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Sample records for metallurgy solid-state physics

  1. Solid state physics for metallurgists

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Metal Physics and Physical Metallurgy, Volume 6: Solid State Physics for Metallurgists provides an introduction to the basic understanding of the properties that make materials useful to mankind. This book discusses the electronic structure of matter, which is the domain of solid state physics.Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the electronic structure of free atoms and the electronic structure of solids. This text then examines the basis of the Bloch theorem, which is the exact periodicity of the potential. Other chapters consider the fundamental assumption in

  2. Current programmes on physical metallurgy and related areas in BARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Current research and development programmes on physical metallurgy and related areas from the following Divisions of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre are included in this report : Atomic Fuels Division, High Pressure Physics Division, Metallurgy Division, Radio Metallurgy Division, Solid State Physics Division. Important publications corresponding to each activity have also been listed. (author)

  3. Simple material physics experiment for studying phase diagrams and solid state transformations in alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, S; Kamal, R [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1977-09-01

    Study of phase diagram and accompanying solid state transformations is essential to determine the best possible composition, manufacturing techniques and physical properties of an alloy. A simple technique having wide applications in metallurgical industry is to study the temperature--time curve of the alloy undergoing cooling with an uniform rate. An experiment which uses this technique is described. It is widely applicable in the fields of materials science, applied solid state physics, physical metallurgy and physical chemistry.

  4. Physical metallurgy and physics of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedel, J.

    1997-01-01

    A historical review of the development of fundamental research at the Cea in the field of material science, is presented, beginning with the study of material issues for nuclear applications, such as the growth, the swelling (of uranium and its alloys) and the embrittlement of steels. Other researches led to the introduction of plutonium in uranium oxide, paving the way to MOX fuels, and the study of diffusion in fundamental metallurgy, hot plasticity especially the hexagonal metals) and steady state conditions under irradiation

  5. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics, International Edition covers the fundamentals and the advanced concepts of solid state physics. The book is comprised of 18 chapters that tackle a specific aspect of solid state physics. Chapters 1 to 3 discuss the symmetry aspects of crystalline solids, while Chapter 4 covers the application of X-rays in solid state science. Chapter 5 deals with the anisotropic character of crystals. Chapters 6 to 8 talk about the five common types of bonding in solids, while Chapters 9 and 10 cover the free electron theory and band theory. Chapters 11 and 12 discuss the effects of moveme

  6. Physical metallurgy. Vol. 6. Corrosion, oxidation and physical metallurgy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adda, Y.; Dupuy, J.M.; Philibert, J.; Quere, Y.

    1982-12-01

    This document deals with the following subjects: oxidation, corrosion and surface treatments. Some physical metallurgy applications are presented: aluminium alloys, high elastic limit materials, materials for very high temperature, nuclear metallurgy problems, composite materials, magnetic materials, very high purity materials, and, superconductor materials [fr

  7. An introduction to solid state diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Borg, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    The energetics and mechanisms of diffusion control the kinetics of such diverse phenomena as the fabrication of semiconductors and superconductors, the tempering of steel, geological metamorphism, the precipitation hardening of nonferrous alloys and corrosion of metals and alloys. This work explains the fundamentals of diffusion in the solid state at a level suitable for upper-level undergraduate and beginning graduate students in materials science, metallurgy, mineralogy, and solid state physics and chemistry. A knowledge of physical chemistry such as is generally provided by a one-year under

  8. Theoretical solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i

  9. Understanding solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Holgate, Sharon Ann

    2009-01-01

    Where Sharon Ann Holgate has succeeded in this book is in packing it with examples of the application of solid state physics to technology. … All the basic elements of solid state physics are covered … . The range of materials is good, including as it does polymers and glasses as well as crystalline solids. In general, the style makes for easy reading. … Overall this book succeeds in showing the relevance of solid state physics to the modern world … .-Contemporary Physics, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2011I was indeed amused and inspired by the wonderful images throughout the book, carefully selected by th

  10. Solid-State Physics Introduction to the Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, James

    2010-01-01

    Learning Solid State Physics involves a certain degree of maturity, since it involves tying together diverse concepts from many areas of physics. The objective is to understand, in a basic way, how solid materials behave. To do this one needs both a good physical and mathematical background. One definition of Solid State Physics is it is the study of the physical (e.g. the electrical, dielectric, magnetic, elastic, and thermal) properties of solids in terms of basic physical laws. In one sense, Solid State Physics is more like chemistry than some other branches of physics because it focuses on common properties of large classes of materials. It is typical that Solid State Physics emphasizes how physics properties link to electronic structure. We have retained the term Solid Modern solid state physics came of age in the late thirties and forties and is now is part of condensed matter physics which includes liquids, soft materials, and non-crystalline solids. This solid state/condensed matter physics book begin...

  11. Solid State Physics Introduction to the Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, James D

    2007-01-01

    Learning Solid State Physics involves a certain degree of maturity, since it involves tying together diverse concepts from many areas of physics. The objective is to understand, in a basic way, how solid materials behave. To do this one needs both a good physical and mathematical background. One definition of Solid State Physics is it is the study of the physical (e.g. the electrical, dielectric, magnetic, elastic, and thermal) properties of solids in terms of basic physical laws. In one sense, Solid State Physics is more like chemistry than some other branches of physics because it focuses on common properties of large classes of materials. It is typical that Solid State Physics emphasizes how physics properties link to electronic structure. We have retained the term Solid State Physics, even though Condensed Matter Physics is more commonly used. Condensed Matter Physics includes liquids and non-crystalline solids such as glass, which we shall not discuss in detail. Modern Solid State Physics came of age in ...

  12. Einstein and solid-state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aut, I.

    1982-01-01

    A connection between the development of solid-state physics and the works and activity of Albert Einstein is traced. A tremendous Einstein contribution to solid state physics is marked. A strict establishment of particle-wave dualism; a conclusion about the applicability of the Plank radiation law not only to black body radiation; finding out particles indistinguishability - all three discoveries have a principle significance for solid state physics too

  13. Theoretical solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research activities at ORNL in theoretical solid state physics are described. Topics covered include: surface studies; particle-solid interactions; electronic and magnetic properties; and lattice dynamics

  14. Annual Report on Scientific Activities in 1997 of Department of Physics and Nuclear Techniques, Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolny, J.; Olszynska, E.

    1998-01-01

    The Annual Report 1997 is the review of scientific activities of the Department of Nuclear Physics and Techniques (DNPT) of the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow. The studies connected with: radiometric analysis, nuclear electronics, solid state physics, elementary particle and detectors, medical physics, physics of environment, theoretical physics, nuclear geophysics, energetic problems, industrial radiometry and tracer techniques have been broadly presented. The fill list of works being published and presented at scientific conferences in 1997 by the staff of DNPT are also included

  15. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Grosso, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics is a textbook for students of physics, material science, chemistry, and engineering. It is the state-of-the-art presentation of the theoretical foundations and application of the quantum structure of matter and materials. This second edition provides timely coverage of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the last decade (especially in low-dimensional systems and quantum transport). It helps build readers' understanding of the newest advances in condensed matter physics with rigorous yet clear mathematics. Examples are an integral part of the text, carefully de

  16. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    The present volume 47 of the Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written version of a large number of the invited talks of the 2007 Spring Meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik which was held in Regensburg, Germany, from March 26 to 30, 2007 in conjunction with the 71st Annual Meeting of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.It gives an overview of the present status of solid state physics where low-dimensional systems such as quantum dots and quantum wires are dominating. The importance of magnetic materials is reflected by the large number of contributions in the part dealing with ferromagnetic films and particles. One of the most exciting achievements of the last couple of years is the successful application of electrical contacts to and the investigation of single layers of graphene. This exciting physics is covered in Part IV of this book. Terahertz physics is another rapidly moving field which is presented here by five contributions. Achievements in solid state physics are only rarely...

  17. Review of the physical metallurgy of Alloy 718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiser, D.D.; Brown, H.L.

    1976-02-01

    The physical metallurgy of Alloy 718 is updated to 1976 on the basis of a survey of post-1967 literature and current experimental data. Composition, microstructures, and mechanical properties are correlated with heat treatment parameters. The current state of understanding of phase stability, strengthening mechanisms, deformation modes, recovery, and recrystallization in this material is described

  18. Diffusion in Solids Fundamentals, Methods, Materials, Diffusion-Controlled Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mehrer, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    Diffusion is a vital topic in solid-state physics and chemistry, physical metallurgy and materials science. Diffusion processes are ubiquitous in solids at elevated temperatures. A thorough understanding of diffusion in materials is crucial for materials development and engineering. This book first gives an account of the central aspects of diffusion in solids, for which the necessary background is a course in solid state physics. It then provides easy access to important information about diffuson in metals, alloys, semiconductors, ion-conducting materials, glasses and nanomaterials. Several diffusion-controlled phenomena, including ionic conduction, grain-boundary and dislocation pipe diffusion, are considered as well. Graduate students in solid-state physics, physical metallurgy, materials science, physical and inorganic chemistry or geophysics will benefit from this book as will physicists, chemists, metallurgists, materials engineers in academic and industrial research laboratories.

  19. Solid state physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Philip

    2015-01-01

    A must-have textbook for any undergraduate studying solid state physics. This successful brief course in solid state physics is now in its second edition. The clear and concise introduction not only describes all the basic phenomena and concepts, but also such advanced issues as magnetism and superconductivity. Each section starts with a gentle introduction, covering basic principles, progressing to a more advanced level in order to present a comprehensive overview of the subject. The book is providing qualitative discussions that help undergraduates understand concepts even if they can?t foll

  20. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    The present volume 46 of Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written versions of selected invited lectures from the spring meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft which was held from 27 to 31 March 2006 in Dresden, Germany. Many topical talks given at the numerous symposia are included. Most of these were organized collaboratively by several of the divisions of the Arbeitskreis. The topis range from zero-dimensional physics in quantum dots, molecules and nanoparticles over one-dimensional physics in nanowires and 1d systems to more applied subjects like optoelectronics and materials science in thin films. The contributions span the whole width of solid-state physics from truly basic science to applications.

  1. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    The objective of Solid State Physics is to introduce college seniors and first-year graduate students in physics, electrical engineering, materials science, chemistry, and related areas to this diverse and fascinating field. I have attempted to present this complex subject matter in a coherent, integrated manner, emphasizing fundamental scientific ideas to give the student a strong understanding and ""feel"" for the physics and the orders of magnitude involved. The subject is varied, covering many important, sophisticated, and practical areas, which, at first, may appear unrelated but which ar

  2. Ultrasonic methods in solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Truell, John; Elbaum, Charles

    1969-01-01

    Ultrasonic Methods in Solid State Physics is devoted to studies of energy loss and velocity of ultrasonic waves which have a bearing on present-day problems in solid-state physics. The discussion is particularly concerned with the type of investigation that can be carried out in the megacycle range of frequencies from a few megacycles to kilomegacycles; it deals almost entirely with short-duration pulse methods rather than with standing-wave methods. The book opens with a chapter on a classical treatment of wave propagation in solids. This is followed by separate chapters on methods and techni

  3. Physical Acoustics in the Solid State

    CERN Document Server

    Lüthi, B

    2006-01-01

    Suitable for researchers and graduate students in physics and material science, "Physical Acoustics in the Solid State" reviews the modern aspects in the field, including many experimental results, especially those involving ultrasonics. Practically all fields of solid-state physics are covered: metals, semiconductors, magnetism, superconductivity, different kinds of phase transitions, low-dimensional systems, and the quantum Hall effect. After a review of the relevant experimental techniques and an introduction to the theory of elasticity, emphasizing the symmetry aspects, applications in the various fields of condensed matter physics are presented. Also treated are Brillouin-scattering results and results from thermodynamic investigations, such as thermal expansion and specific heat.

  4. Physical Acoustics in the Solid State

    CERN Document Server

    Lüthi, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Suitable for researchers and graduate students in physics and material science, "Physical Acoustics in the Solid State" reviews the modern aspects in the field, including many experimental results, especially those involving ultrasonics. Practically all fields of solid-state physics are covered: metals, semiconductors, magnetism, superconductivity, different kinds of phase transitions, low-dimensional systems, and the quantum Hall effect. After a review of the relevant experimental techniques and an introduction to the theory of elasticity, emphasizing the symmetry aspects, applications in the various fields of condensed matter physics are presented. Also treated are Brillouin-scattering results and results from thermodynamic investigations, such as thermal expansion and specific heat.

  5. Physical metallurgy of titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collings, E.W.

    1988-01-01

    Researches in electric, magnetic, thermophysical properties of titanium alloys in the wide range of temperatures (from helium upto elevated one), as well as stability of phases in alloys of different types are generalized. Fundamental description of physical properties of binary model alloys is given. Acoustic emission, shape memory and Bauschinger effects, pseudoelasticity, aging and other aspects of physical metallurgy of titanium alloys are considered

  6. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    The present volume 48 of the Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written version of a large number of the invited talks of the 2008 Spring Meeting of the DPG section Condensed Matter Physics (Sektion kondensierte Materie der DPG) which was held in Berlin, Germany, and gives a nice overview of the present status of condensed matter physics. Low-dimensional systems are dominating the field and especially nanowires and quantum dots. In recent years one learned how to produce nanowires directly during a growth process. Therefore, a number of articles is related to such nanowires. In nanoparticles and quantum dots, the dimensionality is further reduced and we learn more and more how to produce such systems in a defined way and what effects result from the confinement in all three dimensions. Spin effects and magnetism is another important field of present-day research in solid state physics. The third chapter covers this physics. The growing interest into organic materials and biological systems is reflec...

  7. Powder metallurgy: Solid and liquid phase sintering of copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Rex; Weiser, Martin W.

    1993-01-01

    Basic powder metallurgy (P/M) principles and techniques are presented in this laboratory experiment. A copper based system is used since it is relatively easy to work with and is commercially important. In addition to standard solid state sintering, small quantities of low melting metals such as tin, zinc, lead, and aluminum can be added to demonstrate liquid phase sintering and alloy formation. The Taguchi Method of experimental design was used to study the effect of particle size, pressing force, sintering temperature, and sintering time. These parameters can be easily changed to incorporate liquid phase sintering effects and some guidelines for such substitutions are presented. The experiment is typically carried out over a period of three weeks.

  8. Solid state physics principles and modern applications

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, John J

    2018-01-01

    This book provides the basis for a two-semester graduate course on solid-state physics. The first half presents all the knowledge necessary for a one-semester survey of solid-state physics, but in greater depth than most introductory solid state physics courses. The second half includes most of the important research over the past half-century, covering both the fundamental principles and most recent advances. This new edition includes the latest developments in the treatment of strongly interacting two-dimensional electrons and discusses the generalization from small to larger systems. The book provides explanations in a class-tested tutorial style, and each chapter includes problems reviewing key concepts and calculations. The updated exercises and solutions enable students to become familiar with contemporary research activities, such as the electronic properties of massless fermions in graphene and topological insulators.

  9. Minimization of radioactive solid wastes from uranium mining and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xueli; Xu Lechang; Wei Guangzhi; Gao Jie; Wang Erqi

    2010-01-01

    The concept and contents of radioactive waste minimization are introduced. The principle of radioactive waste minimization involving administration optimization, source reduction, recycling and reuse as well as volume reduction are discussed. The strategies and methods to minimize radioactive solid wastes from uranium mining and metallurgy are summarized. In addition, the benefit from its application of radioactive waste minimization is analyzed. Prospects for the research on radioactive so-lid waste minimization are made in the end. (authors)

  10. Solid state insurrection how the science of substance made American physics matter

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Joseph D

    2018-01-01

    Solid state physics—the study of the physical properties of solid matter—was far and away the most populous subfield of Cold War American physics. But despite prolific contributions to consumer and medical technology, such as the transistor and magnetic resonance imaging, it garnered much less professional prestige and public attention than nuclear and particle physics. Solid State Insurrection argues that solid state physics was nonetheless essential to securing the vast social, political, and financial capital Cold War physics enjoyed. Solid state’s technological bent, and its challenge to the “pure science” ideal many physicists cherished, helped physics as a whole respond more readily to Cold War social, political, and economic pressures. Solid state research kept physics economically and technologically relevant, sustaining its lofty cultural standing and policy influence long after the sheen of the Manhattan Project had faded. By placing solid state at the center of the story of twentieth cent...

  11. Introduction to solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Philip

    2013-01-01

    A compact introduction to solid-state physics for students of physics, material,and engineering sciences - ideal for a one- to two-semestral course. In easily understable form the author introduces to phenomena and concepts. Thereby he avoids expensive mathematical derivations and refers to outgoing literature. The successful didactical preparation makes an easy access to the theme possible. Numerous illustrations clarify the connections and make the explained well understandable. With about 170 questions and exercise problems.

  12. Spring meeting of the DPG Working Group 'Solid state physics'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The volume contains abstracts of the contributions to the Spring Meeting of the Solid State Physics Section with the topics dielectric solids, thin films, dynamics and statistical physics, semiconductor physics, magnetism, metal physics, surface physics, low temperature physics, vacuum physics and engineering, chemical physics. (MM)

  13. Photoemission from solids: the transition from solid-state to atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, D.A.

    1980-08-01

    As the photon energy is increased, photoemission from solids undergoes a slow transition from solid-state to atomic behavior. However, throughout the energy range hν = 10 to 1000 eV or higher both types of phenomena are present. Thus angle-resolved photoemission can only be understood quantitatively if each experimenter recognizes the presence of band-structure, photoelectron diffraction, and photoelectron asymmetry effects. The quest for this understanding will build some interesting bridges between solid-state and atomic physics and should also yield important new insights about the phenomena associated with photoemission

  14. Division of solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, O.

    1983-09-01

    This report gives a survey of the present research projects at the division of solid state physics, Inst. of Technology, Uppsala University. The projects fall within the fields of magnetism, i.e. spin glasses, ordered magnetic structures and itinerant electron magnetism, and optics, i.e. properties of crystalline and amorphous materials for selective transmission and absorption in connection with energy-related research. (author)

  15. Proceedings of 5. scientific conference on solid state physics. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The 5. Kazakhstan scientific conference on solid state physics was held on 28-30 October, 1999 in Karaganda. Scientists and researchers from Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Estonia present various reports on different problems of solid state physics

  16. Radioactive isotopes in solid-state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Deicher, M

    2002-01-01

    Radioactive atoms have been used in solid-state physics and in material science for many decades. Besides their classical application as tracer for diffusion studies, nuclear techniques such as M\\"ossbauer spectroscopy, perturbed angular correlation, $\\beta$-NMR, and emission channelling have used nuclear properties (via hyperfine interactions or emitted particles) to gain microscopical information on the structural and dynamical properties of solids. During the last decade, the availability of many different radioactive isotopes as a clean ion beam at ISOL facilities such as ISOLDE at CERN has triggered a new era involving methods sensitive for the optical and electronic properties of solids, especially in the field of semiconductor physics. Extremely sensitive spectroscopic techniques like deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), photoluminescence (PL), and Hall effect have gained a new quality by using radioactive isotopes. Because of their decay the chemical origin of an observed electronic and optical b...

  17. Annual Report on Scientific Activities in 1997 of Department of Physics and Nuclear Techniques, Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow; Sprawozdanie z dzialalnosci naukowej w roku 1997, Wydzial Fizyki i Techniki Jadrowej, Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Cracow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolny, J.; Olszynska, E. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    The Annual Report 1997 is the review of scientific activities of the Department of Nuclear Physics and Techniques (DNPT) of the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow. The studies connected with: radiometric analysis, nuclear electronics, solid state physics, elementary particle and detectors, medical physics, physics of environment, theoretical physics, nuclear geophysics, energetic problems, industrial radiometry and tracer techniques have been broadly presented. The fill list of works being published and presented at scientific conferences in 1997 by the staff of DNPT are also included.

  18. Proceedings of the solid state physics symposium. Vol. 34C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Solid State Physics Symposium held at Varanasi during December 21 to 24, 1991. The topics discussed in the symposium were : (a) Phonon physics, (b) Electron states and electronic properties, (c) Magnetism and magnetic properties, (d) Semiconductor physics, (e) Physics of defects and disordered materials, (f) Transport properties, (g) Superconductivity and superfluidity, (h) Liquid crystals and plastic crystals, (i) Phase transitions and critical phenomena, (j) Surface and interface physics, (k) Non-linear dynamics, instabilities and chaos, (l) Resonance studies and relaxation phenomena, (m) Solid state devices, techniques and instrumentation. Three seminars on topics : (i) High T c superconductors, (ii) Soft matter, and (iii) Physics and technology of interfaces were also held during the symposium. (M.K.V.N.)

  19. Quantum technologies for solid state physics using cold trapped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdinand Schmidt-Kaler

    2014-01-01

    The quantum states of ions are perfectly controlled, and may be used for fundamental research in quantum physics, as highlighted by the Nobel Prize given to Dave Wineland in 2012. Two directions of quantum technologies, followed by the Mainz group, have high impact on solid state physics: I) The delivery of single cold ions on demand for the deterministic doping of solid state materials with nm spatial precision to generate design-structures optimized for quantum processors. II) The simulation of solid state relevant Hamiltonians with AMO systems of one or two dimensional arrays of trapped ions. I will talk about the recent progress in both fields. http://www.quantenbit.de/#Number Sign#/publications/(author)

  20. Proceedings of the DAE solid state physics symposium. V. 51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhushan, K.G.; Gupta, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    DAE Solid State Physics Symposium, sponsored by the Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences, Department of Atomic Energy, is organized annually. The topics covered are phase transitions, soft condensed matter, nano-materials, experimental techniques, instrumentation and solid state devices, superconductivity, magnetism, electronic structure and phonons, semiconductor physics, transport properties, surface - interface and thin films, liquids, glasses and amorphous systems, etc. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  1. Scandium: its occurrence, chemistry, physics, metallurgy, biology, and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horovitz, C.T.

    1975-01-01

    This book describes the following aspects of scandium: discovery and history, occurrence in nature, geochemistry and mineralogy, chemical, physical and technological properties, fabrication and metallurgy, its biological significance and toxicology, and its uses. (Extensive references for each chapter)

  2. BOOK REVIEW: Solid State Physics: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakoby, Bernhard

    2009-07-01

    There's a wealth of excellent textbooks on solid state physics. The author of the present book is well aware of this fact and does not attempt to write just another one. Rather, he has provided a very compact introduction to solid state physics for third-year students. As we are faced with the continuous appearance interdisciplinary fields and associated study curricula in natural and engineering sciences (biophysics, mechatronics, etc), a compact text in solid state physics would be appreciated by students of these disciplines as well. The book features 11 chapters where each is provided with supplementary discussion questions and problems. The first chapters deal with a review of chemical bonding mechanisms, crystal structures and mechanical properties of solids, which are brief but by no means superficial. The following, somewhat more detailed chapter on thermal properties of lattices includes a nice introduction to phonons. The foundations of solid state electronics are treated in the next three chapters. Here the author first discusses the classical treatment of electronic behaviour in metals (Drude model) and continues with a quantum-theoretical approach starting with the free-electron model and leading to the band structures in conductive solids. The next chapter is devoted to semiconductors and ends with a brief but, with respect to the topical scope, adequate discussion of semiconductor devices. The classical topics of magnetic and dielectric behaviour are treated in the sequel. The book closes with a chapter on superconductivity and a brief chapter covering the modern topics of quantum confinement and aspects of nanoscale physics. In my opinion, the author has succeeded in creating a very concise yet not superficial textbook. The account presented often probes subjects deep enough to lay the basis for a thorough understanding, preparing the reader for more specialized textbooks. For instance, I think that this book may serve as an excellent first

  3. Unitary transformations in solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, M.

    1986-01-01

    The main emphasis of this book is on the practical application of unitary transformations to problems in solid state physics. This is a method used in the field of nonadiabatic electron-phonon phenomena where the Born-Oppenheimer approximation is no longer applicable. The book is intended as a tool for those who want to apply unitary transformations quickly and on a more elementary level and also for those who want to use this method for more involved problems. The book is divided into 6 chapters. The first three chapters are concerned with presenting quick applications of unitary transformations and chapter 4 presents a more systematic procedure. The last two chapters contain the major known examples of the utilization of unitary transformations in solid state physics, including such highlights as the Froehlich and the Fulton-Gouterman transformations. The book is supplemented by extended tables of unitary transformations, whose properties and peculiarities are also listed. This tabulated material is unique and will be of great practical use to those applying the method of unitary transformations in their work. (Auth.)

  4. K. S. Krishnan Memorial Lecture: The role of crystallography in solid state physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinier, A [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1977-06-01

    The role of crystallography in solving problems in solid state physics, is explained. A few domains in solid state physics such as detection of localized defects, structure of metallic solid solutions, mechanism of phase transitions and the intermediate states between crystalline and amorphous states, have been investigated successfully by X-ray and neutron diffraction methods. The studies have helped a deeper understanding of solid state phenomena. Structures of CuBa, AlZn, ..beta..-alumina etc. are discussed.

  5. Theoretical solid state physics, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 2 deals with the electron-lattice interaction and the effect of lattice imperfections. Conductivity, semiconductors, and luminescence are discussed, with emphasis on the basic physical problems and the various phenomena derived from them. The theoretical basis of interaction between electrons and lattices is considered, along with basic concepts of conduction theory, scattering of electrons by imperfections, and radiationless transitions. This volume is comprised of 19 chapters and begins with an overview of the coupling of electrons and the crystal latt

  6. Conductors, semiconductors, superconductors an introduction to solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Huebener, Rudolf P

    2016-01-01

    This undergraduate textbook provides an introduction to the fundamentals of solid state physics, including a description of the key people in the field and the historic context. The book concentrates on the electric and magnetic properties of materials. It is written for students up to the bachelor level in the fields of physics, materials science, and electric engineering. Because of its vivid explanations and its didactic approach, it can also serve as a motivating pre-stage and supporting companion in the study of the established and more detailed textbooks of solid state physics. The textbook is suitable for a quick repetition prior to examinations. This second edition is extended considerably by detailed mathematical treatments in many chapters, as well as extensive coverage of magnetic impurities.

  7. Solid state physics and physicists of the post war Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakis, J.

    2003-01-01

    In Latvia during the so-called post war period (1944-1991) fields that promoted the research activities were nuclear research and semiconductor electronics. Being considered as classified the researches in these fields were separated from the universities and transferred to the institutes of recently founded Latvian Academy of Sciences. The institutes related to the so-called sector management ministries performed the most of research in semiconductor physics. Research activities at the University of Latvia were mainly in the basic solid state physics (ionic crystals, Ferro ceramics). Despite of being controlled research activities in solid-state physics in Latvia were on relatively high level recognized both nationally and internationally

  8. The solid state physics programme at ISOLDE: recent developments and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Karl; Schell, Juliana; Correia, J. G.; Deicher, M.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Fenta, A. S.; David-Bosne, E.; Costa, A. R. G.; Lupascu, Doru C.

    2017-10-01

    Solid state physics (SSP) research at ISOLDE has been running since the mid-1970s and accounts for about 10%-15% of the overall physics programme. ISOLDE is the world flagship for the on-line production of exotic radioactive isotopes, with high yields, high elemental selectivity and isotopic purity. Consequently, it hosts a panoply of state-of-the-art nuclear techniques which apply nuclear methods to research on life sciences, material science and bio-chemical physics. The ease of detecting radioactivity—scientists and specialists in nuclear solid state techniques. This article describes the current status of this programme along with recent illustrative results, predicting a bright future for these unique research methods and collaborations.

  9. Solid state physics. Introduction to the fundamentals. 7. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibach, Harald; Lueth, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The present seventh edition of solid-state physics accomodates to the trend to nanophysics in research and teaching. The book applies to studying and teachings of physics, material science, as well as micro- and nanoelectronics. It treats equally experiment and theory. Tables with fundamental experiments, preparation methods, and special physical effects as well as exercise problems round the book off [de

  10. Introduction to solid state physics and crystalline nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Iadonisi, Giuseppe; Chiofalo, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This textbook provides conceptual, procedural, and factual knowledge on solid state and nanostructure physics. It is designed to acquaint readers with key concepts and their connections, to stimulate intuition and curiosity, and to enable the acquisition of competences in general strategies and specific procedures for problem solving and their use in specific applications. To these ends, a multidisciplinary approach is adopted, integrating physics, chemistry, and engineering and reflecting how these disciplines are converging towards common tools and languages in the field. Each chapter discusses essential ideas before the introduction of formalisms and the stepwise addition of complications. Questions on everyday manifestations of the concepts are included, with reasoned linking of ideas from different chapters and sections and further detail in the appendices. The final section of each chapter describes experimental methods and strategies that can be used to probe the phenomena under discussion. Solid state...

  11. Solid State Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces

  12. Atomic and solid state physics with the 14UD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, C.S.

    1975-02-01

    The use of energetic heavy ions in atomic and solid state physics is discussed. Topics that are discussed include: 1) Properties of excited ions, 2) radiation damage studies by channeling, 3) energy loss of ions and range measurements, 4) oscillating effects in channeling, 5) x-ray production in solids, 6) coherence effects in channeling and 7) formation of united atoms. (author)

  13. Solid State Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  14. Plutonium metallurgy: The materials science challenges bridging condensed-matter physics and chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, A.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)], E-mail: schwartz6@llnl.gov

    2007-10-11

    Although there exists evidence of metallurgical practices dating back over 6000 years, studies of Pu and Pu alloys have been conducted for barely 60 years. During the time of the Manhattan Project and extending for some time afterward, the priority to produce the metal took precedence over the fundamental understanding of the metallurgical principals. In the past decade or so, there has been a resurgence in the basic metallurgy, condensed-matter physics, and chemistry of Pu and Pu alloys. These communities have made substantial progress, both experimentally and theoretically in many areas; however, many challenges still remain. The intent of this brief overview is to highlight a number important challenges that we face in the metallurgy of Pu including phase transformations and phase stability, aging, and the connection between electronic structure and metallurgy.

  15. Practical application of solid phase spectrophotometry in analysis of materials and goods of mining and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Qunzhang

    1999-01-01

    The author reviewed recent development and practical application of solid phase spectrophotometry in analysis of materials and goods of mining-metallurgy. Separation and preconcentration and conditions of coloring determination, sensitivity and range of detection, as well as interference of corresponding method are discussed

  16. Current programmes of Metallurgy Division (1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Current research and development programmes of the Metallurgy Division are listed under the headings: 1)Thrust Areas, 2)High Temperature Materials Section, 3)Chemical Metallurgy Section, 4)Metallurgical Thermochemistry Section, 5)Physical Metallurgy Section, 6)Mechanical Metallurgy Section, 7)Corrosion Metallurgy Section, 8)Electrochemical Science and Technology Section, 9)Ceramics Section, and 10)Fabrication and Maintenance Group. A list of equipment in the Division and a list of sciientific personnel of the Division are also given. (M.G.B.)

  17. Solid state physics advances in research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrenreich, Henry

    1994-01-01

    The latest volume in the world renowned Solid State Physics series marks the fruition of Founding Editor David Turnbull''s outstanding tenure as series editor. Volume 47 presents five articles written by leadingexperts on areas including crystal-melt interfacial tension, order-disorder transformation in alloys, brittle matrix composites, surfaces and interfaces, and magnetoresistance.

  18. Solid-State Physics An Introduction to Principles of Materials Science

    CERN Document Server

    Ibach, Harald

    2009-01-01

    This new edition of the popular introduction to solid-state physics provides a comprehensive overview on basic theoretical and experimental concepts of material science. Additional sections emphasize current topics in solid-state physics. Notably, sections on important devices, aspects of non-periodic structures of matter, phase transitions, defects, superconductors and nanostructures have been added, the chapters presenting semi- and superconductivity had been completly updated. Students will benefit significantly from solving the exercises given at the end of each chapter. This book is intended for university students in physics, engineering and electrical engineering. This edition has been carefully revised, updated, and enlarged. Among the key recent developments incorporated throughout GMR (giant magneto resistance), thin-film magnetic properties, magnetic hysteresis and domain walls, quantum transport, metamaterials, and preparation techniques for nanostructures. From a review of the original edition �...

  19. Solid State Physics Principles and Modern Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, John J

    2009-01-01

    Intended for a two semester advanced undergraduate or graduate course in Solid State Physics, this treatment offers modern coverage of the theory and related experiments, including the group theoretical approach to band structures, Moessbauer recoil free fraction, semi-classical electron theory, magnetoconductivity, electron self-energy and Landau theory of Fermi liquid, and both quantum and fractional quantum Hall effects. Integrated throughout are developments from the newest semiconductor devices, e.g. space charge layers, quantum wells and superlattices. The first half includes all material usually covered in the introductory course, but in greater depth than most introductory textbooks. The second half includes most of the important developments in solid-state researches of the past half century, addressing e.g. optical and electronic properties such as collective bulk and surface modes and spectral function of a quasiparticle, which is a basic concept for understanding LEED intensities, X ray fine struc...

  20. Powder Metallurgy characteristics and application: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2005-01-01

    Powder metallurgy process (P/M) is a near-net or net-shape manufacturing process that combines the features of shape making technology of powder compaction with the development of final material and design properties (physical and mechanical) during subsequent densification or consolidation processes, e.g. sintering. It utilizes the metal powder or powders of metal alloys. In this paper, the major historical developments in P/M are reviewed and discussed. The main parameters involved in the process and their effects on the product characteristics are presented and discussed, which include: powders and methods of their production, particle size and shape, compressibility and additives, sintering temperature and time and finishing processes. The advantages and limitations of powder metallurgy are also presented and discussed. Finally, applications and future developments of the process are outlined and discussed. (author)

  1. On the Floquet–Magnus expansion: Applications in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mananga, Eugene Stephane, E-mail: emananga@gradcenter.cuny.edu [Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Physics, Department of Radiology, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Charpentier, Thibault, E-mail: thibault.charpentier@cea.fr [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique, IRAMIS, Service interdisciplinaire sur les systèmes moléculaires et matériaux, CEA/CNRS UMR 3299, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-01-22

    Theoretical approaches are useful and powerful tools for more accurate and efficient spin dynamics simulation to understand experiments and devising new RF pulse sequence in nuclear magnetic resonance. Solid-state NMR is definitely a timely topic or area of research, and not many papers on the respective theories are available in the literature of nuclear magnetic resonance or physics reports. This report presents the power and the salient features of the promising theoretical approach called Floquet–Magnus expansion that is helpful to describe the time evolution of the spin system at all times in nuclear magnetic resonance. The report presents a broad view of algorithms of spin dynamics, based on promising and useful theory of Floquet–Magnus expansion. This theory provides procedures to control and describe the spin dynamics in solid-state NMR. Major applications of the Floquet–Magnus expansion are illustrated by simple solid-state NMR and physical applications such as in nuclear, atomic, molecular physics, and quantum mechanics, NMR, quantum field theory and high energy physics, electromagnetism, optics, general relativity, search of periodic orbits, and geometric control of mechanical systems. The aim of this report is to bring to the attention of the spin dynamics community, the bridge that exists between solid-state NMR and other related fields of physics and applied mathematics. This review article also discusses future potential theoretical directions in solid-state NMR.

  2. Luminescence and the solid state

    CERN Document Server

    Ropp, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of the transistor in 1948, the study of the solid state has been burgeoning. Recently, cold fusion and the ceramic superconductor have given cause for excitement. There are two approaches possible to this area of science, namely, that of solid state physics and solid state chemistry, although both overlap extensively. The former is more concerned with electronic states in solids (including electromagnetics) whereas the latter is more concerned with interactions of atoms in solids. The area of solid state physics is well documented, however, there are very few texts which de

  3. Physical Protection Study of the Radio metallurgy Installation Using SAVIComputer Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinitoyo, Andreas

    2000-01-01

    Based on IAEA Recommendation on INFCIR/225/Rev.3 (The Physical Protectionof Nuclear Material), a nuclear installation shall have physical protectionsystem for protection or being secure on sabotage activities in theinstallation and thieve of nuclear materials. The recommendation states therequirements for physical protection of nuclear materials usage, transit andstorage. Radio metallurgy Installation of the Fuel Element and ReprocessingDevelopment Center (BATAN) at Serpong is a nuclear installation for researchon post irradiation of high radioactive spent fuel element, its processingand storage. The installation has risk on threat of a sabotage, which isdominant than thieve. The RMI building was designed and constructed ofphysical protection components and have been integrated with the BATAN Safetyand Security System and the Security Guards functions to be PhysicalProtection System for the RMI. By using the SAVI Computer Program with inputdata from the existing standards, assumptions for detection possibility,delay and response, that will result the probability of interruptions of theworst adversary paths PI = 0.1. These mean that the physical protectionsystems of the RMI shall be upgraded and improved in order to be reliable orbetter if the most of paths to the target PI = 1.0. (author)

  4. Physical and mechanical metallurgy of high purity Nb for accelerator cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieler, T.R.; Wright, N.T.; Pourboghrat, F.; Compton, C.; Hartwig, K.T.; Baars, D.; Zamiri, A.; Chandrasekaran, S.; Darbandi, P.; Jiang, H.; Skoug, E.; Balachandran, S.; Ice, G.E.; Liu, W.

    2010-01-01

    In the past decade, high Q values have been achieved in high purity Nb superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. Fundamental understanding of the physical metallurgy of Nb that enables these achievements is beginning to reveal what challenges remain to establish reproducible and cost-effective production of high performance SRF cavities. Recent studies of dislocation substructure development and effects of recrystallization arising from welding and heat treatments and their correlations with cavity performance are considered. With better fundamental understanding of the effects of dislocation substructure evolution and recrystallization on electron and phonon conduction, as well as the interior and surface states, it will be possible to design optimal processing paths for cost-effective performance using approaches such as hydroforming, which minimizes or eliminates welds in a cavity.

  5. On the Fer expansion: Applications in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mananga, Eugene Stephane, E-mail: esm041@mail.harvard.edu

    2016-01-18

    Theoretical approaches are useful and powerful tools for more accurate and efficient spin dynamics simulation to understand experiments and devising new RF pulse sequence in nuclear magnetic resonance. Solid-state NMR is definitely a timely topic or area of research, and not many papers on the respective theories are available in the literature of nuclear magnetic resonance or physics reports. This report presents the power and the salient features of the promising theoretical approach called Fer expansion that is helpful to describe the evolution of the spin system in nuclear magnetic resonance. The report presents a broad view of algorithms of spin dynamics based on the Fer expansion which provides procedures to control and describe the spin dynamics in solid-state NMR. Significant applications of the Fer expansion are illustrated in NMR and in physics such as classical physics, nonlinear dynamics systems, celestial mechanics and dynamical astronomy, hydrodynamics, nuclear, atomic, molecular physics, and quantum mechanics, quantum field theory, high energy physics, electromagnetism. The aim of this report is to bring to the attention of the spin dynamics community, the bridge that exists between solid-state NMR and other related fields of physics and applied mathematics.

  6. On the Fer expansion: Applications in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mananga, Eugene Stephane

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical approaches are useful and powerful tools for more accurate and efficient spin dynamics simulation to understand experiments and devising new RF pulse sequence in nuclear magnetic resonance. Solid-state NMR is definitely a timely topic or area of research, and not many papers on the respective theories are available in the literature of nuclear magnetic resonance or physics reports. This report presents the power and the salient features of the promising theoretical approach called Fer expansion that is helpful to describe the evolution of the spin system in nuclear magnetic resonance. The report presents a broad view of algorithms of spin dynamics based on the Fer expansion which provides procedures to control and describe the spin dynamics in solid-state NMR. Significant applications of the Fer expansion are illustrated in NMR and in physics such as classical physics, nonlinear dynamics systems, celestial mechanics and dynamical astronomy, hydrodynamics, nuclear, atomic, molecular physics, and quantum mechanics, quantum field theory, high energy physics, electromagnetism. The aim of this report is to bring to the attention of the spin dynamics community, the bridge that exists between solid-state NMR and other related fields of physics and applied mathematics.

  7. PREFACE: XIX Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XIX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serquis, Adriana; Balseiro, Carlos; Bolcatto, Pablo

    2009-07-01

    This volume contains selected papers which have been presented at the XIX Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XIX) held at Puerto Iguazú, Argentina, from 5--10 October 2008. The conference, covering all areas of Solid State Physics, is one of the most important and traditional meetings in Physics in our region. The Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics is a forum where researchers and students from Latin America as well as leading scientists from other parts of the world get together to exchange information, strengthen collaborations and identify new challenges in Solid State Physics. This successful series of meetings has been organised in eight different countries, the last three held in Mérida, Venezuela (2002), La Habana, Cuba (2004) and Puebla, México (2006). Following the trends of previous events, SLAFES XIX included seven plenary talks, eighteen invited talks and contributions, and 28 oral and 255 poster presentations, covering mostly the latest experimental and theoretical advances in Nanophysics, Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, Spintronics, Magnetism, New Materials, Superconductivity, Surfaces and Interfaces, Low-Dimensional Systems, Materials Preparation and Characterization, Theory and Computing Simulations of Materials among other topics. The group of scientists participating had come from Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Brazil, France, Spain, Switzerland and the USA We are indebted to all participants for their enthusiasm and contributions and to the members of the International Advisory Commitees. We also wish to thank to the rest of the Organizing Committee: Gustavo Lozano, Ana María Llois, Laura Steren and Edith Goldberg and very specially to Javier Schmidt, Gustavo Ruano, Marcelo Romero, Lucila Cristina and Juan Carlos Moreno for their invaluable assistance during the event. Finally we gratefully aknowledge the financial support the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET

  8. Recent applications of nuclear orientation to solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrell, B.G.

    1985-01-01

    The author reviews how certain problems in solid state physics have been clarified by low temperature nuclear orientation and nuclear magnetic resonance of oriented nuclei. The advantages of these techniques, a brief survey of recent progress in traditional applications, and new developments are discussed, and, finally, future trends are suggested. (Auth.)

  9. Physical metallurgy: Scientific school of the Academician V.M. Schastlivtsev

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatchikova, T. I.

    2016-04-01

    This paper is to honor Academician Vadim Mikhailovich Schastlivtsev, a prominent scientist in the field of metal physics and materials science. The article comprises an analysis of the topical issues of the physical metallurgy of the early 21st century and of the contribution of V.M. Schastlivtsev and of his school to the science of phase and structural transformations in steels. In 2015, Vadim Mikhailovich celebrates his 80th birthday, and this paper is timed to this honorable date. The list of his main publications is given in it.

  10. Solid state physics advances in research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Turnbull, David

    1991-01-01

    The explosion of the science of mesoscopic structures is having a great impact on physics and electrical engineering because of the possible applications of these structures in microelectronic and optoelectronic devices of the future. This volume of Solid State Physics consists of two comprehensive and authoritative articles that discuss most of the physical problems that have so far been identified as being of importance in semiconductor nanostructures. Much of the volume is tutorial in characture--while at the same time time presenting current and vital theoretical and experimental results and a copious reference list--so it will be essential reading to all those taking a part in the research and development of this emerging technology.

  11. Proceedings of 10. Conference on Electron Microscopy of Solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The new technical solutions and methodical variants of electron microscopy i. e. transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy have been presented. Development of new methods and microscope constructions which became more and more sophisticated causes the progress in possible applications. The broad spectrum of such applications in metallurgy, materials science, chemical engineering, electronics, physical chemistry, solid state physics, mineralogy and other branches of science and technique have been performed and discussed at the conference

  12. Upgrade of detectors of neutron instruments at Neutron Physics Laboratory in Rez

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Litvinenko, E. I.; Ryukhtin, Vasyl; Bogdzel, A. A.; Churakov, A. V.; Farkas, G.; Hervoches, Charles; Lukáš, Petr; Pilch, Jan; Šaroun, Jan; Strunz, Pavel; Zhuravlev, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 841, JAN (2017), s. 5-11 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14004; GA MŠk LM2015056; GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : neutron scattering * gaseous position-sensitive detector * delay line readout Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; JG - Metallurgy (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.); Materials engineering (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.362, year: 2016

  13. Physical and mechanical metallurgy of high purity Nb for accelerator cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Bieler

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, high Q values have been achieved in high purity Nb superconducting radio frequency (SRF cavities. Fundamental understanding of the physical metallurgy of Nb that enables these achievements is beginning to reveal what challenges remain to establish reproducible and cost-effective production of high performance SRF cavities. Recent studies of dislocation substructure development and effects of recrystallization arising from welding and heat treatments and their correlations with cavity performance are considered. With better fundamental understanding of the effects of dislocation substructure evolution and recrystallization on electron and phonon conduction, as well as the interior and surface states, it will be possible to design optimal processing paths for cost-effective performance using approaches such as hydroforming, which minimizes or eliminates welds in a cavity.

