-01

    Year-round production in a contained, environmentally controlled 'plant factory' may provide a cost-effective method to produce pharmaceuticals and other high-value products. However, cost-effective production may require substantial modification of the host plant phenotype; for example, using dwarf plants can enable the growth of more plants in a given volume by allowing more plants per shelf and enabling more shelves to be stacked vertically. We show here that the expression of the chimeric repressor for Arabidopsis AtIBH1 (P35S:AtIBH1SRDX) in transgenic tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum) induces a dwarf phenotype, with reduced cell size. We estimate that, in a given volume of cultivation space, we can grow five times more AtIBH1SRDX plants than wild-type plants. Although, the AtIBH1SRDX plants also showed reduced biomass compared with wild-type plants, they produced about four times more biomass per unit of cultivation volume. To test whether the dwarf phenotype affects the production of recombinant proteins, we expressed the genes for anti-hepatitis B virus antibodies (anti-HBs) in tobacco plants and found that the production of anti-HBs per unit fresh weight did not significantly differ between wild-type and AtIBH1SRDX plants. These data indicate that P35S:AtIBH1SRDX plants produced about fourfold more antibody per unit of cultivation volume, compared with wild type. Our results indicate that AtIBH1SRDX provides a useful tool for the modification of plant phenotype for cost-effective production of high-value products by stably transformed plants in plant factory conditions. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Aerosol production by high-velocity molten-metal droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, D J; Benson, D A

    1988-06-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of the aerosol produced by high-velocity molten-metal droplets. These tests are intended to simulate the reduction of high-velocity fragments into aerosol in high-explosive detonations or reactor accidents involving nuclear materials. The primary droplets are produced by the heating and electromagnetic launch of metal wires; velocities approaching Mach 1 can be obtained at present. Size distributions obtained tungsten and zirconium droplets burning in air. Lognormal size distributions were observed in both cases with DMPS-equivalent mean diameters of about 0.4 ..mu..m and geometric standard deviations of about two. SEM and TEM analysis of aerosol samples collected by a point-to-plane electrostatic precipitator showed that the majority of these particles were web-like chain agglomerates. Tests performed in argon atmospheres produced several orders-of-magnitude less aerosol mass than in equivalent air tests, supporting the key role combustion plays in secondary aerosol generation. 26 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. CO2 utilization: an enabling element to move to a resource- and energy-efficient chemical and fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampelli, Claudio; Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele

    2015-03-13

    CO(2) conversion will be at the core of the future of low-carbon chemical and energy industry. This review gives a glimpse into the possibilities in this field by discussing (i) CO(2) circular economy and its impact on the chemical and energy value chain, (ii) the role of CO(2) in a future scenario of chemical industry, (iii) new routes for CO(2) utilization, including emerging biotechnology routes, (iv) the technology roadmap for CO(2) chemical utilization, (v) the introduction of renewable energy in the chemical production chain through CO(2) utilization, and (vi) CO(2) as a suitable C-source to move to a low-carbon chemical industry, discussing in particular syngas and light olefin production from CO(2). There are thus many stimulating possibilities offered by using CO(2) and this review shows this new perspective on CO(2) at the industrial, societal and scientific levels.

  4. A Novel Synthetic Pathway Enables Microbial Production of Polyphenols Independent from the Endogenous Aromatic Amino Acid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallscheuer, Nicolai; Vogt, Michael; Marienhagen, Jan

    2016-12-14

    Numerous plant polyphenols have potential applications as pharmaceuticals or nutraceuticals. Stilbenes and flavonoids as most abundant polyphenols are synthesized from phenylpropanoids, which are exclusively derived from aromatic amino acids in nature. Several microorganisms were engineered for the synthesis of biotechnologically interesting plant polyphenols; however, low activity of heterologous ammonia lyases, linking endogenous microbial aromatic amino acid biosynthesis to phenylpropanoid synthesis, turned out to be the limiting step during microbial synthesis. We here developed an alternative strategy for polyphenol production from cheap benzoic acids by reversal of a β-oxidative phenylpropanoid degradation pathway avoiding any ammonia lyase activity. The synthetic pathway running in the non-natural direction is feasible with respect to thermodynamics and involved reaction mechanisms. Instantly, product titers of 5 mg/L resveratrol could be achieved in recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum strains indicating that phenylpropanoid synthesis from 4-hydroxybenzoic acid can in principle be implemented independently from aromatic amino acids and ammonia lyase activity.

  5. Enabling participation of SMEs in international trade and production networks: Trade facilitation, trade finance and communication technology

    OpenAIRE

    Duval, Yann; Utoktham, Chorthip

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying key factors affecting SME participation in direct export and international production networks (IPNs), both globally and in Asia and the Pacific. A global dataset of firm-level data from developing countries was analyzed to identify the main obstacles to establishment and operation of direct and indirect small and medium size exporters. Logit models of SME export and IPN participation revealed the importance of several trade facilitation and related factors. Th...

  6. Overexpression of Aspergillus tubingensis faeA in protease-deficient Aspergillus niger enables ferulic acid production from plant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwane, Eunice N; Rose, Shaunita H; van Zyl, Willem H; Rumbold, Karl; Viljoen-Bloom, Marinda

    2014-06-01

    The production of ferulic acid esterase involved in the release of ferulic acid side groups from xylan was investigated in strains of Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus carneus, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae. The highest activity on triticale bran as sole carbon source was observed with the A. tubingensis T8.4 strain, which produced a type A ferulic acid esterase active against methyl p-coumarate, methyl ferulate and methyl sinapate. The activity of the A. tubingensis ferulic acid esterase (AtFAEA) was inhibited twofold by glucose and induced twofold in the presence of maize bran. An initial accumulation of endoglucanase was followed by the production of endoxylanase, suggesting a combined action with ferulic acid esterase on maize bran. A genomic copy of the A. tubingensis faeA gene was cloned and expressed in A. niger D15#26 under the control of the A. niger gpd promoter. The recombinant strain has reduced protease activity and does not acidify the media, therefore promoting high-level expression of recombinant enzymes. It produced 13.5 U/ml FAEA after 5 days on autoclaved maize bran as sole carbon source, which was threefold higher than for the A. tubingensis donor strain. The recombinant AtFAEA was able to extract 50 % of the available ferulic acid from non-pretreated maize bran, making this enzyme suitable for the biological production of ferulic acid from lignocellulosic plant material.

  7. A Stable, Magnetic, and Metallic Li3O4 Compound as a Discharge Product in a Li-Air Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guochun; Wang, Yanchao; Ma, Yanming

    2014-08-07

    The Li-air battery with the specific energy exceeding that of a Li ion battery has been aimed as the next-generation battery. The improvement of the performance of the Li-air battery needs a full resolution of the actual discharge products. Li2O2 has been long recognized as the main discharge product, with which, however, there are obvious failures on the understanding of various experimental observations (e.g., magnetism, oxygen K-edge spectrum, etc.) on discharge products. There is a possibility of the existence of other Li-O compounds unknown thus far. Here, a hitherto unknown Li3O4 compound as a discharge product of the Li-air battery was predicted through first-principles swarm structure searching calculations. The new compound has a unique structure featuring the mixture of superoxide O2(-) and peroxide O2(2-), the first such example in the Li-O system. The existence of superoxide O2(-) creates magnetism and hole-doped metallicity. Findings of Li3O4 gave rise to direct explanations of the unresolved experimental magnetism, triple peaks of oxygen K-edge spectra, and the Raman peak at 1125 cm(-1) of the discharge products. Our work enables an opportunity for the performance of capacity, charge overpotential, and round-trip efficiency of the Li-air battery.

  8. Potential metal impurities in active pharmaceutical substances and finished medicinal products - A market surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollein, Uwe; Bauer, Bettina; Habernegg, Renate; Schramek, Nicholas

    2015-09-18

    A market surveillance study has been established by using different atomic spectrometric methods for the determination of selected elemental impurities of particular interest, to gain an overview about the quality of presently marketed drug products and their bulk drug substances. The limit tests were carried out with respect to the existing EMA guideline on the specification limits for residuals of metal catalysts or metal reagents. Also attention was given to the future implementation of two new chapters of the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) stating limit concentrations of elemental impurities. The methods used for determination of metal residues were inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and atomic absorption spectrometry technologies (GFAAS, CVAAS, HGAAS). This article presents the development and validation of the methods used for the determination of 21 selected metals in 113 samples from drug products and their active pharmaceutical ingredients.

  9. Increasing the reliability and quality of important cast products made of chemically active metals and alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varfolomeev, M. S.; Moiseev, V. S.; Shcherbakova, G. I.

    2017-01-01

    A technology is developed to produce highly thermoresistant ceramic monoxide corundum molds using investment casting and an aluminum-organic binder. This technology is a promising trend in creating ceramic molds for precision complex-shape casting of important ingots made of high-alloy steels, high-temperature and titanium alloys, and refractory metals. The use of the casting molds that have a high thermal and chemical resistance to chemically active metals and alloys under high-temperature casting minimizes the physicochemical interaction and substantially decreases the depth of the hard-to-remove metal oxide layer on important products, which increases their service properties.

  10. Surface quality of extruding metal special-shape products and frictional behavior in optimized die cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Hong-yuan; ZHU Heng-jun

    2004-01-01

    With the help of Complex Function Mapping theory, the complicated three-dimensional deformation problems are transferred into two-dimensional problems, and the function of strain ratio field is analyzed in the metal plastic extruding deformation. Taking the strain-hardening effect of metal deformation into account, the relationship between friction behavior and optimized mathematical model is analyzed by the numerical analysis friction energy dissipation function. As a result, the method of lowering the material hardening and decreasing the reduction ratio over multi-procedures can be used to improve the surface quality of metal special-shape extrusion products.

  11. Investigation of possibilities for high heavy metal content sludges utilization by incorporating them in concrete products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeonova A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The safe removal of sludge, obtained during the surface treatment of different metal products, is a serious environmental problem. These sludges are usually characterized by a high content of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, Cd, Mn, low quality and are obtained in many small industrial units in the whole country, which makes their centralized treatment difficult. In world practice, different methods are used for component fixation of such sludge, in the aim to prevent leaching of the metals causing pollution of the soil and underground water. The aim of the recent work is to prepare the sludge in a form of light (keramzit fillers by preliminary treatment with binding substances and to introduce them in non supporting concrete products - curbs, stakes and similar products. The investigation was made with two types of sludge - from a production line for thermal treatment and hardening of different parts used in machine building and from a production line for surface decoration treatment (nickel-plating and chromium-plating of consumer products. The sludge were dried and ground and then granulated with a solution of water glass. After their solidifying the air dried granules with a size of 5 to 15 mm were treated with cement milk and air dried again. With the obtained granules, standard percolation test for leaching metals like Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr was carried out. After a preliminary calculation of concrete mixtures, these granules were mixed with Portland cement and concrete sample products were made. These molded concrete samples were characterized by their density, water absorption, and mechanical strength for defined standard periods of time. The samples were subjected to a modified percolation test for leaching metals. The metal concentration in eluates was determined by Atomic Spectral Analysis.

  12. Application of glucose oxidase for the production of metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chem

    2013-11-27

    Nov 27, 2013 ... It provides a method for the conversion of glucose into gluconic acid and its ... calcium basis in food and beverages; the outstanding characteristics with high ... whole reaction, yielding a product with a longer shelf life. (Caruso ...

  13. Development of a brazing process for the production of water- cooled bipolar plates made of chromium-coated metal foils for PEM fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, M.; Hoehlich, D.; Scharf, I.; Lampke, T.; Hollaender, U.; Maier, H. J.

    2016-03-01

    Beside lithium batteries, PEM fuel cells are the most promising strategy as a power source to achieve the targets for introducing and increasing the usage of electric vehicles. Due to limited space and weight problems, water cooled, metallic bipolar plates in a fuel cell metal stack are preferred in motor vehicles. These plates are stamped metal sheets with a complex structure, interconnected media-tight. To meet the multiple tasks and requirements in use, complex and expensive combinations of materials are currently in use (carbon fiber composites, graphite, gold-plated nickel, stainless and acid resistant steel). The production of such plates is expensive as it is connected with considerable effort or the usage of precious metals. As an alternative, metalloid nitrides (CrN, VN, W2N, etc.) show a high chemical resistance, hardness and a good conductivity. So this material category meets the basic requirements of a top layer. However, the standard methods for their production (PVD, CVD) are expensive and have a slow deposition rate and a lower layer thicknesses. Because of these limitations, a full functionality over the life cycle of a bipolar plate is not guaranteed. The contribution shows the development and quantification of an alternative production process for bipolar plates. The expectation is to get significant advantages from the combination of chromium electrodeposition and thermochemical treatment to form chromium nitrides. Both processes are well researched and suitable for series production. The thermochemical treatment of the chromium layer also enables a process-integrated brazing.

  14. Production of metallic nanopowders (Mg, Al by solar carbothermal reduction of their oxides at low pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Puig

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The carbothermal reduction of MgO and Al2O3 in argon flow at low pressure allows to lower the onset temperature of metal vapor formation. Thermodynamic calculations indicate that metal formation begins at 1400 and 1700 K for a primary vacuum (1000 Pa, respectively, for Mg and Al. In the experimental section, concentrated solar energy was used for the process heating in order to favor energy savings. The products of the reaction between MgO or Al2O3 and 2 varieties of carbon (graphite, carbon black in flowing argon atmosphere at a total pressure of around 1000 to 1600 Pa were studied using X-ray diffraction, and microstructure observations revealed the formation of metallic nanopowders with some by-products. Metallic conversions close to 45 wt% and 52 wt%, respectively, for Mg and Al, were obtained. The low conversion yield of the carbothermal reduction of MgO can be attributed to a backward reaction reforming MgO powder and to a sintering process between oxide particles at high temperature. Aluminum production challenge is to avoid formation of undesired by-products: Al2O, Al4C3 and Al-oxycarbides. Advantages and weaknesses of the used process are described and some improvements are proposed to increase metallic yields.

  15. Commercial herbal slimming products: concern for the presence of heavy metals and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, Noraziah Mohamad; Chit, Yong Mei; Abu Bakar, Nur Faizah

    2014-02-01

    The increment of rate in obesity, the phenomenon of fat phobia as well as the increased use of herbal medicine had lead to the emergence of herbal slimming products. However, numerous bacteria and heavy metal contaminations are often found in herbal products due to irregular handling practices. Ten different brands of products (labeled as A-J) were investigated. Seven heavy metals content such as As, Cd, Pb, Co, Cr, Cu and Zn were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and bacterial presence was determined by counting the total aerobic count. The identification of isolates was carried out by macroscopic and microscopic observation, biochemical tests and confirmation using commercial kits of Microgen GN-ID A+B and API 20 E. The heavy metal contents in the samples were below the limit of the standard limitation by WHO and Health Canada. However, sample A contained the highest total daily intake of heavy metals. Total aerobic count was highest in sample H followed by G, A, B, C, F, D, E, I and J in which G and H exceeded the standard total aerobic count (10(5) CFU g(-1)) as given by WHO. A total of nine isolates of Bacillus spp. and ten gram-negative bacteria were isolated in which Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were found in samples C and F, respectively. Considering the fact that the herbal sliming products contained low concentration of heavy metals and bacteria count, it should be consumed with caution.

  16. Ultrathin Co(Ni)-doped MoS2 nanosheets as catalytic promoters enabling efficient solar hydrogen production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyan Ma; Jinquan Li; Changhua An; Juan Feng; Yuhua Chi; Junxue Liu; Jun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The design of efficient artificial photosynthetic systems that harvest solar energy to drive the hydrogen evolution reaction via water reduction is of great importance from both the theoretical and practical viewpoints.Integrating appropriate co-catalyst promoters with strong light absorbing materials represents an ideal strategy to enhance the conversion efficiency of solar energy in hydrogen production.Herein,we report,for the first time,the synthesis of a class of unique hybrid structures consisting of ultrathin Co(Ni)-doped MoS2 nanosheets (co-catalyst promoter) intimately grown on semiconductor CdS nanorods (light absorber).The as-synthesized one-dimensional CdS@doped-MoS2 heterostructures exhibited very high photocatalytic activity (with a quantum yield of 17.3%) and stability towards H2 evolution from the photoreduction of water.Theoretical calculations revealed that Ni doping can increase the number of uncoordinated atoms at the edge sites of MoS2 nanosheets to promote electron transfer across the CdS/MoS2 interfaces as well as hydrogen reduction,leading to an efficient H2 evolution reaction.

  17. Dynamic wave field synthesis: enabling the generation of field distributions with a large space-bandwidth product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamau, Edwin N; Heine, Julian; Falldorf, Claas; Bergmann, Ralf B

    2015-11-02

    We present a novel approach for the design and fabrication of multiplexed computer generated volume holograms (CGVH) which allow for a dynamic synthesis of arbitrary wave field distributions. To achieve this goal, we developed a hybrid system that consists of a CGVH as a static element and an electronically addressed spatial light modulator as the dynamic element. We thereby derived a new model for describing the scattering process within the inhomogeneous dielectric material of the hologram. This model is based on the linearization of the scattering process within the Rytov approximation and incorporates physical constraints that account for voxel based laser-lithography using micro-fabrication of the holograms in a nonlinear optical material. In this article we demonstrate that this system basically facilitates a high angular Bragg selectivity on the order of 1°. Additionally, it allows for a qualitatively low cross-talk dynamic synthesis of predefined wave fields with a much larger space-bandwidth product (SBWP ≥ 8.7 × 10(6)) as compared to the current state of the art in computer generated holography.

  18. Non-invasive, in vitro analysis of islet insulin production enabled by an optical porous silicon biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhasatia, Rinku; Sweetman, Martin J; Harding, Frances J; Waibel, Michaela; Kay, Tom; Thomas, Helen; Loudovaris, Thomas; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2017-05-15

    A label-free porous silicon (pSi) based, optical biosensor, using both an antibody and aptamer bioreceptor motif has been developed for the detection of insulin. Two parallel biosensors were designed and optimised independently, based on each bioreceptor. Both bioreceptors were covalently attached to a thermally hydrosilylated pSi surface though amide coupling, with unreacted surface area rendered stable and low fouling by incorporation of PEG moieties. The insulin detection ability of each biosensor was determined using interferometric reflectance spectroscopy, using a range of different media both with and without serum. Sensing performance was compared in terms of response value, response time and limit of detection (LOD) for each platform. In order to demonstrate the capability of the best performing biosensor to detect insulin from real samples, an in vitro investigation with the aptamer-modified surface was performed. This biosensor was exposed to buffer conditioned by glucose-stimulated human islets, with the result showing a positive response and a high degree of selectivity towards insulin capture. The obtained results correlated well with the ELISA used in the clinic for assaying glucose-stimulated insulin release from donor islets. We anticipate that this type of sensor can be applied as a rapid point-of-use biosensor to assess the quality of donor islets in terms of their insulin production efficiency, prior to transplantation.

  19. Enabling Low Cost Biopharmaceuticals: A Systematic Approach to Delete Proteases from a Well-Known Protein Production Host Trichoderma reesei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P Landowski

    Full Text Available The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei has tremendous capability to secrete proteins. Therefore, it would be an excellent host for producing high levels of therapeutic proteins at low cost. Developing a filamentous fungus to produce sensitive therapeutic proteins requires that protease secretion is drastically reduced. We have identified 13 major secreted proteases that are related to degradation of therapeutic antibodies, interferon alpha 2b, and insulin like growth factor. The major proteases observed were aspartic, glutamic, subtilisin-like, and trypsin-like proteases. The seven most problematic proteases were sequentially removed from a strain to develop it for producing therapeutic proteins. After this the protease activity in the supernatant was dramatically reduced down to 4% of the original level based upon a casein substrate. When antibody was incubated in the six protease deletion strain supernatant, the heavy chain remained fully intact and no degradation products were observed. Interferon alpha 2b and insulin like growth factor were less stable in the same supernatant, but full length proteins remained when incubated overnight, in contrast to the original strain. As additional benefits, the multiple protease deletions have led to faster strain growth and higher levels of total protein in the culture supernatant.

  20. Analysis of trace metals and perfluorinated compounds in 43 representative tea products from South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hai; Li, Jian-Long; Li, Hai-Hang; Hu, Guo-Cheng; Li, Hua-Shou

    2014-06-01

    Six trace metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Mn) and 2 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), were analyzed in 43 representative tea products (including 18 green, 12 Oolong, and 13 black teas) from 7 main tea production provinces in China, using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer for trace metals analysis and HPLC-MS/MS for PFOS and PFOA analysis. The average contents of the 3 essential metals Mn, Cu, and Zn ions in the tea samples were 629.74, 17.75, and 37.38 mg/kg, whereas 3 toxic metals Cd, Cr, and Pb were 0.65, 1.02, and 1.92 mg/kg, respectively. The contents of heavy metals in the 3 types of tea were in the order of black tea > Oolong tea > green tea. Both PFOS and PFOA contents were low and PFOA content was higher than PFOS in the tea samples. The highest concentration of PFOA was 0.25 ng/g dry weight found in a Hunan green tea. The Principal component analysis was performed with the trace metals and PFCs to analyze the relationships of these indices. The results showed that black teas had higher trace metals and PFCs than green and Oolong teas, and the teas from Hunan and Zhejiang provinces had higher Pb and Cr than others. This paper reports trace metals, and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in wide range of tea products produced in the south China area. This paper also warns the low PFOS and PFOA pollution in tea. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Industrial recovered-materials-utilization targets for the metals and metal-products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-03-01

    The National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978 directs DOE to set targets for increased utilization of energy-saving recovered materials for certain industries. These targets are to be established at levels representing the maximum feasible increase in utilization of recovered materials that can be achieved progressively by January 1, 1987 and is consistent with technical and economic factors. A benefit to be derived from the increased use of recoverable materials is in energy savings, as state in the Act. Therefore, emhasis on different industries in the metals sector has been related to their energy consumption. The ferrous industry (iron and steel, ferrour foundries and ferralloys), as defined here, accounts for approximately 3%, and all others for the remaining 3%. Energy consumed in the lead and zinc segments is less than 1% each. Emphasis is placed on the ferrous scrap users, followed by the aluminum and copper industries. A bibliography with 209 citations is included.

  2. Engineering bacterial biopolymers for the biosorption of heavy metals; new products and novel formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutnick, D.L.; Bach, H. [Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel). Dept. of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology

    2000-07-01

    Bioremediation of heavy metal pollution remains a major challenge in environmental biotechnology. One of the approaches considered for application involves biosorption either to biomass or to isolated biopolymers. Many bacterial polysaccharides have been shown to bind heavy metals with varying degrees of specificity and affinity. While various approaches have been adopted to generate polysaccharide variants altered in both structure and activity, metal biosorption has not been examined. Polymer engineering has included structural modification through the introduction of heterologous genes of the biosynthetic pathway into specific mutants, leading either to alterations in polysaccharide backbone or side chains, or to sugar modification. In addition, novel formulations can be designed which enlarge the family of available bacterial biopolymers for metal-binding and subsequent recovery. An example discussed here is the use of amphipathic bioemulsifiers such as emulsan, produced by the oil-degrading Acinetobacter lwoffii RAG-1, that forms stable, concentrated (70%), oil-in-water emulsions (emulsanosols). In this system metal ions bind primarily at the oil/water interface, enabling their recovery and concentration from relatively dilute solutions. In addition to the genetic modifications described above, a new approach to the generation of amphipathic bioemulsifying formulations is based on the interaction of native or recombinant esterase and its derivatives with emulsan and other water-soluble biopolymers. Cation-binding emulsions are generated from a variety of hydrophobic substrates. The features of these and other systems will be discussed, together with a brief consideratiton of possible applications. (orig.)

  3. Antimicrobial resistance and its association with tolerance to heavy metals in agriculture production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhongyi; Gunn, Lynda; Wall, Patrick; Fanning, Séamus

    2017-06-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a recognized public health challenge that since its emergence limits the therapeutic options available to veterinarians and clinicians alike, when treatment is warranted. This development is further compounded by the paucity of new antibiotics. The agri-food industry benefits from the availability of antimicrobial compounds for food-animal production and crop protection. Nonetheless, their improper use can result in the selection for bacteria that are phenotypically resistant to these compounds. Another class of agents used in agriculture includes various cationic metals that can be included in animal diets as nutritional supplements or spread on pastures to support crop growth and protection. Heavy metals, in particular, are giving rise to concerns among public health professionals, as they can persist in the environment remaining stable for prolonged periods. Moreover, bacteria can also exhibit resistance to these chemical elements and the genes encoding this phenotype can be physically localized to plasmids that may also contain one or more antimicrobial resistance-encoding gene(s). This paper reviews our current understanding of the role that bacteria play in expressing resistance to heavy metals. It will describe how heavy metals are used in agri-food production, and explore evidence available to link resistance to heavy metals and antimicrobial compounds. In addition, possible solutions to reduce the impact of heavy metal resistance are also discussed, including using organic minerals and reducing the level of trace minerals in animal feed rations.

  4. Commercial Production of Heavy Metal Fluoride Glass Fiber in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1998-01-01

    International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) will provide a platform not only for materials research but also a possible means to produce products in space which cannot be easily produced on the ground. Some products may even be superior to those now produced in unit gravity due to the lack of gravity induced convection effects. Our research with ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF (ZBLAN glass) has shown that gravity does indeed play a major role in the crystallization behavior of this material. At the present time ZBLAN is being produced on earth in fiber optic form for use in surgical lasers and fiber optic lasers among other applications. High attenuation coefficients, however, have kept this material from being used in other applications such as long haul data transmission links. The high attenuation coefficients are due to impurities which can be removed through improved processing techniques and crystals which can only be removed or prevented from forming by processing in a reduced gravity environment.

  5. Enabling graphene nanoelectronics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei; Ohta, Taisuke; Biedermann, Laura Butler; Gutierrez, Carlos; Nolen, C. M.; Howell, Stephen Wayne; Beechem Iii, Thomas Edwin; McCarty, Kevin F.; Ross, Anthony Joseph, III

    2011-09-01

    Recent work has shown that graphene, a 2D electronic material amenable to the planar semiconductor fabrication processing, possesses tunable electronic material properties potentially far superior to metals and other standard semiconductors. Despite its phenomenal electronic properties, focused research is still required to develop techniques for depositing and synthesizing graphene over large areas, thereby enabling the reproducible mass-fabrication of graphene-based devices. To address these issues, we combined an array of growth approaches and characterization resources to investigate several innovative and synergistic approaches for the synthesis of high quality graphene films on technologically relevant substrate (SiC and metals). Our work focused on developing the fundamental scientific understanding necessary to generate large-area graphene films that exhibit highly uniform electronic properties and record carrier mobility, as well as developing techniques to transfer graphene onto other substrates.

  6. The effect of metal chelators on the production of hydroxyl radicals in thylakoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyrychová, Iva; Pospísil, Pavel; Naus, Jan

    2006-06-01

    The effect of metal chelators (EDTA, DTPA and Desferal) on the metal-catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide was studied using EPR spin-trapping spectroscopy. The formation of hydroxyl radicals (OH*) in both chemical (Fenton reaction) and biological (thylakoids) systems was stimulated by EDTA. DTPA promoted the generation of OH* in the presence of strong reducing agents, whereas in their absence it acted as an antioxidant. Desferal suppressed OH* production even in the presence of reductants. In our study, we have shown that metal chelators can both stimulate and suppress the formation of OH*, depending on the experimental conditions. In illuminated thylakoids we have observed prooxidant effect of EDTA and DTPA, possibly due to their reduction by some component of the electron transport chain. According to our results, metal chelators should not be used as antioxidants without prior testing of their effect in given samples.

  7. Physics of Galactic Metals: Evolutionary Effects due to Production, Distribution, Feedback & Interaction with Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Ena; Naab, Thorsten; Somerville, Rachel S; Hirschmann, Michaela; Núñez, Alejandro; Hu, Chia-Yu; Oser, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    We ask how the inclusion of various physical heating processes due to the metal content of gas affect the evolution of massive galaxies and compute a suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations that follow these systems and their supermassive black holes. We use a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code with a pressure-entropy formulation and a more accurate treatment of the metal production, turbulent diffusion and cooling rate based on individual element abundances. The feedback models include (1) AGN feedback via high velocity BAL winds and Compton/photoionization heating, (2) explicit stellar feedback from multiple processes including powerful winds from supernova events, stellar winds from young massive stars and AGB stars as well as radiative heating within Stromgren spheres around massive stars, and (3) additional heating effects due to the presence of metals including grain photoelectric heating, metallicity dependent X-ray heating by nearby accreting black holes and from the cosmic X-ray background...

  8. Evaluation on Heavy Metal Pollution of Soil in Pollution-free Agricultural Product Bases in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minjun; DENG; Yan; LUO

    2014-01-01

    Using data of 6 pollution-free agricultural product bases in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region,this paper analyzed content of heavy metals,including arsenic(As),mercury(Hg),lead(Pb),cadmium(Cd),and chromium(Cr) in soil.After Pb,Cd,Cr,Hg and As content in soil is determined,it evaluated the pollution of soil using single factor pollution index method and Nemerow synthetic pollution index method in combination with evaluation standard of heavy metals in soil and grading standard for soil pollution.Analysis results indicate that As,Hg,Pb,Cd,Cr content is different in pollution-free agricultural product bases,but all conform to related standards and there is no standard exceeding problem.It is concluded that the quality of soil in pollution-free agricultural product bases is excellent,not polluted and completely meet requirements of evaluation standards,and suitable for developing pollution-free agricultural products.

  9. Investigation of cadmium pollution in the spruce saplings near the metal production factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyed Armin; Farajpour, Ghasem

    2016-02-01

    Toxic metals such as lead and cadmium are among the pollutants that are created by the metal production factories and disseminated in the nature. In order to study the quantity of cadmium pollution in the environment of the metal production factories, 50 saplings of the spruce species at the peripheries of the metal production factories were examined and the samples of the leaves, roots, and stems of saplings planted around the factory and the soil of the environment of the factory were studied to investigate pollution with cadmium. They were compared to the soil and saplings of the spruce trees planted outside the factory as observer region. The results showed that the quantity of pollution in the leaves, stems, and roots of the trees planted inside the factory environment were estimated at 1.1, 1.5, and 2.5 mg/kg, respectively, and this indicated a significant difference with the observer region (p pollution with cadmium in the region has been influenced by the production processes in the factory.

  10. ASSESSING SPECIATION AND RELEASE OF HEAVY METALS FROM COAL COMBUSTION PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the speciation of heavy metals such as arsenic, selenium, lead, zinc and mercury in coal combustion products (CCPs) was evaluated using sequential extraction procedures. Coal fly ash, bottom ash and flue gas desulphurization (FGD) sludge samples were used in the ex...

  11. Investigation of the hydrogen neutrals in a discharge source used for production of metal hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhinova, I.; Iordanova, S.; Pashov, A.

    2016-03-01

    The paper discusses the possible mechanisms for production of metal hydrides (MH) in a DC discharge source. The results of different experiments suggest that the molecules are sputtered directly from the surface of the cathode, where they are formed after adsorption of atomic hydrogen. This hypothesis allows one to understand the operation of the source studied and to optimize its working conditions.

  12. Mercury and cadmium trigger expression of the copper importer Ctr1B, which enables Drosophila to thrive on heavy metal-loaded food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, Kuppusamy; Hua, Haiqing; Georgiev, Oleg; Schaffner, Walter

    2009-02-01

    Organisms from insects to mammals respond to heavy metal load (copper, zinc, cadmium, and mercury) by activating the metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF-1). MTF-1 binds to short DNA sequence motifs, termed metal response elements, and boosts transcription of a number of genes, notably those for metallothioneins. In Drosophila, MTF-1 somewhat counter-intuitively also activates transcription of a copper importer gene (Ctr1B) in response to copper starvation. Here, we report that mutant flies lacking Ctr1B are extremely sensitive to cadmium and mercury treatment, but can be rescued by excess copper in the food. We thus propose that copper, by competing for binding sites on cellular proteins, alleviates the toxic effects of mercury and cadmium. Such a scenario also explains a seemingly fortuitous metal response, namely, that cadmium and mercury strongly induce the expression of a Ctr1B reporter gene. Thus, the transcription enhancer/promoter region of the Ctr1B copper importer gene is subject to three modes of regulation. All of them depend on MTF-1 and all make biological sense, namely, (i) induction by copper starvation, (ii) repression by copper abundance, and (iii), as shown here, induction by cadmium or mercury at normal copper supply.

  13. Supramolecular metal-organic frameworks that display high homogeneous and heterogeneous photocatalytic activity for H2 production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jia; Xu, Zi-Yue; Zhang, Dan-Wei; Wang, Hui; Xie, Song-Hai; Xu, Da-Wen; Ren, Yuan-Hang; Wang, Hao; Liu, Yi; Li, Zhan-Ting

    2016-05-01

    Self-assembly has a unique presence when it comes to creating complicated, ordered supramolecular architectures from simple components under mild conditions. Here, we describe a self-assembly strategy for the generation of the first homogeneous supramolecular metal-organic framework (SMOF-1) in water at room temperature from a hexaarmed [Ru(bpy)3]2+-based precursor and cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]). The solution-phase periodicity of this cubic transition metal-cored supramolecular organic framework (MSOF) is confirmed by small-angle X-ray scattering and diffraction experiments, which, as supported by TEM imaging, is commensurate with the periodicity in the solid state. We further demonstrate that SMOF-1 adsorbs anionic Wells-Dawson-type polyoxometalates (WD-POMs) in a one-cage-one-guest manner to give WD-POM@SMOF-1 hybrid assemblies. Upon visible-light (500 nm) irradiation, such hybrids enable fast multi-electron injection from photosensitive [Ru(bpy)3]2+ units to redox-active WD-POM units, leading to efficient hydrogen production in aqueous media and in organic media. The demonstrated strategy opens the door for the development of new classes of liquid-phase and solid-phase ordered porous materials.

  14. H2 production with low CO selectivity from photocatalytic reforming of glucose on metal/TiO2 catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    H2 with low CO concentration is produced via photocatalytic reforming of glucose (as a representative of biomass component) on metal/TiO2 catalyst (metals: Pt, Rh, Ru, Ir, Au, Ni, Cu). It is shown that the loaded metals generally enhance the rate of H2 production, while they depress the CO selectivity. Both H2 production and CO selectivity are strongly dependent on the kind of deposited metals on TiO2. For example, Rh/TiO2 catalyst is found to be most active for H2 production while with the most extremely low CO concentration from the photocatalytic reforming of glucose.

  15. A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing Part I: System Analysis, Component Identification, Additive Manufacturing, and Testing of Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Haller, William J.; Poinsatte, Philip E.; Halbig, Michael C.; Schnulo, Sydney L.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Weir, Don; Wali, Natalie; Vinup, Michael; Jones, Michael G.; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Tom; Mehl, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The research and development activities reported in this publication were carried out under NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI) funded project entitled "A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing." The objective of the project was to conduct evaluation of emerging materials and manufacturing technologies that will enable fully nonmetallic gas turbine engines. The results of the activities are described in three part report. The first part of the report contains the data and analysis of engine system trade studies, which were carried out to estimate reduction in engine emissions and fuel burn enabled due to advanced materials and manufacturing processes. A number of key engine components were identified in which advanced materials and additive manufacturing processes would provide the most significant benefits to engine operation. The technical scope of activities included an assessment of the feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies to fabricate gas turbine engine components from polymer and ceramic matrix composites, which were accomplished by fabricating prototype engine components and testing them in simulated engine operating conditions. The manufacturing process parameters were developed and optimized for polymer and ceramic composites (described in detail in the second and third part of the report). A number of prototype components (inlet guide vane (IGV), acoustic liners, engine access door) were additively manufactured using high temperature polymer materials. Ceramic matrix composite components included turbine nozzle components. In addition, IGVs and acoustic liners were tested in simulated engine conditions in test rigs. The test results are reported and discussed in detail.

  16. Method of manufacturing metallic products such as sheet by cold working and flash annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Midlothian, VA); Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A metallic alloy composition is manufactured into products such as press formed or stamped products or rolled products such as sheet, strip, rod, wire or band by one or more cold working steps with intermediate or final flash annealing. The method can include cold rolling an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide alloy and annealing the cold worked product in a furnace by infrared heating. The flash annealing is preferably carried out by rapidly heating the cold worked product to an elevated temperature for less than one minute. The flash annealing is effective to reduce surface hardness of the cold worked product sufficiently to allow further cold working. The product to be cold worked can be prepared by casting the alloy or by a powder metallurgical technique such as tape casting a mixture of metal powder and a binder, roll compacting a mixture of the powder and a binder or plasma spraying the powder onto a substrate. In the case of tape casting or roll compaction, the initial powder product can be heated to a temperature sufficient to remove volatile components. The method can be used to form a cold rolled sheet which is formed into an electrical resistance heating element capable of heating to 900.degree. C. in less than 1 second when a voltage up to 10 volts and up to 6 amps is passed through the heating element.

  17. Method of manufacturing metallic products such as sheet by cold working and flash anealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2001-01-01

    A metallic alloy composition is manufactured into products such as press formed or stamped products or rolled products such as sheet, strip, rod, wire or band by one or more cold working steps with intermediate or final flash annealing. The method can include cold rolling an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide alloy and annealing the cold worked product in a furnace by infrared heating. The flash annealing is preferably carried out by rapidly heating the cold worked product to an elevated temperature for less than one minute. The flash annealing is effective to reduce surface hardness of the cold worked product sufficiently to allow further cold working. The product to be cold worked can be prepared by casting the alloy or by a powder metallurgical technique such as tape casting a mixture of metal powder and a binder, roll compacting a mixture of the powder and a binder or plasma spraying the powder onto a substrate. In the case of tape casting or roll compaction, the initial powder product can be heated to a temperature sufficient to remove volatile components. The method can be used to form a cold rolled sheet which is formed into an electrical resistance heating element capable of heating to 900.degree. C. in less than 1 second when a voltage up to 10 volts and up to 6 amps is passed through the heating element.

  18. Removal of PCR error products and unincorporated primers by metal-chelate affinity chromatography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indhu Kanakaraj

    Full Text Available Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography (IMAC has been used for decades to purify proteins on the basis of amino acid content, especially surface-exposed histidines and "histidine tags" genetically added to recombinant proteins. We and others have extended the use of IMAC to purification of nucleic acids via interactions with the nucleotide bases, especially purines, of single-stranded RNA and DNA. We also have demonstrated the purification of plasmid DNA from contaminating genomic DNA by IMAC capture of selectively-denatured genomic DNA. Here we describe an efficient method of purifying PCR products by specifically removing error products, excess primers, and unincorporated dNTPs from PCR product mixtures using flow-through metal-chelate affinity adsorption. By flowing a PCR product mixture through a Cu(2+-iminodiacetic acid (IDA agarose spin column, 94-99% of the dNTPs and nearly all the primers can be removed. Many of the error products commonly formed by Taq polymerase also are removed. Sequencing of the IMAC-processed PCR product gave base-calling accuracy comparable to that obtained with a commercial PCR product purification method. The results show that IMAC matrices (specifically Cu(2+-IDA agarose can be used for the purification of PCR products. Due to the generality of the base-specific mechanism of adsorption, IMAC matrices may also be used in the purification of oligonucleotides, cDNA, mRNA and micro RNAs.

