WorldWideScience

Sample records for metallurgical property challenges

  1. Social and ethical challenges for metallurgical companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajdzik, B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this article is an analysis of one of the most crucial aspects of the contemporary business, which is corporate social responsibility and ethical business. The notion of a socially responsible business signifies the business obligation to contribute to the sustainable economical development by way of working with employees and their families, local communities and the society as a whole in order to improve the quality of their lives. Ethical business means following the principles and standards determining a manner of conducting a given business from the moral point of view. The article contains examples of such challenges that are realised by Arcelor Mittal.

  2. Metallurgical Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to increase basic knowledge of metallurgical processing for controlling the microstructure and mechanical properties of metallic aerospace alloys and...

  3. Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of Various Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Kyu-Sang; Oh, Soram; Kum, KeeYeon; Kim, Yu-Chan; Jee, Kwang-Koo; Chang, Seok Woo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thermomechanical treatment on mechanical and metallurgical properties of nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments. Eight kinds of NiTi rotary instruments with sizes of ISO #25 were selected: ProFile, K3, and One Shape for the conventional alloy; ProTaper NEXT, Reciproc, and WaveOne for the M-wire alloy; HyFlex CM for the controlled memory- (CM-) wire; and TF for the R-phase alloy. Torsional fracture and cyclic fatigue fracture tests were...

  4. Metallurgical Mechanisms Controlling Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloy 2219 Produced By Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domack, Marcia S.; Taminger, Karen M. B.; Begley, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    The electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) layer-additive manufacturing process has been developed to directly fabricate complex geometry components. EBF3 introduces metal wire into a molten pool created on the surface of a substrate by a focused electron beam. Part geometry is achieved by translating the substrate with respect to the beam to build the part one layer at a time. Tensile properties have been demonstrated for electron beam deposited aluminum and titanium alloys that are comparable to wrought products, although the microstructures of the deposits exhibit features more typical of cast material. Understanding the metallurgical mechanisms controlling mechanical properties is essential to maximizing application of the EBF3 process. In the current study, mechanical properties and resulting microstructures were examined for aluminum alloy 2219 fabricated over a range of EBF3 process variables. Material performance was evaluated based on tensile properties and results were compared with properties of Al 2219 wrought products. Unique microstructures were observed within the deposited layers and at interlayer boundaries, which varied within the deposit height due to microstructural evolution associated with the complex thermal history experienced during subsequent layer deposition. Microstructures exhibited irregularly shaped grains, typically with interior dendritic structures, which were described based on overall grain size, morphology, distribution, and dendrite spacing, and were correlated with deposition parameters. Fracture features were compared with microstructural elements to define fracture paths and aid in definition of basic processing-microstructure-property correlations.

  5. Explosion bonding of dissimilar materials for fabricating APS front end components: Analysis of metallurgical and mechanical properties and UHV applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuheng; Shu, Deming; Kuzay, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    The front end beamline section contains photon shutters and fixed masks. These components are made of OFHC copper and GlidCOP AL-15. Stainless steels (304 or 316) are also used for connecting photon shutters and fixed masks to other components that operate in the ultrahigh vacuum system. All these dissimilar materials need to be joined together. However, bonding these dissimilar materials is very difficult because of their different mechanical and thermal properties and incompatible metallurgical properties. Explosion bonding is a bonding method in which the controlled energy of a detonating explosive is used to create a metallurgical bond between two or more similar or dissimilar materials. No intermediate filler metal, for example, a brazing compound or soldering alloy, is needed to promote bonding, and no external heat need be applied. A study of the metallurgical and mechanical properties and YGV applications of GlidCop AL-15, OFHC copper, and 304 stainless steel explosion-bonded joints has been done. This report contains five parts: an ultrasonic examination of explosion-bonded joints and a standard setup; mechanical-property and thermal-cycle tests of GlidCop AL-15/304 stainless steel explosion-bonded joints; leak tests of a GlidCop AL-15/304 stainless steel explosion-bonded interfaces for UHV application; metallurgical examination of explosion-bonded interfaces and failure analysis, and discussion and conclusion

  6. Effect of metallurgical factors on the bulk magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Pampa, E-mail: pampaghosh@gmail.com [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, Que., Canada H3A 0C5 (Canada); Chromik, Richard R., E-mail: richard.chromik@mcgill.ca [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, Que., Canada H3A 0C5 (Canada); Knight, Andrew M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta., Canada T6G 2V4 (Canada); Wakade, Shekhar G. [GM Powertrain, General Motors Company, 823 Joslyn Avenue, Building B, 4AJ35, Pontiac, MI 48340-2920 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Non-oriented electrical steel (NOES) is one of the most common material used in electrical motors. Core loss and permeability are the most important properties that the motor manufacturers look for. Both these properties are structure sensitive and depend on several metallurgical factors; such as chemistry, grain size, crystallographic texture, cleanliness and stress states in non-oriented electrical steels. It has been observed in this course of the study that the grain size and Si content of NOES are the primary controlling factors to core loss, especially at higher frequencies. On the contrary, crystallographic texture plays an important role at lower frequencies. At higher frequency, core loss increases with increasing grain size and decreasing Si content of the steels. Small difference in grain size (∼50 μm) at lower frequency range has little influence on the magnetic properties but has significant adverse effect as frequency reaches high enough. - Highlights: • Magnetic properties of a set of electrical steels were measured. • Crystallographic texture, chemistry and grain size were studied for their effects on core loss and permeability. • Structure–magnetic property relationships were identified for the electrical steels.

  7. ALTERNATIVE BINDERS TO BENTONITE FOR IRON ORE PELLETIZING : PART II : EFFECTS ON METALLURGICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Sivrikaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was started to find alternative binders to bentonite and to recover the low preheated and fired pellet mechanical strengths of organic binders-bonded pellets. Bentonite is considered as a chemical impurity for pellet chemistry due to acid constituents (SiO2 and Al2O3. Especially addition of silica-alumina bearing binders is detrimental for iron ore concentrate with high acidic content. Organic binders are the most studied binders since they are free in silica. Although they yield pellets with good wet strength; they have found limited application in industry since they fail to give sufficient physical and mechanical strength to preheated and fired pellets. It is investigated that how insufficient preheated and fired pellet strengths can be improved when organic binders are used as binder. The addition of a slag bonding/strength increasing constituent (free in acidic contents into pellet feed to provide pellet strength with the use of organic binders was proposed. Addition of boron compounds such as colemanite, tincal, borax pentahydrate, boric acid together with organic binders such as CMC, starch, dextrin and some organic based binders, into magnetite and hematite pellet mixture was tested. After determining the addition of boron compounds is beneficial to recover the low pellet physical and mechanical qualities in the first part of this study, in this second part, metallurgical and chemical properties (reducibility - swelling index – microstructure – mineralogy - chemical content of pellets produced with combined binders (an organic binder plus a boron compound were presented. The metallurgical and chemical tests results showed that good quality product pellets can be produced with combined binders when compared with the bentonite-bonded pellets. Hence, the suggested combined binders can be used as binder in place of bentonite in iron ore pelletizing without compromising the pellet chemistry.

  8. Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of Various Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Sang Shim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thermomechanical treatment on mechanical and metallurgical properties of nickel-titanium (NiTi rotary instruments. Eight kinds of NiTi rotary instruments with sizes of ISO #25 were selected: ProFile, K3, and One Shape for the conventional alloy; ProTaper NEXT, Reciproc, and WaveOne for the M-wire alloy; HyFlex CM for the controlled memory- (CM- wire; and TF for the R-phase alloy. Torsional fracture and cyclic fatigue fracture tests were performed. Products underwent a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analysis. The CM-wire and R-phase groups had the lowest elastic modulus, followed by the M-wire group. The maximum torque of the M-wire instrument was comparable to that of a conventional instrument, while those of the CM-wire and R-phase instruments were lower. The angular displacement at failure (ADF for the CM-wire and R-phase instruments was higher than that of conventional instruments, and ADF of the M-wire instruments was lower. The cyclic fatigue resistance of the thermomechanically treated NiTi instruments was higher. DSC plots revealed that NiTi instruments made with the conventional alloy were primarily composed of austenite at room temperature; stable martensite and R-phase were found in thermomechanically treated instruments.

  9. Effect of glass-ceramic-processing cycle on the metallurgical properties of candidate alloys for actuator housings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weirick, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes the results from an investigation on the effect of a glass ceramic processing cycle on the metallurgical properties of metal candidates for actuator housings. The cycle consists of a 980/sup 0/C sealing step, a 650/sup 0/C crystallization step and a 475/sup 0/C annealing step. These temperatue excursions are within the same temperature regime as annealing and heat treating processes normally employed for metals. Therefore, the effect of the processing cycle on metallurgical properties of microstructure, strength, hardness and ductility were examined. It was found that metal candidates which are single phase or solid solution alloys (such as 21-6-9, Hastelloy C-276 and Inconel 625) were not affected whereas multiphase or precipitation hardened alloys (such as Inconel 718 and Titanium ..beta..-C) were changed by the processing cycle for the glass ceramic.

  10. Effects of different production technologies on mechanical and metallurgical properties of precious metal denture alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Paolo; Battaglia, Eleonora; Capuzzi, Stefano; Berto, Filippo

    2017-12-01

    Precious metal alloys can be supplied in traditional plate form or innovative drop form with high degree of purity. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the influence of precious metal alloy form on metallurgical and mechanical properties of the final dental products with particular reference to metal-ceramic bond strength and casting defects. A widely used alloy for denture was selected; its nominal composition was close to 55 wt% Pd - 34 wt% Ag - 6 wt% In - 3 wt% Sn. Specimens were produced starting from the alloy in both plate and drop forms. A specific test method was developed to obtain results that could be representative of the real conditions of use. In order to achieve further information about the adhesion behaviour and resistance, the fracture surfaces of the samples were observed using `Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)'. Moreover, material defects caused by the moulding process were studied. The form of the alloy before casting does not significantly influence the shear bond strength between the metal and the ceramic material (p-value=0,976); however, according to SEM images, products from drop form alloy show less solidification defects compared to products obtained with plate form alloy. This was attributed to the absence of polluting additives used in the production of drop form alloy. This study shows that the use of precious metal denture alloys supplied in drop form does not affect the metal-ceramic bond strength compared to alloys supplied in the traditional plate form. However, compared to the plate form, the drop form is found free of solidification defects, less expensive to produce and characterized by minor environmental impacts.

  11. Metallurgical coating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, L.C.; Whittaker, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel metallurgical coating system which provides corrosion resistance and non-stick properties to metallic components which are subjected to unusually severe operating conditions. The coating system comprises a first layer comprising tantalum which is deposited upon a substrate and a second layer comprising molybdenum disilicide which is deposited upon the first layer

  12. Characterization of metallurgical and mechanical properties on the multi-pass welding of Inconel 625 and AISI 316L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, K. Gokul; Ramkumar, K. Devendranath; Arivazhagan, N. [VIT University, Vellore (India)

    2015-03-15

    This article investigated the weldability, metallurgical and mechanical properties of Inconel 625 and AISI 316L stainless steel weldments obtained by continuous current (CC) and pulsed current (PC) gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) processes employing ERNiCr-3 and ER2209 fillers. Microstructure studies showed the migrated grain boundaries at the weld zone of ERNiCr-3 weldments and multidirectional grain growth for ER2209 weldments. It was inferred from the tension tests that the fracture occurred at the parent metal of AISI 316L in all the cases. Charpy V-notch impact tests accentuated that the CCGTA weldments employing ERNiCr-3 filler offered better impact toughness of 77 J at room temperature. Further a detailed study has been carried out to analyze the structure - property relationships of these weldments using the combined techniques of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis.

  13. Evaluation of the properties of the CaCO3CaO system for metallurgical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapia, O.; Grijalva, M.; Rodriguez, A.; Formoso, A.

    1999-01-01

    The principal goal of this work, is to make a preliminary and comparative study on the physical chemistry, structural and thermal properties of the metallurgical lime production using experimental, and in some cases industrial measurements. This is important, because the characterization of the CaCO 3 CaO system, predicts the dissolution grade of the lime on the slag solution in the steel making. The mineral is located on the border of Michoacan (Lazaro Cardenas)and the Guerrero states (La Union) Mexico. This study evidences limited properties of this lime, which is due to the thermal and physical chemistry behaviour of the obtained results of this material. However, it is necessary to make a study in the future about the kinetic behavior during decomposition. This is necessary because it is important to obtain an increase in the basic oxides concentration and a decrease in the loss of ignition, which is important for the competitive lime production. (Author) 25 refs

  14. Effect of metallurgical factors on the magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steels under PWM excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.; Yashiki, H.; Takada, S.; Sasaki, T.

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steel sheets under PWM voltage excitation as well as those under sinusoidal excitation have been investigated from a metallurgical point of view. The core loss under PWM excitation is slightly larger than that under sinusoidal excitation. The induction dependence of the core loss difference between the two excitation conditions changes by changing Si content and grain size. The higher the induction, the larger the core loss difference of 0.2% Si steel with small grains. In the case of higher Si steels and 0.2% Si steel with large grain sizes, however, the core loss difference at inductions over 1.3 T decreases with increasing induction. At low induction levels the core loss difference has little relationship to the grain size. On the other hand, at high induction levels this difference decreases with increasing grain size. ((orig.))

  15. Effect of groove design on mechanical and metallurgical properties of quenched and tempered low alloy abrasion resistant steel welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Varun; Shahi, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of weld groove design on Q and T steel welded joints is investigated. • Groove design influences heat dissipation characteristics of welded joints. • Double-V groove joint possesses maximum yield strength and UTS. • C-groove joint possesses highest impact energy, both at room temperature and 0 °C. • A wide variation in microhardness exists across different zone of the weldments. - Abstract: Experimental investigations were carried out to study the influence of three different groove designs on mechanical and metallurgical properties of 15 mm thick Q and T (quenched and tempered) steel welded joints. Welding heat input variation corresponding to each joint configuration was kept to a minimal such that the objective of investigating, exclusively, the effect of varied weld volume on the mechanical and metallurgical performance of these joints could be accomplished. Mechanical performance of these joints was evaluated by subjecting them to transverse tensile testing, and Charpy V-notch impact testing of the weld zones at room temperature and 0 °C. The results of this study reveal that among all types of groove formations used for welding, double-V groove joint possessed maximum YS (yield strength) and UTS (ultimate tensile strength), besides maximum strength ratio (YS/UTS) that was followed by U-groove joint and C-groove joint, respectively. However, weld zone tested individually, for the cover as well as the root pass of the C-groove joint possessed highest CVN (Charpy V-notch) values, both at room temperature and 0 °C. Extensive microhardness studies of these weldments showed a wide variation in the microhardness values of the weld zone and the HAZ (heat affected zone). It was concluded that each groove formation/design exerted a significant influence on the heat dissipation characteristics of these joints, which is evident from different morphological features as revealed through optical microscopy. Scanning electron microscopic

  16. Effect of an Excess of Iron and Hydriding on the Metallurgical Properties of Zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghilarducci, Ada; Ramos, R; Martin, E; Peretti, Hernan; Corso Hugo

    2000-01-01

    Results are presented of mechanical properties and microstructure morphologies obtained in samples of zircaloy-4 of modified composition by an excess in the content of alloying elements as well as hydrides.This work is focused mainly on the effect of 1000 wt. ppm additional Fe as compared to the standard composition alloy.The study is carried out by means of tensile tests at room temperature and at 240 0 C, by hardness tests, by SEM observations and EDS microanalysis.The results indicate that precipitates concentrate along grain boundaries in all cases, and that for higher contents of alloying elements corresponds a higher quantity of precipitates and smaller grain sizes.Except for the hydrided sample, the fracture is ductile with cavities nucleated at precipitates. Finally it is concluded that an increase in Fe content affect the mechanical properties

  17. Metallurgical characteristics and fracture mechanical properties of unirradiated Kori-1 RPV weld: Linde 80, WF-233

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jun Hwa; Lee, B. S.; Oh, Y. J.; Chi, S. H.; Kim, J. H.; Park, D. G.; Yoon, J. H.; Oh, J. M.

    2000-07-01

    The fracture toughness transition properties of the low upper shelf weld, Linde 80 WF-233, of Kori-1 RPV were evaluated by the master curve method, which is designated by ASTM E 1921, 'Standard test method for determination of reference temperature, T o , for ferritic steels in the transition range'. The reference temperature, T o =-83 deg C, was determined by PCVN specimens at -90 deg C. This value is similar to that of other high copper welds. The initial RT NDT was conservatively estimated as -26 deg F from the current fracture toughness results. From the studies on the chemistry and microstructure, the fracture mechanical properties of WF-233 weld is convincingly not worse than WF-70 and 72W welds

  18. Plasma technology in metallurgical processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haile, O.

    1995-12-31

    This literature work is mainly focusing on the mechanisms of plasma technology and telling about metallurgical processing, particularly iron and steelmaking as well as the advantage of the unique properties of plasma. The main advantages of plasma technology in metallurgical operations is to direct utilization of naturally available raw materials and fuels without costly upgrading andlor beneficiation, improved environmental impact, improve process control, significant amplification of reactor and process equipment utilization and increased efficiency of raw materials, energy and man power. This literature survey is based on the publication `plasma technology in metallurgical processing` presents a comprehensive account of the physical, electrical, and mechanical aspects of plasma production and practical processing. The applications of plasma technology in metallurgical processing are covered in depth with special emphasis on developments in promising early stages. Plasma technology of today is mature in the metallurgical process applications. A few dramatic improvements are expected in the near future this giving an impetus to the technologists for the long range planning. (18 refs.) (author)

  19. Superconducting properties of powder-metallurgically produced Cu-Nb3Sn composite wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaper, W.; Wecker, J.; Heine, K.; Bormann, R.; Freyhardt, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    The critical current density of composite superconducting wires can be improved by ternary or quaternary additions. If these additions are incorporated into the A15 phase the upper critical field can be increased. An increase in this field, however, can only be realized if the additions do not strongly deteriorate the critical temperature. An enhanced upper critical field in connection with a favorable grain size of the A15 phase finally leads to improved critical current densities in the entire field range. With these parameters as guidelines, the effects of Ti, In, Ga, and Ge additions to the bronze and of Ta additions to the niobium on the superconducting properties of PM produced Cu-Nb 3 Sn wires were investigated

  20. TMI-2 VIP Metallurgical Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.; Neimark, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of the TMI-2 VIP Metallurgical Program are to conduct metallurgical examinations and mechanical-property tests on samples of material removed from the lower head of the TMI-2 nuclear reactor in order to deduce the temperatures, determine the mechanical properties, and assess the integrity of the TMI-2 lower head during the loss-of-coolant accident. The TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project Metallurgical Program is a part of the international TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project being conducted jointly by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Participants in the international project include the US, Japan, the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), Finland, France, Italy, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom (UK). Fifteen samples have been removed from the lower head and are being examined. Mechanical tests will be conducted on specimens cut from these lower head samples. In addition, archive material from the lower head of the Midland nuclear reactor has been procured for conducting supplemental metallurgical evaluations and mechanical-property determinations. The information obtained from these examinations and tests, supplemented by results obtained from parallel examinations of instrument nozzles, guide tubes, and core debris at Argonne National Laboratory and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory will be used to deduce a scenario for the loss-of-coolant accident and assess the integrity of the lower head during the accident

  1. From metallurgical coatings to surface engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sproul, William D.

    2003-01-01

    The history of the Vacuum Metallurgy Division (VMD), which is now the Advanced Surface Engineering Division (ASED), of the American Vacuum Society is reviewed briefly. The focus of the VMD moved from vacuum melting of materials to metallurgical coatings. The division sponsored two conferences, the Conference on Vacuum Metallurgy and the International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings. As the interest in vacuum metallurgy eventually subsided, interest grew in the deposition of metallurgical coatings. However, the emphasis at the Metallurgical Coatings conference has changed from just depositing coatings to surface engineering of a component. Today, the challenge is to use the tools of surface engineering with advances in deposition technology such as high-power pulsed sputtering. To align itself with the changing interests of the majority of its members, the VMD changed its name to the ASED

  2. Development of advanced high strength tantalum base alloys. Phase 3: Influence of metallurgical condition on the mechanical properties of ASTAR-811C sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammon, R. L.; Buckman, R. W., Jr.; Harrod, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Metallurgical condition was shown to have a significant effect on the creep properties of ASTAR-811C (Ta-8W-1Re-0.7Hf-0.025C) sheet. Cold worked material exhibited creep rates 30 times higher than solution annealed material and 10 times greater than for recrystallized material. Both grain size and the carbide morphology changes as the final annealing temperature was raised from 3000 F to 3600 F. However, the lowest creep rates were achieved for material which retained the high temperature form of the Ta2C precipitate. Samples with GTA weldments had essentially identical properties as recrystallized base metal. Cooling rates from 3600 F of 5, 50, and 800 F deg/min. had little effect on the 2000 and 2400 F creep behavior of ASTAR-811C.

  3. Metallurgical and mechanical properties of Inconel 600 and stellite; Estudio del comportamiento mecanico-metalurgico de alceacion inconel 600 y estelita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cstillo, Martin; Villa, Gabriel; Vite, Manuel [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Palacios, Francisco [Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Nuclear (ININ), Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Hernandez, Luis H; Urriolagoita, Guillermo [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-01-15

    The present work studies the metallurgical and mechanical properties of two alloys, Inconel 600 and stellite, which are within the group of high hardness alloys or superalloys, which are deposited through the electrical weld process to the metallic arc with coated electrode (SMAW) and thereinafter analyzed through electron microscopy, diffractometry and abrasion, Impact and hardness test. The relationship between the microstructure and the final properties of the coating (hardness and abrasion wear resistance) was observed. [Spanish] Este trabajo presenta el estudio sobre las propiedades metalurgicas y mecanicas de dos aleaciones, inconel 600 y estelita, clasificadas dentro del grupo de aleaciones de alta dureza o superaleaciones; las cuales fueron depositadas mediante el proceso de soldadura electrica al arco metalico con electrodo revestido (SMAW) y fueron analizadas mediante microscopia electronica (SEM), difractometria pruebas de abrasion, impacto y dureza. Se observo la relacion entre la microstructura y las propiedades del recubrimiento, como son: dureza, resistencia a la abrasion, resistencia al impacto, ente otras.

  4. Effect of high hydrogen content on metallurgical and mechanical properties of zirconium alloy claddings after heat-treatment at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turque, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Under hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident conditions, fuel cladding tubes made of zirconium alloys can be exposed to steam at high temperature (HT, up 1200 C) before being cooled and then quenched in water. In some conditions, after burst occurrence the cladding can rapidly absorb a significant amount of hydrogen (secondary hydriding), up to 3000 wt.ppm locally, during steam exposition at HT. The study deals with the effect, poorly studied up to date, of high contents of hydrogen on the metallurgical and mechanical properties of two zirconium alloys, Zircaloy-4 and M5, during and after cooling from high temperatures, at which zirconium is in its β phase. A specific facility was developed to homogeneously charge in hydrogen up to ∼ 3000 wt.ppm cladding tube samples of several centimeters in length. Phase transformations, chemical element partitioning and hydrogen precipitation during cooling from the β temperature domain of zirconium were studied by using several techniques, for the materials containing up to ∼ 3000 wt.ppm of hydrogen in average: in-situ neutron diffraction upon cooling from 700 C, X-ray diffraction, μ-ERDA, EPMA and electron microscopy in particular. The results were compared to thermodynamic predictions. In order to study the effect of high hydrogen contents on the mechanical behavior of the (prior-)μ phase of zirconium, axial tensile tests were performed at various temperatures between 20 and 700 C upon cooling from the β temperature domain, on samples with mean hydrogen contents up to ∼ 3000 wt.ppm. The results show that metallurgical and mechanical properties of the (prior-)β phase of zirconium alloys strongly depend on temperature and hydrogen content. (author) [fr

  5. Effect of friction time on mechanical and metallurgical properties of continuous drive friction welded Ti6Al4V/SUS321 joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Peng; Li, Jinglong; Salman, Muhammad; Liang, Li; Xiong, Jiangtao; Zhang, Fusheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of friction time on the microstructure and joint strength was studied. • The fit of burn-off lengths at different times yields a simple equation. • The longer friction time leads to oversized flash in Ti6Al4V side and overgrown IMCs. • An IMZ with width less than 3 μm is beneficial to make a strong metallurgical bond. • The average strength of 560 MPa is obtained and higher than ever reported results. - Abstract: Dissimilar joint of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy and SUS321 stainless steel was fabricated by continuous drive friction welding. The effect of friction time on the mechanical properties was evaluated by hardness measurement and tensile test, while the interfacial microstructure and fracture morphologies were analyzed by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscope and X-ray Diffraction. The results show that the tensile strength increases with friction time under the experimental conditions. And the maximum average strength 560 MPa, which is 90.3% of the SUS321 base metal, is achieved at a friction time of 4 s. For all samples, studied fracture occurred along the joint interface, where intermetallic compounds like FeTi, Fe 2 Ti, Ni 3 (Al, Ti) and Fe 3 Ti 3 O and many other phases were formed among elements from the two base metals. The width of intermetallic compounds zone increases with friction time up to 3 μm, below which it is beneficial to make a strong metallurgical bond. However, the longer friction time leads to oversized flash on the Ti6Al4V side and overgrown intermetallic compounds. Finally the optimized friction time was discussed to be in the range of 2–4 s, under which the sound joint with good reproducibility can be expected

  6. A comparative evaluation of metallurgical properties of stainless steel and TMA archwires with timolium and titanium niobium archwires - An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalakshmi R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aims to evaluate and compare the mechanical and metallurgical properties of stainless steel and titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA archwires, with recently introduced timolium and titanium niobium arch wires. Materials and Methods: Archwires were categorized into four groups (group I to IV with 10 samples in each group. They were evaluated for tensile strength, yield strength, modulus of elasticity, load deflection, frictional properties and weld characteristics. Results: The results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA test and it indicated that stainless steel has high strength, high stiffness and low friction compared to other arch wires, thereby proving that it is the best choice for both sliding as well as frictionless retraction mechanics. TMA with its high formability, low stiffness and low load deflection property is suited to apply consistent force in malaligned teeth but, high friction limits its use in retraction only with loop mechanics. Conclusion: Timolium possesses comparatively low stiffness, better strength and behaves as an intermediate between stainless steel and TMA and hence can be tried for almost all clinical situations. Low springback and high formability of titanium-niobium archwire allows creation of finishing bends and thus it can be used as finishing archwire.

  7. THE ROLE OF SHIELDING GAS ON MECHANICAL, METALLURGICAL AND CORROSION PROPERTIES OF CORTEN STEEL WELDED JOINTS OF RAILWAY COACHES USING GMAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byju John

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This analysis lays emphasis on finding a suitable combination of shielding gas for welding underframe members such as sole bar of Railway Coaches made of corten steel; for improved mechanical, metallurgical and corrosion properties of welds using copper coated solid MIG/MAG welding filler wire size 1.2 mm conforming to AWS/SFA 5.18 ER 70 S in Semi-automatic GMAW process. Solid filler wire is preferred by welders due to less fumes, practically no slag and easy manipulation of welding torch with smooth wire flow during corrosion repair attention, when compared to Flux cored wire. Three joints using Gas metal arc welding (GMAW with shielding gases viz., Pure CO2, (80% Ar – 20% CO2 and (90% Ar – 10% CO2 were made from test pieces cut from Sole bar material of Railway Coach. Study of Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, hardness and toughness revealed that welded joint made using shielding gas (80% Ar – 20% CO2 has better Mechanical properties compared to the other two shielding gases and comparable to that of Parent metal. Type of Shielding gas used has influence on the chemical composition and macro & micro structures. The Tafel extrapolation study of freshly ground samples in 3.5% NaCl solution revealed that the welded joint made using shielding gas (80% Ar – 20% CO2 has also better corrosion resistance which is comparable to the Parent metal as well as similar commercial steels.

  8. Al/Cu Dissimilar Friction Stir Welding with Ni, Ti, and Zn Foil as the Interlayer for Flow Control, Enhancing Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Prakash Kumar; Pal, Sukhomay; Pal, Surjya K.

    2017-07-01

    This research investigates the effects of Ni, Ti, and Zn foil as interlayer, inserted between the faying edges of Al and Cu plates, for controlled intermetallic compound (IMC) formation. The weld tensile strength with Ti and Zn as interlayer is superior to Al base metal strength. This is due to controlled flow of IMCs by diffused Ti interlayer and thin, continuous, and uniform IMC formation in the case of Zn interlayer. Improved flexural stress was observed with interlayer. Weld microhardness varied with different interlayers and purely depends on IMCs present at the indentation point, flow of IMCs, and interlayer hardness. Specimens with interlayer failed at the interface of the nugget and thermomechanical-affected zone (TMAZ) with complete and broken three-dimensional (3-D) grains, indicating transgranular fracture. Phase analysis revealed that Al/Cu IMCs are impeded by Ni and Ti interlayer. The minor binary and ternary IMC phases form adjacent to the interlayer due to diffusion of the material with Al/Cu. Line scan and elemental mapping indicate thin, continuous, and uniform IMCs with enhanced weld metallurgical and mechanical properties for the joints with Zn interlayer. Macrostructural analysis revealed IMC flow variations with and without interlayer. Variation in grain size at different zones is also observed for different interlayers.

  9. TiNi shape memory alloys: effects of the fabrication route, the oxygen content and the zirconium or hafnium additions on the metallurgical characteristics and the thermomechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olier, P.

    1996-01-01

    In order to promote the development of Ti-Ni shape memory alloys, we have studied the correlation between the fabrication route, the chemical composition (O 2 content, Zr or Hf additions), the metallurgical characteristics and the thermomechanical properties. A conventional sintering does not allow to obtain a homogeneous compound of pure Ti 50 Ni 50 alloy because of the occurrence of Kirkendall porosities which act as a diffusion barrier. An original process including combustion synthesis and hot-extrusion was successfully developed. Resulting products exhibit a smaller grain size (15-20μm) and an enhanced workability in comparison with products obtained by arc-melting and subsequent hot rolling. The presence of oxygen in equiatomic Ti-Ni alloy induces the oxide precipitation of Ti 4 Ni 2 O x type (with x ≤ 1). The precipitated particle fraction is proportional to the oxygen nominal content of the alloy. We show that the decrease of the transformation temperatures is correlated with the decrease of Ti in solid solution due to Ti 4 Ni 2 O precipitation. Moreover, we find that a fine and homogenous oxide dispersion is suitable to decrease the grain size during hot rolling and to enhance to the one way shape memory properties. An increase of the typical transformation temperatures is obtained through of Zr or Hf (in substitution to Ti). But, an increase of the hardness is measured, and consequently the workability of the ternary alloys becomes reduced. However, it is worthwhile to point out that a Ti 38 Ni 50 Hf 12 product obtained by arc melting and hot extrusion is able to fully recover an apparent plastic strain of more than 4% during tensile tests performed under special loading conditions. Such as behaviour is of great interest with respect to potential applications in a temperature range higher that 100 deg. C. (author)

  10. Effect of Surface Densification on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Powder Metallurgical Gears by Using a Surface Rolling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingguang Peng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Powder metallurgy (PM components are widely used in the auto industry due to the advantage of net-shape forming, low cost, and high efficiency. Still, usage of PM components is limited in the auto industry when encountering rigorous situations, like heavy load, due to lower strength, hardness, wear resistance, and other properties compared to wrought components due to the existence of massive pores in the PM components. In this study, through combining the powder metallurgy process and rolling process, the pores in the PM components were decreased and a homogenous densified layer was formed on the surface, which resulted in the enhancement of the strength, hardness, wear resistance, and other properties, which can expand its range of application. In this paper, we study the impact of different rolling feeds on the performance of the components’ surfaces. We found that with the increase of the rolling feed, the depth of the densified layer increased.

  11. Metallurgical properties of reduced activation martensitic steel Eurofer'97 in the as-received condition and after thermal ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, P.; Lancha, A.M.; Lapena, J.; Serrano, M.; Hernandez-Mayoral, M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the microstructural studies and the mechanical testing (hardness, tensile and charpy tests) performed on the Eurofer'97 steel in the as-received condition and after thermal ageing treatments up to 600 deg. C. In addition, fracture toughness tests on the as-received condition have been carried out in order to determine the Master Curve. During the thermal ageing treatments studied (500 deg. C/5000 h and 600 deg. C/1000 h) the general microstructure of the steel (tempered martensite with M 23 C 6 and MX precipitates) remained stable. Only a slight growth of the particles has been observed. In terms of mechanical properties, the Eurofer'97 steel exhibited similar values of tensile properties (tensile and yield strength) and ductile-brittle transition temperature regardless of the material condition studied.

  12. Influence of shielding gas on the mechanical and metallurgical properties of DP-GMA-welded 5083-H321 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koushki, Amin Reza; Goodarzi, Massoud; Paidar, Moslem

    2016-12-01

    In the present research, 6-mm-thick 5083-H321 aluminum alloy was joined by the double-pulsed gas metal arc welding (DP-GMAW) process. The objective was to investigate the influence of the shielding gas composition on the microstructure and properties of GMA welds. A macrostructural study indicated that the addition of nitrogen and oxygen to the argon shielding gas resulted in better weld penetration. Furthermore, the tensile strength and bending strength of the welds were improved when oxygen and nitrogen (at concentrations as high as approximately 0.1vol%) were added to the shielding gas; however, these properties were adversely affected when the oxygen and nitrogen contents were increased further. This behavior was attributed to the formation of excessive brown and black oxide films on the bead surface, the formation of intermetallic compounds in the weld metal, and the formation of thicker oxide layers on the bead surface with increasing nitrogen and oxygen contents in the argon-based shielding gas. Analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that most of these compounds are nitrides or oxides.

  13. Analytical control in metallurgical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coedo, A.G.; Dorado, M.T.; Padilla, I.

    1998-01-01

    This paper illustrates the role of analysis in enabling metallurgical industry to meet quality demands. For example, for the steel industry the demands by the automotive, aerospace, power generation, tinplate packaging industries and issue of environment near steel plants. Although chemical analysis technology continues to advance, achieving improved speed, precision and accuracy at lower levels of detection, the competitiveness of manufacturing industry continues to drive property demands at least at the same rate. Narrower specification ranges, lower levels of residual elements and economic pressures prescribe faster process routes, all of which lead to increased demands on the analytical function. These damands are illustrated by examples from several market sectors in which customer issues are considered together with ther analytical implications. (Author) 5 refs

  14. Powder metallurgical processing of equiatomic AlCoCrFeNi high entropy alloy: Microstructure and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, S.; Maity, T.N.; Mukhopadhyay, S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Sarkar, S. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Gurao, N.P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Bhowmick, S. [Hysitron Inc., Eden Prairie, MN 55344 (United States); Biswas, Krishanu, E-mail: kbiswas@iitk.ac.in [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2017-01-02

    Phase formation, microstructural evolution and the mechanical properties of novel multi-component equiatomic AlCoCrFeNi high entropy alloy synthesized by high energy ball milling followed by spark plasma sintering have been reported here. The microstructure of the mechanically alloyed (MA) powder and sintered samples were studied using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy, whereas the detailed investigation of the mechanical properties of the sintered samples were measured using micro and nano hardness techniques. The fracture toughness measurements were performed by applying single edge V notch beam (SEVNB) technique. The MA powder shows the presence of FCC (τ) and BCC (κ) solid solution phases. Extended ball milling (up to 60 h) does not change the phases present in MA powder. The sintered pellets show phase-separated microstructure consisting of Al-Ni rich L1{sub 2} phase, α′ and tetragonal Cr-Fe-Co based σ phase along with Al-Ni-Co-Fe FCC solid solution phase (ε) for sample sintered from 973 to 1273 K. The experimental evidences indicate that BCC (κ) solid solution undergoes eutectoid transformation during sintering leading to the formation of L1{sub 2} ordered α′ and σ phases, whereas FCC (τ) phase remains unaltered with a slight change in the lattice parameter. The hardness of the sample increases with sintering temperature and a sudden rise in hardness is observed 1173 K. The sample sintered at 1273 K shows the highest hardness of ~8 GPa. The elastic modulus mapping clearly indicates the presence of three phases having elastic moduli of about 300, 220 and 160 GPa. The fracture toughness obtained using SEVNB test shows a maximum value of 3.9 MPa m{sup 1/2}, which is attributed to the presence of brittle nanosized σ phase precipitates. It is proposed that significant increase in the fraction of σ phase precipitates and eutectoid transformation of the τ phase contribute to increase in hardness along with

  15. Effect of Carbon Content on the Properties of Iron-Based Powder Metallurgical Parts Produced by the Surface Rolling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the rolling densification process has become increasingly widely used to strengthen powder metallurgy parts. The original composition of the rolled powder metallurgy blank has a significant effect on the rolling densification technology. The present work investigated the effects of different carbon contents (0 wt. %, 0.2 wt. %, 0.45 wt. %, and 0.8 wt. % on the rolling densification. The selection of the raw materials in the surface rolling densification process was analyzed based on the pore condition, structure, hardness, and friction performance of the materials. The results show that the 0.8 wt. % carbon content of the surface rolling material can effectively improve the properties of iron-based powder metallurgy parts. The samples with 0.8 wt. % carbon have the highest surface hardness (340 HV0.1 and the lowest surface friction coefficient (0.35. Even if the dense layer depth is 1.13 mm, which is thinner than other samples with low carbon content, it also meets the requirements for powder metallurgy parts such as gears used in the auto industry.

  16. Development of welding technology for improving the metallurgical and mechanical properties of 21st century nickel based superalloy 686

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arulmurugan, B. [School of Mechanical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India); KPR Institute of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore (India); Manikandan, M., E-mail: mano.manikandan@gmail.com [School of Mechanical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India)

    2017-04-13

    Alloy 686 is a highly corrosion resistant 21st-Century Nickel based superalloy derived from Ni-Cr-Mo ternary system. The alloying elements chromium (Cr) and molybdenum (Mo) are added to improve the resistance to corrosion in the broad range of service environment. The presence of a higher percentage of alloying elements Cr and Mo lead to microsegregation and end up with hot cracking in the fusion zone of Nickel-based superalloys. However, there is scanty of information regarding the welding of alloy 686 with respect to the microsegregation of alloying elements. The present study investigates the possibility of bringing down the microsegregation to cut down the formation of secondary phases in the fusion zone. The weld joints were fabricated by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) and Pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (PCGTAW) with ERNiCrMo-10 filler and without filler wire (autogenous) mode. The microstructural properties of the weld joints were studied with optical and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The joints fabricated by pulsed current (PC) technique shows refined microstructure, narrower weld bead and practically no heat affected zone (HAZ). Scanning Electron Microscope demonstrates the presence of secondary phases in the interdendritic regions of GTAW case. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis was carried out to evaluate the microsegregation of alloying element. The results show that the segregation of Mo noticed in the interdendritic zone of GTAW both autogenous and filler wire. Tensile and Impact tests were done to evaluate the strength, ductility, and toughness of the weld joints. The results show that the PCGTA helps to obtain improved strength, ductility and toughness of the weld joints compared to their respective GTAW. Bend test did not lead to cracking irrespective of the type of welding adopted in the present study.

  17. Metallurgical applications: fractography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meny, L.

    1978-01-01

    The principal metallurgical uses of the scanning electron microscope and the microprobe described here employ images obtained on a CRT from an electron signal or X rays. The various electron signals are the back scattered electrons, secondary electrons and absorbed electrons. The differences in the intensity of thee signals with the acceleration tension E 0 , the inclination angle β, the atomic number Z of the target and any potential applied to the sample give rise to contrasts: atomic number contrast, given by the sample current or the back scattered electrons; topographical contrast, given by the emission of the secondary electrons Δ that vary with α (the angle between the normal to the surface and the direction of the incident beam) [fr

  18. Metallurgical plasma torches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapovalov, V.A.; Latash, Yu.V.

    2000-01-01

    The technological equipment for the plasma heating of metals, plasma melting and plasma treatment of the surface is usually developed on the basis of are plasma torches using direct or alternating current. The reasons which partly restrict the industrial application of the plasma torches are the relatively short service life of the electrode (cathode) on which the arc is supported, and the contamination of the treated metal with the products of failure of the electrode. The aim of this work was to determine the reasons for the occurrence of negative phenomena observed in the process of service of plasma torches, and propose suitable approaches to the design of metallurgical plasma torches characterised by a long service life

  19. Crisis management in metallurgical enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of report analysis which presents situation in metallurgical sector after 2008 the range of changes implemented in management of metallurgical enterprises was characterised. A definition approach to crisis management was suggested as the process when the enterprise is managed during the breakdown period in market condition of the economy in the way directed towards preventing the negative effects of crisis inside enterprises. The publication presents the key aspects of enterprise management in the period of collapse of the balance between the supply and demand on the metallurgical market.

  20. TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project Metallurgical Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.; Neimark, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    The TMI-2 [Three Mile Island unit 2] Vessel Investigation Project Metallurgical Program at Argonne National Laboratory is a part of the international TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project being conducted jointly by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The overall project consists of three phases, namely (1) recovery of material samples from the lower head of the TMI-2 reactor, (2) examination and analysis of the lower head samples and the preparation and testing of archive material subjected to a similar thermal history, and (3) procurement, examination, and analysis of companion core material located adjacent to or near the lower head material. The specific objectives of the ANL Metallurgical Program, which accounts for a major portion of Phase 2, are to prepare metallographic and mechanical test specimen blanks from the TMI-2 lower head material, prepare similar test specimen blanks from suitable archive material subjected to the appropriate thermal processing, determine the mechanical properties of the lower vessel head and archive materials under the conditions of the core-melt accident, and assess the lower head integrity and margin-to-failure during the accident. The ANL work consists of three tasks: (1) archive materials program, (2) fabrication of metallurgical and mechanical test specimens from the TMI-2 pressure vessel samples, and (3) mechanical property characterization of TMI-2 lower pressure vessel head and archive material

  1. HIT Solar Cells with N-Type Low-Cost Metallurgical Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A conversion efficiency of 20.23% of heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT solar cell on 156 mm × 156 mm metallurgical Si wafer has been obtained. Applying AFORS-HET software simulation, HIT solar cell with metallurgical Si was investigated with regard to impurity concentration, compensation level, and their impacts on cell performance. It is known that a small amount of impurity in metallurgical Si materials is not harmful to solar cell properties.

  2. Cleaner metallurgical industry in Serbia: a road to the sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Panias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the sustainable development has been a global and fundamental objecttive, a metallurgical industrial sector faces some of the most difficult sustainability challenges of any industrial sector. On the other hand, the metallurgical production in Serbia is a very important part of the economy. Due to present facilities and technologies, metallurgical companies face a great challenge to fulfill the requirements introduced by legislature referring to the cleaner production and sustainable development. The state of art in the production, facilities, pollution with some answers to imposed challenges is presented.

  3. Proceedings of papers. 3. Balkan Metallurgical Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickovski, Jovan

    2003-01-01

    This Conference aims to be a central event in the metallurgy research of Balkan, fulfilling the goals to present the most outstanding relevant developments in modern metallurgy; to inspire high standards of excellence in pure and applied metallurgy research; to attract outstanding scientists to present central lectures on modem metallurgical research, and on the challenges imposed by the needs of society; to inspire the young generation of metallurgists in Balkan and other countries. Following these lines, the 3. Balkan Conference on Metallurgy will provide a unique opportunity for academic and industrial metallurgists from the Balkan countries and wider, to exchange ideas, expertise, and experience on topics related to the theme of the Conference - Balkan Metallurgy in Search for New Ways of Development. The aim of the organizers was to bring together distinguished experts, not only to present their work, but also to discuss the major scientific and technological challenges facing metallurgy in this millennium.The 6 sections of the conference were entitled: Section A: Extractive metallurgy; Section B: Physical metallurgy and materials science - ferrous metals and non ferrous metals; Section C: Management, maintenance control and optimization of metallurgical processes; Section D: New technologies and techniques; Section E: Refractory and powder; Section F: Corrosion and protection of metals. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  4. Investigation of metallurgical coatings for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jun Feng

    Metallurgical coatings have been widely used in the automotive industry from component machining, engine daily running to body decoration due to their high hardness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance and low friction coefficient. With high demands in energy saving, weight reduction and limiting environmental impact, the use of new materials such as light Aluminum/magnesium alloys with high strength-weight ratio for engine block and advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) with better performance in crash energy management for die stamping, are increasing. However, challenges are emerging when these new materials are applied such as the wear of the relative soft light alloys and machining tools for hard AHSS. The protective metallurgical coatings are the best option to profit from these new materials' advantages without altering largely in mass production equipments, machinery, tools and human labor. In this dissertation, a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating processing on aluminum alloys was introduced in engine cylinder bores to resist wear and corrosion. The tribological behavior of the PEO coatings under boundary and starve lubrication conditions was studied experimentally and numerically for the first time. Experimental results of the PEO coating demonstrated prominent wear resistance and low friction, taking into account the extreme working conditions. The numerical elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) and asperity contact based tribological study also showed a promising approach on designing low friction and high wear resistant PEO coatings. Other than the fabrication of the new coatings, a novel coating evaluation methodology, namely, inclined impact sliding tester was presented in the second part of this dissertation. This methodology has been developed and applied in testing and analyzing physical vapor deposition (PVD)/ chemical vapor deposition (CVD)/PEO coatings. Failure mechanisms of these common metallurgical hard coatings were systematically

  5. Cermet crucible for metallurgical processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boring, Christopher P.

    1995-01-01

    A cermet crucible for metallurgically processing metals having high melting points comprising a body consisting essentially of a mixture of calcium oxide and erbium metal, the mixture comprising calcium oxide in a range between about 50 and 90% by weight and erbium metal in a range between about 10 and 50% by weight.

  6. Job Prospects for Metallurgical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    Job prospects in mining, metal-extraction, steel, and refining industries are depressed, but technological discoveries are opening up new fields for metallurgical engineers. Enrollment/employment opportunities and salaries in these areas are discussed a well as the roles of foreign competition, plastics applications, and ceramics research and…

  7. Effects of various tool pin profiles on mechanical and metallurgical properties of friction stir welded joints of cryorolled AA2219 aluminium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal Babu, Karupannan; Panneerselvam, Kavan; Sathiya, Paulraj; Noorul Haq, Abdul Haq; Sundarrajan, Srinivasan; Mastanaiah, Potta; Srinivasa Murthy, Chunduri Venkata

    2018-02-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) process was conducted on cryorolled (CR) AA2219 plate using different tool pin profiles such as cylindrical pin, threaded cylindrical pin, square pin and hexagonal pin profiles. The FSW was carried out with pairs of 6 mm thick CR aluminium plates with different tool pin profiles. The different tool pin profile weld portions' behaviors like mechanical (tensile strength, impact and hardness) and metallurgical characteristics were analyzed. The results of the mechanical analysis revealed that the joint made by the hexagonal pin tool had good strength compared to other pin profiles. This was due to the pulsating action and material flow of the tool resulting in dynamic recrystallization in the weld zone. This was confirmed by the ultra fine grain structure formation in Weld Nugget (WN) of hexagonal pin tool joint with a higher percentage of precipitate dissolution. The fractograph of the hexagonal tool pin weld portion confirmed the finer dimple structure morphology without having any interior defect compared to other tool pin profiles. The lowest weld joint strength was obtained from cylindrical pin profile weld joint due to insufficient material flow during welding. The Transmission Electron Microscope and EDX analysis showed the dissolution of the metastable θ″, θ' (Al2Cu) partial precipitates in the WN and proved the influence of metastable precipitates on enhancement of mechanical behavior of weld. The XRD results also confirmed the Al2Cu precipitation dissolution in the weld zone.