  14. Solid state radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Important recent developments provide accurate, sensitive, and reliable radiation measurements by using solid state radiation dosimetry methods. A review of the basic phenomena, devices, practical limitations, and categories of solid state methods is presented. The primary focus is upon the general physics underlying radiation measurements with solid state devices

  15. A Good Name and Great Riches: Rebranding Solid State Physics for the National Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joseph

    2012-03-01

    In 1943 Oliver Buckley, lamenting the inadequacy of term ``physics'' to evoke what physicists did, quoted the proverb, ``A good name is rather to be chosen than great riches.'' Some forty years later, solid state physicists confronted similar discontent with their name, precipitating the rise of the appellation ``condensed matter physics.'' Ostensibly a rebranding of a well-established field, the change signaled deeper conceptual and institutional realignment. Whereas ``solid state'' emerged in the 1940s in the service of institutional aims, ``condensed matter'' more accurately captured a distinct set of theoretical and experimental approaches. Reimagining the field around core conceptual approaches set condensed matter apart from the inchoate field of materials science, which subsumed a growing proportion of solid state funding and personnel through the 1980s. Federally funded research installations were the source of ``great riches'' for scientific research. The DOE National Laboratory System and the DARPA network of Interdisciplinary Laboratories, given their responsiveness to shifts in national funding priorities, provide a sensitive historical instrument through which to trace the transition from solid state to condensed matter. The reorganization of solid state in response to the evolution of national priorities and funding practices precipitated a sharpening of the field's intellectual mission. At the same time, it reflected the difficulties solid state faced articulating its intellectual--as opposed to technological--merit. The proverb continues, `` and loving favor rather than silver and gold.'' The adoption of a name that emphasized intellectual cohesion and associated social esteem exposed the growing tension between technology-oriented national funding goals for materials research and condensed matter physics' ascendant intellectual identity.

  16. Annual report 1983/1984. Division of Solid State Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    This report gives a survey of the present research projects at the division of solid state physics, Inst. of Technology, Uppsala University. The projects fall within the fields of magnetism, i.e. spin glasses, ordered magnetic structures and itinerant electron magnetism, as well as optics, i.e. properties of crystalline and amorphous materials for selective transmission and absorption in connection with energy-related research. (author)

  17. Metallography of powder metallurgy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawley, Alan; Murphy, Thomas F.

    2003-01-01

    The primary distinction between the microstructure of an ingot metallurgy/wrought material and one fabricated by the powder metallurgy route of pressing followed by sintering is the presence of porosity in the latter. In its various morphologies, porosity affects the mechanical, physical, chemical, electrical and thermal properties of the material. Thus, it is important to be able to characterize quantitatively the microstructure of powder metallurgy parts and components. Metallographic procedures necessary for the reliable characterization of microstructures in powder metallurgy materials are reviewed, with emphasis on the intrinsic challenges presented by the presence of porosity. To illustrate the utility of these techniques, five case studies are presented involving powder metallurgy materials. These case studies demonstrate problem solving via metallography in diverse situations: failure of a tungsten carbide-coated precipitation hardening stainless steel, failure of a steel pump gear, quantification of the degree of sinter (DOS), simulation of performance of a porous filter using automated image analysis, and analysis of failure in a sinter brazed part assembly

  18. Permanent magnets and its production by powder metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Herraiz Lalana

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the historical relationship between permanent magnets and powder metallurgy is reviewed. Powder metallurgy is a manufacturing technique based on the compaction of powders that are sintered to create a solid product. This technique was used in the production of permanent magnets for the first time in the 18th century and, nowadays, most permanent magnetic materials are manufacturing by this mean. Magnetic properties are highly dependent on the microstructure of the final product, the magnetic alignment of domains and presence of porosity, to mention a few, and powder metallurgy enables fine control of these factors.

  19. SOLID-STATE STORAGE DEVICE WITH PROGRAMMABLE PHYSICAL STORAGE ACCESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    a storage device action request, and the storage device evaluating a first rule of the one or more rules by determining if the received request fulfills request conditions comprised in the first rule, and in the affirmative the storage device performing request actions comprised in the first rule......Embodiments of the present invention includes a method of operating a solid-state storage device, comprising a storage device controller in the storage device receiving a set of one or more rules, each rule comprising (i) one or more request conditions to be evaluated for a storage device action...... request received from a host computer, and (ii) one or more request actions to be performed on a physical address space of a non-volatile storage unit in the solid-state storage device in case the one or more request conditions are fulfilled; the method further comprises: the storage device receiving...

  20. Majorana Fermions in Particle Physics, Solid State and Quantum Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsten, L.; Duff, M. J.

    This review is based on lectures given by M. J. Duff summarising the far reaching contributions of Ettore Majorana to fundamental physics, with special focus on Majorana fermions in all their guises. The theoretical discovery of the eponymous fcrmion in 1937 has since had profound implications for particlc physics, solid state and quantum computation. The breadth of these disciplines is testimony to Majorana's genius, which continues to permeate physics today. These lectures offer a whistle-stop tour through some limited subset of the key ideas. In addition to touching on these various applications, we will draw out some fascinating relations connecting the normed division algebras R, ℂ, H, O to spinors, trialities. K-theory and the classification of stable topological states of symmetry-protected gapped free-fermion systems.

  1. Solid state theory

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Walter A

    2011-01-01

    ""A well-written text . . . should find a wide readership, especially among graduate students."" - Dr. J. I. Pankove, RCA.The field of solid state theory, including crystallography, semi-conductor physics, and various applications in chemistry and electrical engineering, is highly relevant to many areas of modern science and industry. Professor Harrison's well-known text offers an excellent one-year graduate course in this active and important area of research. While presenting a broad overview of the fundamental concepts and methods of solid state physics, including the basic quantum theory o

  2. Progress report of the Metallurgy Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaram, C.V.; Moorthy, V.K.

    1975-01-01

    The activities of the Metallurgy Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, during the year 1974 are reported under six sections, namely: ore dressing; extractive metallurgy; ceramics; physical metallurgy; corrosion and electrometallurgy, and radiometallurgy. The developmental programme is not only concerned with materials of nuclear interest such as uranium, thorium, plutonium, zirconium, niobium and beryllium, but also other materials of national interest such as titanium, tantalum, ceramics, corrosion-resistant alloys etc. In addition to the laboratory studies, collaborative work has also been undertaken with other units of the Department of Atomic Energy. (A.K.)

  3. Biennial activity report of metallurgy programme for 1987 and 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugam, V.; Rao, B.P.C.; Bhanu Sankara Rao, K.; Muralidharan, P.; Bhaduri, A.K.; Kuppusami, P.; Shyamsunder, M.T.; Sampath, N.; Sreedharan, O.M.

    1990-01-01

    The research and development (R and D) activities in the field of metallurgy at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam during 1987-1988 are reported in the form of individual summaries arranged under headings : (1) Mechanical Metallurgy Section, (2) Physical Metallurgy Section, (3) Chemical Metallurgy Section, (4) Materials Technology Section, (5) Division for PIE and NDT Development and (6) Quality Engineering Section. A list of publications by the staff scientists working in the field of metallurgy during report period is given in one of the appendices. (author). figs., tabs

  4. Physical principles and current status of emerging non-volatile solid state memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Yang, C.-H.; Wen, J.

    2015-07-01

    Today the influence of non-volatile solid-state memories on persons' lives has become more prominent because of their non-volatility, low data latency, and high robustness. As a pioneering technology that is representative of non-volatile solidstate memories, flash memory has recently seen widespread application in many areas ranging from electronic appliances, such as cell phones and digital cameras, to external storage devices such as universal serial bus (USB) memory. Moreover, owing to its large storage capacity, it is expected that in the near future, flash memory will replace hard-disk drives as a dominant technology in the mass storage market, especially because of recently emerging solid-state drives. However, the rapid growth of the global digital data has led to the need for flash memories to have larger storage capacity, thus requiring a further downscaling of the cell size. Such a miniaturization is expected to be extremely difficult because of the well-known scaling limit of flash memories. It is therefore necessary to either explore innovative technologies that can extend the areal density of flash memories beyond the scaling limits, or to vigorously develop alternative non-volatile solid-state memories including ferroelectric random-access memory, magnetoresistive random-access memory, phase-change random-access memory, and resistive random-access memory. In this paper, we review the physical principles of flash memories and their technical challenges that affect our ability to enhance the storage capacity. We then present a detailed discussion of novel technologies that can extend the storage density of flash memories beyond the commonly accepted limits. In each case, we subsequently discuss the physical principles of these new types of non-volatile solid-state memories as well as their respective merits and weakness when utilized for data storage applications. Finally, we predict the future prospects for the aforementioned solid-state memories for

  5. Solid-state, flat-panel, digital radiography detectors and their physical imaging characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowen, A.R. [LXi Research, Academic Unit of Medical Physics, University of Leeds, West Yorkshire (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.r.cowen@leeds.ac.uk; Kengyelics, S.M.; Davies, A.G. [LXi Research, Academic Unit of Medical Physics, University of Leeds, West Yorkshire (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    Solid-state, digital radiography (DR) detectors, designed specifically for standard projection radiography, emerged just before the turn of the millennium. This new generation of digital image detector comprises a thin layer of x-ray absorptive material combined with an electronic active matrix array fabricated in a thin film of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). DR detectors can offer both efficient (low-dose) x-ray image acquisition plus on-line readout of the latent image as electronic data. To date, solid-state, flat-panel, DR detectors have come in two principal designs, the indirect-conversion (x-ray scintillator-based) and the direct-conversion (x-ray photoconductor-based) types. This review describes the underlying principles and enabling technologies exploited by these designs of detector, and evaluates their physical imaging characteristics, comparing performance both against each other and computed radiography (CR). In standard projection radiography indirect conversion DR detectors currently offer superior physical image quality and dose efficiency compared with direct conversion DR and modern point-scan CR. These conclusions have been confirmed in the findings of clinical evaluations of DR detectors. Future trends in solid-state DR detector technologies are also briefly considered. Salient innovations include WiFi-enabled, portable DR detectors, improvements in x-ray absorber layers and developments in alternative electronic media to a-Si:H.

  6. Impact of solid state fermentation on nutritional, physical and flavor properties of wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui-Min; Guo, Xiao-Na; Zhu, Ke-Xue

    2017-02-15

    To improve the nutritional, physical and flavor properties of wheat bran, yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were used for fermenting wheat bran in solid state. Appearance properties, nutritional properties, microstructure, hydration properties and flavor of raw bran and fermented bran were evaluated. After treatments, water extractable arabinoxylans were 3-4 times higher than in raw bran. Total dietary fiber and soluble dietary fiber increased after solid state fermentation. Over 20% of phytic acid was degraded. Microstructure changes and protein degradation were observed in fermented brans. Water holding capacity and water retention capacity of fermented brans were improved. Results suggest that solid state fermentation is an effective way to improve the properties of wheat brans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, laser materials, and nonlinear crystals. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  8. Some observations on the physical metallurgy of nickel alloy weld metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skillern, C.G.; Lingenfelter, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    Numerous nickel alloys play critical roles in various energy-related applications. Successful use of these alloys is almost always dependent on the availability of acceptable welding methods and welding products. An understanding of the physical metallurgy of these alloys and their weld metals and the interaction of weld metal and base metal is essential to take full advantage of the useful properties of the alloys. To illustrate this point, this paper presents data for two materials: INCONEL alloy 718 and INCONEL Welding Electrode 132. 8 figures, 9 tables

  9. Physical metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adda, Y.; Dupouy, J.M.; Philibert, J.; Quere, Y.

    1976-01-01

    In this manual, the following topics are discussed: thermodynamics of solid solutions, phase diagrams, properties of dilute solid solutions, structure of solid solutions, thermodynamics of surfaces, perfect dislocations, partial dislocations and stacking faults, interfaces, point defects

  10. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  11. High-energy shadowing effect and its application to atomic and solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Hiroshi; Shima, Kunihiro; Ishihara, Toyoyuki; Takeshita, Hidefumi; Aoki, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Shunya; Naramoto, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    Ion-beam shadowing effects for projectiles in the MeV/u energy range have been studied with high-energy (keV) secondary electrons emitted from the surface of a target crystal. This article reviews and discusses applications of the high-energy shadowing effect to atomic and solid state physics, as well as physical and technical aspects of the electron spectroscopy under channeling incidence conditions. (orig.)

  12. New materials for solid state electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferloni, P.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia; Magistris, A.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia

    1994-01-01

    Solid state electrochemistry is an interdisciplinary area, undergoing nowadays a fast development. It is related on the one hand to chemistry, and on the other hand to crystallography, solid state physics and materials science. In this paper structural and electrical properties of some families of new materials interesting for solid state electrochemistry are reviewed. Attention is focused essentially on ceramic and crystalline materials, glasses and polymers, displaying high ionic conductivity and potentially suitable for various applications in solid state electrochemical devices. (orig.)

  13. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1996-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, mode locking, ultrashort-pulse generation etc. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  14. Theoretical Physics Division progress report October 1978 -September 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    A progress report of the Theoretical Physics Division of the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell for the year October 1978 to September 1979 is presented. The sections include: (1) Nuclear, atomic and molecular physics (nuclear theory, atomic theory, nuclear power applications). (2) Theory of fluids (statistical mechanics, mathematical physics, computational fluid mechanics). (3) Radiation damage and theoretical metallurgy. (4) Theory of solid state materials (point defects and point-defect determined processes, surface studies, non-destructive examination). A bibliography is given of reports and publications written by the division during the period. (UK)

  15. Theoretical solid-state physics. From the classical models to modern themes of research. 3. upd. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czycholl, Gerd

    2008-01-01

    This book gives an introduction in methods, contents, and results of modern solid-state physics. It is based on the fundamental course of theoretical physics, i. e. presupposed are knowledges in classical mechanics, electrodynamics, and especially quantum mechanics and statistical physics, as they are mediated in the at all German-speaking universities usual course in theoretical physics generally until the end of the 6th special semester. The especially for the treatment of many-body effects unavoidable formalism of the 2nd quantization (occupation number representation) is introduced and used in the book. The content reaches from the classical fields of solid-state physics (phonons and electrons in the periodic potentia, Bloch theorem, Hartree-Fock approximation, electron-phonon interactions) through fields of applications as superconductivity and magnetism until fields, which are actual object of research (for instance quantum Hall effect, high-temperature superconductivity). The third editions was comprehensively revised [de

  16. Ideate about building green mine of uranium mining and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zuyuan

    2012-01-01

    Analysing the current situation of uranium mining and metallurgy; Setting up goals for green uranium mining and metallurgy, its fundamental conditions, Contents and measures. Putting forward an idea to combine green uranium mining and metallurgy with the state target for green mining, and keeping its own characteristics. (author)

  17. Effects of iron spallation products Ti, P and S on the physical metallurgy of 9Cr martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danylova, O.; Carlan, Y. de; Hamon, D.; Brachet, J.C.; Alamo, A.

    2002-01-01

    The design of an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) requires that the 'window', which separates the proton accelerator from the spallation target, be able to withstand very severe irradiation conditions. Fe-9/12Cr martensitic steels are good candidates for the window material due to their intrinsic stability under neutron irradiation, but the influence of iron spallation elements on their behaviour is not known. To elucidate the effects of the spallation elements titanium, phosphorus and sulphur on the behaviour of martensitic steels, it was decides to obtain different castings of 9Cr 1Mo steels doped with these elements. The aim of this paper is to present the data obtained on the physical metallurgy of these steels and to show the possible methods of obtaining titanium, phosphorus and sulphur in solid solution for subsequent study of the evolution of the microstructure and mechanical properties. (authors)

  18. Renormalization methods in solid state physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozieres, P [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1976-01-01

    Renormalization methods in various solid state problems (e.g., the Kondo effect) are analyzed from a qualitative vantage point. Our goal is to show how the renormalization procedure works, and to uncover a few simple general ideas (universality, phenomenological descriptions, etc...).

  19. Solid-state physics. An introduction to principles of materials science. 4. ext. upd. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibach, Harald; Lueth, Hans

    2009-01-01

    This new edition of the popular introduction to solid-state physics provides a comprehensive overview on basic theoretical and experimental concepts of material science. Additional sections emphasize current topics in solid-state physics. Notably, sections on important devices, aspects of non-periodic structures of matter, phase transitions, defects, superconductors and nanostructures have been added, the chapters presenting semi- and superconductivity had been completely updated. Students will benefit significantly from solving the exercises given at the end of each chapter. This book is intended for university students in physics, engineering and electrical engineering. This edition has been carefully revised, updated, and enlarged. Among the key recent developments incorporated throughout GMR (giant magneto resistance), thin-film magnetic properties, magnetic hysteresis and domain walls, quantum transport, metamaterials, and preparation techniques for nanostructures. (orig.)

  20. Demonstration Experiments for Solid-State Physics Using a Table-Top Mechanical Stirling Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, M. R.; Morales, A. Palacio; Rodrigo, J. G.; Suderow, H.; Vieira, S.

    2012-01-01

    Liquid-free cryogenic devices are acquiring importance in basic science and engineering. But they can also lead to improvements in teaching low temperature and solid-state physics to graduate students and specialists. Most of the devices are relatively expensive, but small-sized equipment is slowly becoming available. Here, we have designed…

  1. Solid state physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Written by the 2011 Gaede Award Winner Filling a gap in the literature for a brief course in solid sate physics, this is a clear and concise introduction that not only describes all the basic phenomena and concepts, but also discusses such advanced issues as magnetism and superconductivity. This textbook assumes only basic mathematical knowledge on the part of the reader and includes more than 100 discussion questions and some 70 problems with solutions as well as further supplementary material available for free to lecturers from the Wiley-VCH website. From the Contents:Chemical Bonding in So

  2. Radiation technologies in metallurgy and machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshkov, I.N.

    1990-01-01

    Applications of electron beam accelerators for technologies in metallurgy and machinery are discussed. Processes described are provided with special industrial accelerators, developed in the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk. (author)

  3. Physics of laser fusion. Volume IV. The future development of high-power solid-state laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmett, J.L.; Krupke, W.F.; Trenholme, J.B.

    1982-11-01

    Solid state lasers, particularly neodymium glass systems, have undergone intensive development during the last decade. In this paper, we review solid state laser technology in the context of high-peak-power systems for inertial confinement fusion. Specifically addressed are five major factors: efficiency, wavelength flexibility, average power, system complexity, and cost; these factors today limit broader application of the technology. We conclude that each of these factors can be greatly improved within current fundamental physical limits. We further conclude that the systematic development of new solid state laser madia, both vitreous and crystalline, should ultimately permit the development of wavelength-flexible, very high average power systems with overall efficiencies in the range of 10 to 20%

  4. Electron microscopy in metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loretto, M.H.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review briefly the contribution which (TEM) transmission electron microscopy (including high voltage electron microscopy (HVEM)) has made to metallurgy. Since it is straightforward with modern electron microscopes to extract the crystallographic information which provides the basis for any interpretation, the major problem in most metallurgical work lies in assessing how the structure (which TEM has characterised) has arisen and which properties of the specimen can be understood in terms of this structure. Radiation damage, quenching, phase transformations, grain boundaries and plastic deformation have been the main fields in which TEM has contributed significantly. After briefly summarising the role of TEM in each field, examples of recent work will be used to indicate current TEM activity in physical metallurgy. (author)

  5. PREFACE: 21st Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XXI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, J. Albino

    2014-04-01

    The Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES) started in Caracas-Venezuela, and over time the symposia have taken place in 9 different Latin American countries. The last five events took place in Mérida-Venezuela (2002), Havana-Cuba (2004), Puebla-Mexico (2006), Puerto Iguazú-Argentina (2008) and Maragogi-Brazil (2011). During the last years, in the different SLAFES editions, the aim has been to bring together researches from Latina America and invite renowned scientists from around the world to a unique forum to discuss the latest developments regarding Solid state Physics. The 21st Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XXI) was held in Villa de Leyva-Colombia, from September 30 to October 04, 2013. The 21st SLAFES version featured the participation of experts in various areas of Solid State Physics from countries such as Belgium, Germany, United States, Spain, Ireland, Chile, Argentina and Brazil, had 270 submitted works and was attended by 140 researchers. The development of this event was made possible by financial support from the Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Universidad del Norte-CO, Universidad de Magdalena-CO, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco-BR and the Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exatas, Naturales y Física. Editors Professor J Albino Aguiar Departamento de Física Universidade Federal de Pernambuco 50670-901 Recife PE Brazil e-mail: albino@df.ufpe.br Professor Jairo Roa-Rojas Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales Departamento de Física Universidad Nacional de Colombia A.A. 5997 Bogotá DC, Colombia e-mail: jroar@unal.edu.co Professor Carlos Arturo Parra Vargas Grupo Física de Materiales Escuela de Física Universidad Padagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia Tunja Colombia e-mail: carlos.parra@uptc.edu.co Professor David A Land\\'i nez Téllez Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales Departamento de Física Universidad Nacional de Colombia A.A. 5997 Bogotá DC

  6. Electron correlations in solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freericks, J.K.

    1991-04-01

    Exactly solvable models of electron correlations in solid state physics are presented. These models include the spinless Falicov- Kimball model, the t-t'-J model, and the Hubbard model. The spinless Falicov-Kimball model is analyzed in one-dimension. Perturbation theory and numerical techniques are employed to determine the phase diagram at zero temperature. A fractal structure is found where the ground-state changes (discontinuously) at each rational electron filling. The t-t'-J model (strongly interacting limit of a Hubbard model) is studied on eight-site small clusters in the simple-cubic, body-centered-cubic, face-centered-cubic, and square lattices. Symmetry is used to simplify the problem and determine the exact many-body wavefunctions. Ground states are found that exhibit magnetic order or heavy-fermionic character. Attempts to extrapolate to the thermodynamic limit are also made. The Hubbard model is examined on an eight-site square-lattice cluster in the presence of and in the absence of a ''magnetic field'' that couples only to orbital motion. A new magnetic phase is discovered for the ordinary Hubbard model at half-filling. In the ''magnetic field'' case, it is found that the strongly frustrated Heisenberg model may be studied from adiabatic continuation of a tight-binding model (from weak to strong coupling) at one point. The full symmetries of the Hamiltonian are utilized to make the exact diagonalization feasibile. Finally, the presence of ''hidden'' extra symmetry for finite size clusters with periodic boundary conditions is analyzed for a variety of clusters. Moderately sized systems allow nonrigid transformations that map a lattice onto itself preserving its neighbor structure; similar operations are not present in smaller or larger systems. The additional symmetry requires particular representations of the space group to stick together explaining many puzzling degeneracies found in exact diagonalization studies

  7. The Oxford solid state basics

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Steven H

    2013-01-01

    The study of solids is one of the richest, most exciting, and most successful branches of physics. While the subject of solid state physics is often viewed as dry and tedious this new book presents the topic instead as an exciting exposition of fundamental principles and great intellectual breakthroughs. Beginning with a discussion of how the study of heat capacity of solids ushered in the quantum revolution, the author presents the key ideas of the field while emphasizing the deepunderlying concepts. The book begins with a discussion of the Einstein/Debye model of specific heat, and the Drude

  8. KfK, Institute for Nuclear Solid-State Physics. Report of results on research and development work 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    The Institute for Nuclear Solid-State Physics pursues at time mainly basis-oriented work in the fields of superconductivity and the boundary-surface and microstructure research. The experimental and theoretical works aim to a better understanding of the microscopical and macroscopical properties of certain solids. At time superconductors with high transition point, highly correlated electron systems, conducting polymers, and amorphous substances are studied especially intensively. Technologically relevant materials have in the comparative case preference. Beside the experimental methods of nuclear solid-state physics (neutron scattering, Moessbauer spectroscopy, ion-implantation technology, irradiation and analysis with fast ions) the institute disposes of further highly specificated techniques, like electron-energy-loss-spectroscopy, special material preparation, X-ray diffractometry, and two UHV facilities for the study of the first surface respectively near-surface regions with thermal helium atoms as well as with fast ions. (orig./HSI) [de

  9. Solid State Theory An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Solid-State Theory - An Introduction is a textbook for graduate students of physics and material sciences. It stands in the tradition of older textbooks on this subject but takes up new developments in theoretical concepts and materials which are connected with such path breaking discoveries as the Quantum-Hall Effects, the high-Tc superconductors, and the low-dimensional systems realized in solids. Thus besides providing the fundamental concepts to describe the physics of electrons and ions of which the solid consists, including their interactions and the interaction with light, the book casts a bridge to the experimental facts and opens the view into current research fields.

  10. Organic solid-state lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Forget, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Organic lasers are broadly tunable coherent sources, potentially compact, convenient and manufactured at low-costs. Appeared in the mid 60’s as solid-state alternatives for liquid dye lasers, they recently gained a new dimension after the demonstration of organic semiconductor lasers in the 90's. More recently, new perspectives appeared at the nanoscale, with organic polariton and surface plasmon lasers. After a brief reminder to laser physics, a first chapter exposes what makes organic solid-state organic lasers specific. The laser architectures used in organic lasers are then reviewed, with a state-of-the-art review of the performances of devices with regard to output power, threshold, lifetime, beam quality etc. A survey of the recent trends in the field is given, highlighting the latest developments with a special focus on the challenges remaining for achieving direct electrical pumping of organic semiconductor lasers. A last chapter covers the applications of organic solid-state lasers.

  11. Biennial activity report of Metallurgy Division for 1989 and 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamachi Mudali, U.; Muraleedharan, P.; Parameswaran, P.; Swaminathan, K.; Sreedharan, O.M.

    1993-01-01

    This is the first divisional biennial report of the Metallurgy Division of Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, for the year 1989-1990, after formation of the Metallurgy Division in September 1988. Major areas of work in the Division relate to aqueous corrosion and localised corrosion, stress corrosion cracking and liquid metal corrosion, high temperature oxidation, thermodynamic studies, physical metallurgy studies for structure-property correlations and failure analyses. The principal materials of studies have been the austenitic stainless steels, the current materials of construction in the Fast Breeder Test Reactor and the candidate materials for the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor

  12. Solid-state physics for electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Describing the fundamental physical properties of materials used in electronics, the thorough coverage of this book will facilitate an understanding of the technological processes used in the fabrication of electronic and photonic devices. The book opens with an introduction to the basic applied physics of simple electronic states and energy levels. Silicon and copper, the building blocks for many electronic devices, are used as examples. Next, more advanced theories are developed to better account for the electronic and optical behavior of ordered materials, such as diamond, and disordered ma

  13. Peculiarities of powder metallurgy of vanadium and its alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radomysel'skij, I.D.; Solntsev, V.P.; Evtushenko, O.V.

    1987-01-01

    Literature data on preparation of vanadium powder and powder materials on the vanadium base are generalized. Application of powder metallurgy engineering, allowing simulaneously to introduce practically any strengthening and solid-lubricating components as well as to alloy vanadium, permits undoubtedly to develop composite materials on the vanadium base

  14. Solid State Division: Progress report for period ending September 30, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1988-03-01

    This paper contains a collection of articles on research done at the Solid State Division of ORNL. General topics covered are: theoretical solid state physics; neutron scattering; physical properties of superconductors and ceramics; synthesis and characterization of solids; ion beam and laser processing; and surface and defect studies. (LSP)

  15. Solid State Division: Progress report for period ending September 30, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1988-03-01

    This paper contains a collection of articles on research done at the Solid State Division of ORNL. General topics covered are: theoretical solid state physics; neutron scattering; physical properties of superconductors and ceramics; synthesis and characterization of solids; ion beam and laser processing; and surface and defect studies

  16. Solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuther, H.

    1976-11-01

    This paper gives a survey of the present state of the development and the application of solid state track detectors. The fundamentals of the physical and chemical processes of the track formation and development are explained, the different detector materials and their registration characteristics are mentioned, the possibilities of the experimental practice and the most variable applications are discussed. (author)

  17. Solid State Division progress report, September 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-04-01

    Progress made during the 19 months from March 1, 1980, through September 30, 1981, is reported in the following areas: theoretical solid state physics (surfaces, electronic and magnetic properties, particle-solid interactions, and laser annealing); surface and near-surface properties of solids (plasma materials interactions, ion-solid interactions, pulsed laser annealing, and semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion); defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, and defects and impurities in insulating crystals); transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, and physical properties of insulating materials); neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, and magnetic properties); crystal growth and characterization (nuclear waste forms, ferroelectric mateirals, high-temperature materials, and special materials); and isotope research materials. Publications and papers are listed. (WHK)

  18. Solid State Division progress report, September 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    Progress made during the 19 months from March 1, 1980, through September 30, 1981, is reported in the following areas: theoretical solid state physics (surfaces, electronic and magnetic properties, particle-solid interactions, and laser annealing); surface and near-surface properties of solids (plasma materials interactions, ion-solid interactions, pulsed laser annealing, and semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion); defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, and defects and impurities in insulating crystals); transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, and physical properties of insulating materials); neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, and magnetic properties); crystal growth and characterization (nuclear waste forms, ferroelectric mateirals, high-temperature materials, and special materials); and isotope research materials. Publications and papers are listed

  19. Biennial activity report of Metallurgy Division for 1989 and 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamachi Mudali, U; Muraleedharan, P; Parameswaran, P; Swaminathan, K; Sreedharan, O M [eds.; Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    1994-12-31

    This is the first divisional biennial report of the Metallurgy Division of Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, for the year 1989-1990, after formation of the Metallurgy Division in September 1988. Major areas of work in the Division relate to aqueous corrosion and localised corrosion, stress corrosion cracking and liquid metal corrosion, high temperature oxidation, thermodynamic studies, physical metallurgy studies for structure-property correlations and failure analyses. The principal materials of studies have been the austenitic stainless steels, the current materials of construction in the Fast Breeder Test Reactor and the candidate materials for the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor 7 figs., 6 tabs., 2 ills.

  20. Large-scale grain growth in the solid-state process: From "Abnormal" to "Normal"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Minhong; Han, Shengnan; Zhang, Jingwei; Song, Jiageng; Hao, Chongyan; Deng, Manjiao; Ge, Lingjing; Gu, Zhengfei; Liu, Xinyu

    2018-02-01

    Abnormal grain growth (AGG) has been a common phenomenon during the ceramic or metallurgy processing since prehistoric times. However, usually it had been very difficult to grow big single crystal (centimeter scale over) by using the AGG method due to its so-called occasionality. Based on the AGG, a solid-state crystal growth (SSCG) method was developed. The greatest advantages of the SSCG technology are the simplicity and cost-effectiveness of the technique. But the traditional SSCG technology is still uncontrollable. This article first summarizes the history and current status of AGG, and then reports recent technical developments from AGG to SSCG, and further introduces a new seed-free, solid-state crystal growth (SFSSCG) technology. This SFSSCG method allows us to repeatedly and controllably fabricate large-scale single crystals with appreciable high quality and relatively stable chemical composition at a relatively low temperature, at least in (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3(KNN) and Cu-Al-Mn systems. In this sense, the exaggerated grain growth is no longer 'Abnormal' but 'Normal' since it is able to be artificially controllable and repeated now. This article also provides a crystal growth model to qualitatively explain the mechanism of SFSSCG for KNN system. Compared with the traditional melt and high temperature solution growth methods, the SFSSCG method has the advantages of low energy consumption, low investment, simple technique, composition homogeneity overcoming the issues with incongruent melting and high volatility. This SFSSCG could be helpful for improving the mechanical and physical properties of single crystals, which should be promising for industrial applications.

  1. State-of-the-art and main options to improve fuel-energy complex of ferrous metallurgy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenblit, G I; Pashkov, V D; Romanov, G M

    1981-01-01

    In 1980, the State Institute for the Design and Planning Metallury (Gripromez), elaborated ''The main options of Fuel and energy resources conservation (FERG) in ferrous metallurgy of the USSR program of works for the period 1981-1985 and up to 1990''. The Gipromez technical committee recommended: 1) elaborating feasibility studies and reports, developing branch schemes and starting complexes to separate out FERC measures; 2) inclusion of the FERC measures at the starting complexes as the first stages of main projects construction; 3) that the Ministy of Ferrous Metallurgy of the USSR, general designers and enterprises reconsider the starting complexes of the projects constructed during the present five-year period and incorporate in them the urgent FERC actions on heat-utilizing facilities. Changing the steel smelting process structure through more extensive use of the converter process and installation of continuous blank casting allows achievement of considerable fuel conservation, some 4 m trf per year as compared with its consumption in the scheme of open-hearth furnace - blooming mill (slabbing mill). During the 11th five-year-plan period introduction of metallurgy plant. An installation with discharge of the converter gas without its afterburning and successive utilization as a fuel in the converter shop of the Novolipetsk is planned.

  2. Neutron beam studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, B.T.M.; Apps, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    The report is in sections, entitled: metallurgy; reactor fuels; defect solid state and interatomic forces; surface studies; colloid, polymer and biological studies; glasses; energy-related materials; solid state physics and crystallography; instrumentation and experimental technique. (U.K.)

  3. Report of the joint seminar on solid state physics, atomic and molecular physics, and materials science in the energy region of tandem accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazumata, Yukio

    1993-01-01

    The joint seminar on Solid State Physics, Atomic and Molecular Physics and Materials Science in the Energy Region of Tandem Acceleration was held at Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI, for two days from January 22 to 23, 1991. About 60 physicists and material scientists participated and 18 papers were presented in this seminar. The topics presented in this seminar included lattice defects in semiconductors, ion-solid collisions, atomic collisions by high energy particles, radiation effects on high T c superconducting materials and FCC metals, radiation effects on materials of space and fusion reactors, uranium compounds and superlattice. (J.P.N.)

  4. Theoretical Physics Division progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The research areas covered in this report are solid state and quantum physics, theoretical metallurgy, fuel modelling and reactor materials, statistical physics and the theory of fluids. Attention is drawn to a number of items: (i) the application of theories of aerosol behaviour to the interpretation of conditions in the cover-gas space of a fast reactor; (ii) studies in non-linear dynamics, dynamical instabilities and chaotic behaviour covering for example, fluid behaviour in Taylor-Couette experiments, non-linear behaviour in electronic circuits and reaction-diffusion systems; (iii) the development of finite element computational techniques to describe the periodic behaviour of a system after a Hopf bifurcation and in simulating solidification processes; (iv) safety assessment of disposal concepts for low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. (U.K.)

  5. Processing and properties of solid state nitrided stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennhard, C.A.P.

    1993-02-01

    The properties of austenitic steels and duplex-steels are significantly improved by nitrogen (N) addition. In the present investigation, new alloys were produced and characterized using the high solid N-solubility and diffusion alloying from the gas phase. Most suitable base materials are powder, wire or sheet because of the short diffusion distance. PM-materials were in-can nitrided or treated in a fluidized bed and compacted by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) or hot extrusion. The impact toughness level of PM alloys at room temperature is about 120 to 200 J, compared to 250 to 300 J for steels with equal strength that are produced by ingot metallurgy (IM). The toughness can be improved by high temperature deformation such as forging, hot rolling or hot extrusion or by removing the oxide layer on the particle surface by hydrogen gas reduction. A duplex steel with 22 Cr, 5.6 Ni and 2.7 Mo was transformed to a fully austenitic steel with over 500 MPa yield strength by increasing the N content from 0.2 to 0.65 weight-percent. The expensive Ni can successfully be replaced by N. Nitrided wire material is the base material for cold deformed high-strength wire. The improved strain hardening rate of nitrogen alloyed steels helps to achieve ductile and corrosion resistant materials with strength up to 2200 MPa. Sheet materials were diffusion bonded in the HIP or compacted in a 5000 kN press immediately after in-can nitriding to form solid blocks. Nitrided powder, wire and sheet materials lead to near net shape products that cannot be produced by conventional ingot metallurgy or would require the expensive high-pressure metallurgy. (author) 67 figs., tabs., 70 refs

  6. CURRENT STATE AND TENDENCIES OF DEVELOPMENT OF FERROUS METALLURGY IN THE EAEU COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Dragun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of modern status and tendencies of development of ferrous metallurgy in the countries of the EAEU is described in the article. On the basis of the conducted analysis are revealed the identified systemic problems of metallurgy and the conclusions on possible ways of their solution using the potential of integration are given.

  7. Silicon solid state devices and radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, Claude

    2012-01-01

    This book addresses the fundamental principles of interaction between radiation and matter, the principles of working and the operation of particle detectors based on silicon solid state devices. It covers a broad scope with respect to the fields of application of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices from low to high energy physics experiments including in outer space and in the medical environment. This book covers stateof- the-art detection techniques in the use of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices and their readout electronics, including the latest developments on pixelated silicon radiation detector and their application.

  8. Solid state division progress report, period ending February 29, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Research is reported concerning theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; crystal growth and characterization; and isotope research materials.

  9. Solid state division progress report, period ending February 29, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    Research is reported concerning theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; crystal growth and characterization; and isotope research materials

  10. Nanocrystalline spinel ferrites by solid state reaction route

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Nanocrystalline spinel ferrites by solid state reaction route. T K KUNDU* and S MISHRA. Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan 731 235, India. Abstract. Nanostructured NiFe2O4, MnFe2O4 and (NiZn)Fe2O4 were synthesized by aliovalent ion doping using conventional solid-state reaction route. With the ...

  11. Experimental studies in solid state and low temperature physics. Progress report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, A.M.; Weyhmann, W.V.; Zimmermann, W. Jr.

    1975-09-01

    Experimental investigations are being carried out in a broad area of low-temperature and solid-state physics which includes superconductivity, magnetism in metals and liquid and solid helium. The pair-field susceptibility of superconductors is being studied. A propagating mode in the phase of the superconducting order parameter has been found. Heat capacities of superconducting films in the vicinity of T/sub c/ are also being investigated. An investigation in the time-dependent high conductivity of dilute solid solutions of sodium in ammonia has been initiated. Nuclear orientation studies of the dilute magnetic impurity problem in metals in the 1 mK temperature region are being carried out. Refrigeration requirements for this work are being met using enhanced hyperfine nuclear cooling. Measurements of the differential osmotic pressure of 3 He/ 4 He liquid mixtures near the tricritical point have shown a peak in the ''concentration susceptibility'' at the lambda line. Data obey a simple tricritical scaling relation. The dynamics of superfluid flow through submicron pores are being studied in both pure 4 He and in 3 He/ 4 He mixtures in an apparatus provided with a 3 He refrigerator. The quantization of circulation in superfluid liquid 4 He is being investigated using the Vinen method. The low temperature heat capacity of bcc solid 3 He is being studied

  12. Progress report of the Metallurgy Division for the period 1978-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.D.; Mohan, Ashok; Bose, D.K.; Rao, C.N.; Chouthai, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    The research and development (R and D) work of the Metallurgy Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre at Bombay for the period 1978-1980 is reported in the form of individual summaries under the headings: extractive metallurgy section, physical metallurgy section, corrosion and electrometallurgy section, ceramics section. Progress of work of beryllium pilot plant project, programme for R-5 utilisation for materials irradiation research project, development of rare, reactive and refractory metals, and development of ceramics materials for MHD programme is surveyed. Lists of publications, deputations, visits, conferences, colloquia are given. A chart at the end shows the various sections of the Division and personnel in each section. (M.G.B.)

  13. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 1 presents articles about junction electroluminescence; metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) physics; ion implantation in semiconductors; and electron transport through insulating thin films. The book describes the basic physics of carrier injection; energy transfer and recombination mechanisms; state of the art efficiencies; and future prospects for light emitting diodes. The text then discusses solid state spectroscopy, which is the pair spectra observed in gallium phosphide photoluminescence. The extensive studies

  14. The physics of solid-state neutron detector materials and geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, A N

    2010-11-10

    Detection of neutrons, at high total efficiency, with greater resolution in kinetic energy, time and/or real-space position, is fundamental to the advance of subfields within nuclear medicine, high-energy physics, non-proliferation of special nuclear materials, astrophysics, structural biology and chemistry, magnetism and nuclear energy. Clever indirect-conversion geometries, interaction/transport calculations and modern processing methods for silicon and gallium arsenide allow for the realization of moderate- to high-efficiency neutron detectors as a result of low defect concentrations, tuned reaction product ranges, enhanced effective omnidirectional cross sections and reduced electron-hole pair recombination from more physically abrupt and electronically engineered interfaces. Conversely, semiconductors with high neutron cross sections and unique transduction mechanisms capable of achieving very high total efficiency are gaining greater recognition despite the relative immaturity of their growth, lithographic processing and electronic structure understanding. This review focuses on advances and challenges in charged-particle-based device geometries, materials and associated mechanisms for direct and indirect transduction of thermal to fast neutrons within the context of application. Calorimetry- and radioluminescence-based intermediate processes in the solid state are not included.

  15. Solid phase transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Čermák, J

    2008-01-01

    This special-topic book, devoted to ""Solid Phase Transformations"" , covers a broad range of phenomena which are of importance in a number of technological processes. Most commercial alloys undergo thermal treatment after casting, with the aim of imparting desired compositions and/or optimal morphologies to the component phases. In spite of the fact that the topic has lain at the center of physical metallurgy for a long time, there are numerous aspects which are wide open to potential investigative breakthroughs. Materials with new structures also stimulate research in the field, as well as n

  16. An extrapolation scheme for solid-state NMR chemical shift calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Takahito

    2017-06-01

    Conventional quantum chemical and solid-state physical approaches include several problems to accurately calculate solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) properties. We propose a reliable computational scheme for solid-state NMR chemical shifts using an extrapolation scheme that retains the advantages of these approaches but reduces their disadvantages. Our scheme can satisfactorily yield solid-state NMR magnetic shielding constants. The estimated values have only a small dependence on the low-level density functional theory calculation with the extrapolation scheme. Thus, our approach is efficient because the rough calculation can be performed in the extrapolation scheme.