  19. Technology Development and Production of Certain Chemical Platinum Metals Compounds at JSC "Krastsvetmet"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ILYASHEVICH V.D.; PAVLOVA E.I.; KORITSKAYA N.G.; MAMONOV S.N.; SHULGIN D.R.; MALTSEV E.V.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years JSC "Krastsvetmet" has successfully developed the production of chemically pure compounds of precious metals.Currently methods have been developed and facilities have been provided for industrial production of the following platinum metals compounds:- Rhodium (Ⅲ) chloride hydrate,rhodium (Ⅲ) chloride solution,rhodium ( Ⅲ) nitrate solution,rhodium ( Ⅲ)iodide,rhodium ( Ⅲ) sulfate,hydrated rhodium ( Ⅲ) oxide,ammonium hexachlororodiate,rhodium ( Ⅲ)phosphate solution,rhodium electrolytes;Iridium (Ⅳ) chloride hydrate,iridium (Ⅲ) chloride hydrate,ammonium hexachloroiridate (Ⅳ),hexachloriridium acid solution,hexachloriridium crystalline acid;- Ruthenium (Ⅲ) chloride hydrate,ruthenium (Ⅳ) hydroxide chloride,ruthenium (Ⅳ) hydroxide chloride solution,ammonium hexachlororuthenate,ruthenium (Ⅲ) chloride solution,potassium,diaquaoctachloronitrido diruthenate.The quality of the production meets the requirements of Russian and foreign consumers.

  20. Health risk assessment of workers exposed to metals from an aluminium production plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranatrevedh, Surasak

    2010-12-01

    Foundry is an industry involved various kinds of metals and chemicals. Workers who work in foundry industry are at risk of exposure to these metals and chemicals. Objective of this study was to conduct quantitative health risk assessment for workers who exposed to metals from an aluminium production industry. The U.S. National Academy of Sciences' four steps of health risk assessment were used to conduct quantitative health risk assessment in this study. This study showed that there were 6 types of metals involved in the aluminium foundry in this study. These metals could cause various health effects but not cancers. Workers were mostly exposed to these metals by inhalation. Calculated reference dose (RfD) for inhalation of aluminium used in this assessment was 0.000015 mg/kg/day. Calculated RID for inhalation of manganese used in this assessment was 0.000002 mg/kg/day. Calculated RfD for inhalation of copper used in this assessment was 0.000028 mg/kg/day. Calculated RID for inhalation of zinc used in this assessment was 0.000083 mg/ kg/day. Calculated RID for inhalation of magnesium used in this assessment was 0.949833 mg/kg/day. Calculated RID for inhalation of iron used in this assessment was 10.6219 mg/kg/day. Maximum daily doses (MDDs) for workers who exposed to metals measured in this foundry were 0, 0, 0.000463, 0.0000927, 0.000162 and 0 mg/kg/day for manganese, zinc, aluminium, iron, magnesium and copper, respectively. Finally, risk characterization for workers exposed to metals in this aluminium foundry showed that workers in this foundry had 31 times higher risk of developing diseases from aluminium than persons who were not exposed to aluminium. These workers had the same risk of developing diseases from other metals and chemicals as persons who were not exposed to those metals and chemicals. Workers who exposed to aluminium in this aluminium production plant had 31 times risk of developing non-carcinogenic effects from aluminium compared with normal

  1. Evolution of thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch stars - III. Dust production at supersolar metallicities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanni, Ambra; Bressan, Alessandro; Marigo, Paola; Girardi, Léo

    2014-03-01

    We extend the formalism presented in our recent calculations of dust ejecta from the Thermally Pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch (TP-AGB) phase to the case of super-solar metallicity stars. The TP-AGB evolutionary models are computed with the COLIBRI code. We adopt our preferred scheme for dust growth. For M-giants, we neglect chemisputtering by H2 molecules and for C-stars we assume a homogeneous growth scheme which is primarily controlled by the carbon over oxygen excess. At super-solar metallicities, dust forms more efficiently and silicates tend to condense significantly closer to the photosphere (r ˜ 1.5R*) - and thus at higher temperatures and densities - than at solar and sub-solar metallicities (r ˜ 2-3R*). In such conditions, the hypothesis of thermal decoupling between gas and dust becomes questionable, while dust heating due to collisions plays an important role. The heating mechanism delays dust condensation to slightly outer regions in the circumstellar envelope. We find that the same mechanism is not significant at solar and sub-solar metallicities. The main dust products at super-solar metallicities are silicates. We calculate the total dust ejecta and dust-to-gas ejecta, for various values of the stellar initial masses and initial metallicities Z = 0.04, 0.06. Merging these new calculations with those for lower metallicities it turns out that, contrary to what is often assumed, the total dust-to-gas ejecta of intermediate-mass stars exhibit only a weak dependence on the initial metal content.

  2. Impact of toxic heavy metals and pesticide residues in herbal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nema S. Shaban

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have a long history of use in therapy throughout the world and still make an important part of traditional medicine. The World Health Organization (WHO estimates that 65%–80% of the world's populations depend on the herbal products as their primary form of health care. This review is conducted to provide a general idea about chemical contaminants such as heavy metals and pesticide residues as major common contaminants of the herbal medicine, which impose serious health risks to human health. Additionally, we aim to provide different analytical methods for analysis of heavy metals and pesticide residues in the herbal medicine.

  3. Regional models of metal production in Western Asia in the Chalcolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avilova, Liudmila

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is the reconstruction and comparative analysis of regional models of metal production in the Chalcolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Ages. The work is based on the statistical analysis of unique computer database on archaeological metal finds from four regions of the Near East: Anatolia, Mesopotamia, the Levant, and Iran. The materials are analysed by four indicators: distribution by the chronological periods, artefacts’ function, proportion of used metals and copper- based alloys. The author presents a series of conclusions concerning the preconditions for the beginnings of metal production in Western Asia and the pioneering role of Iran in its emergence, the important role the piedmont territories played in the development of metal production, the leap-like pattern of production dynamics shown by the periods, and its relation to the spread of a producing economy, long-distance exchange, and the emergence of the early civilizations.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es la reconstrucción y análisis comparativo de modelos regionales de producción metalúrgica del Calcolítico y la Edad del Bronce Inicial y Media. Se basa en el análisis estadístico de una base de datos única sobre hallazgos metálicos de cuatro regiones del Próximo Oriente: Anatolia, Mesopotamia, el Levante e Irán. Los materiales se analizan atendiendo a cuatro variables: períodos cronológicos, función de los artefactos, proporción de los metales usados y las distintas aleaciones del cobre. La autora aporta una serie de conclusiones respecto a las precondiciones para los inicios de la producción metalúrgica en el Oeste Asiático; sobre el papel pionero de Irán en su aparición; la importancia de los piedemontes en su desarrollo; el patrón no continuo que se observa en las dinámicas de producción por periodos; y su relación con la expansión de la economía de producción, el intercambio a larga distancia y la aparición de las

  4. A New Process for Hot Metal Production at Low Fuel Rate - Phase 1 Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Wei-Kao Lu

    2006-02-01

    The project is part of the continuing effort by the North American steel industry to develop a coal-based, cokeless process for hot metal production. The objective of Phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of designing and constructing a pilot scale facility with the capacity of 42,000 mtpy of direct reduced iron (DRI) with 95% metallization. The primary effort is performed by Bricmont, Inc., an international engineering firm, under the supervision of McMaster University. The study focused on the Paired Straight Hearth furnace concept developed previously by McMaster University, The American Iron and Steel Institute and the US Department of Energy.

  5. Titanium: the innovators metal. Historical case studies tracing titanium process and product innovation [Conference paper

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, SJ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available . Advanced Metals Initiative Light Metals Conference 2010 SJ Oosthuizen Page 11 In what has been dubbed the Starbucks Effect30, it has been observed that a trendy product can benefit the greater market segment. The 1990s subsequently saw rapid....edu/ESHIP/outreach-events/Ely-R-Callaway.cfm [Accessed: 12-04- 2009] 29. Callaway Golf Company. 2009. [Online] Available from: http://www.callawaygolf.com/Global/en-US.html [Accessed: 12-04-2009] 30. Vishwanath, V. & Harding, D. 2000. The Starbucks Effect. Harvard business review, Vol 18, Pp. 17...

  6. Fission product release phenomena during core melt accidents in metal fueled heavy water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, P G; Hyder, M L; Monson, P R; Randolph, H W [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (USA); Hagrman, D L [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA); McClure, P R; Leonard, M T [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA)

    1990-01-01

    The phenomena that determine fission product release rates from a core melting accident in a metal-fueled, heavy water reactor are described in this paper. This information is obtained from the analysis of the current metal fuel experimental data base and from the results of analytical calculations. Experimental programs in place at the Savannah River Site are described that will provide information to resolve uncertainties in the data base. The results of the experiments will be incorporated into new severe accident computer codes recently developed for this reactor design. 47 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Enabling the Usability of Earth Science Data Products and Services by Evaluating, Describing, and Improving Data Quality throughout the Data Lifecycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, R. R.; Peng, G.; Wei, Y.; Ramapriyan, H.; Moroni, D. F.

    2015-12-01

    Earth science data products and services are being used by representatives of various science and social science disciplines, by planning and decision-making professionals, by educators and learners ranging from primary through graduate and informal education, and by the general public. The diversity of users and uses of Earth science data is gratifying and offers new challenges for enabling the usability of these data by audiences with various purposes and levels of expertise. Users and other stakeholders need capabilities to efficiently find, explore, select, and determine the applicability and suitability of data products and services to meet their objectives and information needs. Similarly, they need to be able to understand the limitations of Earth science data, which can be complex, especially when considering combined or simultaneous use of multiple data products and services. Quality control efforts of stakeholders, throughout the data lifecycle, can contribute to the usability of Earth science data to meet the needs of diverse users. Such stakeholders include study design teams, data producers, data managers and curators, archives, systems professionals, data distributors, end-users, intermediaries, sponsoring organizations, hosting institutions, and others. Opportunities for engaging stakeholders to review, describe, and improve the quality of Earth science data products and services throughout the data lifecycle are identified and discussed. Insight is shared from the development of guidelines for implementing the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Data Management Principles, the recommendations from the Earth Science Data System Working Group (ESDSWG) on Data Quality, and the efforts of the Information Quality Cluster of the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP). Examples and outcomes from quality control efforts of data facilities, such as scientific data centers, that contribute to the usability of Earth science data also are offered.

  8. Specific interaction between hnRNP H and HPV16 L1 proteins: Implications for late gene auto-regulation enabling rapid viral capsid protein production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Zi-Zheng; Sun, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Min; Huang, Hui [National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ning-Shao [National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Miao, Ji, E-mail: jmiao@xmu.edu.cn [National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Zhao, Qinjian, E-mail: qinjian_zhao@xmu.edu.cn [National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2013-01-18

    Highlights: ► The RNA-binding hnRNP H regulates late viral gene expression. ► hnRNP H activity was inhibited by a late viral protein. ► Specific interaction between HPV L1 and hnRNP H was demonstrated. ► Co-localization of HPV L1 and hnRNP H inside cells was observed. ► Viral capsid protein production, enabling rapid capsid assembly, was implicated. -- Abstract: Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), including hnRNP H, are RNA-binding proteins that function as splicing factors and are involved in downstream gene regulation. hnRNP H, which binds to G triplet regions in RNA, has been shown to play an important role in regulating the staged expression of late proteins in viral systems. Here, we report that the specific association between hnRNP H and a late viral capsid protein, human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 protein, leads to the suppressed function of hnRNP H in the presence of the L1 protein. The direct interaction between the L1 protein and hnRNP H was demonstrated by complex formation in solution and intracellularly using a variety of biochemical and immunochemical methods, including peptide mapping, specific co-immunoprecipitation and confocal fluorescence microscopy. These results support a working hypothesis that a late viral protein HPV16 L1, which is down regulated by hnRNP H early in the viral life cycle may provide an auto-regulatory positive feedback loop that allows the rapid production of HPV capsid proteins through suppression of the function of hnRNP H at the late stage of the viral life cycle. In this positive feedback loop, the late viral gene products that were down regulated earlier themselves disable their suppressors, and this feedback mechanism could facilitate the rapid production of capsid proteins, allowing staged and efficient viral capsid assembly.

  9. Stochastic optimization of mine production scheduling with uncertain ore/metal/waste supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leite Andre; Dimitrakopoulos Roussos

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of long-term mine production scheduling in open pit mines deals with the management of cash flows, typically in the order of hundreds of millions of dollars. Conventional mine scheduling utilizes optimization methods that are not capable of accounting for inherent technical uncertainties such as uncertainty in the expected ore/metal supply from the underground, acknowledged to be the most critical factor. To integrate ore/metal uncertainty into the optimization of mine production scheduling a stochastic integer programming (SIP) formulation is tested at a copper deposit. The stochastic solution maximizes the economic value of a project and minimizes deviations from production targets in the pres-ence of ore/metal uncertainty. Unlike the conventional approach, the SIP model accounts and manages risk in ore supply, leading to a mine production schedule with a 29%higher net present value than the schedule obtained from the conventional, industry-standard optimization approach, thus contributing to improving the management and sustainable utilization of mineral resources.

  10. Irving-Williams Order in the Framework of Connectivity Index 3χv Enables Simultaneous Prediction of Stability Constants of Bivalent Transition Metal Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Miličević

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Logarithms of stability constants, log K1 and log β2, of the first transition series metal mono- and bis-complexes with any of four aliphatic amino acids (glycine, alanine, valine and leucine decrease monotonously with third order valence connectivity index, 3χv, from Cu2+ to Mn2+. While stability of the complexes with the same metal is linearly dependent on 3χv, stability constants of Mn2+, Fe2+, Co2+, and Ni2+complexes with the same ligand show a quadratic dependence on 3χv. As Cu2+ complexes deviate significantly from quadratic functions, models for the simultaneous estimation of the stability constants, yielding r = 0.999 (S.E. = 0.05 and r = 0.998 (S.E. = 0.11, for log K1 and log β2, respectively, were developed only for Mn2+, Fe2+, Co2+, and Ni2+ complexes with amino acids.

  11. Reconstruction of a high-quality metabolic model enables the identification of gene overexpression targets for enhanced antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsuk; Sang Yi, Jeong; Kim, Joonwon; Kim, Ji-Nu; Kim, Min Woo; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2014-09-01

    Streptomycetes are industrially and pharmaceutically important bacteria that produce a variety of secondary metabolites including antibiotics. Streptomycetes have a complex metabolic network responsible for the production of secondary metabolites and the utilization of organic residues present in soil. In this study, we reconstructed a high-quality metabolic model for Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), designated iMK1208, in order to understand and engineer the metabolism of this model species. In comparison to iIB711, the previous metabolic model for S. coelicolor, the predictive power of iMK1208 was enhanced by the recent insights that enabled the incorporation of an updated biomass equation, stoichiometric matrix, and energetic parameters. iMK1208 was validated by comparing predictions with the experimental data for growth capability in various growth media. Furthermore, we applied a strain-design algorithm, flux scanning based on enforced objective flux (FSEOF), to iMK1208 for actinorhodin overproduction. FSEOF results identified not only previously known gene overexpression targets such as actII-ORF4 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase, but also novel targets such as branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCDH). We constructed and evaluated the BCDH overexpression mutant, which showed a 52-fold increase in actinorhodin production, validating the prediction power of iMK1208. Hence iMK1208 was shown to be a useful and valuable framework for studying the biotechnologically important Streptomyces species using the principles of systems biology and metabolic engineering.

  12. Carbon-rich dust production in metal-poor galaxies in the Local Group

    CERN Document Server

    Sloan, G C; Lagadec, E; van Loon, J Th; Kraemer, K E; McDonald, I; Groenewegen, M A T; Wood, P R; Bernard-Salas, J; Zijlstra, A A

    2012-01-01

    We have observed a sample of 19 carbon stars in the Sculptor, Carina, Fornax, and Leo I dwarf spheroidal galaxies with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The spectra show significant quantities of dust around the carbon stars in Sculptor, Fornax, and Leo I, but little in Carina. Previous comparisons of carbon stars with similar pulsation properties in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds revealed no evidence that metallicity affected the production of dust by carbon stars. However, the more metal-poor stars in the current sample appear to be generating less dust. These data extend two known trends to lower metallicities. In more metal-poor samples, the SiC dust emission weakens, while the acetylene absorption strengthens. The bolometric magnitudes and infrared spectral properties of the carbon stars in Fornax are consistent with metallicities more similar to carbon stars in the Magellanic Clouds than in the other dwarf spheroidals in our sample. A study of the carbon budget in these sta...

  13. Environmental Benign Process for Production of Molybdenum Metal from Sulphide Based Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Priyanka; Janakiram, Vangada; Jayasankar, Kalidoss; Angadi, Shivakumar; Bhoi, Bhagyadhar; Mukherjee, Partha Sarathi

    2017-02-01

    Molybdenum is a strategic and high temperature refractory metal which is not found in nature in free state, it is predominantly found in earth's crust in the form of MoO3/MoS2. The main disadvantage of the industrial treatment of Mo concentrate is that the process contains many stages and requires very high temperature. Almost in every step many gaseous, liquid, solid chemical substances are formed which require further treatment. To overcome the above drawback, a new alternative one step novel process is developed for the treatment of sulphide and trioxide molybdenum concentrates. This paper presents the results of the investigations on molybdenite dissociation (MoS2) using microwave assisted plasma unit as well as transferred arc thermal plasma torch. It is a single step process for the preparation of pure molybdenum metal from MoS2 by hydrogen reduction in thermal plasma. Process variable such as H2 gas, Ar gas, input current, voltage and time have been examined to prepare molybdenum metal. Molybdenum recovery of the order of 95% was achieved. The XRD results confirm the phases of molybdenum metal and the chemical analysis of the end product indicate the formation of metallic molybdenum (Mo 98%).

  14. Direct growth of carbon nanotubes on metal surfaces without an external catalyst and nanocomposite production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddour, Carole Emilie

    The research work presented in this thesis deals with carbon nanotubes (CNTs), an allotrope of carbon with a cylindrical structure consisting of a rolled up graphene sheet. CNTs are generally produced by the decomposition of a carbon source in the presence of a metal catalyst at elevated temperatures. CNTs have outstanding properties and have attracted immense attention in both industry and academia. However, the development of commercial applications of CNTs is slow due to limitations in the large scale production of CNTs and their high cost. Another limitation is the interface resistance generated by external catalyst nanoparticles used in traditional CNT growth methods. In order to eliminate the interface resistance and simultaneously provide CNT growth over large surfaces and varying geometries, a method called direct CNT growth is established to enable the extraction of the CNT structure directly from the metal surface. The novel process for the production of CNTs developed in the present thesis is applied to planar surfaces and spherical particles made of stainless steel (SS) 304. The method is based on the establishment of nanometer scale structures at the surface which act as catalyst nanoparticles while at the same time being integral parts of the material. It uses first a mild chemical etching of the surface, followed by a specific heat treatment performed using either standard chemical vapour deposition (standard-CVD) or fluidized bed CVD (FBCVD) techniques. Acetylene (C2H2) is used as the carbon source and SS 304 acts as both the catalyst and the substrate in the growth process. This direct CNT growth with this substrate dual function eliminates the need of external catalyst nanoparticles deposited onto the surface. The active sites necessary for CNT growth are tailored on the SS itself by means of the two-step treatment process. MWNTs of 20-70 nm in diameter are produced. The CNTs are characterized by Raman Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA

  15. From materials characterisation to pre-production validation; the role of the research centre in enabling new approaches to providing processing solutions to industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blackwell Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Centres such as the AFRC are targeted at bridging the gap between fundamental University research and the needs of industry. The paper describes some of the elements in the process of translating the products of basic scientific research into useful outcomes for industrial manufacturing companies within the metal shaping sector. This commences with a sound knowledge of material mechanical and physical properties within the relevant forming or forging window. This data will then generally be incorporated into a finite element based process model. More sophisticated models will facilitate the prediction of microstructural development during and after forming. However, such models generally still require validation, and in order for such validation to be reflective of industrial practice then full scale or close to full scale trials may be carried out. The AFRC has a range of industrial scale manufacturing equipment which allows such validation to be performed. The net effect of this is that from a manufacturer's point of view a new process may be significantly de-risked prior to introduction into a production environment. The paper will examine some of the approaches used, with specific reference to some of the specialised testing and processing equipment used to translate research into outputs useful to industry.

  16. Modification of base-side {sup 99}MO production processes for LEU metal-foil targets.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandegrift, G. F.; Leonard, R. A.; Aase, S.; Sedlet, J.; Koma, Y.; Conner, C.; Clark, C. R.; Meyer, M. K.

    1999-09-30

    Argonne National Laboratory is cooperating with the National Atomic Energy Commission of the Argentine Republic (CNEA) to convert their {sup 99}Mo production process, which uses high enriched uranium (HEU), to low-enriched uranium (LEU), The program is multifaceted; however, discussed in this paper are (1) results of laboratory experiments to develop means for substituting LEU metal-foil targets into the current process and (2) preparation of uranium-alloy or uranium-metal/aluminum-dispersion targets. Although {sup 99}Mo production is a multi-step process, the first two steps (target dissolution and primary molybdenum recovery) are by far the most important in the conversion. Commonly, once molybdenum is separated from the bulk of the uranium, the remainder of the process need not be modified. Our results show that up to this point in our study, conversion of the CNEA process to LEU appears viable.

  17. Experience in the Production of Horizontal Ingots of Platinum Metals and Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEVCHENKO S. D.; VERSHININA E. N.

    2012-01-01

    The quality of semi-products of platinum metals and alloys,produced by way of plastic working,essentially depends on or,in many cases,is completely determined by the quality of ingots.Plastic working does not make it possible to eliminate or localize metallurgical defects.In many cases it promotes the occurence thereof.Low-rate casting with directional crystallization can ensure the production of dense ingots free of non-metallic inclusions,shrinkage and gas weakness,with observance of certain temperature/rate modes.After comparative tests of vertical and horizontal molds,preference has been given to horizontal water-cooled molds,allowing to cast all alloys in the conditions of directional crystallization.

  18. Efficient production by laser materials processing integrated into metal cutting machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedmaier, M.; Meiners, E.; Dausinger, Friedrich; Huegel, Helmut

    1994-09-01

    Beam guidance of high power YAG-laser (cw, pulsed, Q-switched) with average powers up to 2000 W by flexible glass fibers facilitates the integration of the laser beam as an additional tool into metal cutting machines. Hence, technologies like laser cutting, joining, hardening, caving, structuring of surfaces and laser-marking can be applied directly inside machining centers in one setting, thereby reducing the flow of workpieces resulting in a lowering of costs and production time. Furthermore, materials with restricted machinability--especially hard materials like ceramics, hard metals or sintered alloys--can be shaped by laser-caving or laser assisted machining. Altogether, the flexibility of laser integrated machining centers is substantially increased or the efficiency of a production line is raised by time-savings or extended feasibilities with techniques like hardening, welding or caving.

  19. Development of a production scale purification of Ge-68 from irradiated gallium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzsimmons, Jonathan M.; Mausner, Leonard [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Germanium-68 (Ge-68) is produced by proton irradiation of a gallium metal target and purified by organic extraction. The Ge-68 can be used in a medical isotope generator to produce Gallium-68 (Ga-68) which can be used to radiolabel PET imaging agents. The emerging use of Ge-68 in the Ga-68 medical isotope generator has caused us to develop a new purification method for Ge-68 that does not use toxic solvents. The purpose of this work was to develop a production scale separation of Ge-68 that utilizes a leaching step to remove a bulk of the gallium metal, followed by purification with Sephadex {sup copyright} G25. Production scale (300 mCi) purification was performed with the new method. The purified Ge-68 contained the highest radioactivity concentration of Ge-68 produced at BNL; the sample meet Department of Energy specifications and the method had an excellent recovery of Ge-68.

  20. Direct-current and radio-frequency characterizations of GaAs metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors enabled by self-assembled nanodielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H. C.; Kim, S. K.; Chang, D.; Xuan, Y.; Mohammadi, S.; Ye, P. D.; Lu, G.; Facchetti, A.; Marks, T. J.

    2007-08-01

    Direct-current and radio-frequency characterizations of GaAs metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFETs) with very thin self-assembled organic nanodielectrics (SANDs) are presented. The application of SAND on compound semiconductors offers unique opportunities for high-performance devices. Thus, 1μm gate-length depletion-mode n-channel SAND/GaAs MISFETs exhibit low gate leakage current densities of 10-2-10-5A/cm2, a maximum drain current of 260mA/mm at 2V forward gate bias, and a maximum intrinsic transconductance of 127mS/mm. These devices achieve a current cutoff frequency (fT) of 10.6GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency (fmax) of 6.9GHz. Nearly hysteresis-free Ids-Vgs characteristics and low flicker noise indicate that a high-quality SAND-GaAs interface is achieved.

  1. Practical Aspects of CALS in Design and Manufacturing of Sheet Metal Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shpitalni, Moshe; Alting, Leo; Bilberg, Arne

    1998-01-01

    the CALS approach. This approach requires global observation and allows actual and current information to flow both forward and backward. This information, regardless of the specific process in which it has been generated, is used to improve the entire global process. This paper is concerned...... with the design and manufacture of sheet metal parts. It is demonstrated that through implementation of the CALS approach, the overall process can be optimised and products can be manufactured significantly more accurately, faster and less expensively....

  2. Removal Of Phenol From Wastewater By Using Low-Cost Catalyst From Metal Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galbičková Blanka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of AOPs (Advanced oxidation processes as an emerging technology for removing of pollutants from wastewater is developed. In this paper, UV photodegradation was used for removing of phenol from wastewater. As a source of UV radiation medium pressure mercury lamp with output 400W was used. The influence of low-cost catalysts on this process was also monitored. Wastes from metal production, red mud and black nickel mud, were used as catalysts.

  3. Solar hydrogen production with semiconductor metal oxides: new directions in experiment and theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valdes, Alvaro; Brillet, Jeremie; Graetzel, Michael

    2012-01-01

    An overview of a collaborative experimental and theoretical effort toward efficient hydrogen production via photoelectrochemical splitting of water into di-hydrogen and di-oxygen is presented here. We present state-of-the-art experimental studies using hematite and TiO2 functionalized with gold n...... nanoparticles as photoanode materials, and theoretical studies on electro and photo-catalysis of water on a range of metal oxide semiconductor materials, including recently developed implementation of self-interaction corrected energy functionals....

  4. Assessment of possibility of metal waterjet cutting wastes use in building materials production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skanavi Nataliya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at studying the composition and properties of the wastes generated during metal waterjet cutting and assessing the possibility of their use in building materials production. The essence of waterjet cutting process, waste generation mechanism, waste accumulation volumes at enterprises are described. The composition and properties of the used abradant – garnet sand is given and the features of its destruction during cutting are revealed. Waterjet cutting wastes are comprehensively studies: average and bulk density, granulometric composition, chemical composition are determined, various fractions are studied with an electronic microscope. It is revealed that during cutting abradant particles are destroyed, a large amount of dust fraction emerges with the particles of cut metal mixed into it. The metal waterjet cutting wastes are found to be very small, practically monofractive, heavy sands with a high content of dust fraction, which chemical composition is dominated by oxides of iron, silicon and aluminum. This characteristic of the wastes has allowed us to outline possible ways of how to use them: in ceramic items production as thinning agents and fluxing agents, in Portland cement production as a correcting iron-containing agent, as a mortar filler, including special mortars, as a building materials volumetric staining pigment, etc.

  5. Utilization of grasses for potential biofuel production and phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Ronald A; Kelly, William J; Satrio, Justinus A; Ruiz-Felix, M Nydia; Fetterman, Marisa; Wynn, Rodd; Hagel, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    This research focuses on investigating the use of common biofuel grasses to assess their potential as agents of long-term remediation of contaminated soils using lead as a model heavy metal ion. We present evidence demonstrating that switch grass and Timothy grass may be potentially useful for long-term phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils and describe novel techniques to track and remove contaminants from inception to useful product. Enzymatic digestion and thermochemical approaches are being used to convert this lignocellulosic feedstock into useful product (sugars, ethanol, biocrude oil+biochar). Preliminary studies on enzymatic hydrolysis and fast pyrolysis of the Switchgrass materials that were grown in heavy metal contaminated soil and non-contaminated soils show that the presence of lead in the Switchgrass material feedstock does not adversely affect the outcomes of the conversion processes. These results indicate that the modest levels of contaminant uptake allow these grass species to serve as phytoremediation agents as well as feedstocks for biofuel production in areas degraded by industrial pollution.

  6. Temperature-dependence of Threshold Current Density-Length Product in Metallization Lines: A Revisit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saptono Duryat, Rahmat; Kim, Choong-Un

    2016-04-01

    One of the important phenomena in Electromigration (EM) is Blech Effect. The existence of Threshold Current Density-Length Product or EM Threshold has such fundamental and technological consequences in the design, manufacture, and testing of electronics. Temperature-dependence of Blech Product had been thermodynamically established and the real behavior of such interconnect materials have been extensively studied. The present paper reviewed the temperature-dependence of EM threshold in metallization lines of different materials and structure as found in relevant published articles. It is expected that the reader can see a big picture from the compiled data, which might be overlooked when it was examined in pieces.

  7. SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND RATE OF PRODUCTION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER GENERATED DURING METAL CUTTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.; S.K. Dua, Ph.D., C.H.P.; Hillol Guha, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    During deactivation and decommissioning activities, thermal cutting tools, such as plasma torch, laser, and gasoline torch, are used to cut metals. These activities generate fumes, smoke and particulates. These airborne species of matter, called aerosols, may be inhaled if suitable respiratory protection is not used. Inhalation of the airborne metallic aerosols has been reported to cause ill health effects, such as acute respiratory syndrome and chromosome damage in lymphocytes. In the nuclear industry, metals may be contaminated with radioactive materials. Cutting these metals, as in size reduction of gloveboxes and tanks, produces high concentrations of airborne transuranic particles. Particles of the respirable size range (size < 10 {micro}m) deposit in various compartments of the respiratory tract, the fraction and the site in the respiratory tract depending on the size of the particles. The dose delivered to the respiratory tract depends on the size distribution of the airborne particulates (aerosols) and their concentration and radioactivity/toxicity. The concentration of airborne particulate matter in an environment is dependent upon the rate of their production and the ventilation rate. Thus, measuring aerosol size distribution and generation rate is important for (1) the assessment of inhalation exposures of workers, (2) the selection of respiratory protection equipment, and (3) the design of appropriate filtration systems. Size distribution of the aerosols generated during cutting of different metals by plasma torch was measured. Cutting rates of different metals, rate of generation of respirable mass, as well as the fraction of the released kerf that become respirable were determined. This report presents results of these studies. Measurements of the particles generated during cutting of metal plates with a plasma arc torch revealed the presence of particles with mass median aerodynamic diameters of particles close to 0.2 {micro}m, arising from

  8. Biogenic metallic nanoparticles as catalyst for bioelectricity production: A novel approach in microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanakumar, Kandasamy, E-mail: saravana732@gmail.com [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai (China); MubarakAli, Davoodbasha [Microbial Genetic Engineering Laboratory, Division of Bioengineering, College of Life Science and Bioengineering, Incheon National University, Songdo 406772, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Microbiology, School of Lifesciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024 (India); Kathiresan, Kandasamy [Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University, Parangipettai 608 502, Tamil Nadu (India); Thajuddin, Nooruddin [Department of Microbiology, School of Lifesciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024 (India); Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Alharbi, Naiyf S. [Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Chen, Jie, E-mail: jiechen59@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai (China)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Trichoderma sp., showed an abilities to synthesis of AgNPs and AuNPs with an excellent stability. • AuNPs significantly enhanced the bioelectricity production by MFC of anaerobic fermentation as catalyst. • Maximum bioelectricity production was optimized and obtained the voltage of 432.80 mA using RSM. - Abstract: The present work aimed to use the biogenic metallic nanoparticles as catalyst for bioelectricity production in microbial fuel cell (MFC) approach under anaerobic condition. Silver and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized using Trichoderma sp. Particle size and cystallinity were measured by X-ray diffraction revealed the crystalline structure with average size of 36.17 nm. Electron microscopic studies showed spherical shaped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and cubical shaped AuNPs with size ranges from 50 to 150 nm. The concentration of biogenic metallic nanoparticles as catalyst for enhanced bioelectricity generations and estimated by response surface methodology (RSM) and found at the greatest of 342.80 mA under optimized conditions are time interval, temperature, nanoparticles used as 63 h, 28 ± 2.0 °C, 22.54 mg l{sup −1} (AgNPs) and 25.62 mg l{sup −1} (AuNPs) in a batch reactor. AuNPs acted as an excellent catalyst to enhance the bioelectricity production. This novel technique could be used for eco-friendly, economically feasible and facile electricity production.

  9. Procedure of Destructive Chemical Recovery of Precious Metals in Nitric Acid Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubičić, M.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The heart of the nitric acid production process is the chemical reactor containing a platinum-based catalyst pack and an associated catchment system, which allows the ammonia oxidation reaction to take place efficiently. Under the severe operating conditions imposed by the high-pressure ammonia oxidation process, the catalyst gauzes experience progressive deterioration, as shown by the restricted surface of the catalyst wires, the loss of catalytic activity and the loss of catalytic materials. The higher the pressure of gaseous ammonia oxidation, the greater the loss of platinum group metals from the surface of the applied selective heterogeneous catalysts. Total losses for one batch over the whole period of using selective heterogeneous catalysts may account in the range from 20 to 40 % of the total installed quantity of precious metals. An important part of the platinum removed from the platinum-rhodium alloy wires can be recovered at the outlet of the reactor by means of palladium catchment gauzes. However, this catchment process, which is based on the great ability of palladium to alloy with platinum, is not 100 % effective and a fraction of the platinum and practically all of the rhodium lost by the catalyst wires, evades the catchment package and is then deposited in other parts of the plant, especially heat exchangers. From the above mentioned operating equipment, the retained mass of precious metals can be recovered by the technical procedure of non-destructive and destructive chemical solid-liquid extraction.Shown is the technical procedure of destructive chemical recovery of preheater and boiler for preheating and production of steam by applying sulfuric acid (w = 20 % and subsequent procedure of raffination of derived sludge, to the final recovery of precious metals. The technical procedure of destructive chemical recovery of precious metals from preheater and boiler for preheating and production of steam in nitric acid production is

  10. Leaf litter breakdown, microbial respiration and shredder production in metal-polluted streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, D.M.; Clements, W.H.

    2005-01-01

    1. If species disproportionately influence ecosystem functioning and also differ in their sensitivities to environmental conditions, the selective removal of species by anthropogenic stressors may lead to strong effects on ecosystem processes. We evaluated whether these circumstances held for several Colorado, U.S.A. streams stressed by Zn. 2. Benthic invertebrates and chemistry were sampled in five second-third order streams for 1 year. Study streams differed in dissolved metal concentrations, but were otherwise similar in chemical and physical characteristics. Secondary production of leaf-shredding insects was estimated using the increment summation and size-frequency methods. Leaf litter breakdown rates were estimated by retrieving litter-bags over a 171 day period. Microbial activity on leaf litter was measured in the laboratory using changes in oxygen concentration over a 48 h incubation period. 3. Dissolved Zn concentrations varied eightfold among two reference and three polluted streams. Total secondary production of shredders was negatively associated with metal contamination. Secondary production in reference streams was dominated by Taenionema pallidum. Results of previous studies and the current investigation demonstrate that this shredder is highly sensitive to metals in Colorado headwater streams. Leaf litter breakdown rates were similar between reference streams and declined significantly in the polluted streams. Microbial respiration at the most contaminated site was significantly lower than at reference sites. 4. Our results supported the hypothesis that some shredder species contribute disproportionately to leaf litter breakdown. Furthermore, the functionally dominant taxon was also the most sensitive to metal contamination. We conclude that leaf litter breakdown in our study streams lacked functional redundancy and was therefore highly sensitive to contaminant-induced alterations in community structure. We argue for the necessity of simultaneously

  11. Solar Metal Sulfate-Ammonia Based Thermochemical Water Splitting Cycle for Hydrogen Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cunping (Inventor); T-Raissi, Ali (Inventor); Muradov, Nazim (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Two classes of hybrid/thermochemical water splitting processes for the production of hydrogen and oxygen have been proposed based on (1) metal sulfate-ammonia cycles (2) metal pyrosulfate-ammonia cycles. Methods and systems for a metal sulfate MSO.sub.4--NH3 cycle for producing H2 and O2 from a closed system including feeding an aqueous (NH3)(4)SO3 solution into a photoctalytic reactor to oxidize the aqueous (NH3)(4)SO3 into aqueous (NH3)(2)SO4 and reduce water to hydrogen, mixing the resulting aqueous (NH3)(2)SO4 with metal oxide (e.g. ZnO) to form a slurry, heating the slurry of aqueous (NH4)(2)SO4 and ZnO(s) in the low temperature reactor to produce a gaseous mixture of NH3 and H2O and solid ZnSO4(s), heating solid ZnSO4 at a high temperature reactor to produce a gaseous mixture of SO2 and O2 and solid product ZnO, mixing the gaseous mixture of SO2 and O2 with an NH3 and H2O stream in an absorber to form aqueous (NH4)(2)SO3 solution and separate O2 for aqueous solution, recycling the resultant solution back to the photoreactor and sending ZnO to mix with aqueous (NH4)(2)SO4 solution to close the water splitting cycle wherein gaseous H2 and O2 are the only products output from the closed ZnSO4--NH3 cycle.