  8. Substitutes for metallurgical coke in pyrometallurgical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshkarov, V.Ya.

    1982-08-01

    A briquetting process using sulphurous petroleum coke and a bituminous binder is described. The characteristics of briquettes made of petroleum coke, blends of coal and petroleum coke, and coal and metallurgical coke are compared. The prospect of replacing 25 to 50% of the metallurgical coke used in lime kilns with non-calcined petroleum coke briquettes is described. (4 refs.)

  9. Management Challenges of Cultural Property in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JT Gbadegesin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The thrust of this article is to fill the lacuna in extant literature on the need to appraise the management of traditional/cultural properties in Ile-Ife (historical source of Yoruba race in Nigeria and the need to ensure sustainability in order to register the values of the cultural identity for global appreciation. To accomplish the aim, questionnaires were administered on the stakeholders: traditional royal stools, museum staff and families of ancient priests (owners of sacred sites to elicit information. The data obtained were analyzed using simple descriptive and inferential statistics. The study confirmed that the special properties' (sacred heritages owners and royal stool (traditional rulers are the most participating stakeholders in the management of cultural properties in Yorubaland. Also, there are three most influencing factors; lack of effective management plans/strategies, lack of continuity in the cultural heritage sustainability and lack of full participation of all the stakeholders in the sustainability of cultural heritages. It implies that the posterity, sustainability of cultural heritages is anchored on effective management strategy and the gradual neglect of special properties such as cultural heritages is tantamount to the loss of value and economic returns which could really create wider opportunities in the emerging economies.

  10. Effect of the Addition of Nickel Powder and Post Weld Heat Treatment on the Metallurgical and Mechanical Properties of the Welded UNS S32304 Duplex Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tahaei

    Full Text Available Abstract In this research, the effect of the addition of nickel powder and the application of a post weld heat treatment (PWHT on the welding properties of the UNS S32304 lean duplex stainless steel were investigated in order to improve the microstructure and mechanical properties. Nickel powder was directly poured inside the joint gap and mixed with the filler metal during the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW process; moreover, the solution heat treatment was performed at 1100 °C for 10 min. The joints were characterized by optical microscopy (OM and the evolution of the phase percentages in the different zones was studied by means of the image analysis technique. Tensile and hardness tests were carried out on the joints in order to evaluate the improvement of the mechanical properties. The results showed that both the addition of nickel powder during the welding process and the post weld heat treatment made it possible to improve the mechanical properties of the weld joints. PWHT had the best effect in restoring the equal percentage of ferrite and austenite compared to the addition of nickel powder.

  11. Arsenic precipitation from metallurgical effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, P.; Vargas, C.; Araya, E.; Martin, I.; Alguacil, F. J.

    2004-01-01

    In the mining-metallurgical companies different liquid effluents are produced, which can contain a series of dissolved elements that are considered dangerous from an environmental point of view. One of these elements is the arsenic, especially in the state of oxidation +5 that can be precipitated as calcium or iron arsenate. To fulfil the environmental requests it should have in solution a content of arsenic lower than 0,5 mg/l and the obtained solid product should be very stable under the condition in which it will be stored. this work looks for the best conditions of arsenic precipitation, until achieving contents in solution lower than such mentioned concentration. Also, the stability of the precipitates was studied. (Author) 7 refs

  12. TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project (VIP) Metallurgical Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.; Neimark, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Three Mile Island Unite 2 (TMI-2) Vessel Investigation Project Metallurgical Program is a part of the international TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project being conducted jointly by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The objectives of the metallurgical program are to deduce the temperatures of, determine the mechanical properties of, and assess the integrity of the TMI-2 lower head during the loss-of-coolant accident. Fifteen samples have been removed from the lower head and are being examined. In addition, archive material from the lower head of the Midland nuclear reactor has been procured for conducting supplemental metallurgical evaluations and mechanical property determinations. Evaluations of the microstructure and mechanical properties of the as-received archive material have been completed, and a series of heat treatment experiments has been conducted to develop standard microstructures to be compared with those present in the TMI-2 samples. Results have been obtained from examinations of two of the fifteen TMI-2 lower head samples. These results indicate that one of these two samples, which contained cracks in the weld cladding extending ∼3 mm into the underlying base metal, apparently reached temperatures on the order of 1000 to 1100C during the accident. A preliminary examination of the core debris deposited on this sample has been performed. The other sample, from an area away from the region of core relocation, did not exceed 727C during the accident

  13. TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project (VIP) Metallurgical Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.; Neimark, L.A.

    1990-06-01

    The TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project (VIP) Metallurgical Program is a part of the international TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project being conducting jointly by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The overall project consists of three phases, namely (1) recovery of material samples from the lower head of the TMI-2 reactor, (2) examination and analysis of the lower head samples and the preparation and testing of archive material subjected to a similar thermal history, and (3) procurement, examination, and analysis of companion core material located adjacent to or near the lower head material. The specific objectives of the ANL Metallurgical Program, which comprises a major portion of Phase 2, are to prepare metallographic and mechanical test specimen blanks from the TMI-2 lower head material, prepare similar test specimen blanks from suitable archive material subjected to the appropriate thermal processing, determine the mechanical properties of the lower vessel head and archive materials under the conditions of the core-melt accident, and assess the lower head integrity and margin-to-failure during the accident. The ANL work consists of three tasks: (1) archive materials program, (2) fabrication of metallurgical and mechanical test specimens from the TMI-2 pressure vessel samples, and (3) mechanical property characterization of TMI-2 lower pressure vessel head and archive material

  14. Quality of some Nigerian coals as a blending stock in metallurgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lafia- Obi/foreign coals blends possess lower ash and better rheological properties compared to Chikila/foreign coal composites which have high ash and poor rheological properties. These together suggest that amongst the two Nigerian coals, Lafia-Obi is superior for blending with the foreign ones in metallurgical coke ...

  15. Microwave-assisted grinding of metallurgical coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruisanchez, E.; Juarez-Perez, E. J.; Arenillas, A.; Bermudez, J. M.; Menendez, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Metallurgical cokes are composed of graphitic carbon (s2p2) and different inorganic compounds with very different capacities to absorb microwave radiation. Moreover, due to the electric conductivity shown by the metallurgical cokes, microwave radiation produces electric arcs or microplasmas, which gives rise to hot spots. Therefore, when these cokes are irradiated with microwaves some parts of the particle experiment a rapid heating, while some others do not heat at all. As a result of the different expansion and stress caused by thermal the shock, small cracks and micro-fissures are produced in the particle. The weakening of the coke particles, and therefore an improvement of its grind ability, is produced. This paper studies the microwave-assisted grinding of metallurgical coke and evaluates the grinding improvement and energy saving. (Author)

  16. Fatigue analysis of a structure with welds considering metallurgical discontinuities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrillat, M.T.; Lejeail, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Within the frameworks of a creep-fatigue experimental program, called EVASION, thermo-mechanical tests were conducted on two mock-ups, the first one was fully machined and the second one welded and then machined (in order to eliminate geometrical discontinuities, thus only leaving metallurgical discontinuities). These two mock-ups were submitted to exactly the same loading history. Plastic analyses with a correct description of mechanical properties and fatigue strength of materials are conducted and compared with experimental results in order to highlight the influence of the weld. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Diagnosis of employee engagement in metallurgical enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the theoretical part of the publication an overview of the definitions of employee engagement was conducted together with the analysis of the methods and techniques which influence the professional activity of the employees in the metallurgical enterprise. The practical part discusses the results of diagnosis of engagement in steelworks. Presented theories, as well as the research, fill the information gap concerning the engagement of the employees in metallurgical enterprises. This notion is important due to the fact that modern conditions of human resources management require the engagement of the employees as something commonly accepted and a designation of manufacturing enterprises.

  18. Cyril Stanley Smith's Translations of Metallurgical Classics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 6. Cyril Stanley Smith's Translations of Metallurgical Classics. Martha Goodway. General Article Volume 11 Issue 6 June 2006 pp 63-66. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  19. Utilization of secondary energy resources of metallurgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with a heat output of 4200 kW, a working agent R 600, a source of low-potential heat-circulating water: a 460 kW gas engine. The proposed scheme showed high efficiency of power supply of the town in comparison with the gas boiler. Keywords: heat pump; internal combustion engine metallurgical plant; energy efficiency ...

  20. Real time information management for improving productivity in metallurgical complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bascur, O.A.; Kennedy, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Applying the latest information technologies in industrial plants has become a serious challenge to management and technical teams. The availability of real time and historical operations information to identify the most critical part of the processing system from mechanical integrity is a must for global plant optimization. Expanded use of plant information on the desktop is a standard tool for revenue improvement, cost reduction, and adherence to production constraints. The industrial component desktop supports access to information for process troubleshooting, continuous improvement and innovation by plant and staff personnel. Collaboration between groups enables the implementation of an overall process effectiveness index based on losses due to equipment availability, production and product quality. The key to designing technology is to use the Internet based technologies created by Microsoft for its marketplace-office automation and the Web. Time derived variables are used for process analysis, troubleshooting and performance assessment. Connectivity between metallurgical complexes, research centers and their business system has become a reality. Two case studies of large integrated mining/metallurgical complexes are highlighted. (author)

  1. Qualifications versus useful knowledge in metallurgical enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents notions connected with resource structure of useful knowledge packages in metallurgical enterprise. Dependence between building competence of employees and using knowledge for the need of better efficiency of the enterprise was discussed here. ArcelorMittal Poland enterprise served as case study here due to the fact that it strives at World Class Management by putting emphasis on bringing areas of business activity to perfection through participation and involvement of employees.

  2. Fuel for domestic and metallurgical uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, D.; Chakrabarti, R.K.

    1981-02-01

    To meet the energy requirements in the domestic and metallurgical sectors CMPDI have taken in hand some developmental projects using coal as a feedback. 4 projects are described - mechanized conversion of coal to domestic coke, formed coke making by Didier-Keihan-Sumitomo process, domestic briquette making based on non-copking coal resources, and smokeless coal blocks utilising inferior grade raw coal and washery by-products.

  3. Processing and utilization of metallurgical slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Pribulová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Metallurgy and foundry industry create a huge amount of slags that are by-products in production of pig iron, steel and cast iron. Slag is produced in a very large amount in pyrometallurgical processes, and is a huge source of waste if not properly recycled and utilized. With rapid growth of industrialization, land available for land-filling of large quantity of metallurgical slag is being reduced all over the world and disposal cost is becoming increasingly higher. Metallurgical slag from different metallurgical processes treated and utilized in different ways based on different slag characteristics. The most economic and efficient option for reducing metallurgical waste is through recycling, which is a significant contribution to saving natural resources and reducing CO2 emissions. Characteristic of slags as well as its treatment and utilization are given in the paper. Slag from pig iron and steel production is used most frequently in building industry. From experiments using blast furnace slag and granulated blast furnace slag as gravel, and water glass as binder it can be concluded that that the best results – the best values of compression strength and tensile strength were reached by using of 18% of water glass as a solidification activating agent. According to cubic compression strength, mixture from 50% blast furnace gravel, 50% granulated blast furnace slag and 18% water glass falls into C35/45 class of concrete. Such concrete also fulfils strength requirements for road concrete, moreover, it even exceeds them considerably and, therefore, it can find an application in construction of road communications or in production of concrete slabs.

  4. Modern recycling methods in metallurgical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maj

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of environment caused by increased industrial activities is the main topic of discussions in Poland and in the world. The possibilities of waste recovery and recycling vary in different sectors of the industry, and the specific methods, developed and improved all the time, depend on the type of the waste. In this study, the attention has been focussed mainly on the waste from metallurgical industry and on the available techniques of its recycling

  5. Cryogenic treatment of steel: from concept to metallurgical understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Matteo; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2017-01-01

    , the metallurgical understanding of the microstructural changes involved in cryogenic treatment of steel has remained poor. It is believed that the improvement in wear resistance is promoted by an enhanced precipitation of carbides during tempering, but no explanation has been given as to how this enhanced......Subjecting steel to cryogenic treatment to improve its properties was conceived in the 30ies of the previous century. The proof of concept that properties, in particular wear resistance, can indeed be improved importantly, was reported in the next decades. Despite many investigations...... precipitation can be obtained. In the last six years, the authors have applied in situ magnetometry, synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction and dilatometry to enlighten the phase transitions occurring in steels at cryogenic temperatures and to point out the connection between different treatment parameters...

  6. Production of iron from metallurgical waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, David W; Iwasaki, Iwao

    2013-09-17

    A method of recovering metallic iron from iron-bearing metallurgical waste in steelmaking comprising steps of providing an iron-bearing metallurgical waste containing more than 55% by weight FeO and FeO equivalent and a particle size of at least 80% less than 10 mesh, mixing the iron-bearing metallurgical waste with a carbonaceous material to form a reducible mixture where the carbonaceous material is between 80 and 110% of the stoichiometric amount needed to reduce the iron-bearing waste to metallic iron, and as needed additions to provide a silica content between 0.8 and 8% by weight and a ratio of CaO/SiO.sub.2 between 1.4 and 1.8, forming agglomerates of the reducible mixture over a hearth material layer to protect the hearth, heating the agglomerates to a higher temperature above the melting point of iron to form nodules of metallic iron and slag material from the agglomerates by melting.

  7. Characterization of Nanocarbon Copper Composites Manufactured in Metallurgical Synthesis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knych, Tadeusz; Kwaśniewski, Paweł; Kiesiewicz, Grzegorz; Mamala, Andrzej; Kawecki, Artur; Smyrak, Beata

    2014-08-01

    Currently, there is a worldwide search for new forms of materials with properties that are significantly improved in comparison to materials currently in use. One promising research direction lies in the synthesis of metals containing modern carbon materials ( e.g., graphene, nanotubes). In this article, the research results of metallurgical synthesis of a mixture of copper and two different kinds of carbon (activated carbon and multiwall carbon nanotubes) are shown. Samples of copper-carbon nanocomposite were synthesized by simultaneously exposing molten copper to an electrical current while vigorously stirring and adding carbon while under an inert gas atmosphere. The article contains research results of density, hardness, electrical conductivity, structure (TEM), and carbon decomposition (SIMS method) for the obtained materials.

  8. 7th european metallurgical conference EMC 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko R. Stopić

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available From June 23 – 26, 2013, the GDMB Society for Mining, Metallurgy, Resource and Environmental Technology organized 7th European Metallurgical Conference (EMC 2013 in Weimar, Germany. The previous European metallurgical conferences were organized by  the GDMB in Friedrichshafen (2001, Hanover (2003, Leipzig (2005, Duesseldorf (2007, Innsbruck (2009, and Duesseldorf (2011. The GDMB is a non-profit organization from Clausthal, Germany,,focused on combining science with practical experience in metallurgy, mining, materials engineering, mineral processing, recycling and refining of metals, and  manufacturing of semi- and finishing products. The European Metallurgical conference EMC is one of the most well-known conferences worldwide in the field of non-ferrous metallurgy and is attended regularly by decision makers from industry and universities. The scientific program contained 6 plenary lectures and more than 130 presentations. An extensive poster exhibition was held, during which the authors had an opportunity to introduce their posters to the entire plenum as a part of a brief presentation., The € 500 worth “Poster Award EMC 2011 was awarded to Christoph Pichler from the Montan-University in Leoben, Austria. Not only the most important European countries were represented here, but also more than one third of the lecturers were from countries outside Europe (Canada, Japan, China, USA, South Africa, Australia. The origin of the participants reflects the aim of the organizers: to make this conference a worldwide platform for the scientific exchange of experience and information. The scientific presentations of the conference are presented in Proceedings: Vol. 1: Copper, Precious Metals, Waste effluents Treatment/ Biohydrometallurgical applications; Process Metallurgy, Bridging Non-Ferrous and Ferrous Metallurgy; Vol. 2: Lead and Zinc, Light metals, Sustainable technologies, Sustainable of non-ferrous metals production, Process Control

  9. Application of logistic principles in metallurgical production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Malindžák

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Metallurgical production processes (MPP consist of continuous and discrete types of technology operation, transport, manipulation and storing processes regards the flow of material and also the equipment and machines. Other specifics are: long production cycles, great inertia, tree structure of production processes (from roots up to the leaves, high level of investments etc. These characteristics resulted in some specifics of production logistics. This article deals with these specifics and explains it using the conditions of production processes of continuous slab casting, their heating in push furnaces at rolling temperature and rolling itself in hot wideband steel mill.

  10. Metallurgical characterization of pulsed current gas tungsten arc, friction stir and laser beam welded AZ31B magnesium alloy joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmanaban, G.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the influences of welding processes such as friction stir welding (FSW), laser beam welding (LBW) and pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (PCGTAW) on mechanical and metallurgical properties of AZ31B magnesium alloy. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction technique were used to evaluate the metallurgical characteristics of welded joints. LBW joints exhibited superior tensile properties compared to FSW and PCGTAW joints due to the formation of finer grains in weld region, higher fusion zone hardness, the absence of heat affected zone, presence of uniformly distributed finer precipitates in weld region.

  11. Upgrading Laccase Production and Biochemical Properties: Strategies and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Brandt; Martínez-Morales, Fernando; Trejo-Hernández, María R

    2017-07-01

    Improving laccases continues to be crucial in novel biotechnological developments and industrial applications, where they are concerned. This review breaks down and explores the potential of the strategies (conventional and modern) that can be used for laccase enhancement (increased production and upgraded biochemical properties such as stability and catalytic efficiency). The challenges faced with these approaches are briefly discussed. We also shed light on how these strategies merge and give rise to new options and advances in this field of work. Additionally, this article seeks to serve as a guide for students and academic researchers interested in laccases. This document not only gives basic information on laccases, but also provides updated information on the state of the art of various technologies that are used in this line of investigation. It also gives the readers an idea of the areas extensively studied and the areas where there is still much left to be done. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:1015-1034, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  12. Phosphorus Diffusion Gettering Efficacy in Upgraded Metallurgical-Grade Solar Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, A.; del Cañizo, C.; Cid, C.; Peral, A.

    2018-05-01

    In the context of the continuous price reduction in photovoltaics (PV) in recent years, Si feedstock continues to be a relevant component in the cost breakdown of a PV module, highlighting the need for low-cost, low-capital expenditure (CAPEX) silicon technologies to further reduce this cost component. Upgraded metallurgical-grade silicon (UMG Si) has recently received much attention, improving its quality and even attaining, in some cases, solar cell efficiencies similar to those of conventional material. However, some technical challenges still have to be addressed when processing this material to compensate efficiently for the high content of impurities and contaminants. Adaptation of a conventional solar cell process to monocrystalline UMG Si wafers has been studied in this work. In particular, a tailored phosphorus diffusion gettering step followed by a low-temperature anneal at 700°C was implemented, resulting in enhanced bulk lifetime and emitter recombination properties. In spite of the need for further research and material optimization, UMG Si wafers were successfully processed, achieving efficiencies in the range of 15% for a standard laboratory solar cell process with aluminum back surface field.

  13. Investigation of high temperature phase stability, thermal properties and evaluation of metallurgical compatibility with 304L stainless steel, of indigenously developed ferroboron alternate shielding material for fast reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Arun Kumar [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 603102 (India); Raju, S., E-mail: sraju@igcar.gov.in [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 603102 (India); Jeya Ganesh, B. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 603102 (India); Panneerselvam, G. [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 603102 (India); Vijayalakshmi, M.; Jayakumar, T. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 603102 (India); Raj, Baldev [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 603102 (India); Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 603102 (India)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > High temperature phase stability and metallurgical compatibility of indigenous Ferro boron alloy (17 wt.%) with 304L SS have been evaluated using calorimetry, metallography and X-ray diffraction. > Fe-B is stable upto 1227 deg. C without any phase transformation. > In combination with SS 304L, it develops an eutectic reaction at 1198 deg. C. > High temperature metallurgical interaction between Ferroboron and 304L SS clad has been simulated for temperatures 550-800 deg. C for reaction times up to 5000 h, using diffusion couple. > Clad penetration depth with time follows a paraobolic rate law. - Abstract: Towards the cause of serving economic power production through fast reactors, it is necessary to bring in functionally more efficient and innovative design options, which also includes exploration of cheaper material alternatives, wherever possible. In this regard, the feasibility of using a commercial grade ferroboron alloy as potential alternate shielding material in the outer subassemblies of future Indian fast reactors has been recently investigated from shielding physics point of view. The present study explores in detail the high temperature thermal stability and the metallurgical compatibility of Fe-15.4B-0.3C-0.89Si-0.17Al-0.006S-0.004P-0.003O (wt.%) alloy with SS 304L material. In addition, the high temperature specific heat and lattice thermal expansion characteristics of this alloy have also been investigated as a part of the present comprehensive characterisation program. The Fe-15 wt.%B alloy is constituted of principally of two boride phases, namely tetragonal Fe{sub 2}B and orthorhombic FeB phases, which in addition to boron also contains some amount of C and Si dissolved in solid solution form. This Fe-B alloy undergoes a series of phase transformation as a function of increasing temperature; the major ones among them are the dissolution of Fe{sub 2}B-lower boride in the matrix through a eutectic type reaction, which results in the

  14. The use of radioisotope tracers in the metallurgical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easey, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Radioisotope techniques have been widely used in the metallurgical industries for many years. They have been shown to be very suitable for studying large scale plant and, in many cases, they are the most suitable techniques for such investigations. Applications of radioisotope tracers to some specific metallurgical problems are discussed. (author)

  15. Centrifugal Casting Features/Metallurgical Characterization of Aluminum Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirita, G.; Soares, D.; Cruz, D.; Silva, F. S.; Stefanescu, I.

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of centrifugal effects on aluminium castings under high G values. Most of the studies in this domain (FGMs obtained by centrifugal casting) deal with functionally graded composites reinforced with a solid phase such as silicon particles or others. However, in this study it will be shown that unreinforced aluminium alloys may be significantly influenced by the centrifugal effect and that functionally graded castings are also obtained. It has been observed that the centrifugal effect may increase in some alloys, depending on the relative position in the castings, the rupture strength by approx. 50%, and rupture strain by about 300%, as compared to the gravity casting technique. The Young's modulus may also increase by about 20%. It has also been reported that in vertical centrifugal castings there are mainly three aspects that affect the components thus obtained, namely: fluid dynamics; vibration (inherent to the system); and centrifugal force. These features have a different effect on the castings depending on the aluminium alloy. In this paper, an analysis of the most important effects of the centrifugal casting process on metallurgical features is conducted. A solidification characterization at several points along the mould will be made in order to have an accurate idea of both the fluid dynamics inside the mould during the casting and the solidification behavior in different parts of the component. These two analyses will be related to the metallurgical properties (phase distribution; SDAS; eutectic silicon content and shape, pores density and shape) along the component and mainly along the direction of the centrifugal pressure. A comparison between castings obtained by both centrifugal casting technique and gravity casting technique is made for reference (gravity casting)

  16. Key Lake Mining Corporation metallurgical complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lendrum, F.C.

    1984-02-01

    The Key Lake uranium mine is located in Saskatchewan, 550 km northeast of Saskatoon. It began operations in 1983, and is licensed and regulated by both Saskatchewan government agencies and the Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board. This report examines the metallurgical processes used at the mill and discusses the spills that occurred in the first four months the mine was in operation. It finds that all spills of an acidic nature in the mill were small amounts in the CCD or solution pretreatment sections. Contingency procedures are in place and sumps are capable of handling spills. The only major change in design contemplated will be converting the secondary crushing from the use of an impact crusher to the use of a semi-autogeneous grinding mill. The monitoring program set out by the AECB and Saskatchewan Environment is thorough. It monitors effluents and water pathways, and includes aquatic biota and sediments. Air monitoring is also required by Saskatchewan Environment

  17. Test and Analysis of Metallurgical Converter Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Pang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen top-blow converter is the main equipment in steel making, and its work reliability decides the security and economy of steel production. Therefore, how to design and test analysis of convertor has been an important subject of industry research. Geometric modelling and structure analysis of converter tilting device by using Pro/E program .The design Principle, basic design structure were analyzed in detail. The computer simulation software of metallurgical converter equipment and how to use it were introduced .It developed by VC++ software. The position of barycentre and moment curve in No.3 and No.4 are calculated. The converter acceleration down dip can be resolved by comparing the moment curve and center curve.

  18. Effect of metallurgical variables on void swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, W.G.; Lauritzen, T.; Rosolowski, J.H.; Turkalo, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    The mechanism of void swelling is reviewed briefly and the anticipated effects of metallurgical variables are described. Experimental results showing the effects of metallurgical variables are reviewed, most of the work being done by simulation methods employing charged particle bombardments to simulate reactor damage. Although the early emphasis was on structural variables such as grain size, cold work and precipitates to control swelling, it now seems that the practical reduction of swelling will be achieved by modifying alloy composition. Void swelling is strongly influenced by the relative amounts of Fe, Cr, and Ni in an alloy; the amount of swelling can be varied by three orders of magnitude by changing the relative amounts of the three elements in an austenitic ternary alloy. The effect of composition on swelling of a simple ferritic alloy will also be described. The swelling of a simple austenitic alloy of Fe, Cr, and Ni can be reduced by certain minor element additions. The most effective swelling inhibitors are Si, Ti, Zr, and Nb, and combinations of Si and Ti are synergetic. Swelling reductions of two orders of magnitude have been achieved with combined additions. Predictions of swelling in commercial solid solution alloys are made on the basis of the present knowledge of the effects of major composition and minor element additions. The predictions agree with experimental results. For more complex commercial alloys, predictions are made for the effects on swelling of heat treatments that cause changes in matrix composition. In some cases, heat treatment is expected to change the peak swelling by more than a factor of ten, and to shift the peak swelling temperature by almost 100 0 C. Sensitivity of swelling to detailed matrix composition places emphasis on the need for developing understanding of the stability of structure and local composition in an irradiation environment

  19. Electric arc spraying for restoration and repair of metallurgical equipment parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В’ячеслав Олександрович Роянов

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that the electric arc spraying with the use of powder wires can be used to repair and restore parts of metallurgical equipment. The technology of spraying parts by means of the cored wire Steelcored M8TUV; T462MMIN5 and combinations of steel and aluminum wires to restore shaft-gears, shaft-beams, cranes axles for the foundry of the Moldavian Metallurgical Plant has been introduced. The composition of the flux-cored wires MMP-2,3 developed at the Department of Equipment and welding production technology of PSTU that provides the required hardness and adhesion of the coating and the substrate have been shown and the results of the coatings properties studies have been published. Studies have shown matching properties of the coatings to be used for details of the metallurgical equipment working under difficult conditions, including the rolls of rolling mills. Cored wire was used for pilot plating of the rolls surface of the skin-rolling stand at the cold-rolling mill at Illich Steel and Iron Works, Mariupol. Residual coating thickness ranged from 15 to 25 microns. Strip sized 0,9 × 1025 mm has been rolled, the squeezing is equal to 0,8...1,0%.

  20. Analytical ultrasonics for characterization of metallurgical microstructures and transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, M.

    1986-01-01

    The application of contact (piezoelectric) and noncontact (laser generation and detection) ultrasonic techniques for dynamic investigation of precipitation hardening processes in aluminum alloys, as well as crystallization and phase transformation in rapidly solidified amorphous and microcrystalline alloys is discussed. From the variations of the sound velocity and attenuation the precipitation mechanism and kinetics were determined. In addition, a correlation was established between the observed changes in the velocity and attenuation and the mechanical properties of age-hardenable aluminum alloys. The behavior of the elastic moduli, determined ultrasonically, were found to be sensitive to relaxation, crystallization and phase decomposition phenomena in rapidly solidified metallic glasses. Analytical ultrasonics enables determination of the activation energies and growth parameters of the reactions. Therefrom theoretical models can be constructed to explain the changes in mechanical and physical properties upon heat treatment of glassy alloys. The composition dependence of the elastic moduli in amorphous Cu-Zr alloys was found to be related to the glass transition temperature, and consequently to the glass forming ability of these alloys. Dynamic ultrasonic analysis was found to be feasible for on-line, real-time, monitoring of metallurgical processes.

  1. Sustainable cost reduction by lean management in metallurgical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Todorut

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the need for sustainable cost reduction in the metallurgical industry by applying Lean Management (LM tools and concepts in metallurgical production processes leading to increased competitiveness of corporations in a global market. The paper highlights that Lean Management is a novel way of thinking, adapting to change, reducing waste and continuous improvement, leading to sustainable development of companies in the metallurgical industry. The authors outline the main Lean Management instruments based on recent scientific research and include a comparative analysis of other tools, such as Sort, Straighten, Shine, Standardize, Sustain (5S, Visual Management (VM, Kaizen, Total Productive Maintenance (TPM, Single-Minute Exchange of Dies (SMED, leading to a critical appraisal of their application in the metallurgical industry.

  2. Numerical computation of fluid flow in different nonferrous metallurgical reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackner, A.

    1996-10-01

    Heat, mass and fluid flow phenomena in metallurgical reactor systems such as smelting cyclones or electrolytic cells are complex and intricately linked through the governing equations of fluid flow, chemical reaction kinetics and chemical thermodynamics. The challenges for the representation of flow phenomena in such reactors as well as the transfers of these concepts to non-specialist modelers (e.g. plant operators and management personnel) can be met through scientific flow visualization techniques. In the first example the fluid flow of the gas phase and of concentrate particles in a smelting cyclone for copper production are calculated three dimensionally. The effect of design parameters (length and diameter of reactor, concentrate feeding tangentially or from the top, ..) and operating conditions are investigated. Single particle traces show, how to increase particle retention time before the particles reach the liquid film flowing down the cyclone wall. Cyclone separators are widely used in the metallurgical and chemical industry for collection of large quantities of dust. Most of the empirical models, which today are applied for the design, are lacking in being valid in the high temperature region. Therefore the numerical prediction of the collection efficiency of dust particles is done. The particle behavior close to the wall is considered by applying a particle restitution model, which calculates individual particle restitution coefficients as functions of impact velocity and impact angle. The effect of design parameters and operating are studied. Moreover, the fluid flow inside a copper refining electrolysis cell is modeled. The simulation is based on density variations in the boundary layer at the electrode surface. Density and thickness of the boundary layer are compared to measurements in a parametric study. The actual inhibitor concentration in the cell is calculated, too. Moreover, a two-phase flow approach is developed to simulate the behavior of

  3. Soft restructuring process in metallurgical enterprises in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the range and outcomes of soft restructuring in metallurgical enterprises in Poland. The term ‘soft restructuring’ applies to changes in metallurgical enterprises’ employment policy during the period of political transformation in Poland. Steelworks performance under the market economy conditions demanded introducing changes in staff resources. Changes referred both to the staff structure as well as employees’ skills and gradual engaging of the staff in building the steelworks’ competitive advantage.

  4. A metallurgical study of some viking swords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Alan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available While «pattern-welded» swords have been found all over Europe from sites dating from the Migration Period and into the Early Middle Ages, they were steadily supplanted during the Viking period by swords made out of a few pieces of iron and steel, or even a single piece of steel. Swords with «Ulfberht» or related inscriptions were the most famous of these. The results of the metallurgical study of 44 specimens from «Ulfberht» swords, as well as some other Viking-age swords, together with electron microanalyses carried out on selected examples, are presented here.

    Mientras que se han encontrado en toda Europa espadas forjadas mediante el sistema de ‘pattern welding’ (entrelazado de láminas formando patrones visibles, procedentes de yacimientos que se extienden desde el Periodo de las Migraciones bárbaras hasta la Alta Edad Media, durante el periodo vikingo fueron habitualmente reemplazadas por espadas forjadas a partir de unas pocas piezas de hierro y acero, o incluso de una única pieza de acero. Las más famosas de entre ellas fueron las espadas con la inscripción «Ulfbehrt» u otras relacionadas. Este artículo presenta los resultados del estudio metalúrgico de 44 ejemplares de espadas de «Ulfberht» y otras de época vikinga, así como los microanálisis efectuados sobre algunas muestras seleccionadas.

  5. Selection of human capital in metallurgical companies using information technology (IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Iancu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Personnel selection is a process that takes place in a company in order to have better business performance and competitive advantage. Nowadays, companies have realized the importance of human capital as a necessity for survival in today’s competitive market. There are several methods for selecting staff, but this paper seeks to demonstrate that this selection can be done with the help of an expert system. Metallurgical companies face even greater challenges for managing personnel selection. This research will discover and test the key elements of management personnel selection and implementation of an expert system.

  6. New radionuclide specific laboratory detection system for metallurgical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burianova, L.; Solc, J.; Dryak, P.; Moser, H.; Branger, T.; Garcia-Torano, E.; Peyres, V.; Capogni, M.; Luca, A.; Vodenik, B.; Oliveira, C.; Portugal, L.; Tzika, F.; Lutter, G.; Szucs, L.; Dziel, T.; Burda, O.; Dirk, A.; Martinkovic, J.; Sliskonen, T.; Mattila, A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the main outputs of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) project 'Ionising radiation metrology for the metallurgical industry' (MetroMetal) was the recommendation on a novel spectrometric detection system optimized for the measurement of radioactivity in metallurgical samples. The recommended system, prototypes of which were constructed at two project partner's laboratories, was characterized by using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Six different MC codes were used to model the system and a range of cylindrical samples of cast steel, slag and fume dust. The samples' shape, density, and elemental composition were the same as the ones of the calibration standards developed within the project to provide traceability to end-users. The MC models were used to calculate full-energy peak and total detection efficiencies as well as true coincidence summing correction (TCSC) factors for selected radionuclides of interest in the metallurgical industry: 60 Co, 137 Cs, 192 Ir, 214 Bi, 214 Pb, and 208 Tl. The MC codes were compared to each other on the basis of the calculated detection efficiencies and TCSC factors. In addition, a 'Procedural guide for calculation of TCSC factors for samples in metallurgical industry' was developed for end-users. The TCSC factors reached in certain cases up to 32% showing that the summing effects are of high importance in the close measurement geometries met in routine analysis of metallurgical samples. (authors)

  7. Energy-dissipation-model for metallurgical multi-phase-systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavrommatis, K.T. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Entropy production in real processes is directly associated with the dissipation of energy. Both are potential measures for the proceed of irreversible processes taking place in metallurgical systems. Many of these processes in multi-phase-systems could then be modelled on the basis of the energy-dissipation associated with. As this entity can often be estimated using very simple assumptions from first principles, the evolution of an overall measure of systems behaviour can be studied constructing an energy-dissipation -based model of the system. In this work a formulation of this concept, the Energy-Dissipation-Model (EDM), for metallurgical multi-phase-systems is given. Special examples are studied to illustrate the concept, and benefits as well as the range of validity are shown. This concept might be understood as complement to usual CFD-modelling of complex systems on a more abstract level but reproducing essential attributes of complex metallurgical systems. (author)

  8. Energy-dissipation-model for metallurgical multi-phase-systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavrommatis, K T [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Entropy production in real processes is directly associated with the dissipation of energy. Both are potential measures for the proceed of irreversible processes taking place in metallurgical systems. Many of these processes in multi-phase-systems could then be modelled on the basis of the energy-dissipation associated with. As this entity can often be estimated using very simple assumptions from first principles, the evolution of an overall measure of systems behaviour can be studied constructing an energy-dissipation -based model of the system. In this work a formulation of this concept, the Energy-Dissipation-Model (EDM), for metallurgical multi-phase-systems is given. Special examples are studied to illustrate the concept, and benefits as well as the range of validity are shown. This concept might be understood as complement to usual CFD-modelling of complex systems on a more abstract level but reproducing essential attributes of complex metallurgical systems. (author)

  9. Effect of metallurgical variables on environmental fracture of steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, I M; Thompson, A W

    1976-12-01

    The susceptibility of iron alloys, in particular, steels, to hydrogen embrittlement is examined. It is demonstrated by a review of available data on metallurgically well-characterized alloys that the nature and extent of hydrogen susceptibility are sensitive and often predictable functions of such metallurgical variables as composition, grain size, texture, microstructure, and thermal treatment. Specifically, solutes such as carbon and manganese are shown to be capable of leading to a degradation of performance in hydrogen, whereas silicon and titanium are often beneficial additions. Microstructures at equivalent strength levels are ranked in order of susceptibility; generally, a refined substructure gives the best results. The role of heat treatment in controlling the hydrogen-induced crack path and its relationship to thermal embrittlement phenomena are stressed. Finally, possible hydrogen embrittlement mechanisms are assessed in terms of the critical roles of metallurgical variables in the embrittlement.

  10. Influence of material and gear parameters on the safety of gearing in metallurgical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Medvecká - Beňová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the appropriate choice of parameters to obtain the desired level of safety of gears in a gearbox to drive the conveyor in the metallurgical industry under increased load. Steel with surface hardness up to 350 HBW, or heat treated steel with hardness of 500 - 650 HBW are used. As a final heat treatment are used surface hardening, cementation and hardening, nitridation. Good properties of heat-treated steels are at the correct thickness of the heat-treated layer of the tooth. Results are presented for dual-ratio gearbox with spur gears from operation of an integrated steel company.

  11. Powder metallurgical processing of magnetostrictive materials based on rare earth-iron intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malekzadeh, M.

    1978-01-01

    Procedures are described for fabrication of high density rare earth-iron magnetostrictive compounds by powder metallurgical techniques. The fabrication involves a sequence of steps which includes preparing the pre-alloyed compounds, pulverizing them into a fine powder, compacting in suitable sizes and shapes, and sintering. Samples prepared by these procedures are carefully characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, dilatometry, and magnetic measurements. Process steps are found to exert important influences upon densities, microstructure and magnetic properties attained after densification. Investigations on a number of these process steps, including milling time and medium, sintering, and magnetic powder alignment are described

  12. Safety performance indicators in the metallurgical industry using WEB programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cioca

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development has a significant impact today in Romania and worldwide. In this context, risk assessment becomes mandatory for enterprises. This paper analyzes the situation of occupational risks in the metallurgical industry in the European Union, Romania, and the United States and highlights the main causes for work accidents in Romanian metallurgical industry. The analysis covers the period 2010 - 2016. The data collected from Romania is compared to the data related to the European Union and the United States. Moreover, the paper aims to present an occupational risk assessment tool, which is customizable for each area of activity. The last section of the paper discusses the research results and limitations.

  13. Metallurgical Evaluation of the Five-Inch Cylindrical Induction Melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imrich, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    A metallurgical evaluation of the 5-inch cylindrical induction melter (CIM) vessel was performed by the Materials Technology Section to evaluate the metallurgical condition after operating for approximately 375 hours at 1400 to 1500 Degrees Celsius during a 2 year period. Results indicate that wall thinning and significant grain growth occurred in the lower portion of the conical section and the drain tube. No through-wall penetrations were found in the cylindrical and conical sections of the CIM vessel and only one leak site was identified in the drain tube. Failure of the drain tube was associated with a localized over heating and intercrystalline fracture

  14. Quest for steel quality: the role of metallurgical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, A. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science

    2000-10-01

    Improvements in the quality of steels and the role played by metallurgical chemistry to bring about those improvements are discussed. The particular emphasis is on the chemical behaviour of solutes in molten steel and the reaction between steel, slag and refractory materials and the manner in which they influence the physical properties and performance of the steel product. As an illustration of the contribution of chemistry to steel making the case of the steel plates used in the construction of the Titanic is cited. In 1911 when the Titanic was constructed by Harland and Wolff at their Belfast shipyard, the steel plates used in the hull met all then current specifications. In 1992 when a number of steel samples recovered from the Titanic were examined, it was found that the hull of the vessel was constructed of low carbon, semi-killed steel, produced in the open-hearth process. Microstructural analysis showed extensive carbon banding, typical of hot rolled 0.2 per cent carbon steel. Also found were long manganese sulphide inclusions elongated in the rolling direction, some of which exceeded 25 mm in length. It was determined that as a consequence of these inclusions, at a seawater temperature of 0 degree C, the hull plates of the Titanic had essentially no resistance to fracture. Today's high quality steels used in applications such as Arctic pipelines, offshore platforms, icebreakers and ships for the transportation of natural gas, oxygen and sulphur concentrations are frequently less than 10 ppm. These elements have a profound influence of the quality of the final steel products by virtue of their effect of hindering the formation of inclusions. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Carbonitriding of low alloy steels: Mechanical and metallurgical responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dal' Maz Silva, W., E-mail: waltermateriais@me.com [Institut Jean Lamour – UMR CNRS–Université de Lorraine, 7198, Parc de Saurupt, Nancy 54011 (France); Institut de Recherche Technologique M2P, Metz 57070 (France); Dulcy, J., E-mail: jacky.dulcy@univ-lorraine.fr [Institut Jean Lamour – UMR CNRS–Université de Lorraine, 7198, Parc de Saurupt, Nancy 54011 (France); Ghanbaja, J., E-mail: jaafar.ghanbaja@univ-lorraine.fr [Institut Jean Lamour – UMR CNRS–Université de Lorraine, 7198, Parc de Saurupt, Nancy 54011 (France); Redjaïmia, A., E-mail: abdelkrim.redjaimia@univ-lorraine.fr [Institut Jean Lamour – UMR CNRS–Université de Lorraine, 7198, Parc de Saurupt, Nancy 54011 (France); Michel, G., E-mail: gregory.michel@irt-m2p.fr [Institut de Recherche Technologique M2P, Metz 57070 (France); Thibault, S., E-mail: simon.thibault@safran.fr [Safran Tech, Magny les Hameaux (France); Belmonte, T., E-mail: thierry.belmonte@univ-lorraine.fr [Institut Jean Lamour – UMR CNRS–Université de Lorraine, 7198, Parc de Saurupt, Nancy 54011 (France)

    2017-05-02

    Metallurgical and mechanical responses of alloys 16NiCrMo13 and 23MnCrMo5 to the addition of carbon and/or nitrogen were investigated. Diffusion profiles of these interstitial elements were established by atmospheric pressure carburizing, austenitic nitriding, and a sequence of carburizing and nitriding – the carbonitriding. All treatments were performed at 1173 K under CO-H{sub 2} and/or NH{sub 3} based atmospheres. After enrichment, each sample was (i) room-temperature oil-quenched and (ii) immersed in boiling nitrogen prior to (iii) the stress relief treatment. Cross-section hardness profiles were evaluated after each of these steps. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) allowed for the determination of both carbon and nitrogen diffusion profiles after quenching. In order to estimate the fraction of nitrides formed during the enrichment of the alloys, these measured profiles were employed in the simulation of local equilibrium at each evaluated position. This allowed for the computation of total solid solution interstitial content, which was expressed in atomic fraction. Plots of as-quenched hardness against the square root of the computed interstitial content, i.e. the sum of solution carbon and the remaining nitrogen, show the complementary character of these elements in determining the mechanical properties of the materials prior to stress relief treatment. Tempering of carbon-nitrogen martensite resulted in hardness drop to a lesser degree than the one measured on carbon martensite with equivalent interstitial content. In order to investigate this behavior, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses were performed. Results showed the precipitation of two morphologies of Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} in the nitrogen-rich case and image analysis confirmed the simulated fraction of nitrides.

  16. Proceedings of papers. 3. Balkan Metallurgical Conference; Kniga na trudovi. 3-ta Balkanska konferencija na metalurzite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickovski, Jovan [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, St. ' Cyril and Methodius' University, Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    This Conference aims to be a central event in the metallurgy research of Balkan, fulfilling the goals to present the most outstanding relevant developments in modern metallurgy; to inspire high standards of excellence in pure and applied metallurgy research; to attract outstanding scientists to present central lectures on modem metallurgical research, and on the challenges imposed by the needs of society; to inspire the young generation of metallurgists in Balkan and other countries. Following these lines, the 3. Balkan Conference on Metallurgy will provide a unique opportunity for academic and industrial metallurgists from the Balkan countries and wider, to exchange ideas, expertise, and experience on topics related to the theme of the Conference - Balkan Metallurgy in Search for New Ways of Development. The aim of the organizers was to bring together distinguished experts, not only to present their work, but also to discuss the major scientific and technological challenges facing metallurgy in this millennium.The 6 sections of the conference were entitled: Section A: Extractive metallurgy; Section B: Physical metallurgy and materials science - ferrous metals and non ferrous metals; Section C: Management, maintenance control and optimization of metallurgical processes; Section D: New technologies and techniques; Section E: Refractory and powder; Section F: Corrosion and protection of metals. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately.

  17. Evaluation of powder metallurgical processing routes for multi-component niobium silicide-based high-temperature alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seemueller, Hans Christoph Maximilian

    2016-03-22

    Niobium silicide-based composites are potential candidates to replace nickel-base superalloys for turbine applications. The goal of this work was to evaluate the feasibility and differences in ensuing properties of various powder metallurgical processing techniques that are capable of manufacturing net-shape turbine components. Two routes for powder production, mechanical alloying and gas atomization were combined with compaction via hot isostatic pressing and powder injection molding.

  18. The R85m President Brand joint metallurgical complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, Adam.

    1977-01-01

    The uranium plant at President Brand, which was built in 1971 and opened last year, is now being extended. The plant forms only part of the extensive joint metallurgical complex being developed by Anglo American Corp. in the Free State, costing a total R85million. This article examines technical details of the recovery processes involved

  19. Radioactivity of raw materials, metallurgical and casting products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hons, J.

    2000-01-01

    At present, the radioactive contamination of metallurgical products and initial materials represent a potential obstacle in foreign and domestic trade. It is of course an undesirable threat o the living environment on the one side and, at the same time, a new incorrectly used means for suppressing competition and forming a protection 'umbrella' of the national market to desirable imports on the other hand

  20. Cost estimation and management over the life cycle of metallurgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates whether all expected costs over the life cycle of metallurgical research projects are included in initial, normal and fi nal cost estimates, and whether these costs are managed throughout a project's life cycle since there is not enough emphasis on the accurate estimation of costs and their management ...

  1. Continuous moisture measurement in metallurgical coke with automatic charge correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watzke, H.; Mehlhose, D.

    1981-01-01

    A process control system has been developed for automatic batching of the coke amount necessary for metallurgical processes taking into account the moisture content. The measurement is performed with a neutron moisture gage consisting of an Am-Be neutron source and a BF 3 counter. The output information of the counter is used for computer-controlled batching

  2. Control of innovation activity in a competitive metallurgical business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, S. V.

    2010-12-01

    Certain competitive advantages of a manufacturer on a goods market can be provided if one creates conditions for bifurcation development of an innovation process in metallurgical business under conditions of market uncertainty of a demand for goods of a specified consumer quality and determines the technical-and-economic versions of stable operation of a production system for performing orders of metal product consumers.

  3. Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Richard A.; Im, Chang J.; Wright, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

  4. The Metallurgical Design of Steels for Optimum Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    1945-10-22

    shown schematically in Figure 3, by tungsten, noly- bdcmir:, silicon, vanadium, tin, riluminum, berylllium, phosphorus, and tita , nium (in order of...OhaptoO* Ii is likely to prove asoful. Special addition agents (boron, zirconium, tita - ni~um, vtanadium) are not considered in thant method. They mny be

  5. Metallurgical optimisation of PM superalloy N19

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Locq Didier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microstructures of the new PM superalloy N19 have been investigated for various heat treatments in order to reach the best compromise between static strength and cyclic resistance. One subsolvus and several supersolvus heat treatments were applied to produce fine (7 μm and medium (25 μm grain sizes, respectively. The alloy is shown to be quite sensitive to the cooling conditions after solutioning as the γ′ hardening precipitates, both secondary and tertiary, have a direct influence on mechanical properties. Two cooling conditions after solutioning produce a high crack propagation resistance at 650 °C with dwell time cycles, which is one of the basic requirements. The low cycle fatigue behaviour appears to be correlated to the grain size, which determines the origin of crack initiation (from ceramic inclusions or not. The other mechanical properties (tensile, creep remain above target levels. Despite the medium size grain microstructure in the supersolvus condition, a high level of mechanical strength is observed in N19 at elevated temperature. It is understood that further improvement in properties can be achieved by developing coarse grain microstructures.