  17. Application of powder metallurgy beryllium in Beijing spectrometer III beam pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Lifang; Li Xunfeng; Wang Li; Ji Quan; Liu Jianping

    2008-01-01

    According to the requirements of Beijing Spectrometer III (BESIII) beam pipe, the physical properties of several materials were compared and powder metallurgy beryllium was chosen as the material for the central pipe of the BES III beam pipe. Weight-loss method was used to study the corrosion of powder metallurgy beryllium in No. 1 oil for electron discharge machining (EDM-1). The result shows that the anticorrosive property of powder metallurgy beryllium in EDM-1 is high. The corrosion rate, 4.18 x 10 -7 kg· m -2 ·h -1 in initial stage, becomes small with the lapse of the time and stabilizes at 1.54 x 10 -7 kg·m -2 ·h -1 at last. It can be estimated that the powder metallurgy beryllium will be corroded 19.9 μm in the depth in 10 years and it accounts for 3.32% of the smallest thickness of the central pipe, which satisfies the requirements of the BESIII. (authors)

  18. Solid State Division Progress Report for period ending March 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1986-08-01

    This report is divided into: theoretical solid-state physics, surface and near-surface properties of solids, defects in solids, transport properties of solids, neutron scattering, and synthesis and properties of novel materials

  19. Neutron radiography in metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rant, J.; Ilic, R.

    1977-01-01

    The review surveys microneutronographic and neutron-induced autoradiographic techniques and their applications in metallurgy. A brief survey of applications of neutron radiography as a method of non-destructive testing to some macroscopic problems in metallurgy is included. (author)

  20. Solid State Division Progress Report for period ending March 31, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1986-08-01

    This report is divided into: theoretical solid-state physics, surface and near-surface properties of solids, defects in solids, transport properties of solids, neutron scattering, and synthesis and properties of novel materials. (DLC)

  1. Solid State Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, M.K.; Young, F.W. Jr.

    1976-05-01

    Research activities are reported in programs on theoretical solid state physics, physical properties of solids, radiation effects in metals, neutron scattering, research materials, and isotope research materials

  2. Solid State Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, M.K.; Young, F.W. Jr.

    1976-05-01

    Research activities are reported in programs on theoretical solid state physics, physical properties of solids, radiation effects in metals, neutron scattering, research materials, and isotope research materials. (JRD)

  3. The discretized Schroedinger equation for the finite square well and its relationship to solid-state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boykin, Timothy B; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    The discretized Schroedinger equation is most often used to solve one-dimensional quantum mechanics problems numerically. While it has been recognized for some time that this equation is equivalent to a simple tight-binding model and that the discretization imposes an underlying bandstructure unlike free-space quantum mechanics on the problem, the physical implications of this equivalence largely have been unappreciated and the pedagogical advantages accruing from presenting the problem as one of solid-state physics (and not numerics) remain generally unexplored. This is especially true for the analytically solvable discretized finite square well presented here. There are profound differences in the physics of this model and its continuous-space counterpart which are direct consequences of the imposed bandstructure. For example, in the discrete model the number of bound states plus transmission resonances equals the number of atoms in the quantum well

  4. Report of the Solid State Physics Division (1991-1992)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities carried out in the Solid State Physics Division at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) covering the period from 1991-1992. The activities are reported in the form of individual summaries arranged under headings: Research Activities, Instrumentation and Software Development. The main research activity of the Division is centered around the utilisation of the neutron beams at the Dhruva and Cirus reactors. A number of research proposals from the universities, funded by the Inter University Consortium come under the category of powder diffraction studies. Another area of research where there is a good demand from universities is in the field of small angle neutron scattering. In addition to the neutron beam research, a number of other investigations pertaining to Raman scattering, liquid crystals, model membranes, magnetism, protein crystallography etc. have contributed significantly to the research programme. The fully indigenous guide laboratory is expected to become operational soon. A list of published papers, internal reports and submitted theses is given at the end. (author). refs., figs., tabs

  5. Solid state protein monolayers: Morphological, conformational, and functional properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompa, P. P.; Biasco, A.; Frascerra, V.; Calabi, F.; Cingolani, R.; Rinaldi, R.; Verbeet, M. Ph.; de Waal, E.; Canters, G. W.

    2004-12-01

    We have studied the morphological, conformational, and electron-transfer (ET) function of the metalloprotein azurin in the solid state, by a combination of physical investigation methods, namely atomic force microscopy, intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. We demonstrate that a "solid state protein film" maintains its nativelike conformation and ET function, even after removal of the aqueous solvent.

  6. Studies on solid-state physics carried out with the Saclay reactor (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herpin, A.

    1962-01-01

    This paper deals only with solid-state physics experiments carried out on outgoing beams: rather than giving a general review of the work performed, if refers to only a few of the most important studies or those nearest completion. These are being made with the experimental beams of the two Saclay reactors EL-2, with a central flux of 10 13 n/cm 2 , and - since 1958 - EL-3, whose central flux is equal ta 10 14 n/cm 2 . The experiments are being carried out by two separate groups of physicists, employing different techniques, namely neutron diffraction using a crystal spectrometer, and inelastic scattering using a time-of-flight spectrometer. (author) [fr

  7. A major advance in powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian E.; Stiglich, Jacob J., Jr.; Kaplan, Richard B.; Tuffias, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    Ultramet has developed a process which promises to significantly increase the mechanical properties of powder metallurgy (PM) parts. Current PM technology uses mixed powders of various constituents prior to compaction. The homogeneity and flaw distribution in PM parts depends on the uniformity of mixing and the maintenance of uniformity during compaction. Conventional PM fabrication processes typically result in non-uniform distribution of the matrix, flaw generation due to particle-particle contact when one of the constituents is a brittle material, and grain growth caused by high temperature, long duration compaction processes. Additionally, a significant amount of matrix material is usually necessary to fill voids and create 100 percent dense parts. In Ultramet's process, each individual particle is coated with the matrix material, and compaction is performed by solid state processing. In this program, Ultramet coated 12-micron tungsten particles with approximately 5 wt percent nickel/iron. After compaction, flexure strengths were measured 50 percent higher than those achieved in conventional liquid phase sintered parts (10 wt percent Ni/Fe). Further results and other material combinations are discussed.

  8. Annual report of the Metallurgy Division [for the] period ending December 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elayaperumal, K.; Sridhar Rao, Ch.; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Rao, S.V.K.

    1979-01-01

    The research and development work carried out and the various programmes underway in the Metallurgy Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, during the calendar year 1977 have been reported. The R and D work and programmes cover extraction metallurgy, physical metallurgy, alloy development, corrosion metallurgy and ceramics. Some of the major studies and programmes are: (1) development of processes for extraction of niobium, vanadium, hafnium and nickel, (2) preparation of niobium alloys, ferro-zirconium, ceramic grade zirconia, (3) electro-refining of zircaloy scrap, (4) preparation of anhydrous beryllium fluoride from Indian beryl, (5) preparation of beryllium alloys, (6) studies on phase transformation and deformation behaviour of zirconium and zirconium-oxygen alloys, (7) self-diffusion studies in dilute Zr-Fe and Zr-Cr alloys, (8) studies on corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of zirconium base alloys and (9) sintering studies on ZrO 2 -PuO 2 and BeO. (M.G.B.)

  9. Formation of Ni-Ti intermetallics during reactive sintering at 500-650 degrees C

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, P.; Pokorný, P.; Vojtěch, V.; Knaislová, A.; Školáková, A.; Čapek, J.; Karlík, M.; Kopeček, Jaromír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 155, Apr (2015), s. 113-121 ISSN 0254-0584 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03044S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : intermetallic compounds * powder metallurgy * electron microscopy * microstructure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.101, year: 2015

  10. Physics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Ketterson, John B

    2016-01-01

    This comprehensive text covers the basic physics of the solid state starting at an elementary level suitable for undergraduates but then advancing, in stages, to a graduate and advanced graduate level. In addition to treating the fundamental elastic, electrical, thermal, magnetic, structural, electronic, transport, optical, mechanical and compositional properties, we also discuss topics like superfluidity and superconductivity along with special topics such as strongly correlated systems, high-temperature superconductors, the quantum Hall effects, and graphene. Particular emphasis is given to so-called first principles calculations utilizing modern density functional theory which for many systems now allow accurate calculations of the electronic, magnetic, and thermal properties.

  11. Handbook of Applied Solid State Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Vij, D. R

    2006-01-01

    Solid-State spectroscopy is a burgeoning field with applications in many branches of science, including physics, chemistry, biosciences, surface science, and materials science. Handbook of Applied Solid-State Spectroscopy brings together in one volume information about various spectroscopic techniques that is currently scattered in the literature of these disciplines. This concise yet comprehensive volume covers theory and applications of a broad range of spectroscopies, including NMR, NQR, EPR/ESR, ENDOR, scanning tunneling, acoustic resonance, FTIR, auger electron emission, x-ray photoelectron emission, luminescence, and optical polarization, and more. Emphasis is placed on fundamentals and current methods and procedures, together with the latest applications and developments in the field.

  12. Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnun, Jacob J.; Leftin, Avigdor; Brown, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy finds growing application to inorganic and organic materials, biological samples, polymers, proteins, and cellular membranes. However, this technique is often neither included in laboratory curricula nor typically covered in undergraduate courses. On the other hand, spectroscopy and…

  13. Cross-relaxation solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipenko, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    Cross-relaxation functional diagrams provide a high quantum efficiency for pumping bands of solid state laser media and a low waste heat. A large number of the cross-relaxation mechanisms for decay rare earth excited states in crystals have been investigated. These investigations have been a starting-point for development of the cross-relaxation solid state lasers. For example, the cross-relaxation interactions, have been used for the laser action development of LiYF 4 :Gd-Tb. These interactions are important elements of the functional diagrams of the 2 μm Ho-doped media sensitized with Er and Tm and the 3 μm Er-doped media. Recently, new efficient 2 μm laser media with cross-relaxation pumping diagrams have been developed. Physical aspects of these media are the subject of this paper. A new concept of the Er-doped medium, sensitized with Yb, is illustrated

  14. Conductors, semiconductors, superconductors. A compact introduction to history, development, and theory of solid-state physics. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebener, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    The present book is a strongly revised and supplemented edition of the title: ''Kristalle: Spiefeld der Elektronen'', published scarcely ten years ago by the same author. Especially the physical contents are explained by the mathematically formulated foundations. The book appeals to students of natural sciences and especially of physics as well as to engineers as introduction to the wide field of solid-state physics, so to speak as motivating prestage to the established and very extensive textbooks. Beside the physical contents the book treats the important role of numerous important and often still very young scientists. By corresponding supplements in this book it is tried to present the fundamental developments in their wide environment.

  15. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1992-01-01

    This book is written from an industrial perspective and provides a detailed discussion of solid-state lasers, their characteristics, design and construction. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations. The book is aimed mainly at the practicing scientist or engineer who is interested in the design or use of solid-state lasers, but the comprehensive treatment of the subject will make the work useful also to students of laser physics who seek to supplement their theoretical knowledge with engineering information. In order to present the subject as clearly as possible, phenomenological descriptions using models have been used rather than abstract mathematical descriptions. This results in a simplified presentation. The descriptions are enhanced by the inclusion of numerical and technical data, tables and graphs. This new edition has been updated and revised to take account of important new developments, concepts, and technologies that have emerged since the publication of the first and second...

  16. Metallurgy - steel and non-ferrous metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wusatowski, R.

    1999-01-01

    Several actual problems of metallurgy and processing of the chief metals and their alloys, especially of steel, copper, zinc and aluminium were discussed. The thought was given to the problems of: scientific, technical (also the energy consumption of production, the evolution of technology), organizational, economical, even political nature (influence of the state on the development of industry). (author)

  17. Promoting energy conservation in China's metallurgy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Du, Zhili

    2017-01-01

    China is undergoing rapid industrialization and urbanization, with consequent dramatic increase in energy demand. Given energy scarcity, environmental pollution, energy security and energy cost constraints, energy conservation will be the major strategy in China's transition to a low-carbon economy. Since the metallurgy industry is a main sector of energy consumption, the efficiency of energy conservation in this industry will affect the future prospects of energy savings. This paper analyzes the energy conservation potential of China's metallurgy industry. First, seemingly unrelated regression method is applied to investigate the relationship between energy relative price, R&D input, enterprise ownership structure, enterprise scale and energy intensity of the metallurgy industry. Then, based on the SUR results, we use the scenario analysis method to predict energy consumption and savings potential in the industry in different scenarios. This paper provides references for China's government and metallurgy industry in formulating relevant energy conservation policies. - Highlights: • Seemingly unrelated regression method is applied to analyze the energy intensity of metallurgy industry. • We use the scenario analysis method to predict energy consuming and energy saving of Chinese metallurgy industry. • Provide references for China's government and metallurgy industry in formulating relevant energy conservation policies.

  18. Neutron research on condensed matter: a study of the facilities and scientific opportunities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    An in-depth review of the present status and future potential of the applications of low-energy neutron scattering to research in the condensed-matter sciences, including physics, chemistry, biology, and metallurgy is presented. The study shows that neutron scattering technology has proven to be of enormous importance to research in the above areas and especially to those of solid-state physics and chemistry. The main emphasis is on the scattering of low-energy neutrons by condensed matter. Since the same type of neutron source facilities can be used for the study of radiation damage, this related topic has also been included

  19. Superconductors by powder metallurgy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickus, M.R.; Wang, J.L.F.

    1976-05-01

    Fabrication methods for Nb 3 Sn type compounds are described. Information is included on the Bell Telephone process, the General Electric tape process, superconductor stability, the bronze process, powder metallurgy multifilamentary tapes and wires, and current assessment of powder metallurgy superconducting wire

  20. Metallurgi for Ingeniører

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jan

    Ny gennemarbejdet udgave af den klassiske "Metallurgi for Ingeniører", først skrevet af K. Offer Andersen i 1962......Ny gennemarbejdet udgave af den klassiske "Metallurgi for Ingeniører", først skrevet af K. Offer Andersen i 1962...

  1. Majorana modes in solid state systems and its dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Wu, Biao

    2018-04-01

    We review the properties of Majorana fermions in particle physics and point out that Majorana modes in solid state systems are significantly different. The key reason is the concept of anti-particle in solid state systems is different from its counterpart in particle physics. We define Majorana modes as the eigenstates of Majorana operators and find that they can exist both at edges and in the bulk. According to our definition, only one single Majorana mode can exist in a system no matter at edges or in the bulk. Kitaev's spinless p-wave superconductor is used to illustrate our results and the dynamical behavior of the Majorana modes.

  2. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1996. Annex I. PSI-F1-Newsletter 1996 nuclear and particle physics. Muons in solid-state physics and chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlach, D.; Kettle, P.R.; Buechli, C. [eds.] [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-02-01

    This newsletter contains reports from the F1-Department and its Divisions. The contributions are categorized as follows: - activities of the F1-Department of PSI, - nuclear and particle physics supported by the Department, -applications of muons in solid-state physics and chemistry. Groups were asked to present new, preliminary or final results obtained in 1996, as well as a publication list, related to F1-supported work which had appeared in scientific journals during 1996. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  3. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1996. Annex I. PSI-F1-Newsletter 1996 nuclear and particle physics. Muons in solid-state physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlach, D.; Kettle, P.R.; Buechli, C.

    1997-02-01

    This newsletter contains reports from the F1-Department and its Divisions. The contributions are categorized as follows: - activities of the F1-Department of PSI, - nuclear and particle physics supported by the Department, -applications of muons in solid-state physics and chemistry. Groups were asked to present new, preliminary or final results obtained in 1996, as well as a publication list, related to F1-supported work which had appeared in scientific journals during 1996. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  4. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1995. Annex I: PSI-F1-Newsletter 1995. Nuclear and particle physics. Muons in solid-state physics and chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlach, D; Kettle, P R [eds.

    1996-09-01

    This newsletter contains reports from the F1-Department and its Divisions. The contributions are categorized as follows: - activities of the F1-Department of PSI, - nuclear and particle physics supported by the Department, - applications of muons in solid-state physics and chemistry. Groups were asked to present new, preliminary or final results obtained in 1995, as well as a publication list, related to F1-supported work which had appeared in scientific journals during 1995. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  5. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1995. Annex I: PSI-F1-Newsletter 1995. Nuclear and particle physics. Muons in solid-state physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlach, D.; Kettle, P.R.

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter contains reports from the F1-Department and its Divisions. The contributions are categorized as follows: - activities of the F1-Department of PSI, - nuclear and particle physics supported by the Department, - applications of muons in solid-state physics and chemistry. Groups were asked to present new, preliminary or final results obtained in 1995, as well as a publication list, related to F1-supported work which had appeared in scientific journals during 1995. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  6. Materials and Molecular Research Division annual report, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Research is presented concerning materials science including metallurgy and ceramics; solid state physics; and materials chemistry; chemical sciences covering radiation science, chemical physics, and chemical energy; nuclear science; coal research; solar energy; magnetic fusion, conservation; and environmental research. (FS)

  7. Welding of a powder metallurgy uranium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holbert, R.K.; Doughty, M.W.; Alexander-Morrison, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The interest at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in powder metallurgy (P/M) uranium parts is due to the potential cost savings in the fabrication of the material, to achieving a more homogeneous product, and to the reduction of uranium scrap. The joining of P/M uranium-6 wt-% niobium (U-6Nb) alloys by the electron beam (EB) welding process results in weld porosity. Varying the EB welding parameters did not eliminate the porosity. Reducing the oxygen and nitrogen content in this P/M uranium material did minimize the weld porosity, but this step made the techniques of producing the material more difficult. Therefore, joining wrought and P/M U-6Nb rods with the inertia welding technique is considered. Since no gases will be evolved with the solid-state welding process and the weld area will be compacted, porosity should not be a problem in the inertia welding of uranium alloys. The welds that are evaluated are wrought-to-wrought, wrought-to-P/M, and P/M-to-P/M U-6Nb samples

  8. All-optical quantum computing with a hybrid solid-state processing unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Pei; Zhang Fengyang; Li Chong; Song Heshan

    2011-01-01

    We develop an architecture of a hybrid quantum solid-state processing unit for universal quantum computing. The architecture allows distant and nonidentical solid-state qubits in distinct physical systems to interact and work collaboratively. All the quantum computing procedures are controlled by optical methods using classical fields and cavity QED. Our methods have a prominent advantage of the insensitivity to dissipation process benefiting from the virtual excitation of subsystems. Moreover, the quantum nondemolition measurements and state transfer for the solid-state qubits are proposed. The architecture opens promising perspectives for implementing scalable quantum computation in a broader sense that different solid-state systems can merge and be integrated into one quantum processor afterward.

  9. Solid-State Division progress report for period ending March 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1983-09-01

    Progress and activities are reported on: theoretical solid-state physics (surfaces; electronic, vibrational, and magnetic properties; particle-solid interactions; laser annealing), surface and near-surface properties of solids (surface, plasma-material interactions, ion implantation and ion-beam mixing, pulsed-laser and thermal processing), defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, impurities and defects, semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion), transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, mass and charge transport in materials), neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, magnetic properties, structure and instrumentation), and preparation and characterization of research materials (growth and preparative methods, nuclear waste forms, special materials)

  10. Solid-State Division progress report for period ending March 31, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1983-09-01

    Progress and activities are reported on: theoretical solid-state physics (surfaces; electronic, vibrational, and magnetic properties; particle-solid interactions; laser annealing), surface and near-surface properties of solids (surface, plasma-material interactions, ion implantation and ion-beam mixing, pulsed-laser and thermal processing), defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, impurities and defects, semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion), transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, mass and charge transport in materials), neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, magnetic properties, structure and instrumentation), and preparation and characterization of research materials (growth and preparative methods, nuclear waste forms, special materials). (DLC)

  11. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Materials Research Laboratory progress report for FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    The Materials Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois is an interdisciplinary laboratory operated in the College of Engineering. Its focus is the science of materials and it supports research in the areas of condensed matter physics, solid state chemistry, and materials science. This report addresses topics such as: an MRL overview; budget; general programmatic and institutional issues; new programs; research summaries for metallurgy, ceramics, solid state physics, and materials chemistry.

  12. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Materials Research Laboratory progress report for FY 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The Materials Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois is an interdisciplinary laboratory operated in the College of Engineering. Its focus is the science of materials and it supports research in the areas of condensed matter physics, solid state chemistry, and materials science. This report addresses topics such as: an MRL overview; budget; general programmatic and institutional issues; new programs; research summaries for metallurgy, ceramics, solid state physics, and materials chemistry

  13. 1982. Progress report (no.19)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The research programs in solid state physics (physical metallurgy, semiconductors, magnetism, electronic structure), nuclear physics (heavy ion reactions, fission), chemistry and organic physical chemistry, and biology are described. Short scientific communications are reported and a list of the papers published by the department in 1982 is given [fr

  14. Solid-state physics for electronics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moliton, André

    2009-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2. Quantum mechanics: some basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1. The wave equation in solids: from Maxwell's to Schrödinger's equation via...

  15. Thermoacoustics of solids: A pathway to solid state engines and refrigerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Haitian; Scalo, Carlo; Sen, Mihir; Semperlotti, Fabio

    2018-01-01

    Thermoacoustic oscillations have been one of the most exciting discoveries of the physics of fluids in the 19th century. Since its inception, scientists have formulated a comprehensive theoretical explanation of the basic phenomenon which has later found several practical applications to engineering devices. To date, all studies have concentrated on the thermoacoustics of fluid media where this fascinating mechanism was exclusively believed to exist. Our study shows theoretical and numerical evidence of the existence of thermoacoustic instabilities in solid media. Although the underlying physical mechanism exhibits some interesting similarities with its counterpart in fluids, the theoretical framework highlights relevant differences that have important implications on the ability to trigger and sustain the thermoacoustic response. This mechanism could pave the way to the development of highly robust and reliable solid-state thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators.

  16. Solid state nuclear track detectors kit for the use in teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khouri, M.T.F.C.; Koskinas, M.F.

    1988-11-01

    The kit intends to improve the possibilities in performing experiments of Nuclear Physics in Modern Physics laboratories of Physics Course introducing the solid state nuclear track detectors. In these materials the passage of heavily ionizing nuclear particles creates paths (tracks) that may be revealed and made visible in an optical microscope. By the help of the kit several experiments and/or demonstrations may be performed. The kit contains solid state nuclear track detectors unirradiated and irradiated, irradiated etched and unetched sheets: an alpha source of 241 Am and an instrution text with photomicrographs. To use the kit the laboratory must have an ordinary optical microscope. (author) [pt

  17. Development and prospect of china uranium mining and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Que Weimin; Wang Haifeng; Niu Yuqing; Gu Wancheng; Zhang Feifeng

    2007-01-01

    The development of industry of uranium mining and metallurgy in China has been reviewed generally, emphasizing on investigation approaches and application levels of uranium mining technologies such as in-situ leaching, heap leaching, stope leaching: on the basis of analysis on status of uranium mining and metallurgy and problems existed, also considering the specific features of deposit resources, the development orientation of uranium mining and metallurgy in China is pointed out. The industry of China uranium mining and metallurgy is faced to new opportunity of development and challenge in 21st century, the only way to realize sustainable development of uranium mining and metallurgy and harmonious development between economy and environment is to develop new technology on mining, ore beneficiation and metallurgy, increase the utilization level of uranium resources, low down impact on environment caused by mining and metallurgy. (authors)

  18. Solid state video cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Cristol, Y

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.

  19. Research on condensed matter and atomic physics using major experimental facilities and devices: Physics, chemistry, biology. Reports on results. Vol. 2. 3. Solid state physics and materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report in three volumes substantiates the contents of the programme survey published in September 1989. The progress reports cover the following research areas: Vol. I, (1). Atomic and molecular physics - free atoms, molecules, macromolecules, clusters, matrix-isolated atoms and molecules. (2) Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces - epitaxy, surface structure, adsorption, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties, thin films, synthetic layer structure. Vol. II, (3). Solid-state physics, and materials science -structural research, lattice dynamics, magnetic structure and dynamics, electronic states; load; spin and pulse density fluctuations; diffusion and internal motion, defects, unordered systems and liquids. Vol. III, (4). Chemistry - bonding and structure, kinetics and reaction mechanisms, polymer research, analysis and synthesis. (5). Biology, - structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules, membrane and cell biology. (6) Development of methods and instruments - neutron sources, synchrotron sources, special accelerators, research with interlinked systems and devices. (orig.) [de

  20. Fundamentals of powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.H.; Qureshi, K.A.; Minhas, J.I.

    1988-01-01

    This book is being presented to introduce the fundamentals of technology of powder metallurgy. An attempt has been made to present an overall view of powder metallurgy technology in the first chapter, whereas chapter 2 to 8 deal with the production of metal powders. The basic commercial methods of powder production are briefly described with illustrations. Chapter 9 to 12 describes briefly metal powder characteristics and principles of testing, mixing, blending, conditioning, compaction and sintering. (orig./A.B.)

  1. Powder metallurgy techniques in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardon, P.G.

    1983-01-01

    The nuclear application of conventional powder metallurgy routes is centred on the fabrication of ceramic fuels. The stringent demands in terms of product performance required by the nuclear industry militate against the use of conventional powder metallurgy to produce metallic components such as the fuel cladding. However, the techniques developed in powder metallurgy find widespread application throughout nuclear technology. Illustrations of the use of these techniques are given in the fields of absorber materials, ceramic cladding materials, oxide fuels, cermet fuels, and the disposal of highly active waste. (author)

  2. Experimental studies in solid state and low temperture physics. Progress report for 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, A.M.; Weyhmann, W.V.; Zimmermann, W. Jr.

    1977-09-01

    Experimental investigations are being carried out in a broad area of low-temperature and solid-state physics which includes superconductivity, magnetism in metals and liquid and solid helium. The pair-field susceptibility of superconductors is being studied. A propagating mode in the phase of the superconducting order parameter is under investigation. Superconducting fluctuations are being used to probe critical fluctuations in magnetic systems using the proximity effect. Heat capacities of superconducting films in the vicinity of T/sub c/ are also being investigated. The properties of thin film solid solutions of sodium in ammonia, sodium in argon, and mercury in xenon are being studied. Nuclear orientation studies of the dilute magnetic impurity problem in metals in the 1 mK temperature region are being carried out. Refrigeration requirements for this work are being met using enhanced hyperfine nuclear cooling. The dynamics of superfluid flow through submicrometer pores are being studied in both pure 4 He and in 3 He/ 4 He mixtures in an apparatus provided with a 3 He refrigerator. A search for an ac Josephson effect in superfluid 4 He is being initiated. The quantization of circulation in superfluid liquid 4 He is being investigated using the Vinen method. An analysis of measurements of the concentration susceptibility in 3 He/ 4 He mixtures near the tricritical point has been completed. The electrical resistance of metallic screw-fastened joints is being studied to assess the usefulness of such demountable joints for thermal contact at millikelvin temperatures

  3. Solid State Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1985-03-01

    During the reporting period, relatively minor changes have occurred in the research areas of interest to the Division. Nearly all the research of the Division can be classified broadly as mission-oriented basic research. Topics covered include: theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; and preparation and characterization of research materials

  4. Solid State Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1985-03-01

    During the reporting period, relatively minor changes have occurred in the research areas of interest to the Division. Nearly all the research of the Division can be classified broadly as mission-oriented basic research. Topics covered include: theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; and preparation and characterization of research materials. (GHT)

  5. Role of forgings in powder metallurgy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, A.F.; DeRidder, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    Forging of powder metallurgy materials is discussed. Information and data are included on forging powder metallurgy W, Mo, In 100, Rene 95, Astroloy, Be, and Ti. It is noted that the combination of powder metallurgy and forging work provides the best product from standpoints of reproducibility, freedom from segregation, low scrap rate, and uniform mechanical properties. Experience is being used to develop contour forging from hot isostatic pressed billets or preforms. The quality of this product is under evaluation. Results show steady improvement and it is anticipated that continued effort will soon produce a reliable, less costly product. Forging can continue to be relied upon to correct subtle defects present in powder metallurgy material

  6. The balance between the energies of the symmetric (10(1)over-bar2) twin boundaries and asymmetric basal/prismatic interfaces in hcp metals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paidar, Václav; Ostapovets, Andriy

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 198, Jul (2017), s. 93-96 ISSN 0167-577X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-14599S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:68081723 Keywords : defects * twin boundaries * interfaces * basal/prismatic interfaces * hexagonal metals Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; JG - Metallurgy (UFM-A) OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.); Materials engineering (UFM-A) Impact factor: 2.572, year: 2016

  7. Structure determination of a new phase Ni.sub.8./sub.Ti.sub.5./sub. by electron diffraction tomography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klementová, Mariana; Karlík, M.; Novák, P.; Palatinus, Lukáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 85, Jun (2017), s. 110-116 ISSN 0966-9795 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1603 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24510 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : shape- memory alloys * crystal chemistry * nanocrystalline structure * powder metallurgy * electron diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.140, year: 2016

  8. Experimental studies in solid state and low temperature physics. Final report for 1966-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, A.M.; Weyhmann, W.V.; Zimmermann, W. Jr.

    1980-06-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations have been carried out in a broad area of low temperature and solid state physics which includes superconductivity, theory of quantum crystals (through 1973), magnetism in metals, and liquid helium. The work in superconductivity has involved investigations of the Josephson effect, studies of the pair-field susceptibility of superconductors and investigations of the thermodynamics of the superconducting phase transition. The competition between the metal-nonmetal transition and superconductivity has also been studied in random metal-rare gas systems. In the area of magnetism, magnetically ordered materials and dilute magnetic alloys have been investigated. Enhanced hyperfine nuclear magnetic ordering was discovered in PrCu 6 at about 2.5 mK. The research on liquid 4 He and 3 He/ 4 He mixtures has been directed at the quantum aspects of superfluid flow and rotation, the critical behavior near the lambda transition and the properties of the tricritical point. The theoretical program (through 1973) encompassed a broad spectrum of research on the properties of quantum liquids and solids with particular emphasis on crystalline 3 He

  9. Introduction to the physics of matter basic atomic, molecular, and solid-state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Manini, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    This book offers an up-to-date, compact presentation of basic topics in the physics of matter, from atoms to molecules to solids, including elements of statistical mechanics. The adiabatic separation of the motion of electrons and nuclei in matter and its spectroscopic implications are outlined for molecules and recalled regularly in the study of the dynamics of gases and solids. Numerous experiments are described and more than 160 figures give a clear visual impression of the main concepts. Sufficient detail of mathematical derivations is provided to enable students to follow easily. The focus is on present-day understanding and especially on phenomena fitting various independent-particle models. The historical development of this understanding, and phenomena such as magnetism and superconductivity, where interparticle interactions and nonadiabatic effects play a crucial role, are mostly omitted. A final outlook section stimulates the curiosity of the reader to pursue the study of such advanced topics in gra...

  10. Advanced materials for solid state hydrogen storage: “Thermal engineering issues”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasa Murthy, S.; Anil Kumar, E.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen has been widely recognized as the “Energy Carrier” of the future. Efficient, reliable, economical and safe storage and delivery of hydrogen form important aspects in achieving success of the “Hydrogen Economy”. Gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities become important when one considers portable and mobile applications of hydrogen. In the case of solid state hydrogen storage, the gas is reversibly embedded (by physisorption and/or chemisorption) in a solid matrix. A wide variety of materials such as intermetallics, physisorbents, complex hydrides/alanates, metal organic frameworks, etc. have been investigated as possible storage media. This paper discusses the feasibility of lithium– and sodium–aluminum hydrides with emphasis on their thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties. Drawbacks such as poor heat transfer characteristics and poor kinetics demand special attention to the thermal design of solid state storage devices. - Highlights: • Advanced materials suitable for solid state hydrogen storage are discussed. • Issues related to thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of hydriding materials are brought out. • Hydriding and dehydriding behavior including sorption kinetics of complex hydrides with emphasis on alanates are explained

  11. Depletion mode pumping of solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundinger, D.; Solarz, R.; Beach, R.; Albrecht, G.; Krupke, W.

    1990-01-01

    Depletion mode pumping of solid state lasers is a new concept which offers features that are of interest for many practical applications. In this paper the authors discuss the physical properties and mechanisms that set the design requirements, present model calculations for a practical laser design, and discuss the results of recent experiments

  12. Solid state theory. An introduction. 2. rev. and ext. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessler, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Solid-State Theory - An Introduction is a textbook for graduate students of physics and material sciences. It stands in the tradition of older textbooks on this subject but takes up new developments in theoretical concepts and materials which are connected with such path breaking discoveries as the Quantum-Hall Effects, the high-Tc superconductors, and the low-dimensional systems realized in solids. Thus besides providing the fundamental concepts to describe the physics of electrons and ions of which the solid consists, including their interactions and the interaction with light, the book casts a bridge to the experimental facts and opens the view into current research fields. (orig.)

  13. Powder Metallurgy Preparation of Co-Based Alloys for Biomedical Applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marek, I.; Novák, P.; Mlynár, J.; Vojtěch, D.; Kubatík, Tomáš František; Málek, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 4 (2015), s. 597-601 ISSN 0587-4246. [International Symposium on Physics of Materials (ISPMA) /13./. Prague, 31.08.2014-04.09.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : powder metallurgy * mechanical properties * biomedical applications Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 0.525, year: 2015

  14. Bio technologies in extractive metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, D.

    1995-01-01

    The bio technologies processes used (or used in the future) in extractive metallurgy are presented. The most advanced one is the degradation of the metals sulfides (bacteria catalyzing the sulfides oxidation of Au, Cu, U). Two other applications outside the extractive metallurgy are also described: metals fixation by living or dead organic matter and the biological destruction of organic reactants such as cyanides. (A.B.)

  15. Metallurgy Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde

    The activities of the Metallurgy Department at Risø during 1981 are described. The work is presented in three chapters: General Materials Research, Technology and Materials Development, Fuel Elements. Furthermore, a survey is given of the department's participation in international collaboration...

  16. Metallurgy and purification of semiconductor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mughal, G.R.; Ali, M.M.; Ali, I.

    1996-01-01

    In this article the metallurgical aspects of semiconductor science and technology have been stressed here rather than of the physical and electronic aspect of the subject. Semiconductor technology has not merely presented the metallurgist with new challenges. The ease with which the semiconductor planes cleave make possible, the preparation and study of virgin surface. Semiconductor materials were being widely employed in the study of sub-boundaries and structures and can largely contribute to the study of certain aspects of nucleation and growth, precipitation phenomena, mechanical behaviour, in metallurgy. (A.B.)

  17. [Study on physical properties of titanium alloy sample fabricated with vacuum-sintered powder metallurgy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, X; Liang, X; Chao, Y; Han, X

    2000-06-01

    To investigate the physical properties of titanium alloy fabricated with vacuum-sintered powder metallurgy. The titanium powders of three different particle sizes(-160mesh, -200 - +300mesh, -300mesh) were selected, and mixed with copper and aluminum powder in different proportions. Two other groups were made up of titanium powder(-200 - +300mesh) plated with copper and tin. The build-up and, condensation method and a double-direction press with a metal mold were used. The green compacts were sintered at 1000 degrees C for 15 minutes in a vacuum furnace at 0.025 Pa. In the double-direction press, the specimens were compacted at the pressure of 100 MPa, 200 MPa and 300 MPa respectively. Then the linear shrinkage ratio and the opening porosity of the sintered compacts were evaluated respectively. 1. The linear shrinkage ratio of specimens decreased with the increased compacted pressure(P powders at the same compacted pressure(P > 0.05), but that of titanium powder plated with copper and tin was higher than those of other specimens without plating(P powder did not affect the opening porosity at the same compacted pressure(P > 0.05). The composition of titanium-based metal powder mixtures and the compacted pressures affect the physical properties of sintered compacts. Titanium powder plated with copper and tin is compacted and sintered easily, and the physical properties of sintered compacts are greatly improved.

  18. Basic metallurgy for nondestructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    For this chapter, reader will be served with the basic knowledge on metallurgy for nondestructive testing. One the main application of nondestructive testing is to detect discontinuity of mass defect in metal. As we already know, metal are widely used in many application such as in building as a system, component and engineering product. Steel and iron are metal that usually used in industry, especially heavy industry such as gas and petroleum industry, chemistry, electric generation, automobile, and military device. Based on this, basic knowledge on metallurgy must need by NDT practitioner. The combination between metallurgy and datas from radiography testing can make radiographer good interpretation on quality of the metal inspected and can used to make a good decision either to accept or not certain product, system or components.

  19. Physical stabilization of low-molecular-weight amorphous drugs in the solid state: a material science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Sheng; McAuley, William J; Yang, Ziyi; Tipduangta, Pratchaya

    2014-07-01

    Use of the amorphous state is considered to be one of the most effective approaches for improving the dissolution and subsequent oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. However as the amorphous state has much higher physical instability in comparison with its crystalline counterpart, stabilization of amorphous drugs in a solid-dosage form presents a major challenge to formulators. The currently used approaches for stabilizing amorphous drug are discussed in this article with respect to their preparation, mechanism of stabilization and limitations. In order to realize the potential of amorphous formulations, significant efforts are required to enable the prediction of formulation performance. This will facilitate the development of computational tools that can inform a rapid and rational formulation development process for amorphous drugs.

  20. Physical properties of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research at ORNL into the physical properties of solids is described. Topics covered include: optical, electrical, and magnetic properties of magnesium oxide; ionic conductivity and superconductivity; surface physics and catalysis; defects and impurities in insulating crystals; photovoltaic conversion of solar energy; and fracture studies

  1. Physical properties of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, M. K.; Young, Jr, F. W.

    1977-10-01

    Research at ORNL into the physical properties of solids is described. Topics covered include: optical, electrical, and magnetic properties of magnesium oxide; ionic conductivity and superconductivity; surface physics and catalysis; defects and impurities in insulating crystals; photovoltaic conversion of solar energy; and fracture studies. (GHT)

  2. Proceedings of the international conference on dynamical properties of heavy-ion reactions held at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, 1-3 August 1978. v. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellschop, J.P.F.; Lemmer, R.H.; Toepffer, C.; Engelbrecht, C.A.

    1978-01-01

    At this pre-conference symposium lectures on 'applications of (heavy) ions' were delivered. The following topics were discussed: 1) heavy ions in archaeological dating, 2) nuclear physics in metallurgy, 3) nuclear physics in solid-state research, 4) nuclear probes in geological studies, and 5) nuclear approaches in biological investigations

  3. Solid State Division progress report for period ending March 31, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Hinton, L.W.

    1992-09-01

    During this period, the division conducted a broad, interdisciplinary materials research program with emphasis on theoretical solid state physics, superconductivity, neutron scattering, synthesis and characterization of materials, ion beam and laser processing, and the structure of solids and surfaces. The High Flux Isotope Reactor was returned to full operation

  4. Solid State Division progress report for period ending March 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Hinton, L.W. (eds.)

    1992-09-01

    During this period, the division conducted a broad, interdisciplinary materials research program with emphasis on theoretical solid state physics, superconductivity, neutron scattering, synthesis and characterization of materials, ion beam and laser processing, and the structure of solids and surfaces. The High Flux Isotope Reactor was returned to full operation.

  5. KfK Institute of Nuclear Solid State Physics. Progress report on research and development activities in 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The INFP is primarily occupied with basic research work in the field of solid state physics and materials science, with preference being given to subjects and problems of interest from the point of view of potential applications. This is particularly true for research work devoted to the high-temperature superconductors, which currently are the area of main effort of the Institute, but also for work performed in the fields of interface and microstructure research. In 1991, about 80% of the activities were superconductivity research. (orig./MM) [de

  6. Department of Nuclear Methods in the Solid State Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The activity of the Department of Nuclear Methods in the Solid State Physics is focused on experimental research in condensed matter physics. Thermal neutron scattering and Moessbauer effect are the main techniques mastered in the laboratory. Most of the studies aim at better understanding of properties and processes observed in modern materials. Some applied research and theoretical studies were also performed. Research activities of the Department in 2001 can be summarized as follows: Neutron scattering studies concerned the magnetic ordering in TbB 12 and TmIn 3 and some special features of magnetic excitations in antiferromagnetic γ-Mn-alloys. Some work was devoted to optimization of the neutron single crystal monochromators and polarizers grown in Crystal Growth Laboratory. Small angle scattering studies on the surfactant - water ternary system were performed in cooperation with JINR Dubna. Moessbauer effect investigations of dysprosium intermetallic compounds yielded the new data for Pauling-Slater curves. The same technique applied to perovskites and ferrocene adduct to fullerene helped to resolve their structure. X-ray topographic and diffractometric studies were performed on hydrogen implanted semiconductor surfaces employing the synchrotron radiation sources. The X-ray method was applied also to investigations of plasma spraying process and phase composition of ceramic oxide coatings. Large part of studies concerned the structure of biologically active, pharmacologically important organic complexes, supported by modeling of their electron structure. Crystal growth of large size single-crystals of metals and alloys was used for preparation of specimens with mosaic structure suitable for neutron monochromator and polarizer systems. The construction work of the Neutron and Gamma Radiography Station has been completed. The results of first tests and studies proved the expected abilities of the systems. The possibility to visualize inner structures

  7. Report of the Solid State Physics Division (July 1, 1990 to December 31, 1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This is the first report summarizing the activities carried out by scientists in the recently constituted Solid State Physics Division at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) covering the period from July 1990 to December 1991. The activities are reported in the form of individual summaries arranged under headings : Research Activities, Instrumentation, Papers published, Papers presented, Lectures, Physics colloquia, Theses and other activities. The main thrust of the research activities of the Division relates to experimental investigations of a variety of materials using microscopic scattering techniques like neutron scattering, light scattering, x-ray diffraction and related other techniques like Moessbauer Spectroscopy, calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance etc. During the period under review, a large number of high T c superconductors, proteins and enzyme derivatives, micellar systems, model membranes and other complex systems have been investigated to understand their basic structural and dynamical aspects. As a result, the structure-property correlations are better appreciated, whether they relate to drug-membrane interactions or biological functions of enzymes or nature of superconductivity etc. (author). figs

  8. Solid state chemistry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, Lesley E

    2012-01-01

    ""Smart and Moore are engaging writers, providing clear explanations for concepts in solid-state chemistry from the atomic/molecular perspective. The fourth edition is a welcome addition to my bookshelves. … What I like most about Solid State Chemistry is that it gives simple clear descriptions for a large number of interesting materials and correspondingly clear explanations of their applications. Solid State Chemistry could be used for a solid state textbook at the third or fourth year undergraduate level, especially for chemistry programs. It is also a useful resource for beginning graduate

  9. Analysis of solid-state transformations of pharmaceutical compounds using vibrational spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinz, Andrea; Strachan, Clare J; Gordon, Keith C

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Solid-state transformations may occur during any stage of pharmaceutical processing and upon storage of a solid dosage form. Early detection and quantification of these transformations during the manufacture of solid dosage forms is important since the physical form of an active...... pharmaceutical ingredient can significantly influence its processing behaviour, including powder flow and compressibility, and biopharmaceutical properties such as solubility, dissolution rate and bioavailability. KEY FINDINGS: Vibrational spectroscopic techniques such as infrared, near-infrared, Raman and, most...... multivariate approaches where even overlapping spectral bands can be analysed. SUMMARY: This review discusses the applications of different vibrational spectroscopic techniques to detect and monitor solid-state transformations possible for crystalline polymorphs, hydrates and amorphous forms of pharmaceutical...

  10. The solid state maser

    CERN Document Server

    Orton, J W; Walling, J C; Ter Haar, D

    1970-01-01

    The Solid State Maser presents readings related to solid state maser amplifier from the first tentative theoretical proposals that appeared in the early 1950s to the successful realization of practical devices and their application to satellite communications and radio astronomy almost exactly 10 years later. The book discusses a historical account of the early developments (including that of the ammonia maser) of solid state maser; the properties of paramagnetic ions in crystals; the development of practical low noise amplifiers; and the characteristics of maser devices designed for communica

  11. Solid-state electronic devices an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulos, Christo

    2014-01-01

    A modern and concise treatment of the solid state electronic devices that are fundamental to electronic systems and information technology is provided in this book. The main devices that comprise semiconductor integrated circuits are covered in a clear manner accessible to the wide range of scientific and engineering disciplines that are impacted by this technology. Catering to a wider audience is becoming increasingly important as the field of electronic materials and devices becomes more interdisciplinary, with applications in biology, chemistry and electro-mechanical devices (to name a few) becoming more prevalent. Updated and state-of-the-art advancements are included along with emerging trends in electronic devices and their applications. In addition, an appendix containing the relevant physical background will be included to assist readers from different disciplines and provide a review for those more familiar with the area. Readers of this book can expect to derive a solid foundation for understanding ...