  12. PIVET rFSH dosing algorithms for individualized controlled ovarian stimulation enables optimized pregnancy productivity rates and avoidance of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovich, John L; Alsbjerg, Birgit; Conceicao, Jason L; Hinchliffe, Peter M; Keane, Kevin N

    2016-01-01

    The first PIVET algorithm for individualized recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH) dosing in in vitro fertilization, reported in 2012, was based on age and antral follicle count grading with adjustments for anti-Müllerian hormone level, body mass index, day-2 FSH, and smoking history. In 2007, it was enabled by the introduction of a metered rFSH pen allowing small dosage increments of ~8.3 IU per click. In 2011, a second rFSH pen was introduced allowing more precise dosages of 12.5 IU per click, and both pens with their individual algorithms have been applied continuously at our clinic. The objective of this observational study was to validate the PIVET algorithms pertaining to the two rFSH pens with the aim of collecting ≤15 oocytes and minimizing the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. The data set included 2,822 in vitro fertilization stimulations over a 6-year period until April 2014 applying either of the two individualized dosing algorithms and corresponding pens. The main outcome measures were mean oocytes retrieved and resultant embryos designated for transfer or cryopreservation permitted calculation of oocyte and embryo utilization rates. Ensuing pregnancies were tracked until live births, and live birth productivity rates embracing fresh and frozen transfers were calculated. Overall, the results showed that mean oocyte numbers were 10.0 for all women productivity rates exceeded 50% for women 15 oocytes, significantly lower than recently published data applying conventional dosages (38.2%; Pproducts, with very similar results, and they can be considered validated on the basis of effectiveness and safety, clearly avoiding ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

  13. Power-to-Syngas - an enabling technology for the transition of the energy system? Production of tailored synfuels and chemicals using renewably generated electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foit, Severin; Eichel, Rüdiger-A; Vinke, Izaak C; de Haart, Lambertus G J

    2016-10-07

    Power-to-X concepts promise a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and simultaneously guaranteeing a safe energy supply even at high share of renewable power generation, thus becoming a cornerstone of a sustainable energy system. Power-to-Syngas, i.e. the electrochemical conversion of steam and carbon dioxide with the use of renewably generated electricity to syngas for the production of synfuels and high-value chemicals, offers an efficient technology to couple different energy-intense sectors, such as 'traffic and transportation' and 'chemical industry'. Consequently, co-electrolysis can be regarded as a key-enabling step for a transition of the energy system that offers additionally features of CO2-valorization and closed carbon cycles. In this Minireview, we outline and discuss advantages and current technical limitations of low- and high-temperature co-electrolysis. Advances in both, a fundamental understanding of the basic reaction schemes and in stable high-performance materials are essential to further promote co-electrolysis.

  14. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.

    2003-09-12

    Metal-laden wastes can be stabilized and solidified using advanced clean coal technology by-products (CCTBs)--fluid bed combustor ash and spray drier solids. These utility-generated treatment chemicals are available for purchase through brokers, and commercial applications of this process are being practiced by treaters of metal-laden hazardous waste. A complex of regulations governs this industry, and sensitivities to this complex has discouraged public documentation of treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with CCTBs. This report provides a comprehensive public documentation of laboratory studies that show the efficacy of the stabilization and solidification of metal-laden hazardous wastes--such as lead-contaminated soils and sandblast residues--through treatment with CCTBs. It then describes the extensive efforts that were made to obtain the permits allowing a commercial hazardous waste treater to utilize CCTBs as treatment chemicals and to install the equipment required to do so. It concludes with the effect of this lengthy process on the ability of the treatment company to realize the practical, physical outcome of this effort, leading to premature termination of the project.

  15. [Release amount of heavy metals in cement product from co-processing waste in cement kiln].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Fei; Huang, Qi-Fei; Zhang, Xia; Yang, Yu; Wang, Qi

    2009-05-15

    Clinker was produced by Simulating cement calcination test, and concrete samples were also prepared according to national standard GB/T 17671-1999. Long-term cumulative release amount of heavy metals in cement product from co-processing waste in cement kiln was researched through leaching test which refers to EA NEN 7371 and EA NEN 7375, and one-dimensional diffusion model which is on the base of Fick diffusion law. The results show that availabilities of heavy metals are lower than the total amounts in concrete. The diffusion coefficients of heavy metals are different (Cr > As > Ni > Cd). During 30 years service, the cumulative release amounts of Cr, As, Ni and Cd are 4.43 mg/kg, 0.46 mg/kg, 1.50 mg/kg and 0.02 mg/kg, respectively, and the ratios of release which is the division of cumulative release amount and availability are 27.0%, 18.0%, 3.0% and 0.2%, respectively. The most important influence factor of cumulative release amount of heavy metal is the diffusion coefficient, and it is correlative to cumulative release amount. The diffusion coefficient of Cr and As should be controlled exactly in the processing of input the cement-kiln.

  16. 48 CFR 53.301-1427 - Standard Form 1427, Inventory Schedule A-Construction Sheet (Metals in Mill Product Form).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard Form 1427, Inventory Schedule A-Construction Sheet (Metals in Mill Product Form). 53.301-1427 Section 53.301-1427... Illustrations of Forms 53.301-1427 Standard Form 1427, Inventory Schedule A—Construction Sheet (Metals in...

  17. Heavy metal leaching from coal fly ash amended container substrates during Syngonium production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiansheng; Chen, Jianjun; Li, Yuncong

    2008-02-01

    Coal fly ash has been proposed to be an alternative to lime amendment and a nutrient source of container substrates for ornamental plant production. A great concern over this proposed beneficial use, however, is the potential contamination of surface and ground water by heavy metals. In this study, three fly ashes collected from Florida, Michigan, and North Carolina and a commercial dolomite were amended in a basal substrate. The formulated substrates were used to produce Syngonium podophyllum Schott 'Berry Allusion' in 15-cm diameter containers in a shaded greenhouse. Leachates from the containers were collected during the entire six months of plant production and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations. There were no detectable As, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se in the leachates; Cd and Mo were only detected in few leachate samples. The metals constantly detected were Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn. The total amounts of Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn leached during the six-month production period were 95, 210, 44, and 337 microg per container, indicating that such amounts in leachates may contribute little to contamination of surface and ground water. In addition, plant growth indices and fresh and dry weights of S. podophyllum 'Berry Allusion' produced from fly ash and dolomite-amended substrates were comparable except for the plants produced from the substrate amended with fly ash collected from Michigan which had reduced growth indices and fresh and dry weights. Thus, selected fly ashes can be alternatives to commercial dolomites as amendments to container substrates for ornamental plant production. The use of fly ashes as container substrate amendments should represent a new market for the beneficial use of this coal combustion byproduct.

  18. Heavy metal leaching from coal fly ash amended container substrates during Syngonium production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Q.S.; Chen, J.J.; Li, Y.C. [University of Florida, Apopka, FL (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Coal fly ash has been proposed to be an alternative to lime amendment and a nutrient source of container substrates for ornamental plant production. A great concern over this proposed beneficial use, however, is the potential contamination of surface and ground water by heavy metals. In this study, three fly ashes collected from Florida, Michigan, and North Carolina and a commercial dolomite were amended in a basal substrate. The formulated substrates were used to produce Syngonium podophyllum Schott 'Berry Allusion' in 15-cm diameter containers in a shaded greenhouse. Leachates from the containers were collected during the entire six months of plant production and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations. There were no detectable As, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se in the leachates; Cd and Mo were only detected in few leachate samples. The metals constantly detected were Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn. The total amounts of Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn leached during the six-month production period were 95, 210, 44, and 337 {mu} g per container, indicating that such amounts in leachates may contribute little to contamination of surface and ground water. In addition, plant growth indices and fresh and dry weights of S. podophyllum 'Berry Allusion' produced from fly ash and dolomite-amended substrates were comparable except for the plants produced from the substrate amended with fly ash collected from Michigan which had reduced growth indices and fresh and dry weights. Thus, selected fly ashes can be alternatives to commercial dolomites as amendments to container substrates for ornamental plant production. The use of fly ashes as container substrate amendments should represent a new market for the beneficial use of this coal combustion byproduct.

  19. X-ray crystallographic insights into post-synthetic metalation products in a metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Michael T; Coghlan, Campbell J; Bloch, Witold M; Burgun, Alexandre; Doonan, Christian J; Sumby, Christopher J

    2017-01-13

    Post-synthetic modification of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) facilitates a strategic transformation of potentially inert frameworks into functionalized materials, tailoring them for specific applications. In particular, the post-synthetic incorporation of transition-metal complexes within MOFs, a process known as 'metalation', is a particularly promising avenue towards functionalizing MOFs. Herein, we describe the post-synthetic metalation of a microporous MOF with various transition-metal nitrates. The parent framework, 1: , contains free-nitrogen donor chelation sites, which readily coordinate metal complexes in a single-crystal to single-crystal transformation which, remarkably, can be readily monitored by X-ray crystallography. The presence of an open void surrounding the chelation site in 1: prompted us to investigate the effect of the MOF pore environment on included metal complexes, particularly examining whether void space would induce changes in the coordination sphere of chelated complexes reminiscent of those found in the solution state. To test this hypothesis, we systematically metalated 1: with first-row transition-metal nitrates and elucidated the coordination environment of the respective transition-metal complexes using X-ray crystallography. Comparison of the coordination sphere parameters of coordinated transition-metal complexes in 1: against equivalent solid- and solution-state species suggests that the void space in 1: does not markedly influence the coordination sphere of chelated species but we show notably different post-synthetic metalation outcomes when different solvents are used.This article is part of the themed issue 'Coordination polymers and metal-organic frameworks: materials by design'.

  20. An innovative cloning platform enables large-scale production and maturation of an oxygen-tolerant [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Cupriavidus necator in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Schiffels

    Full Text Available Expression of multiple heterologous genes in a dedicated host is a prerequisite for approaches in synthetic biology, spanning from the production of recombinant multiprotein complexes to the transfer of tailor-made metabolic pathways. Such attempts are often exacerbated, due in most cases to a lack of proper directional, robust and readily accessible genetic tools. Here, we introduce an innovative system for cloning and expression of multiple genes in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3. Using the novel methodology, genes are equipped with individual promoters and terminators and subsequently assembled. The resulting multiple gene cassettes may either be placed in one vector or alternatively distributed among a set of compatible plasmids. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed tool by production and maturation of the NAD(+reducing soluble [NiFe]-hydrogenase (SH from Cupriavidus necator H16 (formerly Ralstonia eutropha H16 in E. coli BL21Star™ (DE3. The SH (encoded in hoxFUYHI was successfully matured by co-expression of a dedicated set of auxiliary genes, comprising seven hyp genes (hypC1D1E1A2B2F2X along with hoxW, which encodes a specific endopeptidase. Deletion of genes involved in SH maturation reduced maturation efficiency substantially. Further addition of hoxN1, encoding a high-affinity nickel permease from C. necator, considerably increased maturation efficiency in E. coli. Carefully balanced growth conditions enabled hydrogenase production at high cell-densities, scoring mg·(Liter culture(-1 yields of purified functional SH. Specific activities of up to 7.2±1.15 U·mg(-1 were obtained in cell-free extracts, which is in the range of the highest activities ever determined in C. necator extracts. The recombinant enzyme was isolated in equal purity and stability as previously achieved with the native form, yielding ultrapure preparations with anaerobic specific activities of up to 230 U·mg(-1. Owing to the combinatorial power

  1. An innovative cloning platform enables large-scale production and maturation of an oxygen-tolerant [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Cupriavidus necator in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffels, Johannes; Pinkenburg, Olaf; Schelden, Maximilian; Aboulnaga, El-Hussiny A A; Baumann, Marcus E M; Selmer, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Expression of multiple heterologous genes in a dedicated host is a prerequisite for approaches in synthetic biology, spanning from the production of recombinant multiprotein complexes to the transfer of tailor-made metabolic pathways. Such attempts are often exacerbated, due in most cases to a lack of proper directional, robust and readily accessible genetic tools. Here, we introduce an innovative system for cloning and expression of multiple genes in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Using the novel methodology, genes are equipped with individual promoters and terminators and subsequently assembled. The resulting multiple gene cassettes may either be placed in one vector or alternatively distributed among a set of compatible plasmids. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed tool by production and maturation of the NAD(+)reducing soluble [NiFe]-hydrogenase (SH) from Cupriavidus necator H16 (formerly Ralstonia eutropha H16) in E. coli BL21Star™ (DE3). The SH (encoded in hoxFUYHI) was successfully matured by co-expression of a dedicated set of auxiliary genes, comprising seven hyp genes (hypC1D1E1A2B2F2X) along with hoxW, which encodes a specific endopeptidase. Deletion of genes involved in SH maturation reduced maturation efficiency substantially. Further addition of hoxN1, encoding a high-affinity nickel permease from C. necator, considerably increased maturation efficiency in E. coli. Carefully balanced growth conditions enabled hydrogenase production at high cell-densities, scoring mg·(Liter culture)(-1) yields of purified functional SH. Specific activities of up to 7.2±1.15 U·mg(-1) were obtained in cell-free extracts, which is in the range of the highest activities ever determined in C. necator extracts. The recombinant enzyme was isolated in equal purity and stability as previously achieved with the native form, yielding ultrapure preparations with anaerobic specific activities of up to 230 U·mg(-1). Owing to the combinatorial power exhibited by the

  2. Fact Sheet: Final Rule to Reduce Toxic Air Pollutants from Surface Coating of Miscellaneous Metal Parts and Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains an August 2003 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emission Standards for Miscellaneous Metal Parts and Products Surface Coating Operations. This document provides a summary of the information for this regulation.

  3. Cellulose Nanocrystals Obtained from Rice By-Products and Their Binding Potential to Metallic Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa L. Albernaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to develop and optimize a method to obtain cellulose nanocrystals from the agricultural by-products rice husk and straw and to evaluate their electrostructural modifications in the presence of metallic ions. First, different particle formation conditions and routes were tested and analyzed by spectrophotometry, dynamic light scattering (DLS, and Zeta potential measurements. Then, electrostructural effects of ions Na(I, Cd(II, and Al(III on the optimized nanoparticles were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and electrical conductivity (EC assessments. The produced cellulose nanocrystals adopted a rod-like shape. AFM height distribution and EC data indicated that the nanocrystals have more affinity in binding with Na(I > Al(III > Cd(II. These data suggest that the use of these cellulose nanocrystals in the bioremediation field is promising, both in metal sorption from wastewater and as an alternative for water desalination.

  4. Inert anode containing oxides of nickel, iron and zinc useful for the electrolytic production of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA)

    2002-01-01

    An inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode includes a ceramic oxide material preferably made from NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and ZnO. The inert anode composition may comprise the following mole fractions of NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and ZnO: 0.2 to 0.99 NiO; 0.0001 to 0.8 Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; and 0.0001 to 0.3 ZnO. The inert anode may optionally include other oxides and/or at least one metal phase, such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. The Ni--Fe--Co--O ceramic material exhibits very low solubility in Hall cell baths used to produce aluminum.

  5. A Perspective on Thermochemical and Electrochemical Processes for Titanium Metal Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Fang, Zhigang Zak; Sun, Pei; Zheng, Shili; Xia, Yang; Free, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Titanium metal is produced commercially by the costly and energy-intensive Kroll process, which is highly matured and optimized. In the last several decades, many new methods have been proposed to reduce the production cost of Ti metal and thus widen its applications. These new methods can be categorized into two main groups: thermochemical and electrochemical methods. Even though detailed operations for different processes vary, the various processes in each category share the same principles. This article outlines the differences and the challenges between different processes on the basis of these shared principles, with an emphasis on the developmental processes. Although several of these new processes are at the laboratory or pilot-plant development stage, it is recognized that systematic fundamental research and open scientific exchanges are still sorely needed in this area to improve the new technologies.

  6. Off-Line Testing of Tribo-Systems for Sheet Metal Forming Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Ceron, Ermanno

    2014-01-01

    Off-line testing of new tribo-systems for sheet metal forming production is an important issue, when new, environmentally benign lubricants are to be introduced. To obtain useful results it is, however, vital to ensure similar conditions as in the production process regarding the main tribo......-parameters, which are tool/workpiece normal pressure, sliding length, sliding speed and interface contact temperature. The paper describes a generic methodology for such tests exemplified on an industrial, multistage deep drawing example, where deep drawing is followed by two successive re-drawing operations...... leading to very high tool/workpiece interface pressure and temperature in the second re-draw. Under such conditions only the best lubricant systems work satisfactory, and the paper shows how the performance of different tribo-systems in production may be predicted by off-line testing combined...

  7. Post-Web 2.0 Pedagogy: From Student-Generated Content to International Co-Production Enabled by Mobile Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Thomas; Antonczak, Laurent; Wagner, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The advent of web 2.0 has enabled new forms of collaboration centred upon user-generated content, however, mobile social media is enabling a new wave of social collaboration. Mobile devices have disrupted and reinvented traditional media markets and distribution: iTunes, Google Play and Amazon now dominate music industry distribution channels,…

  8. Post-Web 2.0 Pedagogy: From Student-Generated Content to International Co-Production Enabled by Mobile Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Thomas; Antonczak, Laurent; Wagner, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The advent of web 2.0 has enabled new forms of collaboration centred upon user-generated content, however, mobile social media is enabling a new wave of social collaboration. Mobile devices have disrupted and reinvented traditional media markets and distribution: iTunes, Google Play and Amazon now dominate music industry distribution channels,…

  9. Heavy Metal Removal from Commercially-available Fruit Juice Packaged Products by Citric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Mohammadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increasing trend in the production and consumption of local and imported fruit juices in Iran. The presence of impurities and foreign matter in finished products for human consumption is of great concern because they present health hazards when they exceed beneficial limits. The manufacture of juices requires special attention in terms of purity and the sources of water and its purification are crucial for maintaining quality and safety. Biosorption can be defined as the removal of metal or metalloid species, compounds and particulates from solution by biological material. citric acid content of beverages may be useful in nutrition therapy for calcium urolithiasis, achieving therapeutic urinary citrate concentration is one clinical target in the medical management of calcium urolithiasis. Information on the citric acid content of fruit juices and commercially-available formulations is not widely known. Levels of heavy metals: Lead, Cadmium and Nickel in 180 selected fruit juice commercially available packaged samples (Pineapple, Orange, Mango, Tropical, Cherry& Grape purchased from Tehran local Market in 2014. Heavy metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS by wet digestion method in Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University Tehran-Iran. From the obtained result Ni, Cd and Pb were detectable in 85% of samples especially in Mango and Tropical juices. The efficiency removal of Nickel, lead and Cadmium and neutralization of calculus contain of juice by Citric acid as a chelating were carried out by using of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry technique. The result demonstrated the complexation formulating between the citric acid and heavy metals. The high efficiency of Citric acid played an important role in removal of lead and cadmium in addition to this removal were increased by increasing the citric acid. The enhancing of citric acid in removal of lead and cadmium caused to create a

  10. Evaluation of human exposure to metals from some commonly used hair care products in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwujindu M.A. Iwegbue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of nine metals, namely, cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, cobalt (Co, nickel (Ni, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, and iron (Fe, were determined in 26 brands of hair care products including hair relaxers, conditioners and shampoos. The study was aimed at providing information on the possible risks arising from heavy metals associated with the use of these products. The concentrations of the metals were determined by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry after digestion of the samples with a mixture of acids. The concentrations of the respective metals in hair relaxers, shampoos and conditioners were found to be 0.8–2.5, 0.6–3.0, metals were below their respective provisional tolerable daily intakes (PTDI/recommended daily intakes (RDI, while the margins of safety were greater than 100 which indicate that these products are safe to use.

  11. Integrating photobiological hydrogen production with dye-metal bioremoval from simulated textile wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Anubha; Mona, Sharma; Kaushik, C P

    2011-11-01

    The study reports production of hydrogen in photobioreactors with free (PBR(Fr)) and immobilized (PBR(Imm)) Nostoc biomass at enhanced and sustained rates. Before running the photobioreactors, effects of different immobilization matrices and cyanobacterial dose on hydrogen production were studied in batch mode. As hydrogen production in the PBRs declined spent biomass from the photobioreactors were collected and utilized further for column biosorption of highly toxic dyes (Reactive Red 198+Crystal Violet) and metals (hexavalent chromium and bivalent cobalt) from simulated textile wastewater. Breakthrough time, adsorption capacity and exhaustion time of the biosorption column were studied. The photobioreactors with free and immobilized cyanobacterium produced hydrogen at average rates of 101 and 151 μmol/h/mg Chl a, respectively over 15 days, while the adsorption capacity of the spent biomass was up to 1.4 and 0.23 mg/g for metals and 15 and 1.75 mg/g for the dyes, respectively in continuous column mode.

  12. Implementation of a safe-by-design approach in the development of new open pilot lines for the manufacture of carbon nanotube-based nano-enabled products

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Ipiña, Jesús M.; Hernan, Angel; Cenigaonaindia, Xabier; Insunza, Mario; Florez, Sonia; Seddon, Richard; Vavouliotis, Antonios; Kostopoulos, Vasilios; Latko, Paulina; Durałek, Paweł; Kchit, Nadir

    2017-06-01

    The project PLATFORM (H2020, GA 646307) aims to develop three new pilot lines (PPLs) for the manufacture of carbon nanotube-based nano-enabled products (buckypapers, treated prepregs, doped veils), for the European aeronautics and automotive industries (a Technology Readiness Level 6 - TRL6 - is expected at the end of the project). The Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC (MD) - transposed into the respective national legislations - is the European regulatory framework for the design and construction of new machinery, as the future PPLs. PPLs are not required to comply with the provisions of the MD until they are put into service - expected in 2020, after project completion - but then, the MD will be fully applicable. In this regulatory context, the project PLATFORM is aligning the design of the PPLs according to the MD requirements, in order to facilitate the CE marking in 2020 (TRL9) and avoid potential economic costs associated with future re-adaptations or modifications needed to ensure compliance with the MD. This paper discusses the methodological approach followed by the project PLATFORM to integrate all the nanosafety aspects in the design of the PPLs, in order to achieve safe designs in conformity with the relevant Essential Health and Safety Requirements (EHSRs) of the MD. Since machinery must be designed and constructed taking into account the results of the risk assessment (RA), this paper describes the systematic and iterative approach for RA and risk reduction followed to eliminate hazards as far practicable and to adequately reduce risks by the implementation of protective measures. This process has been guided by the harmonized standards EN ISO 12100 and EN ISO 14123, taking the relevant phases of life cycle, expected uses and operation modes of the PPLs into account. A specific tool to guide the safe design of the PPLs and facilitate the RA process has also been produced by the project (PLATFORM - SbD toolkit).

  13. Surface science and electrochemical studies of metal-modified carbides for fuel cells and hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Thomas Glenn

    Carbides of the early transition metals have emerged as low-cost catalysts that are active for a wide range of reactions. The surface chemistry of carbides can be altered by modifying the surface with small amounts of admetals. These metal-modified carbides can be effective replacements for Pt-based bimetallic systems, which suffer from the drawbacks of high cost and low thermal stability. In this dissertation, metal-modified carbides were studied for reactions with applications to renewable energy technologies. It is demonstrated that metal-modified carbides possess high activity for alcohol reforming and electrochemical hydrogen production. First, the surface chemistry of carbides towards alcohol decomposition is studied using density functional theory (DFT) and surface science experiments. The Vienna Ab initio Simulation Package (VASP) was used to calculate the binding energies of alcohols and decomposition intermediates on metal-modified carbides. The calculated binding energies were then correlated to reforming activity determined experimentally using temperature programmed desorption (TPD). In the case of methanol decomposition, it was found that tungsten monocarbide (WC) selectively cleaved the C-O bond to produce methane. Upon modifying the surface with a single layer of metal such as Ni, Pt, or Rh, the selectivity shifted towards scission of the C-H bonds while leaving the C-O bond intact, producing carbon monoxide (CO) and H2. High resolution energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) was used to examine the bond breaking sequence as a function of temperature. From HREELS, it was shown that the surfaces followed an activity trend of Rh > Ni > Pt. The Au-modified WC surface possessed too low of a methanol binding energy, and molecular desorption of methanol was the most favorable pathway on this surface. Next, the ability of Rh-modified WC to break the C-C bond of C2 and C3 alcohols was demonstrated. HREELS showed that ethanol decomposed through an acetaldehyde

  14. Comparison of Nonprecious Metal Cathode Materials for Methane Production by Electromethanogenesis.

    KAUST Repository

    Siegert, Michael

    2014-02-18

    In methanogenic microbial electrolysis cells (MMCs), CO2 is reduced to methane using a methanogenic biofilm on the cathode by either direct electron transfer or evolved hydrogen. To optimize methane generation, we examined several cathode materials: plain graphite blocks, graphite blocks coated with carbon black or carbon black containing metals (platinum, stainless steel or nickel) or insoluble minerals (ferrihydrite, magnetite, iron sulfide, or molybdenum disulfide), and carbon fiber brushes. Assuming a stoichiometric ratio of hydrogen (abiotic):methane (biotic) of 4:1, methane production with platinum could be explained solely by hydrogen production. For most other materials, however, abiotic hydrogen production rates were insufficient to explain methane production. At -600 mV, platinum on carbon black had the highest abiotic hydrogen gas formation rate (1600 ± 200 nmol cm(-3) d(-1)) and the highest biotic methane production rate (250 ± 90 nmol cm(-3) d(-1)). At -550 mV, plain graphite (76 nmol cm(-3) d(-1)) performed similarly to platinum (73 nmol cm(-3) d(-1)). Coulombic recoveries, based on the measured current and evolved gas, were initially greater than 100% for all materials except platinum, suggesting that cathodic corrosion also contributed to electromethanogenic gas production.

  15. Comparison of Nonprecious Metal Cathode Materials for Methane Production by Electromethanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Michael; Yates, Matthew D; Call, Douglas F; Zhu, Xiuping; Spormann, Alfred; Logan, Bruce E

    2014-04-01

    In methanogenic microbial electrolysis cells (MMCs), CO2 is reduced to methane using a methanogenic biofilm on the cathode by either direct electron transfer or evolved hydrogen. To optimize methane generation, we examined several cathode materials: plain graphite blocks, graphite blocks coated with carbon black or carbon black containing metals (platinum, stainless steel or nickel) or insoluble minerals (ferrihydrite, magnetite, iron sulfide, or molybdenum disulfide), and carbon fiber brushes. Assuming a stoichiometric ratio of hydrogen (abiotic):methane (biotic) of 4:1, methane production with platinum could be explained solely by hydrogen production. For most other materials, however, abiotic hydrogen production rates were insufficient to explain methane production. At -600 mV, platinum on carbon black had the highest abiotic hydrogen gas formation rate (1600 ± 200 nmol cm(-3) d(-1)) and the highest biotic methane production rate (250 ± 90 nmol cm(-3) d(-1)). At -550 mV, plain graphite (76 nmol cm(-3) d(-1)) performed similarly to platinum (73 nmol cm(-3) d(-1)). Coulombic recoveries, based on the measured current and evolved gas, were initially greater than 100% for all materials except platinum, suggesting that cathodic corrosion also contributed to electromethanogenic gas production.

  16. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in vegetables grown around battery production area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Battery production is one of the main sources of heavy metals that present great harm to human health even in low concentrations. Chromium (Cr, Cadmium (Cd and Lead (Pb were measured in edible portions of vegetables and soils around a battery production area in China, and the potential health risk of heavy metal contamination to the local population via vegetable consumption was evaluated. Their concentrations in edible portions of vegetables were 2.354 (0.078-14.878, 0.035 (0.003-0.230 and 0.039 (0.003-0.178 mg kg-1, respectively. Approximately 3 % of the Cd in the vegetable samples exceeded the maximum concentration allowable by national food safety criteria, although Pb content in all samples were within the criteria. Transfer factors (TF from soils to vegetables were dependent on vegetable species. Leguminous vegetables were more likely to accumulate Cr, while leaf vegetables tended to show higher levels of concentration of Cd and Pb. Melon vegetables demonstrated a relatively low capacity for accumulating the heavy metals studied. TF were positively correlated with soil organic matter and negatively correlated with soil pH. The mean estimated daily intake of Cr, Cd and Pb via dietary consumption of vegetables was 0.011, 1.65 × 10-4 and 1.84 × 10-4 mg kg-1 of body weight per day, respectively, levels that were much lower than the reference doses recommended by USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, indicating that the potential health risk of Cr, Cd and Pb exposure via vegetable consumption to the local population around this battery production area could be negligible.

  17. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced Clean Coal Technology by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini; Wiles Elder

    1999-04-05

    This eleventh quarterly report describes work done during the eleventh three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ``Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to two outside contacts.

  18. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-01-01

    This seventeenth quarterly report describes work done during the seventeenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, submitting a manuscript and making and responding to one outside contact.

  19. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-05-11

    This fifteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fifteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

  20. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-06-01

    This sixteenth quarterly report describes work done during the sixteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

  1. Production of Quasicomposite Surface Layer of a Metal Material by Shock Wave Strain Hardening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Kirichek

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Quite often in order to improve the performance of a product it is necessary to form a strengthened structure that will be extremely hard and have good plasticity at the same time. One way to meet this challenge is to apply shock wave mechanical hardening to produce micro- or nanocrystalline heterogeneous structures in homogeneous metals or alloys. A peculiar feature of such structure is its layer-by-layer formation with smooth transition between hard and plastic areas, which improves the performance of the strengthened item significantly

  2. Recycling of spent adsorbents for oxyanions and heavy metal ions in the production of ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbinnen, Bram; Block, Chantal; Van Caneghem, Jo; Vandecasteele, Carlo

    2015-11-01

    Spent adsorbents for oxyanion forming elements and heavy metals are classified as hazardous materials and they are typically treated by stabilization/solidification before landfilling. The use of lime or cement for stabilization/solidification entails a high environmental impact and landfilling costs are high. This paper shows that mixing spent adsorbents in the raw material for the production of ceramic materials is a valuable alternative to stabilize oxyanion forming elements and heavy metals. The produced ceramics can be used as construction material, avoiding the high economic and environmental impact of stabilization/solidification followed by landfilling. To study the stabilization of oxyanion forming elements and heavy metals during the production process, two series of experiments were performed. In the first series of experiments, the main pollutant, Mo was adsorbed onto iron-based adsorbents, which were then mixed with industrial sludge (3 w/w%) and heated at 1100°C for 30 min. Mo was chosen, as this element is easily adsorbed onto iron-based adsorbents and it is the element that is the most difficult to stabilize (i.e. the highest temperatures need to be reached before the concentrations in the leachate are reduced). Leaching concentration from the 97/3 sludge/adsorbent mixture before heating ranged between 85 and 154 mg/kg; after the heating process they were reduced to 0.42-1.48 mg/kg. Mo was actually stabilized, as the total Mo concentration after addition was not affected by the heat treatment. In the second series of experiments, the sludge was spiked with other heavy metals and oxyanion forming elements (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) in concentrations 5 times higher than the initial concentrations; after heat treatment the leachate concentrations were below the regulatory limit values. The incorporation of spent adsorbents in ceramic materials is a valuable and sustainable alternative to the existing treatment methods, saving raw materials in the

  3. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-05-10

    This fourteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fourteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing presentations, and making and responding to two outside contacts.

  4. Immobilizing Molecular Metal Dithiolene-Diamine Complexes on 2D Metal-Organic Frameworks for Electrocatalytic H2 Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Renhao; Zheng, Zhikun; Tranca, Diana C; Zhang, Jian; Chandrasekhar, Naisa; Liu, Shaohua; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Seifert, Gotthard; Feng, Xinliang

    2017-02-16

    Carbon electrocatalysts consisting of metal complexes such as MNx or MSx are promising alternatives to high-cost Pt catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). However, the exact HER active sites remain elusive. Here, molecular metal dithiolene-diamine (MS2 N2 , M=Co and Ni), metal bis(dithiolene) (MS4 ), and metal bis(diamine) (MN4 ) complexes were selectively incorporated into carbon-rich 2D metal-organic frameworks (2D MOFs) as model carbon electrocatalysts. The 2D MOF single layers, powders, and composites with graphene were thus prepared and showed definite active sites for H2 generation. The electrocatalytic HER activity of the 2D MOF-based catalysts with different metal complexes follow the order of MS2 N2 >MN4 >MS4 . Moreover, the protonation preferentially occurred on the metal atoms, and the concomitant heterolytic elimination of H2 was favored on the M-N units in the MS2 N2 active centers. The results provide an in-depth understanding of the catalytic active sites, thus making way for the future development of metal complexes in carbon-rich electrode materials for energy generation. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Rhamnolipids production by multi-metal-resistant and plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil Kumar; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2013-07-01

    The biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa A11, with plant-growth-promoting (PGP) and multi-metal-resistant (MMR) features was isolated from the rhizosphere of a wild plant Parthenium hysterophorus. The strain A11 was able to utilize glycerol as a carbon source and produce 4,436.9 mg/L of biosurfactant after 120 h of incubation. The biosurfactants was characterized as rhamnolipids (RLs) by thin layer chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Eight different RLs congeners were detected with RhaRhaC₁₀C₁₀ being most abundant. The purified rhamnolipid, dirhamnolipid, and monorhamnolipid reduced the surface tension of water to 29, 36, and 42 mN/m with critical micelle concentration of 83, 125, and 150 mg/L, respectively. The strain A11 demonstrated resistance against all the metals detected in rhizosphere except Hg and Ni. The strain A11 also possessed plant-growth-promoting features like siderophores, hydrogen cyanide, catalase, ammonia production, and phosphate solubilization. The dirhamnolipids formed crystals upon incubation at 4 °C, thus making separation of dirhamnolipids easy. Biosurfactant-producing ability along with MMR and PGP traits of the strain A11 makes it a potential candidate for application in the bacterial assisted enhancement of phytoremediation of heavy-metal-contaminated sites.

  6. Helium enrichment and Carbon-star Production in Metal-rich Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Karakas, Amanda I

    2014-01-01

    We present new theoretical stellar evolutionary models of metal-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Stellar models are evolved with initial masses between 1Msun and 7Msun at Z=0.007, and 1Msun and 8Msun at Z=0.014 (solar) and at Z=0.03. We evolve models with a canonical helium abundance and with helium enriched compositions (Y=0.30, 0.35, 0.40) at Z=0.014 and Z=0.03. The efficiency of third dredge-up and the mass range of carbon stars decreases with an increase in metallicity. We predict carbon stars form from initial masses between 1.75-7Msun at Z=0.007 and between 2-4.5Msun at solar metallicity. At Z=0.03 the mass range for C-star production is narrowed to 3.25-4Msun. The third dredge-up is reduced when the helium content of the model increases owing to the reduced number of thermal pulses on the AGB. A small increase of Delta Y = 0.05 is enough to prevent the formation of C stars at Z=0.03, depending on the mass-loss rate, whereas at Z=0.014, an increase of Delta Y = 0.1 is required to prevent the fo...

  7. METAL MATRIX COMPOSITE BRAKE ROTORS: HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Rahman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Metal matrix composites (MMCs have become attractive for engineering structural applications due to their excellent specific strength and are increasingly seen as an alternative to conventional materials, particularly in the automotive industry. In this study, a historical background on the development and application of metal matrix composites for automotive brake rotors is presented. The discussion also includes an analysis of the product life cycle with stir casting as a case study. The historical review analysis revealed that gradual development of material and processing techniques have led to lighter weight, lower cost and higher performance brake rotors as a result of a better understanding of the mechanics of metal matrix composites. It emerged from the study that the stir casting technique provides ease of operation, sustainability and, most significantly, very competitive costs without sacrificing quality relative to other techniques; as such, it is the most attractive manufacturing process in the industry. These findings can be used for future design and manufacture of an efficient and effective aluminium matrix composite brake rotor for automotive and other applications.

  8. Production of Decorative Cast Metal Matrix Composites with a Complex Relief and Nonmetal Reinforcement Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Spasova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is relevant to the research of possibilities for the production of decorative complex relief metal matrix composites (MMCs of the “invitro” type, with unformed and unchanging reinforcement (strengthening phase in the process of creating a composite. The research on the methods of metal matrix composites development in this paper has been brought to the application of different space vacuum schemes for composite synthesisof vacuuming the space for composites synthesis by using the notion of the “capillary forming”. In this method the metal matrix (copper alloy melt was infiltrated in the space between the pellets of reinforcement phase (quartz particles – SiO2, whereas the classical method adopted for the obtaining MMCs “in vitro”, uses a mechanism of forced insertion of the reinforcement phase into the ready for use melt, followed by homogenization of the composite structure. In the particular case, because the obtained composite will have a complex relief three-dimensional surface, the conditions for compacting the building phases in the three directions x, y, z should be virtually equalized. In order to accomplish the task set, a laboratory system is developed. The experiments were conducted with laboratory equipment elaborated on the base of another equipment for "capillary forming" with extra vacuum. The structures of the obtained MMCs were tested by metallographic analysis.

  9. $s$-process production in rotating massive stars at solar and low metallicities

    CERN Document Server

    Frischknecht, Urs; Pignatari, Marco; Maeder, André; Meynet, George; Chiappini, Cristina; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl; Rauscher, Thomas; Georgy, Cyril; Ekström, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    Rotation was shown to have a strong impact on the structure and light element nucleosynthesis in massive stars. In particular, models including rotation can reproduce the primary nitrogen observed in halo extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars. Additional exploratory models showed that rotation may enhance $s$-process production at low metallicity. Here we present a large grid of massive star models including rotation and a full $s$-process network to study the impact of rotation on the weak $s$-process. We explore the possibility of producing significant amounts of elements beyond the strontium peak, which is where the weak $s$-process usually stops. We used the Geneva stellar evolution code coupled to an enlarged reaction network with 737 nuclear species up to bismuth to calculate $15-40\\,\\text{M}_\\odot$ models at four metallicities ($Z = 0.014,10^{-3}$, $10^{-5}$, and $10^{-7}$) from the main sequence up to the end of oxygen burning. We confirm that rotation-induced mixing between the convective H-shell and He-c...

  10. Technology programme SULA 2. Energy in steel and base metal production. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    SULA 2 is the energy research programme of the steel and metal producing industry. Central steel and metal producing companies are Outokumpu, Rautaruukki, Imatra Steel and Fundia Wire which is a subsidiary of Rautaruukki. The priorities of the SULA 2 programme are in process development. Worthwhile areas of concentration in energy research by Finland include the following: Iron and steel production; Zinc production; The production of ferrochromium and stainless steel; The pyrometallurgical production of copper and nickel and Rolling and heat treatment of steel In addition to the steel and metal producers the following companies participate in some projects: Kuusakoski, Kumera, Fiskars Tools and BETKER. Research work is performed in the following universities and research centers: Helsinki University of Technology, Oulu University, Aabo Akademi University, Tampere University of Technology, VTT Energy and VTT Building Technology. The total number of projects in SULA 2 programme is 51. Of these 20 are research institute projects, 21 are company R and D projects and 10 are energy conservation projects funded by Ministry of Trade and Industry. The total research costs are ca. 130 million FIM. The major part of costs is carried by the participating companies, 62 % and by public funding (Ministry of Trade and Industry, TEKES, The Academy of Finland) 36 %. In six projects the objective of research was studying and inventing new production processes or equipment. Results so far are a new production process for the Tornio stainless steel plant and a new design of ore concentrate rotary dryer, which has been commercialized. The electric energy consumption of the melting shop in Tornio has decreased by 25 %, and the production capacity has increased accordingly. Considerable savings in production process energy consumption, estimable from production reports have been achieved in several projects. The total amount of estimable saving in specific energy consumption is about 900

  11. An efficient on-board metal-free nanocatalyst for controlled room temperature hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santra, Saswati; Das, Debanjan; Das, Nirmalya Sankar; Nanda, Karuna Kar

    2017-04-01

    Positively charged functionalized carbon nanodots (CNDs) with a variety of different effective surface areas (ESAs) are synthesized via a cheap and time effective microwave method and applied for the generation of hydrogen via hydrolysis of sodium borohydride. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of metal-free controlled hydrogen generation. Our observation is that a positively charged functional group is essential for the hydrolysis for hydrogen production, but the overall activity is found to be enhanced with the ESA. A maximum value of 1066 ml g(-1) min(-1) as the turnover frequency is obtained which is moderate in comparison to other catalysts. However, the optimum activation energy is found to be 22.01 kJ mol(-1) which is comparable to well-known high cost materials like Pt and Ru. All of the samples showed good reusability and 100% conversion even after the 10th cycle. The effect of H(+) and OH(-) is also studied to control the on-board and on-demand hydrogen production ("on-off switching"). It is observed that H2 production decreases inversely with NaOH concentration and ceases completely when 10(-1) M NaOH is added. With the addition of HCl, H2 production can be initiated again, which confirms the on/off control over production.