  6. Study of the Metallurgical Aspects of Steel Micro-Alloying by Titan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kijac, J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The metal properties upgrading applying it’s alloying with the simultaneous limitation of the impurities represents a prospective possibility of the metallurgical production further development. The interaction of the alloying substance active element with oxygen in metal and adjacent multiphase environment occurs under the actual conditions. Present paper is oriented particularly to the thermodynamic aspects of deoxygenation by titan in process of production of micro alloyed low carbon steel in two plants (oxygen converter 1-OC1 and 2-OC2 with the different effect of micro-alloy exploitation. Analysis of the effect of the metallurgical factors on the titan smelting loss in micro-alloyed steel production points at the need to master the metal preparation for the alloying and especially has got the decisive effect upon the oxidizing ability and rate of the slag phase availability. When comparing the micro-alloying matter yield among the individual production units, disclosed have been better results obtained in plant OC 2. Confirmed has been the effect of the slag amount (average amount of 7,3 t at OC 1 and 5,83 t at OC 2 and its quality during the steel tapping as one among the most significant factors affecting the alloying process and which also represent its oxidizing potential.

  7. Bankruptcy risk forecasting for the metallurgical branch in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Răchişan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available All investment decisions require a thorough analysis of the retrospective evolution of the entities from the concerned area, in order to estimate the long-term evolution perspectives. In this context, the present study analyzes the evolution of the entities from the Romanian metallurgical sector based on the accounting and financial information published for the period 2008 - 2012 and, in fact, it justifies the situation from the perspective of users (managers, investors, auditors and of the economic environment specific to Romania. Starting from this premise we created a regression model particularly useful in forecasting the evolution of the ability to deal with debt for the entities from the Romanian metallurgical sector.

  8. Efficiency of Polish metallurgical industry based on data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Baran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to compare the technical efficiency of 12 sectors manufacturing basic metals and metal products in Poland. This article presents the use of Data Envelopment Analysis models, to determine overall technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency of metallurgical branches in Poland. The average technical efficiency of metallurgical industry in Poland was quite high. The analysis gives a possibility to create a ranking of sectors. Three branches were found to be fully efficient: manufacture of basic iron and steel and of ferroalloys, manufacture of basic precious and other non - ferrous metals and manufacture of tubes, pipes, hollow profiles and related fittings, of steel. The results point out the reasons of the inefficiency and provide improving directions for the inefficient sectors.

  9. Mining-metallurgical projects for the production of uranium concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajuria-Garza, S.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents an overall view of a complete project for a mining-metallurgical complex for the production of uranium concentrates. Relevant aspects of each important topic are discussed as parts of an integrated methodology. The principal project activities are analyzed and the relationships among the various factors affecting the design are indicated. A list of 96 principal activities is proposed as an example. These activities are distributed in eight groups: initial evaluations preliminary feasibility studies, project engineering, construction, industrial operation, decommissioning and post-decommissioning activities. The environmental impact and the radiological risks due to the construction and operation of the mining metallurgical complex are analyzed. The principles of radiological protection and the regulations, standards and recommendations for radiological protection in uranium mines and mills are discussed. This report is also a guide to the specialized literature: a bibliography with 765 references is included. (author)

  10. Supercritical water oxidation benchscale testing metallurgical analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norby, B.C.

    1993-02-01

    This report describes metallurgical evaluation of witness wires from a series of tests using supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) to process cutting oil containing a simulated radionuclide. The goal of the tests was to evaluate the technology's ability to process a highly chlorinated waste representative of many mixed waste streams generated in the DOE complex. The testing was conducted with a bench-scale SCWO system developed by the Modell Development Corporation. Significant test objectives included process optimization for adequate destruction efficiency, tracking the radionuclide simulant and certain metals in the effluent streams, and assessment of reactor material degradation resulting from processing a highly chlorinated waste. The metallurgical evaluation described herein includes results of metallographic analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis of witness wires exposed to the SCWO environment for one test series

  11. Elaboration and characterization of metallurgical silicon for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbouche, M; Hajji, M; Krout, F; Ezzaouia, H

    2015-01-01

    There is a small quantity of participants in the global market of silicon, mainly from the developed countries. It should be noticed also that production of metallurgical silicon Mg-Si is among the most important steps to produce solar grade silicon and photovoltaic panels. Therefore, in this paper we focused on the growth of Mg-Si by carbothermal reduction of silica. An investigation was made using FT-IR characterization to study the effect of process conditions (temperature, atmosphere, duration) in Mg-Si production. Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the produced Mg-Si. Based on these results, we established a pilot line production of metallurgical silicon at the 'CRTEn' in Tunisia

  12. The impact of production capacity utilization on metallurgical companies financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kutáč

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important and the most problematic in-house sources of financing of metallurgical companies are profit and depreciations. In the event that the aggregate value of the economic result and depreciations goes over to negative values, then this kind of in-house financing ceases to increase Cash Flow of the company but, on the contrary, it will cause its reduction. It means that this type of financing is to some extent uncertain, particularly in times of crisis, when there are noticeable fluctuations in sales volumes, leading to a significant influence of the volume of production on the amount of profit. The article discusses the impact of production capacity utilization on metallurgical companies financing.

  13. LWR surveillance dosimetry improvement program: PSF metallurgical blind test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, F.B.K.; Maerker, R.E.; Stallmann, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    The metallurgical irradiation experiment at the Oak Ridge Research Reactor Poolside Facility (ORR-PSF) was designed as a benchmark to test the accuracy of radiation embrittlement predictions in the pressure vessel wall of light water reactors on the basis of results from surveillance capsules. The PSF metallurgical Blind Test is concerned with the simulated surveillance capsule (SSC) and the simulated pressure vessel capsule (SPVC). The data from the ORR-PSF benchmark experiment are the basis for comparison with the predictions made by participants of the metallurgical ''Blind Test''. The Blind Test required the participants to predict the embrittlement of the irradiated specimen based only on dosimetry and metallurgical data from the SSC1 capsule. This exercise included both the prediction of damage fluence and the prediction of embrittlement based on the predicted fluence. A variety of prediction methodologies was used by the participants. No glaring biases or other deficiencies were found, but neither were any of the methods clearly superior to the others. Closer analysis shows a rather complex and poorly understood relation between fluence and material damage. Many prediction formulas can give an adequate approximation, but further improvement of the prediction methodology is unlikely at this time given the many unknown factors. Instead, attention should be focused on determining realistic uncertainties for the predicted material changes. The Blind Test comparisons provide some clues for the size of these uncertainties. In particular, higher uncertainties must be assigned to materials whose chemical composition lies outside the data set for which the prediction formula was obtained. 16 references, 14 figures, 5 tables

  14. Thermo-ecological cost (TEC evaluation of metallurgical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Stanek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallurgy represents a complex production system of fuel and mineral non-renewable resources transformation. The effectiveness of resource management in metallurgical chains depends on the applied ore grade and on the irreversibility of components of the system. TEC can be applied to measure the influence of metallurgy on the depletion of natural resources. The paper discusses the possibility of application of TEC in metallurgy and presents illustrative example concerning blast-furnace process.

  15. Towards Representative Metallurgical Sampling and Gold Recovery Testwork Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C. Dominy

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available When developing a process flowsheet, the risks in achieving positive financial outcomes are minimised by ensuring representative metallurgical samples and high quality testwork. The quality and type of samples used are as important as the testwork itself. The key characteristic required of any set of samples is that they represent a given domain and quantify its variability. There are those who think that stating a sample(s is representative makes it representative without justification. There is a need to consider both (1 in-situ and (2 testwork sub-sample representativity. Early ore/waste characterisation and domain definition are required, so that sampling and testwork protocols can be designed to suit the style of mineralisation in question. The Theory of Sampling (TOS provides an insight into the causes and magnitude of errors that may occur during the sampling of particulate materials (e.g., broken rock and is wholly applicable to metallurgical sampling. Quality assurance/quality control (QAQC is critical throughout all programmes. Metallurgical sampling and testwork should be fully integrated into geometallurgical studies. Traditional metallurgical testwork is critical for plant design and is an inherent part of geometallurgy. In a geometallurgical study, multiple spatially distributed small-scale tests are used as proxies for process parameters. These will be validated against traditional testwork results. This paper focusses on sampling and testwork for gold recovery determination. It aims to provide the reader with the background to move towards the design, implementation and reporting of representative and fit-for-purpose sampling and testwork programmes. While the paper does not intend to provide a definitive commentary, it critically assesses the hard-rock sampling methods used and their optimal collection and preparation. The need for representative sampling and quality testwork to avoid financial and intangible losses is

  16. Regional distribution of the metallurgical industry in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    T. Sadilek

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present the regional distribution of the metallurgical industry in the Czech Republic and to describe the specific factors which determine the localization of the industry in Czech regions. In order to achieve that goal, traditional tools of regional analysis are used, such as concentration analysis, used in business-to-business marketing, which does not describe the absolute size of the industry, but its relative size, focusing on the relation between the employe...

  17. Highlights of the metallurgical behaviour of CANDU pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, E.G.

    1984-10-01

    This paper is an overview of the service induced metallurgical changes that take place in Zircaloy-2 and Zr-2.5 wt. percent Nb pressure tubes in CANDU reactors. It incorporates the findings of an evaluation program, that followed a significant pressure tube failure at Ontario Hydro's Pickering Nuclear Generating Station, and also provides valid reasons for continued confidence in the current CANDU design

  18. SECI model and facilitation in change management in metallurgical enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Grzybowska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Organisational change management is not efficient without gaining and sharing knowledge by the members of the enterprise. Both in the conditions of relative organisational stability and in organisational chaos resulting from dynamic introduction and management of changes there is a constant need of improvement and of shaping competences and distribution of knowledge in the enterprise. The publication presents key programs of building knowledge conducted in a metallurgical enterprise.

  19. Metallurgical joining of engine parts. Inertia welding of nickel superalloy HP compressor disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferte, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    The main part of this paper describes upside metallurgical and mechanical work done at SNECMA, on inertia welding of powder metallurgy nickel base superalloys ASTROLOY and N18, allowing appliance of this process to engine parts : Inertia welding of superalloys leads to deap microstructural changes in the H.A.Z. which have been, as well as upset, correlated to process parameters, weld geometry and base material microstructure; a full mechanical testing of welds shown properties equivalent to base material ones up to 650 C except for fatigue crack growth behavior under specific conditions (T>600 C-hold time at maximum load) which is drastically reduced for in weld plane propagation. A significant improvement of this later property has been done through post-welding heat treatment and optimization of welding parameters. Last part of this paper summarize the main teachings gained, on the complete welding procedure, from welding of scale one parts. (orig.)

  20. New generation of Sour Service Drill Pipe allows addressing highly sour field challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomazic A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Drill pipes are commonly produced by assembling pipe and tool joints through friction welding. The weld, as a result of this process, presents some challenges for preserving corrosion resistance due to some metallurgical factors such as heterogeneous microstructure, different chemical compositions between the tool joint and the pipe body and heterogeneous mechanical properties close to the welded line. Hence a new drill pipe configuration have been developed including modified chemical composition and modified manufacturing process. These modifications allow for the improvement of mechanical properties performance and corrosion resistance in the welded zone.

  1. Challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwitters, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    The design of new and upgrades of existing high energy particle accelerators is reviewed in light of the current knowledge of the standard model determined from existing and past machines and funding factors. Current financing of science will delay determining unknowns, such as CP violation, proton decay, neutrino properties, and dark matter. Three options are given: (1) obtain more funding, (2) downsize scientific personnel as are private enterprises or (3) develop new technology which will reduce the high cost of building current designs of high energy accelerators. (AIP) copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  2. Metallurgical Design and Development of NASA Crawler/Transporter Tread Belt Shoe Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Donald S.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Crawler/Transporters (CT-1 and CT-2) used to transport the Space Shuffles are one of the largest tracked vehicles in existence today. Two of these machines have been used to move space flight vehicles at Kennedy Space Center since the Apollo missions of the 1960's and relatively few modifications have been made to keep them operational. In September of 2003 during normal Crawler/Transporter operations cracks were observed along the roller pad surfaces of several tread belt shoes. Further examination showed 20 cracked shoes on CT-1 and 40 cracked shoes on CT-2 and a formal failure analysis investigation was undertaken while the cracked shoes were replaced. Six shoes were cross-sectioned with the fracture surfaces exposed and it was determined that the cracks were due to fatigue that initiated on the internal casting web channels at pre-existing casting defects and propagated through thickness both transgranularly and intergranularly between internal shrinkage cavities, porosity, and along austenitic and ferritic grain boundaries. The original shoes were cast during the 1960's using a modified 861330 steel with slightly higher levels of chromium, nickel and molybdenum followed by heat treatment to achieve a minimum tensile strength of 11 Oksi. Subsequent metallurgical analysis of the tread belt shoes after multiple failures showed excessive internal defects, alloy segregation, a nonuniform ferritic/ bainitic/martensitic microstructure, and low average tensile properties indicative of poor casting and poor heat-treatment. As a result, NASA funded an initiative to replace all of the tread belt shoes on both crawler/transporters along with a redesign of the alloy, manufacturing, and heat-treatment to create a homogeneous cast structure with uniform mechanical and metallurgical properties. ME Global, a wholly owned subsidiary of ME Elecmetal based in Minneapolis, MN was selected as manufacturing and design partner to develop the new shoes and this paper

  3. Discussion of the Investigation Method on the Reaction Kinetics of Metallurgical Reaction Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ruiling; Wu, Keng; Zhang, Jiazhi; Zhao, Yong

    Reaction kinetics of metallurgical physical chemistry which was successfully applied in metallurgy (as ferrous metallurgy, non-ferrous metallurgy) became an important theoretical foundation for subject system of traditional metallurgy. Not only the research methods were very perfect, but also the independent structures and systems of it had been formed. One of the important tasks of metallurgical reaction engineering was the simulation of metallurgical process. And then, the mechanism of reaction process and the conversion time points of different control links should be obtained accurately. Therefore, the research methods and results of reaction kinetics in metallurgical physical chemistry were not very suitable for metallurgical reaction engineering. In order to provide the definite conditions of transmission, reaction kinetics parameters and the conversion time points of different control links for solving the transmission and reaction equations in metallurgical reaction engineering, a new method for researching kinetics mechanisms in metallurgical reaction engineering was proposed, which was named stepwise attempt method. Then the comparison of results between the two methods and the further development of stepwise attempt method were discussed in this paper. As a new research method for reaction kinetics in metallurgical reaction engineering, stepwise attempt method could not only satisfy the development of metallurgical reaction engineering, but also provide necessary guarantees for establishing its independent subject system.

  4. Economic statistics for the extractive and metallurgical industries for 1974/1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medaets, J

    1977-11-01

    Statistical data are presented for the extractive industries (coal, ore, quarries etc); coke and agglomerates manufacture; metallurgical industries; and the related hydrology. (In French and in Dutch)

  5. Friction, adhesion and corrosion performance of metallurgical coatings in HTGR-helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, R.; Kleemann, W.

    1981-01-01

    The friction-, adhesion-, thermal cycling- and corrosion performance of several metallurgical coating systems have been tested in a simulated HTGR-test atmosphere at elevated temperatures. The coatings were applied to a solid solution strengthened Ni-based superalloy. Component design requires coatings for the protection of mating surfaces, since under reactor operating conditions, contacting surfaces of metallic components under high pressures are prone to friction and wear damage. The coatings will have to protect the metal surface for 30 years up to 950 0 C in HTGR-helium. The materials tested were various refractory carbides with or without metallic binders and intermetallic compounds. The coatings evaluated were applied by plasma spraying-, detonation gun- and chemical vapor deposition techniques. These yielded two types of coatings which employ different mechanisms to improve the tribiological properties and maintain coating integrity. (Auth.)

  6. Utilizing of the metallurgical slag for production of cementless concrete mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baricová

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In process of pig iron, steel and cast iron production besides main product, also secondary products are formed, that have character of secondary raw materials and industrial wastes. The most abundant secondary product originating in the metallurgical process is furnace slag. Total amount of accured slag, also its chemical, mineralogical, physical – chemical properties and similarity with natural stones predestinate its utilisation in different fields of industry. The contribution deals with production of cementless concrete mixtures, where the main parts were formed by blast furnace granulated slag grinded and different gravel slag from blast furnace, oxygen converter and electric arc furnace. As activators of solidification different kinds of water glass were tested.

  7. Review of New Technology for Preparing Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Materials by Metallurgical Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Man; Dai, Yongnian; Ma, Wenhui; Yang, Bin; Chu, Qingmei

    2017-11-01

    The goals of greatly reducing the photovoltaic power cost and making it less than that of thermal power to realize photovoltaic power grid parity without state subsidies are focused on in this paper. The research status, key technologies and development of the new technology for preparing crystalline silicon solar cell materials by metallurgical method at home and abroad are reviewed. The important effects of impurities and defects in crystalline silicon on its properties are analysed. The importance of new technology on reducing production costs and improving its quality to increase the cell conversion efficiency are emphasized. The previous research results show that the raw materials of crystalline silicon are extremely abundant. The product of crystalline silicon can meet the quality requirements of solar cell materials: Si ≥ 6 N, P 1 Ω cm, minority carrier life > 25 μs cell conversion efficiency of about 19.3%, the product costs energy consumption energy consumption, low carbon and sustainable development are prospected.

  8. Metallurgical evaluation of failed post-tensioned containment tendon anchors at Joseph M. Farley Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czajkowski, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    A metallurgical examination has been performed on three failed post-tensioned containment tendon anchors and one intact anchor from the Farley Unit 2 Nuclear Power Station. The evaluation consisted of chemical/mechanical testing, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The conclusions drawn from the investigation were: 1) the anchors met the chemical and mechanical properties of AISI 4140/4142 steel; 2) there was no evidence of phosphorous segregation to the grain boundary (by ethereal picral etch); 3) the observed cracking was generally a mixed mode of intergranular and quasi-cleavage as well as ductile rupture with the intergranular cracking occurring along prior austenite grain boundaries; 4) the results of the mechanical tests coupled with the discontinuous nature of the intergranular areas and the elimination of other modes of failure give sufficient indication that the failure was a hydrogen induced cracking phenomenon

  9. Wear and corrosion performance of metallurgical coatings in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.N.; Farwick, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    The friction, wear, and corrosion performance of several metallurgical coatings in 200 to 650 0 C sodium are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on those coatings which have successfully passed the qualification tests necessary for acceptance in breeder reactor environments. Tests include friction, wear, corrosion, thermal cycling, self-welding, and irradiation exposure under as-prototypic-as-possible service conditions. Materials tested were coatings of various refractory metal carbides in metallic binders, nickel-base and cobalt-base alloys and intermetallic compounds such as the aluminides and borides. Coating processes evaluated included plasma spray, detonation gun, sputtering, spark-deposition, and solid-state diffusion

  10. Some results of medical researches at Ulba Metallurgical Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artemieva, G.I.; Novikov, V.G.; Savchuk, V.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant, Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The results of 45-years medical researches at beryllium production of Ulba Metallurgical Plant are summarized in this report. Statistic data on different kinds of occupational diseases, related to beryllium production and the dynamics of changing occupational diseases with the development of beryllium production, are given there. Data on average duration of life of occupational disease patients are presented in the report. It includes the description of problems, related to berylliosis diagnosis. Issues, connected to beryllium production effect on health of man, located nearby beryllium production are also discussed there as well. (author)

  11. The 6th European metallurgical conference EMC 2011: Proceedings review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko R. Stopić

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The GDMB Society for Mining, Metallurgy, Resource and Environmental Technology organized the 6th European Metallurgical Conference (2011 in Duesseldorf from June 26 to 29, 2011. The same venue hosted the most important international metallurgical trade fairs for metallurgy of iron and steel, new casting and thermochemical processes METEC, GIFA, THERMOPROCESS and NEWCAST. The previous European metallurgical conferences were organized by GDMB in Friedrichshafen (2001, Hanover (2003, Leipzig (2005, Duesseldorf (2007, Innsbruck (2009. The GDMB is a non-profit organization situated in Clausthal in Germany, which is related to combining science with the practical experience in metallurgy, mining, materials engineering, mineral processing, recycling and refining of metals, and manufacturing of semi- and finishing products. The European Metallurgical conference EMC is one of the most known conferences worldwide in the field of non-ferrous metallurgy and is attended regularly by the decision makers from the industry and universities. The scientific program contained 6 plenary lectures and more than 160 presentations from 40 countries in 5 parallel series. An extensive poster exhibition was held, during which the authors had an opportunity to introduce their posters to the entire plenum as a part of a brief presentation. The best poster from the Montan-University in Leoben, Austria, was awarded the € 500 'Poster Award EMC 2011'. Not only were the most important European countries represented here, more than one third of the lecturers were from the non-European countries (Canada, Japan, China, USA, South Africa, Australia. The origin of the participants reflects the aim of the organizers: to make this conference a worldwide platform for the scientific exchange of experience and information. More than 400 participants from all over the world participated at this conference. The scientific presentations of the conference are presented in five Proceedings

  12. Municipal solid waste disposal by using metallurgical technologies and equipments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Jiuju; Sun, Wenqiang [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Eco-industry, Institute of Thermal and Environmental Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2012-07-01

    Pyrolysis of municipal solid waste can take full advantage of energy and resource and avoid producing hazardous material during this period. In combination with mature metallurgical technologies of coking by coke oven, regenerative flame furnace technology and melting by electric arc furnace, technologies of regenerative fixed bed pyrolysis technology for household waste, co-coking technology for waste plastic and blend coal, and incineration ash melting technology by electric arc technology for medical waste were respectively developed to improve current unsatisfied sorting status of waste. The investigation results of laboratory experiments, semi-industrial experiments and industrial experiments as well as their economic benefits and environmental benefits for related technologies were separately presented.

  13. Comparative metallurgical study of thick hard coatings without cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemendot, F.; Van Duysen, J.C.; Champredonde, J.

    1992-07-01

    Wear and corrosion of stellite type hard coatings for valves of the PWR primary system raise important problems of contamination. Substitution of these alloys by cobalt-free hard coatings (Colmonoy 4 and 4.26, Cenium 36) should allow to reduce this contamination. A comparative study (chemical, mechanical, thermal, metallurgical), as well as a corrosion study of these coatings were carried out. The results of this characterization show that none of the studied products has globally characteristics as good as those of grade 6 Stellite currently in service

  14. Magnetohydrodynamic research in fusion blanket engineering and metallurgical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuhiro, A.

    1991-11-01

    A review of recent research activities in liquid metal magnetohydrodynamics (LM-MHDs) is presented in this article. Two major reserach areas are discussed. The first topic involves the thermomechanical design issues in a proposed tokamak fusion reactor. The primary concerns are in the magneto-thermal-hydraulic performance of a self-cooled liquid metal blanket. The second topic involves the application of MHD in material processing in the metallurgical and semiconductor industries. The two representative applications are electromagnetic stirring (EMS) of continuously cast steel and the Czochralski (CZ) method of crystal growth in the presence of a magnetic field. (author) 24 figs., 10 tabs., 136 refs

  15. Control and metallurgical examination on safety injection piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thebault, Y.; Grandjean, Y.; Gauthier, V.; Lambert, B.; Debustcher, B.

    1998-01-01

    From 1992 until 1997, cracking phenomena by thermal fatigue regarding safety injection piping were evidenced on several PWR 900 MW reactors. These events led EDF to the implementation of a first maintenance programme. In December 1996, a new leak occurred on an EDF 900 MW PWR in operation and was located on a safety injection pipe. In site inspections and metallurgical examinations carried out in the EDF hot Laboratory evidenced defects inside the pipe, out of the welding areas. These degradations are the consequence of a fatigue cracking phenomenon with thermal cycling linked to permanent tensile stresses. Following this incident, a programme of non destructive testing was implemented on all the EDF 900 MW plants. These inspections exhibited the same defects on other PWR 900 MW units. The results of the metallurgical examinations and also in site inspection results allowed EDF to understand the phenomenon and to validate an inspection programme on the one hand and a modification of the design of the circuits on the other hand. (authors)

  16. LWR surveillance dosimetry improvement program: PSF metallurgical blind test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, F.B.K.; Stallmann, F.W.; Guthrie, G.; McElroy, W.N.

    1985-01-01

    The ORR-PSF benchmark experiment was designed to simulate the surveillance capsule-pressure vessel configuration in power reactors and to test the validity of procedures which determine the radiation damage in the vessel from test results in the surveillance capsule. The PSF metallurgical blind test was initiated to give participants an opportunity to test their current embrittlement prediction methodologies. Experimental results were withheld from the participants except for the type of information which is normally contained in surveillance reports. Preliminary analysis of the PSF metallurgical blind test results shows that: (1) current prediction methodologies, as used by the PSF Blind Test participants, are adequate, falling within +- 20 0 C of the measured values for Δ NDT. None of the different methods is clearly superior; (2) the proposed revision of Reg. Guide 1.99 (Rev. 2) gives a better representation of the fluence and chemistry dependency of Δ NDT than the current version (Rev. 1); and (3) fluence rate effects can be seen but not quantified. Fluence spectral effects are too small to be detectable in this experiment. (orig.)

  17. Analytical study of getting clinker from metallurgical wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Петрович Кравченко

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The opportunities to get clinker (cement on the basis of 2-component mixtures of raw materials: waste slag + limestone (less than 10mm fraction unsuitable for sinter production and being a technological waste of preparing raw materials for steel production have been investigated. Chemical compositions of waste slag and limestone wastes were investigated in the central laboratory at the Illych plant. The waste slag was got at the «Ilyich» plant while waste limestone - less than 10 mm fraction - was got in the dumps of the mine group in Komsomolsk. Taking into account chemical composition fluctuations of the waste dump slags and limestone within a few percent, the optimal ratio of raw materials is 55-65% limestone waste, while it is 35-45% waste slag. The clinker quality is evaluated by its hydraulic module, which is equal to: m = 2,37 and is determined on the basis of the chemical composition of the 2-component raw material mixture. For this method of clinker production, the value of the hydraulic module is rather high; and the possibility of obtaining high-quality clinker of metallurgical wastes has been confirmed. The offered method for producing clinker makes it possible to utilize metallurgical wastes and to get substantial ecological and economic benefits

  18. Energy conservation and efficiency in Giprokoks designs at Ukrainian ferrous-metallurgical enterprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.I. Fal' kov [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Energy conditions at Ukrainian ferrous-metallurgical enterprises are analyzed. Measures to boost energy conservation and energy efficiency are proposed: specifically, the introduction of systems for dry slaking of coke; and steam-gas turbines that employ coke-oven gas or a mixture of gases produced at metallurgical enterprises. Such turbines may be built from Ukrainian components.

  19. Metallurgical Effects of Shunting Current on Resistance Spot-Welded Joints of AA2219 Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari Vardanjani, M.; Araee, A.; Senkara, J.; Jakubowski, J.; Godek, J.

    2016-08-01

    Shunting effect is the loss of electrical current via the secondary circuit provided due to the existence of previous nugget in a series of welding spots. This phenomenon influences on metallurgical aspects of resistance spot-welded (RSW) joints in terms of quality and performance. In this paper RSW joints of AA2219 sheets with 1 mm thickness are investigated metallurgically for shunted and single spots. An electro-thermal finite element analysis is performed on the RSW process of shunted spot and temperature distribution and variation are obtained. These predictions are then compared with experimental micrographs. Three values of 5 mm, 20 mm, and infinite (i.e., single spot) are assumed for welding distance. Numerical and experimental results are matching each other in terms of nugget and HAZ geometry as increasing distance raised nugget size and symmetry of HAZ. In addition, important effect of shunting current on nugget thickness, microstructure, and Copper segregation on HAZ grain boundaries were discovered. A quantitative analysis is also performed about the influence of welding distance on important properties including ratio of nugget thickness and diameter ( r t), ratio of HAZ area on shunted and free side of nugget ( r HA), and ratio of equivalent segregated and total amount of Copper, measured in sample ( r Cu) on HAZ. Increasing distance from 5 mm to infinite, indicated a gain of 111.04, -45.55, and -75.15% in r t, r HA, and r Cu, respectively, while obtained ratios for 20 mm welding distance was suitable compared to single spot.

  20. Manganese Ores from South Sulawesi: Their Potential Uses as Raw Materials for Metallurgical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufriadin Sufriadin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of manganese ores from Barru and Bone regencies of South Sulawesi has been conducted with the aim at clarification of their mineralogical and chemical composition for their potential uses as the raw materials for metallurgical industry. Mineralogical properties of the ores analyzed by means of optical microscopy and X-ray diffractometry (XRD show that samples from Barru consist mainly of rhodochrosite (MnCO3 with less cryptomelane, groutite, bixbyite, and todorokite. Goethite, calcite and small amount of quartz present as impurities. Manganese ore samples from Bone are predominantly composed of pyrolusite (MnO2 with subordinate ramsdellite and hollandite. Barite, quartz, hematite and clay are present as gangue minerals. Chemical compositions determined by using XRF method revealed that Barru samples contain higher in MnO (average is 40.07 wt% than the Bone samples (average is 34.36 wt%. Similarly, Fe2O3 and CaO are also higher in Barru than those of the Bone samples. In contrast, concentrations of SiO2 and total alkali (K2O + Na2O are lower in the Barru samples. The average P2O5 content of samples in both areas is low (<0.2 wt%. Relatively higher grade of Fe2O3 in the Barru ore implies that it has potential application for ferromanganese production; whereas the elevated SiO2 content of the Bone ore is a good indication for silicomanganese manufacture. However, both ores may not favorable to be directly used as raw materials in metallurgical uses. Prior to be used, the ores should be treated by applying physical beneficiation in order to reduce deleterious elements.

  1. Pathways to Structure-Property Relationships of Peptide-Materials Interfaces: Challenges in Predicting Molecular Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Tiffany R

    2017-07-18

    An in-depth appreciation of how to manipulate the molecular-level recognition between peptides and aqueous materials interfaces, including nanoparticles, will advance technologies based on self-organized metamaterials for photonics and plasmonics, biosensing, catalysis, energy generation and harvesting, and nanomedicine. Exploitation of the materials-selective binding of biomolecules is pivotal to success in these areas and may be particularly key to producing new hierarchically structured biobased materials. These applications could be accomplished by realizing preferential adsorption of a given biomolecule onto one materials composition over another, one surface facet over another, or one crystalline polymorph over another. Deeper knowledge of the aqueous abiotic-biotic interface, to establish clear structure-property relationships in these systems, is needed to meet this goal. In particular, a thorough structural characterization of the surface-adsorbed peptides is essential for establishing these relationships but can often be challenging to accomplish via experimental approaches alone. In addition to myriad existing challenges associated with determining the detailed molecular structure of any molecule adsorbed at an aqueous interface, experimental characterization of materials-binding peptides brings new, complex challenges because many materials-binding peptides are thought to be intrinsically disordered. This means that these peptides are not amenable to experimental techniques that rely on the presence of well-defined secondary structure in the peptide when in the adsorbed state. To address this challenge, and in partnership with experiment, molecular simulations at the atomistic level can bring complementary and critical insights into the origins of this abiotic/biotic recognition and suggest routes for manipulating this phenomenon to realize new types of hybrid materials. For the reasons outlined above, molecular simulation approaches also face

  2. Silver recovery from zinc metallurgical sludge – analysis of solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietrzyk Stanisław

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the hydrometallurgical process of zinc production, conducted in the ZGH “Bolesław” S.A. in Bukowno [Mine and Metallurgical Plant], about 40,000 tons of sludge is generated. After dehydration in the Larox filter presses, sludge contains ca. 16-18% of Zn, 20-25% of Fe, and 200-300 ppm of Ag. Next, sludge is transported to the Olkusz concentrator for flotation to obtain concentrate enriched with Ag (1,000-1,500 ppm. The concentrate is then sent to the HC “Miasteczko Śląskie” [zinc smelter], while the flotation tailings are subjected to recycling in waelz kiln in Bukowno to regain mainly Zn and Pb, in the form of oxides (also sent later to the HC “Miasteczko Śląskie”.

  3. Inventory management in a metallurgical of the automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Maia de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the importance of inventory management in a metallurgical company, located in Santo André city, in Grande São Paulo, since the inventory management is crucial within a company that wants to survive nowadays, by studying the main features and trends in the methods used for inventory control. In this case study the basic concepts for good control were considered, showing tools currently used in the market, providing data for material purchase, sales control, parts in stock, future orders, MRP, storage space, among others once many companies have high and unnecessary cost of stock for not being aware of the real importance of this control. It is felt that the logistics of the company should invest in technology by purchasing the MRP system, visiting fairs and attending seminars. This way, the company will have better inventory control thus consequently decrease the purchase of materials.

  4. Powder metallurgical high performance materials. Proceedings. Volume 4: late papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneringer, G; Roedhammer, P; Wildner, H [eds.

    2001-07-01

    This is the fourth volume (late papers) of the 15th International Plansee seminar 2001 which general theme was 'Powder metallurgical high performance materials'. The seminar looked beyond the refractory metals and cemented carbides, which remain as its focus, to novel classes of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, with potential for high temperature applications. This volume 4 contains papers dealing with high performance P/M metals (ITER and fusion reactors, solid targets, materials microstructure, novel alloys, etc.), P/M hard materials ( production and characterization, tungsten carbides, titanium carbides, microstructural design, coatings composition and performance, etc.) and general topics. From 37 papers 24 correspond to INIS subject scope and they were indexed separately. (nevyjel)

  5. First Mining workshop of Mining and metallurgical of MERCOSUR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In the city of Montevideo, capital of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, at 23 days of September 1994, under the First Meeting of Mercosur Mining Metallurgical, meet representatives of the mining sector in the countries signed the Treaty of Asuncion , attended as observers, authorities of the Republic of Bolivia and Ecuador and representatives of the productive labor, legislative and research. The primary objective is to integrate the mining sectors of those countries, taking into account the specificity of the mining, given by the resource it uses, the need for high-risk investment with slow recoveries of capital and infrastructure problems, taking into account leverage and its remarkable impact on the development of regional economies.

  6. Integrated Multimotor Electrical DC Drive for Metallurgical Rolling Table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gała Marek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A drive system of a section of a metallurgical rolling table consisting of six dc motors, 2220 amperes of total current, fed from a single ABB reversible thyristor converter has been described in this paper. Autonomous excitation circuits of the motors are fed from independent thyristor converters working in the so called MULTIFEX system linked with a supervisory high power converter. There are presented schemes of the DSL communication realized by FEX excitation cards of the motors using the SDSC card of the DCS-800-S02 converter and logic control system based on a PLC controller. The parameterization of the DCS-800 converter and the DCF 803 excitation systems was conducted using the DriveWindow software tool. Significant waveforms of voltages, currents and the estimated motor velocity are described and presented for the idle run as well as during transporting sheets discharged from a pusher furnace.

  7. Metallurgical aspects of corrosion resistance of aluminium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, M.C. [Pechiney Voreppe Research Centre France (France); CNRS-INP Grenoble, SIMAP-INP Grenoble, Universite France, Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Baroux, B. [SIMAP-INP, Grenoble University, 1130 rue de la piscine, Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)

    2011-03-15

    Aluminium is the second most often used metal after steel. In this paper, the most current uses of aluminium alloys are first summarised. Then, their different corrosion modes, i.e. pitting, crevice, filiform, galvanic and structural corrosion (including inter-granular, exfoliation and stress corrosion cracking) are reviewed, with particular attention paid to metallurgical factors controlling the corrosion process. For each mode, some instances of possible in-service failure are given, followed by the discussion of the involved mechanisms and the presentation of appropriate solutions to prevent corrosion. Last, passivity and polarisation behaviour are discussed with reference to stainless steels. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Powder metallurgical high performance materials. Proceedings. Volume 4: late papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneringer, G.; Roedhammer, P.; Wildner, H.

    2001-01-01

    This is the fourth volume (late papers) of the 15th International Plansee seminar 2001 which general theme was 'Powder metallurgical high performance materials'. The seminar looked beyond the refractory metals and cemented carbides, which remain as its focus, to novel classes of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, with potential for high temperature applications. This volume 4 contains papers dealing with high performance P/M metals (ITER and fusion reactors, solid targets, materials microstructure, novel alloys, etc.), P/M hard materials ( production and characterization, tungsten carbides, titanium carbides, microstructural design, coatings composition and performance, etc.) and general topics. From 37 papers 24 correspond to INIS subject scope and they were indexed separately. (nevyjel)

  9. Metallurgical Characterization of a Weld Bead Coating Applied by the PTA Process on the D2 Tool Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tahaei

    Full Text Available Abstract In this investigation, a nickel-base powder mixed with tungsten carbide particles was applied by Plasma Transferred Arc welding (PTA on the surface of the D2 cold work tool steel to improve surface quality and to extend its lifetime during applications. The Design of Experiment (DoE method was applied to obtain the appropriate combination of hardfacing parameters and to run the minimum number of tests. Current, travel speed and preheat were considered as variable parameters. These parameters are important to reach a final layer with an appropriate bead geometry accompanied with good metallurgical properties. All samples were prepared for metallurgical investigations and the effect of process parameters on the weld bead geometry was considered. For each experiment run, weld bead geometry parameters were measured including dilution, penetration and reinforcement. Microstructures and the distribution of tungsten carbide particles after welding were analyzed by Optical Microscopy (OM and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM equipped with an EDS microprobe. In addition, hardness tests were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties of the weld bead layers. Finally, among all the experiments, the best sample with appropriate bead geometry and microstructure was selected.

  10. Estimation of metallurgical parameters of flotation process from froth visual features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Massinaei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of metallurgical parameters of flotation process from froth visual features is the ultimate goal of a machine vision based control system. In this study, a batch flotation system was operated under different process conditions and metallurgical parameters and froth image data were determined simultaneously. Algorithms have been developed for measuring textural and physical froth features from the captured images. The correlation between the froth features and metallurgical parameters was successfully modeled, using artificial neural networks. It has been shown that the performance parameters of flotation process can be accurately estimated from the extracted image features, which is of great importance for developing automatic control systems.

  11. TiNi shape memory alloys: effects of the fabrication route, the oxygen content and the zirconium or hafnium additions on the metallurgical characteristics and the thermomechanical properties; Alliages a memoires de forme de base TiNi: influence du mode de fabrication de la teneur en oxygene et de l`ajout de Zr ou Hf sur les caracteristiques metallurgiques et les proprietes mecaniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olier, P.

    1996-12-31

    In order to promote the development of Ti-Ni shape memory alloys, we have studied the correlation between the fabrication route, the chemical composition (O{sub 2} content, Zr or Hf additions), the metallurgical characteristics and the thermomechanical properties. A conventional sintering does not allow to obtain a homogeneous compound of pure Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} alloy because of the occurrence of Kirkendall porosities which act as a diffusion barrier. An original process including combustion synthesis and hot-extrusion was successfully developed. Resulting products exhibit a smaller grain size (15-20{mu}m) and an enhanced workability in comparison with products obtained by arc-melting and subsequent hot rolling. The presence of oxygen in equiatomic Ti-Ni alloy induces the oxide precipitation of Ti{sub 4}Ni{sub 2}O{sub x} type (with x {<=} 1). The precipitated particle fraction is proportional to the oxygen nominal content of the alloy. We show that the decrease of the transformation temperatures is correlated with the decrease of Ti in solid solution due to Ti{sub 4}Ni{sub 2}O precipitation. Moreover, we find that a fine and homogenous oxide dispersion is suitable to decrease the grain size during hot rolling and to enhance to the one way shape memory properties. An increase of the typical transformation temperatures is obtained through of Zr or Hf (in substitution to Ti). But, an increase of the hardness is measured, and consequently the workability of the ternary alloys becomes reduced. However, it is worthwhile to point out that a Ti{sub 38}Ni{sub 50}Hf{sub 12} product obtained by arc melting and hot extrusion is able to fully recover an apparent plastic strain of more than 4% during tensile tests performed under special loading conditions. Such as behaviour is of great interest with respect to potential applications in a temperature range higher that 100 deg. C. (author). 105 refs.

  12. Synergetic use of lignite fly ash and metallurgical converter slag in geopolymer concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Mucsi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The application and utilization of the industrial wastes and by-products in the construction industry is a key issue from an environmental and economic point of view. The increased use of lignite has substantially increased the available quantities of lignite fired power plant fly ash, which can be mainly classified as class C fly ash. The utilization of such raw material however has some difficulties. In the present paper lignite fired power station fly ash and metallurgical converter slag were used for the production of geopolymer concrete. The fly ash was used as a geopolymer based binder material, and a converter slag as aggregate, thus created a geopolymer concrete which contains mainly industrial wastes. As preliminary test experimental series were carried out using andesite as aggregate. The optimal aggregate/binder ratio was determined. The effect of the amount of alkaline activator solution in the binder, the aggregate type on the geopolymer concretes’ compressive strength and density was investigated. Furthermore, the physical properties - freeze-thaw resistance and particle size distribution - of the applied aggregates were measured as well. As a result of the experiments it was found that physical properties of the andesite and converter slag aggregate was close. Therefore andesite can be replaced by converter slag in the concrete mixture. Additionally, geopolymer concrete with nearly 20 MPa compressive strength was produced from class C fly ash and converter slag.

  13. Metallurgical comparison between the experimental ED-ODS and commercial ODS steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, P.; Serrano, M.; Lapena, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Recently, reduced activation oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic/martensitic steels have been identified as potential structural material candidates for first wall and blanket structures of fusion devices. These steels allow to increase the operation temperature of the fusion reactor, around of 100 deg. C or even more, because of their excellent thermal creep resistance. ODS steels are being developed and investigated for nuclear fission and fusion applications in Japan, Europe and the United States. Commercial ODS products, such as MA956 and PM2000 are available and are being used for high temperature applications. Since no reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels are commercially available at present, the European Materials Fusion Programme has considered in the last years initiate adequate research activities to produce and characterize these materials to evaluate the feasibility of their use in the different blanket designs. Nowadays, the ODS steel that are being extensively investigated in Europe is the denominated EU-ODS. This alloy has the basic composition of the Eurofer'97 with 0.3% of Y 2 O 3 particles. In this paper, the metallurgical properties (microstructural, Charpy, etc) of the newly developed EU-ODS steel are presented and discussed together with the properties of the commercial MA956 and PM2000 ODS steels, also studied in this work, in order to show the differences and similarities between these ODS alloys. (authors)

  14. Metallurgical considerations in the design of creep exposed, high temperature components for advanced power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, F.

    1990-08-01

    Metallic components in advanced power generating plants are subjected to temperatures at which the material properties are significantly time-dependent, so that the creep properties become dominant for the design. In this investigation, methods by which such components are to be designed are given, taking into account metallurgical principles. Experimental structure mechanics testing of component related specimens carried out for representative loading conditions has confirmed the proposed methods. The determination of time-dependent design values is based on a scatterband evaluation of long-term testing data obtained for a number of different heats of a given alloy. The application of computer-based databank systems is recommendable. The description of the technically important secondary creep rate based on physical metallurgy principles can be obtained using the exponential relationship originally formulated by Norton, ε min = k.σ n . The deformation of tubes observed under internal pressure with a superimposed static or cyclic tensile stress and a torsion loading can be adequately described with the derived, three-dimensional creep equation (Norton). This is also true for the description of creep ratcheting and creep buckling phenomena. By superimposing a cyclic stress, the average creep rate is increased in one of the principal deformation axes. This is also true for the creep crack growth rate. The Norton equation can be used to derive this type of deformation behaviour. (orig.) [de

  15. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and food sensory properties: potential and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Chiara; Kiefl, Johannes; Schieberle, Peter; Reichenbach, Stephen E; Bicchi, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Modern omics disciplines dealing with food flavor focus the analytical efforts on the elucidation of sensory-active compounds, including all possible stimuli of multimodal perception (aroma, taste, texture, etc.) by means of a comprehensive, integrated treatment of sample constituents, such as physicochemical properties, concentration in the matrix, and sensory properties (odor/taste quality, perception threshold). Such analyses require detailed profiling of known bioactive components as well as advanced fingerprinting techniques to catalog sample constituents comprehensively, quantitatively, and comparably across samples. Multidimensional analytical platforms support comprehensive investigations required for flavor analysis by combining information on analytes' identities, physicochemical behaviors (volatility, polarity, partition coefficient, and solubility), concentration, and odor quality. Unlike other omics, flavor metabolomics and sensomics include the final output of the biological phenomenon (i.e., sensory perceptions) as an additional analytical dimension, which is specifically and exclusively triggered by the chemicals analyzed. However, advanced omics platforms, which are multidimensional by definition, pose challenging issues not only in terms of coupling with detection systems and sample preparation, but also in terms of data elaboration and processing. The large number of variables collected during each analytical run provides a high level of information, but requires appropriate strategies to exploit fully this potential. This review focuses on advances in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and analytical platforms combining two-dimensional gas chromatography with olfactometry, chemometrics, and quantitative assays for food sensory analysis to assess the quality of a given product. We review instrumental advances and couplings, automation in sample preparation, data elaboration, and a selection of applications.