  12. PROCESSING OF SOFT MAGNETIC MATERIALS BY POWDER METALLURGY AND ANALYSIS OF THEIR PERFORMANCE IN ELECTRICAL MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. D. Luna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the use of finite elements to analyze the yield of electric machines based on the use of different soft magnetic materials for the rotor and the stator, in order to verify the performance in electric machine using powder metallurgy. Traditionally, the cores of electric machines are built from rolled steel plates, thus the cores developed in this work are obtained from an alternative process known as powder metallurgy, where powders of soft magnetic materials are compacted and sintered. The properties of interest were analyzed (magnetic, electric and mechanical properties and they were introduced into the software database. The topology of the rotor used was 400 W three-phase synchronous motor manufactured by WEG Motors. The results show the feasibility to replace the metal sheets of the electric machines by solid blocks obtained by powder metallurgy process with only 0.37% yield losses. In addition, the powder metallurgical process reduces the use of raw materials and energy consumption per kg of raw material processed.

  13. Solid state chemistry and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    West, Anthony R

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Chemistry and its Applications, 2nd Edition: Student Edition is an extensive update and sequel to the bestselling textbook Basic Solid State Chemistry, the classic text for undergraduate teaching in solid state chemistry worldwide. Solid state chemistry lies at the heart of many significant scientific advances from recent decades, including the discovery of high-temperature superconductors, new forms of carbon and countless other developments in the synthesis, characterisation and applications of inorganic materials. Looking forward, solid state chemistry will be crucial for the

  14. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hook, J R

    1991-01-01

    This Second Edition is aimed at students taking a first course in this subject, although it will also be of interest to professional physicists and electronic engineers requiring a grasp of the fundamentals of this important area of physics. Basic concepts are introduced in an easily accessible context: for example, wave propagation in crystals is introduced using one-and two-dimensional geometries. Only when these basic ideas are familiar are generalisations to three dimensions and the elegant framework of the reciprocal lattice made. Extensively rewritten, the Second Edition now includes

  15. Nuclear solid-state physics. Nuclear-physics measureing methods and their applications. 4. upd. ed.; Nukleare Festkoerperphysik. Kernphysikalische Messmethoden und ihre Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, Guenter; Weidinger, Alois; Deicher, Manfred

    2010-07-01

    This book is thought as accompanying textbook for a course about nuclear solid-state physics, as book for the preparation of experiments in the physical graduate practicum, and as introducing book in one of the treated fields of research. At each theme theory and measurement technique are presented, measurement results shown, detectors explained, and experimental slopes explained. The text was for the 4th edition completely modernized and revised. Newly included were sections about the radiotracer methods (trace diffusion, photoluminescence, and capacitance-transient spectroscopy with radioactive probes), which were hitherto not presented. In the neutron diffraction the for the application especially important field of the small-angle scattering and the reflectometry were newly included in the book, in the Moessbauer effect the application of the synchrotron radiation for Moessbauer studies is described. Important applications like the magnetic-resonance tomography and the positron-emission tomography are also treated in the new edition.

  16. 8th International Conference on Solid State Physics (SSP 2004), Workshop “Mössbauer Spectroscopy of Locally Heterogeneous Systems”

    CERN Document Server

    Kadyrzhanov, K. K; SSP 2004

    2006-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the 8th International Conference on Solid State Physics (SSP 2004), Workshop "Mössbauer Spectroscopy of Locally Heterogeneous Systems", held in Almaty, Kazakhstan, 23–26 August 2004. It should be of interest to researchers and PhD students working or interested in recent results in the locally inhomogeneous system investigations by Mössbauer Spectroscopy and the new concepts of data evaluation of complex Mössbauer spectra.

  17. NATO Advanced Study Institute on the Physics of Structurally Disordered Solids

    CERN Document Server

    1976-01-01

    Structurally disordered solids are characterized by their lack of spatial order that is evidenced by the great variety of ordered solids. The former class of materials is commonly termed amorphous or glassy, the latter crystalline. However, both classes share, many of the other physical properties of solids, e. g. , me­ chanical stability, resistance to shear stress, etc. The traditional macroscopic distinction between the crystalline and the glassy states is that while the former has a fixed melting point, the latter does not. However, with the availability and production of a large number of materials in both crystalline and amorphous states, and their easy inter-convertability, simple de­ finitions are not possible or at best imprecise. For the present purpose, it is sufficient to say that in contrast to the crystalline state, in which the posi­ tions of atoms are fixed into adefinite structure, ex­ cept for small thermal vibrations, the amorphous state of the same material displays varying degrees of ...

  18. Annual report 86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report comes from the Institut Max von Laue-Langevin (ILL) at Grenoble. The purpose of the ILL differs from other research institutes as it is a service institute created so that chemistry, solid state physics, fundamental and nuclear physics, biology and metallurgy specialists can use the unique power of neutron techniques

  19. Solid-State Photomultiplier with Integrated Front End Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, James; Stapels, Christopher; Johnson, Erik; Mukhopadhyay, Sharmistha; Jie Chen, Xiao; Miskimen, Rory

    2009-10-01

    The instrumentation cost of physics experiments has been reduced per channel, by the use of solid-state detectors, but these cost-effective techniques have not been translated to scintillation-based detectors. When considering photodetectors, the cost per channel is determined by the use of high-voltage, analog-to-digital converters, BNC cables, and any other ancillary devices. The overhead associated with device operation limits the number of channels for the detector system, while potentially limiting the scope of physics that can be explored. The PRIMEX experiment at JLab, which is being designed to measure the radiative widths of the η and η' pseudo-scalar mesons for a more comprehensive understanding of QCD at low energies, is an example where CMOS solid-state photomultipliers (SSPMs) can be implemented. The ubiquitous nature of CMOS allows for on-chip signal processing to provide front-end electronics within the detector package. We present the results of the device development for the PRIMEX calorimeter, discussing the characteristics of SSPMs, the potential cost savings, and experimental results of on-chip signal processing.

  20. Uranium 2000 : International symposium on the process metallurgy of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozberk, E.; Oliver, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    The International Symposium on the Process Metallurgy of Uranium has been organized as the thirtieth annual meeting of the Hydrometallurgy Section of the Metallurgical Society of the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM). This meeting is jointly organized with the Canadian Mineral Processors Division of CIM. The proceedings are a collection of papers from fifteen countries covering the latest research, development, industrial practices and regulatory issues in uranium processing, providing a concise description of the state of this industry. Topics include: uranium industry overview; current milling operations; in-situ uranium mines and processing plants; uranium recovery and further processing; uranium leaching; uranium operations effluent water treatment; tailings disposal, water treatment and decommissioning; mine decommissioning; and international regulations and decommissioning. (author)

  1. Physical and welding metallurgy of Gd-enriched austenitic alloys for spent nuclear fuel applications. Part II, nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizia, Ronald E.; Michael, Joseph Richard; Williams, David Brian; Dupont, John Neuman; Robino, Charles Victor

    2004-01-01

    The physical and welding a metallurgy of gadolinium- (Gd-) enriched Ni-based alloys has been examined using a combination of differential thermal analysis, hot ductility testing. Varestraint testing, and various microstructural characterization techniques. Three different matrix compositions were chosen that were similar to commercial Ni-Cr-Mo base alloys (UNS N06455, N06022, and N06059). A ternary Ni-Cr-Gd alloy was also examined. The Gd level of each alloy was ∼2 wt-%. All the alloys initiated solidification by formation of primary austenite and terminated solidification by a Liquid γ + Ni 5 Gd eutectic-type reaction at ∼1270 C. The solidification temperature ranges of the alloys varied from ∼100 to 130 C (depending on alloy composition). This is a substantial reduction compared to the solidification temperature range to Gd-enriched stainless steels (360 to 400 C) that terminate solidification by a peritectic reaction at ∼1060 C. The higher-temperature eutectic reaction that occurs in the Ni-based alloys is accompanied by significant improvements in hot ductility and solidification cracking resistance. The results of this research demonstrate that Gd-enriched Ni-based alloys are excellent candidate materials for nuclear criticality control in spent nuclear fuel storage applications that require production and fabrication of large amounts of material through conventional ingot metallurgy and fusion welding techniques

  2. Materials and Molecular Research Division annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    Progress made in the following research areas is reported: materials sciences (metallurgy and ceramics, solid state physics, materials chemistry); chemical sciences (fundamental interactions, processes and techniques); nuclear sciences; fossil energy; advanced isotope separation technology; energy storage; magnetic fusion energy; and nuclear waste management

  3. Materials and Molecular Research Division annual report 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Searcy, A.W.; Muller, R.H.; Peterson, C.V.

    1984-07-01

    Progress is reported in the following fields: materials sciences (metallurgy and ceramics, solid-state physics, materials chemistry), chemical sciences (fundamental interactions, processes and techniques), actinide chemistry, fossil energy, electrochemical energy storage systems, superconducting magnets, semiconductor materials and devices, and work for others. (DLC)

  4. Materials and Molecular Research Division annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searcy, A.W.; Muller, R.H.; Peterson, C.V.

    1984-07-01

    Progress is reported in the following fields: materials sciences (metallurgy and ceramics, solid-state physics, materials chemistry), chemical sciences (fundamental interactions, processes and techniques), actinide chemistry, fossil energy, electrochemical energy storage systems, superconducting magnets, semiconductor materials and devices, and work for others

  5. Materials and Molecular Research Division annual report 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    Progress made in the following research areas is reported: materials sciences (metallurgy and ceramics, solid state physics, materials chemistry); chemical sciences (fundamental interactions, processes and techniques); nuclear sciences; fossil energy; advanced isotope separation technology; energy storage; magnetic fusion energy; and nuclear waste management.

  6. Ultrafast laser spectroscopy in complex solid state materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tianqi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This thesis summarizes my work on applying the ultrafast laser spectroscopy to the complex solid state materials. It shows that the ultrafast laser pulse can coherently control the material properties in the femtosecond time scale. And the ultrafast laser spectroscopy can be employed as a dynamical method for revealing the fundamental physical problems in the complex material systems.

  7. Solid-state radiation detectors technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The book discusses the current solid state material used in advance detectors manufacturing and their pros and cons and how one can tailor them using different techniques, to get the maximum performance. The book is application oriented to radiation detectors for medical, X and gamma rays application, and good reference with in-depth discussion of detector's physics as it relates to medical application tailored for engineers and scientists.

  8. Metallurgy in the Czech Republic: a spatio-temporal view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Suchacek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to introduce the stochastic input-output model of the impact of metallurgy sector on the Czech economy. Contrary to original input-output model, which is of deterministic nature, we reckon with interval estimates of the development of metallurgy sector. They help us to surpass deterministic impediments when analyzing and forecasting the possible developmental tendencies of metallurgy sector in various economies.

  9. Nuclear energy in metallurgy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirak, Z; Malik, J; Vrba, J

    1976-01-01

    The present power situation and its estimated development with a view to metallurgy is presented. The possibilities of the development of Czechoslovak metallurgy are described with regard to conventional fuels and to nuclear power applications. The programme of the use of nuclear power in countries with a highly developed metallurgical industry, such as Japan, the FRG, etc., is presented and the technical pre-requisites for the use of nuclear power in metallurgy, namely the use of high temperature reactors and their incorporation in nuclear metallurgical complexes are discussed. The problems are indicated of the selection of suitable materials for high temperature reactors and the experience is described with the operation of such equipment. The results are given of the analysis of 10 variants of the model of a nuclear metallurgical complex manufacturing 1000 tons of sponge iron per day and having four main technological circuits (the helium circuit, the steam circuit, the reduction gas circuit and the cycle of metallurgical processes). An estimate is given of the capital costs of building a high temperature reactor, a power plant and a metallurgical complex with the reactor. The costs are also given of steel and power production in a nuclear metallurgical complex.

  10. [Investigation about prevention behavior for dust workers in machinery, ceramic, and metallurgy industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fu-hai; Ma, Qing-kun; Xiao, Shu-yu; Cui, Feng-tao; Meng, Qing-di; Yang, Xiu-qing; Qi, Hui-sheng; Fan, Xue-yun; Yao, San-qiao

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this thesis were to study the behavior about workers exposed to dust and provide scientific basis for health promotion. We designed a questionnaire and carry it on the 746 dust workers in the 3 representative corporations of Machinery, Ceramic, and Metallurgy Industry. All data were input into computer. And a database was established with Excel. SPSS11.5 statistical analysis software was used to analyze the influence on protecting behavioral between the application of qualifications, different jobs, training or protection, and other aspects etc. The rates were 94.4% and 75.3% about the regular physical examination and requirements for protective equipment. The rate of choosing an effective way of protection was generally low (15.4%). There was significant difference for among different educational background workers (P Metallurgy Industry. Those who were not educated had a lower using rate about the protection behavior, regular physical examination, and requirements for protective equipment than those educated.

  11. KfK Institute of Nuclear Solid State Physics. Progress report on research and development activities in 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    The INFP is primarily occupied with basic research work in the field of solid state physics and materials science, with preference being given to subjects and problems of interest from the point of view of potential applications. This is particularly true for research work devoted to the high-temperature superconductors, which currently are the area of main effort of the Institute, but also for work performed in the fields of interface and microstructure research, polymer physics, or studies on amorphous and glassy materials. In 1990, about 70% of the activities were superconductivity research. Basic research investigated the lattice dynamics and electronic structure of HT superconductors by means of inelastic neutron scattering, or electron energy loss spectroscopy and tunnel spectroscopy. Application-oriented work concentrated on the development of HTSC-films required for equipment in microwave engineering, microelectronics, and sensor engineering. (orig./MM) [de

  12. 20th International Conference on Solid State Ionics (SSI 20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    Italy; 2CNST @PoliMI, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia , Milano, Italy; 3Physical Chemistry of Solids, Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research...Coughlin5; 1Chemical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy; 2Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e la Tecnologia dei Materiali...Germany; 2Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica , Valencia, Spain; 3Ernst Ruska Center, Jülich, Germany. 4:50 PM J5.05 Hydrogen Permeation through CO2-Stable

  13. The physical metallurgy of mechanically-alloyed, dispersion-strengthened Al-Li-Mg and Al-Li-Cu alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    Powder processing of Al-Li-Mg and Al-Li-Cu alloys by mechanical alloying (MA) is described, with a discussion of physical and mechanical properties of early experimental alloys of these compositions. The experimental samples were mechanically alloyed in a Szegvari attritor, extruded at 343 and 427 C, and some were solution-treated at 520 and 566 C and naturally, as well as artificially, aged at 170, 190, and 210 C for times of up to 1000 hours. All alloys exhibited maximum hardness after being aged at 170 C; lower hardness corresponds to the solution treatment at 566 C than to that at 520 C. A comparison with ingot metallurgy alloys of the same composition shows the MA material to be stronger and more ductile. It is also noted that properly aged MA alloys can develop a better combination of yield strength and notched toughness at lower alloying levels.

  14. The economic analysis of the evolution of Romanian ferrous metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bostan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The ferrous metallurgy represents a traditional occupation, being extremely important for the national economy. Romania has gone through all the stages foreseen for the restructuring of this industry in compliance with the provisions of the European Council’s Decision (1999/582/EC concerning the partnership for the EU adherence, which included a special chapter on ferrous metallurgy, the provisions of the Protocol no. 2 (ECSC, as well as with other significant normative acts subsequently enacted. Following the performed restructuring – privatizations, state allowances, liquidations, re-technologization – the activity of this sector has developed, still being under the potential of the Romanian metallurgic industry. Nowadays, the disadvantages relating to energy intensity and the increased need for imported raw materials are doubled by the difficulties generated by the global crisis.

  15. Quantum Computing in Solid State Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggiero, B; Granata, C

    2006-01-01

    The aim of Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems is to report on recent theoretical and experimental results on the macroscopic quantum coherence of mesoscopic systems, as well as on solid state realization of qubits and quantum gates. Particular attention has been given to coherence effects in Josephson devices. Other solid state systems, including quantum dots, optical, ion, and spin devices which exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence are also discussed. Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems discusses experimental implementation of quantum computing and information processing devices, and in particular observations of quantum behavior in several solid state systems. On the theoretical side, the complementary expertise of the contributors provides models of the various structures in connection with the problem of minimizing decoherence.

  16. Institute of Nuclear Solid State Physics (INFP). Progress report on research and development in 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    About 90 percent of the research activities of the INFP in 1994 were devoted to superconductivity as the priority research field of the Institute. In the domain of fundamental research, the work on oxidic HT superconductors was continued, concentrating on the electronic structure and details of the lattice dynamics. New tasks were opened up with studies on the recently discovered boron nitrides of the type LnNi 2 B 2 C (Ln=Y,Lu,..) with superconducting transition temperatures of up to T c ∼23K. Good progress was achieved in the preparation of MPMG superconducting bulk specimens intended for use in self-stabilising magnetic bearings. A prototype flywheel power storage system was developed for demonstrating the technological feasibility. Application-oriented studies were concerned with the growth of epitactic thin films on application-relevant substrates and including suitable buffer layers, and with the examination of the high-frequency performance of these films. Fullerene research continued with studies into the solid-state physics of crystalline fullerenes or fullerene compounds, and the preparation and characterisation of endofullerenes such as La C 82 . The remaining approximately 10 percent of the Institute's research activities covered experimental and theoretical work on the physics of surfaces and boundary surfaces, and the physics of mesoscopic systems. (orig./MM) [de

  17. State-of-the-art of recycling e-wastes by vacuum metallurgy separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lu; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-12-16

    In recent era, more and more electric and electronic equipment wastes (e-wastes) are generated that contain both toxic and valuable materials in them. Most studies focus on the extraction of valuable metals like Au, Ag from e-wastes. However, the recycling of metals such as Pb, Cd, Zn, and organics has not attracted enough attentions. Vacuum metallurgy separation (VMS) processes can reduce pollution significantly using vacuum technique. It can effectively recycle heavy metals and organics from e-wastes in an environmentally friendly way, which is beneficial for both preventing the heavy metal contaminations and the sustainable development of resources. VMS can be classified into several methods, such as vacuum evaporation, vacuum carbon reduction and vacuum pyrolysis. This paper respectively reviews the state-of-art of these methods applied to recycling heavy metals and organics from several kinds of e-wastes. The method principle, equipment used, separating process, optimized operating parameters and recycling mechanism of each case are illustrated in details. The perspectives on the further development of e-wastes recycling by VMS are also presented.

  18. Solid-State Nanopore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhishan Yuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Solid-state nanopore has captured the attention of many researchers due to its characteristic of nanoscale. Now, different fabrication methods have been reported, which can be summarized into two broad categories: “top-down” etching technology and “bottom-up” shrinkage technology. Ion track etching method, mask etching method chemical solution etching method, and high-energy particle etching and shrinkage method are exhibited in this report. Besides, we also discussed applications of solid-state nanopore fabrication technology in DNA sequencing, protein detection, and energy conversion.

  19. The extractive metallurgy of gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongolo, K.; Mwema, M. D.

    1998-12-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy has been successfully used in investigation of the gold compounds present in ores and the gold species which occur during the process metallurgy of this metal. This paper is a survey of the basic recovery methods and techniques used in extractive metallurgy of gold. Process fundamentals on mineral processing, ore leaching, zinc dust cementation, adsorption on activated carbon, electrowinning and refining are examined. The recovery of gold as a by-product of the copper industry is also described. Alternative processing methods are indicated in order to shed light on new interesting research topics where Mössbauer spectroscopy could be applied.

  20. The extractive metallurgy of gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kongolo, K.; Mwema, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy has been successfully used in investigation of the gold compounds present in ores and the gold species which occur during the process metallurgy of this metal. This paper is a survey of the basic recovery methods and techniques used in extractive metallurgy of gold. Process fundamentals on mineral processing, ore leaching, zinc dust cementation, adsorption on activated carbon, electrowinning and refining are examined. The recovery of gold as a by-product of the copper industry is also described. Alternative processing methods are indicated in order to shed light on new interesting research topics where Moessbauer spectroscopy could be applied

  1. The extractive metallurgy of gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kongolo, K.; Mwema, M.D. [University of Lubumbashi, Zaire, Gecamines Metallurgical Research Centre, Likasi, Zaire, c/o Gecamines Brussels (Belgium)

    1998-12-15

    Moessbauer spectroscopy has been successfully used in investigation of the gold compounds present in ores and the gold species which occur during the process metallurgy of this metal. This paper is a survey of the basic recovery methods and techniques used in extractive metallurgy of gold. Process fundamentals on mineral processing, ore leaching, zinc dust cementation, adsorption on activated carbon, electrowinning and refining are examined. The recovery of gold as a by-product of the copper industry is also described. Alternative processing methods are indicated in order to shed light on new interesting research topics where Moessbauer spectroscopy could be applied.

  2. The metallurgy, science and engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineau, A.; Quere, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Metallurgy, the science of metals and the technical discipline concerned with the production, shaping and assembling of metals, is one of the major assets of European economy. The French metallurgy industry - from producers (steel, light alloys, ...) to users (car, aviation, nuclear industries, ...) -- has achieved in many of its sectors a world-class level of excellence, based on high-quality research centres that are recognized both for their theoretical and experimental academic work. By contrast, public research is insufficiently concerned with engineering. In 2004, this industry employed 1 800 000 persons, 220 000 of which worked as engineers and managers in 45 000 companies, with a turnover of 420 billion euros. This state of grace is starting to decline. We are undergoing, in this sector as in others, a de-industrialization that affects upstream activities: courses in these disciplines, which have been previously outstanding, have partially disappeared; laboratories have shrunk; expertise has been dispersed; students are staying away from a discipline they consider 'unfruitful', like many other engineering sciences. Simultaneously, further up in this sector, decision centres have moved away from production centres and away from our country. France still maintains a few important R and D centres within international groups in spite of France's decreasing weight in world production. However, these groups see the future of R and D as being centred in the emerging countries (China, India...). The main users (transport, energy, ...) are losing their experts as are the technical centres on which rely a large network of small and medium businesses. The consequences are alarming in view of the already noticeable loss of technical control. This trend can and must be reversed. Because of its presence in many industrial sectors and its excellence, metallurgy - including both research and industry - is an essential activity in which France should remain a major player

  3. 2. International workshop Solid state nuclear track detectors and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perelygin, V.P.

    1992-01-01

    The 2. Workshop on Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) held in Dubna, 24-26 Mar 1992. Possibilities of SSNTD applications in the fields of high and low energy physics, dosimetry and radioecology were discussed

  4. Solid-state devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Rhys

    1971-01-01

    Solid-State Devices and Applications is an introduction to the solid-state theory and its devices and applications. The book also presents a summary of all major solid-state devices available, their theory, manufacture, and main applications. The text is divided into three sections. The first part deals with the semiconductor theory and discusses the fundamentals of semiconductors; the kinds of diodes and techniques in their manufacture; the types and modes of operation of bipolar transistors; and the basic principles of unipolar transistors and their difference with bipolar transistors. The s

  5. Research laboratories annual report. 1973 and 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-02-01

    This report presents brief summaries of the research carried out at the Israel A.E.C. laboratories during the two years 1973 and 1974 in the following fields: theoretical physics and chemistry, neutron and reactor physics, solid state physics and metallurgy, laser-induced plasma research, nuclear physics and chemistry, radiation chemistry and applications of radiation and radioisotopes, physical and inorganic chemistry, analytical chemistry, health physics, environmental studies, instrumentation and techniques. (B.G.)

  6. Solid-state polymeric dye lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, S; Sridhar, G; Muthuswamy, V; Raja, K

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the organic solid-state polymer materials, which have become established as a new laser media. The photostability of these materials is discussed. Different types of solid-state lasers built around these materials are also reviewed.

  7. Solid-State NMR Investigation of Drug-Excipient Interactions and Phase Behavior in Indomethacin-Eudragit E Amorphous Solid Dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubach, Joseph W; Hau, Jonathan

    2018-02-20

    To investigate the nature of drug-excipient interactions between indomethacin (IMC) and methacrylate copolymer Eudragit® E (EE) in the amorphous state, and evaluate the effects on formulation and stability of these amorphous systems. Amorphous solid dispersions containing IMC and EE were spray dried with drug loadings from 20% to 90%. PXRD was used to confirm the amorphous nature of the dispersions, and DSC was used to measure glass transition temperatures (T g ). 13 C and 15 N solid-state NMR was utilized to investigate changes in local structure and protonation state, while 1 H T 1 and T 1ρ relaxation measurements were used to probe miscibility and phase behavior of the dispersions. T g values for IMC-EE solid dispersions showed significant positive deviations from predicted values in the drug loading range of 40-90%, indicating a relatively strong drug-excipient interaction. 15 N solid-state NMR exhibited a change in protonation state of the EE basic amine, with two distinct populations for the EE amine at -360.7 ppm (unprotonated) and -344.4 ppm (protonated). Additionally, 1 H relaxation measurements showed phase separation at high drug load, indicating an amorphous ionic complex and free IMC-rich phase. PXRD data showed all ASDs up to 90% drug load remained physically stable after 2 years. 15 N solid-state NMR experiments show a change in protonation state of EE, indicating that an ionic complex indeed forms between IMC and EE in amorphous solid dispersions. Phase behavior was determined to exhibit nanoscale phase separation at high drug load between the amorphous ionic complex and excess free IMC.

  8. Modular compact solid-state modulators for particle accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadtsev, A. A.; Zavadtsev, D. A.; Churanov, D. V.

    2017-12-01

    The building of the radio frequency (RF) particle accelerator needs high-voltage pulsed modulator as a power supply for klystron or magnetron to feed the RF accelerating system. The development of a number of solid-state modulators for use in linear accelerators has allowed to develop a series of modular IGBT based compact solid-state modulators with different parameters. This series covers a wide range of needs in accelerator technology to feed a wide range of loads from the low power magnetrons to powerful klystrons. Each modulator of the series is built on base of a number of unified solid-state modules connected to the pulse transformer, and covers a wide range of modulators: voltage up to 250 kV, a peak current up to 250 A, average power up to 100 kW and the pulse duration up to 20 μsec. The parameters of the block with an overall dimensions 880×540×250 mm are: voltage 12 kV, peak current 1600 A, pulse duration 20 μsec, average power 10 kW with air-cooling and 40 kW with liquidcooling. These parameters do not represent a physical limit, and modulators to parameters outside these ranges can be created on request.

  9. Solid State Pathways towards Molecular Complexity in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnartz, Harold; Bossa, Jean-Baptiste; Bouwman, Jordy; Cuppen, Herma M.; Cuylle, Steven H.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Fayolle, Edith C.; Fedoseev, Gleb; Fuchs, Guido W.; Ioppolo, Sergio; Isokoski, Karoliina; Lamberts, Thanja; Öberg, Karin I.; Romanzin, Claire; Tenenbaum, Emily; Zhen, Junfeng

    2011-12-01

    It has been a long standing problem in astrochemistry to explain how molecules can form in a highly dilute environment such as the interstellar medium. In the last decennium more and more evidence has been found that the observed mix of small and complex, stable and highly transient species in space is the cumulative result of gas phase and solid state reactions as well as gas-grain interactions. Solid state reactions on icy dust grains are specifically found to play an important role in the formation of the more complex ``organic'' compounds. In order to investigate the underlying physical and chemical processes detailed laboratory based experiments are needed that simulate surface reactions triggered by processes as different as thermal heating, photon (UV) irradiation and particle (atom, cosmic ray, electron) bombardment of interstellar ice analogues. Here, some of the latest research performed in the Sackler Laboratory for Astrophysics in Leiden, the Netherlands is reviewed. The focus is on hydrogenation, i.e., H-atom addition reactions and vacuum ultraviolet irradiation of interstellar ice analogues at astronomically relevant temperatures. It is shown that solid state processes are crucial in the chemical evolution of the interstellar medium, providing pathways towards molecular complexity in space.

  10. Hydrogen in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The report briefly describes the results of the single projects promoted by the German Council of Research (DFG). The subjects deal with diffusion, effusion, permeation and solubility of hydrogen in metals. They are interesting for many disciplines: metallurgy, physical metallurgy, metal physics, materials testing, welding engineering, chemistry, nuclear physics and solid-state physics. The research projects deal with the following interrelated subjects: solubility of H 2 in steel and effects on embrittlement, influence of H 2 on the fatigue strength of steel as well as the effect of H 2 on welded joints. The studies in solid-state research can be divided into methodological and physico-chemical studies. The methodological studies mainly comprise investigations on the analytical determination of H 2 by means of nuclear-physical reactions (e.g. the 15 N method) and the application of the Moessbauer spectroscopy. Physico-chemical problems are mainly dealt with in studies on interfacial reactions in connection with the absorption of hydrogen and on the diffusion of H 2 in different alloy systems. The properties of materials used for hydrogen storage were the subject of several research projects. 20 contributions were separately recorded for the data bank 'Energy'. (MM) [de

  11. Solid State nuclear track detector - [Part] III : applications in science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, Nand

    1992-01-01

    The present article describes the applications of solid state nuclear track detection techniques in different branches of science (e.g. life sciences, nuclear physics, cosmic ray and solar physics, earth sciences, teaching laboratories) and technology with selected examples from voluminous literature available on the subject. (author). 28 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Solid state physics and actinide spectroscopy with ThBr4 and ThCl4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genet, M.

    1984-01-01

    From the solid state physics to the optical spectroscopy of 5 f elements, we have described in details how ThBr 4 and ThCl 4 are acting an important role in the applied and basic research field. The possible applications are based on the scintillation properties of these crystals while the fundamental aspect is related to their special incommensurate structure which modulates the host properties of these matrices at low temperature. This very small perturbation of bromine atom positions have optical consequences on the absorption and emission of the actinide studied ions which are interpreted in function of the modulated structure parameters determined by inelastic and elastic neutron scattering and by Raman spectroscopy. The structural model proposed shows, for the first time, how the optical properties of the investigated ion are influenced by the sinusoidal displacements of the bromine atoms, leading to an energy continuum in the absorption and reducing the site symmetry from Dsub(2d) to a multisite of D 2 symmetry

  13. Solid-State NMR Study of New Copolymers as Solid Polymer Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Daigle

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the analysis of comb-like polymers by solid-state NMR. The polymers were previously evaluated as solid-polymer-electrolytes (SPE for lithium-polymer-metal batteries that have suitable ionic conductivity at 60 °C. We propose to develop a correlation between 13C solid-state NMR measurements and phase segregation. 13C solid-state NMR is a perfect tool for differentiating polymer phases with fast or slow motions. 7Li was used to monitor the motion of lithium ions in the polymer, and activation energies were calculated.

  14. Men of physics pioneer in solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, V A

    2013-01-01

    Men of Physics: Karl Lark-Horovitz presents the biography of Karl Lark-Horovitz, a physicist who significantly contributed in the then-young field of experimental nuclear physics. This book discusses the Lark-Horovitz important work in structure determination by X-ray and electron diffraction methods. Organized into two parts encompassing 19 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the biographical account of Karl Lark-Horovitz. This text then describes Lark-Horovitz's creation of a highly regarded graduate program in physics at Purdue University, which is a feat involving both the acqui

  15. Properties of WZ21 (%wt) alloy processed by a powder metallurgy route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Sandra; Garcés, Gerardo; Pérez, Pablo; Adeva, Paloma

    2015-06-01

    Microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion behaviour of WZ21 (%wt) alloy prepared by a powder metallurgy route from rapidly solidified powders have been studied. Results were compared to those of the same alloy prepared through a conventional route of casting and extrusion. The microstructure of the extruded ingot consisted of α-Mg grains and Mg3Zn3Y2 (W-phase) and LPSO-phase particles located at grain boundaries. Moreover, stacking faults were also observed within α-Mg grains. The alloy processed by the powder metallurgy route exhibited a more homogeneous and finer microstructure, with a grain size of 2 μm. In this case W-phase and Mg24Y5 phase were identified, but not the LPSO-phase. The microstructural refinement induced by the use of rapidly solidified powders strengthened the alloy at room temperature and promoted superplasticity at higher strain rates. Corrosion behaviour in PBS medium evidenced certain physical barrier effect of the almost continuous arrangements of second phases aligned along the extrusion direction in conventionally processed WZ21 alloy, with a stable tendency around 7 mm/year. On the other hand, powder metallurgy processing promoted significant pitting corrosion, inducing accelerated corrosion rate during prolonged immersion times. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental protection technologies and prospect for uranium mining and metallurgy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Yingjie

    2002-01-01

    Based on practices of production and environmental protection of China's uranium mining and metallurgy, control and protection of the three wastes in uranium mining and metallurgy are discussed. Prospects for environmental protection technologies of uranium mining and metallurgy is made

  17. Chemistry in South Africa - yesterday, today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The jubilee convention of the South African Chemical Institute covered the development of chemistry in South Africa. Specialists in the field of chemistry covered topics with reference to organic chemistry, extraction metallurgy, analytical chemistry, mass spectroscopy, instrumentation, theoretical chemistry, physical chemistry, chromatography, industrial chemistry and solid state chemistry

  18. Solid Lithium Ion Conductors (SLIC) for Lithium Solid State Batteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To identify the most lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes for lithium solid state batteries from the emerging types of solid electrolytes, based on a...

  19. Magnetic coupling between liquid 3He and a solid state substrate: a new approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klochkov, Alexander V.; Naletov, Vladimir V.; Tayurskii, Dmitrii A.; Tagirov, Murat S.; Suzuki, Haruhiko

    2000-07-01

    We suggest a new approach for solving the long-standing problem of a magnetic coupling between liquid 3He and a solid state substrate at temperatures above the Fermi temperature. The approach is based on our previous careful investigations of the physical state of a solid substrate by means of several experimental methods (EPR, NMR, conductometry, and magnetization measurements). The developed approach allows, first, to get more detailed information about the magnetic coupling phenomenon by varying the repetition time in pulse NMR investigations of liquid 3He in contact with the solid state substrate and, second, to compare the obtained dependences and the data of NMR-cryoporometry and AFM-microscopy.

  20. Introduction to powder metallurgy processes for titanium manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, P. G.; Bolzoni, L.; Ruiz-Navas, E. M.; Gordo, E.

    2011-01-01

    The development of new extraction processes to produce titanium in powder form leads Powder Metallurgy to an advantage position among the manufacturing processes for titanium. The cost reduction of base material, coupled with the economy of the powder metallurgy processes, give titanium industry the chance to diversify its products, which could lead to production volumes able to stabilise the price of the metal. This work reviews some of the Powder Metallurgy techniques for the manufacturing of titanium parts, and describes the two typical approaches for titanium manufacturing: Blending Elemental and Prealloyed Powders. Among others, conventional pressing and sintering are described, which are compared with cold and hot isostatic pressing techniques. Real and potential applications are described. (Author) 71 refs.

  1. Radioactive ion beams and techniques for solid state research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we review the most recent and new applications of solid state characterization techniques using radioactive ion beams. For such type ofresearch, high yields of chemically clean ion beams of radioactive isotopesare needed which are provided by the on-line coupling of high resolution isotope separators to particle accelerators, such as the isotope separator on-line (ISOLDE) facility at CERN. These new experiments are performed by an increasing number of solid state groups. They combine nuclear spectroscopic techniques such as Moessbauer, perturbed angular correlations (PAC) and emission channeling with the traditional non-radioactive techniques liked deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and Hall effect measurements. Recently isotopes of elements, not available before, were successfully used in new PAC experiments, and the first photoluminescence (PL) measurements, where the element transmutation plays the essential role on the PL peak identification, have been performed. The scope of applications of radioactive ion beams for research in solid state physics will be enlarged in the near future, with the installation at ISOLDE of a post-accelerator device providing radioactive beams with energies ranging from a few keV up to a few MeV. (orig.)

  2. Solid state magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Crangle, John

    1991-01-01

    Solid state magnetism is important and attempts to understand magnetic properties have led to an increasingly deep insight into the fundamental make up of solids. Both experimental and theoretical research into magnetism continue to be very active, yet there is still much ground to cover before there can be a full understanding. There is a strong interplay between the developments of materials science and of magnetism. Hundreds of new materials have been dis­ covered, often with previously unobserved and puzzling magnetic prop­ erties. A large and growing technology exists that is based on the magnetic properties of materials. Very many devices used in everyday life involve magnetism and new applications are being invented all the time. Under­ standing the fundamental background to the applications is vital to using and developing them. The aim of this book is to provide a simple, up-to-date introduction to the study of solid state magnetism, both intrinsic and technical. It is designed to meet the needs a...

  3. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisagor, W. B.; Stein, B. A.

    1982-01-01

    The differences between powder and ingot metallurgy processing of aluminum alloys are outlined. The potential payoff in the use of advanced powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloys in future transport aircraft is indicated. The national program to bring this technology to commercial fruition and the NASA Langley Research Center role in this program are briefly outlined. Some initial results of research in 2000-series PM alloys and composites that highlight the property improvements possible are given.

  4. Evaluation of powder metallurgy superalloy disk materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop nickel-base superalloy disk material using prealloyed powder metallurgy techniques. The program included fabrication of test specimens and subscale turbine disks from four different prealloyed powders (NASA-TRW-VIA, AF2-1DA, Mar-M-432 and MERL 80). Based on evaluation of these specimens and disks, two alloys (AF2-1DA and Mar-M-432) were selected for scale-up evaluation. Using fabricating experience gained in the subscale turbine disk effort, test specimens and full scale turbine disks were formed from the selected alloys. These specimens and disks were then subjected to a rigorous test program to evaluate their physical properties and determine their suitability for use in advanced performance turbine engines. A major objective of the program was to develop processes which would yield alloy properties that would be repeatable in producing jet engine disks from the same powder metallurgy alloys. The feasibility of manufacturing full scale gas turbine engine disks by thermomechanical processing of pre-alloyed metal powders was demonstrated. AF2-1DA was shown to possess tensile and creep-rupture properties in excess of those of Astroloy, one of the highest temperature capability disk alloys now in production. It was determined that metallographic evaluation after post-HIP elevated temperature exposure should be used to verify the effectiveness of consolidation of hot isostatically pressed billets.

  5. High-powered, solid-state rf systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past two years, the requirement to supply megawatts of rf power for space-based applications at uhf and L-band frequencies has caused dramatic increases in silicon solid-state power capabilities in the frequency range from 10 to 3000 MHz. Radar and communications requirements have caused similar increases in gallium arsenide solid-state power capabilities in the frequency ranges from 3000 to 10,000 MHz. This paper reviews the present state of the art for solid-state rf amplifiers for frequencies from 10 to 10,000 MHz. Information regarding power levels, size, weight, and cost will be given. Technical specifications regarding phase and amplitude stability, efficiency, and system architecture will be discussed. Solid-stage rf amplifier susceptibility to radiation damage will also be examined

  6. Solid-state lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  7. Copper alloys with improved properties: standard ingot metallurgy vs. powder metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan T. Jovanović

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Three copper-based alloys: two composites reinforced with Al2O3 particles and processed through powder metallurgy (P/M route, i.e. by internal oxidation (Cu-2.5Al composite and by mechanical alloying (Cu-4.7Al2O3 and Cu-0.4Cr-0.08Zr alloy produced by ingot metallurgy (vacuum melting and casting were the object of this investigation. Light microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM equipped with electron X-ray spectrometer (EDS were used for microstructural characterization. Microhardness and electrical conductivity were also measured. Compared to composite materials, Cu-0.4Cr-0.08Zr alloy possesses highest electrical conductivity in the range from 20 to 800 ℃, whereas the lowest conductivity shows composite Cu-2.5Al processed by internal oxidation. In spite to somewhat lower electrical conductivity (probably due to inadequate density, Cu-2.5Al composite exhibits thermal stability enabling its application at much higher temperatures than materials processed by mechanical alloying or by vacuum melting and casting.

  8. Tunable solid-state laser technology for applications to scientific and technological experiments from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allario, F.; Taylor, L. V.

    1986-01-01

    Current plans for the Earth Observing System (EOS) include development of a lidar facility to conduct scientific experiments from a polar orbiting platforms. A recommended set of experiments were scoped, which includes techniques of atmospheric backscatter (Lidar), Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL), altimetry, and retroranging. Preliminary assessments of the resources (power, weight, volume) required by the Eos Lidar Facility were conducted. A research program in tunable solid state laser technology was developed, which includes laser materials development, modeling and experiments on the physics of solid state laser materials, and development of solid state laser transmitters with a strong focus on Eos scientific investigations. Some of the system studies that were conducted which highlight the payoff of solid state laser technology for the Eos scientific investigations will be discussed. Additionally, a summary of some promising research results which have recently emerged from the research program will be presented.

  9. Fluidized Bed Reactor as Solid State Fermenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaiah, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Various reactors such as tray, packed bed, rotating drum can be used for solid-state fermentation. In this paper the possibility of fluidized bed reactor as solid-state fermenter is considered. The design parameters, which affect the performances are identified and discussed. This information, in general can be used in the design and the development of an efficient fluidized bed solid-state fermenter. However, the objective here is to develop fluidized bed solid-state fermenter for palm kernel cake conversion into enriched animal and poultry feed.

  10. Preparation of nitinol by non-conventional powder metallurgy techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, P.; Moravec, H.; Salvetr, P.; Průša, F.; Drahokoupil, Jan; Kopeček, Jaromír; Karlík, M.; Kubatík, Tomáš František

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 15 (2015), s. 1886-1893 ISSN 0267-0836 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03044S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : shape memory alloys * SHS process * SEM * powder metallurgy Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.008, year: 2015

  11. Solid-State Powered X-band Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Mohamed A.K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nann, Emilio A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Dolgashev, Valery A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tantawi, Sami [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Neilson, Jeff [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2017-03-06

    In this report we disseminate the hot test results of an X-band 100-W solid state amplifier chain for linear accelerator (linac) applications. Solid state power amplifiers have become increasingly attractive solutions for achieving high power in radar and maritime applications. Here the performance of solid state amplifiers when driving an RF cavity is investigated. Commercially available, matched and fully-packaged GaN on SiC HEMTs are utilized, comprising a wideband driver stage and two power stages. The amplifier chain has a high poweradded- efficiency and is able to supply up to ~1.2 MV/m field gradient at 9.2 GHz in a simple test cavity, with a peak power exceeding 100 W. These findings set forth the enabling technology for solid-state powered linacs.

  12. Solid state properties from bulk to nano

    CERN Document Server

    Dresselhaus, Mildred; Cronin, Stephen; Gomes Souza Filho, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This book fills a gap between many of the basic solid state physics and materials science books that are currently available. It is written for a mixed audience of electrical engineering and applied physics students who have some knowledge of elementary undergraduate quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics. This book, based on a successful course taught at MIT, is divided pedagogically into three parts: (I) Electronic Structure, (II) Transport Properties, and (III) Optical Properties. Each topic is explained in the context of bulk materials and then extended to low-dimensional materials where applicable. Problem sets review the content of each chapter to help students to understand the material described in each of the chapters more deeply and to prepare them to master the next chapters.

  13. Gamma sterilization of cefotaxime sodium in the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattan, M.; Aladawi, M. A.; Hammoudeh, A.; Albaroudi, H.

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the solid state of Cefotaxime sodium salt (C 1 8H 1 6N 8 Na 2 O 7 S 3 ) as a member of the third generation of cephalosporin. Solid Cefotaxime as a pharmaceutical dosage was exposed to doses of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 50 kGy in 60 Co package irradiator. Physical and chemical characteristics of Cefotaxime sodium have been investigated by using UV (Ultra Violet) and IR (Infra Red) spectroscopic, pH, solubility and DSC (Deferential Scanning Calorimetric) methods. The biological activity of Cefotaxime sodium was investigated using Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as a strain of bacteria. The obtained results indicated that gamma irradiation have no effect on physical and chemical characteristics of Cefotaxime sodium, No significant differences were found between irradiated and non-irradiated samples in the biological activity of Cefotaxime sodium on E. Coli. (Author)

  14. Structure and properties of powder metallurgy constructional steel of different densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulyaev, A.P.; Moskvina, T.P.