  12. Workers' postural conditions in the charcoal production proccess based on vertical metallic cylynders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Ivana Márcia Oliveira; Francisco, Antonio Carlos de

    2012-01-01

    Considering the importance of posture to the workers' health in the production of charcoal, this paper presents an ergonomic research based on a biomechanical focus that aims to evaluate the posture adopted by these workers on the production of charcoal in vertical metallic cylinders. Thus, it was verified the incidence of pain and/or musculoskeletal injuries to these workers. Also, it was evaluated the weight carried by them and the positions taken in their daily tasks. Applying the Ergonomic Analysis of Labor, the data collection was done by directly observing the workers, registering images, by interviews, and posture analysis based on the OWAS method. The main results of the research show that there are postures with risks in the four levels of musculoskeletal injuries classified by OWAS, concluding that the method is imperative for ergonomic recommendations for minimization or eradication of suffering injury and worker's postural constraints.

  13. Physical and ergonomic hazards in the textile, chemical, food, metal products, and woodworking industries in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soytas, Ugur

    2006-01-01

    Questionnaires were administered in 272 textile, chemical, food, metal products and woodworking firms in ten cities in industry-dense areas to assess the general OHS situation in Turkey. This paper explores the portion related to exposures of workers to physical and ergonomic hazards. OHS experts where available, firm owners, partners, or engineers responsible for safety were asked to answer structured questions regarding percentages of workers exposed to specific hazards. About 65% of respondents reported exposures to noise risks among at least some percentage of employees; 26.3% reported more than 50% of employees were so exposed. In more than 60% of the firms employees were exposed to ergonomic risks related to the need to meet production quotas and the need to maintain constant posture. The most prevalent risk factors in five industries and the relative frequencies of exposed employees are described.

  14. PIVET rFSH dosing algorithms for individualized controlled ovarian stimulation enables optimized pregnancy productivity rates and avoidance of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yovich JL

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available John L Yovich,1,2,* Birgit Alsbjerg,3,4,* Jason L Conceicao,1 Peter M Hinchliffe,1 Kevin N Keane1,2,* 1PIVET Medical Centre, Perth, 2School of Biomedical Science, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute Bioscience, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; 3The Fertility Clinic, Skive Regional Hospital, Skive, 4Faculty of Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The first PIVET algorithm for individualized recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH dosing in in vitro fertilization, reported in 2012, was based on age and antral follicle count grading with adjustments for anti-Müllerian hormone level, body mass index, day-2 FSH, and smoking history. In 2007, it was enabled by the introduction of a metered rFSH pen allowing small dosage increments of ~8.3 IU per click. In 2011, a second rFSH pen was introduced allowing more precise dosages of 12.5 IU per click, and both pens with their individual algorithms have been applied continuously at our clinic. The objective of this observational study was to validate the PIVET algorithms pertaining to the two rFSH pens with the aim of collecting ≤15 oocytes and minimizing the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. The data set included 2,822 in vitro fertilization stimulations over a 6-year period until April 2014 applying either of the two individualized dosing algorithms and corresponding pens. The main outcome measures were mean oocytes retrieved and resultant embryos designated for transfer or cryopreservation permitted calculation of oocyte and embryo utilization rates. Ensuing pregnancies were tracked until live births, and live birth productivity rates embracing fresh and frozen transfers were calculated. Overall, the results showed that mean oocyte numbers were 10.0 for all women <40 years with 24% requiring rFSH dosages <150 IU. Applying both specific algorithms in our clinic meant that the starting dose was not altered for

  15. Health-risk market garden production linked to heavy metals in irrigation water in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumolou, Luc; Edorh, Patrick; Montcho, Sabine; Aklikokou, Kodjo; Loko, Frédéric; Boko, Michel; Creppy, Edmond E

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metals in the Benin market garden products: is irrigation water the first factor in question, and what is the level of health risk linked to the consumption of these vegetables? Such are the essential problems that this survey attempts to solve. Comparison of the level of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) pollution shows that all the vegetables taken from three market sites are differently contaminated, as well as their irrigation water and the soil. But establishing that water is the first factor responsible for the presence of heavy metals in market garden products is not so obvious. Otherwise, the health risk assessment revealed that the total daily exposure dose (DED) of Cd, namely 8.05μg/kg/day, is high compared to the daily dose defined by the WHO, which is 1μg/kg/day. Also, the ensuing quotient of danger (QD) is 8.05; such a value poses public health risks for the consumer. Copyright © 2013 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Smart Grid Enabled EVSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-01-12

    The combined team of GE Global Research, Federal Express, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Consolidated Edison has successfully achieved the established goals contained within the Department of Energy’s Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment funding opportunity. The final program product, shown charging two vehicles in Figure 1, reduces by nearly 50% the total installed system cost of the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) as well as enabling a host of new Smart Grid enabled features. These include bi-directional communications, load control, utility message exchange and transaction management information. Using the new charging system, Utilities or energy service providers will now be able to monitor transportation related electrical loads on their distribution networks, send load control commands or preferences to individual systems, and then see measured responses. Installation owners will be able to authorize usage of the stations, monitor operations, and optimally control their electricity consumption. These features and cost reductions have been developed through a total system design solution.

  17. Smart Grid Enabled EVSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-10-15

    The combined team of GE Global Research, Federal Express, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Consolidated Edison has successfully achieved the established goals contained within the Department of Energy’s Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment funding opportunity. The final program product, shown charging two vehicles in Figure 1, reduces by nearly 50% the total installed system cost of the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) as well as enabling a host of new Smart Grid enabled features. These include bi-directional communications, load control, utility message exchange and transaction management information. Using the new charging system, Utilities or energy service providers will now be able to monitor transportation related electrical loads on their distribution networks, send load control commands or preferences to individual systems, and then see measured responses. Installation owners will be able to authorize usage of the stations, monitor operations, and optimally control their electricity consumption. These features and cost reductions have been developed through a total system design solution.

  18. Tracking environmental impacts in global product chains - Rare Earth Metals and other critical metals used in the cleantech industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathan, A.; Schilli, A.; Johansson, J.; Vehvilaeinen, I.; Larsson, A.; Hutter, J.

    2013-03-15

    Metals form a central part of the global economy, but their extraction and supply are linked to several environmental and social concerns. This study aims to create a picture of the supply chain of Rare Earth Metals (REMs) and other critical metals used in the clean technology (cleantech) sectors of electric vehicles and solar panels. The study examines how Nordic cleantech companies are aware and acting on the challenges related to the lifecycle of these metals and what are the potentials to minimise environmental and social impacts. Recommendations of the study can be summarised as three initiatives: establishment of an awareness platform and roundtable initiative (short-term), research and information gathering (mid-term), and development of closed-loop solutions (long-term). (Author)

  19. Thermally Stable Metal-Organic Framework-Templated Synthesis of Hierarchically Porous Metal Sulfides: Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Juan-Ding; Jiang, Hai-Long

    2017-07-01

    Porous nanostructured materials are demonstrated to be very promising in catalysis due to their well accessible active sites. Thermally stable metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as hard templates are successfully utilized to afford porous metal oxides and subsequently metal sulfides by a nanocasting method. The resultant metal oxides/sulfides show considerable Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas, by partially inheriting the pore character of MOF templates. Preliminary investigation on the obtained hierarchically porous CdS for water splitting, as a proof of concept, demonstrates its much higher activity than both corresponding bulk and nanosized counterparts, under visible light irradiation. Given the structural diversity and tailorability of MOFs, such synthetic approach may open an avenue to the synthesis of advanced porous materials for functional applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Green and energy-efficient methods for the production of metallic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Naghdi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, researchers paid great attention to the concept of “Green Chemistry”, which aims at development of efficient methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs in terms of the least possible impact on human life and environment. Generally, several reagents including precursors, reducing agents, stabilizing agents and solvents are used for the production of NPs and in some cases, energy is needed to reach the optimum temperature for reduction. Therefore, to develop a green approach, researchers had the opportunity to investigate eco-friendly reagents and new energy transfer techniques. In order to substitute the harmful reagents with green ones, researchers worked on different types of saccharides, polyols, carboxylic acids, polyoxometalates and extracts of various plants that can play the role of reducers, stabilizers or solvents. Also, there are some reports on using ultraviolet (UV, gamma and microwave irradiation that are capable of reducing and provide uniform heating. According to the literature, it is possible to use green reagents and novel energy transfer techniques for production of NPs. However, these new synthesis routes should be optimized in terms of performance, cost, product quality (shape and size distribution and scale-up capability. This paper presents a review on most of the employed green reagents and new energy transfer techniques for the production of metallic NPs.

  1. Lunar Metal Oxide Electrolysis with Oxygen and Photovoltaic Array Production Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, P. A.; Ethridge, E.; Hudson, S.; Sen, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a Marshall Space Flight Center funded effort to conduct an experimental demonstration of the processing of simulated lunar resources by the molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) process to produce oxygen and metal from lunar resources to support human exploration of space. Oxygen extracted from lunar materials can be used for life support and propellant, and silicon and metallic elements produced can be used for in situ fabrication of thin-film solar cells for power production. The Moon is rich in mineral resources, but it is almost devoid of chemical reducing agents, therefore, molten oxide electrolysis, MOE, is chosen for extraction, since the electron is the most practical reducing agent. MOE was also chosen for following reasons. First, electrolytic processing offers uncommon versatility in its insensitivity to feedstock composition. Secondly, oxide melts boast the twin key attributes of highest solubilizing capacity for regolith and lowest volatility of any candidate electrolytes. The former is critical in ensuring high productivity since cell current is limited by reactant solubility, while the latter simplifies cell design by obviating the need for a gas-tight reactor to contain evaporation losses as would be the case with a gas or liquid phase fluoride reagent operating at such high temperatures. In the experiments reported here, melts containing iron oxide were electrolyzed in a low temperature supporting oxide electrolyte (developed by D. Sadoway, MIT). The production of oxygen and reduced iron were observed. Electrolysis was also performed on the supporting electrolyte with JSC-1 Lunar Simulant. The cell current for the supporting electrolyte alone is negligible while the current for the electrolyte with JSC-1 shows significant current and a peak at about -0.6 V indicating reductive reaction in the simulant.

  2. Porous molybdenum carbide nano-octahedrons synthesized via confined carburization in metal-organic frameworks for efficient hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao Bin; Xia, Bao Yu; Yu, Le; Yu, Xin-Yao; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2015-03-11

    Electrochemical water splitting has been considered as a promising approach to produce clean and sustainable hydrogen fuel. However, the lack of high-performance and low-cost electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction hinders the large-scale application. As a new class of porous materials with tunable structure and composition, metal-organic frameworks have been considered as promising candidates to synthesize various functional materials. Here we demonstrate a metal-organic frameworks-assisted strategy for synthesizing nanostructured transition metal carbides based on the confined carburization in metal-organic frameworks matrix. Starting from a compound consisting of copper-based metal-organic frameworks host and molybdenum-based polyoxometalates guest, mesoporous molybdenum carbide nano-octahedrons composed of ultrafine nanocrystallites are successfully prepared as a proof of concept, which exhibit remarkable electrocatalytic performance for hydrogen production from both acidic and basic solutions. The present study provides some guidelines for the design and synthesis of nanostructured electrocatalysts.

  3. Metal and metalloid containing natural products and a brief overview of their applications in biology, biotechnology and biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Daniel A; Kouremenos, Konstantinos A; Beale, David J; Callahan, Damien L; Jones, Oliver A H

    2016-02-01

    Bioinorganic natural product chemistry is a relatively unexplored but rapidly developing field with enormous potential for applications in biology, biotechnology (especially in regards to nanomaterial development, synthesis and environmental cleanup) and biomedicine. In this review the occurrence of metals and metalloids in natural products and their synthetic derivatives are reviewed. A broad overview of the area is provided followed by a discussion on the more common metals and metalloids found in natural sources, and an overview of the requirements for future research. Special attention is given to metal hyperaccumulating plants and their use in chemical synthesis and bioremediation, as well as the potential uses of metals and metalloids as therapeutic agents. The potential future applications and development in the field are also discussed.

  4. Fate of Trace Metals in Anaerobic Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermoso, F G; van Hullebusch, E D; Guibaud, G; Collins, G; Svensson, B H; Carliell-Marquet, C; Vink, J P M; Esposito, G; Frunzo, L

    2015-01-01

    A challenging, and largely uncharted, area of research in the field of anaerobic digestion science and technology is in understanding the roles of trace metals in enabling biogas production. This is a major knowledge gap and a multifaceted problem involving metal chemistry; physical interactions of metal and solids; microbiology; and technology optimization. Moreover, the fate of trace metals, and the chemical speciation and transport of trace metals in environments--often agricultural lands receiving discharge waters from anaerobic digestion processes--simultaneously represents challenges for environmental protection and opportunities to close process loops in anaerobic digestion.

  5. Metals of Deep Ocean Water Increase the Anti-Adipogenesis Effect of Monascus-Fermented Product via Modulating the Monascin and Ankaflavin Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Tzu-Ying; Liao, Li-Ya; Wang, Jyh-Jye; Wei, Bai-Luh; Huang, Ping-Yi; Lee, Chun-Lin

    2016-05-27

    Deep ocean water (DOW) obtained from a depth of more than 200 m includes abundant nutrients and minerals. DOW was proven to positively increase monascin (MS) and ankaflavin (AK) production and the anti-adipogenesis effect of Monascus-fermented red mold dioscorea (RMD). However, the influences that the major metals in DOW have on Monascus secondary metabolite biosynthesis and anti-adipogenesis remain unknown. Therefore, the major metals in DOW were used as the culture water to produce RMD. The secondary metabolites production and anti-adipogenesis effect of RMD cultured with various individual metal waters were investigated. In the results, the addition of water with Mg, Ca, Zn, and Fe increased MS and AK production and inhibited mycotoxin citrinin (CT). However, the positive influence may be contributed to the regulation of pigment biosynthesis. Furthermore, in the results of cell testing, higher lipogenesis inhibition was seen in the treatments of various ethanol extracts of RMD cultured with water containing Mg, K, Zn, and Fe than in those of RMD cultured with ultra-pure water. In conclusion, various individual metals resulted in different effects on MS and AK productions as well as the anti-adipogenesis effect of RMD, but the specific metals contained in DOW may cause synergistic or comprehensive effects that increase the significantly positive influence.

  6. Metals of Deep Ocean Water Increase the Anti-Adipogenesis Effect of Monascus-Fermented Product via Modulating the Monascin and Ankaflavin Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Ying Lung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Deep ocean water (DOW obtained from a depth of more than 200 m includes abundant nutrients and minerals. DOW was proven to positively increase monascin (MS and ankaflavin (AK production and the anti-adipogenesis effect of Monascus-fermented red mold dioscorea (RMD. However, the influences that the major metals in DOW have on Monascus secondary metabolite biosynthesis and anti-adipogenesis remain unknown. Therefore, the major metals in DOW were used as the culture water to produce RMD. The secondary metabolites production and anti-adipogenesis effect of RMD cultured with various individual metal waters were investigated. In the results, the addition of water with Mg, Ca, Zn, and Fe increased MS and AK production and inhibited mycotoxin citrinin (CT. However, the positive influence may be contributed to the regulation of pigment biosynthesis. Furthermore, in the results of cell testing, higher lipogenesis inhibition was seen in the treatments of various ethanol extracts of RMD cultured with water containing Mg, K, Zn, and Fe than in those of RMD cultured with ultra-pure water. In conclusion, various individual metals resulted in different effects on MS and AK productions as well as the anti-adipogenesis effect of RMD, but the specific metals contained in DOW may cause synergistic or comprehensive effects that increase the significantly positive influence.

  7. Metals of Deep Ocean Water Increase the Anti-Adipogenesis Effect of Monascus-Fermented Product via Modulating the Monascin and Ankaflavin Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Tzu-Ying; Liao, Li-Ya; Wang, Jyh-Jye; Wei, Bai-Luh; Huang, Ping-Yi; Lee, Chun-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Deep ocean water (DOW) obtained from a depth of more than 200 m includes abundant nutrients and minerals. DOW was proven to positively increase monascin (MS) and ankaflavin (AK) production and the anti-adipogenesis effect of Monascus-fermented red mold dioscorea (RMD). However, the influences that the major metals in DOW have on Monascus secondary metabolite biosynthesis and anti-adipogenesis remain unknown. Therefore, the major metals in DOW were used as the culture water to produce RMD. The secondary metabolites production and anti-adipogenesis effect of RMD cultured with various individual metal waters were investigated. In the results, the addition of water with Mg, Ca, Zn, and Fe increased MS and AK production and inhibited mycotoxin citrinin (CT). However, the positive influence may be contributed to the regulation of pigment biosynthesis. Furthermore, in the results of cell testing, higher lipogenesis inhibition was seen in the treatments of various ethanol extracts of RMD cultured with water containing Mg, K, Zn, and Fe than in those of RMD cultured with ultra-pure water. In conclusion, various individual metals resulted in different effects on MS and AK productions as well as the anti-adipogenesis effect of RMD, but the specific metals contained in DOW may cause synergistic or comprehensive effects that increase the significantly positive influence. PMID:27240384

  8. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SOLID AND LIQUID WASTE PRODUCTS FROM THE HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATED ENERGY CROPS GASIFICATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of basic physico-chemical properties of solid (ash and liquid (tar waste products of the gasification process of the heavy metal contaminated energy crops. The gasification process has carried out in a laboratory fixed bed reactor. Three types of energy crops: Miscanthus x giganteus, Sida hermaphrodita and Spartina Pectinata were used. The experimental plots were established on heavy metal contaminated arable land located in Bytom (southern part of Poland, Silesian Voivodship.

  9. Phytoremediation of heavy metals by calcifying macro-algae (Nitella pseudoflabellata): implications of redox insensitive end products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Pattiyage I A; Asaeda, Takashi

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the phytoremediation of heavy metals in water and understand the biochemistry of end products of calcifying macro algae (charophytes), an 84-wk laboratory experiment was conducted. Eighteen microcosms were maintained with and without plants. These were given different heavy metal treatments: no heavy metals, 0.2mgL(-1) Cr(6+) and 0.01mgL(-1) Cd. Accumulation observed to be 0.06% Cr by dry weight and for Cd it was 0.02%. The bioconcentration factors were 3000 and 25000 for Cr and Cd, respectively. Ratios of heavy metal accumulation in alkaline (i.e., calcified areas) to acidic areas of plants were 6 to 4 (for Cr) and 1 to 1 (for Cd). This elucidated an association between heavy metal accumulation and calcification. This was validated by sequential extraction of sediments. It was shown that in microcosms with plants, the heavy metals were mainly in redox insensitive and less bioavailable carbonate bound form (39-47%). This was followed by organic-bound form (23-34%). Carbonate bound end products will ensure long term storage of heavy metals and after plant senescence these will not re-enter the water column. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance Testing of Molten Regolith Electrolysis with Transfer of Molten Material for the Production of Oxygen and Metals on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibille, Laurent; Sadoway, Donald; Tripathy, Prabhat; Standish, Evan; Sirk, Aislinn; Melendez, Orlando; Stefanescu, Doru

    2010-01-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated the production of oxygen by electrolysis of molten regolith simulants at temperatures near 1600 C. Using an inert anode and suitable cathode, direct electrolysis (no supporting electrolyte) of the molten silicate is carried out, resulting in the production of molten metallic products at the cathode and oxygen gas at the anode. Initial direct measurements of current efficiency have confirmed that the process offer potential advantages of high oxygen production rates in a smaller footprint facility landed on the moon, with a minimum of consumables brought from Earth. We now report the results of a scale-up effort toward the goal of achieving production rates equivalent to 1 metric ton O2/year, a benchmark established for the support of a lunar base. We previously reported on the electrochemical behavior of the molten electrolyte as dependent on anode material, sweep rate and electrolyte composition in batches of 20-200g and at currents of less than 0.5 A. In this paper, we present the results of experiments performed at currents up to 10 Amperes) and in larger volumes of regolith simulant (500 g - 1 kg) for longer durations of electrolysis. The technical development of critical design components is described, including: inert anodes capable of passing continuous currents of several Amperes, container materials selection, direct gas analysis capability to determine the gas components co-evolving with oxygen. To allow a continuous process, a system has been designed and tested to enable the withdrawal of cathodically-reduced molten metals and spent molten oxide electrolyte. The performance of the withdrawal system is presented and critiqued. The design of the electrolytic cell and the configuration of the furnace were supported by modeling the thermal environment of the system in an effort to realize a balance between external heating and internal joule heating. We will discuss the impact these simulations and experimental findings have

  11. Sol-gel processing with inorganic metal salt precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2004-10-19

    Methods for sol-gel processing that generally involve mixing together an inorganic metal salt, water, and a water miscible alcohol or other organic solvent, at room temperature with a macromolecular dispersant material, such as hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) added. The resulting homogenous solution is incubated at a desired temperature and time to result in a desired product. The methods enable production of high quality sols and gels at lower temperatures than standard methods. The methods enable production of nanosize sols from inorganic metal salts. The methods offer sol-gel processing from inorganic metal salts.

  12. Production of glass or glass-ceramic to metal seals with the application of pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M.D.; Kramer, D.P.

    1985-01-04

    In a process for preparing a glass or glass-ceramic to metal seal comprising contacting the glass with the metal and heat-treating the glass and metal under conditions whereby the glass to metal seal is effected and, optionally, the glass is converted to a glass-ceramic, an improvement comprises carrying out the heat-treating step using hot isostatic pressing.

  13. Impacts of antioxidants on hydroxyl radical production from individual and mixed transition metals in a surrogate lung fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Jessica G.; Anastasio, Cort

    2011-12-01

    Inhalation of ambient particulate matter causes morbidity and mortality in humans. One hypothesized mechanism of toxicity is the particle-induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) - including the highly damaging hydroxyl radical ( rad OH) - followed by inflammation and a variety of diseases. While past studies have found correlations between ROS formation and a variety of metals, there are no quantitative measurements of rad OH formation from transition metals at concentrations relevant to 24-hour ambient particulate exposure. This research reports specific and quantitative measurements of rad OH formation from 10 individual transition metals (and several mixtures) in a cell-free surrogate lung fluid (SLF) with four antioxidants: ascorbate, citrate, glutathione, and uric acid. We find that Fe and Cu can produce rad OH under all antioxidant conditions as long as ascorbate is present and that mixtures of the two metals synergistically increase rad OH production. Manganese and vanadium can also produce rad OH under some conditions, but given that their ambient levels are typically very low, these metals are not likely to chemically produce significant levels of rad OH in the lung fluid. Cobalt, chromium, nickel, zinc, lead, and cadmium do not produce rad OH under any of our experimental conditions. The antioxidant composition of our SLF significantly affects rad OH production from Fe and Cu: ascorbate is required for rad OH formation, citrate increases rad OH production from Fe, and both citrate and glutathione suppress rad OH production from Cu. MINTEQ ligand speciation modeling indicates that citrate and glutathione affect rad OH production by changing metal speciation, altering the reactivity of the metals. In the most realistic SLF (i.e., with all four antioxidants), Fe generates approximately six times more rad OH than does the equivalent amount of Cu. Since levels of soluble Fe in PM are typically higher than those of Cu, our results suggest that Fe

  14. Simultaneous production of alkaline lipase and protease by antibiotic and heavy metal tolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Deepali; Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Gautam, Pallavi; Darmwal, Nandan Singh

    2013-09-01

    An efficient bacterial strain capable of simultaneous production of lipase and protease in a single production medium was isolated. Thirty six bacterial strains, isolated from diverse habitats, were screened for their lipolytic and proteolytic activity. Of these, only one bacterial strain was found to be lipase and protease producer. The 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses revealed that strain (NSD-09) was in close identity to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The maximum lipase (221.4 U/ml) and protease (187.9 U/ml) activities were obtained after 28 and 24 h of incubation, respectively at pH 9.0 and 37 °C. Castor oil and wheat bran were found to be the best substrate for lipase and protease production, respectively. The strain also exhibited high tolerance to lead (1450 µg/ml) and chromium (1000 µg/ml) in agar plates. It also showed tolerance to other heavy metals, such as Co(+2) , Zn(+2) , Hg(+2) , Ni(+2) and Cd(+2) . Therefore, this strain has scope for tailing bioremediation. Presumably, this is the first attempt on P. aeruginosa to explore its potential for both industrial and environmental applications.

  15. A new class of electrocatalysts for hydrogen production from water electrolysis: metal monolayers supported on low-cost transition metal carbides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Daniel V; Hunt, Sean T; Kimmel, Yannick C; Chen, Jingguang G

    2012-02-15

    This work explores the opportunity to substantially reduce the cost of hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalysts by supporting monolayer (ML) amounts of precious metals on transition metal carbide substrates. The metal component includes platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), and gold (Au); the low-cost carbide substrate includes tungsten carbides (WC and W(2)C) and molybdenum carbide (Mo(2)C). As a platform for these studies, single-phase carbide thin films with well-characterized surfaces have been synthesized, allowing for a direct comparison of the intrinsic HER activity of bare and Pt-modified carbide surfaces. It is found that WC and W(2)C are both excellent cathode support materials for ML Pt, exhibiting HER activities that are comparable to bulk Pt while displaying stable HER activity during chronopotentiometric HER measurements. The findings of excellent stability and HER activity of the ML Pt-WC and Pt-W(2)C surfaces may be explained by the similar bulk electronic properties of tungsten carbides to Pt, as is supported by density functional theory calculations. These results are further extended to other metal overlayers (Pd and Au) and supports (Mo(2)C), which demonstrate that the metal ML-supported transition metal carbide surfaces exhibit HER activity that is consistent with the well-known volcano relationship between activity and hydrogen binding energy. This work highlights the potential of using carbide materials to reduce the costs of hydrogen production from water electrolysis by serving as stable, low-cost supports for ML amounts of precious metals.

  16. Effects of metal combinations on the production of phytochelatins and glutathione by the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Silvia K; Gledhill, Martha; Achterberg, Eric P

    2006-02-01

    Copper, Cd and Zn can be found at elevated concentrations in contaminated estuarine and coastal waters and have potential toxic effects on phytoplankton species. In this study, the effects of these metals on the intracellular production of the polypeptides phytochelatin and glutathione by the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum were examined in laboratory cultures. Single additions of Cu and Cd (0.4 microM Cu2 and 0.45 microM Cd2+) to the culture medium induced the production of short-chained phytochelatins ((gamma-Glu-Cys)n-Gly where n = 2-5), whereas a single addition of Zn (2.2 microM Zn2+) did not stimulate phytochelatin production. Combination of Zn with Cu resulted in a similar phytochelatin production compared with a single Cu addition. The simultaneous exposure to Zn and Cd led to an antagonistic effect on phytochelatin production, which was probably caused by metal competition for cellular binding sites. Glutathione concentrations were affected only upon exposure to Cd (85% increase) or the combination of Cd with Zn (65% decrease), relative to the control experiment. Ratios of phytochelatins to glutathione indicated a pronounced metal stress in response to exposures to Cu or Cd combined with Zn. This study indicates that variabilities in phytochelatin and glutathione production in the field can be explained in part by metal competition for cellular binding sites.

  17. Advances in Molten Oxide Electrolysis for the Production of Oxygen and Metals from Lunar Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoway, Donald R.; Sirk, Aislinn; Sibille, Laurent; Melendez, Orlando; Lueck, Dale; Curreri, Peter; Dominquez, Jesus; Whitlow, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    As part of an In-Situ Resource Utilization infrastructure to sustain long term-human presence on the lunar surface, the production of oxygen and metals by electrolysis of lunar regolith has been the subject of major scrutiny. There is a reasonably large body of literature characterizing the candidate solvent electrolytes, including ionic liquids, molten salts, fluxed oxides, and pure molten regolith itself. In the light of this information and in consideration of available electrolytic technologies, the authors have determined that direct molten oxide electrolysis at temperatures of approx 1600 C is the most promising avenue for further development. Results from ongoing studies as well as those of previous workers will be presented. Topics include materials selection and testing, electrode stability, gas capture and analysis, and cell operation during feeding and tapping.

  18. Discharge tube with coaxial geometry for efficient production of metal hydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhinova, I; Kolev, St; Dimitrova, M; Popov, Tsv; Pashov, A

    2013-09-01

    The production of metal hydrides in vapour phase is one of the problems which makes their spectroscopic investigation at high resolution difficult. The molecular densities are usually low and the absorption is often increased by the use of multipass cells or intracavity setups. In this contribution a discharge tube with coaxial geometry is investigated, which is able to produce relatively high densities of NiH (≈10(12) cm(-3)). Additional advantage of the present geometry is that the densities are very homogeneous along the discharge length, 250 mm in our case, which can be made in principle arbitrary long. As a result, reliable absorption was detected even in a single pass experiment. We also present the results of a numerical model which explains the general properties of the plasma in the tube. Based on this understanding, we discuss possible improvements and other applications of this discharge geometry.

  19. Production scale purification of Ge-68 and Zn-65 from irradiated gallium metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Jonathan M; Mausner, Leonard

    2015-07-01

    Germanium-68 (Ge-68) is produced by proton irradiation of a gallium metal target, purified by organic extraction and used in a medical isotope generator to produce Gallium-68 PET imaging agents. The purpose of this work was to implement a production scale separation of Ge-68 and Zn-65 that does not use organic solvents and uses a limited number of columns. The current separation approach was modified to use AG1 resin and/or Sephadex(©) G25 with zinc spikes to purify Ge-68 with near quantitative recovery. The purified Ge-68 meets DOE specifications. Methods utilizing zinc spikes resulted in the purist Ge-68 produced at Brookhaven National Lab with no other impurities by ICP-OES. During process optimization approximately 2.5 Ci of Ge-68 was purified utilizing the different processing methods, and the material was sold to the Nuclear Medicine community between 2012-2013. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Metal ions control product specificity of isoprenyl diphosphate synthases in the insect terpenoid pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Sindy; Nagel, Raimund; Schmidt, Axel; Bodemann, René R.; Rahfeld, Peter; Pauls, Gerhard; Brandt, Wolfgang; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Boland, Wilhelm; Burse, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Isoprenyl diphosphate synthases (IDSs) produce the ubiquitous branched-chain diphosphates of different lengths that are precursors of all major classes of terpenes. Typically, individual short-chain IDSs (scIDSs) make the C10, C15, and C20 isoprenyl diphosphates separately. Here, we report that the product length synthesized by a single scIDS shifts depending on the divalent metal cofactor present. This previously undescribed mechanism of carbon chain-length determination was discovered for a scIDS from juvenile horseradish leaf beetles, Phaedon cochleariae. The recombinant enzyme P. cochleariae isoprenyl diphosphate synthase 1 (PcIDS1) yields 96% C10-geranyl diphosphate (GDP) and only 4% C15-farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) in the presence of Co2+ or Mn2+ as a cofactor, whereas it yields only 18% C10 GDP but 82% C15 FDP in the presence of Mg2+. In reaction with Co2+, PcIDS1 has a Km of 11.6 μM for dimethylallyl diphosphate as a cosubstrate and 24.3 μM for GDP. However, with Mg2+, PcIDS1 has a Km of 1.18 μM for GDP, suggesting that this substrate is favored by the enzyme under such conditions. RNAi targeting PcIDS1 revealed the participation of this enzyme in the de novo synthesis of defensive monoterpenoids in the beetle larvae. As an FDP synthase, PcIDS1 could be associated with the formation of sesquiterpenes, such as juvenile hormones. Detection of Co2+, Mn2+, or Mg2+ in the beetle larvae suggests flux control into C10 vs. C15 isoprenoids could be accomplished by these ions in vivo. The dependence of product chain length of scIDSs on metal cofactor identity introduces an additional regulation for these branch point enzymes of terpene metabolism. PMID:23440195

  1. Efficient photothermal catalytic hydrogen production over nonplasmonic Pt metal supported on TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Rui; Luo, Bing; Jing, Dengwei

    2016-10-01

    Most of the traditional photocatalytic hydrogen productions were conducted under room temperature. In this work, we selected nonplasmonic Pt metal anchored on TiO2 nanoparticles with photothermal activity to explore more efficient hydrogen production technology over the whole solar spectrum. Photothermal experiments were carried out in a carefully designed top irradiated photocatalytic reactor that can withstand high temperature and relatively higher pressure. Four typical organic materials, i.e., methyl alcohol (MeOH), trielthanolamne (TEOA), formic acid (HCOOH) and glucose, were investigated. Formic acid, a typical hydrogen carrier, was found to show the best activity. In addition, the effects of different basic parameters such as sacrificial agent concentration and the temperature on the activity of hydrogen generation were systematically investigated for understanding the qualitative and quantitative effects of the photothermal catalytic reaction process. The hydrogen yields at 90 °C of the photothermal catalytic reaction with Pt/TiO2 are around 8.1 and 4.2 times higher than those of reactions carried out under photo or thermal conditions alone. We can see that the photothermal hydrogen yield is not the simple sum of the photo and thermal effects. This result indicated that the Pt/TiO2 nanoparticles can efficiently couple photo and thermal energy to more effectively drive hydrogen production. As a result, the excellent ability makes it superior to other conventional semiconductor photocatalysts and thermal catalysts. Future works could concentrate on exploring photothermal catalysis as well as the potential synergism between photo and thermal effects to find more efficient hydrogen production technology using the whole solar spectrum.

  2. A Versatile Strategy for Production of Membrane Proteins with Diverse Topologies: Application to Investigation of Bacterial Homologues of Human Divalent Metal Ion and Nucleoside Transporters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Ma

    Full Text Available Membrane proteins play key roles in many biological processes, from acquisition of nutrients to neurotransmission, and are targets for more than 50% of current therapeutic drugs. However, their investigation is hampered by difficulties in their production and purification on a scale suitable for structural studies. In particular, the nature and location of affinity tags introduced for the purification of recombinant membrane proteins can greatly influence their expression levels by affecting their membrane insertion. The extent of such effects typically depends on the transmembrane topologies of the proteins, which for proteins of unknown structure are usually uncertain. For example, attachment of oligohistidine tags to the periplasmic termini of membrane proteins often interferes with folding and drastically impairs expression in Escherichia coli. To circumvent this problem we have employed a novel strategy to enable the rapid production of constructs bearing a range of different affinity tags compatible with either cytoplasmic or periplasmic attachment. Tags include conventional oligohistidine tags compatible with cytoplasmic attachment and, for attachment to proteins with a periplasmic terminus, either tandem Strep-tag II sequences or oligohistidine tags fused to maltose binding protein and a signal sequence. Inclusion of cleavage sites for TEV or HRV-3C protease enables tag removal prior to crystallisation trials or a second step of purification. Together with the use of bioinformatic approaches to identify members of membrane protein families with topologies favourable to cytoplasmic tagging, this has enabled us to express and purify multiple bacterial membrane transporters. To illustrate this strategy, we describe here its use to purify bacterial homologues of human membrane proteins from the Nramp and ZIP families of divalent metal cation transporters and from the concentrative nucleoside transporter family. The proteins are expressed in

  3. Heavy metals in intensive greenhouse vegetable production systems along Yellow Sea of China: Levels, transfer and health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenyou; Huang, Biao; Tian, Kang; Holm, Peter E; Zhang, Yanxia

    2017-01-01

    Recently, greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) has grown rapidly and counts a large proportion of vegetable production in China. In this study, the accumulation, health risk and threshold values of selected heavy metals were evaluated systematically. A total of 120 paired soil and vegetable samples were collected from three typical intensive GVP systems along the Yellow Sea of China. Mean concentrations of Cd, As, Hg, Pb, Cu and Zn in greenhouse soils were 0.21, 7.12, 0.05, 19.81, 24.95 and 94.11 mg kg(-1), respectively. Compared to rootstalk and fruit vegetables, leafy vegetables had relatively high concentrations and transfer factors of heavy metals. The accumulation of heavy metals in soils was affected by soil pH and soil organic matter. The calculated hazard quotients (HQ) of the heavy metals by vegetable consumption decreased in the order of leafy > rootstalk > fruit vegetables with hazard index (HI) values of 0.61, 0.33 and 0.26, respectively. The HI values were all below 1, which indicates that there is a low risk of greenhouse vegetable consumption. Soil threshold values (STVs) of heavy metals in GVP system were established according to the health risk assessment. The relatively lower transfer factors of rootstalk and fruit vegetables and higher STVs suggest that these types of vegetables are more suitable for cultivation in greenhouse soils. This study will provide an useful reference for controlling heavy metals and developing sustainable GVP.

  4. Micro metal forming

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Micro Metal Forming, i. e. forming of parts and features with dimensions below 1 mm, is a young area of research in the wide field of metal forming technologies, expanding the limits for applying metal forming towards micro technology. The essential challenges arise from the reduced geometrical size and the increased lot size. In order to enable potential users to apply micro metal forming in production, information about the following topics are given: tribological behavior: friction between tool and work piece as well as tool wear mechanical behavior: strength and formability of the work piece material, durability of the work pieces size effects: basic description of effects occurring due to the fact, that the quantitative relation between different features changes with decreasing size process windows and limits for forming processes tool making methods numerical modeling of processes and process chains quality assurance and metrology All topics are discussed with respect to the questions relevant to micro...

  5. A ROTATING METAL BAND TARGET FOR PION PRODUCTION AT MUON COLLIDERS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KING,B.J.; SIMOS,N.; WEGGEL,R.V.; MOKHOV,N.V.

    2002-01-18

    A conceptual design is presented for a high power pion production target for muon colliders that is based on a rotating metal band. Three candidate materials are considered for the target band: inconel alloy 718, titanium alloy 6Al-4V grade 5 and nickel. A pulsed proton beam tangentially intercepts a chord of the target band that is inside a 20 Tesla tapered solenoidal magnetic pion capture channel similar to designs previously considered for muon colliders and neutrino factories. The target band has a radius of 2.5 meters and is continuously rotated at approximately 1 m/s to carry heat away from the production region and through a water cooling tank. The mechanical layout and cooling setup of the target are described, including the procedure for the routine replacement of the target band. A rectangular band cross section is assumed, optionally with I-beam struts to enhance stiffness and minimize mechanical vibrations. Results are presented from realistic MARS Monte Carlo computer simulations of the pion yield and energy deposition in the target and from ANSYS finite element calculations for the corresponding shock heating stresses. The target scenario is found to perform satisfactorily and with conservative safety margins for multi-MW pulsed proton beams.