  16. Post-failure metallurgical investigation of KNK steam generator tube damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, H; Herberg, G

    1975-07-01

    In September 1973 the sodium-cooled reactor KNK was shut down due to a steam generator tube damage. Failure location and results of the metallurgical examination of the damage are described. The cause of the damage is discussed. (author)

  17. Metallurgical sessions. Second ALAMET congress (held in) Buenos Aires, Argentina, 6-10 May 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This congress was held in Buenos Aires, Argentine Republic, on May 6-10, 1991, gathering experts from all over the world. The present volume includes the papers presented at the Metallurgical Sessions - II. ALAMET Congress [es

  18. Recycling of rubber tires in electric arc furnace steelmaking: simultaneous combustion of metallurgical coke and rubber tyres blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magdalena Zaharia; Veena Sahajwalla; Byong-Chul Kim; Rita Khanna; N. Saha-Chaudhury; Paul O' Kane; Jonathan Dicker; Catherine Skidmore; David Knights [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    2009-05-15

    The present study investigates the effect of addition of waste rubber tires on the combustion behavior of its blends with coke for carbon injection in electric arc furnace steelmaking. Waste rubber tires were mixed in different proportions with metallurgical coke (MC) (10:90, 20:80, 30:70) for combustion and pyrolysis at 1473 K in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), respectively. Under experimental conditions most of the rubber blends indicated higher combustion efficiencies compared to those of the constituent coke. In the early stage of combustion the weight loss rate of the blends is much faster compared to that of the raw coke due to the higher volatile yield of rubber. The presence of rubber in the blends may have had an impact upon the structure during the release and combustion of their high volatile matter (VM) and hence increased char burnout. Measurements of micropore surface area and bulk density of the chars collected after combustion support the higher combustion efficiency of the blends in comparison to coke alone. The surface morphology of the 30% rubber blend revealed pores in the residual char that might be attributed to volatile evolution during high temperature reaction in oxygen atmosphere. Physical properties and VM appear to have a major effect upon the measured combustion efficiency of rubber blends. The study demonstrates that waste rubber tires can be successfully co-injected with metallurgical coke in electric arc furnace steelmaking process to provide additional energy from combustion. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Big data analytics as a service infrastructure: challenges, desired properties and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín-Márquez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    CERN's accelerator complex generates a very large amount of data. A large volumen of heterogeneous data is constantly generated from control equipment and monitoring agents. These data must be stored and analysed. Over the decades, CERN's researching and engineering teams have applied different approaches, techniques and technologies for this purpose. This situation has minimised the necessary collaboration and, more relevantly, the cross data analytics over different domains. These two factors are essential to unlock hidden insights and correlations between the underlying processes, which enable better and more efficient daily-based accelerator operations and more informed decisions. The proposed Big Data Analytics as a Service Infrastructure aims to: (1) integrate the existing developments; (2) centralise and standardise the complex data analytics needs for CERN's research and engineering community; (3) deliver real-time, batch data analytics and information discovery capabilities; and (4) provide transparent access and Extract, Transform and Load (ETL), mechanisms to the various and mission-critical existing data repositories. This paper presents the desired objectives and properties resulting from the analysis of CERN's data analytics requirements; the main challenges: technological, collaborative and educational and; potential solutions. (paper)

  20. A Review on Properties, Opportunities, and Challenges of Transformer Oil-Based Nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rafiq

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mineral oil or synthetic oil in conjunction with paper is mainly being applied as dielectric medium in many of the high voltage apparatus. However, the advent of high voltage levels such high voltage alternating current (HVAC and high voltage direct current (HVDC has prompted researchers to direct their focus onto an insulation system which can bear the rising high voltage levels. The modern insulating liquid material development is guided by various factors such as high electrical insulation requirements and other safety and economic considerations. Therefore transformer manufacturer companies have to design transformers with these new specific requirements. The transformer oil-based nanofluids with improved dielectric and thermal properties have the potential to replace mineral oil base products in the market place. They are favorable because they function more superior than mineral oil and they contribute definite insulating and thermal gains. This paper reviews recent status of nanofluids use as transformer oils. The nanofluids used as transformer oils are presented and their advantages are described in comparison with mineral oil. The multiple experimental works carried out by different researchers are described, providing an overview of the current research conducted on nanofluids. In addition scope and challenges being confronted in this area of research are clearly presented.

  1. Metallurgical electrochemistry: the interface between materials science and molten salt chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadoway, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Even though molten salt electrolysis finds application in the primary extraction of metals (electrowinning), the purification and recycling of metals (electrorefining), and in the formation of metal coatings (electroplating), the technology remains in many respects underexploited. Electrolysis in molten salts as well as other nonaqueous media has enormous potential for materials processing. First, owing to the special attributes of nonaqueous electrolytes electrochemical processing in these media has an important role to play in the generation of advanced materials, i.e., materials with specialized chemistries or tailored microstructures (electrosynthesis). Secondly, as environmental quality standards rise beyond the capabilities of classical metals extraction technologies to comply, molten salt electrolysis may prove to be the only acceptable route from ore to metal. Growing public awareness of pollution from the metals industry could stimulate a renaissance in molten salt electrochemistry. Challenges facing metallurgical electrochemistry as relates to the environment fall into two categories: (1) improving existing electrochemical technology, and (2) developing clean electrochemical technology to displace current nonelectrochemical technology. In both instances success hinges upon the discovery of advanced materials and the ecologically sound extraction of metals, the close coupling between materials science and molten salt chemistry is manifest. (author) 6 refs

  2. Autonomous and professional maintenance in metallurgical enterprise as activities within total productive maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The content of this publication consists of notions connected with Total Productive Maintenance (TPM in metallurgical enterprise. The basic areas of devices condition management through Autonomous and Professional Maintenance are described here. Mentioned areas of activities are performed in metallurgical enterprise ArcelorMittal Poland within pillars of World Class Manufacturing (WCM. The aims of UR programs are to maintain the basic functionality of the devices and decrease the number of failures in order to reach improvement of production efficiency.

  3. Development of market strategies of metallurgical enterrprises after restructuring of steel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Before metallurgical enterprises started implementation of marketing activities they had to go through restructuring processes which included all areas of their market activities. Privatised metallurgical enterprises after economic transformation gradually implemented marketing to their business activities. The article presents notions connected with development of marketing strategies from the period of last 20 years. The range of analysis includes categories corresponding with instruments of mix marketing (4P − product, price, place, promotion.

  4. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, samples from 18 groundwater monitoring wells of the AMB series at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility were analyzed for certain heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Six parameters exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria during the quarter. The results for fourth quarter 1992 are fairly consistent with the rest of the year's data. Tetrachloroethylene exceeded the final PDWS in well AMB 4D only two of the four quarters; in the other three wells in which it was elevated, it was present at similar levels throughout the year. Trichloroethylene consistently exceeded its PDWS in wells AMB 4A, 4B, 4D, 5, and 7A during the year. Trichloroethylene was elevated in well AMB 6 only during third and fourth quarters and in well AMB 7 only during fourth quarter. Total alpha-emitting radium was above the final PDWS for total radium in well AMB 5 at similar levels throughout the year and exceeded the PDWS during one of the three quarters it was analyzed for (third quarter 1992) in well AMB 10B

  5. Reprocessing of metallurgical slag into materials for the building industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pioro, L.S.; Pioro, I.L.

    2004-01-01

    Several methods of reprocessing metallurgical (blast furnace) slag into materials for the building industry, based on melting aggregates with submerged combustion, were developed and tested. The first method involves melting hot slag with some additives directly in a slag ladle with a submerged gas-air burner, with the objective of producing stabilized slag or glass-ceramic. The second method involves direct draining of melted slag from a ladle into the slag receiver, with subsequent control of the slag draining into the converter where special charging materials are added to the melt, with the objective of producing glass-ceramic. A third method involves melting cold slag with some additives inside a melting converter with submerged gas-air burners, with the objective of producing glass-ceramic fillers for use in road construction. Specific to the melting process is the use of a gas-air mixture with direct combustion inside the melt. This feature provides melt bubbling to help achieve maximum heat transfer from combustion products to the melt, improve mixing (and therefore homogeneity of the melt), and increases the rate of chemical reactions. The experimental data for different aspects of the proposed methods are presented. The reprocessed blast-furnace slag in the form of granules can be used as fillers for concretes, asphalts, and as additives in the production of cement, bricks and other building materials. As well, reprocessed blast-furnace slag can be poured into forms for the production of glass-ceramic tiles

  6. Fundamental metallurgical aspects of axial splitting in zircaloy cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H. M.

    2000-01-01

    Fundamental metallurgical aspects of axial splitting in irradiated Zircaloy cladding have been investigated by microstructural characterization and analytical modeling, with emphasis on application of the results to understand high-burnup fuel failure under RIA situations. Optical microscopy, SEM, and TEM were conducted on BWR and PWR fuel cladding tubes that were irradiated to fluence levels of 3.3 x 10 21 n cm -2 to 5.9 x 10 21 n cm -2 (E > 1 MeV) and tested in hot cell at 292--325 C in Ar. The morphology, distribution, and habit planes of macroscopic and microscopic hydrides in as-irradiated and posttest cladding were determined by stereo-TEM. The type and magnitude of the residual stress produced in association with oxide-layer growth and dense hydride precipitation, and several synergistic factors that strongly influence axial-splitting behavior were analyzed. The results of the microstructural characterization and stress analyses were then correlated with axial-splitting behavior of high-burnup PWR cladding reported for simulated-RIA conditions. The effects of key test procedures and their implications for the interpretation of RIA test results are discussed

  7. NMR investigation of boron impurities in refined metallurgical grade silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafe, Hans-Joachim; Loeser, Wolfgang; Schmitz, Steffen; Sakaliyska, Miroslava [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW), Dresden (Germany); Wurmehl, Sabine [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW), Dresden (Germany); Institute for Solid State Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Eisert, Stefan; Reichenbach, Birk; Mueller, Tim [Adensis GmbH, Dresden (Germany); Acker, Joerg; Rietig, Anja; Ducke, Jana [Department of Chemistry, Faculty for Natural Sciences, Brandenburg Technical University Cottbus-Senftenberg, Senftenberg (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method was applied for tracking boron impurities in the refining process of metallurgical grade (MG) silicon. From the NMR signal of the {sup 11}B isotope at an operating temperature 4.2 K, the boron concentration can be estimated down to the order of 1-10 wppm B. After melting and resolidification of MG-Si alloyed with Ca and Ti, a major fraction of B impurities remains in the Si solid solution as inferred from the characteristic NMR frequency. The alloying element Ti does not form substantial fractions of TiB{sub 2}. Acid leaching of crushed powders of MG-Si alloyed with Ca and Ti can diminish the initial impurity content of B suggesting its accumulation in the grain boundary phases. NMR signals of TiB{sub 2} at 4.2 K and room temperature (RT), and of poly-Si with different B doping at 4.2 K. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. ECOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT IN THE MINING AND METALLURGICAL MARAMURES AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel POP

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is part of the interdisciplinary recent concerns of "environmental management", looking to determine the damages caused by pollution, remediation expenditures, and benefits that may arise through the application of remediation techniques and decontamination technologies in the mining and metallurgical Maramureş area. Large areas of land were diverted from their original destination (pastures, arable land, forests being now covered with ponds and dumps of mine or flotation tailings, deposits that are insufficiently protected, and have become sources of pollution to surrounding areas. All Eastern European countries have in common major environmental problems, the most serious being due to mining, metallurgy and chemistry. In the relationship of "economic-ecological" equilibrium, should be considered both economic criteria, as well as ecological ones. Pollution as the deterioration of environment, requires costs for rehabilitation of degraded areas, and for environmental protection, costs for new technologies, non polluting ones. The assessment foundation of environmental damages, is necessary for establishing the priority directions in the allocation of funds for projects to protect and rehabilitate the environment.

  9. Metallurgical Analysis of Cracks Formed on Coal Fired Boiler Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishor, Rajat; Kyada, Tushal; Goyal, Rajesh K.; Kathayat, T. S.

    2015-02-01

    Metallurgical failure analysis was carried out for cracks observed on the outer surface of a boiler tube made of ASME SA 210 GR A1 grade steel. The cracks on the surface of the tube were observed after 6 months from the installation in service. A careful visual inspection, chemical analysis, hardness measurement, detailed microstructural analysis using optical and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were carried out to ascertain the cause for failure. Visual inspection of the failed tube revealed the presence of oxide scales and ash deposits on the surface of the tube exposed to fire. Many cracks extending longitudinally were observed on the surface of the tube. Bulging of the tube was also observed. The results of chemical analysis, hardness values and optical micrographs did not exhibit any abnormality at the region of failure. However, detailed SEM with EDS analysis confirmed the presence of various oxide scales. These scales initiated corrosion at both the inner and outer surfaces of the tube. In addition, excessive hoop stress also developed at the region of failure. It is concluded that the failure of the boiler tube took place owing to the combined effect of the corrosion caused by the oxide scales as well as the excessive hoop stress.

  10. Erratum: Correction to: Polarisation vision: overcoming challenges of working with a property of light we barely see

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, James J.; Temple, Shelby E.; How, Martin J.; Daly, Ilse M.; Sharkey, Camilla R.; Wilby, David; Roberts, Nicholas W.

    2018-06-01

    In "Polarisation vision: overcoming challenges of working with a property of light we barely see" (Foster et al. 2018) we provide a basic description of how Stokes parameters can be estimated and used to calculate the angle of polarisation (AoP).

  11. Metallurgical aspects of welding. Ferrous and nonferrous materials. 4. new rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, Guenter

    2010-01-01

    This is the fourth edition of the standard work on welding metallurgy. The various problems of ferrous and nonferrous materials in the welding process are presented in great detail. In order to prevent corrosion of welded constructions, metallurgical properties and problems of all important technical materials are discussed, i.e. alloyed and unalloyed steels, cast iron materials, and the most relevant nonferrous materials. At the end of each chapter, the interested reader will find exercises for self-studies. Some of these can be solved using the material presented in the book while others are intended for deepening and further training. Easy examples (with solutions) are found all over the book; they are helpful because they provide information on underlying mechanisms and interdependences that are not obvious at first glance. The information was adapted to new EURO standards and international standards (up to March 2009) as far as these are relevant to Germany. New information is provided, e.g., on new steel standards (constructional steels according to DIN EN 10025), heat-treatable steels according to DIN EN 10025-6 and DIN EN 10083, high-alloy steels according to DIN EN 10088, and filler materials for steel welding according to DIN EN ISO 2560. The systematics of the ''law of cohabitation'' was applied to welding engineering for the first time here. (orig.) [de

  12. Powder metallurgical low-modulus Ti-Mg alloys for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Li, Kaiyang; Luo, Tao; Song, Min; Wu, Hong; Xiao, Jian; Tan, Yanni; Cheng, Ming; Chen, Bing; Niu, Xinrui; Hu, Rong; Li, Xiaohui; Tang, Huiping

    2015-11-01

    In this work, powder metallurgical (PM) Ti-Mg alloys were prepared using combined techniques of mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. The alloys mainly consist of super saturations of Mg in Ti matrix, and some laminar structured Ti- and Mg-rich phases. The PM Ti-Mg alloys contain a homogeneous mixtures of nanocrystalline Mg and Ti phases. The novel microstructures result in unconventional mechanical and biological properties. It has been shown that the PM Ti-Mg alloys have a much lower compression modulus (36-50GPa) compared to other Ti alloys, but still remain a very high compressive strength (1500-1800MPa). In addition, the PM Ti-Mg alloys show good biocompatibility and bioactivity. Mg can dissolve in the simulated body fluids, and induce the formation of the calcium phosphate layer. The compression modulus of PM Ti-Mg alloys decreases with the amount of Mg, while the bioactivity increases. Although the corrosion resistance of Ti-Mg alloys decreases with the content of Mg, the alloys still show good stability in simulated body fluid under electrochemical conditions. The indirect and direct cytotoxicity results show that PM Ti-Mg alloys have a good biocompatibility to NIH-3T3 cells. Therefore, the PM Ti-Mg alloys are promising candidates in biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Metallurgical recovery of metals from electronic waste: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Jirang; Zhang Lifeng

    2008-01-01

    Waste electric and electronic equipment, or electronic waste, has been taken into consideration not only by the government but also by the public due to their hazardous material contents. In the detailed literature survey, value distributions for different electronic waste samples were calculated. It is showed that the major economic driver for recycling of electronic waste is from the recovery of precious metals. The state of the art in recovery of precious metals from electronic waste by pyrometallurgical processing, hydrometallurgical processing, and biometallurgical processing are highlighted in the paper. Pyrometallurgical processing has been a traditional technology for recovery of precious metals from waste electronic equipment. However, state-of-the-art smelters are highly depended on investments. Recent research on recovery of energy from PC waste gives an example for using plastics in this waste stream. It indicates that thermal processing provides a feasible approach for recovery of energy from electronic waste if a comprehensive emission control system is installed. In the last decade, attentions have been removed from pyrometallurgical process to hydrometallurgical process for recovery of metals from electronic waste. In the paper, hydrometallurgical processing techniques including cyanide leaching, halide leaching, thiourea leaching, and thiosulfate leaching of precious metals are detailed. In order to develop an environmentally friendly technique for recovery of precious metals from electronic scrap, a critical comparison of main leaching methods is analyzed for both economic feasibility and environmental impact. It is believed that biotechnology has been one of the most promising technologies in metallurgical processing. Bioleaching has been used for recovery of precious metals and copper from ores for many years. However, limited research was carried out on the bioleaching of metals from electronic waste. In the review, initial researches on the

  14. Metallurgical recovery of metals from electronic waste: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Jirang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Alfred Getz vei 2, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)], E-mail: Jirang.Cui@material.ntnu.no; Zhang Lifeng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Alfred Getz vei 2, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)], E-mail: zhanglife@mst.edu

    2008-10-30

    Waste electric and electronic equipment, or electronic waste, has been taken into consideration not only by the government but also by the public due to their hazardous material contents. In the detailed literature survey, value distributions for different electronic waste samples were calculated. It is showed that the major economic driver for recycling of electronic waste is from the recovery of precious metals. The state of the art in recovery of precious metals from electronic waste by pyrometallurgical processing, hydrometallurgical processing, and biometallurgical processing are highlighted in the paper. Pyrometallurgical processing has been a traditional technology for recovery of precious metals from waste electronic equipment. However, state-of-the-art smelters are highly depended on investments. Recent research on recovery of energy from PC waste gives an example for using plastics in this waste stream. It indicates that thermal processing provides a feasible approach for recovery of energy from electronic waste if a comprehensive emission control system is installed. In the last decade, attentions have been removed from pyrometallurgical process to hydrometallurgical process for recovery of metals from electronic waste. In the paper, hydrometallurgical processing techniques including cyanide leaching, halide leaching, thiourea leaching, and thiosulfate leaching of precious metals are detailed. In order to develop an environmentally friendly technique for recovery of precious metals from electronic scrap, a critical comparison of main leaching methods is analyzed for both economic feasibility and environmental impact. It is believed that biotechnology has been one of the most promising technologies in metallurgical processing. Bioleaching has been used for recovery of precious metals and copper from ores for many years. However, limited research was carried out on the bioleaching of metals from electronic waste. In the review, initial researches on the

  15. Cooperation in the field of materials and metallurgical technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilous, V.; Kletecka, Z.; Matejovic, K.

    1989-01-01

    The SKODA Works cooperate extensively with the Mechanical and Electrical Engineering College in Plzen and with other organizations in many branches of science and technology, among others in the field of materials science and metallurgical technologies. For instance, the technology was mastered of welding low-pressure rotors from a medium-alloy high-strength steel with reduced carbon content of the CrNiMoV type, with yield points of 600 MPa in the basic material and 550 MPa in the welded joint. The welded rotor is used in three low-pressure parts of a 1000 MW steam turbine for a nuclear power plant, which is also produced at SKODA. Problems of protection against corrosion and erosion in saturated steam turbines, caused by wet steam at pressures of 0.5 to 5 MPa and humidity as high as 11%, were also solved. A complex of problems was tackled in the production of reactor pressure vessels. It was found that heat treatment of 25Cr/13Ni overlays of the CrMoV reactor steel at 665 degC results in the formation of a carburized zone between the overlay and the CrMoV steel. This zone constituted a good barrier against the diffusion of hydrogen from the austenitic overlay to the steel. The width of the zone where the diffusion had taken place did not increase in the working conditions, i.e. under the effect of a temperature of 320 degC, while the hardness of this zone increased considerably due to the redistribution of carbon within the 1.6 μm width. The occurrence of the carburized high-hardness zone had a favourable effect on the stabilization of the rate of crack propagation and on its diversion. Recovery annealing at 480 degC is suitable for reducing the hydrogen content of the austenitic overlays. (P.A.). 5 figs., 14 refs

  16. Metallurgical test work to support development of the Kintyre Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maley, M.; Ring, R.; Paulsen, E.; Maxton, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Kintyre uranium deposit is located in the Pilbara region of Western Australia and is jointly owned by Cameco and Mitsubishi. The current indicated resource estimate is approximately 55 million pounds of U 3 O 8 equivalent [~21,000 t U] at an average grade of 0.58% [0.49% U]. Due to the high levels of carbonate minerals in the deposit, alkaline leaching was strongly considered as an option to the usually preferred acid route. Following a detailed assessment, the acid option was chosen, with the preferred flowsheet involving an acid leach, followed by solvent extraction and precipitation. As part of the Kintyre metallurgical investigations, ANSTO Minerals performed an extensive work program, examining numerous aspects of the proposed flowsheet. This included a leach optimisation program, followed by a study determining the effects of sample variability in leaching. Settling, filtration and rheology work on slurries and tailings was performed, as well as testwork to determine the effect of neutralisation conditions on metal precipitation and radionuclide deportment. In addition, an extensive laboratory and solvent extraction mixer-settler mini-pilot plan campaign was performed to compare the performance of conventional ammonia/ammonium sulphate strip and the non-conventional strong acid strip (400 g/L H 2 SO 4 ) using leach liquor generated from Kintyre ore. The pilot plant involved two campaigns of three days continuous operation using each stripping system, with >99.5% uranium recovery achieved in each campaign. This paper will present an overview of the key results from the Kintyre leaching and neutralisation testwork undertaken at ANSTO Minerals, and will also outline the performance of the solvent extraction mini pilot plant. (author)

  17. Metallurgical factors that contribute to cracking in BWR piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    During the fall of 1974 and early winter of 1975, cracks have been discovered in the 4 in. bypass lines of several Boiling Water Reactors (BWR's) in the United States. Further, similar cracks were discovered at two BWR's in Japan during the same period. More recently, cracks have been discovered in the core spray piping and in a furnace-sensitized ''safe end'' and adjacent ''dutchman'' at the Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 2. Although inspections at all other U.S. BWR's have not disclosed further instances of cracking in core spray piping, leaking cracks have been found in the core spray piping of two BWR's overseas. Metallurgical examinations of these cracks are not yet complete. The following observations have been made to date. All cracks (except those in the furnace-sensitized safe end and dutchman) occurred in seamless type 304 stainless steel piping or in elbows fabricated from such piping, in the outer heat affected zone of either field or shop welds, in lines isolated from the main primary coolant flow during full power operation, except for the not yet examined cracks in the Monticello bypass lines. The cracks are exclusively intergranular, and occur in metal that has been lightly sensitized by the welding process, with only intermittent grain boundary carbides. They developed in the areas of peak axial residual stresses from welding rather than in the most heavily sensitized areas. No fatigue striations have been found on the fracture surfaces. The evidence received to date strongly indicates that these cracks were caused by intergranular stress corrosion of weld-sensitized stainless steel by BWR water containing greater than 0.2 ppM oxygen. The possible role of fatigue or alternating stresses in this corrosion is not clear. Further, not all the cracks detected to date necessarily have occurred by the same mechanism

  18. Obtainment of metallurgic coke from hydrolytic lignin of eucalyptus; Obtencao de coque metalurgico a partir de lignina hidrolitica de eucalipto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, E.A. do [Escola Federal de Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Schuchardt, U. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    1987-12-31

    Eucalyptus lignin, obtained from COALBRA S.A., was briquetted under different humidities and pressures. The briquettes were heated to 900 Celsius at 1 C/min in a cylindric bench-scale oven. The cokification was accompanied by carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. The coke obtained was submitted to approximate and elementary analysis and its abrasion and compression strengths were determined. The distribution and total pore volume were investigated by high-pressure mercury porosimetry and the surface texture analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The best coke was obtained in 48% yield from the briquettes with 10% humidity and 100 MPa pressure. This showed a high structural resistance, a smooth surface with continuous metallic brilliance and well defined pore volume and distribution. The coke obtained is a high-quality metallurgic reductant whose properties surpass by far the specifications required. (author). 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  19. The use of by-products from metallurgical and mineral industries as filler in cement-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosberg, Helena; Lagerblad, Björn; Forssberg, Eric

    2003-02-01

    This investigation has been made in order to make it possible to increase the use of by-products in cement-based materials. Use of by-products requires a screening procedure that will reliably determine their impact on concrete. A test procedure was developed. The most important properties were considered to be strength development, shrinkage, expansion and workability. The methods used were calorimetry, flow table tests, F-shape measurements, measurements of compressive and flexural strength and shrinkage/expansion measurements. Scanning electron microscopy was used to verify some results. Twelve by-products were collected from Swedish metallurgical and mineral industries and classified according to the test procedure. The investigation showed that the test procedure clearly screened out the materials that can be used in the production of concrete from the unsuitable ones.

  20. Metallurgical investigation of disc cracking in the LP-2 turbine at a nuclear power station. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burghard, H.C.

    1982-07-01

    An investigation of combined face cracking and rim cracking in discs of an LP steam turbine rotor was performed. The incident in question involved the development of major cracks in the hub/web transition on the outlet face of the disc as well as major cracking of the blade attachment steeples. Both types of cracking occurred in the No. 1 discs at both ends of a particular rotor. The program was based on a metallurgical evaluation of hub and rim samples of discs removed from the turbine rotor after approximately 31,000 hours of operation. In-depth metallographic and fractographic examinations of representative face cracks and rim cracks were conducted. In addition, the mechanical properties and chemical composition of each of the disc samples were determined. Analyses of crack surface deposits and bulk turbine deposits were also performed

  1. The rate of hypo-osmotic challenge influences regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and mechanical properties of articular chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Irianto, J; Kazun, S; Wang, W; Knight, M M

    2015-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with a gradual reduction in the interstitial osmotic pressure within articular cartilage. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of sudden and gradual hypo-osmotic challenge on chondrocyte morphology and biomechanics. Bovine articular chondrocytes were exposed to a reduction in extracellular osmolality from 327 to 153 mOsmol/kg applied either suddenly (osmotic stress, 66% of chondrocytes exhibited an increase in diameter followed by RVD, whilst 25% showed no RVD. By contrast, cells exposed to gradual hypo-osmotic stress exhibited reduced cell swelling without subsequent RVD. There was an increase in the equilibrium modulus for cells exposed to sudden hypo-osmotic stress. However, gradual hypo-osmotic challenge had no effect on cell mechanical properties. This cell stiffening response to sudden hypo-osmotic challenge was abolished when actin organization was disrupted with cytochalasin D or RVD inhibited with REV5901. Both sudden and gradual hypo-osmotic challenge reduced cortical F-actin distribution and caused chromatin decondensation. Sudden hypo-osmotic challenge increases chondrocyte mechanics by activation of RVD and interaction with the actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, the rate of hypo-osmotic challenge is shown to have a profound effect on chondrocyte morphology and biomechanics. This important phenomenon needs to be considered when studying the response of chondrocytes to pathological hypo-osmotic stress. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanical Properties in Metal-Organic Frameworks: Emerging Opportunities and Challenges for Device Functionality and Technological Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtch, Nicholas C.; Heinen, Jurn

    2017-01-01

    We report that some of the most remarkable recent developments in metal–organic framework (MOF) performance properties can only be rationalized by the mechanical properties endowed by their hybrid inorganic–organic nanoporous structures. While these characteristics create intriguing application prospects, the same attributes also present challenges that will need to be overcome to enable the integration of MOFs with technologies where these promising traits can be exploited. In this review, emerging opportunities and challenges are identified for MOF-enabled device functionality and technological applications that arise from their fascinating mechanical properties. This is discussed not only in the context of their more well-studied gas storage and separation applications, but also for instances where MOFs serve as components of functional nanodevices. Recent advances in understanding MOF mechanical structure–property relationships due to attributes such as defects and interpenetration are highlighted, and open questions related to state-of-the-art computational approaches for quantifying their mechanical properties are critically discussed.

  3. Metallurgical study of low-temperature plasma carbon diffusion treatments for stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, D.B.; Leyland, A.; Stevenson, P.R.; Cawley, J.; Matthews, A.

    1993-01-01

    We recently reported a novel low-temperature carbon diffusion technique for surface hardening of stainless steels. The treatment was shown to provide benefits in terms of abrasive wear resistance. There is also evidence to suggest that by performing diffusion treatments at low temperatures (i.e. below 400 C), these benefits can be achieved without compromising corrosion resistance. Here a variety of surface analysis and depth profiling techniques have been used to determine the physical and mechanical properties of carbon-rich layers produced on a range of stainless steel substrate materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was employed to determine the crystallographic structure, whilst wavelength dispersive X-ray analysis (WDX) and glow discharge optical spectroscopy (GDOS) gave information on the concentration and distribution of the diffused species within the treated layers. A variety of carbide-based structures was detected, including the expected M 23 C 6 and, more surprisingly, M 3 C. Optical and electron microscopy techniques were used to provide information on layer morphology. The surfaces produced by the low-temperature carbon-diffusion process generally exhibit a distinct diffusion layer of between 1 and 20 μm, depending on the material and the treatment conditions. Austenitic stainless steels appear to give the best response to treatment, however other types of stainless steel can be treated, particularly if the microstructure contains above 5% retained austenite. Here we discuss the changes in mechanical and metallurgical properties provided by this technique and its potential value for treatment of both austenitic and other stainless steel substrate materials. (orig.)

  4. The challenges of achieving good electrical and mechanical properties when making structural supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocanel, C.; Browder, C.; Simpson, C.; Colburn, R.

    2013-04-01

    The paper presents results associated with the electro-mechanical characterization of a composite material with power storage capability, identified throughout the paper as a structural supercapacitor. The structural supercapacitor uses electrodes made of carbon fiber weave, a separator made of Celgard 3501, and a solid PEG-based polymer blend electrolyte. To be a viable structural supercapacitor, the material has to have good mechanical and power storage/electrical properties. The literature in this area is inconsistent on which electrical properties are evaluated, and how those properties are assessed. In general, measurements of capacitance or specific capacitance (i.e. capacitance per unit area or per unit volume) are made, without considering other properties such as leakage resistance and equivalent series resistance of the supercapacitor. This paper highlights the significance of these additional electrical properties, discusses the fluctuation of capacitance over time, and proposes methods to improve the stability of the material's electric properties over time.

  5. The Destruction of Cultural Property in Timbuktu: Challenging the ICC War Crime Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, Noelle; Badar, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Cultural property has been destroyed, looted and trafficked throughout history, particularly during conflict situations. In many instances, the property that is destroyed belongs to, and / or represents, minority groups and its destruction impacts significantly on minority culture. ISIS, and related jihadist groups, have, in recent times, actively engaged in the deliberate destruction of cultural property in numerous States, including Iraq, Syria, and Mali. This has been described as ‘cultura...

  6. Metallurgical analysis of high pressure gas pipelines rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, F.; Ahmed, F.

    2007-01-01

    On 6 July 2004, two parallel-running gas pipelines (18-inch and 24-inch diameters), in the main transmission network of SNGPL (a gas company in Pakistan) were ruptured. The ruptures occurred in the early hours of the morning about 8 miles downstream of the compressor station AC-4. The ruptures were indicated by the increased gas flow at the outlet of AC-4 (1), first at about 0648 hours and then again about 20 minutes later. The gas escaping from the ruptured lines had caught fire, and the flames had also 'affected' a third parallel-running pipeline of 30-inch diameter, lying next to the 24-inch line. The metallurgical examination of the two ruptured lines showed that the 24-inch line was ruptured with the help of an explosive device that had been placed on the underside of the pipe. An examination of the 18-inch line showed that this pipe had failed as a result of the heating of the pipe-wall, presumably, by the flame emanating from the 24-inch line. These two observations clearly suggested that the 24-inch line was the first to rupture (by explosives), and the fire following this rupture had heated the 18-inch pipe to a temperature where its yield strength was unable to support the inside gas pressure. The 20 minutes time interval between the two ruptures was obviously the time taken by the 18 inch pipe to be heated upto the level where it started to yield. The 30-inch line lying next to the 24-inch line was affected to the extent that its coating had been burnt-off over a length of about 40-50 feet. However, the pipe did not exhibit any signs of deshaping or deformation what-so-ever. A replica metallographic examination indicated that the microstructure of the pipe was not measurably affected by the heat. It was thus decided not to replace the affected part of the 30-inch pipe, but only to re-coat this affected portion. (author)

  7. A metallurgical study of Nāga Bhasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Nath Singh Gautam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The metal Nāga (Lead is being used by Indians since ancient times. Its external and internal uses have been described in Caraka, Suśruta and other Ayurvedic Saṃhitā. According to most of the Rasa texts, Nāga Bhasma and its formulations are used in many diseases such as Prameha, Jvara, Gulma, Śukrameha etc. Objectives: In the present study, Nāga Bhasma was prepared by the traditional Puṭa method (TPM and by the electric muffle furnace Puṭa method (EMFPM and standardized using Metallographic studies. Doing so helps in the study of the microstructure of Nāga Bhasma and also helps in the identification of the metal particles along with the nature of compound formed during the Māraṇa (Bhasmīkaraṇa process. Setting and Design: Different samples from initial raw material to final product of Nāga Bhasma were collected during the pharmaceutical process (1st, 30th and 60th Puṭa from both methods i.e. TPM and EMFPM. Samples from both methods were studied using metallographic examination. Materials and Methods: The processing of the Nāga Bhasma (ṣaṣṭipuṭa was done according to Ānanda Kanda[9] Samples from the raw material i.e. Aśodhita Nāga (raw Lead and that processed after 1st, 30th and 60th Puṭa from both methods i.e. traditional Puṭa method (using heat from burning of cow dung cakes and electric muffle furnace Puṭa method were taken. They were mounted on self hardening acrylic base. After careful polishing to obtain scratch free surface of product, they were used for metallurgical study. Conclusion: This study shows that traditional Puṭa method may be better than electric muffle furnace Puṭa method because of more homogeneous distribution of Lead sulphide in the Nāga Bhasma which is prepared by traditional method.

  8. Metal mobilization from metallurgical wastes by soil organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potysz, Anna; Grybos, Malgorzata; Kierczak, Jakub; Guibaud, Gilles; Fondaneche, Patrice; Lens, Piet N L; van Hullebusch, Eric D

    2017-07-01

    Three types of Cu-slags differing in chemical and mineralogical composition (historical, shaft furnace, and granulated slags) and a matte from a lead recovery process were studied with respect to their susceptibility to release Cu, Zn and Pb upon exposure to organic acids commonly encountered in soil environments. Leaching experiments (24-960 h) were conducted with: i) humic acid (20 mg/L) at pH t 0  = 4.4, ii) fulvic acid (20 mg/L) at pH t 0  = 4.4, iii) an artificial root exudates (ARE) (17.4 g/L) solution at pH t 0  = 4.4, iv) ARE solution at pH t 0  = 2.9 and v) ultrapure water (pH t 0  = 5.6). The results demonstrated that the ARE contribute the most to the mobilization of metals from all the wastes analyzed, regardless of the initial pH of the solution. For example, up to 14%, 30%, 24% and 5% of Cu is released within 960 h from historical, shaft furnace, granulated slags and lead matte, respectively, when exposed to the artificial root exudates solution (pH 2.9). Humic and fulvic acids were found to have a higher impact on granulated and shaft furnace slags as compared to the ultrapure water control and increased the release of metals by a factor up to 37.5 (Pb) and 20.5 (Cu) for granulated and shaft furnace slags, respectively. Humic and fulvic acids amplified the mobilization of metals by a maximal factor of 13.6 (Pb) and 12.1 (Pb) for historical slag and lead matte, respectively. The studied organic compounds contributed to different release rates of metallic contaminants from individual metallurgical wastes under the conditions tested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Anaerobic microbiological method of cleaning water contaminated by metallurgical slags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Леонідівна Дан

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of environmental protection and rational use of water resources is one of the most important problems of environmental policy in Ukraine. This problem in Mariupol is particularly acute as metallurgical and coke industries cause significant damage to adjacent water bodies (the Kalchyk, the Kalmius and coastal zone of the Sea of Azov. One of the most harmful components of wastewater of these enterprises are sulfide-containing compounds. These compounds in water can cause great harm to both human health and the environment. For example, in 1999 the main city enterprises (AZOVSTAL IRON & STEEL WORKS and ILYICH IRON AND STEEL WORKS discharged 885,0 million m³ of wastewater (including 403,9 million m³ of polluted waste water into water bodies. The slag dumps and landfills in close proximity to the sea form a source of dangerous pollution, because contaminated water infiltration washed out here in the groundwater and surface water, get into the Sea of Azov later on. There are 97 mg/l of sulfides in the protective dam of AZOVSTAL IRON & STEEL WORKS, what exceeds the standards (MPC = 10 mg/l. It makes it possible for us to put forward biochemical purification processes. Anaerobic microbiological method proposed in the article has several advantages (compact hardware design, a minimum amount of activated sludge and lack of energy consumption for aeration over the existing wastewater treatment (chemical, mechanical, biological. The experimental procedure consisted in introducing the medium to be purified purified into microbial communities of high concentration (Thiobacillus «X», Thiobacillus concretivorus, which assimilated organic substances of the medium as a primary energy source. The kinetics of sulfide compounds removal by means of anaerobic microbiological method was considered. The effectiveness of wastewater treatment with changing purification process conditions has been also assessed (concentration of sulfides, reactor type, p

  10. Conceptual design for treatment of mining and metallurgical wastewaters which contains arsenic and antimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kamberović

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a preliminary design for treatment of mining and metallurgical wastewaters (MMW from the basin of antimony “Zajača“, which contains high concentrations of arsenic and antimony. MMW have been investigated in laboratory, due to large difference in concentrations of pollutants. Metallurgical wastewaters were treated using iron (II-sulfate and lime milk used to adjust the pH value at 7. After chemical treatment of metallurgical wastewater and its joining with mining wastewater, residual amount of arsenic in water was below maximum allowed concentrations, while the concentration of antimony, remained above the maximum allowed value. The final phase of purification process was performed using ion exchange resin. After treatment of MMW, they can be used as technical water in the smelting process of secondary raw lead materials.

  11. ORNL evaluation of the ORR-PSF metallurgical experiment and blind test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stallmann, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    A methodology is described to evaluate the dosimetry and metallurgical data from the two-year ORR-PSF metallurgical irradiation experiment. The first step is to obtain a three-dimensional map of damage exposure parameter values based on neutron transport calculations and dosimetry measurements which are obtained by means of the LSL-M2 adjustment procedure. Metallurgical test data are then combined with damage parameter, temperature, and chemistry information to determine the correlation between radiation and steel embrittlement in reactor pressure vessels including estimates for the uncertainties. Statistical procedures for the evaluation of Charpy data, developed earlier, are used for this investigation. The data obtained in this investigation provide a benchmark against which the predictions of the PSF Blind Test can be compared. The results of this investigation and the Blind Test comparison are discussed

  12. Microwave-assisted grinding of metallurgical coke; Molienda asistida con microondas de un coque metalurgico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruisanchez, E.; Juarez-Perez, E. J.; Arenillas, A.; Bermudez, J. M.; Menendez, J. A.

    2014-10-01

    Metallurgical cokes are composed of graphitic carbon (s2p2) and different inorganic compounds with very different capacities to absorb microwave radiation. Moreover, due to the electric conductivity shown by the metallurgical cokes, microwave radiation produces electric arcs or microplasmas, which gives rise to hot spots. Therefore, when these cokes are irradiated with microwaves some parts of the particle experiment a rapid heating, while some others do not heat at all. As a result of the different expansion and stress caused by thermal the shock, small cracks and micro-fissures are produced in the particle. The weakening of the coke particles, and therefore an improvement of its grind ability, is produced. This paper studies the microwave-assisted grinding of metallurgical coke and evaluates the grinding improvement and energy saving. (Author)

  13. effects of sulphur addition on addition on and mechanical properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    234-8034714355. 8034714355. 1. EFFECTS OF SULPHUR ADDITION ON. ADDITION ON. 2. AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES O. 3. 4. C. W. Onyia. 5. 1DEPT. OF METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS. 6. 2, 4DEPT. OF METALLURGICAL ...

  14. Culinary Herbs and Spices: Their Bioactive Properties, the Contribution of Polyphenols and the Challenges in Deducing Their True Health Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Elizabeth I.; Chohan, Magali

    2014-01-01

    Herbs and spices have been used for both culinary and medicinal purposes for centuries. Over the last decade, research into their role as contributors of dietary polyphenols, known to possess a number of properties associated with reducing the risk of developing chronic non-communicable diseases, has increased. However, bearing in mind how these foods are consumed, normally in small quantities and in combination with other foods, it is unclear what their true benefit is from a health perspective. The aim of this review is to use the literature to discuss how preparative and digestive processes, bioavailability and interactions between foods may influence the bioactive properties of these foods, and whether or not polyphenols are responsible for these properties. Furthermore, this review aims to highlight the challenges that need to be addressed so as to determine the true benefits of these foods and the mechanisms of action that underpin their purported efficacy. PMID:25340982

  15. Effects of mechanical activation on the carbothermal reduction of chromite with metallurgical coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Yıldız

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The carbothermal reduction of mechanically activated chromite with metallurgical coke under an argon atmosphere was investigated at temperatures between 1100 and 1400°C and the effects of the mechanical activation on chromite structure were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. An increase in specific surface area resulted in more contact points. The activation procedure led to amorphization and structural disordering in chromite and accelerated the degree of reduction and metalization in the mixture of chromite and metallurgical coke. Carbothermal reduction products were analzed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS.

  16. Comparison of Metallurgical and Ultrasonic Inspections of Galvanized Steel Resistance Spot Welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, Timothy J.; Ghaffari, Bita; Mozurkewich, George; Reverdy, Frederic; Hopkins, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    Metallurgical examination of galvanized steel resistance spot welds was used to gauge the capabilities of two ultrasonic, non-destructive, scanning techniques. One method utilized the amplitude of the echo from the weld faying surface, while the other used the spectral content of the echo train to map the fused area. The specimens were subsequently sectioned and etched, to distinguish the fused, zinc-brazed, and non-fused areas. The spectral maps better matched the metallurgical maps, while the interface-amplitude method consistently overestimated the weld size

  17. Retail optimization in Romanian metallurgical industry by applying of fuzzy networks concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our article presents possibilities of applying the concept Fuzzy Networks for an efficient metallurgical industry in Romania. We also present and analyze Fuzzy Networks complementary concepts, such as Expert Systems (ES, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP, Analytics and Intelligent Strategies (SAI. The main results of our article are based on a case study of the possibilities of applying these concepts in metallurgy through Fuzzy Networks. Also, it is presented a case study on the application of the FUZZY concept on the Romanian metallurgical industry.

  18. A numerical study on the mechanical properties and the processing behaviour of composite high strength steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenstermann, Sebastian [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Ferrous Metallurgy; Vajragupta, Napat [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Materials Mechanics Group; Weisgerber, Bernadette [ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe AG (Germany). Patent Dept.; Kern, Andreas [ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe AG (Germany). Dept. of Quality Affairs

    2013-06-01

    The demand for lightweight construction in mechanical and civil engineering has strongly promoted the development of high strength steels with excellent damage tolerance. Nowadays, the requirements from mechanical and civil engineering are even more challenging, as gradients in mechanical properties are demanded increasingly often for components that are utilized close to the limit state of load bearing capacity. A metallurgical solution to this demand is given by composite rolling processes. In this process components with different chemical compositions were jointed, which develop after heat treatment special properties. These are actually evaluated in order to verify that structural steels with the desired gradients in mechanical properties can be processed. A numerical study was performed aiming to numerically predict strenght and toughness properties, as well as the procesing behaviour using Finite Element (FE) simulations with damage mechanics approaches. For determination of mechanical properties, simulations of tensile specimen, SENB sample, and a mobile crane have been carried out for different configurations of composite rolled materias out of high strebght structural steels. As a parameter study, both the geometrical and the metallurgical configurations of the composite rolled steels were modified. Thickness of each steel layer and materials configuration have been varied. Like this, a numerical procedure to define optimum tailored configurations of high strenght steels could be established.

  19. Powder metallurgical processing of functionally graded p-Pb1-x Sn x Te materials for thermoelectric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelbstein, Y.; Dashevsky, Z.; Dariel, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Lead tin telluride-based compounds are p-type materials for thermoelectric applications, in the 50-600 deg. C temperature range. The electronic transport properties of PbTe and Pb 1- x Sn x Te materials are strongly dependent on the processing approach. Powder metallurgy is a suitable approach for the preparation of Functionally graded materials (FGMs) but its effects on the electronic properties have to be carefully checked. Powder metallurgical processing may introduce atomic defects and local strains into the material and, thereby, alter the carrier concentration. Such material may be in non-equilibrium conditions at the operating temperature with unstable thermoelectric properties. This effect can be reduced and eliminated by appropriate annealing procedures. In FGMs, annealing up to the stabilization of the thermoelectric properties is mandatory for achieving the desired carrier concentration profile along the sample. The design procedures of the FGMs, as well as the annealing effects on cold compacted and sintered Pb 1- x Sn x Te samples are described in details

  20. Conservation of mining and metallurgic arachaeologic wooden objects by impregnation and radiation curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudy, R.; Slais, E.; Eibner, C.

    1983-05-01

    The conservation of mining and metallurgic archaeologic wooden objects of different grade of destruction by impregnation with radiation-curable impregnating agents followed by in-situ-curing with gamma rays is described. Dry objects have been consolidated after cautious cleaning, whereas wet findings had to be freezedried first. The results are discussed. (Author) [de

  1. QEM*SEM: a necessary tool in the metallurgical evaluation of ore bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creelman, R.A.; Gottlieb, P.; Sutherland, D.; Jackson, R.

    1989-01-01

    The QEM*SEM system for automated image analysis of mineral samples is described. Details of the equipment are given together with information on the methods of measurement. Finally some practical applications are described where QEM*SEM has been used for the solution of metallurgical problems. 14 refs., 1 fig

  2. AUTOMATION OF OPERATIONAL CONTROL OF DATA FLOWS OF THE METALLURGICAL ENTERPRISE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Chichko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available New method for creation of models of operative control of enterprise is offered. The computer variant of the organizational structure, based on analysis of the charging dynamics of control units, is offered and illustrated at the example of one of organizational structures of Belorussian metallurgical works.

  3. Utilisation of metallurgical by-products in road construction in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresta, František

    2017-09-01

    Metallurgical by-products, primarily blast furnace slag and steel slag, have ranked among important alternative sources of fill as well as of material for the structural layers in highways. Main hazards of metallurgical by-products are closely connected to their chemical and mineralogical composition and they can be resulted in volume changes. Fears from possible deformations similar to the D47 motorway meant that metallurgical by-products were excluded from several public tenders of road construction. Comparison of blast furnace slag, steel slag and other metallurgical by products parameters allow us to define the most hazardous material as steelworks waste. Linear swelling of steelwork waste achieves more than 40% at 75°C and swelling pressure was higher than 1.5 MPa. Compositional heterogeneity of steelworks waste makes it difficult to establish the long-term behaviour of this material. At the present time we cannot ascertain which maximum values can be reached by deformation and what are the swelling pressures acting on the material while the volume changes are in progress.

  4. Automatic Processing of Metallurgical Abstracts for the Purpose of Information Retrieval. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Jessica S.

    Objectives of this project were to develop and test a method for automatically processing the text of abstracts for a document retrieval system. The test corpus consisted of 768 abstracts from the metallurgical section of Chemical Abstracts (CA). The system, based on a subject indexing rational, had two components: (1) a stored dictionary of words…

  5. Highly sensitive luminescence method of scandium determination in the products of metallurgical reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveets, M.A.; Akhmetova, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Highly sensitive reaction of scandium with 1,10-phenanthroline and eosin is used for the development of luminescence method of its determination in metallurgical products. The effect of interfering elements is eliminated by scandium extraction with monocarboxylic acids. The method permits to determine scandium content from 5 x 10 -5 % (Sr 0.15 - 0.25)

  6. Study of a metallurgical site in Tuscany (Italy) by radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartocci, A.; Fedi, M.E.; Taccetti, F.; Benvenuti, M.; Chiarantini, L.; Guideri, S.