    1986-01-01

    A specific feature of powder metallurgy steels is porosity, the degree of which depends upon the method of their production. This article establishes the influence of a small amount of porosity on the mechanical properties of powder metallurgy constructional steel. The structure of heat-treated cast and powder metallurgy steels with different porosities are shown. The results of mechanical tests of the experimental steels with different porosities are shown. With an increase in porosity the nonmetallic inclusion rating of the powder metallurgy constructional steel increases, primarily as the result of the increase in the coarse particles, which is caused by the lower degree of plastic deformation in pressing. With an increase in porosity the mechanical properties of the powder metallurgy steel become poorer: the hardness and strength properties with a porosity of more than 3-5%, the plasticity with more than 1-2%, and the toughness even with a porosity of 1%

  15. Powder metallurgy - some economic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    As a forming process powder metallurgy offers reductions in material and energy consumption. The engineering prerequisites and economics are discussed in relation to several industrial applications including automobile parts. 14 refs.

  16. Metallurgy Department publications 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder Pedersen, A.; Bilde-Soerensen, J.B.

    1989-08-01

    A presentation (including abstracts) of scientific and technical publications and lectures by the staff of the Metallurgy Department during 1988 is given. The list comprises journal papers, conference papers, reports, lectures and poster presentations in the following catagories: Publications, Lectures and Poster Presentations. (author)

  17. Metallurgy Department publications 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsewell, A.

    1990-08-01

    All publiclations by the staff of the Metallurgy Department during 1989 are listed. This list is divided into three sections as follows: Publications (journal and conference papers, reports); Lectures (public lecture presentations) and Posters (poster presentations at conferences and symposia). Abstracts are included. (author)

  18. Metals and Ceramics Division materials science annual progress report for period ending June 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHargue, C.J.; Peterson, S.

    1978-09-01

    Topics covered include: structure of materials, theoretical research; x-ray diffraction research; fundamental ceramics studies; preparation and synthesis of high-temperature and special service materials; physical metallurgy; grain boundary segregation and fracture; mechanisms of surface and solid-state reactions; physical properties research; superconducting materials; radiation effects; facility and technique development; nuclear microanalysis; cooperative studies with universities and other research organizations; and fundamentals of welding and joining

  19. Metallurgy of high-silicon steel parts produced using Selective Laser Melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibaldi, Michele; Ashcroft, Ian; Simonelli, Marco; Hague, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The metallurgy of high-silicon steel (6.9%wt.Si) processed using Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is presented for the first time in this study. High-silicon steel has great potential as a soft magnetic alloy, but its employment has been limited due to its poor workability. The effect of SLM-processing on the metallurgy of the alloy is investigated in this work using microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD). XRD analysis suggests that the SLM high-silicon steel is a single ferritic phase (solid solution), with no sign of phase ordering. This is expected to have beneficial effects on the material properties, since ordering has been shown to make silicon steels more brittle and electrically conductive. For near-fully dense samples, columnar grains with a high aspect ratio and oriented along the build direction are found. Most importantly, a <001> fibre-texture along the build direction can be changed into a cube-texture when the qualitative shape of the melt-pool is altered (from shallow to deep) by increasing the energy input of the scanning laser. This feature could potentially open the path to the manufacture of three-dimensional grain-oriented high-silicon steels for electromechanical applications.

  20. Materials Sciences Division 1990 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report is the Materials Sciences Division's annual report. It contains abstracts describing materials research at the National Center for Electron Microscopy, and for research groups in metallurgy, solid-state physics, materials chemistry, electrochemical energy storage, electronic materials, surface science and catalysis, ceramic science, high tc superconductivity, polymers, composites, and high performance metals

  1. Metallurgy and Heat Treating. Welding Module 7. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This guide is intended to assist vocational educators in teaching a three-unit module in metallurgy and heat treating. The module is part of a welding curriculum that has been designed to be totally integrated with Missouri's Vocational Instruction Management System. The basic principles of metallurgy and heat treatment and techniques for…

  2. Al/ B4C Composites with 5 and 10 wt% Reinforcement Content Prepared by Powder Metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof Abdullah; Mohd Reusmaazran Yusof; Azali Muhammad; Nadira Kamarudin; Wilfred Sylvester Paulus; Roslinda Shamsudin; Nasrat Hannah Shudin; Nurazila Mat Zali

    2012-01-01

    The preparation, physical and mechanical properties of Al/ B 4 C composites with 5 and 10 wt.% reinforcement content were investigated. In order to obtain the feedstock with a low powder loading, B 4 C mixtures containing fine powders were investigated to obtain the optimal particle packing. The experimental results indicated that the fine containing 5 and 10 wt.% particles are able to prepare the feedstock with a good flowability. The composites fabricated by powder metallurgy have low densities and homogeneous microstructures. Additionally there is no interface reaction observed between the reinforcement and matrix by XRD analysis. The hardness of Al/ B 4 C composites prepared by powder metallurgy was high. (Author)

  3. Concepts in solids lectures on the theory of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Philip Warren

    1964-01-01

    These lecture notes constitute a course on a number of central concepts of solid state physics - classification of solids, band theory, the developments in one-electron band theory in the presence of perturbation, effective Hamiltonian theory, elementary excitations and the various types of collective elementary excitation (excitons, spin waves and phonons), the Fermi liquid, ferromagnetic spin waves, antiferromagnetic spin waves and the theory of broken symmetry. The book can be used in conjunction with a survey course in solid state physics, or as the basis of a first graduate-level course.

  4. Self-Paced Tutorial Courses for Mineral Science - Metallurgy Departments. Final Progress Report (July 1975-August 1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twidwell, L. G.

    Four courses in extractive metallurgy (Pyrometallurgy, Hydrometallurgy, Electrometallurgy; and Physical Chemistry of Iron and Steel) were prepared in a modular, self-paced format. Development of the course materials included: (1) preparation of course outlines by unit coordinators and advisory committees; (2) approval of course outlines (included…

  5. Progress report October 1980 - September 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    The report falls under the headings: nuclear, atomic and molecular physics (atomic and molecular theory; nuclear theory; centrifugal flow); theory of fluids (statistical mechanics; general fluid mechanics; flow in porous media; energy modelling); radiation damage and theoretical metallurgy (radiation damage; safety studies; mechanical and defect studies); theory of solid state materials (non-destructive testing; atomistic studies of defects in solids; atomistic studies of surfaces and planar defects; electronic structure of solids; studies of minerals and of vitrified waste). (U.K.)

  6. Molecular and solid-state properties of tris-(8-hydroxyquinolate)-aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Richard L.; Kress, Joel D.; Campbell, I. H.; Smith, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    We use a hybrid density-functional-theory approach to calculate ground-state electronic properties and a time-dependent density-functional-theory approach to investigate the excited state electronic properties of molecular tris-(8-hydroxyquinolate)-aluminum, Alq. The calculated molecular results are compared with measurements on dense solid-state films of Alq. We specifically consider: the optical absorption spectrum near the fundamental absorption threshold, the ionization potential, the single-particle energy gap, the static dielectric constant, and the electric-field dependence of the electron mobility. We find that the molecular calculations can describe the optical absorption spectrum near the fundamental absorption threshold without significant corrections for solid-state effects. The energies of the triplet excited states are computed and the lowest triplet is found to lie 0.64 eV below the lowest excited singlet state. In contrast, large dielectric corrections must be included for the molecular calculations to describe the ionization potential and single-particle energy gap. When these dielectric corrections are made, using the calculated molecular polarizability, which accurately gives the measured static dielectric constant, both the ionization potential and single-particle energy gap are well described. The calculated molecular dipole moment can be used to interpret the electric-field dependence of the electron mobility. The solid-state properties, determined from the molecular calculations, are then used in a device model to describe the measured current-voltage characteristics in Alq diodes. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  7. Metallurgy and foundry practice. German-English. With 40,000 citations. Metallurgie und Giessereitechnik. Deutsch-Englisch. Mit etwa 40,000 Wortstellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoelzel, K [ed.

    1986-01-01

    The dictionary represents the German-English terminology of the broad field of metallurgy (the dressing of ores and fluxes, pig iron and steel making, powder and nonferrous metallurgy, forming processes etc.) as well as of the broad field of foundry practice. Apart from the theoretical fundamental principles emphasis is on the problems of materials working and materials testing. Moreover, the dictionary considers a number of technical terms concerning the hardening, surface treatment and corrosion of materials.

  8. Radiotracer diffusion in semiconductors and metallic compounds using short-lived isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Deicher, M; Kronenberg, J; Wagner, F E

    The transport of atoms in solids is of central importance for solid state physics, chemistry, metallurgy, and material sciences. Since the mobility of atoms in solids contributes to many physical phenomena the study of diffusion processes is of fundamental interest for solid state physics. Diffusion processes were frequently investigated using radioactive isotopes (radiotracers). The application of short-lived isotopes delivered at ISOLDE extends substantially the possibilities of investigating diffusion processes in solids. In particular, a new experimental set-up to be installed at ISOLDE in this year will enable the use of radioactive isotopes with half-lives down to minutes. Alternatively, in special cases diffusion processes can be investigated with help of hyperfine techniques on an atomic scale, like by perturbed $\\gamma \\gamma$-angular correlation (PAC). Here, the motion of the atom of interest becomes visible directly via characteristic changes in the measured PAC spectra.

  9. Enhanced amylase production by fusarium solani in solid state fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakri, Y.; Jawhar, M.; Arabi, M.I.E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study illustrates the investigation carried out on the production of amylase by Fusarium species under solid state fermentation. All the tested Fusarium species were capable of producing amylase. A selected F. solani isolate SY7, showed the highest amylase production in solid state fermentation. Different substrates were screened for enzyme production. Among the several agronomic wastes, wheat bran supported the highest yield of amylase (141.18 U/g of dry substrate) after 3 days of incubation. Optimisation of the physical parameters revealed the optimum pH, temperature and moisture level for amylase production by the isolate as 8.0, 25 C and 70%, respectively. The above results indicate that the production of amylase by F. solani isolate SY7 could be improved by a further optimisation of the medium and culture conditions. (author)

  10. Solid-state lighting-a benevolent technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, E Fred; Kim, Jong Kyu; Luo Hong; Xi, J-Q

    2006-01-01

    Solid-state light sources are in the process of profoundly changing the way humans generate light for general lighting applications. Solid-state light sources possess two highly desirable features, which set them apart from most other light sources: (i) they have the potential to create light with essentially unit power efficiency and (ii) the properties of light, such as spectral composition and temporal modulation, can be controlled to a degree that is not possible with conventional light sources such as incandescent and fluorescent lamps. The implications are enormous and, as a consequence, many positive developments are to be expected including a reduction in global energy consumption, reduction of global-warming-gas and pollutant emissions and a multitude of new functionalities benefiting numerous applications. This review will assess the impact of solid-state lighting technology on energy consumption, the environment and on emerging application fields that make use of the controllability afforded by solid-state sources. The review will also discuss technical areas that fuel continued progress in solid-state lighting. Specifically, we will review the use of novel phosphor distributions in white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and show the strong influence of phosphor distribution on efficiency. We will also review the use of reflectors in LEDs with emphasis on 'perfect' reflectors, i.e. reflectors with highly reflective omni-directional characteristics. Finally, we will discuss a new class of thin-film materials with an unprecedented low refractive index. Such low-n materials may strongly contribute to the continuous progress in solid-state lighting

  11. Welding Metallurgy and Weldability of Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, John C.; Kotecki, Damian J.

    2005-03-01

    Welding Metallurgy and Weldability of Stainless Steels, the first book in over twenty years to address welding metallurgy and weldability issues associated with stainless steel, offers the most up-to-date and comprehensive treatment of these topics currently available. The authors emphasize fundamental metallurgical principles governing microstructure evolution and property development of stainless steels, including martensistic, ferric, austenitic, duplex, and precipitation hardening grades. They present a logical and well-organized look at the history, evolution, and primary uses of each stainless steel, including detailed descriptions of the associated weldability issues.

  12. Thermogravimetric control of intermediate compounds in uranium metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco Sanchez, L.; Fernandez Cellini, R.

    1959-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of some intermediate compounds in the metallurgy of the uranium as uranium peroxide, ammonium uranate, uranium and ammonium penta-fluoride, uranium tetrafluoride and uranous oxide has been study by means of the Chevenard's thermo balance. Some data on pyrolysis of synthetic mixtures of intermediate compounds which may occasionally appear during the industrial process, are given. Thermogravimetric methods of control are suggested, usable in interesting products in the uranium metallurgy. (Author) 20 refs

  13. Compressibility of 304 Stainless Steel Powder Metallurgy Materials Reinforced with 304 Short Stainless Steel Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bibo; Zhou, Zhaoyao; Duan, Liuyang; Xiao, Zhiyu

    2016-03-04

    Powder metallurgy (P/M) technique is usually used for manufacturing porous metal materials. However, some P/M materials are limitedly used in engineering for their performance deficiency. A novel 304 stainless steel P/M material was produced by a solid-state sintering of 304 stainless steel powders and 304 short stainless steel fibers, which were alternately laid in layers according to mass ratio. In this paper, the compressive properties of the P/M materials were characterized by a series of uniaxial compression tests. The effects of fiber content, compaction pressure and high temperature nitriding on compressive properties were investigated. The results indicated that, without nitriding, the samples changed from cuboid to cydariform without damage in the process of compression. The compressive stress was enhanced with increasing fiber content ranging from 0 to 8 wt.%. For compaction pressure from 55 to 75 MPa, greater compaction pressure improved compressive stress. Moreover, high temperature nitriding was able to significantly improve the yield stress, but collapse failure eventually occurred.

  14. Two dimensional solid state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kentgens, A.P.M.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis illustrates, by discussing some existing and newly developed 2D solid state experiments, that two-dimensional NMR of solids is a useful and important extension of NMR techniques. Chapter 1 gives an overview of spin interactions and averaging techniques important in solid state NMR. As 2D NMR is already an established technique in solutions, only the basics of two dimensional NMR are presented in chapter 2, with an emphasis on the aspects important for solid spectra. The following chapters discuss the theoretical background and applications of specific 2D solid state experiments. An application of 2D-J resolved NMR, analogous to J-resolved spectroscopy in solutions, to natural rubber is given in chapter 3. In chapter 4 the anisotropic chemical shift is mapped out against the heteronuclear dipolar interaction to obtain information about the orientation of the shielding tensor in poly-(oxymethylene). Chapter 5 concentrates on the study of super-slow molecular motions in polymers using a variant of the 2D exchange experiment developed by us. Finally chapter 6 discusses a new experiment, 2D nutation NMR, which makes it possible to study the quadrupole interaction of half-integer spins. 230 refs.; 48 figs.; 8 tabs

  15. Materials Sciences Division 1990 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This report is the Materials Sciences Division`s annual report. It contains abstracts describing materials research at the National Center for Electron Microscopy, and for research groups in metallurgy, solid-state physics, materials chemistry, electrochemical energy storage, electronic materials, surface science and catalysis, ceramic science, high tc superconductivity, polymers, composites, and high performance metals.

  16. Materials Sciences Division 1990 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This report is the Materials Sciences Division's annual report. It contains abstracts describing materials research at the National Center for Electron Microscopy, and for research groups in metallurgy, solid-state physics, materials chemistry, electrochemical energy storage, electronic materials, surface science and catalysis, ceramic science, high tc superconductivity, polymers, composites, and high performance metals.

  17. The metallurgy of superalloys part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelazim, M.E.; Hammad, F.H.

    1990-01-01

    This is part I of the report titled 'the metallurgy of superalloys'. In this part the structure, phases and systems of superalloys are reviewed. The role of alloying elements in the design of superalloys and the mechanical properties of superalloys are also reviewed. Superalloys are important in high temperature technology, especially above 700 degree c. They are 'super' mainly because their creep and stress rupture resistances are very high. Superalloys are based on an austenitic matrix including secondary phases, mainly gamma precipitates, inter and intragranular carbides mainly M 23 C 6 and M 6 C. They are classified into three systems, Ni-base, Fe-Ni base and Ce-base alloys. Different alloying elements mainly Cr, Mo, Al, Ti are added to increase the strength either by solid solution hardening (Cr, Mo, Al), precipitation hardening (A 1, Ti to produce gamma) or by dispersion hardening (Cr, Mo to form M 23 C 6 and M 6 C carbides) and to increase the oxidation resistance (Cr, Al). 3 tab., 2 fig

  18. Macroscopic modelling of solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogschagen, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation is different from the more well known process of liquid fermentation because no free flowing water is present. The technique is primarily used in Asia. Well-known products are the foods tempe, soy sauce and saké. In industrial solid-state fermentation, the substrate usually

  19. Biennial activity report of Metallurgy Programme - 1985 and 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallika, C.; Sreenivasan, P.R.; Muraleedharan, P.; Shyamsunder, M.T.; Kuppuswami, P.; Sampath, N.; Bhaduri, A.K.; Sreedharan, O.M.

    1988-01-01

    The biennial activity report of the Metallurgy Programme of the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research covers the period of the years 1985 and 1986. Along with NDT, welding metallurgy, low cycle fatigue, creep and creep fatigue interactions, structure-property correlations, thermodynamics and corrosion metallurgy of alloy steels with respect to their compatibility with aqueous and liquid sodium environments continue to be the major thrust areas of the Programme. Some of the basic research contributions of the Programme are: the observation of uniform and homogeneous distribution of voids in cyclically deformed 304 SS, the role of grain boundaries and precipitation in dynamic strain ageing of 316 SS and the determination of the activities of component metals in 316 and 304 SS by metastable EMF method. (author)

  20. Annual Report 88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) is presented. The ILL is a service institute created so that chemistry, solid state physics, fundamental and nuclear physics, biology and metallurgy specialists can use the unique power of neutron techniques on their investigations. The report includes the reactor operation, the research programs and the obtained results and international cooperation. The activities of the ILL departments and the communications are given

  1. Industrial applications and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres M, N.; Melendrez C, G.; Morales, F.L.

    1989-01-01

    From 1961 the use of nuclear energy in the industrial field in Colombia has a big advance. Today nuclear isotopes are used by private companies in this kind of application the Area of Industrial Applications and Metallurgy was the institution section that has trained and has transferred the technology needed for this purpose

  2. Physics in microelectronics and microelectronics in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooser, E.

    1983-01-01

    Modern semiconductor technology and its many different facets such as microelectronics, optoelectronics, integrated optics, solar energy conversion, etc... have their origin in solid state physics, However, because of their enormous economic impact, their development has been so rapid and has lead to such a high degree of complexity and sophistication, that to the newcomer in the field, the links between solid state electronics and solid state physics are no longer evident. (author) [pt

  3. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  4. Mechanical and microstructural characterization of powder metallurgy CoCrNi medium entropy alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravčík, I.; Čížek, Jan; Kováčová, Z.; Nejezchlebová, J.; Kitzmantel, M.; Neubauer, E.; Kuběna, Ivo; Horník, Vít; Dlouhý, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 701, July (2017), s. 370-380 ISSN 0921-5093 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68081723 Keywords : tensile test * mechanical alloying * plastic ity * mechanical characterization * powder metallurgy Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy; JG - Metallurgy (UFM-A) OBOR OECD: Materials engineering; Materials engineering (UFM-A) Impact factor: 3.094, year: 2016 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921509317308535

  5. Densification of powder metallurgy billets by a roll consolidation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellman, W. H.; Weinberger, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    Container design is used to convert partially densified powder metallurgy compacts into fully densified slabs in one processing step. Technique improves product yield, lowers costs and yields great flexibility in process scale-up. Technique is applicable to all types of fabricable metallic materials that are produced from powder metallurgy process.

  6. Reuse of beneficiency residue from mining and metallurgy as source of zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.A.S.; Rodrigues, E.C.; Souza, J.A.S.; Neves, R.F.; Macedo, E.N.; Moraes, C.G.

    2011-01-01

    The mining industry and metallurgy, located in Para State, brought the concern about the huge generation of solid waste (eg The Red Mud (LV) industry Alumina; waste alumina sand-kaolin industry, waste of cuba electrolytic aluminum industry and other metal) and with the gas emissions from the burning of fossil fuels these industries. In the case of solid waste, most of which require special care such as check dams and even storage areas protected. Since the waste gases are not always properly treated and are one of the most discussed environmental problem today, according to the emission of compounds such as SOx, NOx, Cox's treatment of these effluents should be given, necessarily involves techniques of adsorption followed by reaction neutralization. These techniques can be used in two ways: by wet and dry. In the specific case of gas emissions from fossil fuels is used to wash using aqueous suspensions of calcium oxide. In this context, studies conducted in the Laboratory of Ceramic Materials, UFPA [1, 2], showed that the Bayer process residue (red mud) has characteristics that indicate the possibility of its use in place of calcium oxide in the treatment of waste gases. Moreover, waste from kaolin industry can be used as adsorbents since they go through a process of synthesis, producing different types of synthetic zeolites can be extremely useful in the treatment of waste and various activities related to environmental issues. (author)

  7. Solid-state NMR basic principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Apperley, David C; Hodgkinson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has proved to be a uniquely powerful and versatile tool for analyzing and characterizing chemicals and materials of all kinds. This book focuses on the latest developments and applications for "solid-state" NMR, which has found new uses from archaeology to crystallography to biomaterials and pharmaceutical science research. The book will provide materials engineers, analytical chemists, and physicists, in and out of lab, a survey of the techniques and the essential tools of solid-state NMR, together with a practical guide on applications. In this concise introduction to the growing field of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy The reader will find: * Basic NMR concepts for solids, including guidance on the spin-1/2 nuclei concept * Coverage of the quantum mechanics aspects of solid state NMR and an introduction to the concept of quadrupolar nuclei * An understanding relaxation, exchange and quantitation in NMR * An analysis and interpretation of NMR data, with e...

  8. Fundamentals of the Physics of Solids Volume 2: Electronic Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Sólyom, Jenő

    2009-01-01

    This book is the second of a single-authored, three-volume series that aims to deliver a comprehensive and self-contained account of the vast field of solid-state physics. It goes far beyond most classic texts in the presentation of the properties of solids and experimentally observed phenomena, along with the basic concepts and theoretical methods used to understand them and the essential features of various experimental techniques. The first volume deals with the atomic and magnetic structure and dynamics of solids, the second with those electronic properties that can be understood in the one-particle approximation, and the third with the effects due to interactions and correlations between electrons. This volume is devoted to the electronic properties of metals and semiconductors in the independent-electron approximation. After a brief discussion of the free-electron models by Drude and Sommerfeld, the methods for calculating and measuring the band structure of Bloch electrons moving in the periodic potent...

  9. [Respiratory diseases in metallurgy production workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shliapnikov, D M; Vlasova, E M; Ponomareva, T A

    2012-01-01

    The authors identified features of respiratory diseases in workers of various metallurgy workshops. Cause-effect relationships are defined between occupational risk factors and respiratory diseases, with determining the affection level.

  10. Abstracts of 12. Conference on Solid State Crystals Materials Science and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The solid state crystals are the modern materials being very interesting from the view point of actual and possible applications in microelectronics, optics, laser materials, detectors etc. 12. Conference on Solid State Crystals, Materials Science and Applications, Zakopane'99 created the review forum for broad range of investigations on topics related to; crystal growth and doping, new materials preparation, thin layer structure, physical properties and special methods for electrical, magnetic, optical and mechanical properties measurements of obtained materials. The insulating, semiconducting and superconducting monocrystals, polycrystals and also amorphous glasses have been investigated and their possible applications discussed. 52 oral lectures and 128 posters have been presented in the course of the conference

  11. Lithium-ion transport in inorganic solid state electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jian; Li Hong; Zhao Yu-Sheng; Shi Si-Qi

    2016-01-01

    An overview of ion transport in lithium-ion inorganic solid state electrolytes is presented, aimed at exploring and designing better electrolyte materials. Ionic conductivity is one of the most important indices of the performance of inorganic solid state electrolytes. The general definition of solid state electrolytes is presented in terms of their role in a working cell (to convey ions while isolate electrons), and the history of solid electrolyte development is briefly summarized. Ways of using the available theoretical models and experimental methods to characterize lithium-ion transport in solid state electrolytes are systematically introduced. Then the various factors that affect ionic conductivity are itemized, including mainly structural disorder, composite materials and interface effects between a solid electrolyte and an electrode. Finally, strategies for future material systems, for synthesis and characterization methods, and for theory and calculation are proposed, aiming to help accelerate the design and development of new solid electrolytes. (topical review)

  12. Atomic layer deposition of lithium phosphates as solid-state electrolytes for all-solid-state microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Biqiong; Liu, Jian; Sun, Qian; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang; Sham, Tsun-Kong

    2014-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been shown as a powerful technique to build three-dimensional (3D) all-solid-state microbattery, because of its unique advantages in fabricating uniform and pinhole-free thin films in 3D structures. The development of solid-state electrolyte by ALD is a crucial step to achieve the fabrication of 3D all-solid-state microbattery by ALD. In this work, lithium phosphate solid-state electrolytes were grown by ALD at four different temperatures (250, 275, 300, and 325 °C) using two precursors (lithium tert-butoxide and trimethylphosphate). A linear dependence of film thickness on ALD cycle number was observed and uniform growth was achieved at all four temperatures. The growth rate was 0.57, 0.66, 0.69, and 0.72 Å/cycle at deposition temperatures of 250, 275, 300, and 325 °C, respectively. Furthermore, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the compositions and chemical structures of lithium phosphates deposited by ALD. Moreover, the lithium phosphate thin films deposited at 300 °C presented the highest ionic conductivity of 1.73 × 10 −8 S cm −1 at 323 K with ∼0.51 eV activation energy based on the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The ionic conductivity was calculated to be 3.3 × 10 −8 S cm −1 at 26 °C (299 K). (paper)

  13. Solid-state membrane module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard [Salt Lake City, UT; Taylor, Dale M [Murray, UT

    2011-06-07

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  14. The dissolution enhancement of piroxicam in its physical mixtures and solid dispersion formulations using gluconolactone and glucosamine hydrochloride as potential carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamidi, Hiba; Obeidat, Wasfy M; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The solid dispersion technique is one of the most effective methods for improving the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs; however this is reliant on a suitable carrier and solvent being selected. The work presented explores amino sugars (d-glucosamine HCl and d-gluconolactone) as potential hydrophilic carriers to improve dissolution rate of a poorly water-soluble drug, piroxicam, from physical mixtures and solid dispersion formulations. Solid dispersions of the drug and carrier were prepared using different ratios by the conventional solvent evaporation method. Acetone was used as solvent in the preparation of solid dispersions. Physical mixtures of piroxicam and carrier were also prepared for comparison. The properties of all solid dispersions and physical mixtures were studied using a dissolution tester, Fourier transform infrared, XRD, SEM and differential scanning calorimetry. These results showed that the presence of glucosamine or gluconolactone can increase dissolution rate of piroxicam compared to pure piroxicam. Glucosamine or Gluconolactone could be used as carrier in solid dispersion formulations and physical mixtures to enhance the dissolution rate. Solid state studies showed that no significant changes occurred for piroxicam in physical mixtures and solid dispersion.

  15. [Stability of physical state on compound hawthorn dropping pills].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Jian-Lan

    2008-11-01

    To evaluate the stability of physical state with accelerate test and dropping in process before and after on compound hawthorn dropping pills. Scanning electron microscope, TG-DTA, FT-IR and XRD were used. The active components presented amorphous, tiny crystal and molecular state in dropping pills, and it had no obvious reaction between PEG 4000 and active components. With time prolonging, a little of active components changed from amorphous state to tiny crystal or molecular state. Solid dispersion improved the stability and dissolution of compound hawthorn dropping pills.

  16. Current state of using radionuclides in mining and in metallurgy in the GDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzhey, J.

    1987-01-01

    Data is presented characterizing the range of the industrial use of tracer and radiometric methods in mining and metallurgy in the GDR in the years 1957-1975 and 1985. Of radiometric methods the most widely used were level gages, densimeters and fire detectors. Level gages were most widely used for measuring the height of filling of hoppers and silos. Radionuclide analytical methods are mainly used in the potassium industry for determining the content of potassium oxide. Natural radiation of 40 K radionuclides is used in the process. (Z.S.). 4 tabs., 2 refs

  17. Semi-solid metal forming of beryllium-reinforced aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haws, W.; Lane, L.; Marder, J.; Nicholas, N.

    1995-01-01

    A Powder Metallurgy (PM) based, Semi-Solid Metal (SSM) forming process has been developed to produce low cost near-net shapes of beryllium-reinforced aluminum alloys. Beryllium acts as a reinforcing additive to the aluminum, in which there is nearly no mutual solid solubility. The modulus of elasticity of the alloy dramatically increases, while the density and thermal expansion coefficient decrease with increasing beryllium content. The material is suitable for complex thermal management and vibration resistance applications, as well as for airborne components which are density and stiffness sensitive. The forming process involves heating a blank of the material to a temperature at which the aluminum is semi-solid and the beryllium is solid. The semi-solid blank is then injected without turbulence into a permanent mold. High quality, near net shape components can be produced which are functionally superior to those produced by other permanent mold processes. Dimensional accuracy is equivalent to or better than that obtained in high pressure die casting. Cost effectiveness is the primary advantage of this technique compared to other forming processes. The advantages and limitations of the process are described. Physical and mechanical property data are presented, as well as directions for future investigation

  18. Drug-Excipient Interactions in the Solid State: The Role of Different Stress Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressl, Corinna; Brunsteiner, Michael; Davis, Adrian; Landis, Margaret; Pencheva, Klimentina; Scrivens, Garry; Sluggett, Gregory W; Wood, Geoffrey P F; Gruber-Woelfler, Heidrun; Khinast, Johannes G; Paudel, Amrit

    2017-12-04

    Understanding properties and mechanisms that govern drug degradation in the solid state is of high importance to ensure drug stability and safety of solid dosage forms. In this study, we attempt to understand drug-excipient interactions in the solid state using both theoretical and experimental approaches. The model active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) under study are carvedilol (CAR) and codeine phosphate (COP), which are known to undergo esterification with citric acid (CA) in the solid state. Starting from the crystal structures of two different polymorphs of each compound, we calculated the exposure and accessibility of reactive hydroxyl groups for a number of relevant crystal surfaces, as well as descriptors that could be associated with surface stabilities using molecular simulations. Accelerated degradation experiments at elevated temperature and controlled humidity were conducted to assess the propensity of different solid forms of the model APIs to undergo chemical reactions with anhydrous CA or CA monohydrate. In addition, for CAR, we studied the solid state degradation at varying humidity levels and also under mechano-activation. Regarding the relative degradation propensities, we found that variations in the exposure and accessibility of molecules on the crystal surface play a minor role compared to the impact of molecular mobility due to different levels of moisture. We further studied drug-excipient interactions under mechano-activation (comilling of API and CA) and found that the reaction proceeded even faster than in physical powder mixtures kept at accelerated storage conditions.

  19. Oriented solid-state NMR spectrosocpy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Kresten

    This thesis is concerned with driving forward oriented solid-state NMR spectroscopy as a viable technique for studying peptides in membrane bilayers. I will show that structural heterogeneity is an intrinsic part of the peptide/lipid system and that NMR can be used to characterize static...... and dynamic structural features of the peptides and its local surroundings. In fact one need to take into account the dynamical features of the system in order to correctly predict the structure from oriented solid-state NMR spectra.      ...

  20. Solid State Lighting Reliability Components to Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, XJ

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Lighting Reliability: Components to Systems begins with an explanation of the major benefits of solid state lighting (SSL) when compared to conventional lighting systems including but not limited to long useful lifetimes of 50,000 (or more) hours and high efficacy. When designing effective devices that take advantage of SSL capabilities the reliability of internal components (optics, drive electronics, controls, thermal design) take on critical importance. As such a detailed discussion of reliability from performance at the device level to sub components is included as well as the integrated systems of SSL modules, lamps and luminaires including various failure modes, reliability testing and reliability performance. This book also: Covers the essential reliability theories and practices for current and future development of Solid State Lighting components and systems Provides a systematic overview for not only the state-of-the-art, but also future roadmap and perspectives of Solid State Lighting r...

  1. Solid state multinuclear NMR. A versatile tool for studying the reactivity of solid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKenzie, Kenneth J.D. [MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington (New Zealand)

    2004-08-31

    Traditionally, X-ray powder diffraction has been a favoured method for studying chemical reactions in the solid state, but the increasing importance of energy-efficient synthesis methods for solids (e.g. sol-gel synthesis, mechanochemical synthesis) has led to the need for an analytical method not dependent on long-range structural periodicity. Multinuclear solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) represents a technique which is equally applicable to amorphous or crystalline solids, and is now used in increasing numbers of solid state studies.This paper briefly outlines the principles and practical details of this powerful technique and gives examples of its use in solid-state chemistry, particularly in very recent studies of mechanochemical synthesis of advanced sialon ceramics. The temperature at which these technically important silicon aluminium oxynitride compounds are formed can be significantly lowered by high-energy grinding of their components to produce X-ray amorphous precursors. Solid-state NMR has been used to provide detailed information which could not have been obtained by any other means about the chemical environment of the Si and Al atoms in these amorphous precursors, and the various atomic movements undergone as they crystallise to the final product.

  2. Research of radiation protection standard system in uranium mining and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian Guoxi; Song Liquan; Xie Zhanjun

    2011-01-01

    The contents of radiation and environment protection standards used in uranium mining and metallurgy are analyzed and the existent problems in current standard system are pointed out. A new standard system is established according to theory of systematology and the actuality of uranium mining and metallurgy. Some standard checklists which need to be complemented, corrected, deleted and used during the work of perfection and complementation of standard system are presented. The procedures of establishing new standard system are described, and some suggestions on the establishment and implementation of radiation protection standard system in uranium mining and metallurgy are put forward. (authors)

  3. Solid state ionics: a Japan perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Osamu

    2017-12-01

    The 70-year history of scientific endeavor of solid state ionics research in Japan is reviewed to show the contribution of Japanese scientists to the basic science of solid state ionics and its applications. The term 'solid state ionics' was defined by Takehiko Takahashi of Nagoya University, Japan: it refers to ions in solids, especially solids that exhibit high ionic conductivity at a fairly low temperature below their melting points. During the last few decades of exploration, many ion conducting solids have been discovered in Japan such as the copper-ion conductor Rb4Cu16I7Cl13, proton conductor SrCe1-xYxO3, oxide-ion conductor La0.9Sr0.9Ga0.9Mg0.1O3, and lithium-ion conductor Li10GeP2S12. Rb4Cu16I7Cl13 has a conductivity of 0.33 S cm-1 at 25 °C, which is the highest of all room temperature ion conductive solid electrolytes reported to date, and Li10GeP2S12 has a conductivity of 0.012 S cm-1 at 25 °C, which is the highest among lithium-ion conductors reported to date. Research on high-temperature proton conducting ceramics began in Japan. The history, the discovery of novel ionic conductors and the story behind them are summarized along with basic science and technology.

  4. Annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The 1992 progress report of the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) is presented. ILL is a service institute created so that solid state physics, fundamental and nuclear physics, biochemistry, chemistry and metallurgy specialists can use the unique power of neutron techniques on their investigations. This report includes the reactor refurbishment and operation, the research programs and the obtained results and international cooperation. The activities of the ILL departments, publications and internal reports are given

  5. Weldability of powder-metallurgy molybdenum with low oxygen content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Yutaka; Okada, Masatoshi

    1987-01-01

    Relationships between the formation of weld pores and the chemical compositions in powder-metallurgy molybdenum were investigated. It is suggested that almost 100% of Ca and Mg form oxides. In contrast, Fe, Ni, Cr and Al, Si only partly form oxides. A powder-metallurgy molybdenum containing less than 84 at.ppm oxygen did not show any large weld pores. The reduction of the oxygen content was achieved by purifying the molybdenum powder. (orig.) [de

  6. Solid-state nuclear-spin quantum computer based on magnetic resonance force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, G. P.; Doolen, G. D.; Hammel, P. C.; Tsifrinovich, V. I.

    2000-01-01

    We propose a nuclear-spin quantum computer based on magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM). It is shown that an MRFM single-electron spin measurement provides three essential requirements for quantum computation in solids: (a) preparation of the ground state, (b) one- and two-qubit quantum logic gates, and (c) a measurement of the final state. The proposed quantum computer can operate at temperatures up to 1 K. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  7. Current status of investigations in the field of solid state science in central Kazakstan region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuketaev, T.A.

    1999-01-01

    Investigations in the field of solid state science were initiated together with foundation of University in Karaganda. Historically general investigations in this field were conducted for scientific directions related to optical, luminescent and radiation properties of wide gap insulator. This activity was carried out according to appropriate plans of coordination counsels en-gaged in the physics of insulators, luminescent and radiation physics at the Academy of Science USSR and in the Committee on sciences and engineering of the Counsel of Ministers of the USSR. A number of works were coordinated by the Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan Republic. Investigations in the field of solid state science, con-ducted in the Central Kazakstan and coordinated by the Institute of Physics and Engineering of Kazakhstan National Academy of Sciences, can be currently distinguished according to scientific directions. Currently, the following scientific directions in the field of solid state science exist in the Central Kazakstan: influence of polymorph phase transitions on electron excitation in wide-gap crystals, radiation malformation and recombination, dielectric spectroscopy of crystals with hydrogen link, spectral and luminescent properties and energy migration processes in disordered and partly ordered systems of organic molecules. It is necessary to note that all investigated objects, described in this report, were recovered by investigators. That is, the relevant hardware is available

  8. Foundations of powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libenson, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Consideration is being given to physicochemical foundations and technology of metal powders, moulding and sintering of bars, made of them or their mixtures with nonmetal powders. Data on he design of basic equipment used in the processes of powder metallurgy and its servicing are presented. General requirements of safety engineering when fabricating metal powders and products of them are mentioned

  9. Introduction to solid state electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, FFY

    1989-01-01

    This textbook is specifically tailored for undergraduate engineering courses offered in the junior year, providing a thorough understanding of solid state electronics without relying on the prerequisites of quantum mechanics. In contrast to most solid state electronics texts currently available, with their generalized treatments of the same topics, this is the first text to focus exclusively and in meaningful detail on introductory material. The original text has already been in use for 10 years. In this new edition, additional problems have been added at the end of most chapters. These proble

  10. Experimental Characterization of Aluminum-Based Hybrid Composites Obtained Through Powder Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, D. F.; Buzatu, M.; Ghica, V. G.; Petrescu, M. I.; Popescu, G.; Niculescu, F.; Iacob, G.

    2018-06-01

    The paper presents some experimental results concerning fabrication through powder metallurgy (P/M) of aluminum-based hybrid composites - Al/Al2O3/Gr. In order to understand the mechanisms that occur during the P/M processes of obtaining Al/Al2O3/Gr composite, we correlated the physical characteristics with their micro-structural characteristics. The characterization was performed using analysis techniques specific for P/M process, SEM-EDS and XRD analyses. Micro-structural characterization of the composites has revealed fairly uniform distribution this resulting in good properties of the final composite material.

  11. Computational thermodynamics in electric current metallurgy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhowmik, Arghya; Qin, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    . The method has been validated against the analytical solution of current distribution and experimental observation of microstructure evolution. It provides a basis for the design, prediction and implementation of the electric current metallurgy. The applicability of the theory is discussed in the derivations.......A priori derivation for the extra free energy caused by the passing electric current in metal is presented. The analytical expression and its discrete format in support of the numerical calculation of thermodynamics in electric current metallurgy have been developed. This enables the calculation...... of electric current distribution, current induced temperature distribution and free energy sequence of various phase transitions in multiphase materials. The work is particularly suitable for the study of magnetic materials that contain various magnetic phases. The latter has not been considered in literature...

  12. Proceedings of the international symposium for research scholars on metallurgy, materials science and engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Topics covered in this symposium are: steels, functional materials posters, computational materials science, casting and solidification, polymer matrix composites, posters electronic materials, environmental degradation processing of non-metallic materials posters, energy materials, materials forming technology, biomaterials, magnetic materials, mechanical behaviour of materials posters, phase transformations and physical metallurgy, surface engineering, nanostructured materials, ceramics, processing of metals, materials joining technology and optical materials. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  13. NiF2/NaF:CaF2/Ca Solid-State High-Temperature Battery Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William; Whitacre, Jay; DelCastillo, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Experiments and theoretical study have demonstrated the promise of all-solid-state, high-temperature electrochemical battery cells based on NiF2 as the active cathode material, CaF2 doped with NaF as the electrolyte material, and Ca as the active anode material. These and other all-solid-state cells have been investigated in a continuing effort to develop batteries for instruments that must operate in environments much hotter than can be withstood by ordinary commercially available batteries. Batteries of this type are needed for exploration of Venus (where the mean surface temperature is about 450 C), and could be used on Earth for such applications as measuring physical and chemical conditions in geothermal wells and oil wells. All-solid-state high-temperature power cells are sought as alternatives to other high-temperature power cells based, variously, on molten anodes and cathodes or molten eutectic salt electrolytes. Among the all-solid-state predecessors of the present NiF2/NaF:CaF2/Ca cells are those described in "Solid-State High-Temperature Power Cells" (NPO-44396), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 5 (May 2008), page 40. In those cells, the active cathode material is FeS2, the electrolyte material is a crystalline solid solution of equimolar amounts of Li3PO4 and LiSiO4, and the active anode material is Li contained within an alloy that remains solid in the intended high operational temperature range.

  14. Health Physics and Waste Minimization Best Practices benchmarking study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, V.

    1995-01-01

    The Health Physics and Waste Minimization Best Practices project examines the usefulness of benchmarking as a tool for identifying health physics and waste minimization best practices for low-level solid radioactive waste (LLW) in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The goal of the project is to identify best practices from the nuclear power industry that will reduce the amount of LLW going to disposal in a cost-effective manner. An increase in worker efficiency and productivity is a secondary goal. These practices must be adaptable for implementation in the DOE complex. Once best practices are identified, ranked, and funded for implementation, a pilot implementation will be done at the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) building at Los Alamos National Laboratory

  15. Radiation effects in high-disperse metal media and their application in powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaykin, Y.A.; Aliyev, B.A.

    2002-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical results showing up effects of metal powder radiation processing, such as powder grinding, chemical refinement, and changes in powder particle surface state, are discussed. It is shown that preliminary irradiation of metal powders leads to profound structural alterations at all further stages of their processing by conventional methods of powder metallurgy and eventually effects the properties of the resulting product

  16. Solid state laser technology - A NASA perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allario, F.

    1985-01-01

    NASA's program for developing solid-state laser technology and applying it to the Space Shuttle and Space Platform is discussed. Solid-state lasers are required to fulfill the Earth Observation System's requirements. The role of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology in developing a NASA tunable solid-state laser program is described. The major goals of the program involve developing a solid-state pump laser in the green, using AlGaAs array technology, pumping a Nd:YAG/SLAB crystal or glass, and fabricating a lidar system, with either a CO2 laser at 10.6 microns or a Nd:YAG laser at 1.06 microns, to measure tropospheric winds to an accuracy of + or - 1 m/s and a vertical resolution of 1 km. The procedures to be followed in order to visualize this technology plan include: (1) material development and characterization, (2) laser development, and (3) implementation of the lasers.