  6. Heterogeneous photocatalysis with transition metal modified layered titanates for solar hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilarski, Martin

    2016-09-05

    The objective of this work was the validation of Cu as a low priced co-catalyst material in comparison to the frequently used noble metal co-catalysts Rh, Au and Pt, as well as the evaluation of alternative sacrificial agents for photocatalytic H2 production. An effective conversion of glycerol was a primary aim of this work, due to its abundance as a coproduct of the bio fuel production. Furthermore, photocatalysts were prepared, which are capable to absorb light from the visible range of the light spectrum. The required band gap reduction was realized by cation doping. In the course of the cation doping process Cu{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 3+} cations were incorporated by a sol-gel synthesis route into the crystal lattice of the layered Cs{sub 0.68}Ti{sub 1.83}O{sub 4}, which was used as a photocatalyst material. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared photocatalysts was investigated in a self constructed test setup under the irradiation of a xenon arc lamp.

  7. The external beam facility used to characterize corrosion products in metallic statuettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzutto, M.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Rua do Matao Travessa R 187, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: marcia.rizzutto@dfn.if.usp.br; Tabacniks, M.H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Rua do Matao Travessa R 187, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Added, N. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Rua do Matao Travessa R 187, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Barbosa, M.D.L. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Rua do Matao Travessa R 187, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Curado, J.F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Rua do Matao Travessa R 187, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos, W.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Rua do Matao Travessa R 187, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lima, S.C. [Laboratorio de Conservacao e Restauracao, Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av Prof. Almeida Prado, 1466, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Melo, H.G. [Laboratorio de Eletroquimica e CorroSao, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Luciano Gualberto, trav.3, n.380, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Neiva, A.C. [Laboratorio de Eletroquimica e CorroSao, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Luciano Gualberto, trav.3, n.380, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2005-10-15

    To open new possibilities in nuclear applied physics research, mainly for the analysis of art objects in air, an external beam facility was installed at LAMFI (Laboratorio de Analise de Materiais por Feixes Ionicos) of University of Sao Paulo. PIXE measurements were made using an XR-100CR (Si-PIN) X-ray detector pointed to the sample mounted after an approximate 11 mm air path, hence with effective beam energy of 0.9 MeV. This setup was used to characterize the corrosion products of two ethnological metallic statuettes from the African collection of the Museum of Archaeology and Etnology. PIXE analysis of the corrosion free base of one statuette showed that Cu and Zn are the main components of the alloy, while Pb is present in smaller amount. The analysis of some corrosion products showed a Zn:Cu relationship higher than that of the base, evidencing selective corrosion. The main components of the other statuette were Cu and Pb, while S and Zn were found in smaller amounts.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of thin metallic silver flakes, waste products of a manufacturing process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuela Anzano; Alessandra Tosti; Marina Lasagni; Alfredo Campiglio; Demetrio Pitea; Elena Collina*

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to develop new products and processes from a manufacturing waste from an Italian metallurgic company.The company produced thin silver metallic films and the production scraps were silver flakes.The possibility to use the silver flakes in water disinfection processes was studied.The antimicrobial activity of the flakes was investigated in batch using Escherichia coli as Gram-negative microorganism model.The flakes did not show any antimicrobial activity,so they were activated with two different processes:thermal activation in reducing atmosphere and chemical activation,obtaining,respectively,reduced flakes (RF) and chemical flakes (CF).The flakes,activated with either treatment,showed antimicrobial activity against E.coli.The kill rate was dependent on the type of activated flakes.The chemical flakes were more efficient than reduced flakes.The kill rate determined for 1 g of CF,1.0 ± 0.2min-1,was greater than the kill rate determined for 1 g of RF,0.069 + 0.004 min-1.This was confirmed also by the minimum inhibitory concentration values.It was demonstrated that the antimicrobial capability was dependent on flakes amount and on the type of aqueous medium.Furthermore,the flakes maintained their properties also when used a second time.Finally,the antimicrobial activities of flakes were tested in an effluent of a wastewater treatment plant where a variety of heterotrophic bacteria were present.

  9. Hydrogen production via autothermal reforming of ethanol over noble metal catalysts supported on oxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongqing Chen; Hao Yu; Yong Tang; Minqiang Pan; Guangxing Yang; Feng Peng; Hongjuan Wang; Jian Yang

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen was produced over noble metal (Ir, Ru, Rh, Pd) catalysts supported on various oxides, including γ-Al2O3, CeO2, ZrO2 and La2O3, via the autothermai reforming reaction of ethanol (ATRE) and oxidative reforming reaction of ethanol (OSRE). The conversion of ethanol and selectivites for hydrogen and byproducts such as methane, ethylene and acetaldehyde were studied. It was found that lanthana alone possessed considerable activity for the ATRE reaction, which could be used as a functional support for ATRE catalysts. It was demonstrated that Ir/La2O3 prevented the formation of methane, and Rh/La2O3 encumbered the production of ethylene and acetaldehyde. ATRE reaction was carried out over La2O3-supported catalysts (Ir/La2O3) with good stability on stream, high conversion, and excellent hydrogen selectivity approaching thermodynamic limit under autothermal condition. Typically, 3.4 H2 molecules can be extracted from a pair of ethanol and water molecules over Ir(5wt%)/La2O3. The results presented in this paper indicate that Ir/La2O3 can be used as a promising catalyst for hydrogen production via ATRE reaction from renewable ethanol.

  10. Determination of trace metals, moisture, pH and assessment of potential toxicity of selected smokeless tobacco products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Prabhakar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The characterization and classification of smokeless tobacco products has been a continuously evolving process. This is based on a number of different parameters like nicotine content, moisture content, amount of heavy metals, pH, and in vitro cytotoxicity assays. Their contexts often vary between countries, research institutions, and legal requirements. The categorisation of these products is quite challenging due to the diffused sample sizes, diverse array of branded products on offer, and the absence of a centralized manufacturing facility. This study aims at a systematic classification of 10 smokeless tobacco product samples from the retail market based on their potential toxicity upon long-term use. The estimation of potential toxicity follows a well-established method that employs the concentration of toxic metals in the different samples. The potential toxicity as well as heavy metal concentrations of the smokeless tobacco products analysed was found to be much higher than acceptable limits. For instance, the levels of lead, cadmium, copper and zinc of 2.5, 1, 4 and 23 ppm, respectively, are well above their recommended limits. The results from the study indicate that chronic use of smokeless tobacco products is a significant health risk, especially in the vulnerable population. Further studies of this nature will help establish a toxicological fingerprint on the diverse class of products that floods the market now.

  11. Essential and toxic heavy metals in cereals and agricultural products marketed in Kermanshah, Iran, and human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Fattahi, Nazir; Sharafi, Kiomars; Khamotian, Razieh; Atafar, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Levels of some essential and toxic heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel, zinc and copper in cereals and agricultural products obtained from the markets in Kermanshah city, west Iran, were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The average concentrations for lead and cadmium in some cereals were higher than the maximum levels set by the Codex Alimentarius. A potential human health risk assessment was conducted by calculating estimated weekly intake (EWI) of the metals from eating cereals and comparison of these values with provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) values. In combination with recent cereal consumption data, the EWIs of heavy metals were calculated for the Kermanshah population. EWI data for the studied metals through cereal consumption were lower than the PTWI values. Cr, Ni, Zn and Cu levels in all samples analysed were within the ranges reported for similar cereals from various parts of the world.

  12. A study of H+ production using metal hydride and other compounds by means of laser ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine M.; Kondo K.; Okamura, M.; Hayashizaki, N.

    2012-02-22

    A laser ion source can provide wide variety of ion beams from solid target materials, however, it has been difficult to create proton beam efficiently. We examined capability of proton production using beeswax, polyethylene, and metal hydrides (MgH2 and ZrH2) as target materials. The results showed that beeswax and polyethylene could not be used to produce protons because these targets are transparent to the laser wavelength of 1064 nm. On the other hand, the metal hydrides could supply protons. Although the obtained particle numbers of protons were less than those of the metal ions, the metal hydrides could be used as a target for proton laser ion source.

  13. A study of H{sup +} production using metal hydride and other compounds by means of laser ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan); Riken, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Kondo, K.; Okamura, M. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); Hayashizaki, N. [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    A laser ion source can provide wide variety of ion beams from solid target materials, however, it has been difficult to create proton beam efficiently. We examined capability of proton production using beeswax, polyethylene, and metal hydrides (MgH{sub 2} and ZrH{sub 2}) as target materials. The results showed that beeswax and polyethylene could not be used to produce protons because these targets are transparent to the laser wavelength of 1064 nm. On the other hand, the metal hydrides could supply protons. Although the obtained particle numbers of protons were less than those of the metal ions, the metal hydrides could be used as a target for proton laser ion source.

  14. A study of H+ production using metal hydride and other compounds by means of laser ion sourcea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, M.; Kondo, K.; Okamura, M.; Hayashizaki, N.

    2012-02-01

    A laser ion source can provide wide variety of ion beams from solid target materials, however, it has been difficult to create proton beam efficiently. We examined capability of proton production using beeswax, polyethylene, and metal hydrides (MgH2 and ZrH2) as target materials. The results showed that beeswax and polyethylene could not be used to produce protons because these targets are transparent to the laser wavelength of 1064 nm. On the other hand, the metal hydrides could supply protons. Although the obtained particle numbers of protons were less than those of the metal ions, the metal hydrides could be used as a target for proton laser ion source.

  15. A study of H+ production using metal hydride and other compounds by means of laser ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, M; Kondo, K; Okamura, M; Hayashizaki, N

    2012-02-01

    A laser ion source can provide wide variety of ion beams from solid target materials, however, it has been difficult to create proton beam efficiently. We examined capability of proton production using beeswax, polyethylene, and metal hydrides (MgH(2) and ZrH(2)) as target materials. The results showed that beeswax and polyethylene could not be used to produce protons because these targets are transparent to the laser wavelength of 1064 nm. On the other hand, the metal hydrides could supply protons. Although the obtained particle numbers of protons were less than those of the metal ions, the metal hydrides could be used as a target for proton laser ion source.

  16. Understanding factors affecting technology adoption in smallholder livestock production systems in Ethiopia : the role of farm resources and the enabling environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebebe, E.G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In response to population growth, rising income and urbanisation, the demand for livestock products, such as milk, meat and eggs is growing in Ethiopia. The growing demand for milk products offers opportunities for smallholders to realize better livelihoods. Whereas the

  17. Understanding factors affecting technology adoption in smallholder livestock production systems in Ethiopia : the role of farm resources and the enabling environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebebe, E.G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In response to population growth, rising income and urbanisation, the demand for livestock products, such as milk, meat and eggs is growing in Ethiopia. The growing demand for milk products offers opportunities for smallholders to realize better livelihoods. Whereas the gr

  18. Volatile organic compounds and metal leaching from composite products made from fiberglass-resin portion of printed circuit board waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jie; Jiang, Ying; Hu, Xiaofang; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-01-17

    This study focused on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and metal leaching from three kinds of composite products made from fiberglass-resin portion (FRP) of crushed printed circuit board (PCB) waste, including phenolic molding compound (PMC), wood plastic composite (WPC), and nonmetallic plate (NMP). Released VOCs from the composite products were quantified by air sampling on adsorbent followed by thermal desorption and GC-MS analysis. The results showed that VOCs emitted from composite products originated from the added organic components during manufacturing process. Phenol in PMC panels came primarily from phenolic resin, and the airborne concentration of phenol emitted from PMC product was 59.4 ± 6.1 μg/m(3), which was lower than odor threshold of 100% response for phenol (180 μg/m(3)). VOCs from WPC product mainly originated from wood flour, e.g., benzaldehyde, octanal, and d-limonene were emitted in relatively low concentrations. For VOCs emitted from NMP product, the airborne concentration of styrene was the highest (633 ± 67 μg/m(3)). Leaching characteristics of metal ions from composite products were tested using acetic acid buffer solution and sulphuric acid and nitric acid solution. Then the metal concentrations in the leachates were tested by ICP-AES. The results showed that only the concentration of Cu (average = 893 mg/L; limit = 100 mg/L) in the leachate solution of the FRP using acetic acid buffer solution exceeded the standard limit. However, concentrations of other metal ions (Pb, Cd, Cr, Ba, and Ni) were within the standard limit. All the results indicated that the FRP in composite products was not a major concern in terms of environmental assessment based upon VOCs tests and leaching characteristics.

  19. KF-loaded mesoporous Mg-Fe bi-metal oxides: high performance transesterification catalysts for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Guiju; Hua, Zile; Gao, Zhe; Zhu, Yan; Zhu, Yan; Chen, Yu; Shu, Zhu; Zhang, Lingxia; Shi, Jianlin

    2013-09-21

    Using newly developed mesoporous Mg-Fe bi-metal oxides as supports, a novel kind of high performance transesterification catalysts for biodiesel production has been synthesized. More importantly, the impregnation solvent was for the first time found to substantially affect the structures and catalytic performances of the resultant transesterification catalysts.

  20. Accumulation and health risk of heavy metals in vegetables from harmless and organic vegetable production systems of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Hu, Wenyou; Huang, Biao; Weindorf, David C; Rajan, Nithya; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Niedermann, Silvana

    2013-12-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in vegetables is a growing concern for public health. Limited studies have elucidated the heavy metal accumulation characteristics and health risk of different vegetables produced in different facilities such as greenhouses and open-air fields and under different management modes such as harmless and organic. Given the concern over the aforementioned factors related to heavy metal accumulation, this study selected four typical greenhouse vegetable production bases, short-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (SHGVB), middle-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (MHGVB), long-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (LHGVB), and organic greenhouse vegetable base (OGVB), in Nanjing City, China to study heavy metal accumulation in different vegetables and their associated health risks. Results showed that soils and vegetables from SHGVB and OGVB apparently accumulated fewer certain heavy metals than those from other bases, probably due to fewer planting years and special management, respectively. Greenhouse conditions significantly increased certain soil heavy metal concentrations relative to open-air conditions. However, greenhouse conditions did not significantly increase concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Hg, and Zn in leaf vegetables. In fact, under greenhouse conditions, Pb accumulation was effectively reduced. The main source of soil heavy metals was the application of large amounts of low-grade fertilizer. There was larger health risk for producers' children to consume vegetables from the three harmless vegetable bases than those of residents' children. The hazard index (HI) over a large area exceeded 1 for these two kinds of children in the MHGVB and LHGVB. There was also a slight risk in the SHGVB for producers' children solely. However, the HI of the whole area of the OGVB for two kinds of children was below 1, suggesting low risk of heavy metal exposure through the food chain. Notably, the contribution rate of Cu and Zn to the HI were

  1. It’s never too late to join the revolution! – Enabling new modes of production in the contemporary Danish food system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsøe, Martin Hvarregaard; Kjeldsen, Chris; Noe, Egon

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Danish food system has undergone a transition in the past 10– 20 years, in which new quality conventions have evolved. Examples include increasing organic production and consumption, and increasing interest in local food, experience, community, taste and gastronomy. This article...... explores what influences if and how these new food trends are expressed in the food system. We conduct a comparative case study involving three product categories: craft beer, specialty flour and organic broilers. Craft beer and specialty flour have undergone a revolution, in which new flavours, products......, practices and social relations are generated; by contrast, organic broilers have remained a relatively stable product category. The case studies demonstrate that the revolution is not just taking place in one domain, but it implies a multidimensional reconfiguration of the food system where an emphasis...

  2. Broad host range ProUSER vectors enable fast characterization of inducible promoters and optimization of p-coumaric acid production in Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calero Valdayo, Patricia; Ingemann Jensen, Sheila; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard

    2016-01-01

    of ProUSER-reporter vectors was further created to characterize different inducible promoters. The PrhaB and Pm promoters were orthogonal and showed titratable, high, and homogeneous expression. To optimize the production of p-coumaric acid, P. putida was engineered to prevent degradation of tyrosine...... and p-coumaric acid. Pm and PrhaB were used to control the expression of a tyrosine ammonia lyase or AroG* and TyrA* involved in tyrosine production, respectively. Pathway expression was optimized by modulating inductions, resulting in small-scale p-coumaric acid production of 1.2 mM, the highest...... achieved in Pseudomonads under comparable conditions. With broad-host-range compatibility, the ProUSER vectors will serve as useful tools for optimizing gene expression in a variety of bacteria....

  3. Direct Electrolysis of Molten Lunar Regolith for the Production of Oxygen and Metals on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirk, Aislinn H. C.; Sadoway, Donald R.; Sibille, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    When considering the construction of a lunar base, the high cost ($ 100,000 a kilogram) of transporting materials to the surface of the moon is a significant barrier. Therefore in-situ resource utilization will be a key component of any lunar mission. Oxygen gas is a key resource, abundant on earth and absent on the moon. If oxygen could be produced on the moon, this provides a dual benefit. Not only does it no longer need to be transported to the surface for breathing purposes; it can also be used as a fuel oxidizer to support transportation of crew and other materials more cheaply between the surface of the moon, and lower earth orbit (approximately $20,000/kg). To this end a stable, robust (lightly manned) system is required to produce oxygen from lunar resources. Herein, we investigate the feasibility of producing oxygen, which makes up almost half of the weight of the moon by direct electrolysis of the molten lunar regolith thus achieving the generation of usable oxygen gas while producing primarily iron and silicon at the cathode from the tightly bound oxides. The silicate mixture (with compositions and mechanical properties corresponding to that of lunar regolith) is melted at temperatures near 1600 C. With an inert anode and suitable cathode, direct electrolysis (no supporting electrolyte) of the molten silicate is carried out, resulting in production of molten metallic products at the cathode and oxygen gas at the anode. The effect of anode material, sweep rate, and electrolyte composition on the electrochemical behavior was investigated and implications for scale-up are considered. The activity and stability of the candidate anode materials as well as the effect of the electrolyte composition were determined. Additionally, ex-situ capture and analysis of the anode gas to calculate the current efficiency under different voltages, currents and melt chemistries was carried out.

  4. Threshold criteria for heavy metals in the soils of hazard-free dry fruit production regions of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jianguang; LIU Yufang; GUO Suping; LI Baoguo; ZHOU Junyi; WANG Wenjiang

    2007-01-01

    Determination of proper threshold criteria for heavy metals in soils is an important basis for hazard-free dry fruit production in China.Based on the detection of heavy metal contents in soils in this study,it is initially concluded that the soils for dry fruit production in China are suitable for hazard-free growing.Moreover,the soil safety qualification for dry fruit production is much better than that in some developed countries or regions,which might help our production have a competitive advantage on the international market.However,soil Cr contents in the country are slightly higher,so that it is necessary to take steps to control any contamination during the whole chain of production.The following threshold criteria for heavy metals in soils is suggested according to physical,ecological and economical considerations:Hg 0.15 mg/kg;As 20mg/kg;Pb 50mg/kg;Cd 0.30 mg/kg and Gr 200 mg/kg.

  5. Enhanced photochemical hydrogen production by a molecular diiron catalyst incorporated into a metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullen, Sonja; Fei, Honghan; Orthaber, Andreas; Cohen, Seth M; Ott, Sascha

    2013-11-13

    A molecular proton reduction catalyst [FeFe](dcbdt)(CO)6 (1, dcbdt = 1,4-dicarboxylbenzene-2,3-dithiolate) with structural similarities to [FeFe]-hydrogenase active sites has been incorporated into a highly robust Zr(IV)-based metal-organic framework (MOF) by postsynthetic exchange (PSE). The PSE protocol is crucial as direct solvothermal synthesis fails to produce the functionalized MOF. The molecular integrity of the organometallic site within the MOF is demonstrated by a variety of techniques, including X-ray absorption spectroscopy. In conjunction with [Ru(bpy)3](2+) as a photosensitizer and ascorbate as an electron donor, MOF-[FeFe](dcbdt)(CO)6 catalyzes photochemical hydrogen evolution in water at pH 5. The immobilized catalyst shows substantially improved initial rates and overall hydrogen production when compared to a reference system of complex 1 in solution. Improved catalytic performance is ascribed to structural stabilization of the complex when incorporated in the MOF as well as the protection of reduced catalysts 1(-) and 1(2-) from undesirable charge recombination with oxidized ascorbate.

  6. Investigation of Product Performance of Al-Metal Matrix Composites Brake Disc using Finite Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatchurrohman, N.; Marini, C. D.; Suraya, S.; Iqbal, AKM Asif

    2016-02-01

    The increasing demand of fuel efficiency and light weight components in automobile sectors have led to the development of advanced material parts with improved performance. A specific class of MMCs which has gained a lot of attention due to its potential is aluminium metal matrix composites (Al-MMCs). Product performance investigation of Al- MMCs is presented in this article, where an Al-MMCs brake disc is analyzed using finite element analysis. The objective is to identify the potentiality of replacing the conventional iron brake disc with Al-MMCs brake disc. The simulation results suggested that the MMCs brake disc provided better thermal and mechanical performance as compared to the conventional cast iron brake disc. Although, the Al-MMCs brake disc dissipated higher maximum temperature compared to cast iron brake disc's maximum temperature. The Al-MMCs brake disc showed a well distributed temperature than the cast iron brake disc. The high temperature developed at the ring of the disc and heat was dissipated in circumferential direction. Moreover, better thermal dissipation and conduction at brake disc rotor surface played a major influence on the stress. As a comparison, the maximum stress and strain of Al-MMCs brake disc was lower than that induced on the cast iron brake disc.

  7. Biodiesel production using alkali earth metal oxides catalysts synthesized by sol-gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Mohadesi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel fuel is considered as an alternative to diesel fuel. This fuel is produced through transesterification reactions of vegetable oils or animal fat by alcohols in the presence of different catalysts. Recent studies on this process have shown that, basic heterogeneous catalysts have a higher performance than other catalysts. In this study different alkali earth metal oxides (CaO, MgO and BaO doped SiO2 were used as catalyst for the biodiesel production process. These catalysts were synthesis by using the sol-gel method. A transesterification reaction was studied after 8h by mixing corn oil, methanol (methanol to oil molar ratio of 16:1, and 6 wt. % catalyst (based on oil at 60oC and 600rpm. Catalyst loading was studied for different catalysts ranging in amounts from 40, 60 to 80%. The purity and yield of the produced biodiesel for 60% CaO/SiO2 was higher than other catalysts and at 97.3% and 82.1%, respectively.

  8. INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL AND VALUE CREATION IN THE METAL PRODUCTS MANUFACTURING SEGMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Francisco Aguiar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The historical evolution of the ratio of investments in intangible assets over GNP in the US economy from 1959 to 2007 – which reached 8 to 10% in 2007 - indicates a positive long term trend that is as relevant as the rate of investments in tangible assets in terms of the GNP, during the same timeframe.  The most surprising fact however, was the expansion beyond expectations over the last 40 years. According to international researchers, this trend is due to a combination of a series of causes, such as the financial globalization, market deregulation and exponential growth of technological changes, rousing the interest of entrepreneurs, scholars and researchers in becoming acquainted with indicators, classifying and ideating these so as to comprehend the value creation  process within companies. The purpose of this line of research was to test Pulic´s Value Added Intellectual Coefficient Model (2000, so as to evaluate its significance in creating value, as applied to the Metal Products Manufacturing segment, utilizing an adjusted data base obtained from the Brazilian Geography and Statistics Institute´s (IBGE Annual Industrial Research (PIA for the period 2000 to 2006, comprising companies with more than 100 employees throughout Brazil, resorting to a panel of static data. Results obtained demonstrate a positive relationship between VAIC and value creation as well as between the Calculated Intangible Value – CIV, (explanatory variable and value creation. Key-Words:  Intellectual Capital. VAIC. Value Creation. IBGE (Brazilian Geography and Statistics Institute.

  9. Highly Active and Specific Tyrosine Ammonia-Lyases from Diverse Origins Enable Enhanced Production of Aromatic Compounds in Bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jendresen, Christian Bille; Stahlhut, Steen Gustav; Li, Mingji;

    2015-01-01

    of p-coumaric acid in several different industrially important production organisms. Three novel enzymes were found to have activity exclusively for phenylalanine, including an enzyme from the low-GC Gram-positive bacterium Brevibacillus laterosporus, a bacterial-type enzyme from the amoeba...

  10. Novel CO{sub 2}-emulsified viscoelastic surfactant fracturing fluid system enables commercial production from bypassed pay in the Olmos Formation of south Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semmelbeck, M.E.; Deupree, W.E.; Von Plonski, J.K. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Escondido Resources, Calgary, AB (Canada); Mueller, F.A.; Chen, Y.; Lewis, J.W.; Keto, L.K.; Fairhurst, D.L.; Pope, T.L. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This paper described the Olmos Formation in the Caterina southwest field in Texas, along with its properties, such as permeabilities, production levels and the number of wells drilled and completed in the area. In order to improve the Olmos production, a new carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emulsified viscoelastic surfactant fluid system (VES) was implemented. The VES-CO{sub 2} has highly retainable proppant rock permeability and its rheological behavior is controllable. The Olmos Formation consists of three Upper Cretaceous clastic wedges deposited in the Maverick Basin of the Rio Grande embayment. The Olmos production comprises several oil and gas reservoirs occurring as multiple stacks in low-relief anticlinal traps. Stimulation of the Olmos Formation was also presented along with a discussion on reservoir stimulation, stimulation considerations, rheological behavior, and case history of the area. It was concluded that when compared to polymer-based fluids energized with carbon dioxide, a VES surfactant-based fluid energized with carbon dioxide had better production. The study also revealed that a carbon dioxide-based fracturing fluid that is compatible with VES technology can be developed using the same low-viscosity and proppant transport characteristics found in former VES-based fluid systems. 8 refs., 12 figs.

  11. Systems biology and pathway engineering enable Saccharomyces cerevisiae to utilize C-5 and C-6 sugars simultaneously for cellulosic ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a traditional industrial workhorse for ethanol production. However, conventional ethanologenic yeast is superior in fermentation of hexose sugars (C-6) such as glucose but unable to utilize pentose sugars (C-5) such as xylose richly embedded in lignocellulosic biomass. In...

  12. RNA sensors enable human mast cell anti-viral chemokine production and IFN-mediated protection in response to antibody-enhanced dengue virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G Brown

    Full Text Available Dengue hemorrhagic fever and/or dengue shock syndrome represent the most serious pathophysiological manifestations of human dengue virus infection. Despite intensive research, the mechanisms and important cellular players that contribute to dengue disease are unclear. Mast cells are tissue-resident innate immune cells that play a sentinel cell role in host protection against infectious agents via pathogen-recognition receptors by producing potent mediators that modulate inflammation, cell recruitment and normal vascular homeostasis. Most importantly, mast cells are susceptible to antibody-enhanced dengue virus infection and respond with selective cytokine and chemokine responses. In order to obtain a global view of dengue virus-induced gene regulation in mast cells, primary human cord blood-derived mast cells (CBMCs and the KU812 and HMC-1 mast cell lines were infected with dengue virus in the presence of dengue-immune sera and their responses were evaluated at the mRNA and protein levels. Mast cells responded to antibody-enhanced dengue virus infection or polyinosiniċpolycytidylic acid treatment with the production of type I interferons and the rapid and potent production of chemokines including CCL4, CCL5 and CXCL10. Multiple interferon-stimulated genes were also upregulated as well as mRNA and protein for the RNA sensors PKR, RIG-I and MDA5. Dengue virus-induced chemokine production by KU812 cells was significantly modulated by siRNA knockdown of RIG-I and PKR, in a negative and positive manner, respectively. Pretreatment of fresh KU812 cells with supernatants from dengue virus-infected mast cells provided protection from subsequent infection with dengue virus in a type I interferon-dependent manner. These findings support a role for tissue-resident mast cells in the early detection of antibody-enhanced dengue virus infection via RNA sensors, the protection of neighbouring cells through interferon production and the potential recruitment of

  13. "Eurocode International Blood Labeling System" enables unique identification of all biological products from human origin in accordance with the European Directive 2004/23/EC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knels, Ralf; Mönig, Hans-Joachim; Wittmann, Georg; von Versen, Rüdiger; Pruss, Axel

    2010-11-01

    Due to their limited availability and compatibility, biological products must be exchanged between medical institutions. In addition to a number of national systems and agreements which strive to implement a unique identification and classification of blood products, the ISBT 128 was developed in 1994, followed by the Eurocode in 1998. In contrast to other coding systems, these both make use of primary identifiers as stipulated by the document ISO/IEC 15418 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and thus provide a unique international code. Due to their flexible data structures, which make use of secondary identifiers, both systems are able to integrate additional biological products and their producers. Tissue and cells also constitute a comparable risk to the recipient as that of blood products in terms of false labeling and the danger of infection. However, in contrast to blood products, the exchange of tissue and cells is much more intensively pursued at the international level. This fact is recognised by Directives 2004/23/EC and 2006/86/EC of the European Union (EU), which demand a standardized coding system for cells and tissue throughout the EU. The 2008 workshop agreement of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) was unique identification by means of a Key Code consisting of country code corresponding to ISO 3166-1, as well as competent authority and tissue establishment. As agreed at the meeting of the Working Group on the European Coding System for Human Tissues and Cells of the Health and Consumers Directorate-General of the European Commission (DG SANCO) held on 19 May 2010 in Brussels, this Key Code could also be used with existing coding systems to provide unique identification and allow EU traceability of all materials from one donation event. Today Eurocode already uses country codes according to ISO 3166-1, and thus the proposed Key Code can be integrated into the current Eurocode data structure and does not need to

  14. Archaeological reconstruction of medieval lead production: Implications for ancient metal provenance studies and paleopollution tracing by Pb isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, Sandrine, E-mail: baron@lmtg.obs-mip.fr [Laboratoire des Travaux et Recherches Archeologiques sur les Cultures, les Espaces et les Societes, Universite Toulouse 2 Le Mirail, CNRS UMR 5608, Maison de la Recherche, 5 allee Antonio-Machado, 31 058 Toulouse Cedex 09 (France); Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et Geochimiques, Nancy Universite, CNRS UPR 2300, BP 20, 15 rue Notre Dame des Pauvres, 54 501 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Le-Carlier, Cecile [Centre de Recherche en Archeologie, Archeosciences, Histoire, Universite Rennes 1, CNRS UMR 6566, Bat 24-25, Campus de Beaulieu 35042 Rennes, Cedex (France); Carignan, Jean; Ploquin, Alain [Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et Geochimiques, Nancy Universite, CNRS UPR 2300, BP 20, 15 rue Notre Dame des Pauvres, 54 501 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2009-11-15

    The identification of metal provenance is often based on chemical and Pb isotope analyses of materials from the operating chain, mainly ores and metallic artefacts. Such analyses, however, have their limits. Some studies are unable to trace metallic artefacts or ingots to their ore sources, even in well-constrained archaeological contexts. Possible reasons for this difficulty are to be found among a variety of limiting factors: (i) problems of ore signatures, (ii) mixing of different ores (alloys), (iii) the use of additives during the metallurgical process, (iv) metal recycling and (v) possible Pb isotopic fractionation during metal production. This paper focuses on the issue of Pb isotope fractionation during smelting to address the issue of metal provenance. Through an experimental reconstruction of argentiferous Pb production in the medieval period, an attempt was made to better understand and interpret the Pb isotopic composition of ore smelting products. It is shown that the measured differences (outside the total external uncertainties of 0.005 (2*sd) for {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb ratios) in Pb signatures measured between ores, slag and smoke are not due to Pb mass fractionation processes, but to (1) ore heterogeneity ({Delta}{sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb{sub slag-ores} = 0.066) and (2) the use of additives during the metallurgical process ({Delta}{sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb{sub slag-ores} = 0.083). Even if these differences are due to causes (1) and/or (2), smoke from the ore reduction appears to reflect the ore mining area without a significant disturbance of its Pb signature for all the isotopic ratios ({Delta}{sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb{sub smokes-ores} = 0.026). Thus, because the isotopic heterogeneity of the mining district and additives is averaged in slags, slag appears as the most relevant product to identify ancient metal provenance. Whereas aiming at identifying a given mine seems beyond the possibilities provided by the method, searching for the mining district

  15. Leading research on next generation metal production technology; Jisedai kinzoku shigen seisan gijutsu no sendo kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The energy saving environment-friendly technology for low- grade difficult-to-process ores was researched focusing attention on the hydro-metallurgical process of non-ferrous metals. This research aims at development of both effective leaching system of metals, and separation/crystallization system recognizing the property difference between metal ions in solution. The leaching system allows the inexpensive molecular level control of electron transfer, mass transfer of metal ions and stabilization of leached metal ions in a solid/liquid interface. The system thus allows selective leaching of metals from various resources such as difficult- to-leach sulfide minerals to prepare concentrated solutions. The separation system can obtain high-purity solutions including each metal ion by advanced separation/concentration technology from the solutions. The crystallization technology (including electrolysis) is developed for preparing target metal materials by molecular level control of nucleation, particle growth, thin film formation and bulky metal formation processes. Overall energy consumption is reduced to 1/3 of that of the pyro-metallurgical method, aiming at zero emission. 15 refs., 14 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. Photoelectrochemical water splitting for hydrogen production with metal oxide (hematite and cupric oxide) based photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Houwen

    Solar hydrogen is one ideal energy source to replace fossil fuel, as it is sustainable and environmentally friendly. Solar hydrogen can be generated in a number of ways. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is one of the most promising methods for solar-to-chemical energy conversion. In this research project, metal oxide-based photocatalysts, especially hematite (α-Fe 2O3) and cupric oxide (CuO), were investigated for use as electrodes in PEC water splitting for solar hydrogen production. In our research project of hematite-based electrodes, we started with the incorporation of transition metal, particularly titanium (Ti), in hematite thin films to modify the valence and conduction band edges of hematite. We found that Ti impurities improve the electron conductivity of hematite and consequently lead to significantly enhanced photocurrents. We further investigated the Ti and Mg co-alloyed hematite. In this case, Ti is the donor and Mg is the acceptor in hematite. The co-alloying approach enhanced the solubility of Mg and Ti, which led to reduced electron effective mass and therefore increased electron mobility. Also, co-alloying tunes the carrier density and therefore allows the optimization of electrical conductivity. The densities of charged defects were found to be reduced, and therefore carrier recombinations were reduced. As a result, the Ti and Mg co-alloyed hematite thin films exhibited much improved performance in PEC water splitting as compared to pure hematite thin films. For the study of cupric oxide-based electrodes, we first investigated the possibility of reducing the electrode corrosion of cupric oxide in aqueous solutions by incorporating Ti as an electrode corrosion inhibitor. We found that Ti alloying can enhance the stability of cupric oxide in base solutions at the cost of reducing its crystallinity and optical absorption, and consequently lowering its photon-to-electron conversion efficiency. In order to balance the stability and the

  17. Evolution of thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch stars - II. Dust production at varying metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanni, Ambra; Bressan, Alessandro; Marigo, Paola; Girardi, Léo

    2013-09-01

    We present the dust ejecta of the new stellar models for the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) phase computed with the COLIBRI code. We use a formalism of dust growth coupled with a stationary wind for both M- and C-stars. In the original version of this formalism, the most efficient destruction process of silicate dust in M-giants is chemisputtering by H2 molecules. For these stars, we find that dust grains can only form at relatively large radial distances (r ˜ 5R*), where they cannot be efficiently accelerated, in agreement with other investigations. In the light of recent laboratory results, we also consider the alternative case that the condensation temperature of silicates is determined only by the competition between growth and free evaporation processes (i.e. no chemisputtering). With this latter approach we obtain dust condensation temperatures that are significantly higher (up to Tcond ˜ 1400 K) than those found when chemisputtering is included (Tcond ˜ 900 K), and in better agreement with condensation experiments. As a consequence, silicate grains can remain stable in inner regions of the circumstellar envelopes (r ˜ 2 R*), where they can rapidly grow and can be efficiently accelerated. With this modification, our models nicely reproduce the observed trend between terminal velocities and mass-loss rates of Galactic M-giants. For C-stars the formalism is based on the homogeneous growth scheme where the key role is played by the carbon over oxygen excess. The models reproduce fairly well the terminal velocities of Galactic stars and there is no need to invoke changes in the standard assumptions. At decreasing metallicity the carbon excess becomes more pronounced and the efficiency of dust formation increases. This trend could be in tension with recent observational evidence in favour of a decreasing efficiency, at decreasing metallicity. If confirmed by more observational data, it would indicate that either the amount of the carbon

  18. Critical Firm-based Enablers-Mediators-Outcomes (CFEMOs): A New Integrated Model for Product Innovation Performance Drivers in the Context of U.S. Restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Mohamed Farouk Shehata

    2016-01-01

    This study develops an original theoretical model of critical managerially controllable factors that have high potential for achieving significant improvements in the (intermediate and ultimate) outcome(s) of product innovation efforts. To this end, the author draws on the relevant empirical literature and integrates four complementary theoretical perspectives, namely; the critical success factors (CSFs) approach, the resource-based view (RBV), the input-process-output (IPO) model, and the sy...

  19. Organising to Enable Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this conceptual paper is to reveal how organising can enable innovation across organisational layers and organisational units. This approach calls for a cross-disciplinary literature review. The aim is to provide an integrated understanding of innovation in an organisational approa...... of explorative and exploitative learning in uncertain environments. Shedding light on the cross-disciplinary theories to organise innovation provides a contribution at the firm level to enable innovation.......The purpose of this conceptual paper is to reveal how organising can enable innovation across organisational layers and organisational units. This approach calls for a cross-disciplinary literature review. The aim is to provide an integrated understanding of innovation in an organisational approach....... The findings reveal a continous organising process between individual/ team creativity and organisational structures/control to enable innovation at firm level. Organising provides a dynamic approach and contains the integrated reconstruction of creativity, structures and boundaries for enhanced balance...

  20. Usage of Liquid Metals in the Positron Production System of Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Mikhailichenko, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In this publication we collected descriptions of some installations with liquid metals which could be used for high-energy colliders, ILC particularly, for the purposes of targeting, collimation, cooling, collection of secondary particles etc. Some important components of the system with liquid metals, such as pumps, nozzles, windows, and the fluid dynamics in the Lithium lens are described also.

  1. Production of small diameter high-temperature-strength refractory metal wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrasek, D. W.; Signorelli, R. A.; King, G. W.

    1973-01-01

    Special thermomechanical techniques (schedules) have been developed to produce small diameter wire from three refractory metal alloys: colombian base alloy, tantalum base alloy, and tungsten base alloy. High strengths of these wires indicate their potential for contributing increased strength to metallic composites.