    2007-01-01

    Tuscany represents one of the most important ancient mining districts of Italy. Metalworking activities have been present in the area since ancient times and several mining centres have been active in the region since the Etruscan period. Two of the more notable mining locations are the island of Elba and the towns of Populonia and Massa Marittima. In order to reconstruct the development of metallurgical techniques in the past, a multi-disciplinary approach is required, involving both archaeological study and archaeometric analysis of the sites of interest. One of the most complex problems is establishing the chronological history of metallurgical exploitation in ancient sites: archaeological remains are sometimes incomplete and the stratigraphy of archaeological horizons might have been deeply altered. Thus, direct dating of metallurgical slags and other remains of mining and metalworking activities using radiocarbon measurements is particularly useful for developing site chronologies. Charcoal samples from a recent excavation in Populonia were dated by AMS radiocarbon in order to reconstruct the chronological evolution of ancient metallurgical production; results reported here are consistent with archaeological observations

  7. Study of a metallurgical site in Tuscany (Italy) by radiocarbon dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartocci, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita e I.N.F.N. Sezione di Firenze, via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Fedi, M.E. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita e I.N.F.N. Sezione di Firenze, via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: fedi@fi.infn.it; Taccetti, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita e I.N.F.N. Sezione di Firenze, via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Benvenuti, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra dell' Universita di Firenze, via La Pira 4, 50121 Florence (Italy); Chiarantini, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra dell' Universita di Firenze, via La Pira 4, 50121 Florence (Italy); Guideri, S. [Societa Parchi Val di Cornia S.p.a., via G. Lerario, Piombino, Livorno (Italy)

    2007-06-15

    Tuscany represents one of the most important ancient mining districts of Italy. Metalworking activities have been present in the area since ancient times and several mining centres have been active in the region since the Etruscan period. Two of the more notable mining locations are the island of Elba and the towns of Populonia and Massa Marittima. In order to reconstruct the development of metallurgical techniques in the past, a multi-disciplinary approach is required, involving both archaeological study and archaeometric analysis of the sites of interest. One of the most complex problems is establishing the chronological history of metallurgical exploitation in ancient sites: archaeological remains are sometimes incomplete and the stratigraphy of archaeological horizons might have been deeply altered. Thus, direct dating of metallurgical slags and other remains of mining and metalworking activities using radiocarbon measurements is particularly useful for developing site chronologies. Charcoal samples from a recent excavation in Populonia were dated by AMS radiocarbon in order to reconstruct the chronological evolution of ancient metallurgical production; results reported here are consistent with archaeological observations.

  8. Investigations for decision making on an old tailing pond of a former experimental metallurgical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razikov, Z.A.; Pavljuk, L.M.; Bezzubov, N.I.

    2002-01-01

    Investigations are described on an abandoned tailing pond of a former experimental metallurgical plant which operated during the period 1945-1950. The aim of these investigations was to explore radiological hazards arising from the tailing pond for the population and to obtain data for decision making on redeployment or dumping of the pond. Methods used, results obtained and conclusions drawn are outlined. (author)

  9. Simulation model for planning metallurgical treatment of large-size billets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeev, M.A.; Echeistova, L.A.; Kuznetsov, V.G.; Semakin, S.V.; Krivonogov, A.B.

    1989-01-01

    The computerized simulation system ''Ritm'' for planning metallurgical treatment of billets is developed. Three principles, specifying the organization structure of the treatment cycle are formulated as follows: a cycling principle, a priority principle and a principle of group treatment. The ''Ritm'' software consists of three independent operating systems: preparation of source data, simulation, data output

  10. Transmission Properties of Human PrP 102L Prions Challenge the Relevance of Mouse Models of GSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Emmanuel A; Grimshaw, Andrew; Smidak, Michelle; Jakubcova, Tatiana; Tomlinson, Andrew; Jeelani, Asif; Hamdan, Shyma; Powell, Caroline; Joiner, Susan; Linehan, Jacqueline M; Brandner, Sebastian; Wadsworth, Jonathan D F; Collinge, John

    2015-07-01

    Inherited prion disease (IPD) is caused by autosomal-dominant pathogenic mutations in the human prion protein (PrP) gene (PRNP). A proline to leucine substitution at PrP residue 102 (P102L) is classically associated with Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) disease but shows marked clinical and neuropathological variability within kindreds that may be caused by variable propagation of distinct prion strains generated from either PrP 102L or wild type PrP. To-date the transmission properties of prions propagated in P102L patients remain ill-defined. Multiple mouse models of GSS have focused on mutating the corresponding residue of murine PrP (P101L), however murine PrP 101L, a novel PrP primary structure, may not have the repertoire of pathogenic prion conformations necessary to accurately model the human disease. Here we describe the transmission properties of prions generated in human PrP 102L expressing transgenic mice that were generated after primary challenge with ex vivo human GSS P102L or classical CJD prions. We show that distinct strains of prions were generated in these mice dependent upon source of the inoculum (either GSS P102L or CJD brain) and have designated these GSS-102L and CJD-102L prions, respectively. GSS-102L prions have transmission properties distinct from all prion strains seen in sporadic and acquired human prion disease. Significantly, GSS-102L prions appear incapable of transmitting disease to conventional mice expressing wild type mouse PrP, which contrasts strikingly with the reported transmission properties of prions generated in GSS P102L-challenged mice expressing mouse PrP 101L. We conclude that future transgenic modeling of IPDs should focus exclusively on expression of mutant human PrP, as other approaches may generate novel experimental prion strains that are unrelated to human disease.

  11. Metallurgical processing of the uranium-0.75 titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessen, N.C.

    1976-01-01

    Although the addition of titanium is an effective means of strengthening uranium, careful control of casting, homogenization, and heat treatment are necessary to optimize mechanical properties. Quenching of the alloy provides increased strength and elongation; however, subsequent low temperature aging will increase the strength even higher at the sacrifice of ductility. The properties of the alloy are quench rate sensitive and quenching produces high residual stresses in the alloy. The residual stresses can be reduced by mechanical deformation with only slight degradation of the mechanical properties. 15 figures

  12. The Challenges Of Investigating And Remediating Port Hope's Small-Scale Urban Properties - 13115

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veen, Walter van; Case, Glenn; Benson, John; Herod, Judy [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Port Hope, Ontario (Canada); Yule, Adam [Public Works and Government Services Canada, Port Hope, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    An important component of the Port Hope Project, the larger of the two projects comprising the Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI), is the investigation of all 4,800 properties in the Municipality of Port Hope for low level radioactive waste (LLRW) and the remediation of approximately 10% of these. Although the majority of the individual properties are not expected to involve technically sophisticated remediation programs, the large number of property owners and individually unique properties are expected to present significant logistic challenges that will require a high degree of planning, organization and communication. The protocol and lessons learned described will be of interest to those considering similar programs. Information presented herein is part of a series of papers presented by the PHAI Management Office (PHAI MO) at WM Symposium '13 describing the history of the Port Hope Project and current project status. Other papers prepared for WM Symposium '13 address the large-scale site cleanup and the construction of the long-term waste management facility (LTWMF) where all of the LLRW will be consolidated and managed within an engineered, above-ground mound. (authors)

  13. Challenges in Obtaining Property Access: The FUSRAP Maywood Site Experience - 13433

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollar, William [Shaw Environmental, Inc., 100 West Hunter Avenue, Maywood, NJ 07607 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) is the US government program started in 1974 to identify, investigate and clean up or control sites that became contaminated as a result of the nation's early atomic programs. Many of these sites are not owned by the federal government and therefore require owner permission to enter. The experience in pursuing such access at the FUSRAP Maywood Superfund Site (the Maywood Site or the Site) in Bergen County, New Jersey, is extensive. Since the US Army Corps of Engineers (the Corps) assumed responsibility for the Maywood Site from the US Department of Energy in 1997, at least 186 separate property access agreements (known in FUSRAP as a Real Estate Right-of- Entry or ROE) have been executed between the Corps and approximately 55 different land owners and tenant occupants at the Maywood Site (agreement renewals with the same owners over time account for the difference). Maywood's experience during the Corps' tenure, reflected here in three case studies of representative property access efforts, offers some lessons and best practices that may apply to other remedial programs. While the Site Community Relations Manager (the author of this paper) managed the property access task, multi-disciplinary support from across the project was also critical to success in this endeavor. (authors)

  14. Challenges in Obtaining Property Access: The FUSRAP Maywood Site Experience - 13433

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollar, William

    2013-01-01

    The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) is the US government program started in 1974 to identify, investigate and clean up or control sites that became contaminated as a result of the nation's early atomic programs. Many of these sites are not owned by the federal government and therefore require owner permission to enter. The experience in pursuing such access at the FUSRAP Maywood Superfund Site (the Maywood Site or the Site) in Bergen County, New Jersey, is extensive. Since the US Army Corps of Engineers (the Corps) assumed responsibility for the Maywood Site from the US Department of Energy in 1997, at least 186 separate property access agreements (known in FUSRAP as a Real Estate Right-of- Entry or ROE) have been executed between the Corps and approximately 55 different land owners and tenant occupants at the Maywood Site (agreement renewals with the same owners over time account for the difference). Maywood's experience during the Corps' tenure, reflected here in three case studies of representative property access efforts, offers some lessons and best practices that may apply to other remedial programs. While the Site Community Relations Manager (the author of this paper) managed the property access task, multi-disciplinary support from across the project was also critical to success in this endeavor. (authors)

  15. Metallurgical problems of manufacturing REM-iron-boron magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononenko, A.S.; Rabinovich, Yu.M.; Sergeev, V.V.; Fedyakin, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    Fabrication practice of permanent magnets made of Nd-Fe-B and Pr-Fe-B alloys is considered in detail. The effect of impurities (C, Si) and alloying additions (Co, Al, Dy) on magnetic properties of sinterd alloys is studied. The ways of preventing oxidation of rare earth components of the alloys during grinding, drying, compacting and sintering are specified. The effect of the texturing field parameters on the permanent magnet properties is studied

  16. Intellectual property enforcement at the EU border: the challenge of private imports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Clement Salung; Riis, Thomas; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2012-01-01

    commercial importers of counterfeit and pirated goods, a consumer who imports such goods for his or her private use does not infringe any intellectual property rights (IPR). This article discusses how and to what extent right holders may nonetheless use the Customs Regulation to enforce their IPR against...... private imports. After having dismissed the so-called “manufacturing fiction” following the decision of the ECJ in Philips/Nokia the article elaborates on an alternative method which is called the “infringing sale of goods-“approach and which may find support in the ECJ decision in L'Oréal and possibly...

  17. Intellectual property arguments in tobacco industry legal challenges: lessons from recently concluded cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Zhou

    2018-03-01

    A substantial body of jurisprudence now confirms that IP does not provide the scope of protection commonly claimed by the industry. Tobacco control practitioners faced with such arguments can be confident that they are unfounded. Country / measure / jurisdiction Australia - plain packaging (WTO dispute settlement system Australia - plain packaging (High Court of Australia Australia - plain packaging (investor-state arbitration Uruguay - restrictions on brand variants and 80% graphic health warnings (investor-state arbitration United Kingdom - standardised packaging (Court of Appeal of England and Wales IP issues Obligation to provide certain trademark protections under TRIPS Protection of trademark as property under constitution Expropriation of trademark as investment under treaty; fair and equitable treatment re treatment of trademarks Expropriation of trademark as investment under treaty; fair and equitable treatment re treatment of trademarks Obligation to provide certain trademark protections under TRIPS and EU law; protection of trademark as property under European and UK law Decided in favour of Pending, reportedly Australia Australia, 2012 Australia, 2015 (dismissed at jurisdictional stage Uruguay, 2016 United Kingdom, 2016 Positive right to use trademark? Pending, point conceded as 'no' by complainants No Not decided No No Public health justification Pending Not applicable Not decided Yes Yes [Recent cases raising trademark issues

  18. Metallurgical examination of powder metallurgy uranium alloy welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, A.G.M.; Dobbins, A.G.; Holbert, R.K.; Doughty, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    Inertia welding provided a successful technique for joining full density, powder metallurgy uranium-6 wt pct niobium alloy. Initial joining attempts concentrated on the electron beam method, but this method failed to produce a sound weld. The electron beam welds and the inertia welds were evaluated by radiography and metallography. Electron beam welds were attempted on powder metallurgy plates which contained various levels of oxygen and nitrogen. All welds were porous. Sixteen inertia welds were made and all welds were radiographically sound. The tensile properties of the joints were found to be equivalent to the p/m base metal properties

  19. Nanopores and nano wires: a challenge for new properties and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legras, R.

    2002-01-01

    Filling the nanosized holes of polymer membranes with various combinations of metals or conductive polymers can produce nanocomposite materials with tailor-made electrical, magnetic or chemical properties. As sophisticated filter devices, these have many potential applications such as use in shielding microwaves ovens and mobile phones in artificial noses or in lab-on-a-chip. Nanocomposites are materials which contain one or more components in shapes such as cylinders, rods or networks with nano-size dimensions. The enormous versatility of possible combinations of such composites, which can have both electrical conductivity and non-conductivity components, offers a real possibility of obtaining materials that combine metal-like properties with non-metallic characteristics. In addition, changes in the features and type of nanostructured component can substantially affect the composite's electrical and chemical properties. If a thin polymer film such as polycarbonate is bombarded with energetic heavy ions (accelerated by a cyclotron), holes are burned out and after track-etching a membrane is produced. As filters, most membranes rely on several different mechanisms to enhance contaminant removal. Track etched membranes, in contrast, capture particles by simple, direct sieving, so particles larger than the pore size cannot pass through. The existing production technology for these membranes has been significantly enhanced to allow the reliable and reproducible manufacture of nanoporous membranes with nanosized holes. They are currently used within the ultra-filtration market as molecular filters for biological applications such as water purification. Now these polymer membranes can be made with a well-controlled pore size and shape in the form of regular, periodic arrays. The nanopores can be filled with another organic or inorganic material, such, as a polymer or metal. If a different material, such as an electrically conductive polymer, is deposited in the holes

  20. Impact of gastric acidic challenge on surface topography and optical properties of monolithic zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Taiseer A; Abdulmajeed, Aous A; Shahramian, Khalil; Hupa, Leena; Donovan, Terrence E; Vallittu, Pekka; Närhi, Timo O

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the surface topography and optical properties of monolithic zirconia after immersion in simulated gastric acid. Four partially stabilized (PSZ) and one fully stabilized (FSZ) zirconia materials were selected for the study: Prettau (PRT, Zirkonzahn), Zenostar (ZEN, Ivoclar), Bruxzir (BRX, Glidewell), Katana (KAT, Noritake) and FSZ Prettau Anterior (PRTA, Zirkonzahn). IPS e.max (Ivoclar) was used as a control. The specimens (10×10×1.2mm, n=5 per material) were cut, sintered, polished and cleaned before immersed in 5ml of simulated gastric acid solution (Hydrochloric acid (HCl) 0.06M, 0.113% solution in deionized distal water, pH 1.2) for 96h in a 37°C incubator. Specimens were weighed and examined for morphological changes under scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Surface roughness was evaluated by a confocal microscope. Surface gloss and translucency parameter (TP) values were determined by a reflection spectrophotometer before and after acid immersion. The data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's HSD post hoc test (pgloss of ZEN, PRTA and IPS e.max increased (p<0.05). Monolithic zirconia materials show some surface alterations in an acidic environment with minimum effect on their optical properties. Whether a smoother surface is in fact a sign of true corrosion resistance or is purely the result of an evenly progressive corrosive process is yet to be confirmed by further research. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Polarisation vision: overcoming challenges of working with a property of light we barely see

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, James J.; Temple, Shelby E.; How, Martin J.; Daly, Ilse M.; Sharkey, Camilla R.; Wilby, David; Roberts, Nicholas W.

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, the study of polarisation vision in animals has seen numerous breakthroughs, not just in terms of what is known about the function of this sensory ability, but also in the experimental methods by which polarisation can be controlled, presented and measured. Once thought to be limited to only a few animal species, polarisation sensitivity is now known to be widespread across many taxonomic groups, and advances in experimental techniques are, in part, responsible for these discoveries. Nevertheless, its study remains challenging, perhaps because of our own poor sensitivity to the polarisation of light, but equally as a result of the slow spread of new practices and methodological innovations within the field. In this review, we introduce the most important steps in designing and calibrating polarised stimuli, within the broader context of areas of current research and the applications of new techniques to key questions. Our aim is to provide a constructive guide to help researchers, particularly those with no background in the physics of polarisation, to design robust experiments that are free from confounding factors.

  2. Powder metallurgical processing and metal purity: A case for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... and sintering aspects are discussed. The role of impurities in influencing the electrical properties has been described. Today's driving force behind the Ta market is the use of surface mounted versions known as chip types, for applications requiring a wide range of operational temperature, such as automotive electronics.

  3. IFM – SCIENTIFIC CENTRE OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE UKRAINIAN METALLURGICAL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOLSHAKOV V. I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of creation and development of the Institute of ferrous metallurgy of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences named after Z. I. Nekrasov is regarded in the article. IFM has become the scientific centre of the development of the metallurgical industry of Ukraine. Researches of the outstanding scientists show their significant contribution in the development of the metallurgical science and implementation of their achievements in the production of the metallurgical industry of Ukraine. Analysis of publications. History of the Institute of the ferrous metallurgy is regarded in the fundamental works devoted to the development of the metallurgical industry in Ukraine and in the works published to the jubilee dates of the prominent scientists academicians Z. I. Nekrasov, V. I. Bol’shakov and others. The purpose of the article is to analyze the process of the creation of the Institute and the stages of its development in the 20th and 21st centuries and to define the influence of the economic and political situation in the country upon this process? To regard the role of the outstanding scientists and influence of their achievements on the development of the metallurgical industry of Ukraine. The history of IFM began in 1939 when it was organized in Kharkiv as a part of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. At the beginning of the Great Patriotic war the Institute was moved to Ufa – the capital of Bashkiria. During the war the scientists of the Institute tried to increase the output of metal and special steels for the defence industry. In 1943 the Institute moved to Moscow and then to Kiev. In 1952 it was decided to move the Institute to Dnepropetrovsk. In order to combine the scientific researches and production of metal. Z. I. Nekrasov was elected Director of the Institute. The departments of the Indtitute were headed by academicians Z. I. Nekrasov, A. P. Chekmariov, K. F. Starodubov, Correspondence Members of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences

  4. Challenging the Standard Model: High-Precision Comparisons of the Fundamental Properties of Protons and Antiprotons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    The Baryon Antibaryon Symmetry Experiment (BASE-CERN) at CERN’s antiproton decelerator facility is aiming at high-precision comparisons of the fundamental properties of protons and antiprotons, such as charge-to-mass ratios, magnetic moments and lifetimes. Such experiments provide sensitive tests of the fundamental charge-parity-time invariance in the baryon sector. BASE was approved in 2013 and has measured since then, utilizing single-particle multi-Penning-trap techniques, the antiproton-to-proton charge-to-mass ratio with a fractional precision of 69 p.p.t. [1], as well as the antiproton magnetic moment with fractional precisions of 0.8 p.p.m. and 1.5 p.p.b., respectively [2]. At our matter companion experiment BASE-Mainz, we have performed proton magnetic moment measurements with fractional uncertainties of 3.3 p.p.b. [3] and 0.3 p.p.b. [4]. By combining the data of both experiments we provide a baryon-magnetic-moment based CPT test gpbar/gp = 1.000 000 000 2(15), which improves the uncertainty of p...

  5. Proceedings of the 48. conference of metallurgists : international symposium on process control applications in mining and metallurgical plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, H. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). School of Engineering; Ryan, L. [Barrick Gold Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada); Kennedy, S. [Barrick Gold Corp., Dar Es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)] (eds.)

    2009-07-01

    This international symposium on process control applications in mining and metallurgical plants was held to promote economic and sustainable production practices in Canadian industry applications. Topics related to process control in mining and metallurgical plants included expert systems, model-based control technology, as well as recent advances in simulation, monitoring, and optimization techniques. Methods of improving the process and energy efficiency of mining and metallurgical plants were discussed along with technologies designed to improve monitoring accuracy. The symposium was divided into the following 5 sessions: (1) expert system, control, and performance monitoring, (2) flotation, (3) metallurgical processes, modelling, (4) mining applications, and (5) monitoring, analysis. The symposium featured 23 presentations, of which 2 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  6. Applications of Moessbauer spectroscopy to the structural characterization of minerals and products of the country 's mining - metallurgical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera Palma, Victoria; Cruz Inclan, Carlos Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Since the seventies of the past century Moessbauer Spectroscopy (MS) has been systematically and successfully applied at CEADEN in the study and characterization of lateritic and other iron-rich ores, and different products of their industrial processing as well. Due to their high iron and chrome content these materials seemed to be attractive as raw material for the production of several enriched fractions in metallurgical applications. Such studies showed that the systematic application of MS combined with X- Ray Diffraction and other techniques like neutron Diffraction, Thermal and Calorimetric analysis and Optical and Electron Microscopies, has allowed a higher level of accuracy in the crystallographic characterization, and the phase composition and other specific properties assessment. As examples in this direction, in the present paper results of the study on two different iron-bearing materials are reported: a) magnetite of Mina Grande (in Santiago de Cuba), and b) Monitoring of a proposed process using concentration tables for chrome enrichment from tailings of the nickel plant 'Hector Ramos Latour' at Holguin, both areas located in the east of Cuba. It is evidenced that a right combination of 57 Fe Moessbauer Spectroscopy with other mentioned methods is nowadays the wisest and most efficient way for a thorough identification and characterization of iron-bearing mineral ores and products in mining and metallurgical industry. (Author)

  7. Cyclic fatigue resistance, torsional resistance, and metallurgical characteristics of M3 Rotary and M3 Pro Gold NiTi files

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the mechanical properties and metallurgical characteristics of the M3 Rotary and M3 Pro Gold files (United Dental). Materials and Methods One hundred and sixty new M3 Rotary and M3 Pro Gold files (sizes 20/0.04 and 25/0.04) were used. Torque and angle of rotation at failure (n = 20) were measured according to ISO 3630-1. Cyclic fatigue resistance was tested by measuring the number of cycles to failure in an artificial stainless steel canal (60° angle of curvature and a 5-mm radius). The metallurgical characteristics were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and the Student-Newman-Keuls test. Results Comparing the same size of the 2 different instruments, cyclic fatigue resistance was significantly higher in the M3 Pro Gold files than in the M3 Rotary files (p Rotary files showed 1 small peak on the heating curve and 1 small peak on the cooling curve. Conclusions The M3 Pro Gold files showed greater flexibility and angular rotation than the M3 Rotary files, without decrement of their torque resistance. The superior flexibility of M3 Pro Gold files can be attributed to their martensite phase. PMID:29765904

  8. Upgraded metallurgical-grade silicon solar cells with efficiency above 20%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, P.; Rougieux, F. E.; Samundsett, C.; Yang, Xinbo; Wan, Yimao; Macdonald, D. [Research School of Engineering, College of Engineering and Computer Science, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Terrritory 2601 (Australia); Degoulange, J.; Einhaus, R. [Apollon Solar, 66 Cours Charlemagne, Lyon 69002 (France); Rivat, P. [FerroPem, 517 Avenue de la Boisse, Chambery Cedex 73025 (France)

    2016-03-21

    We present solar cells fabricated with n-type Czochralski–silicon wafers grown with strongly compensated 100% upgraded metallurgical-grade feedstock, with efficiencies above 20%. The cells have a passivated boron-diffused front surface, and a rear locally phosphorus-diffused structure fabricated using an etch-back process. The local heavy phosphorus diffusion on the rear helps to maintain a high bulk lifetime in the substrates via phosphorus gettering, whilst also reducing recombination under the rear-side metal contacts. The independently measured results yield a peak efficiency of 20.9% for the best upgraded metallurgical-grade silicon cell and 21.9% for a control device made with electronic-grade float-zone silicon. The presence of boron-oxygen related defects in the cells is also investigated, and we confirm that these defects can be partially deactivated permanently by annealing under illumination.

  9. Production capacity of metallurgical enterprises in modular structure of management accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zambrzhitskaia E.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of constant research in development of management accounting at modern Russian metallurgical works. The required steps of renovation are presented for the modernization of management accounting system in the case of production capacity. The necessary factors with defined values are systematized for modern enterprises. The main ones are those which are regulate the measure of the payload of production capacity. For the purposes of effective management accounting at metallurgical enterprises it is suggested to use the system of controlling parameters which were formulated for the enterprise for production of rolls. Later in the article the necessary changes to the modular structure of management accounting business are described and expanded with new structural element – “Management of production capacity”. The suggested methodical approach will allow the company management to respond quickly to rapidly changing external environment and, as a consequence, to make effective management decisions.

  10. The beryllium production at Ulba metallurgical plant (Ust-Kamenogrsk, Kazakhstan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvinskykh, E.M.; Savchuk, V.V.; Tuzov, Y.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant (Zavod), Ust-Kamenogorsk, Abay prospect 102 (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The Report includes data on beryllium production of Ulba metallurgical plant, located in Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan). Beryllium production is showed to have extended technological opportunities in manufacturing semi-products (beryllium ingots, master alloys, metallic beryllium powders, beryllium oxide) and in production of structural beryllium and its parts. Ulba metallurgical plant owns a unique technology of beryllium vacuum distillation, which allows to produce reactor grades of beryllium with a low content of metallic impurities. At present Ulba plant does not depend on raw materials suppliers. The quantity of stored raw materials and semi-products will allow to provide a 25-years work of beryllium production at a full capacity. The plant has a satisfactory experience in solving ecological problems, which could be useful in ITER program. (author)

  11. Radiation protection aspects in the metallurgical examination of irradiated fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janardhanan, S.; Pillai, P.M.B.; Jacob, J.; Kutty, K.N.; Wattamwar, S.B.; Mehta, S.K. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Health Physics Div.)

    The operational safety requirements of hot cell facilities for metallurgical examination of irradiated natural and enriched uranium fuel elements are highlighted. The cell shielding is designed for handling activities equivalent of 10/sup 2/ to 10/sup 5/ curies of gamma energy of 1.3 Mev. A brief outline of the built-in design features relevant to safety assessment is also incorporated. Reference is made to some salient features of Radiometallurgy Cells at Trombay. Metallurgical operations include investigations on cladding failure of irradiated material structure and specimen preparation from hot fuel element. The radiation protection aspects presented in this paper show that handling low irradiated fuel elements in these beta-gamma cells do not cause serious operational safety problems. The procedures followed and the containment provided would adequately restrict exposure of operational staff to acceptable limits.

  12. Radiation protection aspects in the metallurgical examination of irradiated fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janardhanan, S.; Pillai, P.M.B.; Jacob, John; Kutty, K.N.; Wattamwar, S.B.; Mehta, S.K.

    1981-01-01

    The operational safety requirements of hot cell facilities for metallurgical examination of irradiated natural and enriched uranium fuel elements are highlighted. The cell shielding is designed for handling activities equivalent of 10 2 to 10 5 curies of gamma energy of 1.3 Mev. A brief outline of the built-in design features relevant to safety assessment is also incorporated. Reference is made to some salient features of Radiometallurgy Cells at Trombay. Metallurgical operations include investigations on cladding failure of irradiated material structure and specimen preparation from hot fuel element. The radiation protection aspects presented in this paper show that handling low irradiated fuel elements in these beta-gamma cells do not cause serious operational safety problems. The procedures followed and the containment provided would adequately restrict exposure of operational staff to acceptable limits. (author)

  13. Centralised process control of the metallurgical operation at Roessing, South West Africa/Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.; Erlank, B.

    1987-01-01

    A Honeywell TDC 2000 central process control system was installed at Roessing in 1984. The system controls the metallurgical operations from crushing to the finished product of uranium oxide and manufacture of sulphuric acid. The operation was previously controlled from nine separate local control rooms. The paper briefly reviews the design and commissioning of the control system on an operating plant and discusses the impact on manpower organisation and training needs. Development of the process control system during its first two years of operation is reviewed and a summary is given of the current status of computer control at Roessing. The impact of the new system on overall plant operation and performance efficiency is also briefly described. In conclusion, future developments of computer control and overall optimisation of metallurgical operations are reviewed

  14. Statistical assessment of coal charge effect on metallurgical coke quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlína Pustějovská

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies coke quality. Blast furnace technique has been interested in iron ore charge; meanwhile coke was not studied because, in previous conditions, it seemed to be good enough. Nowadays, requirements for blast furnace coke has risen, especially, requirements for coke reactivity. The level of reactivity parameter is determined primarily by the composition and properties of coal mixtures for coking. The paper deals with a statistical analysis of the tightness and characteristics of the relationship between selected properties of coal mixture and coke reactivity. Software Statgraphic using both simple linear regression and multiple linear regressions was used for the calculations. Obtained regression equations provide a statistically significant prediction of the reactivity of coke, or its strength after reduction of CO2, and, thus, their subsequent management by change in composition and properties of coal mixture. There were determined indexes CSR/CRI for coke. Fifty – four results were acquired in the experimental parts where correlation between index CRI and coal components were studied. For linear regression the determinant was 55.0204%, between parameters CRI – Inertinit 21.5873%. For regression between CRI and coal components it was 31.03%. For multiple linear regression between CRI and 3 feedstock components determinant was 34.0691%. The final correlation has shown the decrease in final coke reactivity for higher ash, higher content of volatile combustible in coal increases the total coke reactivity and higher amount of inertinit in coal increases the reactivity. Generally, coke quality is significantly affected by coal processing, carbonization and maceral content of coal mixture.

  15. 3-D Modelling of Electromagnetic, Thermal, Mechanical and Metallurgical Couplings in Metal Forming Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenot, Jean-Loup; Bay, Francois

    2007-01-01

    The different stages of metal forming processes often involve - beyond the mechanical deformations processes - other physical coupled problems, such as heat transfer, electromagnetism or metallurgy. The purpose of this paper is to focus on problems involving electromagnetic couplings. After a brief recall on electromagnetic modeling, we shall then focus on induction heating processes and present some results regarding heat transfer, as well as mechanical couplings. A case showing coupling for metallurgic microstructure evolution will conclude this paper

  16. Historical Review of the Correlation of Ballistic and Metallurgical Characteristics of Domestic Armor at Watertown Arsenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1945-12-07

    really under- stood. It was learned, then that pearlitic and bainitic microstructures imparted poor impact toughness to steels , pearlitic structures...having a more detrimental effect than bainitic structures, and that a steel could show little or no free ferrite and still pofssess poor shock resistance...arsenal for metallurgical study. The studies at the arsenal revealed that presence of bainitic structures in the core of low alloy NS type steels

  17. Metallurgical Characterization of Reduced Activation Martensitic Steel F-82H Modified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, P.; Lapena, J.; Lancha, A.M.; Gomez-Briceno, D.; Schirra, M.

    1999-12-01

    During 1995-1998 within of research and development programs on reduced ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion, metallurgical characterization of 8Cr-2WVTa steel, denominated F-28H modified, have been carried out. The work has focused on studying the microstructural and mechanical (tensile, creep, low cycle fatigue and charpy) characteristics of as-received state and aged material in the temperature range 300 degree centigrade to 600 degree centigrade for periods up to 5000 h. (Author) 45 refs

  18. Metallurgical bond between magnesium AZ91 alloy and aluminium plasma sprayed coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubatík, Tomáš František; Pala, Zdeněk; Neufuss, Karel; Vilémová, Monika; Mušálek, Radek; Stoulil, J.; Slepička, P.; Chráska, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 282, November (2015), s. 163-170 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-31538P Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Plasma spraying * AZ91 magnesium alloy * Aluminium * Metallurgical bond * X-ray diffraction Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 2.139, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0257897215303297

  19. FINDING WAYS OF RECYCLING DUST OF ARC STEEL FURNACES AT THE BELARUSIAN METALLURGIC PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Demin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part examines the theoretical possibility of recycling dust of arc steel furnaces. The different modes of dust disposal depending on the task of recycling are discussed: recycling at minimal cost; recycling with a maximum extraction of iron; recycling with maximum extraction of zinc. The results of laboratory studies providing information on the technical feasibility of recycling dust formed at the Belarusian metallurgic plant are provided.

  20. Magnetic spherules from the soils near the slag dump of the Nizhniy Tagil metallurgical plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Makarov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic spherules, which are widespread in soils, can have different origins, but spherules with cosmic origin are the most studied. At that, functioning of numerous industrial enterprises of metallurgical profile, thermal power stations, and motor transport can be their origin. According to the data of previous researchers, spherical magnetic particles in soils can serve as an indicator for quantitative assessment of erosion-accumulative phenomena. The authors studied magnetic spherules, isolated from soil samples taken near the dump of blast furnace and metallurgical slags of a large Nizhny Tagil metallurgical plant located on the left bank of the Olkhovka river, functioning since 1949. The way the dump forms is by draining slag along the slope. Consequently, adjacent territories are exposed to a significant dust load, associated with increased concentrations of a number of heavy metals: chromium, iron, manganese, vanadium, copper and zinc. The study of magnetic spherules performed for samples of soils taken at a distance of 50 and 100 m to the west of the dump showed that the content of magnetic fraction in them was 15.1 and 11.7% respectively, of the mineral part of the samples. The authors studied magnetic spherules on a scanning microscope JEOL JSM 6390LV, an at that provide their morphology and the chemical composition of magnetic spherules (18 analyzes and aggregates on their surface (5 analyzes. Based on the presence of characteristic impurity elements, there are the following varieties: zinc, manganese, vanadium, determined by the peculiarities of metallurgical processes. Low concentrations of spherules in soils do not allow considering them as a significant source of pollution of natural environment, only a slight increase in the content of heavy metals characteristic for them is possible.

  1. Metallurgical flow recognition by random signal analysis of stress wave emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, B.

    1973-01-01

    The present study involves detailed random signal analysis of individual 'bursts' of emission with objective of 'reading' their frequency spectra to identify specific metallurgical mechanisms. Mild steel unnotched testpieces were used in the early stages of development of this research. From a fracture mechanics point of view this research could lead to a powerful nondestructive testing device allowing identification of interior, instead of only surface, deformation mechanisms. (author)

  2. The identification of zones of amplification of disruptions in network supply chains of metallurgic products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kramarz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in the number of participants in a supply chain and network relations results in an increase in the complexity of the entire logistic and production system. Consequently, there appear additional potential sources of disruptions in material flows. The aim of the research presented in the article is to identify the zones of amplification of disruptions in network supply chains of metallurgic products.

  3. Metallurgic study of the steel Z8CDWV12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loier, C.; Ottmann, M.C.; Risacher, R.; Leymonie, C.

    1984-01-01

    Steel Z8CDWV12 has a duplex structure showing ferrite and carbide-rich areas. It is used by Alsthom-Atlantique for making steam turbine nozzles. CCT diagram was plotted and enabled carbide-rich areas transformations to be understood. It was demonstrated that treatments commonly called temperings were in fact intercritical treatments. The variation of tensile and impact properties was determined as a function of the initial quenching rate and of intercritical treatment temperature. Results enable convenient heat treatments to be determined as a function of plate thickness.

  4. The two faces of coal : uncertainty the common prospect for metallurgical and thermal coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlotnikov, D.

    2010-01-01

    Although the methods of producing thermal and metallurgical coal are the same, metallurgical coal is destined to cross the world for steel manufacturing and thermal coal is destined for power plants close to where it was mined. This article discussed the factors influencing the price of these 2 coals. The production of thermal coal can remain steady during an economic crisis because coal-fired power plants generally provide low-cost-base-load electricity that remains stable during economic cycles. However, the demand for metallurgical coal is more volatile during an economic crisis because it is directly related to the demand for steel products in the construction and automotive industry, which are very sensitive to the state of the economy. There have been recent indications that Canada's export market for thermal coal is on the rise. In 2008, China became a net importer of coking coal. China's need for more coal to fuel its growing economy despite the global economic slowdown has meant that producers are diverting excess supply from European markets to China. Higher-end thermal coal offers low sulphur content and higher energy content, both desirable traits for power utilities facing strict emissions control. In addition to having huge reserves of very high-quality coal that is becoming increasingly important to China, Canada has the advantage of having the available transportation capacity in its west coast terminals and on its rail network. 3 figs.

  5. Resistance Upset Welding of ODS Steel Fuel Claddings—Evaluation of a Process Parameter Range Based on Metallurgical Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Corpace

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Resistance upset welding is successfully applied to Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS steel fuel cladding. Due to the strong correlation between the mechanical properties and the microstructure of the ODS steel, this study focuses on the consequences of the welding process on the metallurgical state of the PM2000 ODS steel. A range of process parameters is identified to achieve operative welding. Characterizations of the microstructure are correlated to measurements recorded during the welding process. The thinness of the clad is responsible for a thermal unbalance, leading to a higher temperature reached. Its deformation is important and may lead to a lack of joining between the faying surfaces located on the outer part of the join which can be avoided by increasing the dissipated energy or by limiting the clad stick-out. The deformation and the temperature reached trigger a recrystallization phenomenon in the welded area, usually combined with a modification of the yttrium dispersion, i.e., oxide dispersion, which can damage the long-life resistance of the fuel cladding. The process parameters are optimized to limit the deformation of the clad, preventing the compactness defect and the modification of the nanoscale oxide dispersion.

  6. A metallurgical and mechanical study on dissimilar Friction Stir welding of aluminum 1050 to brass (CuZn30)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaeili, A.; Givi, M.K. Besharati; Rajani, H.R. Zareie

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Brass and aluminum 1050 are joined for the first time through Friction Stir welding. → Welding parameters are optimized to obtain a sound joint. → The ultimate tensile strength of the sound joint reaches 80% of aluminum base metal. → The effect of interfacial intermetallic compounds on mechanical properties is probed. → CuZn, Cu9Al4 and CuAl2 form the majority of observed intermetallic compounds. - Abstract: In this research, the effect of Friction Stir welding parameters on mechanical and metallurgical properties of aluminum 1050/brass (70%Cu-30%Zn) joints was investigated. Optical microscopy, SEM, X-ray diffraction analysis and EDS analysis were used to probe microstructures and chemical compositions. In order to examine mechanical properties, besides hardness test, tensile strength of the welds was measured. The main parameters in this study were the tool rotational speed, offset, welding speed, and depth of the sinking pin. The maximum ultimate tensile strength of the joint reached in this research was 80% of the base metal (aluminum). Results show that the optimum parameters will yield a defect free joint arisen from a suitable material flow and a narrow multilayer intermetallic compound at interface in addition to a composite structure in the stir zone which all result in a strong joint. Also, by leaving the optimized condition, occurrence of large brass fragments and weld defects lower weld strength besides shifting fracture path from interface to the stir zone. Also, according to the results, using low rotation speed is accompanied by disappearance of interfacial intermetallic layer, whereas fast rotation will thicken this layer. Moreover, severe mechanical twining is observed in TMAZ of brass which leads to high values of hardness in this region.

  7. Solidified structure and leaching properties of metallurgical wastewater treatment sludge after solidification/stabilization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovanović, Dragana Đ; Kamberović, Željko J; Korać, Marija S; Rogan, Jelena R

    2016-01-01

    The presented study investigates solidification/stabilization process of hazardous heavy metals/arsenic sludge, generated after the treatment of the wastewater from a primary copper smelter. Fly ash and fly ash with addition of hydrated lime and Portland composite cement were studied as potential binders. The effectiveness of the process was evaluated by unconfined compressive strength (UCS) testing, leaching tests (EN 12457-4 and TCLP) and acid neutralization capacity (ANC) test. It was found that introduction of cement into the systems increased the UCS, led to reduced leaching of Cu, Ni and Zn, but had a negative effect on the ANC. Gradual addition of lime resulted in decreased UCS, significant reduction of metals leaching and high ANC, due to the excess of lime that remained unreacted in pozzolanic reaction. Stabilization of more than 99% of heavy metals and 90% of arsenic has been achieved. All the samples had UCS above required value for safe disposal. In addition to standard leaching tests, solidificates were exposed to atmospheric conditions during one year in order to determine the actual leaching level of metals in real environment. It can be concluded that the EN 12457-4 test is more similar to the real environmental conditions, while the TCLP test highly exaggerates the leaching of metals. The paper also presents results of differential acid neutralization (d-AN) analysis compared with mineralogical study done by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The d-AN coupled with Eh-pH (Pourbaix) diagrams were proven to be a new effective method for analysis of amorphous solidified structure.

  8. Metallurgical processing and properties of multifilamentary V3Ga composite wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, D.G.; Weinman, L.S.

    1976-01-01

    Multifilamentary composite wires of V - 6.1 at. percent Ga filaments in a Cu-17.5 at. percent Ga matrix were fabricated. High purity V and Ga were arc melted and cast to form an alloy rod. High purity Cu and Ga were induction melted and also cast as an alloy rod. The alloy rods were reduced in diameter by swaging. The larger diameter Cu - Ga matrix rod was drilled with 19 holes which terminated within the matrix-rod. The holes served as receptacles for 19 V-Ga rods which were inserted into the matrix. The composite assembly was evacuated under high vacuum and sealed by an electron beam weld. The composite was then reduced in diameter through swaging and wire drawing to 0.032-in. dia wire. V 3 Ga layers at the filament/matrix interface were formed through an isothermal solid-state reaction. Growth rates for V 3 Ga are strongly influenced by alloy composition and formation temperature, with more rapid growth occurring in composite wires with higher Ga contents. Improved critical current densities (J/sub c/) resulted from lower formation temperatures, J/sub c/ values of over 1 x 10 6 A/cm 2 in a transverse magnetic field of 100 kG were obtained in the multifilamentary composite wire. 9 figs

  9. Metallurgical and Mechanical Characterization of High Temperature Titanium Alloys Joined by Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwar, Kapil Dev

    In the world of joining, riveting and additive manufacturing, weight reduction, and omission of defects (at both macro and micro level) remain of paramount. Therefore, in the wake of ubiquitous fusion welding (FW) and widely accepted approach of riveting using Inconel bolts to resist corrosion at higher temperature, friction stir welding (FSW) has emerged as a novice jewel in friction based additive manufacturing industry. With advancements in automation of welding process and tool material, FSW of materials with higher work hardening such as steel and titanium has also become probable. Process and property relations associated with FSW are inevitable in case of dissimilar titanium alloys, due to presence of heterogeneity (whether atrocious or advantageous) in and around the weld nugget. These process property relationships are needed to be studied and addressed properly in order to optimize the processing window for improved mechanical and metallurgical properties. In this study FSWed similar and dissimilar butt joints of α+β, and near α titanium, alloys have been produced for varying processing conditions in order to study the effect of rotation speed (rpm) and traverse speed (TS; mm-min-1). The aim of this study is to assess the effect of tool geometry, tool rpm, TS on microstructure and mechanical properties of most widely used α+β titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-64), standard grain and fine grain in addition to α+β,Ti-5Al-4V (T-54M), standard grain, and near α, Ti-6Al-2Mo-4Zr-2Sn (Ti-6242), standard grain (SG) and fine grain (FG). During FSW, a unique α+β fine-grained microstructure has been formed depending on whether or not the peak temperature in the weld nugget (WN) reached above or below β transus temperature. The resulting microstructure consists of acicular α+β, emanating from the prior β grain boundary as the weld cools off. The changes in the microstructure are observed by optical microscopy (OM). Later, a detailed analysis of material

  10. Stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels in PWR primary water: an update of metallurgical investigations performed on French withdrawn components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boursier, J.M.; Gallet, S.; Rouillon, Y.; Bordes, P.

    2002-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels (AISI 304, 304L, 316 and 316L) are largely used in Nuclear Power Plants because of their good resistance to corrosion and their satisfactory mechanical properties. Nevertheless, on various French PWR Nuclear Power Plants, several cases of corrosion have been encountered in auxiliary circuit portions where deleterious species and oxygen can be present. This paper focuses on the metallurgical investigations performed on pulled out components such as Canopy welds or 'dead legs' (auxiliary circuit portions connected to the main primary loops) in terms of cracking locations and degradation parameters. In addition, some comparisons between Nuclear Power Plant feedback and fundamental research and development studies are discussed, particularly in the scope of temperature, microstructure, stresses (applied and residual) and medium responsible for the degradation. (authors)

  11. Perspectives regarding the use of metallurgical slags as secondary metal resources - A review of bioleaching approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potysz, Anna; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Kierczak, Jakub

    2018-05-05

    Smelting activity by its very nature produces large amounts of metal-bearing waste, often called metallurgical slag(s). In the past, industry used to dispose of these waste products at dumping sites without the appropriate environmental oversight. Once there, ongoing biogeochemical processes affect the stability of the slags and cause the release of metallic contaminants. Rather than viewing metallurgical slags as waste, however, such deposits should be viewed as secondary metal resources. Metal bioleaching is a "green" treatment route for metallurgical slags, currently being studied under laboratory conditions. Metal-laden leachates obtained at the bioleaching stage have to be subjected to further recovery operations in order to obtain metal(s) of interest to achieve the highest levels of purity possible. This perspective paper considers the feasibility of the reuse of base-metal slags as secondary metal resources. Special focus is given to current laboratory bioleaching approaches and associated processing obstacles. Further directions of research for development of more efficient methods for waste slag treatment are also highlighted. The optimized procedure for slag treatment is defined as the result of this review and should include following steps: i) slag characterization (chemical and phase composition and buffering capacity) following the choice of initial pH, ii) the choice of particle size, iii) the choice of the liquid-to-solid ratio, iv) the choice of microorganisms, v) the choice of optimal nutrient supply (growth medium composition). An optimal combination of all these parameters will lead to efficient extraction and generation of metal-free solid residue. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fast determination of impurities in metallurgical grade silicon for photovoltaics by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampel, J.; Boldt, F.M.; Gerstenberg, H.; Hampel, G.; Kratz, J.V.; Reber, S.; Wiehl, N.

    2011-01-01

    Standard wafer solar cells are made of near-semiconductor quality silicon. This high quality material makes up a significant part of the total costs of a solar module. Therefore, new concepts with less expensive so called solar grade silicon directly based on physiochemically upgraded metallurgical grade silicon are investigated. Metallurgical grade silicon contains large amounts of impurities, mainly transition metals like Fe, Cr, Mn, and Co, which degrade the minority carrier lifetime and thus the solar cell efficiency. A major reduction of the transition metal content occurs during the unidirectional crystallization due to the low segregation coefficient between the solid and liquid phase. A further reduction of the impurity level has to be done by gettering procedures applied to the silicon wafers. The efficiency of such cleaning procedures of metallurgical grade silicon is studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Small sized silicon wafers of approximately 200 mg with and without gettering step were analyzed. To accelerate the detection of transition metals in a crystallized silicon ingot, experiments of scanning whole vertical silicon columns with a diameter of approximately 1 cm by gamma spectroscopy were carried out. It was demonstrated that impurity profiles can be obtained in a comparably short time. Relatively constant transition metal ratios were found throughout an entire silicon ingot. This led to the conclusion that the determination of several metal profiles might be possible by the detection of only one 'leading element'. As the determination of Mn in silicon can be done quite fast compared to elements like Fe, Cr, and Co, it could be used as a rough marker for the overall metal concentration level. Thus, a fast way to determine impurities in photovoltaic silicon material is demonstrated. - Highlights: → We demonstrate a fast way to determine impurities in photovoltaic silicon by NAA. → We make first experiments of locally

  13. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    During third quarter 1993, samples from AMB groundwater monitoring wells at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility were analyzed for certain heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Eight parameters exceeded standards during the quarter. As in previous quarters, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards; and aluminum, iron, lead, manganese, pH, and total organic halogens exceeded the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria in one or more of the wells. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water-table unit were similar to previous quarters

  14. The behaviour of Pacific metallurgical coal markets: the impact of Japan's acquisition strategy on market price

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, R J [Queensland University, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Graduate School of Management, Faculty of Commerce and Economics

    1993-03-01

    This paper examines whether some elements of Japan's resource acquisition strategies might have caused price and other distortions of market behaviour in the Pacific metallurgical coal trade. The industry chosen for investigation is that of steel manufacture, and the traded resources commodity examined is coking coal, which is the primary energy input for blast furnace iron making. Regression modelling studies to determine historic acquisition value and quality relationships for US, Australian and Canadian coals sold into the Japanese coking coal market are described. Departures from normal demand response behaviour to price competitiveness are also investigated. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Obtaining of dense and highly porous ceramic materials from metallurgical slag

    OpenAIRE

    Fidancevska E.; Mangutova B.; Milosevski D.; Milosevski M.; Bossert J.