  17. Tungsten and tungsten alloys by powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belhadjhamida, A.; German, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Tungsten has a historical link with powder metallurgy and there is continued progress in expanding the available compositions and processing options. This paper starts with an introduction to the history of tungsten powder metallurgy and use this as a basis for analyzing some of the current trends. The literature base in tungsten processing is expanding and includes new alloys, microstructures, and processing routes. A few examples will be emphasize here to produce a frame work for this program, including description of sintering mechanisms for tungsten, liquid phase sintering advances, hot consolidation fundamentals, and options for complex shaping using powder injection modeling. For this base, subsequent presentations will expand on these fundamental advances

  18. Near-Net Shape Powder Metallurgy Rhenium Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Todd; Hamister, Mark; Carlen, Jan C.; Biaglow, James; Reed, Brian

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a method to produce a near-net shape (NNS) powder metallurgy (PM) rhenium combustion chamber of the size 445 N (100 lbf) used in a high performance liquid apogee engine. These engines are used in low earth Orbit and geostationary orbit for satellite positioning systems. The developments in near-net shape powder metallurgy rhenium combustion chambers reported in this paper will reduce manufacturing cost of the rhenium chambers by 25 percent, and reduce the manufacturing time by 30 to 40 percent. The quantity of rhenium metal powder used to produce a rhenium chamber is reduced by approximately 70 percent and the subsequent reduction in machining schedule and costs is nearly 50 percent.

  19. Aluminum powder size and microstructure effects on properties of boron nitride reinforced aluminum matrix composites fabricated by semi-solid powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Cunguang; Guo, Leichen; Luo, Ji; Hao, Junjie; Guo, Zhimeng; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2015-01-01

    Al matrix composite reinforced by hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) with nearly full densification was successfully fabricated by the semi-solid powder metallurgy technique. The h-BN/Al composites were synthesized with elemental pure Al powder size of d_5_0=35, 12 and 2 μm. The powder morphology and the structural characteristics of the composites were analyzed using X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The density, Brinell hardness and compressive behavior of the samples were characterized. Density measurement of the Al composites revealed that the composite densification can be effectively promoted by plenty of embedded liquid phase under pressure. Composites prepared using Al powder with varying granularity showed different grain characteristics, and in situ recrystallization occurred inside the original grains with 35 μm Al powder. A sharp interface consisting of Al/Al_2O_3/h-BN was present in the composites. Both the compressive strength and the fracture strain of the investigated composites increased with the decrease of the Al powder size, along with the Brinell hardness. The composite with 2 μm Al powder exhibited the highest relative density (99.3%), Brinell harness (HB 128), compressive strength (763 MPa) and fracture strain (0.299).

  20. Improving the effectiveness of heat use in ferrous metallurgy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yegorichev, A P; Lisiyenko, V G; Rozin, S Ye; Shchelokov, Ya M

    1980-01-01

    Ferrous metallurgy of the USSR consumes about 10% of the total consumption of fuel in the country. The specific consumption of fuel in 100-150-T open-hearth furnaces in the scrap-process flucuate (in kilograms of conventional fuel/T of metal) from 199-206 to 244-249, in 450-T open-hearth furnaces with scrap-ore process from 108 to 135, in method furnaces with step-like beams from 70 to 123, in heating furnaces of low-grade machines ''250'' through 55.4 to 79, and on heating pits of bloomings from 32.5 to 55.3. In openhearth production, the percentage of outlays for fuel is 2.5-4.5%, in rolling 0.6-2% of the net cost of conversion. The overconsumption of fuel up to 5% will increase the net cost of conversion by 0.030.23%. In order to increase the effectiveness of conservation of fuel in ferrous metallurgy, a new method has been proposed for evaluating the energy intensity of the final product of ferrous metallurgy which makes it possible to determine comprehensive energy outlays for the manufactured product. A new system has been developed for stimulating the enterprises of ferrous metallurgy in the struggle for conservation and reduction in the specific consumption norms of fuel. It is based on the establishment of average-sector and progressive standards for single-type units of equal output.

  1. Application of perturbed angular correlations to chemistry and related areas of solid state physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinneberg, H H [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-06-01

    The paper reviews the more recent applications of ..gamma..-..gamma.. time-differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) to chemistry and related areas of solid state physics. Topics which are discussed in some detail include: Supertransferred hyperfine fields at diamagnetic impurities in antiferromagnetic transition metal compounds and their relation to the covalency of the transition metal-ligand bond; effects of charge transfer on the quadrupole interactions in various partially covalent insulators measured by PAC; fluctuating electric field gradients in heptafluorohafnates; the influence of charge density waves in TaS/sub 2/ and the effect of intercalating on the field gradients at /sup 181/Ta; recent advances in the understanding of electric field gradients in metals; information obtained by PAC on the microscopic structure of alloys as well as defects in pure metals after quenching, implantation or irradiation. Magnetic and electric phase transitions observed in PAC spectra are briefly mentioned. In addition, recent measurements in liquids and gases are reviewed. Three introductory sections are devoted to a brief discussion of the time-differential PAC technique, to a concise explanation of the theoretical expressions needed to analyse PAC spectra and to a short description of the experimental set-up. An outlook suggests some areas of possible future applications.

  2. A Solid State Pyranometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrescu Anca Laura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a solid state device-based pyranometer designated to broadband irradiance measurements is presented in this paper. The device is built on the physical basis that the temperature difference between two bodies of identical shape and external surface area, identically exposed to the incident radiation, but having different absorption and heat transfer coefficients (e.g. one body is painted white and the other is painted black, is proportional to the incident irradiance. This proportionality may be put in evidence if the two bodies consisting of identical arrays of correspondingly painted semiconductor diodes, due to the thermal behaviour of their p-n junction. It is theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed that the voltage drop across a diode passed through a constant forward current linearly decreases with the temperature of the junction. In other words, a signal proportional to the irradiance of the light source may be obtained via conventional analog electronics. The calibration of the apparatus, as performed by means of a professional device (LP PYRA 03, indicates a good linearity.

  3. A Solid State Pyranometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Anca Laura; Paulescu, Marius; Ercuta, Aurel

    2015-12-01

    The construction of a solid state device-based pyranometer designated to broadband irradiance measurements is presented in this paper. The device is built on the physical basis that the temperature difference between two bodies of identical shape and external surface area, identically exposed to the incident radiation, but having different absorption and heat transfer coefficients (e.g. one body is painted white and the other is painted black), is proportional to the incident irradiance. This proportionality may be put in evidence if the two bodies consisting of identical arrays of correspondingly painted semiconductor diodes, due to the thermal behaviour of their p-n junction. It is theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed that the voltage drop across a diode passed through a constant forward current linearly decreases with the temperature of the junction. In other words, a signal proportional to the irradiance of the light source may be obtained via conventional analog electronics. The calibration of the apparatus, as performed by means of a professional device (LP PYRA 03), indicates a good linearity.

  4. Solid state nuclear track detection : theory and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagwat, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Solid state nuclear track detection (SSNTD) technique is simple and inexpensive in nature. The two main steps involved in SSNTD are the formation of latent tracks and their subsequent development (visualisation) by chemical or other means. These are discussed in detail. Applications of SSNTD in the fields of nuclear physics, dosimetry, biology and for determination of contents of an element and its spatial distribution are described. The monograph is intended to serve both beginners and specialists. It also gives a list of simple experiments that can be conveniently introduced at the undergraduate/postgraduate level. (M.G.B.). 20 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Physical activity in recipients of solid organ transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Adrichem, Edwin

    2017-01-01

    This thesis focusses on the level of physical activity after solid organ transplantation and factors associated with this level. Functional recovery after transplantation is not as good as expected. However, higher levels of physical activity after transplantation are associated with better

  6. Monolithic solid-state lasers for spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Yu, Anthony W.; Stephen, Mark A.; Merritt, Scott; Glebov, Leonid; Glebova, Larissa; Ryasnyanskiy, Aleksandr; Smirnov, Vadim; Mu, Xiaodong; Meissner, Stephanie; Meissner, Helmuth

    2015-02-01

    A new solution for building high power, solid state lasers for space flight is to fabricate the whole laser resonator in a single (monolithic) structure or alternatively to build a contiguous diffusion bonded or welded structure. Monolithic lasers provide numerous advantages for space flight solid-state lasers by minimizing misalignment concerns. The closed cavity is immune to contamination. The number of components is minimized thus increasing reliability. Bragg mirrors serve as the high reflector and output coupler thus minimizing optical coatings and coating damage. The Bragg mirrors also provide spectral and spatial mode selection for high fidelity. The monolithic structure allows short cavities resulting in short pulses. Passive saturable absorber Q-switches provide a soft aperture for spatial mode filtering and improved pointing stability. We will review our recent commercial and in-house developments toward fully monolithic solid-state lasers.

  7. Metallurgical examination of powder metallurgy uranium alloy welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, A.G.M.; Dobbins, A.G.; Holbert, R.K.; Doughty, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    Inertia welding provided a successful technique for joining full density, powder metallurgy uranium-6 wt pct niobium alloy. Initial joining attempts concentrated on the electron beam method, but this method failed to produce a sound weld. The electron beam welds and the inertia welds were evaluated by radiography and metallography. Electron beam welds were attempted on powder metallurgy plates which contained various levels of oxygen and nitrogen. All welds were porous. Sixteen inertia welds were made and all welds were radiographically sound. The tensile properties of the joints were found to be equivalent to the p/m base metal properties

  8. Metallurgy and properties of plasma spray formed materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckechnie, T. N.; Liaw, Y. K.; Zimmerman, F. R.; Poorman, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    Understanding the fundamental metallurgy of vacuum plasma spray formed materials is the key to enhancing and developing full material properties. Investigations have shown that the microstructure of plasma sprayed materials must evolve from a powder splat morphology to a recrystallized grain structure to assure high strength and ductility. A fully, or near fully, dense material that exhibits a powder splat morphology will perform as a brittle material compared to a recrystallized grain structure for the same amount of porosity. Metallurgy and material properties of nickel, iron, and copper base alloys will be presented and correlated to microstructure.

  9. Compressibility of 304 Stainless Steel Powder Metallurgy Materials Reinforced with 304 Short Stainless Steel Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibo Yao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Powder metallurgy (P/M technique is usually used for manufacturing porous metal materials. However, some P/M materials are limitedly used in engineering for their performance deficiency. A novel 304 stainless steel P/M material was produced by a solid-state sintering of 304 stainless steel powders and 304 short stainless steel fibers, which were alternately laid in layers according to mass ratio. In this paper, the compressive properties of the P/M materials were characterized by a series of uniaxial compression tests. The effects of fiber content, compaction pressure and high temperature nitriding on compressive properties were investigated. The results indicated that, without nitriding, the samples changed from cuboid to cydariform without damage in the process of compression. The compressive stress was enhanced with increasing fiber content ranging from 0 to 8 wt.%. For compaction pressure from 55 to 75 MPa, greater compaction pressure improved compressive stress. Moreover, high temperature nitriding was able to significantly improve the yield stress, but collapse failure eventually occurred.

  10. The Physics of Solids Essentials and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Economou, Eleftherios N

    2010-01-01

    This textbook emphasizes a few fundamental principles and extracts from them a wealth of information. This approach also unifies an enormous and diverse subject which seems to consist of too many disjoint pieces. The book starts with the absolute minimum of formal tools, emphasizes the basic principles, and employs physical reasoning (" a little thinking and imagination" to quote R. Feynman) to obtain results. Continuous comparison with experimental data leads naturally to a gradual refinement of the concepts and to more sophisticated methods. After the initial overview with an emphasis on the physical concepts and the derivation of results by dimensional analysis, The Physics of Solids deals with the Jellium Model (JM) and the Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals (LCAO) approaches to solids and introduces the basic concepts and information regarding metals and semiconductors. The remainder, constituting enrichment and elective material, re-examines the model under more realistic assumptions as well as new, ...

  11. SOLID-STATE STORAGE DEVICE FLASH TRANSLATION LAYER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of the present invention include a method for storing a data page d on a solid-state storage device, wherein the solid-state storage device is configured to maintain a mapping table in a Log-Structure Merge (LSM) tree having a C0 component which is a random access memory (RAM) device...

  12. Status and trends of solid state track detector use in radiation protection monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerschel, B.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristic properties of solid state track detectors allow them to be used for determining the radiation fields of charged and uncharged particles and, consequently, for solving some problems involved in radiation protection monitoring. Aptitude of various detector materials is investigated on the basis of the track formation mechanism taking into account the properties of the particles to be detected. Use of these detectors in radiation protection monitoring presumes appropriate methods of intensifying the latent tracks, which are discussed as a function of various physical parameters. Readout methods of solid state track detectors are based on variations in detector properties determined by number and size of particle tracks in the detector. The choice of a special readout method, among other things, depends on the purpose, detector material, and pretreatment of the detectors. The most prospective methods are described and investigated with respect to their possible use in various fields of radiation protection monitoring. The trends of development of the application of solid state track detectors in radiation protection monitoring are discussed, using some typical applications as examples. (author)

  13. optimisation of solid optimisation of solid state fermentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    from banana peels via solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger. ermentation ... [7,8], apple pomace [9], banana peels [4], date palm. [10], carob ... powder, jams, juice, bar, biscuits, wine etc results in ... Yeast extract was taken as nitrogen.

  14. Solid state electrolytes for all-solid-state 3D lithium-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokal, I.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this Ph.D. thesis is to understand the lithium ion motion and to enhance the Li-ionic conductivities in commonly known solid state lithium ion conductors by changing the structural properties and preparation methods. In addition, the feasibility for practical utilization of several

  15. Passivation-free solid state battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Peramunage, Dharmasena

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li.sub.4 Ti.sub.5 O.sub.12 anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4, LiCoO.sub.2, LiNiO.sub.2 and LiV.sub.2 O.sub.5 and their derivatives.

  16. Solid State Characterizations of Long-Term Leached Cast Stone Monoliths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asmussen, Robert M.; Pearce, Carolyn I.; Parker, Kent E.; Miller, Brian W.; Lee, Brady D.; Buck, Edgar C.; Washton, Nancy M.; Bowden, Mark E.; Lawter, Amanda R.; McElroy, Erin M.; Serne, R Jeffrey

    2016-09-30

    This report describes the results from the solid phase characterization of six Cast Stone monoliths from the extended leach tests recently reported on (Serne et al. 2016),that were selected for characterization using multiple state-of-the-art approaches. The Cast Stone samples investigated were leached for > 590 d in the EPA Method 1315 test then archived for > 390 d in their final leachate. After reporting the long term leach behavior of the monoliths (containing radioactive 99Tc and stable 127I spikes and for original Westsik et al. 2013 fabricated monoliths, 238U), it was suggested that physical changes to the waste forms and a depleting inventory of contaminants of potential concern may mean that effective diffusivity calculations past 63 d should not be used to accurately represent long-term waste form behavior. These novel investigations, in both length of leaching time and application of solid state techniques, provide an initial arsenal of techniques which can be utilized to perform such Cast Stone solid phase characterization work, which in turn can support upcoming performance assessment maintenance. The work was performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to characterize several properties of the long- term leached Cast Stone monolith samples.

  17. Powder-Metallurgy Process And Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Henry G.

    1988-01-01

    Rapid-solidification processing yields alloys with improved properties. Study undertaken to extend favorable property combinations of I/M 2XXX alloys through recently developed technique of rapid-solidification processing using powder metallurgy(P/M). Rapid-solidification processing involves impingement of molten metal stream onto rapidly-spinning chill block or through gas medium using gas atomization technique.

  18. Summarizing of new techniques in uranium mining and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Delin; Zhang Fei; Su Yanru; Zeng Yijun; Meng Jin

    2010-01-01

    According to character of national resources and uranium mining and metallurgical science and technology members research achievements, new techniques in ten scientific research area of in-situ leaching, heap leaching, multi-metal comprehensive recovery, bio-metallurgy etc. for 10 years is introduced in this paper. The level of innovation ability is shown by technical index, resources recovery and reduction capital cost etc. datum. The application bound of natural uranium resource is enlarged and production ability of national uranium is increased. It is put forward renovation and development ideas for uranium mining and metallurgy. (authors)

  19. Solid state sodium cells. Faststof natriumbatterier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. [eds.

    1989-04-15

    The report describes the results from the project: ''Secondary Sodium Cells with Intercalation Electrodes'' which was financed by the Danish Department of Energy. The work was carried out by the Solid State Electrochemistry Group at the Technical University of Denmark which is formed by collaborators from the Institute of Physical Chemistry and Physics Laboratory III. The use of sodium has several advantages in theory compared to lithium systems: Sodium is much more abundant and lower priced than lithium, it may be easier to find solid electrolytes of sufficiently high conductivity, sodium forms no alloy with aluminium thereby making it possible to use this metal for current collectors instead of the costlier and heavier nickel. The softness of sodium metal may make it easier to achieve and maintain contact to other components in the battery during repeated cycling. This might be of importance for room temperature operation especially. Results from the project have primarily been published in the form of articles in international scientific journals and as contributions to monographs. Copies of these articles form the backbone of the report together with a short commentary to each article. Also included in the report are some general observations, as well as results that are unsuited for publication (e.g. unsuccessful experiments) but which may still contain relevant information for other experimental workers. Lastly, the report includes results on several intercalation compounds that will be published at a later stage as well as some details about the experimental equipment. The report is divided into three main sections, Intercalation Cathode Materials, Polymer Electrolytes and Battery Cycling Equipment. (AB).

  20. Interaction of ultrashort pulses with molecules and solids: Physics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-26

    energy materials. Abstract. The interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with molecules and solids is an extremely complex area of science research encompassing the fields of physics, chemistry, and materials science. The physics ...

  1. Solid-state ring laser gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, S.

    The ring laser gyroscope is a rotation sensor used in most kinds of inertial navigation units. It usually consists in a ring cavity filled with a mixture of helium and neon, together with high-voltage pumping electrodes. The use of a gaseous gain medium, while resulting naturally in a stable bidirectional regime enabling rotation sensing, is however the main industrially limiting factor for the ring laser gyroscopes in terms of cost, reliability and lifetime. We study in this book the possibility of substituting for the gaseous gain medium a solid-state medium (diode-pumped Nd-YAG). For this, a theoretical and experimental overview of the lasing regimes of the solid-state ring laser is reported. We show that the bidirectional emission can be obtained thanks to a feedback loop acting on the states of polarization and inducing differential losses proportional to the difference of intensity between the counterpropagating modes. This leads to the achievement of a solid-state ring laser gyroscope, whose frequency response is modified by mode coupling effects. Several configurations, either mechanically or optically based, are then successively studied, with a view to improving the quality of this frequency response. In particular, vibration of the gain crystal along the longitudinal axis appears to be a very promising technique for reaching high inertial performances with a solid-state ring laser gyroscope. Gyrolaser à état solide. Le gyrolaser est un capteur de rotation utilisé dans la plupart des centrales de navigation inertielle. Dans sa forme usuelle, il est constitué d'une cavité laser en anneau remplie d'un mélange d'hélium et de néon pompé par des électrodes à haute tension. L'utilisation d'un milieu amplificateur gazeux, si elle permet de garantir naturellement le fonctionnement bidirectionnel stable nécessaire à la mesure des rotations, constitue en revanche la principale limitation industrielle des gyrolasers actuels en termes de coût, fiabilit

  2. Extractive metallurgy. Recent advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, E.J.

    1977-01-01

    Detailed technical information derived from patents issued since 1975 on extractive metallurgy is presented. In part one, concerning copper, the major areas covered are: smelting and roasting; acid leaching; ammonia leach processes; cuprous chloride and ferric chloride; and recovery of copper values from solution. Part two covers other metals, including: nickel and cobalt; ocean floor nodules; lead, zinc, molybdenum and manganese; precious metals; and uranium titanium, tantalum, rhenium, gallium, and other metals

  3. The design and imaging characteristics of dynamic, solid-state, flat-panel x-ray image detectors for digital fluoroscopy and fluorography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowen, A.R.; Davies, A.G.; Sivananthan, M.U.

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic, flat-panel, solid-state, x-ray image detectors for use in digital fluoroscopy and fluorography emerged at the turn of the millennium. This new generation of dynamic detectors utilize a thin layer of x-ray absorptive material superimposed upon an electronic active matrix array fabricated in a film of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). Dynamic solid-state detectors come in two basic designs, the indirect-conversion (x-ray scintillator based) and the direct-conversion (x-ray photoconductor based). This review explains the underlying principles and enabling technologies associated with these detector designs, and evaluates their physical imaging characteristics, comparing their performance against the long established x-ray image intensifier television (TV) system. Solid-state detectors afford a number of physical imaging benefits compared with the latter. These include zero geometrical distortion and vignetting, immunity from blooming at exposure highlights and negligible contrast loss (due to internal scatter). They also exhibit a wider dynamic range and maintain higher spatial resolution when imaging over larger fields of view. The detective quantum efficiency of indirect-conversion, dynamic, solid-state detectors is superior to that of both x-ray image intensifier TV systems and direct-conversion detectors. Dynamic solid-state detectors are playing a burgeoning role in fluoroscopy-guided diagnosis and intervention, leading to the displacement of x-ray image intensifier TV-based systems. Future trends in dynamic, solid-state, digital fluoroscopy detectors are also briefly considered. These include the growth in associated three-dimensional (3D) visualization techniques and potential improvements in dynamic detector design

  4. Television-aided thermographic investigations in nuclear and solid state research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buettig, H.; Wollschlaeger, K.

    1983-01-01

    After a brief review of the physical and hardware fundamentals of televison-aided thermographic investigations, two practical examples of nuclear and solid state research work are presented. The problems discussed concern studies of the relative density distribution in beams of particles (ions, electrons, neutral atoms) or of visible radiation on the one hand, and the optimization of operating conditions in heavy-current implantations (ion implantation in Si at ion beam currents up to 60 μA) on the other hand

  5. Metallurgy department publications and lectures 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder Pedersen, A.; Bilde-Soerensen, J.B.

    1988-04-01

    A presentation (including abstract) of scientific and technical publications and lectures by the staff of the Metallurgy Department during 1987 is given. The list comprises journal papers, conference papers, reports, lectures and poster presentations in the following categories: Publications, Lectures and Poster Presentations. (author)

  6. Achievement of solid-state plasma fusion ('Cold-Fusion')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arata, Yoshiaki; Zhang, Yue-Chang

    1995-01-01

    Using a 'QMS' (Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer), the authors detected a significantly large amount (10 20 -10 21 [cm -3 ]) of helium ( 2 4 He), which was concluded to have been produced by a deuterium nuclear reaction within a host solid. These results were found to be fully repeatable and supported the authors' proposition that solid state plasma fusion ('Cold Fusion') can be generated in energetic deuterium Strongly Coupled Plasma ('SC-plasma'). This fusion reaction is thought to be sustained by localized 'Latticequake' in a solid-state media with the deuterium density equivalent to that of the host solid. While exploring this basic proposition, the characteristic differences when compared with ultra high temperature-state plasma fusion ('Hot Fusion') are clarified. In general, the most essential reaction product in both types of the deuterium plasma fusion is considered to be helium, irrespective of the 'well-known and/or unknown reactions', which is stored within the solid-state medium in abundance as a 'Residual Product', but which generally can not enter into nor be released from host-solid at a room temperature. Even measuring instruments with relatively poor sensitivity should be able to easily detect such residual helium. An absence of residual helium means that no nuclear fusion reaction has occurred, whereas its presence provides crucial evidence that nuclear fusion has, in fact, occurred in the solid. (author)

  7. Physics in microelectronics and microelectronics in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooser, E.

    1983-01-01

    Modern semiconductor technology and its many different facets such as micro-electronics, optoelectronics, integrated optics, solar energy conversion, etc... have their origin in solid state physics. However, because of their enormous economic impact, their development has been so rapid and has lead to such a high degree of complexity and sophistication, that to the newcomer in the field, the links between solid state electronics and solid state physics are no longer evident. The processes involved in the production of integrated circuits and solid state lasers afford very instructive examples on which to demostrate the impact of physics on semiconductor technology. Processes discussed include: Purification of silicon; Crystal growth; Liquid and vapour phase epitaxy; Photo- and electronbeam lithography; Mask production; Wet and dry etching; Doping and metal deposition, etc... The inverse phenomenon, i.e. the impact of semiconductor technology on physics will be demonstrated on examples involving two-dimensional electron gases. Such gases can readily be obtained in 'synthetic' layer structures, produced by molecular beam epitaxy and in the depletion layers of field-effect transistors with MOS geometry. the examples discussed involve the multiple potential well laser and the 'von Klitzing experiment'. (Author) [pt

  8. Solid state nuclear track detection principles, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Durrani, S A; ter Haar, D

    1987-01-01

    Solid State Nuclear Track Detection: Principles, Methods and Applications is the second book written by the authors after Nuclear Tracks in Solids: Principles and Applications. The book is meant as an introduction to the subject solid state of nuclear track detection. The text covers the interactions of charged particles with matter; the nature of the charged-particle track; the methodology and geometry of track etching; thermal fading of latent damage trails on tracks; the use of dielectric track recorders in particle identification; radiation dossimetry; and solid state nuclear track detecti

  9. Studies on solid-state physics carried out with the Saclay reactor (1962); Etudes de physique du solide realisees a la pile de Saclay (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herpin, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    This paper deals only with solid-state physics experiments carried out on outgoing beams: rather than giving a general review of the work performed, if refers to only a few of the most important studies or those nearest completion. These are being made with the experimental beams of the two Saclay reactors EL-2, with a central flux of 10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2}, and - since 1958 - EL-3, whose central flux is equal ta 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}. The experiments are being carried out by two separate groups of physicists, employing different techniques, namely neutron diffraction using a crystal spectrometer, and inelastic scattering using a time-of-flight spectrometer. (author) [French] Cet expose ne relate que des experiences de physique du solide faites sur des faisceaux sortis; plutot que de donner une revue de l'ensemble des travaux effectues, on ne cite que quelques etudes que l'on peut considerer comme plus essentielles ou mieux achevees. On utilise les faisceaux experimentaux des deux piles de Saclay, EL-2 dont le flux au centre est de 10{sup 13}n/cm{sup 2} et, depuis 1958, EL-3 pour laquelle il est egal a 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}. Les experiences sont realisees par deux groupes de physiciens distincts, employant des techniques differentes, la diffraction des neutrons qui utilise un spectrometre a cristal, et la diffusion inelastique avec un spectrometre a temps de vol. (auteur)

  10. Solid state physics and actinide spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delamoye, P.; Hubert, S.; Khan Malek, C.; Krupa, J.C.; Simoni, E.; Genet, M.

    1985-01-01

    We studied the physical and spectroscopic properties of ThBr 4 and ThCl 4 . We made first a synthesis and studied the crystal growth to determinate the Uranium concentration in the crystals. This work allows an interpretation of the optical properties of an ion embedded in an incommensurate structure [fr

  11. 3D-Printing Electrolytes for Solid-State Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOwen, Dennis W; Xu, Shaomao; Gong, Yunhui; Wen, Yang; Godbey, Griffin L; Gritton, Jack E; Hamann, Tanner R; Dai, Jiaqi; Hitz, Gregory T; Hu, Liangbing; Wachsman, Eric D

    2018-05-01

    Solid-state batteries have many enticing advantages in terms of safety and stability, but the solid electrolytes upon which these batteries are based typically lead to high cell resistance. Both components of the resistance (interfacial, due to poor contact with electrolytes, and bulk, due to a thick electrolyte) are a result of the rudimentary manufacturing capabilities that exist for solid-state electrolytes. In general, solid electrolytes are studied as flat pellets with planar interfaces, which minimizes interfacial contact area. Here, multiple ink formulations are developed that enable 3D printing of unique solid electrolyte microstructures with varying properties. These inks are used to 3D-print a variety of patterns, which are then sintered to reveal thin, nonplanar, intricate architectures composed only of Li 7 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 solid electrolyte. Using these 3D-printing ink formulations to further study and optimize electrolyte structure could lead to solid-state batteries with dramatically lower full cell resistance and higher energy and power density. In addition, the reported ink compositions could be used as a model recipe for other solid electrolyte or ceramic inks, perhaps enabling 3D printing in related fields. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A Comparison of the Plastic Flow Response of a Powder Metallurgy Nickel Base Superalloy (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0225 A COMPARISON OF THE PLASTIC-FLOW RESPONSE OF A POWDER- METALLURGY NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOY (POSTPRINT) S.L...COMPARISON OF THE PLASTIC-FLOW RESPONSE OF A POWDER- METALLURGY NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOY (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE 5b. GRANT...behavior at hot-working temperatures and strain rates of the powder- metallurgy superalloy LSHR was determined under nominally-isothermal and transient

  13. A zwitterionic gel electrolyte for efficient solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xu; Liu, Huili; Yin, Qin; Wu, Junchi; Chen, Pengzuo; Zhang, Guangzhao; Liu, Guangming; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Gel electrolytes have attracted increasing attention for solid-state supercapacitors. An ideal gel electrolyte usually requires a combination of advantages of high ion migration rate, reasonable mechanical strength and robust water retention ability at the solid state for ensuring excellent work durability. Here we report a zwitterionic gel electrolyte that successfully brings the synergic advantages of robust water retention ability and ion migration channels, manifesting in superior electrochemical performance. When applying the zwitterionic gel electrolyte, our graphene-based solid-state supercapacitor reaches a volume capacitance of 300.8 F cm−3 at 0.8 A cm−3 with a rate capacity of only 14.9% capacitance loss as the current density increases from 0.8 to 20 A cm−3, representing the best value among the previously reported graphene-based solid-state supercapacitors, to the best of our knowledge. We anticipate that zwitterionic gel electrolyte may be developed as a gel electrolyte in solid-state supercapacitors. PMID:27225484

  14. Nuclear science and metallurgy. Advances and interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grison, E [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1977-01-01

    The history of the production of atomic power by fission since 1953 is reviewed: metallurgy of uranium; the new metals zirconium and beryllium; steels and nuclear structure; nuclear reactor vessels; water corrosion; effects of radiations.

  15. Solid State Ionic Materials - Proceedings of the 4th Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Yahaya, M.; Talib, I. A.; Salleh, M. M.

    1994-07-01

    SO4 (X=Si, Ge, Ti) Systems * A DSC and Conductivity Study of the Influence of Cesium Ion on the Beta-Alpha Transition in Silver Iodide * Phase Diagrams, Stoichiometries and Properties of Bi4V2O11:M2+ Solid Electrolytes * Physical Properties of Electrodeposited Silver Chromotungstate * Pseudopotential Study of Bonding in the Superionic Material AgI: The Effect of Statistical Distribution of Mobile Ions * Cubic Phase Dominant Region in Submicron BaTiO3 Particles * The Crystallization of CoZr Amorphous Alloys via Electrical Resistivity * Cation Ratio Related Properties of Synthetic Mg/Al Layered Double Hydroxide and it's Nanocomposite * DC Conductivity of Nano-Particles of Silver Iodide * Effect of Anomalous Diffusion on Quasielastic Scattering in Superionic Conductors * Computer Simulation Study of Conductivity Enhancement in Superionic-Insulator Composites * Dynamics of Superionic Silver and Copper Iodide Salt Melts * Influence of Dopant Salt AgI, Glass Modifier Ag2O and Glass Formers (SeO3 + MoO3) on Electrical Conductivity in Quaternary Glassy System * Fast Ion Conductivity in the Presence of Competitive Network Formers * Role of Alkali Ions in Borate Glasses * Inelastic Light Scattering in Cadmium Borate Glasses * Investigation on Transport Properties of Mixed Glass System 0.75 [0.75AgI:0.25AgCl]. 0.25[Ag2O:CrO3] * Conduction Mechanism in Lithium Tellurite Glasses * Optimized Silver Tungstoarsenate Glass Electrolyte * Stabilized Superfine Zirconia Powder Prepared by Sol-Gel Process * Study of New PAN-based Electrolytes * Electrical and Thermal Characterization of PVA based Polymer Electrolytes * Conductive Electroactive Polymers: Versatile Solid State Ionic Materials * The Role of Ag2O Addition on the Superconducting Properties of Y-124 Compound * Absorption Spectra Studies of the C60 Films on Transition Metal Film Substrates * Effect of Alumina Dispersal on the Conductivity and Crystallite Size of Polymer Electrolyte * New Mixed Galss-Polymer Solid Electrolytes

  16. Construction of a Solid State Research Facility, Building 3150

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct a new facility to house the Materials Synthesis Group (MSG) and the Semiconductor Physics Group (SPG) of the Solid State Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The location of the proposed action is Roane County, Tennessee. MSG is involved in the study of crystal growth and the preparation and characterization of advanced materials, such as high-temperature superconductors, while SPG is involved in semiconductor physics research. All MSG and a major pardon of SPG research activities are now conducted in Building 2000, a deteriorating structure constructed in the 1940. The physical deterioration of the roof; the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system; and the plumbing make this building inadequate for supporting research activities. The proposed project is needed to provide laboratory and office space for MSG and SPG and to ensure that research activities can continue without interruption due to deficiencies in the building and its associated utility systems

  17. Strong light-matter coupling from atoms to solid-state systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The physics of strong light-matter coupling has been addressed in different scientific communities over the last three decades. Since the early eighties, atoms coupled to optical and microwave cavities have led to pioneering demonstrations of cavity quantum electrodynamics, Gedanken experiments, and building blocks for quantum information processing, for which the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded in 2012. In the framework of semiconducting devices, strong coupling has allowed investigations into the physics of Bose gases in solid-state environments, and the latter holds promise for exploiting light-matter interaction at the single-photon level in scalable architectures. More recently, impressive developments in the so-called superconducting circuit QED have opened another fundamental playground to revisit cavity quantum electrodynamics for practical and fundamental purposes. This book aims at developing the necessary interface between these communities, by providing future researchers with a robust conceptu...

  18. The Physical State of Emulsified Edible Oil Modulates Its in Vitro Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qing; Bellissimo, Nick; Rousseau, Dérick

    2017-10-18

    Emulsified lipid digestion was tailored by manipulating the physical state of dispersed oil droplets in whey protein stabilized oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, where the oil phase consisted of one of five ratios of soybean oil (SO) and fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FHSO). The evolution in particle size distribution, structural changes during oral, gastric, and intestinal digestion, and free fatty acid release during intestinal digestion were all investigated. Irrespective of the physical state and structure of the dispersed oil/fat, all emulsions were stable against droplet size increases during oral digestion. During gastric digestion, the 50:50 SO:FHSO emulsion was more stable against physical breakdown than any other emulsion. All emulsions underwent flocculation and coalescence or partial coalescence upon intestinal digestion, with the SO emulsion being hydrolyzed the most rapidly. The melting point of all emulsions containing FHSO was above 37 °C, with the presence of solid fat within the dispersed oil droplets greatly limiting lipolysis. Fat crystal polymorph and nanoplatelet size did not play an important role in the rate and extent of lipid digestion. Free fatty acid release modeled by the Weibull distribution function showed that the rate of lipid digestion (κ) decreased with increasing solid fat content, and followed an exponential relationship (R 2 = 0.95). Overall, lipid digestion was heavily altered by the physical state of the dispersed oil phase within O/W emulsions.

  19. Self-healing liquid/solid state battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Paul J.; Chung, Brice H.V.; Phadke, Satyajit R.; Ning, Xiaohui; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2018-02-27

    A battery system that exchanges energy with an external device is provided. The battery system includes a positive electrode having a first metal or alloy, a negative electrode having a second metal or alloy, and an electrolyte including a salt of the second metal or alloy. The positive electrode, the negative electrode, and the electrolyte are in a liquid phase at an operating temperature during at least one portion of operation. The positive electrode is entirely in a liquid phase in one charged state and includes a solid phase in another charged state. The solid phase of the positive electrode includes a solid intermetallic formed by the first and the second metals or alloys. Methods of storing electrical energy from an external circuit using such a battery system are also provided.

  20. Harwell's atomic, molecular and solid state computer programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harker, A.H.

    1976-02-01

    This document is intended to introduce the computational facilities available in the fields of atomic, molecular the solid state theory on the IBM370/165 at Harwell. The programs have all been implemented and thoroughly tested by the Theory of Solid State Materials Group. (author)

  1. Energy-saving approaches to solid state street lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitta, Pranciškus; Stanikūnas, Rytis; Tuzikas, Arūnas; Reklaitis, Ignas; Stonkus, Andrius; Petrulis, Andrius; Vaitkevičius, Henrikas; Žukauskas, Artūras

    2011-10-01

    We consider the energy-saving potential of solid-state street lighting due to improved visual performance, weather sensitive luminance control and tracking of pedestrians and vehicles. A psychophysical experiment on the measurement of reaction time with a decision making task was performed under mesopic levels of illumination provided by a highpressure sodium (HPS) lamp and different solid-state light sources, such as daylight and warm-white phosphor converted light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and red-green-blue LED clusters. The results of the experiment imply that photopic luminances of road surface provided by solid-state light sources with an optimized spectral power distribution might be up to twice as low as those provided by the HPS lamp. Dynamical correction of road luminance against road surface conditions typical of Lithuanian climate was estimated to save about 20% of energy in comparison with constant-level illumination. The estimated energy savings due to the tracking of pedestrians and vehicles amount at least 25% with the cumulative effect of intelligent control of at least 40%. A solid-state street lighting system with intelligent control was demonstrated using a 300 m long test ground consisting of 10 solid-state street luminaires, a meteorological station and microwave motion sensor network operated via power line communication.

  2. Nuclear science and metallurgy. Advances and interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grison, Emmanuel

    1977-01-01

    The history of the production of atomic power by fission since 1953 is reviewed: metallurgy of uranium; the new metals zirconium and beryllium; steels and nuclear structure; nuclear reactor vessels; water corrosion; effects of radiations [fr

  3. Solid-state characterization of the HIV protease inhibitor

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y A

    2002-01-01

    The LB71350, (3S, 4R)-Epoxy-(5S)-[[N-(1-methylethoxy) carbonyl]-3-(methylsulfonyl)-L-valinyl]amin= o]-N-[2-methyl-(1R)-[(phenyl)carbonyl]propyl-6-phenylhexanamide, is a novel HIV protease inhibitor. Its equilibrium solubility at room temperature was less than 40 mu g/mL. It was speculated that the low aqueous solubility might be due to the high crystalline lattice energy resulting from intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The present study was carried out to learn the solid-state characteristics of LB71350 using analytical methods such as NMR, FT-IR and XRD. sup 1 sup 3 C Solid-state NMR, solution NMR, and FT-IR spectra of the various solid forms of LB71350 were used to identify the conformation and structure of the solid forms. The chemical shifts of sup 1 sup 3 C solid-state NMR spectra suggest that the crystalline form might have 3 intermolecular hydrogen bondings between monomers.

  4. Integrated Interface Strategy toward Room Temperature Solid-State Lithium Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jiangwei; Wang, Yantao; Chen, Bingbing; Ma, Jun; Dong, Shanmu; Chai, Jingchao; Qu, Hongtao; Cui, Longfei; Wu, Xiuxiu; Cui, Guanglei

    2018-04-25

    Solid-state lithium batteries have drawn wide attention to address the safety issues of power batteries. However, the development of solid-state lithium batteries is substantially limited by the poor electrochemical performances originating from the rigid interface between solid electrodes and solid-state electrolytes. In this work, a composite of poly(vinyl carbonate) and Li 10 SnP 2 S 12 solid-state electrolyte is fabricated successfully via in situ polymerization to improve the rigid interface issues. The composite electrolyte presents a considerable room temperature conductivity of 0.2 mS cm -1 , an electrochemical window exceeding 4.5 V, and a Li + transport number of 0.6. It is demonstrated that solid-state lithium metal battery of LiFe 0.2 Mn 0.8 PO 4 (LFMP)/composite electrolyte/Li can deliver a high capacity of 130 mA h g -1 with considerable capacity retention of 88% and Coulombic efficiency of exceeding 99% after 140 cycles at the rate of 0.5 C at room temperature. The superior electrochemical performance can be ascribed to the good compatibility of the composite electrolyte with Li metal and the integrated compatible interface between solid electrodes and the composite electrolyte engineered by in situ polymerization, which leads to a significant interfacial impedance decrease from 1292 to 213 Ω cm 2 in solid-state Li-Li symmetrical cells. This work provides vital reference for improving the interface compatibility for room temperature solid-state lithium batteries.

  5. High-fidelity projective read-out of a solid-state spin quantum register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, Lucio; Childress, Lilian; Bernien, Hannes; Hensen, Bas; Alkemade, Paul F A; Hanson, Ronald

    2011-09-21

    Initialization and read-out of coupled quantum systems are essential ingredients for the implementation of quantum algorithms. Single-shot read-out of the state of a multi-quantum-bit (multi-qubit) register would allow direct investigation of quantum correlations (entanglement), and would give access to further key resources such as quantum error correction and deterministic quantum teleportation. Although spins in solids are attractive candidates for scalable quantum information processing, their single-shot detection has been achieved only for isolated qubits. Here we demonstrate the preparation and measurement of a multi-spin quantum register in a low-temperature solid-state system by implementing resonant optical excitation techniques originally developed in atomic physics. We achieve high-fidelity read-out of the electronic spin associated with a single nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond, and use this read-out to project up to three nearby nuclear spin qubits onto a well-defined state. Conversely, we can distinguish the state of the nuclear spins in a single shot by mapping it onto, and subsequently measuring, the electronic spin. Finally, we show compatibility with qubit control: we demonstrate initialization, coherent manipulation and single-shot read-out in a single experiment on a two-qubit register, using techniques suitable for extension to larger registers. These results pave the way for a test of Bell's inequalities on solid-state spins and the implementation of measurement-based quantum information protocols. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  6. Precipitation in Powder Metallurgy, Nickel Base Superalloys: Review of Modeling Approach and Formulation of Engineering (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2016-0333 PRECIPITATION IN POWDER- METALLURGY , NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOYS: REVIEW OF MODELING APPROACH AND FORMULATION OF...PRECIPITATION IN POWDER- METALLURGY , NICKEL- BASE SUPERALLOYS: REVIEW OF MODELING APPROACH AND FORMULATION OF ENGINEERING (POSTPRINT) 5a...and kinetic parameters required for the modeling of γ′ precipitation in powder- metallurgy (PM), nickel-base superalloys are summarized. These

  7. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelson, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: Principles of solid state NMR; Relaxation processes: Introduction to pulse sequences; Quantitative analysis; Removal of artifacts from CPMAS FT experiments; Line broadening mechanisms; Resolution enhancement of solid state NMR spectra; and /sup 13/C CPMAS NMR of fossil fuels--general applications

  8. Isotopes in research and industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-01-15

    A comprehensive review of the present state of the use of radioisotopes in the physical sciences and industry was made at a major international conference in Copenhagen from 6 to 16 September 1960. The conference covers the use of radioisotopes in geophysics, metallurgy, solid state physics and nuclear physics, industrial applications of radioisotopes, which were divided into two groups, namely applications based on the tracer function of isotopes and those based on the penetration, absorption or scattering of radiation, use of isotopes in various branches of chemistry - from analysis to determine extremely small amounts of material to a study of the mechanism of various chemical reactions.

  9. The utilization of mechanochemistry in the extractive metallurgy and at the nanocrystalline materials preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boldižárová Eva

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the application of mechanochemistry in the extractive metallurgy and the nanocrystalline materials preparation is studied. The aim of the experiments is the chloride leaching of a complex sulphidic CuPbZn concentrate (Hodruša-Hámre, the modification of properties of CaCO3 (Yauli, Peru for zinc sorption from model solutions and the mechanochemical reduction of copper sulphide by elemental iron.The chloride leaching of mechanically activated complex sulphidic CuPbZn concentrate is a selective process. While the recoveries of copper, lead and zinc are 65-85 %, the recoveries of silver and gold are less than 7 % and 2 %, respectively.The positive influence of CaCO3 mechanical activation for zinc sorption from ZnSO4 solution was observed. While only 58 % of zinc sorption was determined after 30 minutes for a non-activated sample, 98 % of zinc sorption was determined after 3 minutes sorption for the sample mechanically activated for 15 minutes.By the mechanochemical reduction of copper sulphide with iron, nanocrystalline copper and iron sulphide are formed. This reaction is an example of the new “solid state technology“, where chemical processes in the gaseous and liquid states are excluded.The results can serve as a contribution to the optimization of copper, lead and zinc extraction from complex sulphidic concentrates, the increase of non-ferrous metals sorption efficiency on mineral sorbents as well as to the nanocrystalline copper preparation.The application of mechanical activation has grown in the laboratory research. The Institute of Geotechnics of SAS has also achieved significant theoretical results in study of mechanical activation of sulphides and their reactivity in the different solid-phase reactions with the effect on industrial applications. The Institute has developed the technology of mechanochemical leaching (process MELT which was successfully tested in a pilot plant unit.