  2. Structures of the Dehydrogenation Products of Methane Activation by 5d Transition Metal Cations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapoutre, V.J.F.; Redlich, B.; Meer, A.F.G.; Oomens, J.; Bakker, J.M.; Sweeney, A.; Mookherjee, A.; Armentrout, P.B.

    2013-01-01

    The activation of methane by gas-phase transition metal cations (M+) has been studied extensively, both experimentally and using density functional theory (DFT). Methane is exothermically dehydrogenated by several 5d metal ions to form [M,C,2H](+) and H-2. However, the structure of the

  3. Structures of the dehydrogenation products of methane activation by 5d transition metal cations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapoutre, V. J. F.; Redlich, B.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Oomens, J.; Bakker, J. M.; Sweeney, A.; Mookherjee, A.; Armentrout, P. B.

    2013-01-01

    The activation of methane by gas-phase transition metal cations (M +) has been studied extensively, both experimentally and using density functional theory (DFT). Methane is exothermically dehydrogenated by several 5d metal ions to form [M,C,2H]+ and H2. However, the structure of the dehydrogenation

  4. Structures of the dehydrogenation products of methane activation by 5d transition metal cations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapoutre, V. J. F.; Redlich, B.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Oomens, J.; Bakker, J. M.; Sweeney, A.; Mookherjee, A.; Armentrout, P. B.

    2013-01-01

    The activation of methane by gas-phase transition metal cations (M +) has been studied extensively, both experimentally and using density functional theory (DFT). Methane is exothermically dehydrogenated by several 5d metal ions to form [M,C,2H]+ and H2. However, the structure of the dehydrogenation

  5. Global exploration and production capacity for platinum-group metals from 1995 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Platinum-group metals (PGMs) are required in a variety of commercial, industrial, and military applications for many existing and emerging technologies, yet the United States is highly dependent on foreign sources of PGMs. Information on global exploration for PGMs since 1995 has been used in this study as a basis for identifying locations where the industry has determined that exploration has provided data sufficient to warrant development of a new mine or expansion of an existing operation or where a significant increase in capacity for PGMs is anticipated by 2015. Discussions include an overview of the industry and the selected sites, factors affecting mineral supply, and circumstances leading to the development of mineral properties with the potential to affect mineral supply. Of the 52 sites or regional operations that were considered in this analysis, 16 sites were producing before 1995, 28 sites commenced production from 1995 through 2010, and 8 sites were expected to begin production from 2011 through 2015 if development plans came to fruition. The United States imports PGMs primarily from Canada, Russia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe to meet increasing demand for these materials in a variety of specialized and high-tech applications. Feed sources of PGMs are changing in South Africa and Russia, which together accounted for about 89 percent of platinum production and 82 percent of palladium production in 2009. A greater amount of South African PGM capacity is likely to come from deeper, higher cost Upper Group Reef seam 2 deposits and deposits in the Eastern Bushveld area. Future Russian PGM capacity is likely to come from ore zones with generally lower PGM content and different platinum-to-palladium ratios than the nickel-rich ore that dominated PGM supply in the 1990s. Because PGM supply from Canada and Russia is derived as a byproduct of copper and nickel mining, the PGM supply from these countries is influenced by economic, environmental, political, and

  6. Heavy metal content of selected personal care products (PCPs available in Ibadan, Nigeria and their toxic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Samuel Omenka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern on heavy metals in consumer products due to their potential human health risks and environmental effects. In this study, the levels of zinc, cadmium, lead and nickel were assessed in 3 different classes of personal care products commonly used in Ibadan, Nigeria. Samples were analysed for heavy metals using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS after acid digestion. Estimated daily intake (EDI of the metals and Health Risk Index (HRI were calculated to assess the human health risks associated with the use of these PCPs. The concentrations (mg/kg of zinc ranged from 3.75 to 19.3, 1.88 to 112,000 and 19.8 to 217 respectively in creams, powders and eyeliners. Cadmium ranged from ND—0.50, ND—36.3 and ND—0.50 mg/kg while lead ranged from ND—6.25, ND—468 and 3.73–27.5 mg/kg and nickel ranged from ND—6.25, 0.13–107 and 2.75–22.7 mg/kg respectively. There were high concentrations of Cd, Pb and Ni in some of the samples when compared with the available permissible limits in cosmetics (Cd: 0.3 ppm, Pb: 10 ppm and Ni: 0.6 ppm while there is no permissible limit for Zn in cosmetics currently available. Prolonged use of PCPs may pose human health and environmental risks due to toxic metal loading through dermal contact and accumulation over a period of time. Hence, the need for necessary government agencies to regulate and enforce toxic metals in consumer products including cosmetics produced and imported into Nigeria to safeguard public health and the environment, which is the final sink.

  7. To 'enable our legal product to compete effectively with the transit market': British American Tobacco's strategies in Thailand following the 1990 GATT dispute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Ross; Lee, Kelley; LeGresley, Eric

    2015-08-21

    The opening of the Thai tobacco market, following action brought by the US Trade Representative under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, is seen as a key case study of the tensions between trade and health policy. Interpretations of the dispute cast it, either as an example of how trade agreements undermine national policy-making, or how governments can adopt effective public health protections compliant with international trade rules. As a UK-based company, British American Tobacco has been regarded as peripheral to this dispute. This paper argues that its close monitoring of the illegal trade during this period, the role of smuggling in the company's global business strategy, and its management of the relative supply and pricing of legal and illegal products after market opening provide a fuller understanding of the interests and roles of transnational tobacco companies and the government in this dispute. The findings have important policy implications, notably the role of effective governance in countries facing pressure to open their tobacco sectors, need to better understand corporate-level activities within an increasingly globalised tobacco industry, and need to address the intertwined legal and illegal trade in implementing the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products.

  8. Contamination trends of trace metals and coupling with algal productivity in sediment cores in Pearl River Delta, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Dandan; Ran, Yong; Cheng, Hefa; Chen, Jing'an; Wan, Guojiang

    2014-05-01

    Several sediment cores from the Pearl River Delta were collected to investigate the relationship of trace metal contamination with algae-derived organic matter in the last 50 years. Trace metals were analyzed with ICP-MS, and algal organic matter (AOM) was measured with Rock-Eval pyrolysis. It was found that Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, and As were elevated in the last three decades from three reservoirs, while all of the target metals showed no significant enrichment in estuarine sediment cores. Cu, Cr, Co, Cd, Zn, Ag, Ni, As, and Mn normalized to Ti were strongly associated with AOM in the sediments of eutrophic reservoirs, suggesting that AOM played an important role in controlling the accumulation of trace metals. Principal component analysis (PCA) and enrichment factor (EF) were also used to assess the enrichment of trace metals. The above result indicated that the sedimentary process of As, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Co, Ag, and Mn was significantly affected or/and controlled by primary productivity in eutrophic, non-point polluted reservoirs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Large-scale decontamination and decommissioning technology demonstration project at a former uranium metal production facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineit, R.A.; Borgman, T.D.; Peters, M.S.; Stebbins, L.L. [and others

    1997-03-05

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Science and Technology Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Focus Area, led by the Federal Energy Technology Center, has been charged with improving upon baseline D&D technologies with the goal of demonstrating and validating more cost-effective and safer technologies to characterize, deactivate, survey, decontaminate, dismantle, and dispose of surplus structures, buildings, and their contents at DOE sites. The D&D Focus Area`s approach to verifying the benefits of the improved D&D technologies is to use them in large-scale technology demonstration (LSTD) projects at several DOE sites. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) was selected to host one of the first three LSTD`s awarded by the D&D Focus Area. The FEMP is a DOE facility near Cincinnati, Ohio, that was formerly engaged in the production of high quality uranium metal. The FEMP is a Superfund site which has completed its RUFS process and is currently undergoing environmental restoration. With the FEMP`s selection to host an LSTD, the FEMP was immediately faced with some challenges. The primary challenge was that this LSTD was to be integrated into the FEMP`s Plant 1 D&D Project which was an ongoing D&D Project for which a firm fixed price contract had been issued to the D&D Contractor. Thus, interferences with the baseline D&D project could have significant financial implications. Other challenges include defining and selecting meaningful technology demonstrations, finding/selecting technology providers, and integrating the technology into the baseline D&D project. To date, twelve technologies have been selected, and six have been demonstrated. The technology demonstrations have yielded a high proportion of {open_quotes}winners.{close_quotes} All demonstrated, technologies will be evaluated for incorporation into the FEMP`s baseline D&D strategy.

  10. BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND HEAVY METAL ABSORPTION BY FOUR PLANTS GROWN AT THE MORAVIA DUMP, MEDELLIN, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Hernan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Dumps are sites where the presence of high heavy metal (HM concentration is a common occurrence, creating the need for implementing restoration processes immediately after their closure. In the 7.6 ha and 45 m high Morro de Moravia dump, arose from the disposal of Medellín solid wastes from 1974 to 1984, previous studies have demonstrated high contents of contaminants, including HM, prompting the need to identify effective mechanisms to implement its restoration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the adaptation, growth and phytoremediation capacity of Bidens pilosa, Lepidium virginicum, Brachiaria decumbens and Arachis pintoi. Content of HM (mg/kg in Moravia residue matrix went from 17 to 8193 for Pb, 44 to 564 for Cr, 0.2 to 339 for Cd and 77 to 1679 for Ni. Measurements of plant cover, plant height and dry matter production at all plant species studied suggested adequate growth and adaptation to the Moravia dump conditions. Plant absorption of HM showed the pattern Cr > Cd > Ni > Pb. Estimated bioconcentration factors were generally low, and maximum values were 0.36 in A. pintoi (Cr, 2.96 in B. pilosa (Cd and 0.26 in B. decumbens (Ni. However, our estimations of the phytoremediation potential of the assayed species, suggested they possess low remediation efficiency. Further investigation should be carried out in order to identify more efficient HM accumulators, and to test the use of technologies such as modification of pH, rhizoremediation or the use of genetically enhanced accumulators to increase HM availability to plants

  11. Peat and its modification products as sorbents for remeval of metals, metalloids and nonmetallic elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavins, Maris; Ansone, Linda; Robalds, Artis; Dudare, Diana

    2013-04-01

    For remediation of soils and purification of waters biosorbents might be considered as an prospective group of materials and amongst them peat have a special role due to low cost, biodegradability, high number of functional groups, well developed surface area and combination of hydrophilic/hydrophobic structural elements. We have demonstrated the possibilities to use peat and its thermal treatment products for oil sorption. Peat as an oil sorbent has poor buoyancy characteristics, relatively low oil sorption capacity and low hydrophobicity. However, thermal treatment (low-temperature pyrolysis and synthesis of peat-based active coal) helps to significantly improve its sorptive characteristics. The processes and structural changes taking place during low-temperature pyrolysis have been studied by means of IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and scanning electron microscopy. Peat can be used also as an efficient sorbent for sorption of metallic elements as it has been demonstrated on example of Tl+, Cu2+, Cr3+, however sorption capacity in respect to nonmetallic (anionic species) elements is low. To develop such application possibilities peat, peat modified with iron compounds, iron humates were prepared and tested for sorption of arsenic and phosphorous compounds in comparison with weakly basic anionites. The highest sorption capacity was observed when peat sorbents modified with iron compounds were used. Sorption of different arsenic speciation forms onto iron-modified peat sorbents was investigated as a function of pH and temperature. It was established that sorption capacity increases with a rise in temperature, and the calculation of sorption process thermodynamic parameters indicates the spontaneity of sorption process and its endothermic nature.

  12. Mining for metals in society's waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Hageman, Philip L.

    2015-01-01

    Metals are crucial to society and enable our modern standard of living. Look around and you can't help but see products made of metals. For instance, a typical gasoline-powered automobile contains over a ton of iron and steel, 240 pounds of aluminum, 42 pounds of copper, 41 pounds of silicon, 22 pounds of zinc and more than 30 other mineral commodities including titanium, platinum and gold.

  13. The use of tobacco mosaic virus and cowpea mosaic virus for the production of novel metal nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Andrew J; Makarov, Valentine; Yaminsky, Igor; Kalinina, Natalia O; Taliansky, Michael E

    2014-01-20

    Due to the nanoscale size and the strictly controlled and consistent morphologies of viruses, there has been a recent interest in utilizing them in nanotechnology. The structure, surface chemistries and physical properties of many viruses have been well elucidated, which have allowed identification of regions of their capsids which can be modified either chemically or genetically for nanotechnological uses. In this review we focus on the use of such modifications for the functionalization and production of viruses and empty viral capsids that can be readily decorated with metals in a highly tuned manner. In particular, we discuss the use of two plant viruses (Cowpea mosaic virus and Tobacco mosaic virus) which have been extensively used for production of novel metal nanoparticles (<100nm), composites and building blocks for 2D and 3D materials, and illustrate their applications.

  14. The Role of Primary 16O as a Neutron Poison in AGB stars and Fluorine primary production at Halo Metallicities

    CERN Document Server

    Gallino, R; Cristallo, S; Straniero, O

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of a historical bug in the s-post-process AGB code obtained so far by the Torino group forced us to reconsider the role of primary 16O in the 13C-pocket, produced by the 13C(a, n)16O reaction, as important neutron poison for the build up of the s-elements at Halo metallicities. The effect is noticeable only for the highest 13C-pocket efficiencies (cases ST*2 and ST). For Galactic disc metallicities, the bug effect is negligible. A comparative analysis of the neutron poison effect of other primary isotopes (12C, 22Ne and its progenies) is presented. The effect of proton captures, by 14N(n, p)14C, boosts a primary production of Fluorine in Halo AGB stars, with [F/Fe] comparable to [C/Fe], without affecting the s-elements production.

  15. Global exploration and production capacity for platinum-group metals from 1995 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Platinum-group metals (PGMs) are required in a variety of commercial, industrial, and military applications for many existing and emerging technologies, yet the United States is highly dependent on foreign sources of PGMs. Information on global exploration for PGMs since 1995 has been used in this study as a basis for identifying locations where the industry has determined that exploration has provided data sufficient to warrant development of a new mine or expansion of an existing operation or where a significant increase in capacity for PGMs is anticipated by 2015. Discussions include an overview of the industry and the selected sites, factors affecting mineral supply, and circumstances leading to the development of mineral properties with the potential to affect mineral supply. Of the 52 sites or regional operations that were considered in this analysis, 16 sites were producing before 1995, 28 sites commenced production from 1995 through 2010, and 8 sites were expected to begin production from 2011 through 2015 if development plans came to fruition. The United States imports PGMs primarily from Canada, Russia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe to meet increasing demand for these materials in a variety of specialized and high-tech applications. Feed sources of PGMs are changing in South Africa and Russia, which together accounted for about 89 percent of platinum production and 82 percent of palladium production in 2009. A greater amount of South African PGM capacity is likely to come from deeper, higher cost Upper Group Reef seam 2 deposits and deposits in the Eastern Bushveld area. Future Russian PGM capacity is likely to come from ore zones with generally lower PGM content and different platinum-to-palladium ratios than the nickel-rich ore that dominated PGM supply in the 1990s. Because PGM supply from Canada and Russia is derived as a byproduct of copper and nickel mining, the PGM supply from these countries is influenced by economic, environmental, political, and

  16. Mechanochemical production of nanocomposites of metal/oxide and intermetallic/oxide systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoryeva, T F; Barinova, A P; Ancharov, A I; Vorsina, I A; Lyakhov, N Z [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novakova, A A; Kiseleva, T Yu [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Talako, T L [Institute of Powder Metallurgy, NAS of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus); Becker, K D; Sepelak, V [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Braunschweig University of Technology, Braunschweig (Germany); Tsybulya, S V; Bulavchenko, O A, E-mail: grig@solid.nsc.r [G.K. Boreskov Institute of Catalysts, SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-01-01

    Addition of nanosized intermetallic or metallic phases into corundum considerably raises mechanical behavior of the material. In this work, the nanocomposites of alpha-Al{sup 2}O{sup 3}/intermetallic and alpha-Al{sup 2}O{sup 3}/metal systems were obtained by mechanochemical reduction of alpha-Fe{sup 2}O{sup 3} by Al (and by solid solution of Al in Fe). The mechanochemical reduction process of hematite by various amount of metal-reducer was studied by IR and Moessbauer spectroscopies, and by X-ray synchrotron radiation diffraction technique.

  17. The Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Slaug, Bjørn; Brandt, Åse

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients and their home environments. The instrument was translated...... from the original Swedish version of the Housing Enabler, and adapted according to accessibility norms and guidelines for housing design in Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Iceland. This iterative process involved occupational therapists, architects, building engineers and professional translators......, resulting in the Nordic Housing Enabler. For reliability testing, the sampling strategy and data collection procedures used were the same in all countries. Twenty voluntary occupational therapists, pair-wise but independently from each other, collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing...

  18. Organising to Enable Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove

    2016-01-01

    . The findings reveal a continous organising process between individual/ team creativity and organisational structures/control to enable innovation at firm level. Organising provides a dynamic approach and contains the integrated reconstruction of creativity, structures and boundaries for enhanced balance......The purpose of this conceptual paper is to reveal how organising can enable innovation across organisational layers and organisational units. This approach calls for a cross-disciplinary literature review. The aim is to provide an integrated understanding of innovation in an organisational approach...... of explorative and exploitative learning in uncertain environments. Shedding light on the cross-disciplinary theories to organise innovation provides a contribution at the firm level to enable innovation....

  19. Xylose isomerase overexpression along with engineering of the pentose phosphate pathway and evolutionary engineering enable rapid xylose utilization and ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hang; Cheng, Jing-Sheng; Wang, Benjamin L; Fink, Gerald R; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2012-11-01

    Xylose is the main pentose and second most abundant sugar in lignocellulosic feedstocks. To improve xylose utilization, necessary for the cost-effective bioconversion of lignocellulose, several metabolic engineering approaches have been employed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we describe the rational metabolic engineering of a S. cerevisiae strain, including overexpression of the Piromyces xylose isomerase gene (XYLA), Pichia stipitis xylulose kinase (XYL3) and genes of the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). This engineered strain (H131-A3) was used to initialize a three-stage process of evolutionary engineering, through first aerobic and anaerobic sequential batch cultivation followed by growth in a xylose-limited chemostat. The evolved strain H131-A3-AL(CS) displayed significantly increased anaerobic growth rate (0.203±0.006 h⁻¹) and xylose consumption rate (1.866 g g⁻¹ h⁻¹) along with high ethanol conversion yield (0.41 g/g). These figures exceed by a significant margin any other performance metrics on xylose utilization and ethanol production by S. cerevisiae reported to-date. Further inverse metabolic engineering based on functional complementation suggested that efficient xylose assimilation is attributed, in part, to the elevated expression level of xylose isomerase, which was accomplished through the multiple-copy integration of XYLA in the chromosome of the evolved strain.

  20. An intelligent system for calculating the scale of rational, enlarged production of an underground non-ferrous metal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ming-gui; CAI Si-jing

    2008-01-01

    The enlarged production scale of underground non-ferrous metal mines is affected by many uncertain factors difficult to describe mathematically with any level of accuracy. The problem can be solved by a synthesis of artificial intelligence. Based on the analysis of the major factors affecting the scale of enlarged production, we first interpreted in detail the design principles and structure of the intelligent system. Secondly, we introduced an ANN subsystem. In order to ensure technological and scale efficiencies of the training samples for ANN, we filtrated the samples with a DEA method. Finally, we trained the intelligent system, which was proved to be very efficient.

  1. Evaluation and development of integrated technology of rare metal concentrate production in high-level ore processing at Zashikhinsk deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhulya, MS; Mukhina, TN; Ivanova, V. A.; Mitrofanova, G. V.; Fomin, A. V.; Sokolov, VD

    2017-02-01

    The authors discuss material constitution of columbite ore sample and recommend optimized pretreatment modes to obtain ball milling products at the maximum dissociation of ore minerals in aggregates. A concentration technology is proposed, with division of material into two flows –0.315 mm and –0.2 mm in sizes, generated in the milling and screening cycles and subjected to gravity–magnetic and magnetic–gravity treatment, respectively. It is shown that the technology ensures production of both tantalum–niobium and zircon concentrates. It has become possible to additionally recover rare metal components Nb2O5 and ZrO2 from tailings through flotation.

  2. FINAL TAILINGS OF METAL-WORKING PRODUCTION. Part 3. PHYSICO-MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Djakonov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The indices of adhesion and friability of metal-containing tailings, their water absorbency and wettability and also abrasive characteristics of tailings with the purpose of prevention of contacting surfaces wear are studied.

  3. Experimental Methodology for Determining Optimum Process Parameters for Production of Hydrous Metal Oxides by Internal Gelation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J.L.

    2005-10-28

    The objective of this report is to describe a simple but very useful experimental methodology that was used to determine optimum process parameters for preparing several hydrous metal-oxide gel spheres by the internal gelation process. The method is inexpensive and very effective in collection of key gel-forming data that are needed to prepare the hydrous metal-oxide microspheres of the best quality for a number of elements.

  4. Risk assessment of mineral and heavy metal content of selected tea products from the Ghanaian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkansah, Marian Asantewah; Opoku, Francis; Ackumey, Abiathar Abraham

    2016-06-01

    Food consumption is the most likely route of human exposure to metals. Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is among the most widely consumed non-alcoholic beverages. Concentrations of heavy metals and minerals in tea from 15 different brands in Kumasi, Ghana were measured to assess the health risk associated with their consumption. The mineral and metal contents (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd) were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Z-8100 polarized Zeeman). The results revealed that the mean concentrations were in the order: Ca > Fe > As > Cd > Zn > Pb. The average contents of Ca, Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd, and As in the samples were 94.08, 6.15, 0.20, 0.16, 0.36, and 1.66 mg/kg, respectively. All the minerals and heavy metals were below the maximum permissible limits stipulated by the World Health Organization (WHO) and US Pharmacopeia (USP). Metal-to-metal correlation indicated strong correlations between As/Zn, Cd/Zn, Cd/As, and Pb/As pairs. Factor analysis demonstrated a clear separation between minerals, grouped on one side, and heavy metals, clustered on another side. Both the target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI) levels in green tea were far below 1, suggesting that consumption of green tea should pose no potential risk to human health. However, carcinogenic risk levels for arsenic were high; R > 10(-6). The results showed that residents in Kumasi consume tea could be at risk from exposure to these heavy metals and minerals.

  5. Corrosion of Metals Exposed to Combustion Products Generated during Shipboard Fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    HY80 steel , type 304 stainless steel , brass, and Monel 400. The metallic coupons were stored under both moderate and high humidity conditions after the... HY80 Steel 25 Type 304 Stainless Steel 28 Brass 28 Monel 400 31 Summary 33 RESULTS OF TESTS W-13 AND W-13A 35 HY80 Steel 39 Type 304 Stainless Steel 50...exposed to the heavy sooty smoke produced during flaming combustion. The metallic specimens or target materials were HY80 steel , type 304

  6. Automatic Submerged ARC Welding With Metal Power Additions to Increase Productivity and Maintain Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    Manager of Welding Engineering PROPOSAL WELDING OF CARBON STEEL AND HY80 UTILIZING THE BULK WELDING PROCESS May 9, 1983 PREPARED BY: NEWPORT NEwS...12 joints with carbon steel and 12 with HY80 , utilizing three The joints will requirements of Benefits 1. Deposition times that different size double...of Joint Variations and Deposition Rates Filler Metal/Base Material Chemical Analyses; Carbon Steel /HIS Filler Metal/Base Material Chemical Analyses

  7. Myosin light chain isoforms retain their species-specific electrophoretic mobility after processing, which enables differentiation between six species: 2DE analysis of minced meat and meat products made from beef, pork and poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montowska, Magdalena; Pospiech, Edward

    2012-09-01

    Investigation of protein changes as well as authentication of meat is particularly difficult in processed meat products due to their different composition, complexity and very often inhomogeneity. The aim of this study was to check if the inter-species differences in the expression of myosin light chain (MLC) isoforms observed in raw meat were retained in meat products. MLCs from mixtures of minced meat (16 variants), frankfurters and sausages (15 products) made from cattle, pig, chicken, turkey, duck and goose were analysed by 2DE. Species-specific patterns of MLC isoforms were observed in all the mixtures and processed meat products. Relatively small degradation was observed in the MLCs after processing. Image analysis enabled species identification of the meat in all samples when the content of meat of one species was not lower than 10%. However, it was impossible to differentiate between all the six species under investigation on the basis of individual isoform. It was possible when the combination of all the three isoforms (myosin light chain 1 fast, myosin light chain 2 fast and myosin light chain 3 fast) was analysed. The results evidenced that MLCs have potential to be used as markers in authentication of meat products made from the analysed six species.

  8. Evaluation of harmful heavy metal (Hg, Pb and Cd reduction using Halomonas elongata and Tetragenococcus halophilusfor protein hydrolysate product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruttiya Asksonthon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many health claims surrounding antioxidative, antihypertensive and anti-inflammatory properties have been addressed in natural protein hydrolysates, including fermented fish. Besides being sold as animal feed, tuna viscera is used for the production of fermented products like fish sauce and Tai pla, fermented viscera. However, toxic heavy metals including Hg, Pb and Cd have been found in various food items, particularly within the internal organs of tuna. Therefore, the consumption of fermented tuna viscera containing heavy metal involves health risks. Consequently, the detoxification and reduction of these toxic elements are relevant and important issues, particularly with the use of their bacterial cells and metabolic products. Halomonas elongatais a moderately halophilic bacterium which has the ability to remove heavy metal, and is normally found in hypersaline environments. Tetragenococcus halophilusis a moderately halophilic lactic acid bacterium and probiotic which is found in fermented food products, such as fish sauce, shrimp paste, and fermented fish. Some scientific studies have reported using T. halophilus improves amino acid profiles and desirable volatile compounds, in addition to reducing biogenic amine content in fish sauce product. Therefore, it was hypothesized that using H.elongata and T. halophilus could reduce heavy metal content and improve the organoleptic quality of fermented fish viscera product (Tai pla. Objective: This present work attempted to determine the growth characteristic of H. elongataand T. halophilus reared at various NaCl concentrations:10, 15, 20 and 25%. Consequently, heavy metal reduction using these microorganisms reared at optimum NaCl concentration was evaluated. Methods: H. elongate and T. halophilus were reared in saline nutrient broth (SNB and de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS-broth added with NaCl at concentration 10, 15, 20 and 25%, respectively. Cultures at each NaCl content were added

  9. Enabling Global Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders; de Gier, Nicolai

    2014-01-01

    recognizing the value of incremental refinement of tradition and sustainability obtained through cultivation of the culturally and visually sustainable. As a contribution to this development, we propose: 1) The notion of tectonics as a core concept enabling a mutual, cross-cultural design discourse...

  10. The Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, T.; Nygren, C.; Slaug, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses development of a content-valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients, and their home environments. The instrument was transla......This study addresses development of a content-valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients, and their home environments. The instrument...... was translated from the original Swedish version of the Housing Enabler, and adapted according to accessibility norms and guidelines for housing design in Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland. This iterative process involved occupational therapists, architects, building engineers, and professional translators......, resulting in the Nordic Housing Enabler. For reliability testing, the sampling strategy and data collection procedures used were the same in all countries. Twenty voluntary occupational therapists, pair-wise but independently of each other, collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing...

  11. Enabling distributed collaborative science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, T.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Maglaughlin, K.

    2000-01-01

    To enable collaboration over distance, a collaborative environment that uses a specialized scientific instrument called a nanoManipulator is evaluated. The nanoManipulator incorporates visualization and force feedback technology to allow scientists to see, feel, and modify biological samples being...... studied with an Atomic Force Microscope....

  12. Pilot project as enabler?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neisig, Margit; Glimø, Helle; Holm, Catrine Granzow;

    This article deals with a systemic perspective on transition. The field of study addressed is a pilot project as enabler of transition in a highly complex polycentric context. From a Luhmannian systemic approach, a framework is created to understand and address barriers of change occurred using p...

  13. Enabling distributed collaborative science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, T.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Maglaughlin, K.

    2000-01-01

    To enable collaboration over distance, a collaborative environment that uses a specialized scientific instrument called a nanoManipulator is evaluated. The nanoManipulator incorporates visualization and force feedback technology to allow scientists to see, feel, and modify biological samples bein...

  14. The contents of heavy metals (cd, cr, as, pb, ni, and sn) in the selected commercial yam powder products in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mee-Young; Cho, Young-Eun; Park, Chana; Sohn, Ho-Yong; Lim, Jae-Hwan; Kwun, In-Sook

    2013-12-01

    Yam (Dioscorea) has long been used as foods and folk medicine with the approved positive effects for health promotion. Although consumption of yam products is increasing for health promotion, reports for the metal contamination in commercial yam powder products to protect the consumers are lacking. In this study, we aimed to assess whether the commercial yam powder products were heavy metal contaminated or not using the yam products from six commercial products from various places in South Korea. The contents of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, As, Pb, Ni, and Sn) in yam powder products were measured and compared to national and international food standard levels. Also, the metal contamination was monitored during the food manufacturing steps. The study results showed that the contents of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, As, and Pb) in yam powder products are similar to those in national 'roots and tubers' as well as in various crops. In comparison to three international standard levels (EU, Codex and Korea), Cd content in yam powder products was lower but Pb content was 5 times higher. Also, Pb, Ni, and Sn may have the potential to be contaminated during food manufacturing steps. In conclusion, the level of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, As, Ni, and Sn) except Pb is considered relatively safe on comparison to national and international food standard levels.

  15. Assessment of heavy metal and pesticide levels in soil and plant products from agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Mirjana; Cupać, Svjetlana; Durović, Rada; Milinović, Jelena; Kljajić, Petar

    2010-02-01

    This study was aimed to assess the levels of selected heavy metals and pesticides in soil and plant products from an agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia and to indicate possible sources and risks of contamination. Soil, vegetable, and fruit samples from the most important agricultural city areas were collected from July to November of 2006. Metal contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, whereas pesticide residues were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after extraction performed using solid-phase microextraction technique. Soil characterization based on the determination of selected physical and chemical properties revealed heterogeneous soils belonging to different soil groups. The concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in soil samples do not exceed the limits established by national and international regulations. Residues of the herbicide atrazine were detected in three soil samples, with levels lower than the relevant limit. The presence of other herbicides, namely prometryn, chloridazon, acetochlor, flurochloridone, and napropamide, was registered in some soil samples as well. Among the insecticides investigated in the soil, fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos were the only ones detected. In most of the investigated vegetable samples from the Obrenovac area, Pb and Cd contents are higher in comparison with the maximum levels, indicating the emission of coal combustion products from local thermal power plants as a possible source of contamination. Residue levels of some herbicides and insecticides (metribuzin, trifluralin, pendimethalin, bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin) determined in tomato, pepper, potato, and onion samples from Slanci, Ovca, and Obrenovac areas are even several times higher than the maximum residue levels. Inappropriate use of these plant protection products is considered to be the most probable reason of contamination. Because increased levels of heavy metals and pesticide residues found in

  16. Production of an antibiotic enterocin from a marine actinobacteria strain H1003 by metal-stress technique with enhanced enrichment using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Syed Shamsul; Shah, Sayed Asmat Ali; Pan, Chengqian; Fu, Leilei; Cao, Xun; Shi, Yutong; Wu, Xiaodan; Wang, Kuiwu; Wu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Elicitation by chemical means including heavy metals is one of a new technique for drug discoveries. In this research, the effect of heavy metals on marine actinobacteria Streptomyces sp. H-1003 for the production of enterocin, with a strong broad spectrum activity, along optimized fermented medium was firstly investigated. The optimum metal stress conditions consisted of culturing marine actinobacteria strain H-1003 with addition of cobalt ions at 2mM in optimized Gause's medium having starch at 20mg/L for 10 days at 180 revolution/min. Under these conditions, enterocin production was enhanced with a value of 5.33mg/L, which was totally absent at the normal culture of strain H-1003 and much higher than other tested metal-stress conditions. This work triumphantly announced a prodigious effect of heavy metals on marine actinobacteria with fringe benefits as a key tool of enterocin production.

  17. An inexpensive strategy for facilitated recovery of metals and fermentation products by foam fractionation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, Vivek; Sen, Ramkrishna

    2013-04-01

    Microbial biosurfactants produce foam during aerobic-fermentation processes. The degree of foaminess and foam stability of the lipopeptide-biosurfactant produced by a marine Bacillus megaterium strain were investigated using simulated biosurfactant solution (SBS), biosurfactant broth without cells (BBWOC) and biosurfactant broth with cells (BBWC) in bubble column experiments. The experimental data for foam collapse were fitted using a first-order foam decay model. The first-order rate constant (k), a measure of foam stability, was maximum (k=0.0003 S(-1)) for BBWOC in the pH range 6-9. However, maximum foam stability (k=0.0006 S(-1)) was restricted to pH 7 for BBWC. Foam-based metal removal studies revealed that the metal removal followed a saturation model. The relative binding capacity of each divalent metal was greatly affected by the presence of other divalent metals. The order of lipopeptide binding capacity of the metals was Fe(2+)>Ca(2+)>Mg(2+), with Fe(2+) significantly influencing the foam stability. In case of Fe(2+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), maximum metal recovery of 64.7±4.3%, 52±3.1% and 41.4±3.6% respectively was observed at pH 7. The enrichment (E) of the other media components, including cells, was comparatively insignificant. The results of this study have implications in designing and optimizing biosurfactant or protein recovery in situ by foam fractionation as an inexpensive strategy, and also in facilitated metal recovery from industrial effluents and ores. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Removal of mixed heavy metal ions in wastewater by zeolite 4A and residual products from recycled coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, K S; Chao, C Y H; Kot, S C

    2005-12-09

    The removal performance and the selectivity sequence of mixed metal ions (Co(2+), Cr(3+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+) and Ni(2+)) in aqueous solution were investigated by adsorption process on pure and chamfered-edge zeolite 4A prepared from coal fly ash (CFA), commercial grade zeolite 4A and the residual products recycled from CFA. The pure zeolite 4A (prepared from CFA) was synthesized under a novel temperature step-change method with reduced synthesis time. Batch method was employed to study the influential parameters such as initial metal ions concentration, adsorbent dose, contact time and initial pH of the solution on the adsorption process. The experimental data were well fitted by the pseudo-second-order kinetics model (for Co(2+), Cr(3+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) ions) and the pseudo-first-order kinetics model (for Ni(2+) ions). The equilibrium data were well fitted by the Langmuir model and showed the affinity order: Cu(2+) > Cr(3+) > Zn(2+) > Co(2+) > Ni(2+) (CFA prepared and commercial grade zeolite 4A). The adsorption process was found to be pH and concentration dependent. The sorption rate and sorption capacity of metal ions could be significantly improved by increasing pH value. The removal mechanism of metal ions was by adsorption and ion exchange processes. Compared to commercial grade zeolite 4A, the CFA prepared adsorbents could be alternative materials for the treatment of wastewater.

  19. Production of ceramic nanoparticles through self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) and their introduction into a metallic matrix to form metal matrix composites (MMC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuechterlein, Jacob

    Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) is a self-sustaining combustion reaction of reactant powders typically in the form of compacted pellets to form a desired product species. The reactants are ignited in one or more locations by several different techniques. After ignition the reaction travels as a wave through the pellet exothermically converting the reactants into products as it propagates. In this case the products are formed as discrete ceramic particles of TiC, Al2O3 and SiC. The goal of this research was to reduce the size of the particles formed by this technique from a diameter of 1-5μm to less than 100nm with the goal of then incorporating these nanoparticles as reinforcements in Al metal matrix composites. To accomplish this, many different SHS principles were studied and their associated variables were changed to reduce the combustion temperature of each reacting system. Several of these systems were investigated and discarded for a number of reasons such as: low ignition or high combustion temperatures, dangerous reaction conditions, or undesirable product densities and morphologies. The systems chosen exhibited low material costs, low combustion temperatures, and a wide range of stabilities when lowering the reaction temperature. The reacting systems pursued were based around the aluminothermic reduction of TiO2 in the presence of carbon to form TiC and Al2O 3. The combustion temperature of this reaction was reduced from 2053ºC to less than 1100ºC, which had a corresponding effect on the particle size of the products, reducing the average diameter of the particles to less than 100nm. This was accomplished by providing high heating rates, controlling the green density and adding diluents to the reaction such as Al, TiC, SiC or Al2O3. Cooling experiments were also investigated, but the cooling rate was found to have no effect on the particle size.

  20. State of the Science Review: Potential for Beneficial Use of Waste By-Products for In-situ Remediation of Metal-Contaminated Soil and Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metal and metalloid contamination of soil and sediment is a widespread problem both in urban and rural areas throughout the United States (U.S. EPA, 2014). Beneficial use of waste by-products as amendments to remediate metal-contaminated soils and sediments can provide major eco...

  1. Monitoring and control of a hydrogen production and storage system consisting of water electrolysis and metal hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Herranz, V.; Perez-Page, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear. Universidad Politecnica de Valencia. Camino de Vera S/N, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Beneito, R. [Area de Energia. Departamento de Gestion e Innovacion. Instituto Tecnologico del Juguete (AIJU). Avda. Industria 23, 03440 Ibi, Alicante (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    Renewable energy sources such as wind turbines and solar photovoltaic are energy sources that cannot generate continuous electric power. The seasonal storage of solar or wind energy in the form of hydrogen can provide the basis for a completely renewable energy system. In this way, water electrolysis is a convenient method for converting electrical energy into a chemical form. The power required for hydrogen generation can be supplied through a photovoltaic array. Hydrogen can be stored as metal hydrides and can be converted back into electricity using a fuel cell. The elements of these systems, i.e. the photovoltaic array, electrolyzer, fuel cell and hydrogen storage system in the form of metal hydrides, need a control and monitoring system for optimal operation. This work has been performed within a Research and Development contract on Hydrogen Production granted by Solar Iniciativas Tecnologicas, S.L. (SITEC), to the Politechnic University of Valencia and to the AIJU, and deals with the development of a system to control and monitor the operation parameters of an electrolyzer and a metal hydride storage system that allow to get a continuous production of hydrogen. (author)

  2. Clonal variation in heavy metal accumulation and biomass production in a poplar coppice culture. II. Vertical distribution and phytoextraction potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureysens, I; De Temmerman, L; Hastir, T; Van Gysel, M; Ceulemans, R

    2005-02-01

    Short rotation coppice cultures (SRC) are intensively managed, high-density plantations of multi-shoot trees. In April 1996, an SRC field trial with 17 different poplar clones was established in Boom (Belgium) on a former waste disposal site. In December 1996 and January 2001, all shoots were cut back to a height of 5 cm to create a coppice culture. For six clones, wood and bark were sampled at the bottom, middle and top of a shoot in August and November 2002. No significant height effect of metal concentration was found, but for wood, metal concentrations generally increased toward the top of the shoot in August, and decreased toward the top of the shoot in November. Phytoextraction potential of a clone was primarily determined by metal concentration and by biomass production. Shoot size and number of shoots per stool were less important, as a high biomass production could be achieved by producing a few large shoots or many smaller shoots. Clone Fritzi Pauley accumulated 1.4 kg ha(-1) of Al over two years; Wolterson and Balsam Spire showed a relatively high accumulation of Cd and Zn, i.e. averaging, respectively 47 and 57 g ha(-1) for Cd and 2.4 and 2.0 kg ha(-1) for Zn over two years.