    2003-01-01

    Glass-ceramics in a dense and highly porous form can be obtained from metallurgical slag and waste glass of TV monitors. Using polyurethane foam as pore creator, a highly porous system with porosity of 65 ± 5 %, E-modulus and flexural strength of 8 ± 3 GPa and 13 ± 3.5 MPa respectively can be obtained. This porous material had durability (mass loss) of 0.03 % in 0.1 M HCl that is identical with the durability of a dense composite.

  16. Production of highly porous glass-ceramics from metallurgical slag, fly ash and waste glass

    OpenAIRE

    Mangutova Bianka V.; Fidancevska Emilija M.; Milosevski Milosav I.; Bossert Joerg H.

    2004-01-01

    Glass-ceramics composites were produced based on fly-ash obtained from coal power stations, metallurgical slag from ferronickel industry and waste glass from TV monitors, windows and flasks. Using 50% waste flask glass in combination with fly ash and 20% waste glass from TV screens in combination with slag, E-modulus and bending strength values of the designed systems are increased (system based on fly ash: E-modulus from 6 to 29 GPa, and bending strength from 9 to 75 MPa). The polyurethane f...

  17. Obtaining of dense and highly porous ceramic materials from metallurgical slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidancevska E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass-ceramics in a dense and highly porous form can be obtained from metallurgical slag and waste glass of TV monitors. Using polyurethane foam as pore creator, a highly porous system with porosity of 65 ± 5 %, E-modulus and flexural strength of 8 ± 3 GPa and 13 ± 3.5 MPa respectively can be obtained. This porous material had durability (mass loss of 0.03 % in 0.1 M HCl that is identical with the durability of a dense composite.

  18. Seed production of woody plants in conditions of environment pollution by metallurgical industry emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Gritzay

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of environment pollution by metallurgical industry emissions on woody plants bearing parameters was examined. The results obtained show the decrease of bearing rate, diminution of seeds, fruits and seed cells sizes in woody plants affected by technogenic emissions. Attenuation of the 1000 seeds’ weight was established. Incresing the amount of fruits with development deviations was ascertained. It was found aplasia and abnormal form of the samara fruit of ash and ailanthus trees, arcuation and narrowing of some parts of the catalpa fruitcases. Practical recommendations on using seeds’ sensitive parameters in biomonitoring of woody phytocenoses under technogenic stressful conditions are proposed.

  19. Influence of carbon nano tubes on mechanical, metallurgical and tribological behavior of magnesium nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.T. Selvamani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, three different reinforcements of Carbon Nano Tubes (in weight % such as 2%, 3% and 4% were added to the magnesium AZ91D grade magnesium alloy to fabricate the Nanocomposites through stir casting method. The effects of volume percentage on the mechanical, metallurgical and wear behavior were analyzed. The composites with 4% reinforcement show high hardness while the composites with 3% reinforcement show better tensile and yield strength and also an improved wear resistance compared to other. Also, the characterization of the Nanocomposites were made using Optical Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Finite Element – Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy to understand its nature.

  20. Production of metallurgical cokes from some Turkish lignites using sulphite liquor binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanik, J.; Saglam, M.; Yuksel, M. (Ege University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1990-04-01

    Soma and Tuncbilek lignites were briquetted at 80{degree}C under 0-100 MPa, using varying amounts of sulphite liquor binders. The briquettes were then carbonized at 950{degree}C, and the resulting formed cokes were examined. The effects of the type and concentration of binders, and of the briquetting pressure, on the strength and porosity of the formcokes were investigated. As a result of these experiments, optimal briquetting conditions were established. It was also stated that formcokes made from both Turkish lignite samples under optimal briquetting conditions could be used for metallurgical purposes, particularly in non-ferrous metallurgy. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  1. Effective recruitment method for the marketing department of a metallurgical enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jaba

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some solutions to recruit staff for the Marketing Department of a metallurgical enterprise. Our goal is to present the psychological characteristics of a certain category of employees on a sample of 107 employees and to evaluate the relationship between the motivation to work and those characteristics. In order to realize such evaluation we used the linear mixed effects model in the statistical software program R. The results showed that a significant effect on work motivation have factors like work climate and the employee agreeability.

  2. A multi-level code for metallurgical effects in metal-forming processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.A.; Silling, S.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Computational Physics and Mechanics Dept.; Hughes, D.A.; Bammann, D.J.; Chiesa, M.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The authors present the final report on a Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project, A Multi-level Code for Metallurgical Effects in metal-Forming Processes, performed during the fiscal years 1995 and 1996. The project focused on the development of new modeling capabilities for simulating forging and extrusion processes that typically display phenomenology occurring on two different length scales. In support of model fitting and code validation, ring compression and extrusion experiments were performed on 304L stainless steel, a material of interest in DOE nuclear weapons applications.

  3. Ti3SiC2 Synthesis by Powder Metallurgical Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kero, Ida; Antti, Marta-Lena; Odén, Magnus

    2007-01-01

    Titanium silicon carbide MAX phase was synthesised by a powder metallurgical method from ball milled TiC/Si powders of two different compositions, with TiC/Si ratios of 3:2 and 3:2.2 respectively. The cold pressed samples were analysed by dilatometry under flowing argon or sintered under vacuum for different times. The sintered samples were evaluated using x-ray diffraction (XRD). This study showed that titanium carbide was always present as a secondary phase and silicon carbide accompanied t...

  4. Metallurgical and acoustical characterization of a hydroformed, 304 stainless steel, Caribbean-style musical pan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murr, L.E.; Gaytan, S.M.; Lopez, M.I.; Bujanda, D.E.; Martinez, E.Y.; Whitmyre, G.; Price, H.

    2008-01-01

    We report herein the metallurgical and acoustical characterization of hydroformed 304 stainless steel, Caribbean pans. These pans were fully tuned to chromatic tones and compared to a manufactured, low-carbon, Caribbean steel pan standard. Hydroformed platforms had a Vickers microindentation hardness of HV 345, which was reduced by annealing during pan fabrication to HV 270. Skirts welded to the hydroformed head had a microindentation hardness of HV 440. Microstructural characterization by light optical metallography and transmission electron microscopy illustrated microstructures (including grain structures) characteristic of these pan microindentation hardnesses

  5. Corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr-Mo alloys. Chemical composition and metallurgical condition's effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadorozne, N.S.; Rebak, Raul B.

    2009-01-01

    Ni-Cr-Mo alloys offer an outstanding corrosion resistance in a wide variety of highly-corrosive environments. This versatility is due to the excellent performance of nickel in hot alkaline solutions and the beneficial effect of chromium and molybdenum in oxidizing and reducing conditions, respectively. Alloy C-22 (22 % Cr-13 % Mo-3% W) is a well known versatile member of this family. Due to its excellent corrosion resistance in a wide variety of environments, Alloy C-22 has been selected for the fabrication of the corrosion-resistant outer shell of the high-level nuclear waste container. The increasing demand of the industry for corrosion resistant alloys with particular properties of corrosion and mechanical resistance has led to the development of new alloys. Alloy C-22HS (Ni-21 % Cr-17 % Mo) is a new high-strength corrosion resistant material recently developed and introduced into the market. This alloy provides a corrosion resistance comparable with that of other C-type alloys, and it can also be age hardened to effectively double its yield strength. HASTELLOY HYBRID-BC1 (Ni-22 % Mo-15 % Cr) is a new development intended for filling the gap between Ni-Mo and Ni-Cr-Mo alloys. This novel alloy is able to withstand HCl and H 2 SO 4 , even in the presence of dissolved oxygen and other oxidizing species. Its resistance to chloride-induced pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking is also remarkable. Thermal aging of Ni-Cr-Mo alloys leads to microstructure changes depending on the temperature range and exposure time at temperature. A Long Range Ordering (LRO) reaction can occur in the range of 350 C degrees to 600 C degrees, producing an ordered Ni 2 (Cr,Mo) phase. This ordering reaction does not seem to affect the corrosion resistance and produces only a slight loss in ductility. LRO transformation is homogeneous and has proven to be useful to fabricate the age-hard enable Alloy C22-HS. Tetrahedral Close Packed (TCP) phases, like μ, σ and

  6. Weld Metallurgy and Mechanical Properties of High Manganese Ultra-high Strength Steel Dissimilar Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, Martin; Lindner, Stefan; Monfort, Damien; Petring, Dirk

    The increasing demand for ultra-high strength steels in vehicle manufacturing leads to the application of new alloys. This poses a challenge on joining especially by fusion welding. A stainless high manganese steel sheet with excellent strength and deformation properties stands in the centre of the development. Similar and dissimilar welds with a metastable austenitic steel and a hot formed martensitic stainless steel were performed. An investigation of the mixing effects on the local microstructure and the hardness delivers the metallurgical features of the welds. Despite of carbon contents above 0.4 wt.% none of the welds have shown cracks. Mechanical properties drawn from tensile tests deliver high breaking forces enabling a high stiffness of the joints. The results show the potential for the application of laser beam welding for joining in assembly of structural parts.

  7. Ex situ characterization of metallurgical inclusions in X100 pipeline steel before and after immersion in a neutral pH bicarbonate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yingbo; Liu, Jie [Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Deng, Yida [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Han, Xiaopeng [Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Hu, Wenbin [Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhong, Cheng, E-mail: cheng.zhong@tju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-07-15

    The initiation of corrosion pits in pipeline steels plays an important role in the development of stress corrosion cracking. In order to reveal the effect of inclusions on corrosion initiation sites and also to clarify contradictory results from previous literature, we proposed an ex situ characterization method that is allowed to characterize exactly the same inclusion or location of the surface of steel before and after corrosion tests. The time-dependent corrosion behaviour of the inclusions and the surrounding X100 steel matrix at the same area before and after early stage immersion in a near-neutral pH bicarbonate solution was investigated by ex situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and localized electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (LEIS). The sizes of most inclusions in X100 steel are below 3 μm. The results challenge the long-held opinion of previous work that corrosion pit initiations are related with the inclusions. It has been found that most of the inclusions remain stable (intact) during the whole testing time although severe corrosion occurs on the matrix of the steel. The chemical composition of the inclusion greatly affects the chemical stability of the inclusion. SiO{sub 2} inclusions and complex inclusions with a high SiO{sub 2} content remain intact although obvious general corrosion occurs on the steel matrix under the investigated immersion period. Inclusions with little Si, such as Al–Mg–Ca–O enriched inclusions, totally disappear after certain immersion time. During the immersion, the corrosion product tends to deposit at the interstice between the inclusion and steel matrix. - Highlights: • Ex situ characterization of metallurgical inclusions in X100 pipeline steel. • The pipeline steel was immersed in neutral pH bicarbonate solution. • Majority of inclusions remain stable during the whole testing time. • The chemical stability of metallurgical inclusions depends on the SiO{sub 2

  8. Ex situ characterization of metallurgical inclusions in X100 pipeline steel before and after immersion in a neutral pH bicarbonate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yingbo; Liu, Jie; Deng, Yida; Han, Xiaopeng; Hu, Wenbin; Zhong, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The initiation of corrosion pits in pipeline steels plays an important role in the development of stress corrosion cracking. In order to reveal the effect of inclusions on corrosion initiation sites and also to clarify contradictory results from previous literature, we proposed an ex situ characterization method that is allowed to characterize exactly the same inclusion or location of the surface of steel before and after corrosion tests. The time-dependent corrosion behaviour of the inclusions and the surrounding X100 steel matrix at the same area before and after early stage immersion in a near-neutral pH bicarbonate solution was investigated by ex situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and localized electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (LEIS). The sizes of most inclusions in X100 steel are below 3 μm. The results challenge the long-held opinion of previous work that corrosion pit initiations are related with the inclusions. It has been found that most of the inclusions remain stable (intact) during the whole testing time although severe corrosion occurs on the matrix of the steel. The chemical composition of the inclusion greatly affects the chemical stability of the inclusion. SiO_2 inclusions and complex inclusions with a high SiO_2 content remain intact although obvious general corrosion occurs on the steel matrix under the investigated immersion period. Inclusions with little Si, such as Al–Mg–Ca–O enriched inclusions, totally disappear after certain immersion time. During the immersion, the corrosion product tends to deposit at the interstice between the inclusion and steel matrix. - Highlights: • Ex situ characterization of metallurgical inclusions in X100 pipeline steel. • The pipeline steel was immersed in neutral pH bicarbonate solution. • Majority of inclusions remain stable during the whole testing time. • The chemical stability of metallurgical inclusions depends on the SiO_2 content.

  9. Section 1 Challenges to the Properties Arms of Sports Leagues: The Single-Entity Defense, Market Definition, and the Rule of Reason from Dallas Cowboys to American Needle and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory Pelnar

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Section 1 challenges to the centralized exclusive licensing of league and franchise intellectual property, tests for identifying a single entity, and the rule of reason analysis of MLB Properties in Salvino.

  10. Metallurgical behavior of fine fractions of copper sulfide minerals in a combined process of modified flotation and agitated bio leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibanez, J. P.; Ipinza, J.; Collao, N.; Ahlborn, G.

    2007-01-01

    The metallurgical behaviour of fine fraction of copper sulfide minerals of Compania Minera Quebrada Blanca S. A. was studied by concentration through flotation in aqueous media modified by alcohol followed by bio leaching of the concentrates. By using a 1% v/v of methanol, the metallurgical recovery of copper reaches 88%, while the iron recovery was 43%, the weight recovery was 18%, which indicates a high selectivity. these concentrates were then bio leached with and without nutrient medium, reaching 80% of copper recovery after 10 and 17 days, respectively. then, it is possible to conclude that this concentration-bio leaching metallurgical process is a promising route for copper recovery from the fine fraction of sulfide minerals. (Author) 24 refs

  11. Characterization of Tool Wear in High-Speed Milling of Hardened Powder Metallurgical Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Klocke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental study, the cutting performance of ball-end mills in high-speed dry-hard milling of powder metallurgical steels was investigated. The cutting performance of the milling tools was mainly evaluated in terms of cutting length, tool wear, and cutting forces. Two different types of hardened steels were machined, the cold working steel HS 4-2-4 PM (K490 Microclean/66 HRC and the high speed steel HS 6-5-3 PM (S790 Microclean/64 HRC. The milling tests were performed at effective cutting speeds of 225, 300, and 400 m/min with a four fluted solid carbide ball-end mill (0 = 6, TiAlN coating. It was observed that by means of analytically optimised chipping parameters and increased cutting speed, the tool life can be drastically enhanced. Further, in machining the harder material HS 4-2-4 PM, the tool life is up to three times in regard to the less harder material HS 6-5-3 PM. Thus, it can be assumed that not only the hardness of the material to be machined plays a vital role for the high-speed dry-hard cutting performance, but also the microstructure and thermal characteristics of the investigated powder metallurgical steels in their hardened state.

  12. Residual life assessment of French PWR vessel head penetrations through metallurgical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichon, C.; Boudot, R.; Benhamou, C.; Gelpi, A.

    1994-01-01

    In September 1991, a vessel head penetration was found leaking at Bugey 3 plant during the hydrotest included in the framework of decennial In Service Inspections. Non destructive examinations performed afterwards on several other plants have shown some cracked penetrations. Destructive expertise confirmed quickly that again this new problem is related to stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 used as base material. During the last 15 years, similar cracking have been met in steam generator tubes and secondly in pressurizer instrumentation tubes. In spite of all the work performed since that time an extension appears to be necessary for explaining the features of this new event; however material sensitivity, stress and temperature still remain the key parameters governing the behavior of Alloy 600 in PWR environment. In this paper, only the material sensitivity of vessel head penetrations is examined through metallurgical analysis in relation with SCC tests. On the basis of vessel head field experience in combination with thermomechanical process used for fabrication of original bars criteria for a sensitivity ranking of penetrations are proposed. Metallurgical investigations and SCC tests were carried out to support this sensitivity ranking. The final aim is to use such information among those quoted above for assessment of vessel heads residual life. This document is an overview of the work performed in France concerning the material sensitivity of forged Alloy 600. It represents an important part of the assessments and investigations undertaken in France on the stress corrosion cracking phenomenon affecting the reactor vessel head penetrations in PWR's

  13. Bio-alteration of metallurgical wastes by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a semi flow-through reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hullebusch, Eric D; Yin, Nang-Htay; Seignez, Nicolas; Labanowski, Jérôme; Gauthier, Arnaud; Lens, Piet N L; Avril, Caroline; Sivry, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Metallurgical activities can generate a huge amount of partially vitrified waste products which are either landfilled or recycled. Lead Blast Furnace (LBF) slags are often disposed of in the vicinity of metallurgical plants, and are prone to weathering, releasing potentially toxic chemical components into the local environment. To simulate natural weathering in a slag heap, bioweathering of these LBF slags was studied in the presence of a pure heterotrophic bacterial strain (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and in a semi-flow through reactor with intermittent leachate renewal. The evolution of water chemistry, slag composition and texture were monitored during the experiments. The cumulative bulk release of dissolved Fe, Si, Ca and Mg doubled in the presence of bacteria, probably due to the release of soluble complexing organic molecules (e.g. siderophores). In addition, bacterial biomass served as the bioadsorbent for Pb, Fe and Zn as 70-80% of Pb and Fe, 40-60% of Zn released are attached to and immobilized by the bacterial biomass. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Metals, words and gods. Early knowledge of metallurgical skills in Europe, and reflections in terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solin Paliga

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available How can metallurgical terminology - specifically names of metals - support ar­ chaeological investigation? Can comparative linguistics and archaeology co-operate in order to identify the emergence and development of metallurgical skills? How did Neolithic and Bronze Age man imagine the taming of nature in order to achieve metal artifacts? Such questions -and many others -may arise whenever we try to investigate the beginnings and making of civilization. It is clear that the various aspects connected to archaeometallurgy cannot be analyzed separately from other aspects of human life, like agriculture, trade, urbanization, religious beliefs, early writing systems, pottery techniques, a.o. The earliest known (or identifiable names of metals do reflect a cer­ tain ideology and a certain way of 'seeing' metals as imbued with magic powers. It is certain that colours and reflections - specific to metals - made early man interpret them as divine (Biek and Bayley 1979; Muşu 1981, chapter Symphony of colours, a first attempt in reconstructing pre-Greek names of colours.

  15. Occupational exposure in South African metallurgical plants and industries involving naturally occurring radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, I.D.

    2002-01-01

    South Africa has a very large mining and minerals processing industry exploiting a variety of ores and minerals containing elevated levels of NORM. The industry employs more than 300,000 persons. Doses have been assessed to workers in the mining industry in South Africa. In the gold mining industry radon measurements have been performed since the early 1970s. Regulations have been in force since 1990. The mean annual dose to underground gold mine workers, mostly from radon progeny, is about 5 mSv with maximum doses exceeding 20 mSv. The maximum annual dose to surface workers in gold mines is 5 mSv. In South African coal mines the mean annual dose from inhalation of radon decay products has been estimated from limited radon concentration measurements to be about 0.6 mSv. In the phosphoric acid and fertilizer production industry the doses to the workers do not exceed 6 mSv/y. There are 3 mineral sands operations in South Africa, for which the maximum annual dose to workers is 3 mSv. One open pit copper mine contains elevated levels of U, which is extracted as a by-product. The maximum annual doses to workers are 5 mSv for workers in the mine and 20 mSv for workers in the metallurgical plant. Worker doses in the metallurgical plant have since been reduced with the introduction of radiation protection measures

  16. [Hygienic assessment of metal-lurgical slag crushed stone for its use in road-building].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, Iu P; Ippolitova, V P; Bezrokov, M E

    2010-01-01

    The increasing amount of industrial waste generates a need for its use as recycled materials. The paper presents the results of hygienic assessment of metallurgic slag crushed stone to be added to natural materials in highway building. The research program has included the measurement of content of water-soluble forms of metals, the evaluation of the acute toxicity of waste after oral administration to mice and rats, the study of the toxicity of waste by biotesting and the activity of natural radionuclides. The slag crushed stone virtually lacks water-soluble elements when it contains a high level of bulk forms of metals. According to acute toxicity for warm-blooded animals, the slag crushed stone belongs to Hazard Class IV by GOST 12.1.007-76 (low hazard substances). The biotesting on hydrocoles, the slag crushed stone is also referred to as Class IV (low hazard substances). In terms of the level of natural radionuclides, the slag crushed stone poses no hazard to the environment. The performed studies give grounds to recommend metallurgical slag crushed stone to be added to natural materials for highway building.

  17. Study of ecologo-biological reactions of common flax to finely dispersed metallurgical wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, O.; Gusev, A.; Skripnikova, E.; Skripnikova, M.; Krutyakov, Yu; Kudrinsky, A.; Mikhailov, I.; Senatova, S.; Chuprunov, C.; Kuznetsov, D.

    2015-11-01

    Study was carried out on the influence of metallurgic industrial sludge on morphometric and biochemical indicators as well as productivity of common flax under laboratory and field conditions. In laboratory settings negative influence on seed germinating ability and positive influence on sprouts biomass production in water medium were observed. In sand medium suppression of biological productivity under the influence of sludge together with photosynthetic system II (FS II) activity stimulation were registered. Biochemical study showed peroxidase activity decrease in laboratory, while activity of polyphenol oxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase were given a mild boost under the influence of sludge. In the field trial, positive influence of sludge on flax photosynthetic apparatus was shown. Positive influence of sludge on vegetation and yield indicators was observed. The analysis of heavy metals content showed excess over maximum allowable concentration (MAC) of copper and zinc in control plants, it may point to the background soil pollution. In the plants from the trial groups receiving 0.5 and 2 ton/ha heavy metals content below the control values was registered. Application of 4 ton/ha led to the maximum content of copper and zinc in the plants among the trial groups. The analysis of soils from the test plots indicated no excess over maximum allowable concentrations of heavy metals. Thus, further study of possibilities of using metallurgic industrial sludge as a soil stimulator in flax cultivation at the application rate of 0.5 t/ha seems promising.

  18. A thermo-metallurgical constitutive law of steels for structural mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waeckel, Francois

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this work is to include the metallurgical behaviour of steels (and specifically their phases transformations) into thermo-mechanical studies. For this, a new model of aniso-thermal phase transformations during the cooling stage is proposed. Developed in the thermodynamics framework of simple materials with memory variables, its originality lies in the choice of the temperature time derivative T as independent variable. The identification and the transformation rates computation use the C.C.T. diagrams which are considered as families of particular solutions of evolution equations. The validation shows ability of the model to simulate all C.C.T. deductible tests. Furthermore, for some tests not included into the C.C.T., the numerical results remain good and the model, from which evolution equation form has been let free, allows to incorporate them to the identification data without modifying the C.C.T. simulation accuracy. Lastly, to take into account structural transformations mechanical effects, some currently used models have been introduced, together with the metallurgical model, in a finite element code. They allow whole quenching or welding simulations (up to residual stresses) as demonstrated by application examples. (author) [fr

  19. Measures to restore metallurgical mine wasteland using ecological restoration technologies: A case study at Longnan Rare Earth Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yunzhang; Gu, Ruizhi; Guo, Ruikai; Zhang, Xueyan

    2017-01-01

    Whereas mining activities produce the raw materials that are crucial to economic growth, such activities leave extensive scarring on the land, contributing to the waste of valuable land resources and upsetting the ecological environment. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate various ecological technologies to restore metallurgical mine wastelands. These technologies include measures such as soil amelioration, vegetation restoration, different vegetation planting patterns, and engineering technologies. The Longnan Rare Earth Mine in the Jiangxi Province of China is used as the case study. The ecological restoration process provides a favourable reference for the restoration of a metallurgical mine wasteland.

  20. Project development for mining-metallurgical complexes for production of uranium concentrates - an analysis and a methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajuria G, S.; Blanco P, B.; Pena A, J.; Manzanera Q, C.

    1978-10-01

    Activities comprising the development of a project for a mining-metallurgical complex for production of uranium concentrates, from sampling and evaluation of an orebody until plant start-up, are analyzed. The analysis of the orebody, characterization of the ore, bench scale and pilot plant metallurgical studies, environmental studies and economic analyses of the project are described. The mining project and mine preparation and engineering and construction of the plant are reviewed in less detail. The estimated time lapse for the development of a typical project under ideal conditions is 66 months. A bar diagram is included showing an approximate timetable for each activity. (author)

  1. Possibilities of Formation of Dioxins and Furans in Metallurgical Processes as well as Methods of their Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holtzer, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The metallurgical industry, among others, generates various kinds of wastes: gaseous, dusts, wastes and sewage. Special attention of the European Union is directed towards the elimination or significant reduction of the gaseous-dust contamination emissions including the most hazardous compounds, such as dioxins and furans. In the article the sources of dioxins and furans in metallurgical industry are described along with the reduction methods of these pollutants. Particularly the activities recommended as the Best Available Techniques (BAT in order to reduce the PCDD/PCDF emission from sintering processes, non-ferrous metallurgy and foundry engineering have been presented.

  2. Correlation Between the Efficiency of Machinery and Equipment and the Productivity of Workers and its Effect on the Performance of a Metallurgical Undertaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulawik, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the example of procedure of life and objectify work effectiveness analysis in metallurgical enterprise were presented. Besides, on the example of chosen units of metallurgical enterprise, results of analysis - based on methodic proposed in the article - were discussed.

  3. Metallurgical and mechanical examinations of steel–copper joints arc welded using bronze and nickel-base superalloy filler materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velu, M.; Bhat, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Optical and scanning electron microscopy show defect free weld interfaces. ► Energy dispersive spectroscopy shows low dilution level of the weld by Fe. ► XRD studies show no brittle intermetallic phases in the weld interfaces. ► Weld interfaces did not fail during tensile, transverse bending and impact tests. ► The joint exhibits superior strength properties than that of bronze filler. - Abstract: The paper presents metallurgical and mechanical examinations of joints between dissimilar metals viz. copper (UNSC11000) and alloy steel (En31) obtained by Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) using two different filler materials, bronze and nickel-base super alloy. The weld bead of the joint with bronze-filler displayed porosity, while that with nickel-filler did not. In tension tests, the weldments with bronze-filler fractured in the centre of the weld, while those with nickel-filler fractured in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of copper. Since the latter exhibited higher strength than the former, all the major tests were undertaken over the joints with nickel-filler alone. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) indicated corrugated weld interfaces and favorable elemental diffusions across them. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies around the weld interfaces did not reveal any detrimental intermetallic compounds. Transverse bending tests showed that flexural strengths of the weldments were higher than the tensile strengths. Transverse side bend tests confirmed good ductility of the joints. Shear strength of the weld-interface (Cu–Ni or Ni–steel) was higher than the yield strength of weaker metal. Microhardness and Charpy impact values were measured at all the important zones across the weldment

  4. Electrochemical and metallurgical characterization of ZrCr{sub 1-x}NiMo{sub x} AB{sub 2} metal hydride alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erika, Teliz [Universidad de la República, Facultad de Ciencias, Laboratorio de Electroquímica Fundamental, Núcleo Interdisciplinario Ingeniería Electroquímica, Igua 4225, CP 11400 Montevideo (Uruguay); Ricardo, Faccio [Universidad de la República, Crystallography, Solid State and Materials Laboratory (Cryssmat-Lab), DETEMA, Centro NanoMat, Polo Tecnológico de Pando, Espacio Interdisciplinario, Facultad de Química, Montevideo (Uruguay); Fabricio, Ruiz [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas , CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Centro Atómico Bariloche , Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CAB-CNEA), Av. Bustillo 9500, CP 8400 S.C. de Bariloche, RN (Argentina); Fernando, Zinola [Universidad de la República, Facultad de Ciencias, Laboratorio de Electroquímica Fundamental, Núcleo Interdisciplinario Ingeniería Electroquímica, Igua 4225, CP 11400 Montevideo (Uruguay); and others

    2015-11-15

    The effects of partial replacement of chromium by molybdenum was studied on the structure and electrochemical kinetic properties of ZrCr{sub 1-x}NiMo{sub x}(x = 0.0, 0.3 and 0.6) metal hydride alloys. The arc-melting prepared alloys were metallurgically characterized by X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy microanalysis, which showed AB{sub 2} (with hexagonal C14 structure) and Zr{sub x}Ni{sub y} (Zr{sub 7}Ni{sub 10}, Zr{sub 9}Ni{sub 11}) phases. After a partial substitution of chromium by molybdenum, secondary phases monotonically increase with the C14 unit cell volume indicating that most of molybdenum atoms locate in the B-site. The alloys were electrochemically characterized using charge/discharge cycling, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and rate capability experiments that allowed the determination of hydriding reaction kinetic parameters. The presence of molybdenum produces a positive effect for hydrogen diffusion in the alloy lattice, and ZrCr{sub 0.7}NiMo{sub 0.3} alloy depicts the better kinetics associated with a fast activation, lower charge transfer resistance and the best high rate discharge behavior. This fact would be related to a lower diffusion time constant and a bigger value of the product between exchange density current and surface active area. There is a trade-off in the amounts of secondary phase and Laves phases in order to improve the kinetic performance. - Highlights: • Metallurgical characterization evidences the presence of Zr{sub x}Ni{sub y} and C14 phases. • The partial replacement of Cr by Mo promotes the segregation of Zr{sub x}Ni{sub y} phase. • The incorporation of molybdenum improves the kinetics for the hydriding process. • Mo produces a decrease in the diffusion time constant.

  5. Spatial Modeling of Geometallurgical Properties: Techniques and a Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, Jared L., E-mail: jdeutsch@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta, School of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (Canada); Palmer, Kevin [Teck Resources Limited (Canada); Deutsch, Clayton V.; Szymanski, Jozef [University of Alberta, School of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (Canada); Etsell, Thomas H. [University of Alberta, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    High-resolution spatial numerical models of metallurgical properties constrained by geological controls and more extensively by measured grade and geomechanical properties constitute an important part of geometallurgy. Geostatistical and other numerical techniques are adapted and developed to construct these high-resolution models accounting for all available data. Important issues that must be addressed include unequal sampling of the metallurgical properties versus grade assays, measurements at different scale, and complex nonlinear averaging of many metallurgical parameters. This paper establishes techniques to address each of these issues with the required implementation details and also demonstrates geometallurgical mineral deposit characterization for a copper–molybdenum deposit in South America. High-resolution models of grades and comminution indices are constructed, checked, and are rigorously validated. The workflow demonstrated in this case study is applicable to many other deposit types.

  6. THE MODELS OF THE MANAGEMENT OPTIMIZATION OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES OF RUP “BELORUSSIAN METALLURGICAL WORKS”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Chichko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The new approach to the mathematic modeling and optimization of interrelation of the control units of the metallurgical enterprise organizational structures is offered. The mathematical model of the organizational structure based on temporary characteristics of control units loading is offered at the example of one of the organizational structures BMZ.

  7. Morphology, chemistry and distribution of neoformed spherulites in agricultural land affected by metallurgical point-source pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leguedois, S.; Oort, van F.; Jongmans, A.G.; Chevalier, P.

    2004-01-01

    Metal distribution patterns in superficial soil horizons of agricultural land affected by metallurgical point-source pollution were studied using optical and electron microscopy, synchrotron radiation and spectroscopy analyses. The site is located in northern France, at the center of a former entry

  8. Metallurgical source-contribution analysis of PM10 annual average concentration: A dispersion modeling approach in moravian-silesian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jančík

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is to present analysis of metallurgical industry contribution to annual average PM10 concentrations in Moravian-Silesian based on means of the air pollution modelling in accord with the Czech reference methodology SYMOS´97.

  9. Methodological Approaches to Ensuring Innovative Development of Metallurgical Enterprises on the Basis of Principles of Economic Nationalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denysov Kostyantyn V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic, energy and environmental aspects of the activities of metallurgical enterprises are analyzed in the context of the need to ensure their sustainable development. The high energy intensity of the production process, the low efficiency and irrational structure of capital expenditures for environmental protection, the dominance of material costs in the final cost of finished products at the expense of labor and social contributions are indicated. There proved the low effectiveness of the previous measures of the industrial policy of the metallurgical industry innovative development that were not in compliance with the requirements of the WTO and led to taking compensatory measures against the Ukrainian steel on world markets. The potential of economic nationalism as a system for ensuring the innovative development of the metallurgical industry is considered. There determined the priorities of the industrial policy for the development of metallurgical enterprises based on the principles of economic nationalism and taking into account the global trends in the development of trade and economic relations and Ukraine’s commitments to the WTO.

  10. Optimization Review: Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site, Central Treatment Plant (CTP), Kellogg, Shoshone County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site includes all areas of the Coeur d’Alene Basin where mining-related contamination occurred and encompasses a 21-square mile “Box” along Interstate 90 surrounding the former smelter complex.

  11. Metallurgical and Mechanical Evaluation of 4340 Steel Produced by Direct Metal Laser Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelis, Elias; Clemente, Matthew; Kerwien, Stacey; Ravindra, Nuggehalli M.; Hespos, Michael R.

    2015-03-01

    Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) was used to produce high-strength low-alloy 4340 steel specimens. Mechanical and metallurgical analyses were performed on the specimens to determine the samples with the highest strengths and the least porosity. The optimal process parameters were thus defined based on the corresponding experimental conditions. Additionally, the effects of fabricating specimens with both virgin and recycled powders were studied. Scanning electron microscopy and electron-dispersive spectroscopy were performed on both types of powders to determine the starting morphology and composition. The initial tensile results are promising, suggesting that DMLS can produce specimens equal in strength to wrought materials. However, there is evidence of cracking on several of the heat-treated tensile specimens that is unexplained. Several theories point to disturbances in the build chamber environment that went undetected while the specimens were being fabricated.

  12. Change of the layout of an office of a metallurgical company: simple projects, big solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Luiz Carlos da Silva; Eckhardt, Moacir; da Motta, Giordano Paulo

    2012-01-01

    The posture, a good organization and the proper layout of the environment and workplaces have a positive influence on the income of an employee. To develop the work it is used a methodology that addressed the study phases of the theory involving the subject, description of the current situation, preparation of conceptions, choice of design, implementation and reporting of results. Through the project of "Change of the layout of an office of a metallurgical company" there was an intervention in these reported aspects providing improvements in the office, regarding ergonomic, layout, workplace and lighting issues, bringing welfare to the official, with the intent to improve its performance within the company and facilitating its actions, as the company's customer service. The results provided improvements in layout, in the workplace and especially in comfort for the human resources that perform their activities.

  13. Determination of Japanese buyer valuation of metallurgical coal characteristics by hedonic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, R.J. [Griffith University, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). Graduate School of Management

    2001-09-01

    Considerable efforts have been devoted by econometric researchers to understanding Japanese steel mill (JSM) metallurgical coal valuation policies, and whether such policies disadvantage coal exporters. Much of this research has employed the hedonic regression modeling technique of Rosen and examines the significance of coal quality in establishing market price. This article discusses shortcomings in some such modeling studies, and presents results of additional hedonic modeling to buttress findings of previous work suggesting that cross-cultural bargaining factors rather than coal quality explain lower prices for Australian coals in Japanese market settlements. Policy changes that might be effective in ameliorating bilateral market distortions arising from oligopsony characteristics exhibited in JSM contract settlements are then explored. 29 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Termination of the Special Metallurgical (SM) Building at Mound Laboratory: a final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, W.R.; Kokenge, B.R.; Marsh, G.C.

    1976-01-01

    The report describes and highlights the more important factors associated with the termination of the Special Metallurgical (SM) Building at Mound Laboratory. As a result, a written record of the more important techniques and procedures is now available for reference by others involved in similar termination efforts. Included in this report is a description of the organizational units that were used in this effort along with a description of their responsibilities. A general description of the SM Building and a discussion of the more relevant procedures and equipment that were used are also presented. In addition, pertinent Health Physics information, such as personnel exposure, final wipe levels in the terminated facility, and assays of the structure, are provided. Based on the experience gained from this project, recommendations were made regarding the design of future radioactive material handling facilities so that when they are ultimately terminated the effort can be accomplished more efficiently

  15. GEOLOGY OF THE FLORENCIA GOLD – TELLURIDE DEPOSIT (CAMAGÜEY, CUBA AND SOME METALLURGICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López K Jesús M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results from a study of the Florencia gold-telluride deposit in Central Cuba, including mineralogical, petrographical, microprobe and chemical analysis. Valuable information is provided for the exploration, mining and processing of gold ores from other nearby deposits with similar characteristics. Results highlight changes in the mineralogical composition of the ores between the north and south sectors of the deposit, as reflected in metallurgical concentrates after beneficiation and flotation of samples from these sectors.
    It is shown that gold deposits of the Cretaceous Volcanic Arc of Cuba largely consist of native gold, telluride and pyrite, where arsenopyrite is almost absent. Traces of lead, zinc and cadmium are present in the periphery of the main ore zones.

  16. Advances in refractories for the metallurgical industries III: proceedings of the international symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allaire, C.; Rigaud, M. [eds.] [Ecole Polytchnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    In the three years since the last symposium key innovations have been made in the penetration of monoliths in all sectors of the metallurgical industries. The symposium was presented within the 38th Annual Conference of Metallurgists of the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum. Broad international coverage was maintained with papers originating from 12 different countries including: Australia, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Iran, Japan, Korea, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, and the United States. The 27 papers presented are divided into seven sessions to reflect the interests of the participants. The sessions included mold fluxes I and II, aluminum refractories, alumina castables, andalusite castables, continuous casting of refractories, aluminum refractories II and copper-nickel refineries. One paper on refractories for exhaust gas scrubbers is abstracted separately.

  17. Employment and other selected personnel attributes in metallurgical and industrial enterprises of different size - research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pawliczek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with the issue of employment and other selected personnel attributes as employees’ affiliations, employees’ benefits, monitoring of employees’ satisfaction, monitoring of work productivity, investments into employees education and obstacles in hiring qualified human resources. The characteristics are benchmarked on the background of enterprise size based on the employees count in the year 2013. The relevant data were collected in Czech industrial enterprises, including metallurgical companies, with the help of university questionnaire research in order to induce synergy effect arising from mutual communication of academy-students-industry. The most important results are presented later in the paper, complemented with discussion based on relevant professional literature sources. The findings suggest that bigger companies check productivity and satisfaction and dismiss employees more frequently, unlike medium companies which do not reduce their workforce and solve the impact of crisis by decreased affiliations, reduced benefits and similar savings.

  18. Method of purifying metallurgical grade silicon employing reduced pressure atmospheric control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, W. M.; Thompson, S. W.; Chaney, R. E. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A method in which a quartz tube is charged with chunks of metallurgical grade silicon and/or a mixture of such chunks and high purity quartz sand, and impurities from a class including aluminum, boron, as well as certain transition metals including nickel, iron, and manganese is described. The tube is then evacuated and heated to a temperature within a range of 800 C to 1400 C. A stream of gas comprising a reactant, such as silicon tetrafluoride, is continuously delivered at low pressures through the charge for causing a metathetical reaction of impurities of the silicon and the reactant to occur for forming a volatile halide and leaving a residue of silicon of an improved purity. The reactant which included carbon monoxide gas and impurities such as iron and nickel react to form volatile carbonyls.

  19. Oxide nano-rod array structure via a simple metallurgical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanko, M; Do, D T M

    2011-01-01

    A simple method for fabricating oxide nano-rod array structure via metallurgical process is reported. Some dilute alloys such as Ni(Al) solid solution shows internal oxidation with rod-like oxide precipices during high-temperature oxidation with low oxygen partial pressure. By removing a metal part in internal oxidation zone, oxide nano-rod array structure can be developed on the surface of metallic components. In this report, Al 2 O 3 or NiAl 2 O 4 nano-rod array structures were prepared by using Ni(Al) solid solution. Effects of Cr addition into Ni(Al) solid solution on internal oxidation were also reported. Pack cementation process for aluminizing of Ni surface was applied to prepare nano-rod array components with desired shape. Near-net shape Ni components with oxide nano-rod array structure on their surface can be prepared by using the pack cementation process and internal oxidation,

  20. Powder metallurgical high performance materials. Proceedings. Volume 2: P/M hard materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneringer, G; Roedhammer, P; Wildner, H [eds.

    2001-07-01

    The proceedings of these seminars form an impressive chronicle of the continued progress in the understanding of refractory metals and cemented carbides and in their manufacture and application. There the ingenuity and assiduous work of thousands of scientists and engineers striving for progress in the field of powder metallurgy is documented in more than 2000 contributions covering some 30000 pages. The 15{sup th} Plansee Seminar was convened under the general theme 'Powder Metallurgical High Performance Materials'. Under this broadened perspective the seminar will strive to look beyond the refractory metals and cemented carbides, which remain at its focus, to novel classes of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, with potential for high temperature applications. (author)

  1. Powder metallurgical high performance materials. Proceedings. Volume 2: P/M hard materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneringer, G.; Roedhammer, P.; Wildner, H.

    2001-01-01

    The proceedings of these seminars form an impressive chronicle of the continued progress in the understanding of refractory metals and cemented carbides and in their manufacture and application. There the ingenuity and assiduous work of thousands of scientists and engineers striving for progress in the field of powder metallurgy is documented in more than 2000 contributions covering some 30000 pages. The 15 th Plansee Seminar was convened under the general theme 'Powder Metallurgical High Performance Materials'. Under this broadened perspective the seminar will strive to look beyond the refractory metals and cemented carbides, which remain at its focus, to novel classes of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, with potential for high temperature applications. (author)

  2. Determining sulfur in metallurgical coke by the X-ray fluorescent method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofilic, T.; Kesic-Racan, M.; Sindler, M.; Sokolean, D.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described of X-ray fluorescent analysis for current determination of sulfur in the concentration range of 0.5-1.16% in metallurgical coke. To do this, the analyzed material (coke) is ground to a particle size of 200 mu and mixed in a 1:1 ratio with an organic binder (soluble starch). The mixture is briquetted in meshes of a certain size under a pressure of 25 tons/cm/sub 2/. The tablets obtained are analyzed in a Phillips spectrometer with a Cr anticathode. The presence is noted of a linear dependence between the S content and the instrument reading; the correlation factor is 0.91; the mean detection error, 0.0596.

  3. Powder metallurgical high performance materials. Proceedings. Volume 1: high performance P/M metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneringer, G.; Roedhammer, P.; Wildner, H.

    2001-01-01

    The proceedings of this sequence of seminars form an impressive chronicle of the continued progress in the understanding of refractory metals and cemented carbides and in their manufacture and application. There the ingenuity and assiduous work of thousands of scientists and engineers striving for progress in the field of powder metallurgy is documented in more than 2000 contributions covering some 30000 pages. The 15th Plansee Seminar was convened under the general theme 'Powder Metallurgical High Performance Materials'. Under this broadened perspective the seminar will strive to look beyond the refractory metals and cemented carbides, which remain at its focus, to novel classes of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, with potential for high temperature applications. (author)

  4. Mechanical fasteners used in historical Siberian shipbuilding: perspectives for metallurgical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, A. E.; Mednikov, D. M.; Karelin, N. M.; Nasyrov, I. R.

    2017-10-01

    Recent discoveries of shipwrecked vessels in the northern reaches of the river Yenisei led to a number of questions concerning the history of shipbuilding in Siberia and the technical features of the first vessels of the industrial era to navigate the Northern Sea Route and the Yenisei. One of these questions addresses the features of mechanical fasteners used in the construction of the Siberian vessels. The answer to this question may provide information on how the first vessels, constructed in Siberia during the 1870’s, were able to sail the high seas of the Arctic Ocean and reach European ports. In this paper, we provide a description of iron mechanical fasteners obtained from one shipwrecked vessel and discuss on the perspectives of a metallurgical analysis This research has been funded by a grant of the Russian Fund of Humanities Research (Russian Fund of Fundamental Research) and the Krasnoyarsk Regional Science Fund under Grant number 16-11-24010.

  5. Powder metallurgical high performance materials. Proceedings. Volume 1: high performance P/M metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneringer, G; Roedhammer, P; Wildner, H [eds.

    2001-07-01

    The proceedings of this sequence of seminars form an impressive chronicle of the continued progress in the understanding of refractory metals and cemented carbides and in their manufacture and application. There the ingenuity and assiduous work of thousands of scientists and engineers striving for progress in the field of powder metallurgy is documented in more than 2000 contributions covering some 30000 pages. The 15th Plansee Seminar was convened under the general theme 'Powder Metallurgical High Performance Materials'. Under this broadened perspective the seminar will strive to look beyond the refractory metals and cemented carbides, which remain at its focus, to novel classes of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, with potential for high temperature applications. (author)

  6. Arsenic precipitation from metallurgical effluents; Precipitacion de arsenico desde efluentes metalurgicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, P.; Vargas, C.; Araya, E.; Martin, I.; Alguacil, F. J.

    2004-07-01

    In the mining-metallurgical companies different liquid effluents are produced, which can contain a series of dissolved elements that are considered dangerous from an environmental point of view. One of these elements is the arsenic, especially in the state of oxidation +5 that can be precipitated as calcium or iron arsenate. To fulfil the environmental requests it should have in solution a content of arsenic lower than 0,5 mg/l and the obtained solid product should be very stable under the condition in which it will be stored. this work looks for the best conditions of arsenic precipitation, until achieving contents in solution lower than such mentioned concentration. Also, the stability of the precipitates was studied. (Author) 7 refs.

  7. Mineralogical test as a preliminary step for metallurgical proses of Kalan ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affandi, K.

    1998-01-01

    Mineralogical tests as a preliminary step for hydrometallurgy of Kalan ores, including Eko Remaja and Rirang have been carried out to identify the elements and minerals content which affect the metallurgical process, especially the leaching and purification of uranium. Mineralogical tests have been done by means of radioactive and radioluxugraph tests to identify radioactive minerals; thin specimen analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to identify elements and morphology, EPMA to analyse qualitatively the elements, X-ray Diffractometer (XRD) to identify of minerals content; and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and chemical analyses to determine total elements qualitatively and quantitatively. The experimental results show that the Eko Remaja ores contain uraninite and brannerite, iron and titan oxides, sulfides, phosphates and silicates minerals, while the Rirang ores contain uraninite, monazite and molybdenite

  8. Atomic absorption determination of vanadium in products of metallurgical production and mineral feed stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polikarpova, N.V.; Panteleeva, E.Yu.

    1983-01-01

    Rapid and selective method of atomic absorption determination of vanadium in metallurgical process products and numerical feed stock is suggested. Buffering mixture of aluminium and phosphoric acid is used to suppress the effect of sample composition on the value of vanadium atomic absorption. The concentration of buffer components can vary from 400 up to 2000 μg/ml Al and from 2 up to 5% vol. H 3 PO 4 . The suggested mixture completely eli-- minates the strong chromium effect. The developed method was used for analyzing steels, alloys based on Mo, Ni, Ti, Cr, as well as titanium magnetite ores and concentrates. The method enables to determine from 0.05 up to 10% vanadium with 0.05-0.01 relative standard deviation, respectively

  9. Application of the VAW tube digester for metallurgical pressure-leaching processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaempf, F.; Pietsch, H.B.