  10. Laser solid sampling for a solid-state-detector ICP emission spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noelte, J.; Moenke-Blankenburg, L.; Schumann, T.

    1994-01-01

    Solid sampling with laser vaporization has been coupled to an ICP emission spectrometer with an Echelle optical system and a solid-state-detector for the analysis of steel and soil samples. Pulsation of the vaporized material flow was compensated by real-time background correction and internal standardization, resulting in good accuracy and precision. (orig.)

  11. Black Hole on a Chip: Proposal for a Physical Realization of the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model in a Solid-State System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Pikulin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A system of Majorana zero modes with random infinite-range interactions—the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK model—is thought to exhibit an intriguing relation to the horizons of extremal black holes in two-dimensional anti–de Sitter space. This connection provides a rare example of holographic duality between a solvable quantum-mechanical model and dilaton gravity. Here, we propose a physical realization of the SYK model in a solid-state system. The proposed setup employs the Fu-Kane superconductor realized at the interface between a three-dimensional topological insulator and an ordinary superconductor. The requisite N Majorana zero modes are bound to a nanoscale hole fabricated in the superconductor that is threaded by N quanta of magnetic flux. We show that when the system is tuned to the surface neutrality point (i.e., chemical potential coincident with the Dirac point of the topological insulator surface state and the hole has sufficiently irregular shape, the Majorana zero modes are described by the SYK Hamiltonian. We perform extensive numerical simulations to demonstrate that the system indeed exhibits physical properties expected of the SYK model, including thermodynamic quantities and two-point as well as four-point correlators, and discuss ways in which these can be observed experimentally.

  12. Phosphate phosphors for solid-state lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, Kartik N. [N.S. Science and Arts College, Bhadrawati (India). Dept. of Physics; Swart, H.C. [University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa). Dept. of Physics; Dhoble, S.J. [R.T.M. Nagpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics; Park, Kyeongsoon [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering

    2012-07-01

    Essential information for students in researchers working towards new and more efficient solid-state lighting. Comprehensive survey based on the authors' long experience. Useful both for teaching and reference. The idea for this book arose out of the realization that, although excellent surveys and a phosphor handbook are available, there is no single source covering the area of phosphate based phosphors especially for lamp industry. Moreover, as this field gets only limited attention in most general books on luminescence, there is a clear need for a book in which attention is specifically directed toward this rapidly growing field of solid state lighting and its many applications. This book is aimed at providing a sound introduction to the synthesis and optical characterization of phosphate phosphor for undergraduate and graduate students as well as teachers and researchers. The book provides guidance through the multidisciplinary field of solid state lighting specially phosphate phosphors for beginners, scientists and engineers from universities, research organizations, and especially industry. In order to make it useful for a wide audience, both fundamentals and applications are discussed, together.

  13. A software framework for analysing solid-state MAS NMR data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, Tim J.; Fogh, Rasmus H.; Boucher, Wayne; Higman, Victoria A.; Eisenmenger, Frank; Bardiaux, Benjamin; Rossum, Barth-Jan van; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Laue, Ernest D.

    2011-01-01

    Solid-state magic-angle-spinning (MAS) NMR of proteins has undergone many rapid methodological developments in recent years, enabling detailed studies of protein structure, function and dynamics. Software development, however, has not kept pace with these advances and data analysis is mostly performed using tools developed for solution NMR which do not directly address solid-state specific issues. Here we present additions to the CcpNmr Analysis software package which enable easier identification of spinning side bands, straightforward analysis of double quantum spectra, automatic consideration of non-uniform labelling schemes, as well as extension of other existing features to the needs of solid-state MAS data. To underpin this, we have updated and extended the CCPN data model and experiment descriptions to include transfer types and nomenclature appropriate for solid-state NMR experiments, as well as a set of experiment prototypes covering the experiments commonly employed by solid-sate MAS protein NMR spectroscopists. This work not only improves solid-state MAS NMR data analysis but provides a platform for anyone who uses the CCPN data model for programming, data transfer, or data archival involving solid-state MAS NMR data.

  14. Review on solid electrolytes for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Feng; Kotobuki, Masashi; Song, Shufeng; Lai, Man On; Lu, Li

    2018-06-01

    All-solid-state (ASS) lithium-ion battery has attracted great attention due to its high safety and increased energy density. One of key components in the ASS battery (ASSB) is solid electrolyte that determines performance of the ASSB. Many types of solid electrolytes have been investigated in great detail in the past years, including NASICON-type, garnet-type, perovskite-type, LISICON-type, LiPON-type, Li3N-type, sulfide-type, argyrodite-type, anti-perovskite-type and many more. This paper aims to provide comprehensive reviews on some typical types of key solid electrolytes and some ASSBs, and on gaps that should be resolved.

  15. Electron capture and loss to continuum states in gases and solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellin, I.A.; Laubert, R.

    1981-01-01

    A key feature of our experimental procedure is the easy interchange of short gaseous and thin solid targets at the same physical position, with all apparatus aperture sizes, dimensions, positions, and other experimental details unaltered. It has therefore been possible to cancel most systematic apparatus effects in comparing gaseous and solid target results. By using single ion-atom collision techniques, by using bare and few-electron ions of appreciably higher charge than heretofore, by extending the velocity range of measurement appreciably above that of earlier experiments, and by studying charge-state variation over an appreciably wider range than used previously, we have been able to test experimentally features of continuum electron-capture and -loss theories which have been inaccessible in previous experiments. (orig./TW)

  16. New radiation technologies and methods for control of technological processes in metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaykin, Yu.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation Technology of Metal and Ceramic Production with Enhanced Service Properties. Based on application of radiation technique in powder metallurgy the new technology for obtaining metals, alloys and ceramic materials with high service properties is worked out. Radiation processing of powder materials at the certain stage of the process leads to profound structure alterations at all further stages and eventually effects the properties of the resulting product. Theoretical calculation and experimental studies of electron-positron annihilation in powder-pressed samples showed that irradiation caused powder particles surface state changes favorable for further sintering and crystallization processes development. It is shown that irradiation of metal powders and powder-pressed samples by high energy electrons is technologically most efficient. The right choice of the type-and the mode of the radiation processing makes it possible to obtain metals, alloys and ceramic materials (Mo,Fe, W, Al, Ni, Cu, stainless steels, ceramics, etc.) with homogeneous structure and stable enhanced service properties. The project on radiation technology application to powder metallurgy represented by a group of authors was awarded with the diploma and the gold medal at the 22 International Exhibition of Inventions (Geneva, 1994). New Technologic Opportunities of the Chromium-Nickel Alloys Processing To obtain the required phase-structure state special methods of the chromium-nickel alloy processing for sensitive elastic devices production were worked out combining plastic deformation, thermal and radiation processing. It is shown that h-gbb phase transfer not observed before is possible in extremely non-equilibrium conditions under electron irradiation. It is established that the complex reaction of recrystallization and gb-phase deposition proceeds under electron irradiation at the room temperature when the certain threshold plastic deformation degree is reached that leads to the same

  17. Solid-state lighting life prediction using extended Kalman filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lall, Pradeep [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Wei, Junchao [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Davis, Lynn [RTI International, Durham, NC (United States)

    2013-07-16

    Solid-state lighting (SSL) luminaires containing light emitting diodes (LEDs) have the potential of seeing excessive temperatures when being transported across country or being stored in non-climate controlled warehouses. They are also being used in outdoor applications in desert environments that see little or no humidity but will experience extremely high temperatures during the day. This makes it important to increase our understanding of what effects high temperature exposure for a prolonged period of time will have on the usability and survivability of these devices. The U.S. Department of Energy has made a long term commitment to advance the efficiency, understanding and development of solid-state lighting (SSL) and is making a strong push for the acceptance and use of SSL products to reduce overall energy consumption attributable to lighting. Traditional light sources “burn out” at end-of-life. For an incandescent bulb, the lamp life is defined by B50 life. However, the LEDs have no filament to “burn”. The LEDs continually degrade and the light output decreases eventually below useful levels causing failure. Presently, the TM-21 test standard is used to predict the L70 life of SSL Luminaires from LM-80 test data. The TM-21 model uses an Arrhenius Equation with an Activation Energy, Pre-decay factor and Decay Rates. Several failure mechanisms may be active in a luminaire at a single time causing lumen depreciation. The underlying TM-21 Arrhenius Model may not capture the failure physics in presence of multiple failure mechanisms. Correlation of lumen maintenance with underlying physics of degradation at system-level is needed. In this paper, a Kalman Filter and Extended Kalman Filters have been used to develop a 70% Lumen Maintenance Life Prediction Model for a LEDs used in SSL luminaires. This model can be used to calculate acceleration factors, evaluate failure-probability and identify ALT methodologies for reducing test time. Ten-thousand hour LM

  18. Metallurgy for nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, A.F.

    1986-01-01

    Principal ways of development in metallurgy and metallurgical equipment on nuclear engineering plants are discussed. A great attention is paid to changing welded structures for casted and forged ones. These measures give the possibility to increase reliability of NPP components and decrease labour content. The following processing procedures have been introduced: vacuum carbon reduction providing small amount of nonmetallic inclusions in reactor vessel steel; manufacturing steel large-size castings (360 and 420 t) for WWER vessels; rolling at plate mill 5000 etc

  19. Design and Characterisation of Solid Electrolytes for All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn

    The development of all-solid-state lithium batteries, in which the currently used liquid electrolytes are substituted for solid electrolyte materials, could lead to safer batteries offering higher energy densities and longer cycle lifetimes. Designing suitable solid electrolytes with sufficient...... chemical and electrochemical stability, high lithium ion conduction and negligible electronic conduction remains a challenge. The highly lithium ion conducting LiBH4-LiI solid solution is a promising solid electrolyte material. Solid solutions with a LiI content of 6.25%-50% were synthesised by planetary......-rich microstructures during ball milling is found to significantly influence the conductivity of the samples. The long-range diffusion of lithium ions was measured using quasi-elastic neutron scattering. The solid solutions are found to exhibit two-dimensional conduction in the hexagonal plane of the crystal structure...

  20. High power diode pumped solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solarz, R.; Albrecht, G.; Beach, R.; Comaskey, B.

    1992-01-01

    Although operational for over twenty years, diode pumped solid state lasers have, for most of their existence, been limited to individual diodes pumping a tiny volume of active medium in an end pumped configuration. More recent years have witnessed the appearance of diode bars, packing around 100 diodes in a 1 cm bar which have enabled end and side pumped small solid state lasers at the few Watt level of output. This paper describes the subsequent development of how proper cooling and stacking of bars enables the fabrication of multi kill average power diode pump arrays with irradiances of 1 kw/cm peak and 250 W/cm 2 average pump power. Since typical conversion efficiencies from the diode light to the pumped laser output light are of order 30% or more, kW average power diode pumped solid state lasers now are possible

  1. Solid-state characterization and dissolution properties of meloxicam-moringa coagulant-PVP ternary solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noolkar, Suhail B; Jadhav, Namdeo R; Bhende, Santosh A; Killedar, Suresh G

    2013-06-01

    The effect of ternary solid dispersions of poor water-soluble NSAID meloxicam with moringa coagulant (obtained by salt extraction of moringa seeds) and polyvinylpyrrolidone on the in vitro dissolution properties has been investigated. Binary (meloxicam-moringa and meloxicam-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)) and ternary (meloxicam-moringa-PVP) systems were prepared by physical kneading and ball milling and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffractometry. The in vitro dissolution behavior of meloxicam from the different products was evaluated by means of United States Pharmacopeia type II dissolution apparatus. The results of solid-state studies indicated the presence of strong interactions between meloxicam, moringa, and PVP which were of totally amorphous nature. All ternary combinations were significantly more effective than the corresponding binary systems in improving the dissolution rate of meloxicam. The best performance in this respect was given by the ternary combination employing meloxicam-moringa-PVP ratio of [1:(3:1)] prepared by ball milling, with about six times increase in percent dissolution rate, whereas meloxicam-moringa (1:3) and meloxicam-PVP (1:4) prepared by ball milling improved dissolution of meloxicam by almost 3- and 2.5-folds, respectively. The achieved excellent dissolution enhancement of meloxicam in the ternary systems was attributed to the combined effects of impartation of hydrophilic characteristic by PVP, as well as to the synergistic interaction between moringa and PVP.

  2. Probe DNA-Cisplatin Interaction with Solid-State Nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Hu, Ying; Li, Wei; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Pengye; Bai, Xuedong; Shan, Xinyan; Lu, Xinghua; Nanopore Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the mechanism of DNA-cisplatin interaction is essential for clinical application and novel drug design. As an emerging single-molecule technology, solid-state nanopore has been employed in biomolecule detection and probing DNA-molecule interactions. Herein, we reported a real-time monitoring of DNA-cisplatin interaction by employing solid-state SiN nanopores. The DNA-cisplatin interacting process is clearly classified into three stages by measuring the capture rate of DNA-cisplatin adducts. In the first stage, the negative charged DNA molecules were partially discharged due to the bonding of positive charged cisplatin and forming of mono-adducts. In the second stage, forming of DNA-cisplatin di-adducts with the adjacent bases results in DNA bending and softening. The capture rate increases since the softened bi-adducts experience a lower barrier to thread into the nanopores. In the third stage, complex structures, such as micro-loop, are formed and the DNA-cisplatin adducts are aggregated. The capture rate decreases to zero as the aggregated adduct grows to the size of the pore. The characteristic time of this stage was found to be linear with the diameter of the nanopore and this dynamic process can be described with a second-order reaction model. We are grateful to Laboratory of Microfabrication, Dr. Y. Yao, and Prof. R.C. Yu (Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) for technical assistance.

  3. Solid-state resistor for pulsed power machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Brian; Savage, Mark E.; Hutsel, Brian Thomas; Fowler, William E.; MacRunnels, Keven Alan; Justus, David; Stygar, William A.

    2016-12-06

    A flexible solid-state resistor comprises a string of ceramic resistors that can be used to charge the capacitors of a linear transformer driver (LTD) used in a pulsed power machine. The solid-state resistor is able to absorb the energy of a switch prefire, thereby limiting LTD cavity damage, yet has a sufficiently low RC charge time to allow the capacitor to be recharged without disrupting the operation of the pulsed power machine.

  4. Solid-state dependent dissolution and oral bioavailability of piroxicam in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lust, Andres; Laidmäe, Ivo; Palo, Mirja; Meos, Andres; Aaltonen, Jaakko; Veski, Peep; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Kogermann, Karin

    2013-01-23

    The aim of this study was to gain understanding about the effects of different solid-state forms of a poorly water-soluble piroxicam on drug dissolution and oral bioavailability in rats. Three different solid-state forms of piroxicam were studied: anhydrate I (AH), monohydrate (MH), and amorphous form in solid dispersion (SD). In addition, the effect of a new polymeric excipient Soluplus® (polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer) on oral bioavailability of piroxicam was investigated. Significant differences in the dissolution and oral bioavailability were found between the solid-state forms of piroxicam. Amorphous piroxicam in SD showed the fastest dissolution in vitro and a solid-state transformation to MH in the dissolution medium. Despite the presence of solid-state transformation, SD exhibited the highest rate and extent of oral absorption in rats. Oral bioavailability of other two solid-state forms decreased in the order AH and MH. The use of Soluplus® was found to enhance the dissolution and oral bioavailability of piroxicam in rats. The present study shows the importance of solid-state form selection for oral bioavailability of a poorly water-soluble drug. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of diode-pumped medical solid-state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk

    2000-09-01

    Two thirds of human body consists of water and the absorption of laser by water is an important factor in medical laser treatment. Er medical lasers have been used in the dermatology, ophthalmology and dental treatments due to its highest absorption by water. However, 2.9 um Er laser can not be transmitted through an optical fiber. On the other hand, Tm laser can be transmitted through an fiber and also has very high absorption by water. Therefore, Tm lasers are used in ophthalmology and heart treatment wherein the fiber delivery is very important for the treatment. Until now, mainly lamp-pumped solid-state lasers have been used in medical treatments, but the lamp-pumped solid-state lasers are being replaced with the diode-pumped solid-state lasers because the diode-pumped solid-state lasers are more compact and much easier to maintain. Following this trend, end-pumped Er and side-pumped Tm lasers have been developed and the output power of 1 W was obtained for Er and Tm respectively

  6. Development of diode-pumped medical solid-state lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk

    2000-09-01

    Two thirds of human body consists of water and the absorption of laser by water is an important factor in medical laser treatment. Er medical lasers have been used in the dermatology, ophthalmology and dental treatments due to its highest absorption by water. However, 2.9 um Er laser can not be transmitted through an optical fiber. On the other hand, Tm laser can be transmitted through an fiber and also has very high absorption by water. Therefore, Tm lasers are used in ophthalmology and heart treatment wherein the fiber delivery is very important for the treatment. Until now, mainly lamp-pumped solid-state lasers have been used in medical treatments, but the lamp-pumped solid-state lasers are being replaced with the diode-pumped solid-state lasers because the diode-pumped solid-state lasers are more compact and much easier to maintain. Following this trend, end-pumped Er and side-pumped Tm lasers have been developed and the output power of 1 W was obtained for Er and Tm respectively.

  7. Effects of polyurethane matrices on fungal tannase and gallic acid production under solid state culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The influence of the physical structure of polyurethane matrix as a support in a solid state culture in tannase production and gallic acid accumulation by Aspergillus niger Aa-20 was evaluated. Three different polyurethane matrices were used as the support: continuous, semi-discontinuous and discontinuous. The highest tannase production at 2479.59 U/L during the first 12 h of culture was obtained using the discontinuous matrix. The gallic acid was accumulated at 7.64 g/L at the discontinuous matrix. The results show that the discontinuous matrix of polyurethane is better for tannase production and gallic acid accumulation in a solid state culture bioprocess than the continuous and semi-discontinuous matrices.

  8. All solid-state SBS phase conjugate mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, C.B.; Hackel, L.A.

    1999-03-09

    A stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugate laser mirror uses a solid-state nonlinear gain medium instead of the conventional liquid or high pressure gas medium. The concept has been effectively demonstrated using common optical-grade fused silica. An energy threshold of 2.5 mJ and a slope efficiency of over 90% were achieved, resulting in an overall energy reflectivity of >80% for 15 ns, 1 um laser pulses. The use of solid-state materials is enabled by a multi-pass resonant architecture which suppresses transient fluctuations that would otherwise result in damage to the SBS medium. This all solid state phase conjugator is safer, more reliable, and more easily manufactured than prior art designs. It allows nonlinear wavefront correction to be implemented in industrial and defense laser systems whose operating environments would preclude the introduction of potentially hazardous liquids or high pressure gases. 8 figs.

  9. Technology study on removal of Ra, U, Mn and F from the acid wastewater of uranium mining and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yongyong; Zhong Pingru; Wang Gaoshan

    2014-01-01

    The laboratory study for decreasing the concentration of Ra, U, Mn and F ions in acid wastewater of uranium mining and metallurgy was investigated based on lime neutralization-precipitation technology. The technological flowsheet was composed of removing radium by barium chloride, manganese by air aeration and fluorin by aluminum sulfate, and the quality of the disposed effluent could be accorded with the discharge criteria defined by the state, as the neutralization conditions of pH just being 8.5. Furthermore, the lower precipitation pH value can effectively decrease sediment volume, and reduce the subsequent processing pressures. The technological methods were viable and universally applicable for uranium mining and metallurgy wastewater purification. (authors)

  10. Contribution to the study of copper and copper-arsenic archaeo-metallurgy using light element analysis and experimental fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papillon, F.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study is to try a direct reconstruction from ancient artefacts of the elaboration technology used in the dawning copper metallurgy. This word is based on both the light elements analysis and the carry out of the principles of physical metallurgy. However the study of an archaeological artefact necessitates the use of non destructive methods. A main aspect of this work consists in developing the most adequate metallographic technique and the methods for the determination of oxygen and carbon by ion beam analysis. Additionally experimental melting of copper and copper arsenic alloys were carried out in laboratory, under various temperature and atmosphere conditions, and 'on the field' in Archeodrome de Beaune, in order to reconstruct part of the prehistorical craftsmanship. The results of measurement are consistent with our general knowledge of oxido-reduction phenomena and the behaviour of copper and copper arsenic alloys s in agreement with the prediction of thermodynamics. The nuclear analysis of three ancient artefacts showed that the oxygen and carbon contents were closer to those of the Archeodrome than those of the laboratory. Further studies of the field should consider all parameters controlling the physical-chemistry of charcoal fire. (author)

  11. Uranium mining and metallurgy library information service under the network environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Lilei

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of the network environment on the uranium mining and metallurgy of the information service. Introduces some measures such as strengthening professional characteristic literature resources construction, changing the service mode, building up information navigation, deepening service, meet the individual needs of users, raising librarian's quality, promoting the co-construction and sharing of library information resources, and puts forward the development idea of uranium mining and metallurgy library information service under the network environment. (author)

  12. Solid state fermentation studies of citric acid production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... solid waste management, biomass energy conservation, production of high value products and little risk ... The carrier, sugarcane bagasse for solid state fermentation was procured from National Sugar Institute ... constant weight and designated as dry solid residue (DSR). The filtrate (consisting of biomass, ...

  13. Direct Solid-State Conversion of Recyclable Metals and Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran Manchiraju

    2012-03-27

    Friction Stir Extrusion (FSE) is a novel energy-efficient solid-state material synthesis and recycling technology capable of producing large quantity of bulk nano-engineered materials with tailored, mechanical, and physical properties. The novelty of FSE is that it utilizes the frictional heating and extensive plastic deformation inherent to the process to stir, consolidate, mechanically alloy, and convert the powders, chips, and other recyclable feedstock materials directly into useable product forms of highly engineered materials in a single step (see Figure 1). Fundamentally, FSE shares the same deformation and metallurgical bonding principles as in the revolutionary friction stir welding process. Being a solid-state process, FSE eliminates the energy intensive melting and solidification steps, which are necessary in the conventional metal synthesis processes. Therefore, FSE is highly energy-efficient, practically zero emissions, and economically competitive. It represents a potentially transformational and pervasive sustainable manufacturing technology for metal recycling and synthesis. The goal of this project was to develop the technological basis and demonstrate the commercial viability of FSE technology to produce the next generation highly functional electric cables for electricity delivery infrastructure (a multi-billion dollar market). Specific focus of this project was to (1) establish the process and material parameters to synthesize novel alloys such as nano-engineered materials with enhanced mechanical, physical, and/or functional properties through the unique mechanical alloying capability of FSE, (2) verifying the expected major energy, environmental, and economic benefits of FSE technology for both the early stage 'showcase' electric cable market and the anticipated pervasive future multi-market applications across several industry sectors and material systems for metal recycling and sustainable manufacturing.

  14. Powder metallurgy bearings for advanced rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, J. N.; Killman, B. J.; Munson, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    Traditional ingot metallurgy was pushed to the limit for many demanding applications including antifriction bearings. New systems require corrosion resistance, better fatigue resistance, and higher toughness. With conventional processing, increasing the alloying level to achieve corrosion resistance results in a decrease in other properties such as toughness. Advanced powder metallurgy affords a viable solution to this problem. During powder manufacture, the individual particle solidifies very rapidly; as a consequence, the primary carbides are very small and uniformly distributed. When properly consolidated, this uniform structure is preserved while generating a fully dense product. Element tests including rolling contact fatigue, hot hardness, wear, fracture toughness, and corrosion resistance are underway on eleven candidate P/M bearing alloys and results are compared with those for wrought 440C steel, the current SSME bearing material. Several materials which offer the promise of a significant improvement in performance were identified.

  15. Development and application of characteristic database for uranium mining and metallurgy in the library of Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Engineering and Metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Renxi

    2012-01-01

    Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Engineering and Metallurgy (BRICEM) is a multi disciplinary comprehensive research institute engaged in uranium mining, engineering design and related material researches. After 53 years of researches and development, BRICEM has accumulated a plenty of valuable data and resources. By analyzing the actual conditions of BRICEM's technological database, this thesis aims to propose the idea of building a characteristic database for uranium mining and metallurgy. It gives an in-depth analysis on content design, development status and problems of database development, in order to come up with solutions to these problems, as well as suggestions on the future development plans of the characteristic database. (author)

  16. Preliminary field evaluation of solid state cameras for security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments in solid state imager technology have resulted in a series of compact, lightweight, all-solid-state closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Although it is widely known that the various solid state cameras have less light sensitivity and lower resolution than their vacuum tube counterparts, the potential for having a much longer Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) for the all-solid-state cameras is generating considerable interest within the security community. Questions have been raised as to whether the newest and best of the solid state cameras are a viable alternative to the high maintenance vacuum tube cameras in exterior security applications. To help answer these questions, a series of tests were performed by Sandia National Laboratories at various test sites and under several lighting conditions. The results of these tests as well as a description of the test equipment, test sites, and procedures are presented in this report

  17. Conductors, semiconductors, superconductors. A compact introduction to history, development, and theory of solid-state physics. 2. ed.; Leiter, Halbleiter, Supraleiter. Eine kompakte Einfuehrung in Geschichte, Entwicklung und Theorie der Festkoerperphysik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebener, Rudolf [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Mathematik und Physik

    2017-05-01

    The present book is a strongly revised and supplemented edition of the title: ''Kristalle: Spiefeld der Elektronen'', published scarcely ten years ago by the same author. Especially the physical contents are explained by the mathematically formulated foundations. The book appeals to students of natural sciences and especially of physics as well as to engineers as introduction to the wide field of solid-state physics, so to speak as motivating prestage to the established and very extensive textbooks. Beside the physical contents the book treats the important role of numerous important and often still very young scientists. By corresponding supplements in this book it is tried to present the fundamental developments in their wide environment.

  18. Research on IGBT solid state switch

    CERN Document Server

    Gan Kong Yin; Wang Xiao Feng; Wang Lang Ping; Wang Song Yan; Chu, P K; Wu Hong Chen

    2002-01-01

    The experiments on the IGBT solid state switch for induction accelerator was carried out with two series 1.2 kV, 75 A IGBT (GA75TS120U). The static and dynamic balancing modules were carried out with metal oxide varistors, capacities and diodes in order to suppress the over-voltage during IGBT on and off. Experimental results show that IGBT solid state switch works very stable under the different conditions. It can output peak voltage 1.8 kV, rise time 300 ns, fall time 1.64 mu s waveforms on the loads. The simulation data using OrCAD are in accord with experimental results except the rise time

  19. Research on IGBT solid state switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan Kongyin; Tang Baoyin; Wang Xiaofeng; Wang Langping; Wang Songyan; Wu Hongchen

    2002-01-01

    The experiments on the IGBT solid state switch for induction accelerator was carried out with two series 1.2 kV, 75 A IGBT (GA75TS120U). The static and dynamic balancing modules were carried out with metal oxide varistors, capacities and diodes in order to suppress the over-voltage during IGBT on and off. Experimental results show that IGBT solid state switch works very stable under the different conditions. It can output peak voltage 1.8 kV, rise time 300 ns, fall time 1.64 μs waveforms on the loads. The simulation data using OrCAD are in accord with experimental results except the rise time

  20. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  1. Laser cooling of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Petrushkin, S V

    2009-01-01

    Laser cooling is an important emerging technology in such areas as the cooling of semiconductors. The book examines and suggests solutions for a range of problems in the development of miniature solid-state laser refrigerators, self-cooling solid-state lasers and optical echo-processors. It begins by looking at the basic theory of laser cooling before considering such topics as self-cooling of active elements of solid-state lasers, laser cooling of solid-state information media of optical echo-processors, and problems of cooling solid-state quantum processors. Laser Cooling of Solids is an important contribution to the development of compact laser-powered cryogenic refrigerators, both for the academic community and those in the microelectronics and other industries. Provides a timely review of this promising field of research and discusses the fundamentals and theory of laser cooling Particular attention is given to the physics of cooling processes and the mathematical description of these processes Reviews p...

  2. Physics research 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Research programmes at Oxford University are given for the year 1980 of the Clarendon Laboratory, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Theoretical Physics Department and the Atmospheric Physics Department, together with provisional research programmes in Astrophysics, Metallurgy and the Science of Materials, and Archaeology and the History of Art. Items of interest to physicists are also included from Engineering Science, Geology and Mineralogy, Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Physical Chemistry Laboratory and the Chemical Crystallography Laboratory. (U.K.)

  3. Manufacture of good-weldable low oxygen molybdenum by powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Yutaka; Okada, Masatoshi; Akiyama, Takashi; Yamafuchi, Yasuo.

    1984-01-01

    In general most of commercial molybdenum is produced by the powder metallurgy method and is utilized as a superior heat-resisting material in many fields. Moreover, molybdenum is expected to be used as the first-wall components of JT-60 (JAERI Tokamak-60). However, one of major problems on molybdenum, particularly on powder metallurgy molybdenum, is that any sound welded joint is hard to be obtainable. In many cases weld pores are formed on welding and, therefore, ductility of the welded joint is severely degraded. The object of the present work is to get a sound welded joint without any weld pores by reducing impurity levels in the material. The materials were produced by modifying one or several parts in the ordinary manufacturing process of powder metallurgy molybdenum. Oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and other principal metallic impurities were chemically analysed. The above materials were then subjected to electron-beam-welding by using a melt-run technique, and the soundness of the welded joints was examined by optical microscopy. (author)

  4. Uses of solid state analogies in elementary particle theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.W.

    1976-01-01

    The solid state background of some of the modern ideas of field theory is reviewed, and additional examples of model situations in solid state or many-body theory which may have relevance to fundamental theories of elementary particles are adduced

  5. Transire, a Program for Generating Solid-State Interface Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-14

    ARL-TR-8134 ● SEP 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Transire, a Program for Generating Solid-State Interface Structures by...Program for Generating Solid-State Interface Structures by Caleb M Carlin and Berend C Rinderspacher Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL...

  6. Bonding, structure and solid-state chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Ladd, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This book is aimed at undergraduate students in both chemistry and those degree subjects in which chemistry forms a significant part. It does not reflect any particular academic year, and so finds a place during the normal span of degree studies in the physical sciences. An A-level standard in science and mathematics is presumed; additional mathematical treatments are discussed in Appendices. An introductory first chapter leads into the main subject matter, which is treated through four chapters in terms of the principle bonding forces of cohesion in the solid state; a further chapter discusses nanosize materials. Important applications of the study topics are interspersed at appropriate points within the text. Each chapter is provided with a set of problems of varying degrees of difficulty, so as to assist the reader in gaining a facility with the subject matter and its applications. The problems are supplemented by detailed tutorial solutions, some of which present additional relevant material that indicate...

  7. Fast neutron activation analysis in metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterlinski, S.

    1981-01-01

    Article discusses the usage of a 14 MeV neutron generator for producing fast neutrons of different energies and intensities. A complete instrumental set-up for the neutron activation analysis (NAA) is given. In metallurgy the device is mainly used in the determination of oxygen and silicon in steel and non-ferrous metal, including different alloys

  8. Neutrons in the field of metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novion, C. de

    1989-01-01

    Beams of thermal neutrons are now widely used for the study of material structure. Following a summary of the characteristics of the neutron-material interaction, and an outlook on the major uses of neutrons in metallurgy, we present some examples of application. The comparative advantages and drawbacks of neutrons and X-rays are discussed. 14 refs [fr

  9. Development and characterization of Al-Zn alloy by ingot metallurgy and powder metallurgy with improved mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waseem, M.; Awais, H.B.; Zauha, M.S.; Tariq, N.H.

    2007-01-01

    Current project focuses on the production of AI-Zn alloy AA7075 used for wide range of applications like Aircraft components, missile and other structural applications. The above alloy was developed by two different routes. One was melting /casting, after which alloy was characterized by microstructural - examination (optical and SEM) and mechanical testing. Other route was the preparation of this alloy by powder metallurgy. This involves preparation of powders, mechanical alloying, compaction, sintering, rolling, solution treatment and aging then analysis. Powders of Aluminum, Zinc and powders of master alloys of AI-Cu, AI-Mg, AI-Mn, and AI-Cr were Mechanical alloyed. Then this powder was compacted by uniaxial press to form pellets. Sintering was carried out at 500 degree C and then hot rolled in Ar atmosphere. After solution and aging treatments samples were characterized. It is observed that there is about 12-21% improvement in mechanical properties such as tensile strength, yield strength, ductility and fracture toughness due to the more fine microstructure and less segregation than ingot metallurgy route. (author)

  10. Fundamental Metallurgy of Solidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiedje, Niels

    2004-01-01

    The text takes the reader through some fundamental aspects of solidification, with focus on understanding the basic physics that govern solidification in casting and welding. It is described how the first solid is formed and which factors affect nucleation. It is described how crystals grow from...

  11. Studies on the irradiated solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesueur, D.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Irradiated Solids laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The Laboratory activities concern the investigations on disordered solids (chemical or structural disorder). The disorder itself, its effects on the material physical properties and the particle-matter interactions, are investigated. The research works are performed in the following fields: solid state physics, irradiation and stoechiometric defects, and nuclear materials. The scientific reviews, the congress communications and the thesis are listed [fr

  12. IFE Power Plant design principles. Drivers. Solid state laser drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, S.; Andre, M.; Krupke, W.F.; Mak, A.A.; Soures, J.M.; Yamanaka, M.

    1995-01-01

    The present status of solid state laser drivers for an inertial confinement thermonuclear fusion power plant is discussed. In particular, the feasibility of laser diode pumped solid state laser drivers from both the technical and economic points of view is briefly reviewed. Conceptual design studies showed that they can, in principle, satisfy the design requirements. However, development of new solid state materials with long fluorescence lifetimes and good thermal characteristics is a key issue for laser diode pumped solid state lasers. With the advent of laser diode pumping many materials which were abandoned in the past can presently be reconsidered as viable candidates. It is also concluded that it is important to examine the technical requirements for solid state lasers in relation to target performance criteria. The progress of laser diode pumped lasers in industrial applications should also be closely watched to provide additional information on the economic feasibility of this type of driver. 15 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  13. Iron based superconductors and related compounds synthesized by solid state metathesis and high temperature reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankovsky, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    The results of this thesis can be divided into three major topics, which can also be seen as different approaches of solid state chemistry to reveal interesting features of known and unknown compounds and to develop alternative synthesis routes. Firstly, known compounds with related structural motifs to the superconducting iron-arsenides were investigated regarding their structural and physical properties. In case of La 3 Pd 4 Ge 4 the influence of Fe doping on the properties was studied, whereas in the series ZrMAs (M=Ti,V) the physical properties have not yet been reported at all and were investigated for the first time. Secondly, an alternative synthesis route has been developed for the synthesis of superconducting LaFeAsO 1-x F x . This solid state metathesis reaction distinctly increased the quality of the samples compared to conventionally prepared products. Furthermore, the reaction pathway was investigated and clarified, which helps to understand the processes during high temperature solid state metathesis reactions in general. Thirdly, this alternative synthesis route was expanded to other systems and new compounds like co-substituted LaFe 1-x Mn x AsO 1-y F y were prepared and thoroughly investigated. This led to a complex study of the interplay of magnetism, electronic and structural conditions and the occurrence of superconducting properties. The investigation and understanding of such complex coherences will probably be decisive for the further understanding of the superconducting mechanism in iron based superconductors.

  14. Potential of solid state fermentation for production of ergot alkaloids

    OpenAIRE

    Trejo Hernandez, M.R.; Raimbault, Maurice; Roussos, Sevastianos; Lonsane, B.K.

    1992-01-01

    Production of total ergot alkaloids by #Claviceps fusiformis$ in solid state fermentation was 3.9 times higher compared to that in submerged fermentation. Production was equal in the case of #Claviceps purpurea$ but the spectra of alkaloids were advantageous with the use of solid state fermentation. The data establish potential of solid state fermentation which was not explored earlier for production of ergot alkaloids. (Résumé d'auteur)

  15. Introduction to the physics of fluids and solids

    CERN Document Server

    Trefil, James S

    2010-01-01

    Written by a well-known science author, this introductory text explores the physics of solids and the field of hydrodynamics. It focuses on modern applications, rather than mathematical formalism, with particular emphasis on geophysics, astrophysics, and medical physics. Suitable for a one-semester course, it is geared toward advanced undergraduate physics students and graduate science students. It also serves as a helpful reference for professional astronomers, chemists, and engineers. Geophysical topics include the circulation of the atmosphere, vibrations of the earth, and underground nucle

  16. Development of the plastic solid-dye cell for tunable solid-state dye lasers and study on its optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Do Kyeong; Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Byung Heon; Jung, E. C.; Kim, Hyun Su; Lim, Gwon

    2001-01-01

    we have fabricated solid-state dyes with PMMA and sol-gel materials. We developed single longitudianl mode solid-state dye laser with the linewidth of less than 500MHz. We have constructed a self-seeded laser and observed the increase of the output power because of self-seeding effect. We investigated the operating characteristics of the dualwave laser oscillator and DFDL with solid-state dyes. And we have constructed the 3-color solid-state dye laser oscillator and amplifier system and observed 3-color operation. We also improved the laser oscliiator with disk-type solid-state dye cell which can be translated and rotated with the help of the two stepping motors. With the help of computer control, we could constantly changed the illuminated area of the dye cell and, therefore, were able to achieve long time operation and to use almost the entire region of the solid-state dye cell.

  17. Radiation sensitive solid state devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, J.M.; Ralph, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    A solid state radiation sensitive device is described employing JFETs as the sensitive elements. Two terminal construction is achieved by using a common conductor to capacitively couple to the JFET gate and to one of the source and drain connections. (auth)

  18. The physics of photons and neutrons with applications of deuterium labeling methods to polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wignall, G.D.

    1986-12-01

    Over the past decade small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), has found numerous applications in the fields of biology, polymer science, physical chemistry, materials science, metallurgy, colloids, and solid state physics. A number of excellent references are available which contain basic neutron scattering theory though these text books reflect the origins of the technique and the examples are largely drawn from physics e.g., single crystals, simple liquids, monatomic gases, liquid metals, magnetic materials, etc. in view of the large numbers of nonspecialists who are increasingly using neutron scattering, the need has become apparent for presentations which can provide rapid access to the method without unnecessary detail and mathematical rigor. This article is meant to serve as a general introduction to the symposium ''Scattering Deformation and Fracture in Polymers,'' and is intended to aid potential users who have a general scientific background, but no specialist knowledge of scattering, to apply the technique to provide new information in areas of their own particular interests. In view of space limitations, the general theory will be given in the case for neutron scattering and analogies and differences with photon scattering (x-rays) will be pointed out at the appropriate point. 90 refs., 6 figs

  19. Atomistic Simulation of Interfaces in Materials of Solid State Ionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov-Schitz, A. K.; Mazo, G. N.

    2018-01-01

    The possibilities of describing correctly interfaces of different types in solids within a computer experiment using molecular statics simulation, molecular dynamics simulation, and quantum chemical calculations are discussed. Heterophase boundaries of various types, including grain boundaries and solid electrolyte‒solid electrolyte and ionic conductor‒electrode material interfaces, are considered. Specific microstructural features and mechanisms of the ion transport in real heterophase structures (cationic conductor‒metal anode and anionic conductor‒cathode) existing in solid state ionics devices (such as solid-state batteries and fuel cells) are discussed.

  20. An Overview of Internal Fixation Implant Metallurgy and Galvanic Corrosion Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Justin; Berger, Aaron; Benhaim, Prosper

    2015-08-01

    Orthopedic and hand surgery implants for internal fixation of fractures have evolved substantially over the past 50 years. Newer metal compositions have been used, and new standards have been applied to older alloys, resulting in modern implants with unique physical properties and better clinical performances. Conventional wisdom has long dictated that implanting different metals should be avoided, but few guidelines exist regarding the safety of using in proximity implant systems of dissimilar metals. To better characterize the landscape of internal fixation implant metallurgy, we have compiled the recommendations and conclusions of the currently available and pertinent literature. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Physical changes associated with gamma doses of PM-555 solid-state nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouh, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the electrical, molecular and structural properties of copolymers of methacrylic esters and olefins, PM-555 solid-state nuclear track detector was investigated. DC conductivity measurements were studied in the temperature range 293-417 K using solid-state samples of the PM-555 polymer. These samples were irradiated with gamma doses in the range 5-63 kGy. Furthermore, the activation energy was measured, at various temperatures, as a function of the gamma dose. It was found that many changes in electrical resistance of PM-555 polymer could be produced by gamma irradiation via the degradation mechanism. Also, the gamma dose gives an advantage for the increasing correlation between the DC conductivity and the number and mobility of the charge carriers created by the ionizing effect of gamma radiation. Moreover, solutions of different loadings (0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6% and 0.8%) were prepared from the irradiated and non irradiated sheets using pure chloroform as a solvent. The effect of both temperature and gamma dose on the intrinsic viscosity of the liquid samples, as a measure of the mean molecular mass of the PM-555 polymer, were studied. In addition, structural and optical property studies using X-ray diffraction and refractive index measurements were performed on all irradiated and non irradiated PM-555 samples. The results indicate that both the degree of ordering or disordering and the anisotropic character of the PM-555 polymer are dependent on the gamma dose

  2. Preparation and impedance characterization of all-solid-state thin film battery systems

    OpenAIRE

    Schichtel, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    In this thesis the behavior and properties of solid-state batteries based on multiple electrodes are analysed. For this purpose thin film systems of the relevant materials are prepared to achieve model system for more detailed analysis of the material specific properties. The characterisation of the systems is carried out with typical physical and electrochemical methods and especially using impedance spectroscopy. The first material analysed in this thesis is Li4Ti5O12 which was recognize...

  3. A Novel Process for Joining Ti Alloy and Al Alloy using Two-Stage Sintering Powder Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Luping; Liu, Wensheng; Ma, Yunzhu; Wu, Lei; Liu, Chao

    2018-04-01

    The major challenges for conventional diffusion bonding of joining Ti alloy and Al alloy are the undesirable interfacial reaction, low matrixes and joint strength. To avoid the problem in diffusion bonding, a novel two-stage sintering powder metallurgy process is developed. In the present work, the interface characterization and joint performance of the bonds obtained by powder metallurgy bonding are investigated and are compared with the diffusion bonded Ti/Al joints obtained with the same and the optimized process parameters. The results show that no intermetallic compound is visible in the Ti/Al joint obtained by powder metallurgy bonding, while a new layer formed at the joint diffusion bonded with the same parameters. The maximum tensile strength of joint obtained by diffusion bonding is 58 MPa, while a higher tensile strength reaching 111 MPa for a bond made by powder metallurgy bonding. Brittle fractures occur at all the bonds. It is shown that the powder metallurgy bonding of Ti/Al is better than diffusion bonding. The results of this study should benefit the bonding quality.