  3. Impact of Phosphate, Potassium, Yeast Extract, and Trace Metals on Chitosan and Metabolite Production by Mucor indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Zahra; Karimi, Keikhosro; Zamani, Akram

    2016-08-30

    In this study the effects of phosphate, potassium, yeast extract, and trace metals on the growth of Mucor indicus and chitosan, chitin, and metabolite production by the fungus were investigated. Maximum yield of chitosan (0.32 g/g cell wall) was obtained in a phosphate-free medium. Reversely, cell growth and ethanol formation by the fungus were positively affected in the presence of phosphate. In a phosphate-free medium, the highest chitosan content (0.42 g/g cell wall) and cell growth (0.66 g/g sugar) were obtained at 2.5 g/L of KOH. Potassium concentration had no significant effect on ethanol and glycerol yields. The presence of trace metals significantly increased the chitosan yield at an optimal phosphate and potassium concentration (0.50 g/g cell wall). By contrast, production of ethanol by the fungus was negatively affected (0.33 g/g sugars). A remarkable increase in chitin and decrease in chitosan were observed in the absence of yeast extract and concentrations lower than 2 g/L. The maximum chitosan yield of 51% cell wall was obtained at 5 g/L of yeast extract when the medium contained no phosphate, 2.5 g/L KOH, and 1 mL/L trace metal solution.

  4. Catalyst Architecture for Stable Single Atom Dispersion Enables Site-Specific Spectroscopic and Reactivity Measurements of CO Adsorbed to Pt Atoms, Oxidized Pt Clusters, and Metallic Pt Clusters on TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRita, Leo; Dai, Sheng; Lopez-Zepeda, Kimberly; Pham, Nicholas; Graham, George W; Pan, Xiaoqing; Christopher, Phillip

    2017-10-11

    Oxide-supported precious metal nanoparticles are widely used industrial catalysts. Due to expense and rarity, developing synthetic protocols that reduce precious metal nanoparticle size and stabilize dispersed species is essential. Supported atomically dispersed, single precious metal atoms represent the most efficient metal utilization geometry, although debate regarding the catalytic activity of supported single precious atom species has arisen from difficulty in synthesizing homogeneous and stable single atom dispersions, and a lack of site-specific characterization approaches. We propose a catalyst architecture and characterization approach to overcome these limitations, by depositing ∼1 precious metal atom per support particle and characterizing structures by correlating scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging and CO probe molecule infrared spectroscopy. This is demonstrated for Pt supported on anatase TiO2. In these structures, isolated Pt atoms, Ptiso, remain stable through various conditions, and spectroscopic evidence suggests Ptiso species exist in homogeneous local environments. Comparing Ptiso to ∼1 nm preoxidized (Ptox) and prereduced (Ptmetal) Pt clusters on TiO2, we identify unique spectroscopic signatures of CO bound to each site and find CO adsorption energy is ordered: Ptiso ≪ Ptmetal atoms bonded to TiO2 and that Ptiso exhibits optimal reactivity because every atom is exposed for catalysis and forms an interfacial site with TiO2. This approach should be generally useful for studying the behavior of supported precious metal atoms.

  5. Thermodynamic Investigation of the Reduction-Distillation Process for Rare Earth Metals Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, W. D.; Azimi, G.

    2017-08-01

    Owing to their high vapor pressure, the four rare earth metals samarium, europium, thulium, and ytterbium are produced by reduction-distillation whereby their oxides are reduced with metallic lanthanum in vacuo, and the produced metal is subsequently vaporized off. Here, we performed a thorough thermodynamic investigation to establish a fundamental understanding of the reduction-distillation process. Thermodynamic functions including vapor pressures, Gibbs free energies, and enthalpies of reaction were calculated and compared with available experimental data. Furthermore, the kinetics of the process was explored and theoretical evaporation rates were calculated from thermodynamic data. The thermodynamic model developed in this work can help optimize processing conditions to maximize the yield and improve the overall process.

  6. Thermodynamic Investigation of the Reduction-Distillation Process for Rare Earth Metals Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, W. D.; Azimi, G.

    2017-10-01

    Owing to their high vapor pressure, the four rare earth metals samarium, europium, thulium, and ytterbium are produced by reduction-distillation whereby their oxides are reduced with metallic lanthanum in vacuo, and the produced metal is subsequently vaporized off. Here, we performed a thorough thermodynamic investigation to establish a fundamental understanding of the reduction-distillation process. Thermodynamic functions including vapor pressures, Gibbs free energies, and enthalpies of reaction were calculated and compared with available experimental data. Furthermore, the kinetics of the process was explored and theoretical evaporation rates were calculated from thermodynamic data. The thermodynamic model developed in this work can help optimize processing conditions to maximize the yield and improve the overall process.

  7. Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Brandt, Åse

    2009-01-01

    Development and reliability testing of the Nordic Housing Enabler – an instrument for accessibility assessment of the physical housing. Tina Helle & Åse Brandt University of Lund, Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine (SE) and University College Northern Jutland, Occupational Therapy department (DK......). Danish Centre for Assistive Technology. Abstract. For decades, accessibility to the physical housing environment for people with functional limitations has been of interest politically, professionally and for the users. Guidelines and norms on accessible housing design have gradually been developed......, however, the built environment shows serious deficits when it comes to accessibility. This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of inter-rater reliability, when used in occupational therapy practice. The instrument was translated from...

  8. Spatially enabled land administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    . In other words: Good governance and sustainable development is not attainable without sound land administration or - more broadly – sound land management. The paper presents a land management vision that incorporates the benefits of ICT enabled land administration functions. The idea is that spatial...... enabling of land administration systems managing tenure, valuation, planning, and development will allow the information generated by these activities to be much more useful. Also, the services available to private and public sectors and to community organisations should commensurably improve. Knowledge...... the communication between administrative systems and also establish more reliable data due to the use the original data instead of copies. In Denmark, such governmental guidelines for a service-oriented ITarchitecture in support of e-government are recently adopted. Finally, the paper presents the role of FIG...

  9. Enabling Wind Power Nationwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jose Zayas, Michael Derby, Patrick Gilman and Shreyas Ananthan,

    2015-05-01

    Leveraging this experience, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office has evaluated the potential for wind power to generate electricity in all 50 states. This report analyzes and quantifies the geographic expansion that could be enabled by accessing higher above ground heights for wind turbines and considers the means by which this new potential could be responsibly developed.

  10. Enabling Global Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders; de Gier, Nicolai

    2014-01-01

    recognizing the value of incremental refinement of tradition and sustainability obtained through cultivation of the culturally and visually sustainable. As a contribution to this development, we propose: 1) The notion of tectonics as a core concept enabling a mutual, cross-cultural design discourse...... of the studio informed by the theory of tectonics together provides cross-cultural students with a mutual language to discuss intrinsic matters of form....

  11. Analysis of microfouling products formed on metallic surfaces exposed in a marine environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, F.P.; Bhosle, N.B.

    -2454 online q 2003 Taylor & Francis Ltd DOI: 10.1080/0892701021000026147 *Corresponding author; e-mail: bhosle@csnio.ren.nic.in or bhosle@darya.nio.org Biofouling, 2003 Vo l 19 (2), pp 95–107 metallic or non-metallic surfaces. Rather, micro- organisms produce... of macroaggregates (Mopper et al., 1995). Carbohydrates are common structural and storage components of both marine and terrestrial organisms. They account for 20–40 wt% of micro- algae (Parsons et al., 1984), 40 wt% of bacteria (Moers et al., 1993), and 75 wt...

  12. Using Alloys of Cr-Ni-Co system as metallic bond in powder metallurgy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gazaliyev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is studied the possibility of using alloys of the Cr-Ni-Cо system as a metallic bond in producing ceramet. As the basic material there was used titanium carbide. There were measured such mechanical properties as bending strength, tensile strength, impact viscosity. There is considered a possibility of using ceramet with a metallic bond of the Cr-Ni-Co system as a refractory material. As a heat resistance indicator there was estimated the limit of long durability. It is established that in the studied range of temperatures the material properties are the function of the bond content.

  13. Erroneous Wave Functions of Ciuchi et al for Collective Modes in Neutron Production on Metallic Hydride Cathodes

    CERN Document Server

    Widom, A; Larsen, L

    2012-01-01

    There is a recent comment (Ciuchi et al., 2012) concerning the theory of collective many body effects on the neutron production rates in a chemical battery cathode. Ciuchi et al employ an inverse beta decay expression that contains a two body amplitude. Only one electron and one proton may exist in the Ciuchi et al model initial state wave function. A flaw in their reasoning is that one cannot in reality describe collective many body correlations with only a two particle wave function. One needs very many particles to describe collective effects. In the model wave functions of Ciuchi et al there are no metallic hydrides, there are no cathodes and there are no chemical batteries. Employing a wave function with only one electron and one proton is inadequate for describing collective metallic hydride surface quantum plasma physics in cathodes accurately.

  14. Efficient solar-driven synthesis, carbon capture, and desalinization, STEP: solar thermal electrochemical production of fuels, metals, bleach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, S

    2011-12-15

    STEP (solar thermal electrochemical production) theory is derived and experimentally verified for the electrosynthesis of energetic molecules at solar energy efficiency greater than any photovoltaic conversion efficiency. In STEP the efficient formation of metals, fuels, chlorine, and carbon capture is driven by solar thermal heated endothermic electrolyses of concentrated reactants occuring at a voltage below that of the room temperature energy stored in the products. One example is CO(2) , which is reduced to either fuels or storable carbon at a solar efficiency of over 50% due to a synergy of efficient solar thermal absorption and electrochemical conversion at high temperature and reactant concentration. CO(2) -free production of iron by STEP, from iron ore, occurs via Fe(III) in molten carbonate. Water is efficiently split to hydrogen by molten hydroxide electrolysis, and chlorine, sodium, and magnesium from molten chlorides. A pathway is provided for the STEP decrease of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels to pre-industial age levels in 10 years.

  15. Development of processes for the production of solar grade silicon from halides and alkali metals, phase 1 and phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, C. R.; Gould, R. K.; Felder, W.

    1981-01-01

    High temperature reactions of silicon halides with alkali metals for the production of solar grade silicon are described. Product separation and collection processes were evaluated, measure heat release parameters for scaling purposes and effects of reactants and/or products on materials of reactor construction were determined, and preliminary engineering and economic analysis of a scaled up process were made. The feasibility of the basic process to make and collect silicon was demonstrated. The jet impaction/separation process was demonstrated to be a purification process. The rate at which gas phase species from silicon particle precursors, the time required for silane decomposition to produce particles, and the competing rate of growth of silicon seed particles injected into a decomposing silane environment were determined. The extent of silane decomposition as a function of residence time, temperature, and pressure was measured by infrared absorption spectroscopy. A simplistic model is presented to explain the growth of silicon in a decomposing silane enviroment.

  16. High-temperature electron irradiation and radiation-thermal technology for utilization, purification and production of some metals

    CERN Document Server

    Solovetskii, Y; Lunin, V

    1998-01-01

    High-temperature irradiation by the beam of 1.2-1.6 MeV accelerated electrons has been used for production Pt, Pd, Mo, Co, Cu and Ni from desactivated Pt(Pd)-containing reforming catalysts, molybdenum sulfide hydrodesulphurization catalysts and hydrogenation catalyst waste material. The radiation-induced decomposition of supported Ni(Co)-Mo/Al sub 2 O sub 3 sulfide catalyst and organic fragments of hydrogenation catalyst wastes has been studied. Radiolysis product distributions are shown as function of time (time up to 1,0 h) and temperature (570-1400K). There was made a principle scheme of the first technological unit for radiation-thermal utilization, purification and production of some metals from solid wastes material.

  17. Aqueous-phase reforming of biomass using various types of supported precious metal and raney-nickel catalysts for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meryemoglu, Bahar; Hesenov, Arif; Irmak, Sibel [Department of Chemistry, Cukurova University, Arts and Sciences Faculty, Balcali, Adana 01330 (Turkey); Atanur, Osman Malik [International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies (UNIDO-ICHET), Cevizlibag, 34015 Zeytinburnu, Istanbul (Turkey); Erbatur, Oktay [Department of Chemistry, Cukurova University, Arts and Sciences Faculty, Balcali, Adana 01330 (Turkey); International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies (UNIDO-ICHET), Cevizlibag, 34015 Zeytinburnu, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-11-15

    Aqueous-phase reforming (APR) of real biomass was studied for production of hydrogen gas. Wheat straw, an abundant by-product from wheat production was used as representative lignocellulosic biomass. Wheat straw was hydrolyzed in an environmentally benign-sub critical water condition. APR experiments of wheat straw hydrolysates were performed using commercial catalysts which were made of Pt, Pd and Ru doped on carbon, activated carbon and alumina supports for production of hydrogen rich gas mixture. The activity and selectivity of two commercial raney-nickel catalysts were also monitored in terms of hydrogen production. Among the precious metal catalysts tested, activity of the metals for hydrogen production was in the following descending order: Pt > Ru > Pd. Results indicated that alumina support significantly lowered the catalytic performance of the catalysts. Based on whole catalyst material, raney-nickel catalysts were more active than supported precious metal catalysts tested. (author)

  18. Cyclotron production of ⁹⁹mTc: recycling of enriched ¹⁰⁰Mo metal targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, K; Wilson, J S; Holt, C M B; Abrams, D N; McEwan, A J B; Mitlin, D; McQuarrie, S A

    2012-08-01

    There is growing interest in the large scale cyclotron production of (99m)Tc via the (100)Mo(p,2n)(99m)Tc reaction. While the use and recycling of cyclotron-irradiated enriched molybdenum targets has been reported previously in the context of (94m)Tc production, to the best of our knowledge, previous recycling studies have been limited to the use of oxide targets. To facilitate reuse of high-power enriched (100)Mo targets, this work presents and evaluates a strategy for recycling of enriched metallic molybdenum. For the irradiated (100)Mo targets in this study, an overall metal to metal recovery of 87% is reported. Evaluation of "new" and "recycled" (100)Mo revealed no changes in the molybdenum isotopic composition (as measured via ICP-MS). For similar irradiation conditions of "new" and "recycled" (100)Mo, (i.e. target thicknesses, irradiation time, and energy), comparable levels of (94g)Tc, (95g)Tc, and (96g)Tc contaminants were observed. Comparable QC specifications (i.e. aluminum ion concentration, pH, and radiochemical purity) were also reported. We finally note that [(99m)Tc]-MDP images obtained by comparing MDP labelled with generator-based (99m)Tc vs. (99m)Tc obtained following the irradiation of recycled (100)Mo demonstrated comparable biodistribution. With the goal of producing large quantities of (99m)Tc, the proposed methodology demonstrates that efficient recycling of enriched metallic (100)Mo targets is feasible and effective.

  19. Characterization of the whiskerlike products formed by hydriding magnesium metal powders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herley, P. J.; Jones, W.; Vigeholm, Bjørn

    1985-01-01

    The structure of filamentary crystals produced during the hydriding of magnesium powder has been studies in detail. The needles of small dimensions (typically 0.5 μm in diameter) have been identified by electron analytical techniques to be oriented microcrystals of metallic magnesium...

  20. The production of a homogeneous and well-attached layer of carbon nanofibers on metal foils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacheco Benito, Sergio; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were deposited on metal foils including nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), stainless steel (Fe:Ni; 70:11 wt.%) and mumetal (Ni:Fe; 77:14 wt.%) by the decomposition of C2H4 at 600 °C. The effect of pretreatment and the addition of H2 on the rate of carbon formation, as well

  1. The production of a homogeneous and well-attached layer of carbon nanofibers on metal foils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacheco Benito, S.; Lefferts, L.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were deposited on metal foils including nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), stainless steel (Fe:Ni; 70:11 wt.%) and mumetal (Ni:Fe; 77:14 wt.%) by the decomposition of C2H4 at 600 °C. The effect of pretreatment and the addition of H2 on the rate of carbon formation, as well

  2. Increasing the accuracy during the production of curved metallic billets by bending deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovman, T. V.; Kutuzov, A. A.

    2016-05-01

    The elastoplastic deformation of a billet by bending is considered. The deformation forces are determined and formulas are derived to estimate the accuracy of the curvature of the billet. A bending technology is developed to increase the accuracy of a billet and to decrease the metal losses. The results obtained were used at Tver' Glass Company to produce curved billets.

  3. Burning characteristics and emission products related to metallic content in incense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ta-Chang; Yang, Chi-Ru; Chang, Feng-Hsiang

    2007-02-01

    This study mainly compared particulate emission factors of nine popular incense. The influence of metallic contents upon the burning rate, ash and particulate emission factors of combustion was discussed. The contents of Ca and K were the highest among all metallic elements in the raw materials of the incense (the geometric mean contents 8.7 and 2.5mgg(-1), respectively), followed by Al, Mg, Fe, Na (0.1-1.0mgg(-1)) and Ba, then Sr, Mn, Cu and Zn (incense-the shorter the combustion duration of a stick, the lower the total suspended particulate emission. Additionally, with the same incense weight burned, the greater the emission of ash is, the lower the emission of suspended particulate. It is recommended that consumers select incense which produces more ash, hence less particulate, to minimize the threat to their' health. Additionally, when the total metallic content (with Ca as the major component) was lower than 2% of the raw materials, properly increasing the total metallic content (from 0.5 to 2.0%) can effectively reduce the level of particulates (about 40%) during the combustion.

  4. Methodology development for the sustainability process assessment of sheet metal forming of complex-shaped products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratov, D. L.; Kashapova, L. R.

    2015-06-01

    A methodology was developed for automated assessment of the reliability of the process of sheet metal forming process to reduce the defects in complex components manufacture. The article identifies the range of allowable values of the stamp parameters to obtain defect-free punching of spars trucks.

  5. Metal PCP field trial pushes up pumping window for heavy oil hot production : Joslyn field case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauquin, J.L.; Ndinemenu, F. [Total SA, Paris (France); Chalier, G. [Total E and P Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Lemay, L.; Seince, L. [PCM, Verves (France); Jahn, S. [Kudu Industries Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented details of field trials conducted for a novel all-metal progressive cavity pump (PCP) system at a steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) facility in Canada's Joslyn field. The fully metallic helical profile was produced by hydro-forming processes. The pump's stator was comprised of 3 elements welded together and coated for high temperature and wear resistance. During the field trials, the well pads were equipped with metal PCPs as well as topside and down hole instrumentation in order to obtain real time well data and pump performance data. Results of the study showed that initial volumetric efficiencies were 55 per cent. When pressure communication between injector and producer wells increased, pump intake pressure and speed also increased. Performance data from the field trial were then compared with results from high temperature electric submersible pumps (ESPs). It was concluded that the metal PCP is a promising artificial lift technology for SAGD processes. The pump design is now being modified to minimize vibrations and improve run life. 1 ref., 11 figs.

  6. Biosorption Of Heavy Metals From Mining Influenced Water Onto Chitin Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mining influenced water (MIW) emanating from mine sites poses a major environmental concern due to its impact on water contamination caused by low pH and the presence of high concentrations of toxic metals. Chitorem SC-20® (raw crushed crab shells containing 40% w/w C...

  7. Low Energy Neutron Production by Inverse-beta decay in Metallic Hydride Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ciuchi, S; Polosa, A D; Riquer, V; Ruocco, G; Vignati, M

    2012-01-01

    It has been recently argued that inverse-beta nuclear transmutations might occur at an impressively high rate in a thin layer at the metallic hydride surface under specific conditions. In this note we present a calculation of the transmutation rate which shows that there is little room for such a remarkable effect.

  8. Product Line Enabled Intelligent Mobile Middleware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weishan; Kunz, Thomas; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2007-01-01

    needs access to a range of context models. We model these contexts with OWL, focusing on user-centered concepts. The basic building block of PLIMM is the enhanced BDI agent where OWL context ontology logic reasoning will add indirect beliefs to the belief sets. Our approach also addresses the handling...

  9. Transition Metal Phosphide Nanoparticles Supported on SBA-15 as Highly Selective Hydrodeoxygenation Catalysts for the Production of Advanced Biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongxing; Ochoa-Hernández, Cristina; de la Peña O'Shea, Víctor A; Pizarro, Patricia; Coronado, Juan M; Serrano, David P

    2015-09-01

    A series of catalysts constituted by nanoparticles of transition metal (M = Fe, Co, Ni and Mo) phosphides (TMP) dispersed on SBA-15 were synthesized by reduction of the corresponding metal phosphate precursors previously impregnated on the mesostructured support. All the samples contained a metal-loading of 20 wt% and with an initial M/P mole ratio of 1, and they were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 sorption, H2-TPR and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Metal phosphide nanocatalysts were tested in a high pressure continuous flow reactor for the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of a methyl ester blend containing methyl oleate (C17H33-COO-CH3) as main component (70%). This mixture constitutes a convenient surrogate of triglycerides present in vegetable oils, and following catalytic hydrotreating yields mainly n-alkanes. The results of the catalytic assays indicate that Ni2P/SBA-15 catalyst presents the highest ester conversion, whereas the transformation rate is about 20% lower for MoP/SBA-15. In contrast, catalysts based on Fe and Co phosphides show a rather limited activity. Hydrocarbon distribution in the liquid product suggests that both hydrodeoxygenation and decarboxylation/decarbonylation reactions occur simultaneously over the different catalysts, although MoP/SBA-15 possess a selectivity towards hydrodeoxygenation exceeding 90%. Accordingly, the catalyst based on MoP affords the highest yield of n-octadecane, which is the preferred product in terms of carbon atom economy. Subsequently, in order to conjugate the advantages of both Ni and Mo phosphides, a series of catalysts containing variable proportions of both metals were prepared. The obtained results reveal that the mixed phosphides catalysts present a catalytic behavior intermediate between those of the monometallic phosphides. Accordingly, only marginal enhancement of the yield of n-octadecane is obtained for the catalysts with a Mo/Ni ratio of 3. Nevertheless, owing to this high selectivity

  10. Inside HOLMES experiment: 163Ho metallic target production for the micro-calorimeter absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzigoni, G.; Alpert, B.; Balata, M.; Bennett, D.; Biasotti, M.; Boragno, C.; Brofferio, C.; De Gerone, M.; Dressler, R.; Faverazani, M.; Ferri, E.; Folwer, J.; Gatti, F.; Giachero, A.; Heinitz, S.; Hilton, G.; Köster, U.; Lusignoli, M.; Maino, M.; Mates, J.; Nisi, S.; Nizzolo, R.; Nucciotti, A.; Pessina, G.; Puiu, A.; Ragazzi, S.; Reintsema, C.; Ribeiro Gomes, M.; Shmidt, D.; Schumann, D.; Sisti, M.; Swetz, D.; Terranova, F.; Ullom, J.; Day, P. K.

    2016-07-01

    The main goal in the HOLMES experiment is the neutrino mass measurement using an array of 1000 micro-calorimeters with standard metallic absorber. A good isotope for such measurement is the 163Ho, those isotopes embedded in the metallic absorber will be 1011-1013. Since 163Ho is not available in nature, a dedicated process must be set up to produce the amount needed for this neutrino mass experiment. The process with the highest born-up cross-section is the neutron irradiation of Er2O3 enriched in 162Er: 162Er(n,γ)163Er →163Ho+νe, where the decay is an EC with half-life of about 75 min and the (n,γ) is about 20 barns for thermal neutron. After the neutron irradiation in the oxide powder there are several radioactive isotopes which are potentially disturbing because of the background that they cause below 5 keV. The chemical separation of holmium from the irradiation enriched Er2O3 powder is therefore mandatory and will be performed by means of ion exchange chromatography. On the end of those processes the oxide powder enriched in 162Er will have the 163Ho isotope number required. The holmium chemical state influences the end point of the EC spectrum, in order to avoid such effect it is necessary to embed in the absorber only the metallic isotope. Reduction and distillation technique allowed us to obtain a pure metallic holmium, starting from natural oxide holmium. This technique will be applied on the irradiated oxide powder to obtain the metallic 163Ho, ready to be embedded in the micro-calorimeter absorber.

  11. Heavy Metals (Lead and Cadmium in some Medicinal Herbal Products in Iranian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Mousavi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of herbal or medicinal plants in various forms has been popular for thousands of years. It is estimated that about 70–80% of the world’s population relies on alternative medicine, mainly of herbal origin. However, due to the nature and sources of these plants, they are sometimes contaminated with toxic heavy metals, which pose serious health risks to consumers. Herbal formulations, especially those used in the treatment of diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and weight loss may require long-term usage and the patient might be at risk of heavy metal poisoning. In this study, the levels of toxic heavy metals (Pb, Cd were evaluated in 11 Iranian common herbal drugs for their health implications. Methods: In this investigation, concentrations of lead and cadmium were quantitatively determined in Iranian herbal drugs sampled from pharmacies in Tehran, Iran, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (wet digestion. Results: The results indicated that lead and cadmium were present in all investigated herbal drugs. The concentrations of metals in drugs ranged from 0.19 to 1.75 µg/g for Cd and 9.61 to 52.74 µg/g for Pb. Conclusion: The concentrations of lead and cadmium were higher than the maximum permissible daily levels in the majority of these herbal drugs, whereas the quantities of Pb and Cd were well below provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI. Daily total intake of these metals is considered in accord with the recommended daily intake of their corresponding formulations.

  12. Production of mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles of noble metals by pyrolysis of organic extracts on silicon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serga, V.; Kulikova, L.; Cvetkov, A.; Krumina, A.; Kodols, M.; Chornaja, S.; Dubencovs, K.; Sproge, E.

    2013-12-01

    In the present work the influence of the tri-n-octylammonium (Oct3NH+) salt anion (PtCl62-, PdCl42-, AuCl4-) nature on the phase composition and mean size of crystallites of the extract pyrolysis products on the SiO2 nanopowder has been studied. The XRD phase analysis of the composites (metal loading 2.4 wt.%) made under the same conditions, at the pyrolysis of Pt- and Au-containing extracts has shown the formation of nanoparticles of Pt (dPt = 15 nm) and Au (dAu = 33 nm), respectively. The end-product of the pyrolysis of the Pd-containing extract has an admixture phase of PdO along with the main metal phase (dPd = 21 nm). At the preparation of bimetallic particles (Pt-Pd, Pt-Au, Pd-Au) on the SiO2 nanopowder it has been found that the nanoparticles of the PtPd alloy, Pt and Au or Pd and Au nanoparticles are the products of the thermal decomposition of two-component mixtures of extracts. The investigation of catalytic properties of the produced composites in the reaction of glycerol oxidation by molecular oxygen in alkaline aqueous solutions has shown that all bimetallic composites exhibit catalytic activity in contrast to monometallic ones.

  13. Metals suitable for fluorine gas target bodies: first use of aluminum for the production of [18F]F2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, A; Satyamurthy, N; Bida, G; Phelps, M; Barrio, J R

    1996-04-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of different metals (aluminum, silver, copper, nickel, and gold-plated copper) was undertaken for the fabrication of target bodies with straight and conical bore shapes for the production of [18F]F2 via the 20Ne(d,alpha)18F nuclear reaction. Of these metals, aluminum, silver and copper have never been used for the production of [18F]F2. All these target bodies were easily passivated using a mild beam-induced plasma technique in the presence of 1% F2 in neon or argon. The recovery of 18F activity was higher with electroformed nickel and silver bodies, probably due to favorable thermal conductivities. Aluminum proved to be a useful material for fluorine gas targets. The consistent recovery of 18F activities, ease and low cost of manufacturing and low nuclear activation properties all make aluminum an ideal choice for fluorine gas targetry. To our knowledge, this investigation is the first to highlight the use of aluminum as a target body material for the routine production of [18F]F2. A reasonable mechanism based on the Langmuir-Rideal surface atom recombination is also proposed for the behavior of [18F]F2 recovery from a nickel target body.

  14. Economic expediency of production of composite materials made from metal nickel and super-hard materials and methods of its identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhina Lyudmyla V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a possibility of making composite materials from metal nickel and super-hard materials. It shows that such a product is available in the world market, but there is no information on technology of manufacture of such a product in open literature. It sets the issue of calculation of economic expediency and investment attractiveness of introduction of the said process into production, so that the methods of calculations would be clear for researchers who have no special education. The article provides a calculation of expediency and investment attractiveness of production of composite materials made from metal nickel and super-hard materials and offers methods of calculation.

  15. Analysis of metal radioisotope impurities generated in [{sup 18}O]H{sub 2}O during the cyclotron production of fluorine-18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillies, J.M. [Cancer Research-UK/UMIST Radiochemical Targeting and Imaging Group, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Wilmslow Road, Manchester, M20 4BX (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jgillies@picr.man.ac.uk; Najim, N. [Cancer Research-UK/UMIST Radiochemical Targeting and Imaging Group, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Wilmslow Road, Manchester, M20 4BX (United Kingdom); School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Sciences, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Zweit, J. [Cancer Research-UK/UMIST Radiochemical Targeting and Imaging Group, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Wilmslow Road, Manchester, M20 4BX (United Kingdom); School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Sciences, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2006-04-15

    We show the separation of metal radioistope impurities using capillary electrophoresis (CE). The methodology used is an improvement of existent protocols for separation of stable metal ions. Production of fluorine-18 using [{sup 18}O]H{sub 2}O-enriched water encased in a titanium target body results in the production of several metal radioisotope impurities. Optimisation of the conditions for CE separation of the metal radioisotope impurities incorporated the use of 6 mM 18-Crown-6 in combination with 12 mM glycolic acid as complexing agents within the running buffer (10 mM pyridine, pH 4.0). Using this optimised procedure, we were able to separate and detect a number of metal radioisotopes, including chromium, cobalt, manganese, vanadium and berillium, within the fM concentration range.

  16. Enabling Digital Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Georgsen, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    There are some tensions between high-level policy definitions of “digital literacy” and actual teaching practice. We need to find workable definitions of digital literacy; obtain a better understanding of what digital literacy might look like in practice; and identify pedagogical approaches, which......, these operate on a meso-level mediating between high-level concepts of digital literacy and classroom practice....... support teachers in designing digital literacy learning. We suggest that frameworks such as Problem Based Learning (PBL) are approaches that enable digital literacy learning because they provide good settings for engaging with digital literacy. We illustrate this through analysis of a case. Furthermore...

  17. Clonal variation in heavy metal accumulation and biomass production in a poplar coppice culture: I. Seasonal variation in leaf, wood and bark concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureysens, I; Blust, R; De Temmerman, L; Lemmens, C; Ceulemans, R

    2004-10-01

    The use of plants to decontaminate soils polluted by heavy metals has received considerable attention in recent years as a low-cost technique. Poplars (Populus spp.) can accumulate relatively high levels of certain metals, and have the added advantage of producing biomass that can be used for energy production. A short rotation coppice culture with 13 poplar clones was established on a former waste disposal site, which was moderately polluted with heavy metals. Total content of metals in leaves, wood and bark were determined in August and October/November. Significant clonal differences in accumulation were found for most metals, although clones with the highest concentration of all metals were not found. Cadmium, zinc and aluminium were most efficiently taken up. The lowest concentration was found in wood; the highest concentrations were generally found in senescing leaves, making removal and treatment of fallen leaves necessary.

  18. Production of multicharged metal ion beams on the first stage of tandem-type ECRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagino, Shogo, E-mail: hagino@nf.eie.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Nagaya, Tomoki; Nishiokada, Takuya; Otsuka, Takuro; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Muramatsu, Masayuki; Kitagawa, Atsushi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Multicharged metal ion beams are required to be applied in a wide range of fields. We aim at synthesizing iron-endohedral fullerene by transporting iron ion beams from the first stage into the fullerene plasma in the second stage of the tandem-type electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). We developed new evaporators by using a direct ohmic heating method and a radiation heating method from solid state pure metal materials. We investigate their properties in the test chamber and produce iron ions on the first stage of the tandem-type ECRIS. As a result, we were successful in extracting Fe{sup +} ion beams from the first stage and introducing Fe{sup +} ion beams to the second stage. We will try synthesizing iron-endohedral fullerene on the tandem-type ECRIS by using these evaporators.

  19. Initial stresses in two-layer metal domes due to imperfections of their production and assemblage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebed Evgeniy Vasil’evich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of construction of two-layer metal domes is analyzed to illustrate the causes of initial stresses in the bars of their frames. It has been noticed that it is impossible to build such structures with ideal geometric parameters because of imperfections caused by objective reasons. These imperfections cause difficulties in the process of connection of the elements in the joints. The paper demonstrates the necessity of fitting operations during assemblage that involve force fitting and yield initial stresses due to imperfections. The authors propose a special method of computer modeling of enforced elimination of possible imperfections caused by assemblage process and further confirm the method by an analysis of a concrete metal dome.

  20. Production and mechanical properties of Al-SiC metal matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvanis, K.; Fasnakis, D.; Maropoulos, A.; Papanikolaou, S.

    2016-11-01

    The usage of Al-SiC Metal Matrix Composites is constantly increasing in the last years due to their unique properties such as light weight, high strength, high specific modulus, high fatigue strength, high hardness and low density. Al-SiC composites of various carbide compositions were produced using a centrifugal casting machine. The mechanical properties, tensile and compression strength, hardness and drop-weight impact strength were studied in order to determine the optimum carbide % in the metal matrix composites. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the microstructure-property correlation. It was observed that the tensile and the compressive strength of the composites increased as the proportion of silicon carbide became higher in the composites. Also with increasing proportion of silicon carbide in the composite, the material became harder and appeared to have smaller values for total displacement and total energy during impact testing.

  1. Metal casting industry of the future: An integrated approach to delivering energy efficiency products and services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Industries of the Future process is driven by industry. Through technology roadmaps, industry participants set technology priorities, assess the progress of R and D, and ultimately lead the way in applying research results. This approach to private-public partnerships ensures the most strategic allocation possible of limited resources for the development of new technologies and the enhancement of industrial processes. Based on industry`s request, OIT`s role is to help facilitate the Industries of the Future strategy and to support the development and deployment of technologies that will shape the future of the metal casting industry. Part of this role is to encourage industry to undertake long-term, sector-wide technology planning and to selectively cost-share with OIT in collaborative R and D activities that match OIT`s mission. OIT metal casting research requires a dollar for dollar industry cost share.

  2. Production of multicharged metal ion beams on the first stage of tandem-type ECRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagino, Shogo; Nagaya, Tomoki; Nishiokada, Takuya; Otsuka, Takuro; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi

    2016-02-01

    Multicharged metal ion beams are required to be applied in a wide range of fields. We aim at synthesizing iron-endohedral fullerene by transporting iron ion beams from the first stage into the fullerene plasma in the second stage of the tandem-type electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). We developed new evaporators by using a direct ohmic heating method and a radiation heating method from solid state pure metal materials. We investigate their properties in the test chamber and produce iron ions on the first stage of the tandem-type ECRIS. As a result, we were successful in extracting Fe+ ion beams from the first stage and introducing Fe+ ion beams to the second stage. We will try synthesizing iron-endohedral fullerene on the tandem-type ECRIS by using these evaporators.

  3. Analysis of corrosion products in some metallic statuettes of the Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology (MAE-USP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzutto, Marcia A.; Tabacniks, Manfredo H.; Added, Nemitala; Barbosa, Marcel D.L. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: rizzutto@if.usp.br; tabacniks@if.usp.br; nemitala@if.usp.br; mbarbosa@if.usp.br; Lima, Silvia Cunha [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia. Lab. de Conservacao e Restauracao]. E-mail: silviacl@usp.br; Melo, Hercilio G.; Neiva, Augusto C. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Lab. de Eletroquimica e Corrosao]. E-mail: hgdemelo@usp.br; acneiva@usp.br

    2005-07-01

    The recent acquisition of a sealed chamber with controlled humidity by the Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology of the University of Sao Paulo (MAE-USP) requires new methods for conservation and restoration of metallic objects in its collection. To establish new procedures for the identification of corrosion mechanisms and agents in the exhibition environment, and to set up new standards for conservation of the museum's collection, Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) elementary analysis of some metallic objects is in progress, using the external beam facility at LAMFI. The first analysis involved metallic objects from the collection of MAE, two African statuettes 'male Edans' from the Ogboni Secret Society, of the Ilobu-Ioruba ethnic group, one pectoral adornment from the Chimu culture, Peru and one anthropomorphic pendant from the Tairona culture, Colombia. The in air non destructive PIXE analysis allowed identifying major and some secondary components in the alloys and in the corrosion products on the samples, data that were used to identify the corrosion sources and to set up the exhibition environment. (author)

  4. RECYCLING BLENDS OF WASTE PLASTICS AND BIOMASS AS REDUCING AGENT FOR THE PRODUCTION OF METALLIC IRON FROM IRON OXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAMES RANSFORD DANKWAH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory studies on the production of metallic iron from iron oxide using blends of palm nut shells (Elaes Guineanses and waste plastics as reducing agent have been performed through experiments conducted in a horizontal tube furnace. Composite pellets were formed from mixtures of iron oxide and carbonaceous materials consisting of chars of palm nut shells (PNS, high density polyethylene (HDPE and two blends of PNS with HDPE. Two sources of iron oxide were utilised in this investigation; reagent grade iron oxide (96.89 % Fe2O3 and EAF slag (47.1 % FeO. The iron oxide-carbonaceous material composites were heated rapidly at 1500°C in a continuous stream of argon and the off gas was analysed continuously using an infrared (IR gas analyser and a gas chromatographic (GC analyser. Elemental analyses of samples of the reduced metal were performed chemically for its carbon and oxygen contents using a LECO carbon/sulphur and oxygen/nitrogen analysers, respectively. The extent of reduction (after ten and fifteen minutes for reagent grade iron oxide and EAF slag, respectively and the level of carburisation were determined for each carbonaceous reductant. The results indicate that carburised metallic iron can be produced effectively from iron oxide using PNS, HDPE and blends of these carbonaceous materials as reductants. The extent of reduction improved significantly when PNS was blended with HDPE.