    1978-01-01

    Problems associated with the treatment of complex and refractory ores or concentrates, as well as those related to environmental factors, have led to increased interest in hydrometallurgy under elevated temperatures and pressures. Pressure leaching can be carried out in vertical, horizontal or spherical autoclaves equipped with mechanical agitators. If high throughput capacities are catered for, the division of a conventional plant into several units is inevitable. By contrast, the VAW (Vereinigte Aluminium-Werke Aktiengesellschaft) tube digester enables hydrometallurgical processes to be carried out under pressure and at a high temperature with the use of a basically simple technology, extremely high specific throughput and improved thermal economics being achieved. The advantages of the tube digester over vessel autoclaves are described, and details of laboratory investigations into the applicability of tube digesters to various metallurgical applications are given. Test results are given for the leaching of refractory uranium ores. (author)

  10. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    During first quarter 1995, samples from AMB groundwater monitoring wells at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility (Met Lab HWMF) were analyzed for selected heavy metals, field measurements, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Six parameters exceeded standards during the quarter. As in previous quarters, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS). Total organic halogens exceeded its Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criterion during first quarter 1995 as in fourth quarter 1994. Aluminum, iron, and manganese, which were not analyzed for during fourth quarter 1994, exceeded the Flag 2 criteria in at least two wells each during first quarter 1995. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the M-Area Aquifer Zone were similar to previous quarters. Conditions affecting the determination of groundwater flow directions and rates in the Upper Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, Lower Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, and the Middle Sand Aquifer Zone of the Crouch Branch Confining Unit were also similar to previous quarters

  11. DIFFERENCES OF COMMITMENT BETWEEN GENERATIONS X AND Y – A STUDY IN A METALLURGICAL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Teodoro Tolfo Ribas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The way each generation acts in society and in organizations is always a matter of study and appreciation (LOMBARDIA; STEIN & PIN, 2008. Thus, this study aimed to examine the organizational commitment in its affetctive, instrumental and normative dimensions in different generational groups (X and Y of Metallurgical Industry in the city of Caxias do Sul (RS. The research is descriptive and quantitative in nature. To reach its objective it uses a validated questionnaire, based on Ribas 2010, with 96 professional of the administrative sector. The results identify that the respondents have very similar approaches regarding affective, instrumental and normative commitment perceptions. Still, it was noticed that the highest means for both generations, were obtained in the construct of affective commitment. The clearest difference emerged in the focus of instrumental commitment, which determines the individual’s need to remain in business.

  12. Peer review of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Vessel Investigation Project metallurgical examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohl, R.W.; Gaydos, R.G.; Vander Voort, G.F.; Diercks, D.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Fifteen samples recovered from the lower head of the Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 nuclear reactor pressure vessel were subjected to detailed metallurgical examinations by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), with supporting work carried out by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and several of the European participants. These examinations determined that a portion of the lower head, a so-called elliptical ``hot spot`` measuring {approx}0.8 {times} 1 m, reached temperatures as high as 1100{degrees}C during the accident and cooled from these temperatures at {approx}10--100{degrees}C/min. The remainder of the lower head was found to have remained below the ferrite-toaustenite transformation temperature of 727{degrees}C during the accident. Because of the significance of these results and their importance to the overall analysis of the TMI accident, a panel of three outside peer reviewers, Dr. Robert W. Bohl, Mr. Richard G. Gaydos, and Mr. George F. Vander Voort, was formed to conduct an independent review of the metallurgical analyses. After a thorough review of the previous analyses and examination of photo-micrographs and actual lower head specimens, the panel determined that the conclusions resulting from the INEL study were fundamentally correct. In particular, the panel reaffirmed that four lower head samples attained temperatures as high as 1100{degrees}C, and perhaps as high as 1150--1200{degrees}C in one case, during the accident. They concluded that these samples subsequently cooled at a rate of {approx}50--125{degrees}C/min in the temperature range of 600--400{degrees}C, in good agreement with the original analysis. The reviewers also agreed that the remainder of the lower head samples had not exceeded the ferrite-to-austenite transformation temperature during the accident and suggested several refinements and alternative procedures that could have been employed in the original analysis.

  13. Metallurgical study and phase diagram calculations of the Zr-Nb-Fe-(Sn,O) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toffolon, C.

    2000-01-01

    The Framatome M5 TM Zr-Nb-O alloy with small amounts of Fe is of interest for nuclear applications (PWR fuel cladding).The behaviour of this kind of alloy for in-service conditions strongly depends on the microstructure. Therefore, a metallurgical study of alloys of the Zr-Nb-Fe-(O-Sn) system has been developed in order to study the influence of chemical composition variabilities of Nb, Fe and O and thermal treatments on the resultant microstructure. In order to get some insight on the physical metallurgy of Zr-Nb-Fe-(Sn,O) alloys and to minimize the experiments, it is useful to build a thermodynamic database. With this object, it was necessary to re-optimize and to calculate the low order binary systems such as Fe-Nb and Nb-Sn in order to assess the Zr-Nb-Fe-(Sn,O) system. Then, the experimental studies concerned: the influence of small variations in Nb and O contents on the α/β transus temperatures. A comparison between experimental results and thermodynamic predictions showed a good agreement; the precipitation kinetics of βNb and intermetallic phases in the α phase domain. These experiments showed that the kinetics depends on the initial metallurgical conditions; the determination of the crystallographic structure and the stoichiometry of the ternary Zr-Nb-Fe intermetallic compounds as a function of the temperature. Finally, these experimental data were used to propose a first assessment of the Zr-Nb-Fe(O∼1200 ppm) system. (author)

  14. An environmentally-friendly vacuum reduction metallurgical process to recover germanium from coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lingen; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • An environmental friendly vacuum reduction metallurgical process is proposed. • Rare and valuable metal germanium from coal fly ash is recycled. • Residues are not a hazardous material and can be further recycled. • A germanium recovery ratio of 94.64% is obtained in pilot scale experiments. - Abstract: The demand for germanium in the field of semiconductor, electronics, and optical devices is growing rapidly; however, the resources of germanium are scarce worldwide. As a secondary material, coal fly ash could be further recycled to retrieve germanium. Up to now, the conventional processes to recover germanium have two problems as follows: on the one hand, it is difficult to be satisfactory for its economic and environmental effect; on the other hand, the recovery ratio of germanium is not all that could be desired. In this paper, an environmentally-friendly vacuum reduction metallurgical process (VRMP) was proposed to recover germanium from coal fly ash. The results of the laboratory scale experiments indicated that the appropriate parameters were 1173 K and 10 Pa with 10 wt% coke addition for 40 min, and recovery ratio germanium was 93.96%. On the basis of above condition, the pilot scale experiments were utilized to assess the actual effect of VRMP for recovery of germanium with parameter of 1473 K, 1–10 Pa and heating time 40 min, the recovery ratio of germanium reached 94.64%. This process considerably enhances germanium recovery, meanwhile, eliminates much of the water usage and residue secondary pollution compared with other conventional processes.

  15. Peer review of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Vessel Investigation Project metallurgical examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohl, R.W.; Gaydos, R.G.; Vander Voort, G.F.; Diercks, D.R.

    1994-07-01

    Fifteen samples recovered from the lower head of the Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 nuclear reactor pressure vessel were subjected to detailed metallurgical examinations by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), with supporting work carried out by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and several of the European participants. These examinations determined that a portion of the lower head, a so-called elliptical ''hot spot'' measuring ∼0.8 x 1 m, reached temperatures as high as 1100 degrees C during the accident and cooled from these temperatures at ∼10--100 degrees C/min. The remainder of the lower head was found to have remained below the ferrite-toaustenite transformation temperature of 727 degrees C during the accident. Because of the significance of these results and their importance to the overall analysis of the TMI accident, a panel of three outside peer reviewers, Dr. Robert W. Bohl, Mr. Richard G. Gaydos, and Mr. George F. Vander Voort, was formed to conduct an independent review of the metallurgical analyses. After a thorough review of the previous analyses and examination of photo-micrographs and actual lower head specimens, the panel determined that the conclusions resulting from the INEL study were fundamentally correct. In particular, the panel reaffirmed that four lower head samples attained temperatures as high as 1100 degrees C, and perhaps as high as 1150--1200 degrees C in one case, during the accident. They concluded that these samples subsequently cooled at a rate of ∼50--125 degrees C/min in the temperature range of 600--400 degrees C, in good agreement with the original analysis. The reviewers also agreed that the remainder of the lower head samples had not exceeded the ferrite-to-austenite transformation temperature during the accident and suggested several refinements and alternative procedures that could have been employed in the original analysis

  16. Corrosion behaviour of hyper duplex stainless steel in various metallurgical conditions for sea water cooled condensers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Umesh Pratap; Kain, Vivekanand; Chandra, Kamlesh

    2011-01-01

    The sea water cooled condensers have to resist severe corrosion as marine environment is the most corrosive natural environment. Copper alloys are being phased out due to difficulties in water chemistry control and Titanium base alloys are extremely expensive. Austenitic stainless steels (SS) remain prone to localized corrosion in marine environments hence not suitable. These heat exchangers operate at temperatures not exceeding 50 deg C and at very low pressures. The tubes of these heat exchangers are joined to the carbon steel tube sheets by roll expansion or by roll expansion followed by seam welding. These conditions are expected to affect the localized corrosion resistance of the tube in roll joined region due to cold working and in the tube-tube sheet welded joint due to thermal effects of welding. In this study, the localized corrosion behaviour of a Hyper Duplex Stainless Steel (HDSS) has been evaluated, and compared with other materials e.g. types 304L SS, 316L SS, Duplex SS 2205, Titanium grade - 2, and Al Brass. The evaluation is done in three metallurgical conditions (a) as received, (b) cold rolled and (c) welded condition in synthetic sea water at room temperature and at 50 deg C to assess the resistance to crevice, pitting and stress corrosion cracking using standard ASTM exposure and electrochemical techniques. The results provide comparative assessment of these alloys and show their susceptibility in the three metallurgical conditions as encountered in condensers. Hyper-duplex SS has been shown to be highly resistant in sea water for the condenser tubing application. (author)

  17. Influence of the initial metallurgical state and the austenizing conditions on the distribution of austenitc grain size of the martensitic-ferritic steel T91(9%Cr-1%Mo-V-Nb)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavaleta Gutierrez, N; Luppo, M.I; Danon, C.A; Garcia de Andres, C

    2006-01-01

    It is a known fact that the austenizing conditions (speed of heating to the austenite temperature and austenizing time) as well as the initial metallurgical state of the material strongly influence the distribution of austenitic grain size in steels. This distribution will be one of the parameters that will control the behavior of the material in a later transformation from the austenite -by continuous cooling or in the isothermal case - and this behavior will determine the product's final mechanical properties. Based on the published literature, we have studied the influence of the initial metallurgical state and the speed of heating to austenite on the distribution of austenitic grain size for a certain austenizing temperature and time for a martensitic-iron ASTM A213 grade T91 steel. Two-stage thermal cycles were designed for this, that is, tempering for a variable period of time at the industrial tempering temperature (780 o C) followed by the austenizing (1050 o C, 30 minutes) 'in situ'. We have analyzed the following as a whole: 1) the role of the stabilizing elements (Nb, V) that eventually control the anchoring of the austenitic grain boundary by carbide or carbonitride precipitation. Therefore, we have tried to vary the fraction of these elements present in solid solution by annealing before austenizing. 2) the role of the speed of heating to austenite. In this case, we have considered two different values (1 and 30 o C/s), previously reported as inferior and superior, respectively, to the speed of 'critical' heat needed to produce a distribution of heterogeneous austenitic grain size when the metallurgical state before the austenizing is quenched and tempered. Preliminary results suggest that a annealing stage after tempering in the plant and prior to eventual austenizing significantly reduces the influence of the heating to austenite speed in the development of a heterogeneous structure of austenitic grains (CW)

  18. Metallurgical and mechanical behaviours of PWR fuel cladding tube oxidised at high temperature; Comportements metallurqigue et mecanique des materiaux de gainage du combustible REP oxydes a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, A

    2007-12-15

    Zirconium alloys are used as cladding materials in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). As they are submitted to very extreme conditions, it is necessary to check their behaviour and especially to make sure they meet the safety criteria. They are therefore studied under typical in service-loadings but also under accidental loadings. In one of these accidental scenarios, called Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) the cladding temperature may increase above 800 C, in a steam environment, and decrease before a final quench of the cladding. During this temperature transient, the cladding is heavily oxidised, and the metallurgical changes lead to a decrease of the post quench mechanical properties. It is then necessary to correlate this drop in residual ductility to the metallurgical evolutions. This is the problem we want to address in this study: the oxidation of PWR cladding materials at high temperature in a steam environment and its consequences on post quench mechanical properties. As oxygen goes massively into the metallic part - a zirconia layer grows at the same time - during the high temperature oxidation, the claddings tubes microstructure shows three different phases that are the outer oxide layer (zirconia) and the inner metallic phases ({alpha}(O) and 'ex {beta}') - with various mechanical properties. In order to reproduce the behaviour of this multilayered material, the first part of this study consisted in creating samples with different - but homogeneous in thickness - oxygen contents, similar to those observed in the different phases of the real cladding. The study was especially focused on the {beta}-->{alpha} phase transformation upon cooling and on the resulting microstructures. A mechanism was proposed to describe this phase transformation. For instance, we conclude that for our oxygen enriched samples, the phase transformation kinetics upon cooling are ruled by the oxygen partitioning between the two allotropic phases. Then, these materials

  19. Reduced Antivation Ferritic/Martensitic Steel Eurofer 97 as Possible Structural Material for Fusion Devices. Metallurgical Characterization on As-Received Condition and after Simulated Services Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, P.; Lancha, A. M.; Lapena, J.; Serrano, M.; Hernandez-Mayoral, M.

    2004-07-01

    Metallurgical Characterization of the reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel Eurofer'97, on as-received condition and after thermal ageing treatment in the temperature range from 400 degree centigree to 600 degree centigree for periods up to 10.000 h, was carried out. The microstructure of the steel remained stable (tempered martensite with M{sub 2}3 C{sub 6} and MX precipitates) after the thermal ageing treatments studied in this work. In general, this stability was also observed in the mechanical properties. The Eurofer'97 steel exhibited similar values of hardness, ultimate tensile stress, 0,2% proof stress, USE and T{sub 0}3 regardless of the investigated material condition. However, ageing at 600 degree centigree for 10.000 ha caused a slight increase in the DBTT, of approximately 23. In terms of creep properties, the steel shows in general adequate creep rupture strength levels for short rupture times. However, the results obtained up to now for long time creep rupture tests at 500 degree centigree suggests a change in the deformation mechanisms. (Author) 62 refs.

  20. Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic Steel Eurofer 97 as Possible Structural Material for Fusion Devices. Metallurgical Characterization on As-Received Condition and after Simulated Services Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, P.; Lancha, A. M.; Lapena, J.; Serrano, M.; Hernandez-Mayoral, M.

    2004-01-01

    Metallurgical Characterization of the reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel Eurofer'97, on as-received condition and after thermal ageing treatment in the temperature range from 400 degree centigree to 600 degree centigree for periods up to 10.000 h, was carried out. The microstructure of the steel remained stable (tempered martensite with M 2 3 C 6 and MX precipitates) after the thermal ageing treatments studied in this work. In general, this stability was also observed in the mechanical properties. The Eurofer'97 steel exhibited similar values of hardness, ultimate tensile stress, 0,2% proof stress, USE and T 0 3 regardless of the investigated material condition. However, ageing at 600 degree centigree for 10.000 ha caused a slight increase in the DBTT, of approximately 23 . In terms of creep properties, the steel shows in general adequate creep rupture strength levels for short rupture times. However, the results obtained up to now for long time creep rupture tests at 500 degree centigree suggests a change in the deformation mechanisms. (Author) 62 refs

  1. Metallurgical aspects of welding. Ferrous and nonferrous materials. 4. new rev. ed.; Die Metallurgie des Schweissens. Eisenwerkstoffe - nichteisenmetallische Werkstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, Guenter

    2010-07-01

    This is the fourth edition of the standard work on welding metallurgy. The various problems of ferrous and nonferrous materials in the welding process are presented in great detail. In order to prevent corrosion of welded constructions, metallurgical properties and problems of all important technical materials are discussed, i.e. alloyed and unalloyed steels, cast iron materials, and the most relevant nonferrous materials. At the end of each chapter, the interested reader will find exercises for self-studies. Some of these can be solved using the material presented in the book while others are intended for deepening and further training. Easy examples (with solutions) are found all over the book; they are helpful because they provide information on underlying mechanisms and interdependences that are not obvious at first glance. The information was adapted to new EURO standards and international standards (up to March 2009) as far as these are relevant to Germany. New information is provided, e.g., on new steel standards (constructional steels according to DIN EN 10025), heat-treatable steels according to DIN EN 10025-6 and DIN EN 10083, high-alloy steels according to DIN EN 10088, and filler materials for steel welding according to DIN EN ISO 2560. The systematics of the ''law of cohabitation'' was applied to welding engineering for the first time here. (orig.) [German] Das in vierter Auflage erscheinende Buch widmet sich der Schweissmetallurgie mit ihren Besonderheiten. Die vielfaeltigen Probleme der Eisenwerkstoffe und der nichteisenmetallischen Werkstoffe bei ihrer schweisstechnischen Verarbeitung werden ausfuehrlich dargestellt. Um Korrosionsschaeden an geschweissten Konstruktionen vorzubeugen, wird die Metallurgie aller technisch bedeutsamen Werkstoffe, wie unlegierte und legierte Staehle, Eisen-Gusswerkstoffe, die wichtigsten NE-Metalle, ausfuehrlich besprochen. An den Kapitelenden findet der interessierte Leser Aufgaben, von denen ein

  2. Nutrient and dissolved organic carbon removal from water using mining and metallurgical by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Laura A; Douglas, Grant B; Coleman, Shandel; Yuan, Zheng

    2012-05-15

    Excess nutrient input to water bodies frequently results in algal blooms and development of oxygen deficient conditions. Mining or metallurgical by-products can potentially be utilised as filtration media within water treatment systems such as constructed wetlands, permeable reactive barriers, or drain liners. These materials may offer a cost-effective solution for the removal of nutrients and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from natural waters. This study investigated steel-making, alumina refining (red mud and red sand) and heavy mineral processing by-products, as well as the low-cost mineral-based material calcined magnesia, in laboratory column trials. Influent water and column effluents were analysed for pH and flow rate, alkalinity, nutrient species and DOC, and a range of major cations and anions. In general, by-products with high Ca or Mg, and to a lesser extent those with high Fe content, were well-suited to nutrient and DOC removal from water. Of the individual materials examined, the heavy mineral processing residue neutralised used acid (NUA) exhibited the highest sorption capacity for P, and removed the greatest proportions of all N species and DOC from influent water. In general, NUA and mixtures containing NUA, particularly those with calcined magnesia or red mud/red sand were the most effective in removing nutrients and DOC from influent water. Post-treatment effluents from columns containing NUA and NUA/steel-making by-product, NUA/red sand and NUA/calcined magnesia mixtures exhibited large reductions in DOC, P and N concentrations and exhibited a shift in nutrient ratios away from potential N- and Si-limitation and towards potential P-limitation. If employed as part of a large-scale water treatment scheme, use of these mining and metallurgical by-products for nutrient removal could result in reduced algal biomass and improved water quality. Identification and effective implementation of mining by-products or blends thereof in constructed wetlands

  3. Thermo-mecano-metallurgical modelling of welding: application to welded joints in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosimo, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The Thermo-Mecano-Metallurgical (TMM) modelling of welding is considered in this thesis, where the high non-linearity and the multiphysics character of the problem makes necessary to study different areas of Computational Mechanics. Each of the main problems, specifically the thermal, the mechanical and the metallurgical problems, are separately investigated. In the context of Computational Welding Mechanics (CWM), their coupling is solved by means of a staggered approach making the hypothesis that they are weakly-coupled. In the case of the thermal problem, the primary complication is stated by the solid/liquid phase change. Classical formulations dealing with the solution of this problem suffer from instabilities associated to the discontinuity of the temperature gradient at the phase change boundary. This issue is studied in this work by considering an enriched finite element formulation with the ability of representing the gradient discontinuity inside finite elements. It is remarked that the proposed method avoids the use of an auxiliary equation to determine the enrichment position, which is common for level set formulations. The mechanical behaviour of bodies during solidification is revisited and implemented as part of the Finite Element (FE) framework OOFELIE. When possible, microstructure evolution must be considered in order to correctly predict Weld Residual Stresses (WRS). In this context, the implementation of a particular model for predicting microstructure evolution comes in association with the restriction that it can be applied to a reduced number of materials. In order to deal with this issue, the conception of a computational tool flexible enough to describe a wide range of materials is undertaken. Additionally, a model describing the Titanium alloy Ti6Al4V is particularly considered. The high computational cost of welding problems is addressed by means of the formulation of Hyper-Reduced Order Models (HROMs), and the parallelization of the FE

  4. USING THE OUTSOURCING MECHANISM TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE IN METALLURGICAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena I. Kozlova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives The aim of the work is to study the outsourcing mechanism from the point of view of increasing the efficiency of repair and maintenance at a metallurgical enterprise. Method Analysis of the experience of using outsourcing of repair services at domestic and foreign metallurgical enterprises was carried out. Analysis of the experience of the withdrawal from enterprise repair services into a separate outsourcing company has shown that the main advantages of this method of organising repair activities are an increase in the transparency of the costs of repairs and maintenance, and hence their reduction, as well as a reduction in the amount of equipment downtime. The main characteristics of outsourcing were revealed, substantiating its expediency. The restructuring of the repair system provides a step-by-step transition from decentralised to centralised structures of technical, mechanical, power and electrical repair services of enterprises, from the principle of "self-service" to the principle of "proprietary service" by isolating the subdivisions of the repair system from the structure of enterprises and creating competing members of the repair services market. Put another way, this is typified by moving away from the status of auxiliary production to a selfdependent activity. The stages of outsourcing the repair services of the enterprise are considered and possible problems that may arise in the course of the work of a working group are established to determine the suitability of outsourcing and to resolve the numerous issues arising from the transfer of repair functions. Results The findings of the research include approaches developed for overcoming risky situations: providing guarantees from the customer and the contractor and indicating them in the contract, increasing the motivation of the outsourcing company through a key performance indicator that should increase the interest of the performer in providing quality

  5. 3Q/4Q98 Annual M-Area and Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility Groundwater Monitoring and Correction-Action Report, Volumes I, II, and III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, J.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the groundwater monitoring and corrective-action program at the M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) and the Metallurgical Laboratory (Met Lab) HWMF at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during 1998

  6. EXPERIENCE AND PROSPECTS OF MASTER’S DEGREE TRAINING OF ENGINEERING STAFF IN THE FIELD OF METALLURGICAL SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Konstantinov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of training for MBA in engineering and technologies for specialties “Materials Science in Mechanical Engineering” at the department was analyzed. Efficiency of the practical-focused Master’s degree program for engineering staff of the machine-building and metallurgical enterprises was emphasized. Some ways to increase efficiency of master training of engineering experts in the field of metallurgical science and heat treatment are offered. Need of more active interaction with engineering services of the production enterprise during implementation of the master thesis was proved. Need of domination of requirements of the production enterprise is highlighted in master preparation program. The algorithm of interaction of department and technical service of the production enterprise during training of the factory expert in the correspondence practical-focused Master’s degree program is offered.

  7. THE PROFITABILITY AND LIQUIDITY UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF THE FINANCING POLICY IN THE METALLURGICAL INDUSTRY OF EU 28

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBROTĂ GABRIELA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the problems of the economic system, the use of the capital and his structure represent important elements in the process of the financial decisions. The aim of this paper is to identify the influence of funding policy on rentability in metallurgical industry, dimensioned with the help of a set of relevant indicators, determined on the base of some aggregated data for a significant sample of very large firms from EU 28. Also, the paper present the situation of liquidity, reflected through the cash- flow and liquidity ratio, in the metallurgical industry of EU 28, being used dates for the period 2004 – 2013, for the mentioned sample. The conclusion of the realised study is that a funding policy well-founded, correlated with the efficient management of expenses and proactive risk management can positively influence the profitability and liquidity.

  8. Feasibility studies to establish at the Kazakhstan Ulba metallurgical plant the manufacturing capability to produce low-enriched uranium certified reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzminski, Jozef [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nesuhoff, J [NBL; Cratto, P [NBL; Pfennigwerth, G [Y12 NATIONAL SEC. COMPLEX; Mikhailenko, A [ULBA METALLURGICAL PLANT; Maliutina, I [ULBA METALLURGICAL PLANT; Nations, J [GREGG PROTECTION SERVICES

    2009-01-01

    One of the salient features of the transition plan that the United States Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) is presently implementing in the Former Soviet Union countries is the availability of uranium certified reference materials for calibration of nondestructive assay (NDA) measurement equipment. To address this challenge, DOE/NNSA and U.S. national laboratories have focused their cooperative efforts on establishing a reliable source for manufacturing, certifying, and supplying of such standards. The Ulba Metallurgical Plant (UMP), Kazakhstan, which processes large quantities of low-enriched uranium to produce ceramic fuel pellets for nuclear-powered reactors, is well situated to become a key supplier of low-enriched uranium certified reference materials for the country and Central Asia region. We have recently completed Phase I of a feasibility study to establish at UMP capabilities of manufacturing these standards. In this paper we will discuss details of a proposed methodology for uranium down-blending, material selection and characterization, and a proposed methodology of measurement by destructive (DA) and non-destructive (NDA) analysis to form a database for material certification by the competent State authorities in the Republic of Kazakhstan. In addition, we will discuss the prospect for manufacturing of such standards at UMP.

  9. Economic statistics for the mining and metallurgical industries: 1990. Statistique economique des industries extractives et metallurgiques annee 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rzonzef, L.

    1991-01-01

    Provides economic statistics for the Belgian mining and metallurgical industries in 1990. The review is divided into 4 parts: the extractive industries (including an analysis of the coal market and mines, quarries and associated industries); coke and briquette making; metallurgy (i.e. blast furnaces, steel making, rolling mills and manpower and materials consumption in the steel industry); and the extraction of sand from the Belgian continental shelf. 17 tabs.

  10. A comparison of the metallurgical behaviour of dispersion fuels with uranium silicides and U6Fe as dispersants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazare, S.

    1984-01-01

    In the past few years metallurgical studies have been carried out to develop fuel dispersions with U-densities up to 7.0 Mg U m -3 . Uranium silicides have been considered to be the prime candidates as dispersants; U 6 Fe being a potential alternative on account of its higher U-density. The objective of this paper is to compare the metallurgical behaviour of these two material combinations with regard to the following aspects: (1) preparation of the compounds U 3 Si, U 3 Si 2 and U 6 Fe; (2) powder metallurgical processing to miniature fuel element plates; (3) reaction behaviour under equilibrium conditions in the relevant portions of the ternary U-Si-Al and U-Fe-Al systems; (4) dimensional stability of the fuel plates after prolonged thermal treatment; (5) thermochemical behaviour of fuel plates at temperatures near the melting point of the cladding. Based on this data, the possible advantages of each fuel combination are discussed. (author)

  11. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    During third quarter 1994, samples from AMB groundwater monitoring wells at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility (Met Lab HWMF) were analyzed for selected heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Eight parameters exceeded standards during the quarter. As in previous quarters, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS). Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate exceeded final PDWS in one well. Aluminum, iron, manganese, tin, and total organic halogens exceeded the Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the M-Area Aquifer Zone were similar to previous quarters. Conditions affecting determination of groundwater flow directions and rates in the Upper Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, Lower Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, and the Middle Sand Aquifer Zone of the Crouch Branch Confining Unit were also similar to previous quarters. During second quarter 1994, SRS received South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control approval for constructing five point-of-compliance wells and two plume definition wells near the Met Lab HWMF. This project began in July 1994 and is complete; however, analytical data from these wells is not available yet

  12. Comparative assessment of metallurgical recovery of metals from electronic waste with special emphasis on bioleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Anshu; Hait, Subrata

    2017-03-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) or electronic waste (e-waste) is one of the fastest growing waste streams in the urban environment worldwide. The core component of printed circuit board (PCB) in e-waste contains a complex array of metals in rich quantity, some of which are toxic to the environment and all of which are valuable resources. Therefore, the recycling of e-waste is an important aspect not only from the point of waste treatment but also from the recovery of metals for economic growth. Conventional approaches for recovery of metals from e-waste, viz. pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical techniques, are rapid and efficient, but cause secondary pollution and economically unviable. Limitations of the conventional techniques have led to a shift towards biometallurgical technique involving microbiological leaching of metals from e-waste in eco-friendly manner. However, optimization of certain biotic and abiotic factors such as microbial species, pH, temperature, nutrients, and aeration rate affect the bioleaching process and can lead to profitable recovery of metals from e-waste. The present review provides a comprehensive assessment on the metallurgical techniques for recovery of metals from e-waste with special emphasis on bioleaching process and the associated factors.

  13. Sulfur dioxide concentration measurements in the vicinity of the Albert Funk mining and metallurgical plant complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M

    1976-01-01

    This article discusses the ambient air concentration of sulfur dioxide in the area of Freiberg, GDR. The emission of sulfur dioxide results for the most part from brown coal combustion in heat and power plants and in metallurgical plants. Sulfur dioxide emission from neighboring industrial centers such as Dresden and North Bohemian towns affects the Freiburg area to some extent. The use of brown coal in household heating contributes an average of 50 kg of sulfur dioxide emission per coal burning household annually. A total of 1260 measurements at 28 points in the vicinity of Freiberg were made in the year 1972 in evaluating the concentration of sulfur dioxide present in the air. In 75% of the measurements the concentrations were below 0.15 mg/mat3, in 12% between 0.15 and 0.2 mg/mat3, in 7% between 0.2 and 0.3 mg/mat3 and in 6% between 0.3 and 0.5 mg/mat3. The results are described as average industrial pollution. The influence of air temperature, wind velocity, fog, season and time of day are also discussed. (4 refs.) (In German)

  14. Production of highly porous glass-ceramics from metallurgical slag, fly ash and waste glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangutova Bianka V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass-ceramics composites were produced based on fly-ash obtained from coal power stations, metallurgical slag from ferronickel industry and waste glass from TV monitors, windows and flasks. Using 50% waste flask glass in combination with fly ash and 20% waste glass from TV screens in combination with slag, E-modulus and bending strength values of the designed systems are increased (system based on fly ash: E-modulus from 6 to 29 GPa, and bending strength from 9 to 75 MPa. The polyurethane foam was used as a pore creator which gave the material porosity of 70(5% (fly ash-glass composite and a porosity of 65( 5% (slag-glass composite. E-modulus values of the designed porous systems were 3.5(1.2 GPa and 8.1(3 GPa, while the bending strength values were 6.0(2 MPa and 13.2(3.5 MPa, respectively. These materials could be used for the production of tiles, wall bricks, as well as for the construction of air diffusers for waste water aeration.

  15. Asymptomatic strut fracture in DeBakey-Surgitool aortic valves: incidence, management, and metallurgic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Der Emde J, J; Eberlein, U; Breme J, J

    1990-01-01

    From August 1971 through November 1972, we implanted 62 Model 2 DeBakey-Surgitool aortic valve prostheses in 62 patients, 4 of whom later had clinically asymptomatic strut fractures. In 1 case, the patient died suddenly, and autopsy revealed detachment of the ball-cage; in each of the other 3 cases, fractures of 2 struts close to the base of the prosthesis were diagnosed fluoroscopically, and the patients underwent successful reoperation. The interval between implantation and reoperation ranged from 11 months to 16 years, 9 months. In 1 patient, retrospective study of chest radiographs revealed that the fracture had been present for 2(1/2) years. Larger valves (>/= A6) were affected significantly more often than smaller ones. We performed metallurgic analysis of 1 prosthesis: results revealed strut wear from fatigue cracking and secondary abrasion. Strut fracture was also promoted by suspension of the cage at right angles to the prosthetic ring and by use of a pyrolytic carbon ball in a titanium cage (i.e., an occluder harder than its holder). Patients with DeBakey-Surgitool aortic valve prostheses should undergo annual radiologic examinations to enable early detection of strut fractures. Prophylactic valve replacement is not indicated.

  16. Metallurgical examination of, and resin transfer from, Three Mile Island prefilter liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, Jr, J W; Spaletta, H W

    1984-08-01

    Metallurgical examinations were performed on two EPICOR-II prefilter liners at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to determine conditions of the liners and identify the minimum expected lifetime of those and other liners stored at INEL. The research work was accomplished by EG and G Idaho, Inc. for the EPICOR-II Research and Disposition Program, which is funded by the US Department of Energy. The EPICOR-II prefilter liners were used to filter radionuclides from contaminated water during cleanup of Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The liners were constructed of carbon steel with a phenolic protective coating and contained organic and inorganic ion-exchange filtration media. Program plans call for interim storage of EPICOR-II prefilters at INEL for up to ten years, before final disposal in high integrity containers at the Hanford, Washington commercial disposal site. This report describes the (a) resin transfer process used to empty liners for examination, (b) removal of metallographic sections from those liners, (c) specimen preparation, and (d) findings from metallographic examination of those specimens. A minimum lifetime for the liners is determined and recommendations are given for storage of wastes from future TMI-2 activities.

  17. Evaluation of Metallurgical Quality of Master Heat IN-713C Nickel Alloy Ingots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Binczyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of evaluation of the metallurgical quality of master heat ingots and of the identification of non-metallic inclusions (oxides of Al., Zr, Hf, Cr, etc., which have been found in the shrinkage cavities formed in these ingots. The inclusions penetrate into the liquid alloy, and on pouring of mould are transferred to the casting, especially when the filtering system is not sufficiently effective. The specific nature of the melting process of nickel and cobalt alloys, carried out in vacuum induction furnaces,excludes the possibility of alloy refining and slag removal from the melt surface. Therefore, to improve the quality of castings (parts of aircraft engines, it is so important to evaluate the quality of ingots before charging them into the crucible of an induction furnace. It has been proved that one of the methods for rapid quality evaluation is an ATD analysis of the sample solidification process, where samples are taken from different areas of the master heat ingot. The evaluation is based on a set of parameters plotted on the graph of the dT/dt derivative curve during the last stage of the solidification process in a range from TEut to Tsol.

  18. A CFD study on the dust behaviour in a metallurgical waste-heat boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongxiang, Yang; Jokilaakso, A [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Materials Processing and Powder Metallurgy

    1998-12-31

    A waste-heat boiler forms an essential part for the treatment of high temperature flue-gases in most metallurgical processes. Flue-dust carried by the furnace off-gas has to be captured efficiently in the waste-heat boilers before entering the downstream gas purification equipment. Flue dust may accumulate and foul on the heat transfer surfaces such as tube-walls, narrow conjunctions between the boiler and the furnace uptake, and thus may cause smelter shutdown, and interrupt the production. A commercial CFD package is used as the major tool on modelling the dust flow and settling in the waste-heat boiler of an industrial copper flash smelter. In the presentation, dust settling behaviour is illustrated for a wide range of particle sizes, and dust capture efficiency in the radiation section of the boiler for different particle sizes has been shown with the transient simulation. The simulation aims at providing detailed information of dust behaviour in the waste-heat boiler in sulphide smelting. (author) 11 refs.

  19. Evaluation of Metallurgical Quality of Master Heat IN-713C Nickel Alloy Ingots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binczyk F.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of evaluation of the metallurgical quality of master heat ingots and of the identification of non-metallic inclusions (oxides of Al., Zr, Hf, Cr, etc., which have been found in the shrinkage cavities formed in these ingots. The inclusions penetrate into the liquid alloy, and on pouring of mould are transferred to the casting, especially when the filtering system is not sufficiently effective. The specific nature of the melting process of nickel and cobalt alloys, carried out in vacuum induction furnaces, excludes the possibility of alloy refining and slag removal from the melt surface. Therefore, to improve the quality of castings (parts of aircraft engines, it is so important to evaluate the quality of ingots before charging them into the crucible of an induction furnace. It has been proved that one of the methods for rapid quality evaluation is an ATD analysis of the sample solidification process, where samples are taken from different areas of the master heat ingot. The evaluation is based on a set of parameters plotted on the graph of the dT/dt derivative curve during the last stage of the solidification process in a range from TEut to Tsol.

  20. Determination of nanoscale particles in the air of working zone at the metallurgical production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т.S. Ulanova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies of the air of working zone at the metallurgical production on the example of Avisma OJSC (Berezniki, the Perm Territory for the content of nanoscale particles are specified. The maximum nanoparticles concentration in the range of 13523–28609 mln./m3 is determined at the working place of the titanium production smelter with the maximum size of particles of 10–15 nm. At the working place in the administrative building (reference working place the maximum concentration is determined within the range of 524–1000 mln./m3; the maximum size of nanoparticles is 20 nm. It was established that the number concentration of nanoparticles at the reference working places (administration of Avisma OJSC is significantly lower than at the working places of main production processes. The presented studies can be used as the additional factors in the assessment of labor conditions and occupational risk during the manufacture and use of materials containing nanoparticles as well as the production processes with the nanoparticles formation.

  1. Pyrolysis of chromium rich tanning industrial wastes and utilization of carbonized wastes in metallurgical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tôrres Filho, Artur; Lange, Liséte Celina; de Melo, Gilberto Caldeira Bandeira; Praes, Gustavo Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    Pyrolysis is the thermal degradation of organic material in oxygen-free or very lean oxygen atmosphere. This study evaluates the use of pyrolysis for conversion of leather wastes from chromium tanning processes into Carbonized Leather Residues (CLR), and the utilization of CLR in metallurgical processes through the production of iron ore pellets. CLR was used to replace mineral coal in proportions of 10% and 25% on fixed carbon basis content in the mixtures for pellets preparation. Experimental conversions were performed on a pilot scale pyrolysis plant and a pelletizing reactor of the "pot grate" type. The results demonstrated the technical feasibility of using the charcoal product from animal origin as an energy source, with recovery of up to 76.47% of chromium contained in CLR in the final produced of iron ore pellets. Pellets with 25% replacement of fixed carbon in the coal showed an enhanced compressive strength, with an average value of 344kgfpellet(-1), compared to 300kgfpellet(-1) for standard produced pellets. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Metallurgical examination of, and resin transfer from, Three Mile Island prefilter liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Spaletta, H.W.

    1984-08-01

    Metallurgical examinations were performed on two EPICOR-II prefilter liners at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to determine conditions of the liners and identify the minimum expected lifetime of those and other liners stored at INEL. The research work was accomplished by EG and G Idaho, Inc. for the EPICOR-II Research and Disposition Program, which is funded by the US Department of Energy. The EPICOR-II prefilter liners were used to filter radionuclides from contaminated water during cleanup of Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The liners were constructed of carbon steel with a phenolic protective coating and contained organic and inorganic ion-exchange filtration media. Program plans call for interim storage of EPICOR-II prefilters at INEL for up to ten years, before final disposal in high integrity containers at the Hanford, Washington commercial disposal site. This report describes the (a) resin transfer process used to empty liners for examination, (b) removal of metallographic sections from those liners, (c) specimen preparation, and (d) findings from metallographic examination of those specimens. A minimum lifetime for the liners is determined and recommendations are given for storage of wastes from future TMI-2 activities

  3. Measures to detect and control radioactive contaminated metallurgical scrap at border checkpoints in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smagala, G.

    1999-01-01

    The issue of radioactive contaminated metallurgical scrap has never received a high priority in Poland and in the international community. Since the dissolution of the former Soviet Union a higher attention has been given to the problem. Poland which is located between the West and East Europe has the obligation to develop and implement an effective prevention and detection system. The reasons to increase national control and detection system at the border checkpoints in Poland are to avoid the following risks: post Chernobyl contamination transports of commodities; transport of contaminated metal scrap; transfer of radioactive waste for their disposal or utilization; high risk of becoming a transit country of illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive sources. In order to avoid the above-mentioned risks, Poland initiated in 1990, a deployment of the portable radiation devices at the border checkpoints and, as of 1998, the number of installed instruments exceeded a hundred. This paper presents Poland's activities to detect contaminated scrap at its border checkpoints. (author)

  4. Metallurgical and reactor physics aspects of using low enrichment fuel in Safari-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The feasibility of using lower than 93% enriched fuel in the SAFARI-I research and materials testing reactor is reviewed. Metallurgical experiments show that, using standard U-Al alloy technology and keeping the 235 U loading per element constant without altering the fuel plate thickness, a maximum of 35 weight percent of uranium in the meat can be achieved. This corresponds to using a minimum enrichment of 40% 235 U in order to retain the same mass of 235 U in the core. Even then a loss of approximately 3,3% in reactivity is calculated, which is more than the 2,8% sup(deltak)/k which is normally allowed for burnup. Using current U-Al alloy fuel technology, and an enrichment of approximately 45% 235 U, no changes in core configuration or coolant requirements will be necessary. The use of 20% enriched uranium will require the development of a new fuel design and technology if drastic redesign and modification of the reactor and coolant circuits is to be avoided. Without such new technology, the redesign and modification of the reactor will cost upwards of 3 million dollars and take up to 5 years to complete, requiring a complete shutdown of the reactor for approximately 2 years

  5. Performance Analysis of a Grid-Connected Upgraded Metallurgical Grade Silicon Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of their low cost, photovoltaic (PV cells made from upgraded metallurgical grade silicon (UMG-Si are a promising alternative to conventional solar grade silicon-based PV cells. This study investigates the outdoor performance of a 1.26 kW grid-connected UMG-Si PV system over five years, reporting the energy yields and performance ratio and estimating the long-term performance degradation rate. To make this investigation more meaningful, the performance of a mono-Si PV system installed at the same place and studied during the same period of time is presented for reference. Furthermore, this study systematizes and rationalizes the necessity of a data selection and filtering process to improve the accuracy of degradation rate estimation. The impact of plane-of-array irradiation threshold for data filtering on performance ratio and degradation rate is also studied. The UMG-Si PV system’s monthly performance ratio after data filtering ranged from 84% to 93% over the observation period. The annual degradation rate was 0.44% derived from time series of monthly performance ratio using the classical decomposition method. A comparison of performance ratio and degradation rate to conventional crystalline silicon-based PV systems suggests that performance of the UMG-Si PV system is comparable to that of conventional systems.

  6. Influence of metallurgical heterogeneities on the mechanisms of hydrogen diffusion and trapping of in nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudriss, Abdelali

    2012-01-01

    A thorough investigation on the influence of several metallurgical defects on the hydrogen diffusion and trapping was conducted on nickel. This work was conducted towards two scientific orientations. A first approach was to assess the impact of intrinsic defects, especially grain boundaries and geometrically necessary dislocations on the hydrogen transport and segregation mechanisms. Combining microstructural characterizations with electrochemical permeation tests and thermal desorption spectroscopy, it has established that the grain boundaries with ordered structure called 'special grain boundaries' are preferential areas for hydrogen segregation. On the other hand, a second category of grain boundaries called 'general' or 'random' with high free volume and disordered structure are promoters for hydrogen diffusion, and they represent the main sources of the phenomena short circuit diffusion reported in the face-centered cubic materials. The second approach of this work consisted in the study of the interaction of hydrogen with the plastic deformation heterogeneities. The electrochemical permeation tests performed on microstructures obtained by deformation showed that for the traction monotonous, the equiaxed cells and walls of dislocations are the potential traps for hydrogen and they slow its transport, this latter is mainly provided by the interstitial diffusion mechanism. In addition, for fatigue microstructure, rapid diffusivity of hydrogen was recorded, and suggesting that a phenomenon similar to short-circuit diffusion is involved in the transport of hydrogen. On two approaches, the results suggest a contribution of hydrogen in the formation of vacancies. (author) [fr

  7. Nuclear methods on service of mountain manufacture Navoi Mining-Metallurgical complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucherskiy, N.I.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: On a number of the major minerals, such as gold, uranium, copper, tungsten, potash salts, phosphorites, caolines, etc. Uzbekistan on the confirmed stocks and predicted resources occupies leading places among the states of the world. The basic deposits of gold and uranium are concentrated in Central-Kysylkum region, which is field of activity of Navoi mining-metallurgical combine. In industrial divisions of the combine, located in five areas of republic about 60000 persons are engaged. At all stages of manufacture of gold (since investigation) analytical maintenance has extremely important role. In NMMC radioanalytical methods are widely used, in particular, on mine 'Muruntau' the unique gamma-activation analysis laboratory has been constructed and entered into operation. For the period of operation of laboratory, i.e. since 1977, it is executed more than nine millions analyses of geological tests with extremely high expressness (about tens seconds). It is used x-ray-radiometric method for large-portion (by dumper) sortings and on lumpy separation of ores. With the help of high-sensitivity radiometric means of measurements it is possible to develop phosphorites for reception of phosphoric fertilizers. Nuclear-physical methods are applied to the decision of other problems. Thus, due to application of nuclear-physical methods of the operative control of technological processes of mining manufacture, quality management of ores, the account of quantity of products of extraction and their preliminary enrichment, the actual problem - increase in profitability of all mining manufacture NMMC is solved

  8. A CFD study on the dust behaviour in a metallurgical waste-heat boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yongxiang; Jokilaakso, A. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Materials Processing and Powder Metallurgy

    1997-12-31

    A waste-heat boiler forms an essential part for the treatment of high temperature flue-gases in most metallurgical processes. Flue-dust carried by the furnace off-gas has to be captured efficiently in the waste-heat boilers before entering the downstream gas purification equipment. Flue dust may accumulate and foul on the heat transfer surfaces such as tube-walls, narrow conjunctions between the boiler and the furnace uptake, and thus may cause smelter shutdown, and interrupt the production. A commercial CFD package is used as the major tool on modelling the dust flow and settling in the waste-heat boiler of an industrial copper flash smelter. In the presentation, dust settling behaviour is illustrated for a wide range of particle sizes, and dust capture efficiency in the radiation section of the boiler for different particle sizes has been shown with the transient simulation. The simulation aims at providing detailed information of dust behaviour in the waste-heat boiler in sulphide smelting. (author) 11 refs.

  9. Process of optimization of district heat production by utilizing waste energy from metallurgical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovšek, Damjan; Fužir, Miran; Slatinek, Matic; Šepul, Tanja; Plesnik, Kristijan; Lečnik, Samo

    2017-07-01

    In a consortium with SIJ (Slovenian Steel Group), Metal Ravne, the local community of Ravne na Koro\\vskem and the public research Institut Jožef Stefan, with its registered office in Slovenia, Petrol Energetika, d.o.o. set up a technical and technological platform of an innovative energy case for a transition of steel industry into circular economy with a complete energy solution called »Utilization of Waste Heat from Metallurgical Processes for District Heating of Ravne na Koro\\vskem. This is the first such project designed for a useful utilization of waste heat in steel industry which uses modern technology and innovative system solutions for an integration of a smart, efficient and sustainable heating and cooling system and which shows a growth potential. This will allow the industry and cities to make energy savings, to improve the quality of air and to increase the benefits for the society we live in. On the basis of circular economy, we designed a target-oriented co-operation of economy, local community and public research institute to produce new business models where end consumers are put into the centre. This innovation opens the door for steel industry and local community to a joint aim that is a transition into efficient low-carbon energy systems which are based on involvement of natural local conditions, renewable energy sources, the use of waste heat and with respect for the principles of sustainable development.

  10. Relationship between turbine rotor and disk metallurgical characteristics and stress corrosion cracking behavior. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayley, H.B.