  4. Application of laser in powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolochko, N.K.

    1995-01-01

    Modern status of works in the field of laser application in powder metallurgy (powders preparation, sintering, coatings formation, powder materials processing) is considered. The attention is paid to the new promising direction in powder products shape-formation technology - laser layer-by-layer selective powders sintering and bulk sintering of packaged layered profiles produced by laser cutting of powder-based sheet blanks. 67 refs

  5. Solid-State Thyratron Replacement. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Ian [Diversified Technologies, Inc., Bedford, MA

    2017-12-12

    Under this SBIR, DTI developed a solid-state switch as an alternative to legacy thyratron equipment. Our Phase II objective was to make a solid-state thyratron replacement that would provide equivalent or better performance, much higher reliability (at least a 20 year lifetime, compared to a thyratron’s two-year lifetime) and would sell for ~3x the cost of a thyratron, or less than $40k. We were successful in building a solid-state switch which could reliably function as a thyratron replacement. The unit was designed to directly replace the thyratrons currently being used at SLAC’s Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), and was built in a tank that was small enough to fit into the existing thyratron cabinet, providing a true form-fit-function replacement path. We tested the switch at the full operating specifications: 48 kV, 6.3 kA, and 1 µs risetime. We also demonstrated a peak-to-peak pulse jitter of 1.5 ns, which is five times shorter than is typical for thyratrons. This lower jitter would improve the performance of the LCLS beam. The predicted reliability is more than 80 years, which is 40 times greater than a thyratron.

  6. Space-time complexity in solid state models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    In this Workshop on symmetry-breaking it is appropriate to include the evolving fields of nonlinear-nonequilibrium systems in which transitions to and between various degrees of ''complexity'' (including ''chaos'') occur in time or space or both. These notions naturally bring together phenomena of pattern formation and chaos and therefore have ramifications for a huge array of natural sciences - astrophysics, plasmas and lasers, hydrodynamics, field theory, materials and solid state theory, optics and electronics, biology, pattern recognition and evolution, etc. Our particular concerns here are with examples from solid state and condensed matter

  7. Physical properties of lead free solders in liquid and solid state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mhiaoui, Souad

    2007-04-17

    The European legislation prohibits the use of lead containing solders in Europe. However, lead free solders have a higher melting point (typical 20%) and their mechanical characteristics are worse. Additional problems are aging and adhesion of the solder on the electronic circuits. Thus, research activities must focus on the optimization of the properties of Sn-Ag-Cu based lead free solders chosen by the industry. Two main objectives are treated in this work. In the center of the first one is the study of curious hysteresis effects of metallic cadmium-antimony alloys after thermal cycles by measuring electronic transport phenomena (thermoelectric power and electrical resistivity). The second objective, within the framework of ''cotutelle'' between the universities of Metz and of Chemnitz and supported by COST531, is to study more specifically lead free solders. A welding must well conduct electricity and well conduct and dissipate heat. In Metz, we determined the electrical conductivity, the thermoelectric power and the thermal conductivity of various lead free solders (Sn-Ag-Cu, Sn-Cu, Sn-Ag, Sn-Sb) as well in the liquid as well in the solid state. The results have been compared to classical lead-tin (Pb-Sn) solders. In Chemnitz we measured the surface tension, the interfacial tension and the density of lead free solders. We also measured the viscosity of these solders without and with additives, in particular nickel. These properties were related to the industrial problems of wettability and spreadability. Lastly, we solidified alloys under various conditions. We observed undercooling. We developed a technique of mixture of nanocrystalline powder with lead free solders ''to sow'' the liquid bath in order to obtain ''different'' solids which were examined using optical and electron microscopy. (orig.)

  8. State of the art of solid state dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Susana O.; Yamamoto, Takayoshi; D'Errico, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Passive solid-state detectors still dominate the personal dosimetry field. This article provides state of the art in this field and summarizes the most recent works presented on TL, OSL and RPL during the 17th International Conference on Solid State Dosimetry held in Recife in September 2013. The Article contains in particular the techniques Thermoluminescence (TL), Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL), radio photoluminescence (RPL). Thermoluminescence has the biggest advantage of the wide availability of commercial materials for dosimetry, and the nature tissue-equivalent of several of these materials. The limitation of the TL dosimetry presents fading luminance signal and the need for high temperatures to obtain the signal. The Optically Stimulated Luminescence has the advantages of high sensitivity, the possibility of multiple reading, while its limit is the need to use response compensating filters in addition to the high cost of equipment and dosimeters still restricted very few options trading . The radio photoluminescence has a reading that is completely non-destructive, but their dosimeters present lack of tissue-equivalent and a high cost. Presents the details of the techniques and the advantages and limitations of each of these will be discussed

  9. Application of liquid metals for the extraction of solid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstedt, H.U.

    1996-01-01

    Liquid metals dissolve several solid metals in considerable amounts at moderate temperatures. The dissolution processes may be based upon simple physical solubility, formation of intermetallic phases. Even chemical reactions are often observed in which non-metallic elements might be involved. Thus, the capacity to dissolve metals and chemical properties of the liquid metals play a role in these processes. Besides the solubility also chemical properties and thermochemical data are of importance. The dissolution of metals in liquid metals can be applied to separate the solutes from other metals or non-metallic phases. Relatively noble metals can be chemically reduced by the liquid phases. Such solution processes can be applied in the extractive metallurgy, for instance to extract metals from metallic waste. The recycling of metals is of high economical and ecological importance. Examples of possible processes are discussed. (author)

  10. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 4 covers articles on single crystal compound semiconductors and complex polycrystalline materials. The book discusses narrow gap semiconductors and solid state batteries. The text then describes the advantages of hot-pressed microcrystalline compacts of oxygen-octahedra ferroelectrics over single crystal materials, as well as heterostructure junction lasers. Solid state physicists, materials scientists, electrical engineers, and graduate students studying the subjects being discussed will find the book invaluable.

  11. Near net shape of powder metallurgy rhenium parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, T.; Downs, J.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a description of the stages of processing necessary to produce a near-net shape (NNS) powder metallurgy (PM) rhenium component through the use of cold isostatic pressing (CIP) to form a complex shape will be explained. This method was primarily developed for the production of the 440 N and 490 N liquid apogee engine combustion chambers used in satellite positioning systems. The CIP to NNS process has been used in the manufacture and production of other rhenium aerospace components as well. Cold isostatic pressing (CIP) to a near net shape utilizing a one or two-part mandrel greatly reduces the quantity of rhenium required to produce the component, and also significantly reduces the number of secondary machining operations necessary to complete the manufacturing process. Further, the developments in near-net shape powder metallurgy rhenium manufacturing techniques have generated significant savings in the area of both time and budget. Overall, cost declined by as much as 35 % for the quantity of rhenium chambers, and manufacturing time was decreased by 30-40 %. The quantity of rhenium metal powder used to produce a rhenium chamber was reduced by approximately 70 %, with a subsequent reduction of nearly 50 % in secondary machining operation schedules. Thus, it is apparent that the overall savings provided by the production of near-net shape powder metallurgy rhenium components will be more than merely another aspect of any project involving high temperature applications, it will constitute significant benefit. (author)

  12. SOLID STATE BATTERIES WITH CONDUCTING POLYMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Bénière , F.; Boils , D.; Cánepa , H.; Franco , J.; Le Corre , A.; Louboutin , J.

    1983-01-01

    The conducting polymers like (CH)x are very interesting materials for electrodes in electrochemical cells. We have combined such electrodes with solid electrolytes to build "all solid-state" batteries. The first prototypes using a silver anode and a silver conducting electrolyte have been working satisfactorily since two years. The performances have been tested with many batteries to study the electrical properties as well as the thermodynamical parameters. A number of cycles of charge-discha...

  13. DNP-enhanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy of active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Pinon, Arthur C; Emsley, Lyndon; Rossini, Aaron J

    2017-11-28

    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy has become a valuable tool for the characterization of both pure and formulated active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). However, NMR generally suffers from poor sensitivity that often restricts NMR experiments to nuclei with favorable properties, concentrated samples, and acquisition of one-dimensional (1D) NMR spectra. Here, we review how dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) can be applied to routinely enhance the sensitivity of solid-state NMR experiments by one to two orders of magnitude for both pure and formulated APIs. Sample preparation protocols for relayed DNP experiments and experiments on directly doped APIs are detailed. Numerical spin diffusion models illustrate the dependence of relayed DNP enhancements on the relaxation properties and particle size of the solids and can be used for particle size determination when the other factors are known. We then describe the advanced solid-state NMR experiments that have been enabled by DNP and how they provide unique insight into the molecular and macroscopic structure of APIs. For example, with large sensitivity gains provided by DNP, natural isotopic abundance, 13 C- 13 C double-quantum single-quantum homonuclear correlation NMR spectra of pure APIs can be routinely acquired. DNP also enables solid-state NMR experiments with unreceptive quadrupolar nuclei such as 2 H, 14 N, and 35 Cl that are commonly found in APIs. Applications of DNP-enhanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy for the molecular level characterization of low API load formulations such as commercial tablets and amorphous solid dispersions are described. Future perspectives for DNP-enhanced solid-state NMR experiments on APIs are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Extractive metallurgy of the beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Neusa; Capocchi, Jose Deodoro Trani

    1995-01-01

    A bibliographic review is performed on the beryllium extractive metallurgy. The work describes the main type of ores and processes applied to the metallic beryllium production, beryllium oxide production using fluoride, sulfide and direct chlorination. The thermodynamic consideration are made on beryllium reduction processes, discussing the viability of the beryllium oxide and hallide reduction processes. Under the technological viewpoint, the Cu-Be alloys main production processes are discussed, and the main toxicity problems related with beryllium are mentioned

  15. Guanidinium nonaflate as a solid-state proton conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Tang, Haolin; Putzeys, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    Protic organic ionic plastic crystals (POIPCs) are a type of novel solid-state proton conductors. In this work, guanidinium nonaflate ([Gdm-H][NfO]) is reported to be a model POIPC. Its structure-property relationship has been investigated comprehensively. Infrared analysis of [Gdm-H][NfO] and its....... In addition, POIPC-based solid-state proton conductors are also expected to find applications in sensors and other electrochemical devices....

  16. The Effect of Forging Variables on the Supersolvus Heat-Treatment Response of Powder-Metallurgy Nickel-Base Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2015-0160 THE EFFECT OF FORGING VARIABLES ON THE SUPERSOLVUS HEAT-TREATMENT RESPONSE OF POWDER - METALLURGY NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOYS... POWDER - METALLURGY NICKEL- BASE SUPERALLOYS (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F 6. AUTHOR...treatment (SSHT) of two powder - metallurgy , gamma–gamma prime superalloys, IN-100 and LSHR, was established. For this purpose, isothermal, hot

  17. Novel Nanostructured Solid Materials for Modulating Oral Drug Delivery from Solid-State Lipid-Based Drug Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dening, Tahnee J; Rao, Shasha; Thomas, Nicky; Prestidge, Clive A

    2016-01-01

    Lipid-based drug delivery systems (LBDDS) have gained significant attention in recent times, owing to their ability to overcome the challenges limiting the oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs. Despite the successful commercialization of several LBDDS products over the years, a large discrepancy exists between the number of poorly water-soluble drugs displaying suboptimal in vivo performances and the application of LBDDS to mitigate their various delivery challenges. Conventional LBDDS, including lipid solutions and suspensions, emulsions, and self-emulsifying formulations, suffer from various drawbacks limiting their widespread use and commercialization. Accordingly, solid-state LBDDS, fabricated by adsorbing LBDDS onto a chemically inert solid carrier material, have attracted substantial interest as a viable means of stabilizing LBDDS whilst eliminating some of the various limitations. This review describes the impact of solid carrier choice on LBDDS performance and highlights the importance of appropriate solid carrier material selection when designing hybrid solid-state LBDDS. Specifically, emphasis is placed on discussing the ability of the specific solid carrier to modulate drug release, control lipase action and lipid digestion, and enhance biopharmaceutical performance above the original liquid-state LBDDS. To encourage the interested reader to consider their solid carrier choice on a higher level, various novel materials with the potential for future use as solid carriers for LBDDS are described. This review is highly significant in guiding future research directions in the solid-state LBDDS field and fostering the translation of these delivery systems to the pharmaceutical marketplace.

  18. Preliminary field evaluation of solid state cameras for security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments in solid state imager technology have resulted in a series of compact, lightweight, all-solid-state closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Although it is widely known that the various solid state cameras have less light sensitivity and lower resolution than their vacuum tube counterparts, the potential for having a much longer Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) for the all-solid-state cameras is generating considerable interest within the security community. Questions have been raised as to whether the newest and best of the solid state cameras are a viable alternative to the high maintenance vacuum tube cameras in exterior security applications. To help answer these questions, a series of tests were performed by Sandia National Laboratories at various test sites and under several lighting conditions. In general, all-solid-state cameras need to be improved in four areas before they can be used as wholesale replacements for tube cameras in exterior security applications: resolution, sensitivity, contrast, and smear. However, with careful design some of the higher performance cameras can be used for perimeter security systems, and all of the cameras have applications where they are uniquely qualified. Many of the cameras are well suited for interior assessment and surveillance uses, and several of the cameras are well designed as robotics and machine vision devices

  19. Toward an accurate description of solid-state properties of superheavy elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwerdtfeger Peter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades cold and hot fusion experiments lead to the production of new elements for the Periodic Table up to nuclear charge 118. Recent developments in relativistic quantum theory have made it possible to obtain accurate electronic properties for the trans-actinide elements with the aim to predict their potential chemical and physical behaviour. Here we report on first results of solid-state calculations for Og (element 118 to support future atom-at-a-time gas-phase adsorption experiments on surfaces such as gold or quartz.

  20. Report of activities no. 18, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The two accelerators at the Laboratoire de physique nucleaire, the tandem van de Graaff and the dynamitron, are being used less often for fundamental physics studies and more frequently in solid state physics, metallurgy, medicine, etc. Activities in applied nuclear physics were augmented by the acquisition of new surface analysis equipment, and the carbon-11 tracer program is developing. Fundamental nuclear physics research includes studies of the energy levels of 16 N. The theoretical nuclear physics group is oriented towards the study of nucleon-nucleon diffusion in the quark model, the nuclear physics-particle physics interface, gauge theory, the skyrmion model, and the nuclear physics-astrophysics boundary. Work is being carried out on data acquisitions systems

  1. The solid state detector technology for picosecond laser ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazka, Ivan

    1993-01-01

    We developed an all solid state laser ranging detector technology, which makes the goal of millimeter accuracy achievable. Our design and construction philosophy is to combine the techniques of single photon ranging, ultrashort laser pulses, and fast fixed threshold discrimination while avoiding any analog signal processing within the laser ranging chain. The all solid state laser ranging detector package consists of the START detector and the STOP solid state photon counting module. Both the detectors are working in an optically triggered avalanche switching regime. The optical signal is triggering an avalanche current buildup which results in the generation of a uniform, fast risetime output pulse.

  2. Cocrystal of Ibuprofen–Nicotinamide: Solid-State Characterization and In Vivo Analgesic Activity Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yori Yuliandra

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ibuprofen is classified as a BCS class II drug which has low solubility and high permeability. We conducted the formation of the cocrystalline phase of ibuprofen with coformer nicotinamide to increase its solubility. The purpose of this study was to characterize the solid state of cocrystalline phase of ibuprofen-nicotinamide, determine the solubility, and evaluate its in vivo analgesic activity. The cocrystal of ibuprofen-nicotinamide was prepared by a slow evaporation method. The solid-state characterization was conducted by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD analysis, differential thermal analysis (DTA, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. To investigate the in vivo analgesic activity, 28 male Swiss-Webster mice were injected with acetic acid 0.5% following oral administration of intact ibuprofen, physical mixture, and its cocrystalline phase with nicotinamide (equivalent to 26 mg/kg ibuprofen. The number of writhes was counted, and pain inhibition was calculated. All data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (95% confidence interval. The results revealed that a new cocrystalline phase was successfully formed. The solubility testing showed that the cocrystal formation enhanced the solubility significantly as compared with the physical mixture and intact ibuprofen. A significant increase in the analgesic activity of cocrystal ibuprofen-nicotinamide was also confirmed.

  3. Solid state mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Solid State Mechanics laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research program domains are the following: investigations concerning the stability and bifurcation of the reversible or irreversible mechanical systems, the problems related to the theoretical and experimental determination of the materials rheological properties, the fatigue crack formation and propagation in multiple-axial stress conditions, the expert systems, and the software applied in the reinforced earth structures dimensioning. Moreover, the published papers, the books, the congress communications, the thesis, and the patents are listed [fr

  4. Fabrication of metal matrix composites by powder metallurgy: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Guttikonda; Dey, Abhijit; Pandey, K. M.; Maity, S. R.

    2018-04-01

    Now a day's metal matrix components are used in may industries and it finds the applications in many fields so, to make it as better performable materials. So, the need to increase the mechanical properties of the composites is there. As seen from previous studies major problem faced by the MMC's are wetting, interface bonding between reinforcement and matrix material while they are prepared by conventional methods like stir casting, squeeze casting and other techniques which uses liquid molten metals. So many researchers adopt PM to eliminate these defects and to increase the mechanical properties of the composites. Powder metallurgy is one of the better ways to prepare composites and Nano composites. And the major problem faced by the conventional methods are uniform distribution of the reinforcement particles in the matrix alloy, many researchers tried to homogeneously dispersion of reinforcements in matrix but they find it difficult through conventional methods, among all they find ultrasonic dispersion is efficient. This review article is mainly concentrated on importance of powder metallurgy in homogeneous distribution of reinforcement in matrix by ball milling or mechanical milling and how powder metallurgy improves the mechanical properties of the composites.

  5. Facilitated ion transport in all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bong Gill; Hong, Jinkee; Hong, Won Hi; Hammond, Paula T; Park, HoSeok

    2011-09-27

    The realization of highly flexible and all-solid-state energy-storage devices strongly depends on both the electrical properties and mechanical integrity of the constitutive materials and the controlled assembly of electrode and solid electrolyte. Herein we report the preparation of all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors (SCs) through the easy assembly of functionalized reduced graphene oxide (f-RGO) thin films (as electrode) and solvent-cast Nafion electrolyte membranes (as electrolyte and separator). In particular, the f-RGO-based SCs (f-RGO-SCs) showed a 2-fold higher specific capacitance (118.5 F/g at 1 A/g) and rate capability (90% retention at 30 A/g) compared to those of all-solid-state graphene SCs (62.3 F/g at 1A/g and 48% retention at 30 A/g). As proven by the 4-fold faster relaxation of the f-RGO-SCs than that of the RGO-SCs and more capacitive behavior of the former at the low-frequency region, these results were attributed to the facilitated ionic transport at the electrical double layer by means of the interfacial engineering of RGO by Nafion. Moreover, the superiority of all-solid-state flexible f-RGO-SCs was demonstrated by the good performance durability under the 1000 cycles of charging and discharging due to the mechanical integrity as a consequence of the interconnected networking structures. Therefore, this research provides new insight into the rational design and fabrication of all-solid-state flexible energy-storage devices as well as the fundamental understanding of ion and charge transport at the interface. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  6. Entanglement in Solid-State Nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodoky, F.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to investigate theoretically the generation and behaviour of multipartite entanglement for solid-state nanosystems, in particular electron spin quantum bits (so-called 'qubits') in quantum dots. A quantum dot is a tiny potential well where a single electron can be trapped.

  7. Industrial powder metallurgy processing for production of high field Nb3Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecker, A.; Gregory, E.; Wong, J.; Thieme, C.L.H.; Foner, S.

    1988-01-01

    Technology transfer is discussed for fabricating Nb 3 Sn(Ti) via powder metallurgy methods from laboratory scale production at MIT to industrial production at Supercon Inc. Industrial production techniques such as hydrostatic extrusion and drawing have produced superconducting wires with promising critical current densities in preliminary field measurements. Initial steps toward process modification and optimization to improve the commercial feasibility of the powder metallurgy process are evaluated. These modifications are aimed at reducing production time and increasing process flexibility

  8. Structural and dynamic properties of solid state ionics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, T.

    1995-01-01

    The structural and dynamic properties of solid state ionics are reviewed. The low temperature phase transition of the copper halide-chalcogen compounds by specific heat measurements, electrical conductivity measurements and x-ray diffraction measurements are explained. The structures of solid state ionics investigated by the usual x-ray diffraction method and the anomalous x-ray scattering (AXS) measurement are discussed. The expression of the diffuse scattering intensity including the correlations among the thermal displacements of atoms has been given and applied to α-AgI type solid state ionics and lithium sulphate. The presence of low-energy excitations in crystalline copper ion conductors and the superionic conducting glass is investigated by neutron inelastic scattering measurements. The relation between the excitation energy and the mass of the cations is discussed. (author). 141 refs., 21 figs., 7 tabs

  9. [Atmospheric emission of PCDD/Fs from secondary aluminum metallurgy industry in the southwest area, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Guo, Zhi-Shun; Jian, Chuan; Zhu, Ming-Ji; Deng, Li; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Five secondary aluminum metallurgy enterprises in the southwest area of China were measured for emissions of PCDD/Fs. The results indicated that the emission levels of PCDD/Fs (as TEQ) were 0.015-0.16 ng x m(-3), and the average was 0.093 ng x m(-3) from secondary aluminum metallurgy enterprises. Emission factors of PCDD/Fs (as TEQ) from the five secondary aluminum metallurgy enterprises varied between 0.041 and 4.68 microg x t(-1) aluminum, and the average was 2.01 microg x t(-1) aluminum; among them, PCDD/Fs emission factors from the crucible smelting furnace was the highest. Congener distribution of PCDD/F in stack gas from the five secondary aluminum metallurgies was very different from each other. Moreover, the R(PCDF/PCDD) was the lowest in the enterprise which was installed only with bag filters; the R(PCDF/PCDD) were 3.8-12.6 (the average, 7.7) in the others which were installed with water scrubbers. The results above indicated that the mechanism of PCDD/Fs formation was related to the types of exhaust gas treatment device. The results of this study can provide technical support for the formulation of PCDD/Fs emission standards and the best available techniques in the secondary aluminum metallurgy industry.

  10. Ice-core evidence of earliest extensive copper metallurgy in the Andes 2700 years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, A.; Gramlich, G.; Kellerhals, T.; Tobler, L.; Rehren, Th.; Schwikowski, M.

    2017-01-01

    The importance of metallurgy for social and economic development is indisputable. Although copper (Cu) was essential for the wealth of pre- and post-colonial societies in the Andes, the onset of extensive Cu metallurgy in South America is still debated. Comprehensive archaeological findings point to first sophisticated Cu metallurgy during the Moche culture ~200-800 AD, whereas peat-bog records from southern South America suggest earliest pollution potentially from Cu smelting as far back as ~2000 BC. Here we present a 6500-years Cu emission history for the Andean Altiplano, based on ice-core records from Illimani glacier in Bolivia, providing the first complete history of large-scale Cu smelting activities in South America. We find earliest anthropogenic Cu pollution during the Early Horizon period ~700-50 BC, and attribute the onset of intensified Cu smelting in South America to the activities of the central Andean Chiripa and Chavin cultures ~2700 years ago. This study provides for the first time substantial evidence for extensive Cu metallurgy already during these early cultures.

  11. Ice-core evidence of earliest extensive copper metallurgy in the Andes 2700 years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, A; Gramlich, G; Kellerhals, T; Tobler, L; Rehren, Th; Schwikowski, M

    2017-01-31

    The importance of metallurgy for social and economic development is indisputable. Although copper (Cu) was essential for the wealth of pre- and post-colonial societies in the Andes, the onset of extensive Cu metallurgy in South America is still debated. Comprehensive archaeological findings point to first sophisticated Cu metallurgy during the Moche culture ~200-800 AD, whereas peat-bog records from southern South America suggest earliest pollution potentially from Cu smelting as far back as ~2000 BC. Here we present a 6500-years Cu emission history for the Andean Altiplano, based on ice-core records from Illimani glacier in Bolivia, providing the first complete history of large-scale Cu smelting activities in South America. We find earliest anthropogenic Cu pollution during the Early Horizon period ~700-50 BC, and attribute the onset of intensified Cu smelting in South America to the activities of the central Andean Chiripa and Chavin cultures ~2700 years ago. This study provides for the first time substantial evidence for extensive Cu metallurgy already during these early cultures.

  12. Theory of the l-state population of Rydberg states formed in ion-solid collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemmler, J.; Burgdoerfer, J.; Reinhold, C.O.

    1991-01-01

    The experimentally observed high-l-state population of ions excited in ion-solid interactions differs sharply from l-state populations produced in ion-atom collisions. We have studied the population dynamics of electronic excitation and transport within the framework of a classical transport theory for O 2+ (2-MeV/u) ions traversing C foils. The resulting delayed-photon-emission intensities are found to be in very good agreement with experiment. Initial phase-space conditions have been obtained from both classical-trajectory Monte Carlo calculations and random initial distributions. We find evidence that the very-high-l-state populations produced in ion-solid collisions are the result of a diffusion to high-l states under the influence of multiple scattering in the bulk of the solid

  13. Powder-metallurgy preparation of NiTi shape-memory alloy using mechanical alloying and spark-plasma sintering.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, P.; Moravec, H.; Vojtěch, V.; Knaislová, A.; Školáková, A.; Kubatík, Tomáš František; Kopeček, Jaromír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 1 (2017), s. 141-144 ISSN 1580-2949 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03044S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : mechanical alloying * spark plasma sintering * NiTi * shape memory alloy Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy; JG - Metallurgy (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Materials engineering ; Materials engineering (FZU-D) Impact factor: 0.436, year: 2016 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/313900224_Powder-metallurgy_preparation_of_NiTi_shape-memory_alloy_using_mechanical_alloying_and_spark-plasma_sintering

  14. The Mechanical Metallurgy of Armour Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    plate hardness in Figure 2(a) are a result of increased resistance to plastic flow in a ductile hole formation failure mechanism. Beyond a certain...their mechanical metallurgy, and ballistic performance is explained, where such performance is primarily determined by material strength, hardness and...high strain rate behaviour. Other important topics such as toughness; the adiabatic shear phenomenon; structural cracking; and dual hardness and

  15. Introduction to powder metallurgy processes for titanium manufacturing; Introduccion al procesado pulvimetalurgico del titanio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban, P. G.; Bolzoni, L.; Ruiz-Navas, E. M.; Gordo, E.

    2011-07-01

    The development of new extraction processes to produce titanium in powder form leads Powder Metallurgy to an advantage position among the manufacturing processes for titanium. The cost reduction of base material, coupled with the economy of the powder metallurgy processes, give titanium industry the chance to diversify its products, which could lead to production volumes able to stabilise the price of the metal. This work reviews some of the Powder Metallurgy techniques for the manufacturing of titanium parts, and describes the two typical approaches for titanium manufacturing: Blending Elemental and Prealloyed Powders. Among others, conventional pressing and sintering are described, which are compared with cold and hot isostatic pressing techniques. Real and potential applications are described. (Author) 71 refs.

  16. Solid State Inflation Balloon Active Deorbiter

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Solid State Inflation Balloon (SSIB) is a simple, reliable, low-cost, non-propulsive system for deliberate deorbit and control of downrange point-of-impact that...

  17. All-Solid-State Sodium-Selective Electrode with a Solid Contact of Chitosan/Prussian Blue Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanushree Ghosh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional ion-selective electrodes with a liquid junction have the disadvantage of potential drift. All-solid-state ion-selective electrodes with solid contact in between the metal electrode and the ion-selective membrane offer high capacitance or conductance to enhance potential stability. Solution-casted chitosan/Prussian blue nanocomposite (ChPBN was employed as the solid contact layer for an all-solid-state sodium ion-selective electrode in a potentiometric sodium ion sensor. Morphological and chemical analyses confirmed that the ChPBN is a macroporous network of chitosan that contains abundant Prussian blue nanoparticles. Situated between a screen-printed carbon electrode and a sodium-ionophore-filled polyvinylchloride ion-selective membrane, the ChPBN layer exhibited high redox capacitance and fast charge transfer capability, which significantly enhanced the performance of the sodium ion-selective electrode. A good Nernstian response with a slope of 52.4 mV/decade in the linear range from 10−4–1 M of NaCl was observed. The stability of the electrical potential of the new solid contact was tested by chronopotentiometry, and the capacitance of the electrode was 154 ± 4 µF. The response stability in terms of potential drift was excellent (1.3 µV/h for 20 h of continuous measurement. The ChPBN proved to be an efficient solid contact to enhance the potential stability of the all-solid-state ion-selective electrode.

  18. Thermal physics of gas-thermal coatings formation processes. State of investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fialko, N.M.; Prokopov, V.G.; Meranova, N.O.; Borisov, Yu.S.; Korzhik, V.N.; Sherenkovskaya, G.P.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev

    1993-01-01

    The analysis of state of investigations of gas-thermal coatings formation processes in presented. Classification of approaches to mathematical simulation of thermal phenomena studies is offered. The general characteristics of three main approaches to the analysis of heat transport processes is given. Some problems of mathematical simulation of single particle thermal interaction with solid surface are considered in details. The main physical assumptions are analysed

  19. Low-Cobalt Powder-Metallurgy Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harf, F. H.

    1986-01-01

    Highly-stressed jet-engine parts made with less cobalt. Udimet 700* (or equivalent) is common nickel-based superalloy used in hot sections of jet engines for many years. This alloy, while normally used in wrought condition, also gas-atomized into prealloyed powder-metallurgy (PM) product. Product can be consolidated by hot isostatically pressing (HIPPM condition) and formed into parts such as turbine disk. Such jet-engine disks "see" both high stresses and temperatures to 1,400 degrees F (760 degrees C).

  20. Analytic Debye-Grüneisen equation of state for a generalized Lennard-Jones solids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙久勋; 吴强; 蔡灵仓; 经福谦

    2003-01-01

    The approximate method to treat the practical quantum anharmonic solids proposed by Hardy,Lacks and Shukla is reformulated with explicit physical meanings.It is shown that the quantum effect is important at low temperature,it can be treated in the harmonic framework; and the anharmonic effect is important at high temperature and tends to zero at low temperature,it can be treated by using a classical approximation.The alternative formulation is easier for various applications,and is applied to a Debye-Gruneisen solid with the generalized Lennard-Jones intermolecular interaction.The expressions for the Debye temperature and Gruneisen parameter as a function of volume are analytically derived.The analytic equation of state is applied to predict the thermodynamic properties of solid xenon at normal-pressure with the nearest-neighbour Lennard-Jones interaction,and is further applied to research the properties of solid xenon and krypton at high pressure by using an all-neighbour Lennard-Jones interaction.The theoretical results are in agreement with the experiments.

  1. NSF: A "Populist" Pattern in Metallurgy, Materials Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapley, Deborah

    1975-01-01

    Describes the testimony of a University of Virginia professor of applied science, who charged that the National Science Foundation grants disproportionately small funds to the best university departments in the field of metallurgy and materials, while preferentially funding middle-ranked departments. (MLH)

  2. by a solid-state metathesis approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Department of Mechanical Engineering,. † ... A solid-state metathesis approach initiated by microwave energy has been successfully applied for ... and chemical properties of synthesized powders are determined by powder X-ray diffraction, ...

  3. Topologically distinct classes of valence-bond solid states with their parent Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Honghao; Zhang Guangming; Xiang Tao; Liu Zhengxin; Ng Taikai

    2009-01-01

    We present a general method to construct one-dimensional translationally invariant valence-bond solid states with a built-in Lie group G and derive their matrix product representations. The general strategies to find their parent Hamiltonians are provided so that the valence-bond solid states are their unique ground states. For quantum integer-spin-S chains, we discuss two topologically distinct classes of valence-bond solid states: one consists of two virtual SU(2) spin-J variables in each site and another is formed by using two SO(2S+1) spinors. Among them, a spin-1 fermionic valence-bond solid state, its parent Hamiltonian, and its properties are discussed in detail. Moreover, two types of valence-bond solid states with SO(5) symmetries are further generalized and their respective properties are analyzed as well.

  4. Radiation-chemical aspects of solid state hot atom chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, T.; Collins, K.E.; Collins, C.H.

    1984-01-01

    The study of nuclear hot atom chemical (NHAC) processes occurring in solids is seriously limited by the lack of adequate methods for directly studying the chemical species containing hot atoms. In the present review the effects of ionizing radiation on parent and non-parent yields from solid state targets is surveyed and qualitative interpretations are given. After a few general remarks of the relationship of radiation chemistry to solid state NHAC, a detailed description of the radiation effects is given (radiation annealing, neutron activation, changes in separable yield). (Auth.)

  5. Neutron scattering in applied research: possibilities for medium-flux research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reijonen, H.

    1977-01-01

    The possibilities for neutron scattering techniques in applied research are reviewed. The areas covered are magnetism, determination of hydrogen self-diffusion constants and ionic mobility in superionic conductors, liquid crystals, molecular solids, polymers, surface chemistry and catalysts, colloids biology, physical metallurgy and neutron diagnostics. Established applications and new proposals for research projects are presented in various degrees of detail. Small angle scattering techniques, physical metallurgy and biology were identified as having particular potential. Prospective users should be realistically informed of the possibilities of neutron scattering techniques. (author)

  6. Use of muons beams in material science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chappert, J.

    1984-01-01

    One presents a review on the use of the μSR spectroscopy in studies of the physical and chemical properties of materials: physical metallurgy, electronic and magnetic properties of solids, kinetics of chemical reactions, free radicals, molecules of biological interest [fr

  7. 78 FR 8202 - Meeting of the Joint ACRS Subcommittees on Thermal Hydraulic Phenomena and Materials, Metallurgy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the Joint ACRS Subcommittees on Thermal Hydraulic Phenomena and Materials, Metallurgy and Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The Joint ACRS Subcommittees on Thermal Hydraulic Phenomena and Materials, Metallurgy and...

  8. High-average-power solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    In 1987, a broad-based, aggressive R ampersand D program aimed at developing the technologies necessary to make possible the use of solid state lasers that are capable of delivering medium- to high-average power in new and demanding applications. Efforts were focused along the following major lines: development of laser and nonlinear optical materials, and of coatings for parasitic suppression and evanescent wave control; development of computational design tools; verification of computational models on thoroughly instrumented test beds; and applications of selected aspects of this technology to specific missions. In the laser materials areas, efforts were directed towards producing strong, low-loss laser glasses and large, high quality garnet crystals. The crystal program consisted of computational and experimental efforts aimed at understanding the physics, thermodynamics, and chemistry of large garnet crystal growth. The laser experimental efforts were directed at understanding thermally induced wave front aberrations in zig-zag slabs, understanding fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and optical interactions in gas-cooled slabs, and conducting critical test-bed experiments with various electro-optic switch geometries. 113 refs., 99 figs., 18 tabs

  9. Production of fungal antibiotics using polymeric solid supports in solid-state and liquid fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelis, Ramunas; He, Haiyin; Yang, Hui Y; Chang, Li-Ping; Greenstein, Michael

    2006-10-01

    The use of inert absorbent polymeric supports for cellular attachment in solid-state fungal fermentation influenced growth, morphology, and production of bioactive secondary metabolites. Two filamentous fungi exemplified the utility of this approach to facilitate the discovery of new antimicrobial compounds. Cylindrocarpon sp. LL-Cyan426 produced pyrrocidines A and B and Acremonium sp. LL-Cyan416 produced acremonidins A-E when grown on agar bearing moist polyester-cellulose paper and generated distinctly different metabolite profiles than the conventional shaken or stationary liquid fermentations. Differences were also apparent when tenfold concentrated methanol extracts from these fermentations were tested against antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacteria, and zones of inhibition were compared. Shaken broth cultures of Acremonium sp. or Cylindrocarpon sp. showed complex HPLC patterns, lower levels of target compounds, and high levels of unwanted compounds and medium components, while agar/solid support cultures showed significantly increased yields of pyrrocidines A and B and acremonidins A-E, respectively. This method, mixed-phase fermentation (fermentation with an inert solid support bearing liquid medium), exploited the increase in surface area available for fungal growth on the supports and the tendency of some microorganisms to adhere to solid surfaces, possibly mimicking their natural growth habits. The production of dimeric anthraquinones by Penicillium sp. LL-WF159 was investigated in liquid fermentation using various inert polymeric immobilization supports composed of polypropylene, polypropylene cellulose, polyester-cellulose, or polyurethane. This culture produced rugulosin, skyrin, flavomannin, and a new bisanthracene, WF159-A, after fermentation in the presence and absence of polymeric supports for mycelial attachment. The physical nature of the different support systems influenced culture morphology and relative

  10. Accessing the bottleneck in all-solid state batteries, lithium-ion transport over the solid-electrolyte-electrode interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, C.; Ganapathy, S.; van Eck, Ernst R H; Wang, H.; Basak, S.; Li, Z.; Wagemaker, M.

    2017-01-01

    Solid-state batteries potentially offer increased lithium-ion battery energy density and safety as required for large-scale production of electrical vehicles. One of the key challenges toward high-performance solid-state batteries is the large impedance posed by the electrode-electrolyte

  11. 21. Colloquium on metallurgy. Amorphous alloys and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Twenty-two papers were presented at the 21st colloquium on metallurgy of amorphous alloys and materials. They deal with the applications, the various types, the preparation methods, the structure, the magnetic and thermodynamic properties and the structure defects of the amorphous materials [fr

  12. One step HIP canning of powder metallurgy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhas, John J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A single step is relied on in the canning process for hot isostatic pressing (HIP) powder metallurgy composites. The binders are totally removed while the HIP can of compatible refractory metal is sealed at high vacuum and temperature. This eliminates outgassing during hot isostatic pressing.

  13. Solid-State Spectroscopy An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzmany, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Spectroscopic methods have opened up a new horizon in our knowledge of solid-state materials. Numerous techniques using electromagnetic radiation or charged and neutral particles have been invented and worked out to a high level in order to provide more detailed information on the solids. The text presented here is an updated description of such methods as they were originally presented in the first edition. It covers linear response of solids to electromagnetic radiation in a frequency range extending from megahertz or gigahertz as used in spin resonance spectroscopy, to infrared spectroscopy and various forms of spectroscopy in the visible and near visible spectral range. It extends to spectroscopy in the UV and x-ray spectral range and eventually several spectroscopic methods are addressed in the frequency range of g radiation. Likewise linear response to irradiation with particles such as electrons, positrons, muons, neutrons, and atoms is discussed. Instrumental and technical background is provided as we...

  14. Solid State Electrochemical DeNOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2010-01-01

    The literature on direct electrochemical reduction of NOx in a solid state cell has been reviewed. It is shown that that the reduction of nitric oxide either occurs on the electrode or on the electrolyte if F-centers are formed. It is also shown that some oxide based electrodes has a high apparent...

  15. Solid State Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Hinton, L.W. [eds.

    1994-08-01

    This report covers research progress in the Solid State Division from April 1, 1992, to September 30, 1993. During this period, the division conducted a broad, interdisciplinary materials research program with emphasis on theoretical solid state physics, neutron scattering, synthesis and characterization of materials, ion beam and laser processing, and the structure of solids and surfaces. This research effort was enhanced by new capabilities in atomic-scale materials characterization, new emphasis on the synthesis and processing of materials, and increased partnering with industry and universities. The theoretical effort included a broad range of analytical studies, as well as a new emphasis on numerical simulation stimulated by advances in high-performance computing and by strong interest in related division experimental programs. Superconductivity research continued to advance on a broad front from fundamental mechanisms of high-temperature superconductivity to the development of new materials and processing techniques. The Neutron Scattering Program was characterized by a strong scientific user program and growing diversity represented by new initiatives in complex fluids and residual stress. The national emphasis on materials synthesis and processing was mirrored in division research programs in thin-film processing, surface modification, and crystal growth. Research on advanced processing techniques such as laser ablation, ion implantation, and plasma processing was complemented by strong programs in the characterization of materials and surfaces including ultrahigh resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, atomic-resolution chemical analysis, synchrotron x-ray research, and scanning tunneling microscopy.

  16. Solid State Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Hinton, L.W.

    1994-08-01

    This report covers research progress in the Solid State Division from April 1, 1992, to September 30, 1993. During this period, the division conducted a broad, interdisciplinary materials research program with emphasis on theoretical solid state physics, neutron scattering, synthesis and characterization of materials, ion beam and laser processing, and the structure of solids and surfaces. This research effort was enhanced by new capabilities in atomic-scale materials characterization, new emphasis on the synthesis and processing of materials, and increased partnering with industry and universities. The theoretical effort included a broad range of analytical studies, as well as a new emphasis on numerical simulation stimulated by advances in high-performance computing and by strong interest in related division experimental programs. Superconductivity research continued to advance on a broad front from fundamental mechanisms of high-temperature superconductivity to the development of new materials and processing techniques. The Neutron Scattering Program was characterized by a strong scientific user program and growing diversity represented by new initiatives in complex fluids and residual stress. The national emphasis on materials synthesis and processing was mirrored in division research programs in thin-film processing, surface modification, and crystal growth. Research on advanced processing techniques such as laser ablation, ion implantation, and plasma processing was complemented by strong programs in the characterization of materials and surfaces including ultrahigh resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, atomic-resolution chemical analysis, synchrotron x-ray research, and scanning tunneling microscopy

  17. High-power, solid-state rf source for accelerator cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, D.R.; Mols, G.E.; Reid, D.W.; Potter, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    During the past few years the Defense and Electronics Center of Westinghouse Electric Corporation has developed a solid-state, 250-kW peak, rf amplifier for use with the SPS-40 radar system. This system has a pulse length of 60 μs and operates across the frequency band from 400 to 450 MHz. Because of the potential use of such a system as an rf source for accelerator applications, a collaborative experiment was initiated between Los Alamos National Laboratory and Westinghouse to simulate the resonant load conditions of an accelerator cavity. This paper describes the positive results of that experiment as well as the solid-state amplifier architecture. It also explores the future of high-power, solid-state amplifiers as rf sources for accelerator structures

  18. Fabrication by powder metallurgy of the niobium based alloy Nb-1-Zr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, M.; Delaunay, C.; Walder, A.

    1989-01-01

    The Nb-1Zr alloy has been produced by the powder metallurgy technique. Production of powders was performed by centrifugal atomization with the rotating electrode process (REP) under an inert atmosphere of argon-helium. Alloy powders were characterized by granulometric spectra, oxygen content and the various types of structures which were found. After consolidation by extrusion, materials were evaluated by tensile test under vacuum at ambient temperature, 750 and 900 0 C and compared with the same alloy elaborated by ingot metallurgy. 8 refs., 9 figs. (Author)

  19. High Reversibility of Soft Electrode Materials in All-solid-state Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eSakuda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available All-solid-state batteries using inorganic solid electrolytes (SEs are considered to be ideal batteries for electric vehicles (EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs because they are potentially safer than conventional lithium-ion batteries (LIBs. In addition, all-solid-state batteries are expected to have long battery lives owing to the inhibition of chemical side reactions because only lithium ions move through the typically used inorganic SEs. The development of high-energy (more than 300 Wh kg-1 secondary batteries has been eagerly anticipated for years. The application of high-capacity electrode active materials is essential for fabricating such batteries. Recently, we proposed metal polysulfides as new electrode materials. These materials show higher conductivity and density than sulfur, which is advantageous for fabricating batteries with relatively higher energy density. Lithium niobium sulfides, such as Li3NbS4, have relatively high density, conductivity, and rate capability among metal polysulfide materials, and batteries with these materials have capacities high enough to potentially exceed the gravimetric energy density of conventional LIBs.Favorable solid-solid contact between the electrode and electrolyte particles is a key factor for fabricating high performance all-solid-state batteries. Conventional oxide-based positive electrode materials tend to be given rise to cracks during fabrication and/or charge-discharge processes. Here we report all-solid-state cells using lithium niobium sulfide as a positive electrode material, where favorable solid-solid contact was established by using lithium sulfide electrode materials because of their high processability. Cracks were barely observed in the electrode particles in the all-solid-state cells before or after charging and discharging with a high capacity of approx. 400 mAh g-1, suggesting that the lithium niobium sulfide electrode charged and discharged without experiencing

  20. Preliminary analysis about reducing production costs in uranium mining and metallurgy at Fuzhou uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Sanmao

    1999-01-01

    The production costs in uranium ming and metallurgy have been analyzed quantitatively term by term according to present production situation for The Uranium Mining and Metallurgy Corp, which is part of Fuzhou Uranium Mine. The principal factors influencing on the production costs and the main means reducing the production costs have been found