  5. 亮光金属丝织物的生产实践%PRODUCTION PRACTICE OF LIGHT METAL FABRIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单可奇

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the production practice of light metal wire and cotton interwoven fabric. The results show that choosing the appropriate light metal wire, bleaching the warp-wise yarn in advance, optimizing size formula and ensure the quality of sizing, the rational allocation of warping tension and weaving processing parameters, the light metal fabric with high quality can be woven to meet customer requirements.%介绍了亮光金属丝与棉交织织物的生产实践,结果表明,选择合适的亮光金属丝,对经向纱支先进行漂白,合理配置整经的张力,优选浆料配方,合理配置织造上机工艺,可织出满足客户要求的高品质的亮光金属丝织物。

  6. Solid-state structure of a degradation product frequently observed on historic metal objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinnebier, Robert E; Runčevski, Tomče; Fischer, Andrea; Eggert, Gerhard

    2015-03-16

    In the course of the investigation of glass-induced metal corrosion processes, a microcrystalline sodium copper formate hydroxide oxide hydrate, Cu4Na4O(HCOO)8(H2O)4(OH)2, was detected on a series of antique works of art, and its crystal structure was determined ab initio from high-resolution laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data using the method of charge flipping, simulated annealing, and difference-Fourier analysis (P42/n, a = 8.425 109(97) Å, c = 17.479 62(29) Å, V = 1240.747(35) Å(3), Z = 8). In the crystal structure, the metal cations are interconnected in a two-dimensional metal-organic framework via the oxygen atoms of the formate, hydroxide, and oxide anions. Doublets of face-sharing square pyramidal Cu(2+) polyhedra are linked via a single, central oxide oxygen atom to give a paddle-wheel arrangement, while the Na(+) cations are organized in Na2O11 moieties with highly disordered, edge-sharing octahedral coordination. In addition, hydrogen bonding plays an important role in stabilizing the crystal structure.

  7. Evolution of Thermally Pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars III. Dust production at supersolar metallicities

    CERN Document Server

    Nanni, Ambra; Marigo, Paola; Girardi, Léo

    2013-01-01

    We extend the formalism presented in our recent calculations of dust ejecta from the Thermally Pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch (TP-AGB) phase, to the case of super-solar metallicity stars. The TP-AGB evolutionary models are computed with the COLIBRI code. We adopt our preferred scheme for dust growth. For M-giants, we neglect chemisputtering by H$_2$ molecules and, for C-stars we assume a homogeneous growth scheme which is primarily controlled by the carbon over oxygen excess. At super-solar metallicities, dust forms more efficiently and silicates tend to condense significantly closer to the photosphere (r~1.5 R$_*$) - and thus at higher temperatures and densities - than at solar and sub-solar metallicities (r~2-3 R$_*$). In such conditions, the hypothesis of thermal decoupling between gas and dust becomes questionable, while dust heating due to collisions plays an important role. The heating mechanism delays dust condensation to slightly outer regions in the circumstellar envelope. We find that the same mech...

  8. Catalytic Enantioselective Olefin Metathesis in Natural Product Synthesis. Chiral Metal-Based Complexes that Deliver High Enantioselectivity and More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolmson, Steven J.; Meek, Simon J.; Zhugralin, Adil R.

    2012-01-01

    Chiral olefin metathesis catalysts enable chemists to access enantiomerically enriched small molecules with high efficiency; synthesis schemes involving such complexes can be substantially more concise than those that would involve enantiomerically pure substrates and achiral Mo alkylidenes or Ru-based carbenes. The scope of research towards design and development of chiral catalysts is not limited to discovery of complexes that are merely the chiral versions of the related achiral variants. A chiral olefin metathesis catalyst, in addition to furnishing products of high enantiomeric purity, can offer levels of efficiency, product selectivity and/or olefin stereoselectivity that are unavailable through the achiral variants. Such positive attributes of chiral catalysts (whether utilized in racemic or enantiomerically enriched form) should be considered as general, applicable to other classes of transformations. PMID:19967680

  9. Joule-Heated Molten Regolith Electrolysis Reactor Concepts for Oxygen and Metals Production on the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibille, Laurent; Dominques, Jesus A.

    2012-01-01

    The maturation of Molten Regolith Electrolysis (MRE) as a viable technology for oxygen and metals production on explored planets relies on the realization of the self-heating mode for the reactor. Joule heat generated during regolith electrolysis creates thermal energy that should be able to maintain the molten phase (similar to electrolytic Hall-Heroult process for aluminum production). Self-heating via Joule heating offers many advantages: (1) The regolith itself is the crucible material, it protects the vessel walls (2) Simplifies the engineering of the reactor (3) Reduces power consumption (no external heating) (4) Extends the longevity of the reactor. Predictive modeling is a tool chosen to perform dimensional analysis of a self-heating reactor: (1) Multiphysics modeling (COMSOL) was selected for Joule heat generation and heat transfer (2) Objective is to identify critical dimensions for first reactor prototype.

  10. Potential mechanism for pentachlorophenol-induced carcinogenicity: a novel mechanism for metal-independent production of hydroxyl radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ben-Zhan; Shan, Guo-Qiang

    2009-06-01

    The hydroxyl radical ((*)OH) has been considered to be one of the most reactive oxygen species produced in biological systems. It has been shown that (*)OH can cause DNA, protein, and lipid oxidation. One of the most widely accepted mechanisms for (*)OH production is through the transition metal-catalyzed Fenton reaction. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) was one of the most widely used biocides, primarily for wood preservation. PCP is now ubiquitously present in our environment and even found in people who are not occupationally exposed to it. PCP has been listed as a priority pollutant by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and classified as a group 2B environmental carcinogen by the International Association for Research on Cancer (IARC). The genotoxicity of PCP has been attributed to its two major quinoid metabolites: tetrachlorohydroquinone and tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (TCBQ). Although the redox cycling of PCP quinoid metabolites to generate reactive oxygen species is believed to play an important role, the exact molecular mechanism underlying PCP genotoxicity is not clear. Using the salicylate hydroxylation assay and electron spin resonance (ESR) secondary spin-trapping methods, we found that (*)OH can be produced by TCBQ and H(2)O(2) independent of transition metal ions. Further studies showed that TCBQ, but not its corresponding semiquinone radical, the tetrachlorosemiquinone radical (TCSQ(*)), is essential for (*)OH production. The major reaction product between TCBQ and H(2)O(2) was identified to be trichloro-hydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone (TrCBQ-OH), and H(2)O(2) was found to be the source and origin of the oxygen atom inserted into this reaction product. On the basis of these data, we propose that (*)OH production by TCBQ and H(2)O(2) is not through a semiquinone-dependent organic Fenton reaction but rather through the following novel mechanism: a nucleophilic attack of H(2)O(2) to TCBQ, leading to the formation of an unstable trichloro-hydroperoxyl-1

  11. Hydrocarbons and heavy metals in fine particulates in oil field air: possible impacts on production of natural silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Gitumani; Devi, Arundhuti; Bhattacharyya, Krishna Gopal

    2016-02-01

    Analyses of fine particulates (PM2.5) from the upper Assam oil fields of India indicated considerable presence of higher hydrocarbons (C22-C35) and heavy metals, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. This has raised serious concern for the sustainability of the exotic Muga (Antheraea assama) silk production, which has been a prime activity of a large number of people living in the area. The Muga worm feeds on the leaves of Machilus bombycina plant, and the impacts of air quality on its survival were further investigated by analyzing the leaves of the plant, the plantation soil, and the Muga cocoons. PM2.5 content in the air was much more during the winter due to near calm conditions and high humidity. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis of PM2.5 showed the presence of higher alkanes (C22-C35) that could be traced to crude oil. Cr, Ni, and Zn were found in higher concentrations in PM2.5, M. bombycina leaves, and the plantation soil indicating a common origin. The winter has been the best period for production of the silk cocoons, and the unhealthy air during this period is likely to affect the production, which is already reflected in the declining yield of Muga cocoons from the area. SEM and protein analyses of the Muga silk fiber produced in the oil field area have exhibited the deteriorating quality of the silk. This is the first report from India on hydrocarbons and associated metals in PM2.5 collected from an oil field and on their possible effects on production of silk by A. assama.

  12. Mechanistic study on ultrasound assisted pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using metal salt with hydrogen peroxide for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadoss, Govindarajan; Muthukumar, Karuppan

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the ultrasound assisted pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) using metal salt with hydrogen peroxide for bioethanol production. Among the different metal salts used, maximum holocellulose recovery and delignification were achieved with ultrasound assisted titanium dioxide (TiO2) pretreatment (UATP) system. At optimum conditions (1% H2O2, 4 g SCB dosage, 60 min sonication time, 2:100 M ratio of metal salt and H2O2, 75°C, 50% ultrasound amplitude and 70% ultrasound duty cycle), 94.98 ± 1.11% holocellulose recovery and 78.72 ± 0.86% delignification were observed. The pretreated SCB was subjected to dilute acid hydrolysis using 0.25% H2SO4 and maximum xylose, glucose and arabinose concentration obtained were 10.94 ± 0.35 g/L, 14.86 ± 0.12 g/L and 2.52 ± 0.27 g/L, respectively. The inhibitors production was found to be very less (0.93 ± 0.11 g/L furfural and 0.76 ± 0.62 g/L acetic acid) and the maximum theoretical yield of glucose and hemicellulose conversion attained were 85.8% and 77%, respectively. The fermentation was carried out using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and at the end of 72 h, 0.468 g bioethanol/g holocellulose was achieved. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of pretreated SCB was made and its morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The compounds formed during the pretreatment were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis.

  13. Metal-Induced Production of a Novel Bioadsorbent Exopolysaccharide in a Native Rhodotorula mucilaginosa from the Mexican Northeastern Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza-Gonzalez, Maria Teresa; Gonzalez Garza, Maria Teresa; Barboza Perez, Daniel; Vazquez Rodriguez, Augusto; Garcia-Gutierrez, Domingo Ixcoatl; Zarate, Xristo; Cantú Cardenas, Maria Elena; Urraca-Botello, Ludwing Ilytch; Lopez-Chuken, Ulrico Javier; Trevino-Torres, Alberto Ludovico; Cerino-Córdoba, Felipe de Jesus; Medina-Ruiz, Pavel; Villarreal-Chiu, Juan Francisco; Morones-Ramirez, Jose Ruben

    2016-01-01

    There is a current need to develop low-cost strategies to degrade and eliminate industrially used colorants discharged into the environment. Colorants discharged into natural water streams pose various threats, including: toxicity, degradation of aesthetics and inhibiting sunlight penetration into aquatic ecosystems. Dyes and colorants usually have complex aromatic molecular structures, which make them very stable and difficult to degrade and eliminate by conventional water treatment systems. The results in this work demonstrated that heavy metal-resistant Rhodotorula mucilaginosa strain UANL-001L isolated from the northeast region of Mexico produce an exopolysaccharide (EPS), during growth, which has colorant adsorption potential. The EPS produced was purified by precipitation and dialysis and was then physically and chemically characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and chemical elemental analysis. Here, the ability of the purified EPS produced to adsorb methylene blue (MB), which served as a model colorant, is studied. MB adsorption by the EPS is found to follow Langmuir Adsorption Isotherm kinetics at 25°C. Further, by calculating the Langmuir constant the adsorption capabilities of the EPS produced by the Rhodotorula mucilaginosa strain UANL-001L is compared to that of other adsorbents, both, microbially produced and from agroindustrial waste. The total adsorption capacity of the EPS, from the Rhodotorula mucilaginosa strain UANL-001L, was found to be two-fold greater than the best bioadsorbents reported in the literature. Finally, apart from determining which heavy metals stimulated EPS production in the strain, the optimal conditions of pH, heavy metal concentration, and rate of agitation of the growing culture for EPS production, was determined. The EPS reported here has the potential of aiding in the efficient removal of colorants both in water treatment plants and in situ in natural water streams.

  14. Metal-Induced Production of a Novel Bioadsorbent Exopolysaccharide in a Native Rhodotorula mucilaginosa from the Mexican Northeastern Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Garza-Gonzalez

    Full Text Available There is a current need to develop low-cost strategies to degrade and eliminate industrially used colorants discharged into the environment. Colorants discharged into natural water streams pose various threats, including: toxicity, degradation of aesthetics and inhibiting sunlight penetration into aquatic ecosystems. Dyes and colorants usually have complex aromatic molecular structures, which make them very stable and difficult to degrade and eliminate by conventional water treatment systems. The results in this work demonstrated that heavy metal-resistant Rhodotorula mucilaginosa strain UANL-001L isolated from the northeast region of Mexico produce an exopolysaccharide (EPS, during growth, which has colorant adsorption potential. The EPS produced was purified by precipitation and dialysis and was then physically and chemically characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and chemical elemental analysis. Here, the ability of the purified EPS produced to adsorb methylene blue (MB, which served as a model colorant, is studied. MB adsorption by the EPS is found to follow Langmuir Adsorption Isotherm kinetics at 25°C. Further, by calculating the Langmuir constant the adsorption capabilities of the EPS produced by the Rhodotorula mucilaginosa strain UANL-001L is compared to that of other adsorbents, both, microbially produced and from agroindustrial waste. The total adsorption capacity of the EPS, from the Rhodotorula mucilaginosa strain UANL-001L, was found to be two-fold greater than the best bioadsorbents reported in the literature. Finally, apart from determining which heavy metals stimulated EPS production in the strain, the optimal conditions of pH, heavy metal concentration, and rate of agitation of the growing culture for EPS production, was determined. The EPS reported here has the potential of aiding in the efficient removal of colorants both in water treatment plants and in situ in natural water

  15. Agricultural by-products as low-cost sorbents for the removal of heavy metals from dilute wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humelnicu, D; Ignat, M; Doroftei, F

    2015-05-01

    n the last years, much attention has been focused on the use of low-cost adsorbents for the removal of Cu(II) and Zn(II) from contaminated waters. In this context, we studied the sorption performances of two kinds of by-products resulted from the agriculture: soy bran and mustard husk. The effects of contact time, the initial metal ion concentration, pH, sorbent mass, and temperature on the adsorption capacity of the agricultural by-products as sorbents were investigated. The thermodynamic parameters associated with the adsorption process indicated that the process is spontaneous and endothermic. Modeling of experimental adsorption isotherm data showed that non-linear Langmuir isotherm fits better than other isotherms. The obtained values for the separation factor, R L were less than one which supports that the adsorption process was favorable. The obtained results indicated that the soy bran has a higher sorption capacity toward zinc ions (74.02 mg g(-1)) than mustard husk (63.69 mg g(-1)). Therefore, there is a great requirement for the search of biomaterials that are cheap and easily available for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater. The studied sorbents have the advantage of very low cost and great availability for simple operational experiments.

  16. Mathematical modeling of the emission of heavy metals into water bodies from building materials derived from production waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pugin Konstantin Georgievich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present time industrial waste is considered to be an alternative to primary natural resources when producing construction materials and products. The use of industrial waste in the construction branch allows reducing ecological load on the environment and population as a result of reducing the amount of unrecyclable waste and reducing the use of primary natural resources. Though when involving waste products as raw material in the preparation of building materials there occur environmental risks of anthropogenic impact increase on the environment. These risks are related to possible emission of heavy metals from construction materials in use. The article describes a tool which allows predicting this issue, depending on the acidity of the medium, the residence time of the material in the environment. The experimental data obtained in determining the migration activity of metals from cement concretes to aqueous solutions served as the basis for the mathematical model. The proposed model allows us to make a prediction of anthropogenic impact on the environment and commensurate this impact with the possibility of assimilation of the environment area where the building materials are applied. This will allow conducting an effective assessment of the created and applied technologies of waste disposal, taking into account the operating conditions of the materials produced.

  17. Agronomic properties of wastewater sludge biochar and bioavailability of metals in production of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mustafa K; Strezov, Vladimir; Chan, K Yin; Nelson, Peter F

    2010-02-01

    This work presents agronomic values of a biochar produced from wastewater sludge through pyrolysis at a temperature of 550 degrees C. In order to investigate and quantify effects of wastewater sludge biochar on soil quality, growth, yield and bioavailability of metals in cherry tomatoes, pot experiments were carried out in a temperature controlled environment and under four different treatments consisting of control soil, soil with biochar; soil with biochar and fertiliser, and soil with fertiliser only. The soil used was chromosol and the applied wastewater sludge biochar was 10tha(-1). The results showed that the application of biochar improves the production of cherry tomatoes by 64% above the control soil conditions. The ability of biochar to increase the yield was attributed to the combined effect of increased nutrient availability (P and N) and improved soil chemical conditions upon amendment. The yield of cherry tomato production was found to be at its maximum when biochar was applied in combination with the fertiliser. Application of biochar was also found to significantly increase the soil electrical conductivity as well as phosphorus and nitrogen contents. Bioavailability of metals present in the biochar was found to be below the Australian maximum permitted concentrations for food.

  18. VITRIFICATION OF LIGNITE FLY ASH AND METAL SLAGS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF GLASS AND GLASS CERAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Karamberi; A.Moutsatsou

    2006-01-01

    This work focuses on the production of glass and glass-ceramics by using industrial wastes or by-products,e.g., two fly ashes from the combustion of lignite, a slag from the production of Fe-Ni and a slag from the making of steel.Vitrification took place at 1 350°-1 450℃ and crystallization was achieved by heat treatment at 900, 950 and 1 000℃.The capability of the waste to be vitrified and subsequently devitrified was determined by XRD techniques. The crystalline phase depends greatly on the structure of the by-product and the heat treatment. The final products showed low leachability and good hardness.

  19. Keratinase production and biodegradation of polluted secondary chicken feather wastes by a newly isolated multi heavy metal tolerant bacterium-Alcaligenes sp. AQ05-001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Ibrahim; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima; Phang, Lai Yee; Syed, Mohd Arif; Shamaan, Nor Aripin; Abdul Khalil, Khalilah; Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Shukor, Mohd Yunus

    2016-12-01

    Biodegradation of agricultural wastes, generated annually from poultry farms and slaughterhouses, can solve the pollution problem and at the same time yield valuable degradation products. But these wastes also constitute environmental nuisance, especially in Malaysia where their illegal disposal on heavy metal contaminated soils poses a serious biodegradation issue as feather tends to accumulate heavy metals from the surrounding environment. Further, continuous use of feather wastes as cheap biosorbent material for the removal of heavy metals from effluents has contributed to the rising amount of polluted feathers, which has necessitated the search for heavy metal-tolerant feather degrading strains. Isolation, characterization and application of a novel heavy metal-tolerant feather-degrading bacterium, identified by 16S RNA sequencing as Alcaligenes sp. AQ05-001 in degradation of heavy metal polluted recalcitrant agricultural wastes, have been reported. Physico-cultural conditions influencing its activities were studied using one-factor-at-a-time and a statistical optimisation approach. Complete degradation of 5 g/L feather was achieved with pH 8, 2% inoculum at 27 °C and incubation period of 36 h. The medium optimisation after the response surface methodology (RSM) resulted in a 10-fold increase in keratinase production (88.4 U/mL) over the initial 8.85 U/mL when supplemented with 0.5% (w/v) sucrose, 0.15% (w/v) ammonium bicarbonate, 0.3% (w/v) skim milk, and 0.01% (w/v) urea. Under optimum conditions, the bacterium was able to degrade heavy metal polluted feathers completely and produced valuable keratinase and protein-rich hydrolysates. About 83% of the feathers polluted with a mixture of highly toxic metals were degraded with high keratinase activities. The heavy metal tolerance ability of this bacterium can be harnessed not only in keratinase production but also in the bioremediation of heavy metal-polluted feather wastes.

  20. Obtaining Multiple Metals Through Electron Beam Melting of Refractory Metal Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vutova, Katia; Vassileva, Vania

    Investigations and results on the refining of tungsten scrap applying electron beam melting (EBM) in vacuum are presented and discussed. In this work EB melting experiments were performed in single or double-melt operations with different power inputs and refining times for tungsten purification and recovery of multiple metals (including refractory and other metals such as Mo, Nb, Cu, Zn, etc.), which are alloyed elements or impurities with high concentrations in the initial materials. Evaluations for extraction of some valuable metals, generated in the condensate at their removal from the liquid metal during the refining process are provided. Efficient technological regimes for e-beam melting and refining that enable the simultaneous production of pure metal ingots and condensates that can be used directly or can be used for subsequent extraction of expensive and valuable metals are presented.

  1. Catalytic Metal Free Production of Large Cage Structure Carbon Particles: A Candidate for Hydrogen Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuki; Nuth, Joseph A., III; Ferguson, Frank T.

    2005-01-01

    We will demonstrate that carbon particles consisting of large cages can be produced without catalytic metal. The carbon particles were produced in CO gas as well as by introduction of 5% methane gas into the CO gas. The gas-produced carbon particles were able to absorb approximately 16.2 wt% of hydrogen. This value is 2.5 times higher than the 6.5 wt% goal for the vehicular hydrogen storage proposed by the Department of Energy in the USA. Therefore, we believe that this carbon particle is an excellent candidate for hydrogen storage for fuel cells.

  2. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production in sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans and its relevance on attachment to metal sulfides

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre Morales, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    La extracción de metales a partir de minerales azufrados ha sido un paso importante para la industria minera a través de los años. Hay microorganismos capaces de crecer en zonas mineras y depósitos de menas, utilizando compuestos presentes en la menas para obtener energía, precipitando de esta forma otros compuestos presentes en las mismas. El Uso de microorganismos biolixiviadores acidofilos en un proceso llamado biohydrometalurgia, se ha convertido en una alternativa a la minería convencion...

  3. In Situ Production of Hard Metal Matrix Composite Coating on Engineered Surfaces Using Laser Cladding Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Mohammad Shahid; Hussain, Manowar; Kumar, Vikash; Das, Alok Kumar

    2016-11-01

    The growing need for high wear-resistant surface with enhanced physical properties has led to extensive researches in the field of surface engineering. Laser cladding emerged to be a promising method to achieve these objectives in a cost-effective way. The present paper studies the viability of cladding of tungsten disulfide (WS2) powder by using 400 W continuous-wave fiber laser. WS2 was used as a coating material, which was decomposed at higher temperature and underwent several chemical reactions. By this process, in situ formation of metal matrix composites and hard face coating on the substrate surface were attained. The characterization of laser cladded surface was done to study its morphological, microstructural, mechanical and tribological properties. It was observed that cladding of WS2 powder on 304 SS resulted in the formation of Cr-W-C-Fe metal matrix composite having improved mechanical and tribological properties. The value of microhardness of the coated surface was found to increase three to four times in comparison with the parent material surface. Wear test results indicated a decrease in wear by 1/9th (maximum) as compared to the parent 304 SS surface. The volume fractions of tungsten particles on the cladded surface were also investigated through EDS analysis.

  4. Very low metallicity massive star models: Pre-SN evolution and primary nitrogen production

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschi, R

    2006-01-01

    Two series of models were computed. The first series consists of 20 solar mass models with varying initial metallicity (Z=0.02 down to Z=10^{-8}) and rotation (V_{ini}=0-600 km/s). The second one consists of models with an initial metallicity of Z=10^{-8}, masses between 9 and 85 solar masses and fast initial rotation velocities (V_{ini}=600-800 km/s). The most interesting models are the models with Z=10^{-8} ([Fe/H]~-6.6). In the course of helium burning, carbon and oxygen are mixed into the hydrogen burning shell. This boosts the importance of the shell and causes a reduction of the CO core mass. Later in the evolution, the hydrogen shell deepens and produces large amount of primary nitrogen. For the most massive models (M>~60 solar masses), significant mass loss occurs during the red supergiant stage. This mass loss is due to the surface enrichment in CNO elements via rotational and convective mixing. The 85 solar mass model ends up as a WO type Wolf-Rayet star. Therefore the models predict SNe of type Ic ...

  5. In Situ Production of Hard Metal Matrix Composite Coating on Engineered Surfaces Using Laser Cladding Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Mohammad Shahid; Hussain, Manowar; Kumar, Vikash; Das, Alok Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The growing need for high wear-resistant surface with enhanced physical properties has led to extensive researches in the field of surface engineering. Laser cladding emerged to be a promising method to achieve these objectives in a cost-effective way. The present paper studies the viability of cladding of tungsten disulfide (WS2) powder by using 400 W continuous-wave fiber laser. WS2 was used as a coating material, which was decomposed at higher temperature and underwent several chemical reactions. By this process, in situ formation of metal matrix composites and hard face coating on the substrate surface were attained. The characterization of laser cladded surface was done to study its morphological, microstructural, mechanical and tribological properties. It was observed that cladding of WS2 powder on 304 SS resulted in the formation of Cr-W-C-Fe metal matrix composite having improved mechanical and tribological properties. The value of microhardness of the coated surface was found to increase three to four times in comparison with the parent material surface. Wear test results indicated a decrease in wear by 1/9th (maximum) as compared to the parent 304 SS surface. The volume fractions of tungsten particles on the cladded surface were also investigated through EDS analysis.

  6. Method of carbon dioxide-free hydrogen production from hydrocarbon decomposition over metal salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlebacher, Jonah; Gaskey, Bernard

    2017-10-03

    A process to decompose methane into carbon (graphitic powder) and hydrogen (H.sub.2 gas) without secondary production of carbon dioxide, employing a cycle in which a secondary chemical is recycled and reused, is disclosed.

  7. Plasmon-enhanced Solar Fuel Production with Gold-metal Oxide Hybrid Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrekt, Christian; Law, Matt; Zhang, Jingdong

    Harnessing sunlight to drive chemical reactions for energy storage is an important element in the transitiontowards green and sustainable technologies. Solar fuel production using semiconductor nanoparticles (SNPs) are widely studied but suffer from poor utilization of the solar spectrum and...

  8. Enabling immersive simulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, Josh (University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA); Mateas, Michael (University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA); Hart, Derek H.; Whetzel, Jonathan; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Glickman, Matthew R.; Abbott, Robert G.

    2009-02-01

    The object of the 'Enabling Immersive Simulation for Complex Systems Analysis and Training' LDRD has been to research, design, and engineer a capability to develop simulations which (1) provide a rich, immersive interface for participation by real humans (exploiting existing high-performance game-engine technology wherever possible), and (2) can leverage Sandia's substantial investment in high-fidelity physical and cognitive models implemented in the Umbra simulation framework. We report here on these efforts. First, we describe the integration of Sandia's Umbra modular simulation framework with the open-source Delta3D game engine. Next, we report on Umbra's integration with Sandia's Cognitive Foundry, specifically to provide for learning behaviors for 'virtual teammates' directly from observed human behavior. Finally, we describe the integration of Delta3D with the ABL behavior engine, and report on research into establishing the theoretical framework that will be required to make use of tools like ABL to scale up to increasingly rich and realistic virtual characters.

  9. Monitoring of emerging contaminants (pharmaceuticals, Personal Care Products, surfactants and heavy metals) in a quaternary detritic aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, L.; Valdes-Abellan, J.; Jiménez-Martínez, J.

    2012-04-01

    The presence of 209 emerging compounds, surfactants, priority substances according to the 2008/105/EC Directive, 10 heavy metals and microbiological organisms in blended water and aquifer samples was investigated in a quaternary aquifer. The effects of these compounds over the environment are not clear in many cases, but many of them have been classified as endocrine disruptor compounds, EDC. Their presence in the media is controlled in one hand by their transformation and/or removal rates and, on the other hand, by their continuous release into the media, due to the broad use of these in many human activities (pharmaceuticals, personal care products, pesticides, heavy metals, LAS and others). The attention of this work focusses on the presence and fate of these substances in the vadose zone and the aquifer. The aquifer catchment (81km2) located in SE Spain presents a high natural salinity (with EC values of ~7,500 μS cm-1, and high concentrations of chloride, sulphate and sodium), making it unsuitable to be used as drinking water or irrigation. Two sampling campaigns (February and June 2011) in wells and springs have been carried out top characterize physic-chemical, microbiological and emerging contaminants presence in the aquifer. A total of 209 emerging pollutants grouped into the following classes were analysed: 125 pharmaceutical compounds (Phs), 20 polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Dioxins, 46 pesticides, 3 volatile priority pollutants as well as the most commonly used anionic surfactants were identified for further analysis. Heavy metals included: Cu, Cd, Pb, Hg, Ni, Zn, Sn, Pt, Pd and Tl. Results showed that 39 out of all compounds were detected: 11 pharmaceuticals, 9 PAHs, 19 pesticides, 4 surfactants and 4 heavy metals. Two of the compounds, endosulfan-α and Ni, were detected in concentrations above the allowed regulation. Although results are limited to 2 sampling campaigns, it is important to note that surfactants (LAS), pesticides PAHs and

  10. Surface distribution of dissolved trace metals in the oligotrophic ocean and their influence on phytoplankton biomass and productivity

    KAUST Repository

    Pinedo-González, Paulina

    2015-10-25

    The distribution of bioactive trace metals has the potential to enhance or limit primary productivity and carbon export in some regions of the world ocean. To study these connections, the concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, and V were determined for 110 surface water samples collected during the Malaspina 2010 Circumnavigation Expedition (MCE). Total dissolved Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, and V concentrations averaged 19.0 ± 5.4 pM, 21.4 ± 12 pM, 0.91 ± 0.4 nM, 0.66 ± 0.3 nM, 88.8 ± 12 nM, 1.72 ± 0.4 nM, and 23.4 ± 4.4 nM, respectively, with the lowest values detected in the Central Pacific and increased values at the extremes of all transects near coastal zones. Trace metal concentrations measured in surface waters of the Atlantic Ocean during the MCE were compared to previously published data for the same region. The comparison revealed little temporal changes in the distribution of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, and Ni over the last 30 years. We utilized a multivariable linear regression model to describe potential relationships between primary productivity and the hydrological, biological, trace nutrient and macronutrient data collected during the MCE. Our statistical analysis shows that primary productivity in the Indian Ocean is best described by chlorophyll a, NO3, Ni, temperature, SiO4, and Cd. In the Atlantic Ocean, primary productivity is correlated with chlorophyll a, NO3, PO4, mixed layer depth, Co, Fe, Cd, Cu, V, and Mo. The variables salinity, temperature, SiO4, NO3, PO4, Fe, Cd, and V were found to best predict primary productivity in the Pacific Ocean. These results suggest that some of the lesser studied trace elements (e.g., Ni, V, Mo, and Cd) may play a more important role in regulating oceanic primary productivity than previously thought and point to the need for future experiments to verify their potential biological functions.

  11. The competitiveness of metallurgy and metal products industry in Spain; La competitividad de las industrias metalurgica y de productos metalicos en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateos Torres, C.

    2012-07-01

    This article analyzes the competitiveness of metallurgy and manufacture of metal products sectors, in which the Industrial Observatory of the Metal Sector has studied the key factors of innovation for competitiveness. It includes a reference to the competitive situation of the Spanish iron and steel industry. Furthermore, the investments carried out by both sectors under the Competitiveness Promotion Programme for Strategic Industrial Sectors during the years 2009-2011 are analyzed. (Author)

  12. Defect production and annihilation in metals through electronic excitation by energetic heavy ion bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwase, Akihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Defect production, radiation annealing and defect recovery are studied in Ni and Cu irradiated with low-energy ({approx}1-MeV) and high-energy ({approx}100-MeV) ions. Irradiation of Ni with {approx}100-MeV ions causes an anomalous reduction, or even a complete disappearance of the stage-I recovery. This result shows that the energy transferred from excited electrons to lattice atoms through the electron-lattice interaction contributes to the annihilation of the stage-I interstitials. This effect is also observed in Ni as a large radiation annealing during 100-MeV heavy ion irradiation. On the other hand, in Cu thin foils, we find the defect production process strongly associated with electron excitation, where the defect production cross section is nearly proportional to S{sub e}{sup 2}. (author)

  13. Development of new generation of perovskite based noble metal/semiconductor photocatalysts for visible-light-driven hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Peichuan

    described in this dissertation. Noble metal nanoparticles have been proved to be effective co-catalysts due to their unique physical and chemical properties. Au and Pt nanoparticles with different sizes were synthesized and deposited on CdS. Sub-nanometer Au and Pt were found to be promising co-catalysts for photocatalytic hydrogen production reaction. Specifically, sub-nm Au and sub-nm Pt nanoparticles were found to enhance the photocatalytic activity in hydrogen production of CdS by 35 and 15 times respectively. Other noble metal co-catalysts, such as Ru, Pd and Rh were also deposited on CdS and their photocatalytic activities were investigated. Additionally, a novel chamber for photocatalytic reactions was developed as a part of this dissertation. The reaction chamber has several unique features allowing different reactions and measurements. The reactor was proved to be suitable for future projects in photocatalysis such as photocatalytic CO2 conversion into hydrocarbons.

  14. Assessment of methane production from shredder waste in landfills: The influence of temperature, moisture and metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fathi Aghdam, Ehsan; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In this study, methane (CH4) production rates from shredder waste (SW) were determined by incubation of waste samples over a period of 230days under different operating conditions, and first-order decay kinetic constants (k-values) were calculated. SW and sterilized SW were incubated under...

  15. Biodiesel production from sunflower oil by using alkali metal exchanged NaX zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, A.; Borges, M.E.; Hernandez, A. [La Laguna Univ. (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the activity of a potassium-acetate exchanges NaX zeolite as catalyst for the transesterification of commercial sunflower oil and frying oil for the production of biodiesel, using a slurry reactor, batch and continuous operation, and testing the effect of some variables on the process. (orig.)

  16. On the effects of fission product noble metal inclusions on the kinetics of radiation induced dissolution of spent nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trummer, Martin; Nilsson, Sara; Jonsson, Mats

    2008-08-01

    Radiation induced oxidative dissolution of UO 2 is a key process for the safety assessment of future geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel. This process is expected to govern the rate of radionuclide release to the biosphere. In this work, we have studied the catalytic effects of fission product noble metal inclusions on the kinetics of radiation induced dissolution of spent nuclear fuel. The experimental studies were performed using UO 2 pellets containing 0%, 0.1%, 1% and 3% Pd as a model for spent nuclear fuel. H 2O 2 was used as a model for radiolytical oxidants (previous studies have shown that H 2O 2 is the most important oxidant in such systems). The pellets were immersed in aqueous solution containing H 2O 2 and HCO3- and the consumption of H 2O 2 and the dissolution of uranium were analyzed as a function of H 2 pressure (0-40 bar). The noble metal inclusions were found to catalyze oxidation of UO 2 as well as reduction of surface bound oxidized UO 2 by H 2. In both cases the rate of the process increases with increasing Pd content. The reduction process was found to be close to diffusion controlled. This process can fully account for the inhibiting effect of H 2 observed in several studies on spent nuclear fuel dissolution.

  17. Applications of biofilms in bioremediation and biotransformation of persistent organic pollutants, pharmaceuticals/personal care products, and heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sarah J; Kjellerup, Birthe V

    2013-12-01

    In this review, the strategies being employed to exploit the inherent durability of biofilms and the diverse nutrient cycling of the microbiome for bioremediation are explored. Focus will be given to halogenated compounds, hydrocarbons, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products as well as some heavy metals and toxic minerals, as these groups represent the majority of priority pollutants. For decades, industrial processes have been creating waste all around the world, resulting in contaminated sediments and subsequent, far-reaching dispersal into aquatic environments. As persistent pollutants have accumulated and are still being created and disposed, the incentive to find suitable and more efficient solutions to effectively detoxify the environment is even greater. Indigenous bacterial communities are capable of metabolizing persistent organic pollutants and oxidizing heavy metal contaminants. However, their low abundance and activity in the environment, difficulties accessing the contaminant or nutrient limitations in the environment all prevent the processes from occurring as quickly as desired and thus reaching the proposed clean-up goals. Biofilm communities provide among other things a beneficial structure, possibility for nutrient, and genetic exchange to participating microorganisms as well as protection from the surrounding environment concerning for instance predation and chemical and shear stresses. Biofilms can also be utilized in other ways as biomarkers for monitoring of stream water quality from for instance mine drainage. The durability and structure of biofilms together with the diverse array of structural and metabolic characteristics make these communities attractive actors in biofilm-mediated remediation solutions and ecosystem monitoring.

  18. Dust Production from Sub-Solar to Super-Solar Metallicity in Thermally Pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanni, A.; Bressan, A.; Marigo, P.; Girardi, L.; Javadi, A.; van Loon, J. Th.

    2015-08-01

    We discuss the dust chemistry and growth in the circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of Thermally Pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch (TP-AGB) star models, computed with the COLIBRI code, at varying initial mass and metallicity (Z = 0.001, 0.008, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06). A relevant result of our analysis deals with silicate production in M stars. We show that, in order to reproduce the observed trend between terminal velocities and mass-loss rates in Galactic M giants, one has to significantly reduce the efficiency of chemisputtering by H2 molecules, usually considered the most effective dust destruction mechanism. This conclusion is in agreement with the most recent laboratory results, which show that silicates may condense already at Tcond˜1400 K, rather than only at Tcond˜1000 K, as obtained by models that include chemisputtering. From analysis of the total dust ejecta, we find that the dust-to-gas ratios of the total ejecta from intermediate-mass stars are much less dependent on metallicity than usually assumed. In a broader context, our results are suitable for studying the dust enrichment of the interstellar medium provided by TP-AGB stars in both nearby and high-redshift galaxies.

  19. Dust production from sub-solar to super-solar metallicity in Thermally Pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ambra, Nanni; Paola, Marigo; Léo, Girardi; Atefeh, Javadi; Jacco, van Loon

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the dust chemistry and growth in the circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of Thermally Pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch (TP-AGB) star models computed with the COLIBRI code, at varying initial mass and metallicity (Z=0.001, 0.008, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06). A relevant result of our analysis deals with the silicate production in M-stars. We show that, in order to reproduce the observed trend between terminal velocities and mass-loss rates in Galactic M-giants, one has to significantly reduce the efficiency of chemisputtering by H2 molecules, usually considered as the most effective dust destruction mechanism. This indication is also in agreement with the most recent laboratory results, which show that silicates may condense already at T=1400 K, instead than at Tcond=1000 K, as obtained by models that include chemisputtering. From the analysis of the total dust ejecta, we find that the total dust-to-gas ejecta of intermediate-mass stars are much less dependent on metallicity than usually assumed. In a broader contex...

  20. Metallic nanoparticle production and consumption in China between 2000 and 2010 and associative aquatic environmental risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Yang, E-mail: gaoyang@igsnrr.ac.cn [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling (China); Luo Zhuanxi, E-mail: zxluo@iue.ac.cn [Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health (China); He Nianpeng, E-mail: henp@igsnrr.ac.cn [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling (China); Wang, Ming K. [National Taiwan University, Department of Agricultural Chemistry (China)

    2013-06-15

    With rapid advances in nanotechnology and nanomaterials, metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) have become widely used in many different products and industrial processes. Water is an important medium in the transfer and fate of MNPs. Accordingly, the potential for the inadvertent and incidental release of MNPs into aquatic environments through direct release and waste disposal has increased considerably in China in recent years. Environmental health and human safety are two of the greatest challenges facing the expanding nanomaterial field. However, existing knowledge on MNP toxicity is currently insufficient to carry out a comprehensive risk assessment due to a general lack of data related to the environmental distribution of MNPs within aquatic environments. This study provides a summary of MNP production and consumption trends in China by means of statistical changes in MNP discharge and deposition between 2000 and 2010. China was used as a model for aquatic environmental risks associated with MNP consumption and production. MNP pollution of aquatic environments is discussed as well as the challenges that China will face in the future with increasing nanomaterial consumption and pollution. The study concludes with a discussion on managing MNP exposure of aquatic environments in China and its subsequent risks, if any, which may require greater attention.