    1986-09-01

    This report describes stress corrosion test results in which several heats of turbine rotor steels specially prepared to achieve different degrees of segregation to the grain boundaries were tested in concentrated laboratory and actual steam turbine environments. Grain boundary characteristics are considered important because turbine rotor failures in field service have been of an intergranular nature and because grain boundary segregation is known to affect the impact toughness of rotor steels (''temper embrittlement''). The laboratory stress corrosion testing results showed no differences between heavily and lightly segregated test pieces which differed greatly in impact toughness. All test specimens cracked, indicating the laboratory environments may have been too severe to allow differentiation between the various metallurgical conditions, if any differences exist. Test loops and autoclaves for chemical analysis and mechanical testing were designed, installed and are operating in the field testing portion of this program. No intergranular cracking has occurred to date; hence, no differentiation between heavily and lightly segregated test pieces has been possible in field testing. Instrumented crack propagation specimens, which permit measurement of cracking as it occurs, have been installed for the continuing field testing program. Correlation of such cracking with the continuously monitored chemical composition of the environment will increase understanding of the cracking process and may give the possibility of providing an early warning of the existence of conditions which might cause turbine rotor cracking

  11. Prediction of the ledge thickness inside a high-temperature metallurgical reactor using a virtual sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBreux, Marc; Désilets, Martin; Lacroix, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    A non-intrusive inverse heat transfer procedure for predicting the time-varying thickness of the phase-change ledge on the inner surface of the walls of a high-temperature metallurgical reactor is presented. An extended Kalman filter with augmented state is coupled with a nonlinear state-space model of the reactor in order to estimate on-line the position of the phase front. The data are collected by a heat flux sensor located inside or outside of the reactor wall. This non-intrusive method can be seen as a virtual sensor which is defined as the combination of an estimation algorithm with measurements for the estimation of 'hard to measure' on-line process variables. The inverse prediction of the ledge thickness with the virtual sensor is thoroughly tested for typical operating conditions that prevail inside an industrial facility. Due to the fact that the melting/solidification process inside the reactor is highly nonlinear, results show that the accuracy of the state-space identification and the virtual sensor estimation is far superior when a nonlinear state-space model and the extended Kalman filter are employed, as opposed to a linear state-space model and the classic Kalman filter. In the former, it is shown that the discrepancy between the exact and the estimated ledge thickness remains smaller than 10% at all times.

  12. Combined geophysical investigation for the detection of ancient metallurgical installations near Keratea City, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulos, George V.

    2014-05-01

    Archaeological excavation in an area of Lavrio (mining area from ancient times) has revealed ancient metallurgical installations which offer valuable information on this activity at those times. Within this context, a combined geophysical investigation was carried out in a place near Keratea City to find out whether there are additional installations apart from those that have already been revealed in the immediate area. More importantly, the objective was to locate the ancient tanks which provided water to the installations. Archaeological and geological information have helped in the design of the survey. EMI method measuring apparent conductivity was used to cover the whole area of investigation. Conductivity maps in various investigation depths have positioned the tanks and stacked first derivative maps in two directions (the two directions of the revealed walls) show covered walls. The EMI survey has indicated the position of three (3) ERT profiles made with the dipole-dipole array, which presented the ancient tanks with great detail in depth. GPR profiles for the detection of walls were noisy with the coarse material surface layer but the interrelation with ERT and EMI results confirmed the detected features.

  13. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg–HAP composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    tion of load bearing capacity and suitable mechanical and metallurgical properties. ... lity as compared to β-TCP in our body fluid (Kwon et al. 2003). The HAP ... steel crucible under the protection of gas mixture contain- ing SF6 and CO2.

  14. New class of materials - amorphous metals. Properties and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuchkov, L. [Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems, Bulgarian Academy of Scinces, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents the result of a cycle of scientific investigations and testing of physicomechanical, physicochemical and electromagnetic shielding properties of both electrochemically and metallurgically produced thin amorphous and crystalline films of Fe, Co, Ni and their alloys and Cr. Key words: microhardness, tensile strength, corrosion resistance, shielding.

  15. Metallurgical examinations update of baffle bolts removed from operating French PWR. Microstructural investigations of a baffle to former bolt located on a high level of the internal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panait, C.; Fargeas, E.; Miloudi, S.; Moulart, P.; Tommy-Martin, M.; Monteil, N.; Pokor, C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the microstructural investigations conducted on a cracked baffle to former bolt extracted from an upper former level of the internal structures of a French Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). Extensive microstructural investigations using Light Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) have been conducted to understand the degradation mechanisms of this bolt. TEM investigations have revealed neutron irradiation damage in the microstructure of the bolt such as Frank loops and cavities and/or bubbles. The number of features per unit volume as a function of diameter was determined in the head and in the shank of the bolt. The obtained results are relatively similar to those obtained for other damaged bolts extracted from PWR-type reactors and irradiated in similar conditions (dose and temperature). The irradiation damage has induced an evolution of the mechanical properties (hardening of the material), as revealed by the hardness measurements along the bolt, with a higher average value in the head (400 HV), compared to the shank (15 mm under the head), about 340 HV. The metallurgical investigations have confirmed that this bolt was damaged by Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC)

  16. Metallurgical characterization of M-Wire nickel-titanium shape memory alloy used for endodontic rotary instruments during low-cycle fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jia; Gao, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Rotary instruments made of a new nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy (M-Wire) have shown improved cyclic fatigue resistance and mechanical properties compared with those made of conventional superelastic NiTi wires. The objective of this study was to characterize microstructural changes of M-Wire throughout the cyclic fatigue process under controlled strain amplitude. The average fatigue life was calculated from 30 M-Wire samples that were subjected to a strain-controlled (≈ 4%) rotating bend fatigue test at room temperature and rotational speed of 300 rpm. Microstructural evolution of M-Wire has been investigated by different metallurgical characterization techniques, including differential scanning calorimetry, Vickers microhardness, and transmission electron microscopy at 4 different stages (as-received state, 30%, 60%, and 90% of average fatigue life). During rotating bend fatigue test, no statistically significant difference (P > .05) was found on austenite finish temperatures between as-received M-Wire and fatigued samples. However, significant differences (P Wire are expected to have higher strength and wear resistance than similar instruments made of conventional superelastic NiTi wires because of its unique nano-crystalline martensitic microstructure. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Flow behavior and microstructures of powder metallurgical CrFeCoNiMo0.2 high entropy alloy during high temperature deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiawen [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu, Yong, E-mail: yonliu@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu, Bin, E-mail: binliu@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Wang, Yan [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Cao, Yuankui; Li, Tianchen; Zhou, Rui [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2017-03-24

    Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) refine grains of high entropy alloys (HEAs) and significant improve the mechanical property of HEAs, but the effect of high melting point element molybdenum (Mo) on high temperature deformation behavior has not been fully understood. In the present study, flow behavior and microstructures of powder metallurgical CrFeCoNiMo{sub 0.2} HEA were investigated by hot compression tests performed at temperatures ranging from 700 to 1100 °C with strain rates from 10{sup −3} to 1 s{sup −1}. The Arrhenius constitutive equation with strain-dependent material constants was used for modeling and prediction of flow stress. It was found that at 700 °C, the dynamic recovery is the dominant softening mechanism, whilst with the increase in compression testing temperature, the DRX becomes the dominant mechanism of softening. In the present HEA, the addition of Mo results in the high activation energy (463 kJ mol{sup −1}) and the phase separation during hot deformation. The formation of Mo-rich σ phase particles pins grain boundary migration during DRX, and therefore refines the size of recrystallized grains.

  18. Challenging the standard model by high-precision comparisons of the fundamental properties of protons and antiprotons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, S.; Mooser, A.; Nagahama, H.; Sellner, S.; Smorra, C.

    2018-03-01

    The BASE collaboration investigates the fundamental properties of protons and antiprotons, such as charge-to-mass ratios and magnetic moments, using advanced cryogenic Penning trap systems. In recent years, we performed the most precise measurement of the magnetic moments of both the proton and the antiproton, and conducted the most precise comparison of the proton-to-antiproton charge-to-mass ratio. In addition, we have set the most stringent constraint on directly measured antiproton lifetime, based on a unique reservoir trap technique. Our matter/antimatter comparison experiments provide stringent tests of the fundamental charge-parity-time invariance, which is one of the fundamental symmetries of the standard model of particle physics. This article reviews the recent achievements of BASE and gives an outlook to our physics programme in the ELENA era. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue `Antiproton physics in the ELENA era'.

  19. Challenging the standard model by high-precision comparisons of the fundamental properties of protons and antiprotons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, S; Mooser, A; Nagahama, H; Sellner, S; Smorra, C

    2018-03-28

    The BASE collaboration investigates the fundamental properties of protons and antiprotons, such as charge-to-mass ratios and magnetic moments, using advanced cryogenic Penning trap systems. In recent years, we performed the most precise measurement of the magnetic moments of both the proton and the antiproton, and conducted the most precise comparison of the proton-to-antiproton charge-to-mass ratio. In addition, we have set the most stringent constraint on directly measured antiproton lifetime, based on a unique reservoir trap technique. Our matter/antimatter comparison experiments provide stringent tests of the fundamental charge-parity-time invariance, which is one of the fundamental symmetries of the standard model of particle physics. This article reviews the recent achievements of BASE and gives an outlook to our physics programme in the ELENA era.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Antiproton physics in the ELENA era'. © 2018 The Authors.

  20. An overview of approaches and challenges for retrieving marine inherent optical properties from ocean color remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdell, P. Jeremy; McKinna, Lachlan I. W.; Boss, Emmanuel; Ackleson, Steven G.; Craig, Susanne E.; Gregg, Watson W.; Lee, Zhongping; Maritorena, Stéphane; Roesler, Collin S.; Rousseaux, Cécile S.; Stramski, Dariusz; Sullivan, James M.; Twardowski, Michael S.; Tzortziou, Maria; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2018-01-01

    Ocean color measured from satellites provides daily global, synoptic views of spectral water-leaving reflectances that can be used to generate estimates of marine inherent optical properties (IOPs). These reflectances, namely the ratio of spectral upwelled radiances to spectral downwelled irradiances, describe the light exiting a water mass that defines its color. IOPs are the spectral absorption and scattering characteristics of ocean water and its dissolved and particulate constituents. Because of their dependence on the concentration and composition of marine constituents, IOPs can be used to describe the contents of the upper ocean mixed layer. This information is critical to further our scientific understanding of biogeochemical oceanic processes, such as organic carbon production and export, phytoplankton dynamics, and responses to climatic disturbances. Given their importance, the international ocean color community has invested significant effort in improving the quality of satellite-derived IOP products, both regionally and globally. Recognizing the current influx of data products into the community and the need to improve current algorithms in anticipation of new satellite instruments (e.g., the global, hyperspectral spectroradiometer of the NASA Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud, ocean Ecosystem (PACE) mission), we present a synopsis of the current state of the art in the retrieval of these core optical properties. Contemporary approaches for obtaining IOPs from satellite ocean color are reviewed and, for clarity, separated based their inversion methodology or the type of IOPs sought. Summaries of known uncertainties associated with each approach are provided, as well as common performance metrics used to evaluate them. We discuss current knowledge gaps and make recommendations for future investment for upcoming missions whose instrument characteristics diverge sufficiently from heritage and existing sensors to warrant reassessing current approaches.

  1. Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piele, Philip K.

    Numerous cases in this year's chapter dealt with the same topics of previous years--contracts and bids for building construction, and detachment and annexation of a portion of a school district. The courts continued to attribute board discretionary authority to school boards in school property matters. Intergovernmental disputes over ownership or…

  2. Soil pollution indices conditioned by medieval metallurgical activity - A case study from Krakow (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Joanna; Mazurek, Ryszard; Gąsiorek, Michał; Setlak, Marcin; Zaleski, Tomasz; Waroszewski, Jaroslaw

    2016-11-01

    The studied soil profile under the Main Market Square (MMS) in Krakow was characterised by the influence of medieval metallurgical activity. In the presented soil section lithological discontinuity (LD) was found, which manifests itself in the form of cultural layers (CLs). Moreover, in this paper LD detection methods based on soil texture are presented. For the first time, three different ways to identify the presence of LD in the urban soils are suggested. The presence of LD had an influence on the content and distribution of heavy metals within the soil profile. The content of heavy metals in the CLs under the MMS in Krakow was significantly higher than the content in natural horizons. In addition, there were distinct differences in the content of heavy metals within CLs. Profile variability and differences in the content of heavy metals and phosphorus within the CLs under the MMS were activity indicators of Krakow inhabitants in the past. This paper presents alternative methods for the assessment of the degree of heavy metal contamination in urban soils using selected pollution indices. On the basis of the studied total concentration of heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Mn, Cr, Cd, Ni, Sn, Ag) and total phosphorus content, the Geoaccumulation Index (I geo ), Enrichment Factor (EF), Sum of Pollution Index (PI sum ), Single Pollution Index (PI), Nemerow Pollution Index (PI Nemerow ) and Potential Ecological Risk (RI) were calculated using different local and reference geochemical backgrounds. The use of various geochemical backgrounds is helpful to evaluate the assessment of soil pollution. The individual CLs differed from each other according to the degree of pollution. The different values of pollution indices within the studied soil profile showed that LDS should not be evaluated in terms of contamination as one, homogeneous soil profile but each separate CL should be treated individually. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Modeling of Thermochemical Behavior in an Industrial-Scale Rotary Hearth Furnace for Metallurgical Dust Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Liang; Jiang, Ze-Yi; Zhang, Xin-Xin; Xue, Qing-Guo; Yu, Ai-Bing; Shen, Yan-Song

    2017-10-01

    Metallurgical dusts can be recycled through direct reduction in rotary hearth furnaces (RHFs) via addition into carbon-based composite pellets. While iron in the dust is recycled, several heavy and alkali metal elements harmful for blast furnace operation, including Zn, Pb, K, and Na, can also be separated and then recycled. However, there is a lack of understanding on thermochemical behavior related to direct reduction in an industrial-scale RHF, especially removal behavior of Zn, Pb, K, and Na, leading to technical issues in industrial practice. In this work, an integrated model of the direct reduction process in an industrial-scale RHF is described. The integrated model includes three mathematical submodels and one physical model, specifically, a three-dimensional (3-D) CFD model of gas flow and heat transfer in an RHF chamber, a one-dimensional (1-D) CFD model of direct reduction inside a pellet, an energy/mass equilibrium model, and a reduction physical experiment using a Si-Mo furnace. The model is validated by comparing the simulation results with measurements in terms of furnace temperature, furnace pressure, and pellet indexes. The model is then used for describing in-furnace phenomena and pellet behavior in terms of heat transfer, direct reduction, and removal of a range of heavy and alkali metal elements under industrial-scale RHF conditions. The results show that the furnace temperature in the preheating section should be kept at a higher level in an industrial-scale RHF compared with that in a pilot-scale RHF. The removal rates of heavy and alkali metal elements inside the composite pellet are all faster than iron metallization, specifically in the order of Pb, Zn, K, and Na.

  4. Conversion of metallurgical coke and coal using a Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) moving bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Siwei; Bayham, Samuel; Zeng, Liang; McGiveron, Omar; Chung, Elena; Majumder, Ankita; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Accumulated more than 300 operation hours were accomplished for the moving bed reducer reactor. • Different reactor operation variables were investigated with optimal conditions identified. • High conversions of sub-bituminous coal and bituminous coal were achieved without flow problems. • Co-current and counter-current contact modes were tested and their applicability was discussed. - Abstract: The CLC process has the potential to be a transformative commercial technology for a carbon-constrained economy. The Ohio State University Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) process directly converts coal, eliminating the need for a coal gasifier oran air separation unit (ASU). Compared to other solid-fuel CLC processes, the CDCL process is unique in that it consists of a countercurrent moving bed reducer reactor. In the proposed process, coal is injected into the middle of the moving bed, whereby the coal quickly heats up and devolatilizes, splitting the reactor roughly into two sections with no axial mixing. The top section consists of gaseous fuel produced from the coal volatiles, and the bottom section consists of the coal char mixed with the oxygen carrier. A bench-scale moving bed reactor was used to study the coal conversion with CO 2 as the enhancing gas. Initial tests using metallurgical cokefines as feedstock were conducted to test the effects of operational variables in the bottom section of the moving bed reducer, e.g., reactor temperature, oxygen carrier to char ratio, enhancer gas CO 2 flow rate, and oxygen carrier flow rates. Experiments directly using coal as the feedstock were subsequently carried out based on these test results. Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and Illinois #6 coal were tested as representative sub-bituminous and bituminous coals, respectively. Nearly complete coal conversion was achieved using composite iron oxide particles as the oxygen carriers without any flow problems. The operational results demonstrated that a

  5. Factors Affecting Ballability of Mixture Iron Ore Concentrates and Iron Oxide Bearing Wastes in Metallurgical Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mfon Udo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxide bearing wastes (IROBEWAS are produced at every segment of processing stage of sinter, molten iron and steel production. They are hard to handle and in many cases are stockpiled only to be a source of environmental pollution but can be balled into pellets. Pellet of good ballability values are transportable and recyclable as they can withstand stress they will encounter without disintegrating back to dust. But ballability is affected by some factors like the grain sizes of the materials, the moisture and binder contents of the ball mix, wettability of the balled materials and the processing perimeters of the granulator. The objective of this research work is to investigate the factors affecting ballability of mixture of iron ore concentrates and iron oxide bearing wastes (IROBEWAS in metallurgical processing. The parameters under consideration were grain size of materials, the moisture contents, the speed of balling disc, IROBEWAS and Bentonite (Binder contents of the balled mix. This was carried out by balling different volume fractions of mix containing iron oxide concentrate and IROBEWAS using a balling disc and testing the resulting balls for green compressive strength using universal testing machine. It was found that the ballability of the mixture of iron ore concentrate and IROBEWAS increases as grain sizes of the materials reduce but increases as the moisture contents and IROBEWAS content increase up to an optimum value of moisture content in the mix before it starts to reduce. The ballability also increases as the speed of the granulator (Balling disc increases within the limit of this work. It was also observed that there was an increase in ballability with slight increase in bentonite content in the mix.

  6. Metallurgical structure modification of UO{sub 2} pellet during sintering - experience at NFC, Hyderabad, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santra, N.; Sinha, T.K.; Singh, A.K.; Sairam, S.; Sheela, S.; Saibaba, N., E-mail: santra@nfc.gov.in [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Dept. of Atomic Energy, Hyderabad (India)

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) produces UO{sub 2} fuel pellets by powder compaction, high temperature sintering followed by centreless wet grinding method from the stabilized UO{sub 2} powder generated through ADU-route. Enhancement of fuel burn up of the Indian PHWRs becomes very important in order to effectively utilize the fuel to the maximum extent inside the reactor. Burn up is mainly limited by increased fission gas release from the fuel during reactor operation. Without introducing much change in the design, rate of release of fission gas can be reduced through enlargement of UO{sub 2} grain size. In Powder Metallurgical (PM) route of fuel fabrication, trials were taken by doping various oxide powder additives like TiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The dopant normally goes into the solid solution of parent matrix during sintering at 1700 {sup o}C and thus enhance the rate of diffusion. Aliovalant dopant can alter the defect chemistry of the parent material either by creating vacancy or interstitial. It is apparently understood that the combination of above mechanisms are responsible for structural modification of UO{sub 2}. Hence selection of dopant remains largely empirical. It has been observed at NFC Hyderabad that the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} is the most suitable for achieving average UO{sub 2} grain size of about 70 micron and 98%TD of the sintered pellet. The paper discusses about the various experimental trials, sintered densities, metallographic examination, effect of different quantities, analysis and result obtained thereof. (author)

  7. Metallurgical characterization of brass objects from the Akko 1 shipwreck, Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashkenazi, D.; Cvikel, D.; Stern, A.; Klein, S.; Kahanov, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The Akko 1 shipwreck was a small Egyptian armed vessel or auxiliary naval brig built in the eastern Mediterranean at the beginning of the 19th century. During the underwater excavations, about 230 brass hook-and-eye closures were found, mainly in the bow area. In addition, 158 brass cases were found, mainly between midships and the aft extremity of the shipwreck. Metallurgical non-destructive and destructive characterizations of selected items were performed, including radiographic testing, XRF, lead isotope analysis, optical microscopy, SEM–EDS and microhardness tests. The hook-and-eye closures and the cases were both found to be made of binary copper–zinc alloy (about 30 wt.% zinc). While the brass cases were made from rolled sheets, hand-made using simple tools, and joined by tin–lead soldering material, the brass hook-and-eye closures were hand-made from drawn brass wire, and manufactured from commercial drawn brass bars by a cold-working process. The lead isotope analyses suggest different provenances of the raw materials used for making the brass objects, thus the different origins of the ores may hint that the brass wire and sheet were imported to the workshops in which the objects were manufactured. - Highlights: • Brass cases and hook-and-eye closures were retrieved from the Akko 1 shipwreck. • Both types of objects were made of binary copper–zinc alloy (about 30 wt.% zinc). • The cases were hand-made from rolled sheets and joined by tin–lead soldering. • Hook-and-eye closures were made from drawn brass wire manufactured by cold-working. • Lead isotope analyses suggest that the origins of the raw material were diverse

  8. Recycling of the rare earth oxides from spent rechargeable batteries using waste metallurgical slags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang K.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A high temperature process for recycling spent nickel-metal hydride rechargeable batteries has been recently developed at SINTEF/NTNU. The spent battery modules were first frozen with liquid nitrogen for the de-activation and brittle fracture treatment. The broken steel scraps and plastics were then separated by the mechanical classification and magnetic separation. The remaining positive and negative electrodes, together with the polymer separator, were heated to 600-800oC in order to remove the organic components and further separate the Ni-based negative electrode. XRF analyses indicate that the heat-treated materials consist mainly of nickel, rare earth and cobalt oxides. The valuable rare earth oxides were further recovered by the high-temperature slagging treatment. The waste metallurgical slags, consist mainly of SiO2 and CaO, were used as the rare earth oxide absorbent. After the high temperature slagging treatment, over 98% of nickel and cobalt oxides were reduced to the metal phase; meanwhile almost all rare earth oxides remain in the molten slags. Furthermore, EPMA and XRF analyses of the slag samples indicate that the rare earth oxides selectively precipitate in the forms of solid xSiO2•yCaO•zRe2O3. The matrix of slag phase is Re2O3 deficient, typically being less than 5 wt%. This provides a sound basis to further develop the high-temperature process of concentrating the Re2O3 oxides in slags.

  9. Shielding Gas and Heat Input Effects on the Mechanical and Metallurgical Characterization of Gas Metal Arc Welding of Super Martensitic Stainless Steel (12Cr5Ni2Mo) Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabakaran, T.; Prabhakar, M.; Sathiya, P.

    This paper deals with the effects of shielding gas mixtures (100% CO2, 100% Ar and 80 % Ar + 20% CO2) and heat input (3.00, 3.65 and 4.33kJ/mm) on the mechanical and metallurgical characteristics of AISI 410S (American Iron and Steel Institute) super martensitic stainless steel (SMSS) by gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process. AISI 410S SMSS with 1.2mm diameter of a 410 filler wire was used in this study. A detailed microstructural analysis of the weld region as well as the mechanical properties (impact, microhardness and tensile tests at room temperature and 800∘C) was carried out. The tensile and impact fracture surfaces were further analyzed through scanning electron microscope (SEM). 100% Ar shielded welds have a higher amount of δ ferrite content and due to this fact the tensile strength of the joints is superior to the other two shielded welds.

  10. The history of decisions on creation of nuclear and metallurgical complex on the basis of the Kola nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudrin B. I.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Some reasons for the choice of directions for using electric and thermal energy of the Kola nuclear power plant located beyond the Arctic Circle have been presented. The regions of the country and their large-scale industrial productions based on metallurgical enterprises have been indicated; the electrical supply of these enterprises is implemented from the Kola NPP. The results of research of energy inputs for the production of a ton of steel and cast iron have been presented. It has been determined that the main direction of technological modernization in the steel industry is avoiding the use of organic fuels (particularly in coke-blast furnace production as the most energy-intensive and its replacement with the technology of direct reduction of iron with hydrogen. As an alternative energy source for organic fuels the creation of a fuel-free nuclear-metallurgical electrified complex has been proposed. The principal scheme of the fuel-free nuclear-metallurgical electrified complex has been described, here the main novelty has a reducing gases preparation block giving the potential ability for creating waste-free process. It has been noted that this technology requires using high temperatures and solving technical problems related to heat resistance of constructions. Some examples of world research on the implementation of similar projects have been presented. It has been determined that the use of new technology will cause the need for optimization of power consumption structure due to the redistribution of capacity and electrical consumption between productions. The introduction of new technologies requires solving a number of problems on electric power supply and electrical equipment designing. It has been observed that on the Kola NPP large-scale reconstruction was carried out during the working period, it helped to increase its project capacity and extend the operation life. Nowadays the region has excess installed capacity that can be

  11. Microbiological and physicochemical treatments applied to metallurgic industry aiming water reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Roberto Crystal Bello

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on the reuse of the water in a system composed of a sewage treatment plant (STP using prolonged aeration with activated sludge and a compact water treatment plant (CWTP in a metallurgic industry. The processes for obtaining the water for reuse were microbiological and physicochemical. The domestic sewage was then pumped to the STP, where biological flocks were formed and clarified water was obtained. The efficiency of the microbiological process in the STP was evaluated for removal of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD and sedimentary solids (SS. The efficiency of physicochemical processes for clarifying the water and disinfection was evaluated through analysis of pH, turbidity, color, aerobic heterotrophic bacterial count, free chlorine, hardness, alkalinity, chlorides, sulfates and dissolved total solids (DTS. In the reuse of the water, acute toxicity for the microcrustaceans Daphnia similis was also evaluated.Estudou-se o reuso de água de um sistema composto por estação de tratamento de esgoto (ETE com aeração prolongada e lodo ativado, e em uma estação compacta de tratamento de água (ECTA de uma indústria metalúrgica. Os processos para obtenção da água de reuso foram: microbiológico e físico-químico. O esgoto doméstico foi bombeado para a ETE, onde houve formação de flocos biológicos e água clarificada. Avaliou-se a eficiência do processo microbiológico da ETE mediante a remoção de demanda bioquímica de oxigênio (DBO, demanda química de oxigênio (DQO e sólidos sedimentáveis (SS. A eficiência do processo físico-químico de clarificação e desinfecção foi avaliada mediante análises de pH, turbidez, cor, contagem de bactérias heterotróficas aeróbias, cloro livre, dureza, alcalinidade, cloretos, sulfatos, sólidos totais dissolvidos (STD. Na água de reuso além desses parâmetros avaliou-se a toxicidade aguda ao microcrustáceo Daphnia similis.

  12. Plutonium metallurgy: The materials science challenges bridging condensed-matter physics and chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, A.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)], E-mail: schwartz6@llnl.gov

    2007-10-11

    Although there exists evidence of metallurgical practices dating back over 6000 years, studies of Pu and Pu alloys have been conducted for barely 60 years. During the time of the Manhattan Project and extending for some time afterward, the priority to produce the metal took precedence over the fundamental understanding of the metallurgical principals. In the past decade or so, there has been a resurgence in the basic metallurgy, condensed-matter physics, and chemistry of Pu and Pu alloys. These communities have made substantial progress, both experimentally and theoretically in many areas; however, many challenges still remain. The intent of this brief overview is to highlight a number important challenges that we face in the metallurgy of Pu including phase transformations and phase stability, aging, and the connection between electronic structure and metallurgy.

  13. Gas flow rate and powder flow rate effect on properties of laser metal deposited Ti6Al4V

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pityana, S

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available . The powder flow rate and the gas flow rate were varied to study their effect on the physical, metallurgical and mechanical properties of the deposits. The physical properties studied are: the track width, the track height and the deposit weight...

  14. Assessing market structures in resource markets. An empirical analysis of the market for metallurgical coal using various equilibrium models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenczik, Stefan; Panke, Timo

    2015-01-01

    The prevalent market structures found in many resource markets consist of a high concentration on the supply side and a low demand elasticity. Market results are therefore frequently assumed to be an outcome of strategic interaction between producers. Common models to investigate the market outcomes and underlying market structures are games representing competitive markets, strategic Cournot competition and Stackelberg structures taking into account a dominant player acting first followed by one or more followers. Besides analysing a previously neglected scenario of the latter kind, we add to the literature by expanding the application of mathematical models by applying an Equilibrium Problem with Equilibrium Constraints (EPEC), which is used to model multi-leader-follower games, to a spatial market. We apply our model by investigating the prevalent market setting in the international market for metallurgical coal between 2008 and 2010, whose market structure provides arguments for a wide variety of market structures. Using different statistical measures and comparing model with actual market outcomes, we find that two previously neglected settings perform best: First, a setting in which the four largest metallurgical coal exporting firms compete against each other as Stackelberg leaders, while the remainders act as Cournot followers. Second, a setting with BHPB acting as sole Stackelberg leader.

  15. Pb pollution from leaded gasoline in South America in the context of a 2000-year metallurgical history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Anja; Gramlich, Gabriela; Kellerhals, Thomas; Tobler, Leonhard; Schwikowski, Margit

    2015-01-01

    Exploitation of the extensive polymetallic deposits of the Andean Altiplano in South America since precolonial times has caused substantial emissions of neurotoxic lead (Pb) into the atmosphere; however, its historical significance compared to recent Pb pollution from leaded gasoline is not yet resolved. We present a comprehensive Pb emission history for the last two millennia for South America, based on a continuous, high-resolution, ice core record from Illimani glacier. Illimani is the highest mountain of the eastern Bolivian Andes and is located at the northeastern margin of the Andean Altiplano. The ice core Pb deposition history revealed enhanced Pb enrichment factors (EFs) due to metallurgical processing for silver production during periods of the Tiwanaku/Wari culture (AD 450–950), the Inca empires (AD 1450–1532), colonial times (AD 1532–1900), and tin production at the beginning of the 20th century. After the 1960s, Pb EFs increased by a factor of 3 compared to the emission level from metal production, which we attribute to gasoline-related Pb emissions. Our results show that anthropogenic Pb pollution levels from road traffic in South America exceed those of any historical metallurgy in the last two millennia, even in regions with exceptional high local metallurgical activity. PMID:26601147

  16. Pb pollution from leaded gasoline in South America in the context of a 2000-year metallurgical history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Anja; Gramlich, Gabriela; Kellerhals, Thomas; Tobler, Leonhard; Schwikowski, Margit

    2015-03-01

    Exploitation of the extensive polymetallic deposits of the Andean Altiplano in South America since precolonial times has caused substantial emissions of neurotoxic lead (Pb) into the atmosphere; however, its historical significance compared to recent Pb pollution from leaded gasoline is not yet resolved. We present a comprehensive Pb emission history for the last two millennia for South America, based on a continuous, high-resolution, ice core record from Illimani glacier. Illimani is the highest mountain of the eastern Bolivian Andes and is located at the northeastern margin of the Andean Altiplano. The ice core Pb deposition history revealed enhanced Pb enrichment factors (EFs) due to metallurgical processing for silver production during periods of the Tiwanaku/Wari culture (AD 450-950), the Inca empires (AD 1450-1532), colonial times (AD 1532-1900), and tin production at the beginning of the 20th century. After the 1960s, Pb EFs increased by a factor of 3 compared to the emission level from metal production, which we attribute to gasoline-related Pb emissions. Our results show that anthropogenic Pb pollution levels from road traffic in South America exceed those of any historical metallurgy in the last two millennia, even in regions with exceptional high local metallurgical activity.

  17. Assessing market structures in resource markets. An empirical analysis of the market for metallurgical coal using various equilibrium models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenczik, Stefan; Panke, Timo [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Energy Economics

    2015-05-15

    The prevalent market structures found in many resource markets consist of a high concentration on the supply side and a low demand elasticity. Market results are therefore frequently assumed to be an outcome of strategic interaction between producers. Common models to investigate the market outcomes and underlying market structures are games representing competitive markets, strategic Cournot competition and Stackelberg structures taking into account a dominant player acting first followed by one or more followers. Besides analysing a previously neglected scenario of the latter kind, we add to the literature by expanding the application of mathematical models by applying an Equilibrium Problem with Equilibrium Constraints (EPEC), which is used to model multi-leader-follower games, to a spatial market. We apply our model by investigating the prevalent market setting in the international market for metallurgical coal between 2008 and 2010, whose market structure provides arguments for a wide variety of market structures. Using different statistical measures and comparing model with actual market outcomes, we find that two previously neglected settings perform best: First, a setting in which the four largest metallurgical coal exporting firms compete against each other as Stackelberg leaders, while the remainders act as Cournot followers. Second, a setting with BHPB acting as sole Stackelberg leader.

  18. Application of Six Sigma Using DMAIC Methodology in the Process of Product Quality Control in Metallurgical Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girmanová Lenka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Six Sigma DMAIC can be considered a guide for problem solving and product or process improvement. The majority of companies start to implement Six Sigma using the DMAIC methodology. The paper deals with application of Six Sigma using the DMAIC methodology in the process of product quality control. The case study is oriented on the field of metallurgical operations. The goal of the Six Sigma project was to ensure the required metallurgic product quality and to avoid an increase in internal costs associated with poor product quality. In this case study, a variety of tools and techniques like flow chart, histogram, Pareto diagram, analysis of FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis data, cause and effect diagram, logical analysis was used. The Sigma level has improved by approximately 13%. The achieved improvements have helped to reduce the quantity of defective products and the processing costs (technology for re-adjusting. Benefits resulting from the DMAIC implementation can be divided into three levels: the qualitative, economic and safety level.

  19. Effect of friction stir welding parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of DSS–Cu joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokri, V., E-mail: v.shokri@modares.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, A. [School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, M.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-05-02

    Dissimilar joining of copper to duplex stainless steel (DSS) is challenging at high temperatures of fusion welding owing to the large difference in physical properties of the base metals. To reduce negative effects of welding at high temperatures, solid state welding at lower temperatures has been proposed. To study different effects of welding parameters (rotation speed, travel speed and tool offset) on weld zone microstructure and mechanical properties butt joints of a copper alloy and duplex stainless steel (DSS) were produced by friction stir welding (FSW). It has been found that heat input generated by the interaction of different welding conditions has a significant effect on the formation of a brittle intermetallic at the interface and eventually the final mechanical properties. At low heat inputs, mixing of the two sides is insufficient and metallurgical bonding is weak; while at high heat inputs, the thickness of the formed intermetallic is too thick which causes stress concentration at the interface and premature failure. An optimum welding condition was found (rotation speed of 1200 rpm, travel speed of 30 mm/min and tool offset of 0.5 mm) which almost reached the mechanical properties of the Cu-alloy monolayer.

  20. Detection of contaminated metallurgical scrap at borders: a proposal for an 'investigation level'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    In 1995 the IAEA started a program to combat illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials which includes the problem of cross-border movement of contaminated metallurgical scrap. A major activity in this program is the elaboration of a Safety Guide on 'Preventing, Detecting and Responding to Illicit Trafficking', co-sponsored by the World Customs Organization (WCO) and INTERPOL. The guide will provide advice to the Member States, in particular on technical and administrative procedures for detection of radioactive materials at borders. Radiation monitoring systems for contaminated scrap metals have been successfully used in steel plants and larger scrap yards since several years and suitable products are on the market today. Using sophisticated software and dynamic scanning techniques such systems allow for detection of an artificial increase in radiation background level as low as by 20%, even if the natural background signal is substantially suppressed by the vehicle itself entering the monitor. However, the measurement conditions at borders are essentially different from those in plants. Large traffic crossing major borders limits the time for detection and response to a few seconds and multiple checks are nearly impractical. Shielded radioactive sources - even of high activity - which are deeply buried in scrap, cannot be detected without unloading the vehicle, a procedure generally ruled out at borders. Highly sensitive monitoring systems necessarily cause frequent false alarms or nuisance alarms due to innocent radioactive materials such as naturally occurring radioactivity e.g. in fertilizers, scale in pipes used in the oil industry or medical radioisotopes. A particular, rather frequent problem is the unnecessary reject of scrap transports on borders due to the inherent low level contamination of steel with 60 Co, even in sheet metal used for lorries or railroad cars. Such contamination can easily be caused by the routine method to control

  1. Occupational exposure to PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs of metallurgical workers in some industrial plants of the Brescia area, northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abballe, Annalisa; Barbieri, Pietro Gino; di Domenico, Alessandro; Garattini, Siria; Iacovella, Nicola; Ingelido, Anna Maria; Marra, Valentina; Miniero, Roberto; Valentini, Silvia; De Felip, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The study was carried out in order to respond to public concern on the occupational exposure of metallurgical workers to highly toxic PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in the area of the city of Brescia, northern Italy. The study investigated the effects on the haematic burden of occupational exposures to the aforesaid contaminants in different work environments, attempting to establish causal relationships and providing indications for occupational health preventive measures. Chemical concentrations were measured in blood serum of "professionally exposed" (PE) and "not professionally exposed" (NPE) subjects. NPE subjects included industrial administrative employees, Brescia inhabitants, and remote rural people. The central tendency indexes of contaminant cumulative concentrations were higher in PE than in NPE samples (for the mean values: PCDDs+PCDFs, 22.9 vs. 19.5 pgWHO-TEQ(1997)/g lb; DL-PCBs, 26.0 vs. 23.6 pgWHO-TEQ(1997)/g lb; PCDDs+PCDFs+DL-PCBs (TEQ(TOT)), 48.9 vs. 43.1 pgWHO-TEQ(1997)/g lb; Σ(6)[NDL-PCBs], 427 vs. 401 ng g(-1)lb); however, no statistical differences were detected at P=0.05. A significant difference for PCDDs+PCDFs and TEQ(TOT) was observed as the NPE data were progressively reduced to those of the remote rural people. The existence of a differential occupational exposure due to different environments was detected by applying the factor analysis to congener-specific data (analytical profiles). Findings indicate that metallurgical workers may be exposed to PCDD, PCDF, and PCB more than the general population, in particular due to non-negligible contributions to exposure from workplace ambient air. Findings also suggest that an improvement of preventive measures may be required to avoid chemical overexposure in certain metallurgical workplaces. To identify exposure groups, the DL- and NDL-PCB analytical profiles seemed to be more sensitive to environmental exposure sources/pathways than those of PCDDs and PCDFs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All

  2. Cognitive Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Cognitive Challenges Approximately 45% to 60% of individuals with TSC develop cognitive challenges (intellectual disabilities), although the degree of intellectual ...

  3. M-Area and Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facilities Groundwater Monitoring and Corrective-Action Report, First and Second Quarters 1999, Volume III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, J.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the groundwater monitoring and corrective-action program at the M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) and the Metallurgical Laboratory (Met Lab) HWMF at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the first and second quarters 1999

  4. Perspectives in metallurgical development. Proceedings of the centenary conference held at Ranmoor House, Sheffield, GB, on 16-18 July 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    Forty one papers were presented on perspectives in metallurgical development, with sessions on historical metallurgy, extraction and process metallurgy, solidification processes, microstructural studies, working and forming, mechanical behaviour, corrosion and environmental effects, and future developments in metallurgy. One paper, on fracture mechanics and non-destructive testing related to assurance of structural integrity of nuclear pressure vessels, is indexed separately. (U.K.)

  5. Influence of metallurgical and electrochemical factors on cracking of steels at nuclear power plants under high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhmurskii, V.I.; Gnyp, I.P.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of metallurgical heterogeneities in steels and electrochemical factors on corrosion cracking under high temperature water environment is studied, with special emphasis on the influence of manganese sulfide inclusions and other non-metallic ones on the crack growth rate. Results show that the electro-chemical conditions for an hydrogen concentration increase in a pre-failure zone exist at a crack tip under cyclic loading; hydrogen penetrating into metals at high temperature reduces manganese sulfides, ferric carbides, and cause high pressure of gases in micro-discontinuities, thus leading to cyclic corrosion cracking; anodic (relatively to a metal matrix) inclusions are rather the cause of steel cracking resistance decrease than cathodic ones. 16 refs., 4 figs

  6. Roadmap report of the Metallurgical Industry and Foundries [in the Netherlands]; Rapportage Routekaart Metallurgische Industrie en Gieterijen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-15

    The roadmap describes the direction VNMI and AVNeG consider as feasible to realize substantial improvements with regard to energy efficiency in metallurgical production processes and in the usage of metal products. The aim of the report is to guide development efforts and describe technical and organizational options for businesses and industries in the metal sector [Dutch] De Routekaart beschrijft de richting die VNMI en AVNeG als haalbaar zien om naar 2030 toe substantiele energie-efficientieverbeteringen te realiseren in metallurgische productieprocessen en in de gebruiksfase van metaal producten. Het rapport is richtinggevend voor ontwikkelingsinspanningen en beschrijft technische en organisatorische mogelijkheden waar bedrijven individueel en in sectorverband zich voor zullen inzetten.

  7. Effect of CH3COOH on Hydrometallurgical Purification of Metallurgical-Grade Silicon Using HCl-HF Leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chunjin; Lu, Haifei; Wei, Kuixian; Ma, Wenhui; Xie, Keqiang; Wu, Jijun; Lei, Yun; Yang, Bin; Morita, Kazuki

    2018-04-01

    The present study investigated the effects of adding CH3COOH to HCl and HF used to purify metallurgical-grade Si (MG-Si). After 6 h of leaching MG-Si with an acid mixture consisting of 4 mol L-1 HCl, 3 mol L-1 HF, and 3 mol L-1 CH3COOH at 348 K, the total impurity removal efficiency was 88.5%, exceeding the 81.5% removal efficiency obtained without addition of CH3COOH. The microstructural evolution of Si after etching with the two lixiviants indicated better dissolution of metal impurities in MG-Si when using the HCl-HF-CH3COOH mixture. Furthermore, the leaching kinetics of Fe using the HCl-HF and HCl-HF-CH3COOH mixtures were observed to depend on the interfacial chemical reactions.

  8. Au/Zn Contacts to rho-InP: Electrical and Metallurgical Characteristics and the Relationship Between Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.; Korenyi-Both, Andras L.

    1994-01-01

    The metallurgical and electrical behavior of Au/Zn contacting metallization on p-type InP was investigated as a function of the Zn content in the metallization. It was found that ohmic behavior can be achieved with Zn concentrations as small as 0.05 atomic percent Zn. For Zn concentrations between 0.1 and 36 at. percent, the contact resistivity rho(sub c) was found to be independent of the Zn content. For low Zn concentrations the realization of ohmic behavior was found to require the growth of the compound Au2P3 at the metal-InP interface. The magnitude of rho(sub c) is shown to be very sensitive to the growth rate of the interfacial Au2P3 layer. The possibility of exploiting this sensitivity to provide low resistance contacts while avoiding the semiconductor structural damage that is normally attendant to contact formation is discussed.

  9. Theoretical and experimental research on the use of expert systems (ES in assessing risks of failure in metallurgical companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Iancu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The systems’ engineering has reached an explosive development of intelligent systems technology which solves complex problems based on human expertise accumulated in the past and following the processes of learning and reasoning very similar to those of the biological brain. In this article, the concept of the proposed expert system is the result of interdisciplinary researches (computer science, management, accounting and business administration, etc., which are designed to provide a tool for top management work force of a listed metallurgical company. The inference machine will provide in the end score functions for Altman, Conan Holder model and rating which eventually can be combined into a single model that will forecast the company’s evolution in coming years.

  10. Metallurgical investigation of cracking of the isolation valve downstream piping of regenerative heat exchanger at beaver valley unit 1 station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, G.V.

    1998-01-01

    A metallurgical investigation was conducted to establish the mechanism and cause of cracking in the regenerative heat exchanger piping at Beaver Valley Unit 1 PWR station in the USA. The investigation, which was centered on an eight inch long pipe section containing the cracking included surface examinations, metallographic and fractographic examinations, and chemistry evaluations. The results of the examinations showed that there were two types of pipe degradation mechanisms that affected the type 304 stainless schedule 40 piping. These consisted of localized corrosive attack on the OD surface due to the presence of chlorides, sulphates and phosphates, and transgranular stress corrosion cracking in the pipe wall due to the presence of chloride contaminants. The overall results of the investigation showed that the introduction of contaminants from external sources other than pipe insulation was the cause of heat exchanger pipe cracking. (author)

  11. Distribution of impurity elements in slag-silicon equilibria for oxidative refining of metallurgical silicon for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, M.D.; Barati, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Toronto, 184 College Street, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    The possibility of refining metallurgical grade silicon to a high-purity product for solar cell applications by the slagging of impurity elements was investigated. Distribution coefficients were determined for B, Ca, Mg, Fe, K and P between magnesia or alumina saturated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaO-MgO-SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-BaO-SiO{sub 2} slags and silicon at 1500 C. The partitioning of the impurity elements between molten silicon and slag was examined in terms of basicity and oxygen potential of the slag, with particular focus on the behaviour of boron and phosphorus. The experimental results showed that both of these aspects of slag chemistry have a significant influence on the distribution coefficient of B and P. Increasing the oxygen potential by additions of silica was found to increase the distribution coefficients for both B and P. Increasing the basicity of the slag was not always effective in achieving high removal of these elements from silicon as excess amounts of basic oxides lower the activity of silica and consequently the oxygen potential. The extent of this effect is such that increasing basicity can lead to a decrease in distribution coefficient. Increasing lime in the slag increased distribution coefficients for B and P, but this counterbalancing effect was such that distributions were the lowest in barium-containing slags, despite barium oxide being the most basic of the fluxes used in this study. The highest removal efficiencies achieved were of the order of 80% and 90% for B and P, respectively. It was demonstrated that for the removal of B and P from metallurgical-grade silicon to solar-grade levels, a slag mass about 5 times the mass of silicon would be required. (author)

  12. Study on the effect of heat treatment and gasification on the carbon structure of coal chars and metallurgical cokes using fourier transform Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Dong; P. Alvarez; N. Paterson; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2009-03-15

    Differences in the development of carbon structures between coal chars and metallurgical cokes during high-temperature reactions have been investigated using Raman spectroscopy. These are important to differentiate between different types of carbons in dust recovered from the top gas of the blast furnace. Coal chars have been prepared from a typical injectant coal under different heat-treatment conditions. These chars reflected the effect of peak temperature, residence time at peak temperature, heating rate and pressure on the evolution of their carbon structures. The independent effect of gasification on the development of the carbon structure of a representative coal char has also been studied. A similar investigation has also been carried out to study the effect of heat-treatment temperature (from 1300 to 2000{sup o}C) and gasification on the carbon structure of a typical metallurgical coke. Two Raman spectral parameters, the intensity ratio of the D band to the G band (I{sub D}/I{sub G}) and the intensity ratio of the valley between D and G bands to the G band (I{sub V}/I{sub G}), have been found useful in assessing changes in carbon structure. An increase in I{sub D}/I{sub G} indicates the growth of basic graphene structural units across the temperature range studied. A decrease in I{sub V}/I{sub G} appears to suggest the elimination of amorphous carbonaceous materials and ordering of the overall carbon structure. The Raman spectral differences observed between coal chars and metallurgical cokes are considered to result from the difference in the time-temperature history between the raw injectant coal and the metallurgical coke and may lay the basis for differentiation between metallurgical coke fines and coal char residues present in the dust carried over the top of the blast furnace. 41 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Uranium in 50 years? - Deeper, lower grade and more metallurgically complex? - 5312

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polak, C.

    2015-01-01

    The economic exploitation of uranium deposits in the next 50 years will benefit from advances in mining and processing technology. The 'easiness' to find uranium deposits are a relic of the past. Exploration will need to make use of new technologies to help find blind or deep deposits. These issues are already being addressed by the uranium industry. Another issue will be to obtain social and environmental acceptation of the industry. To summarize the uranium mining industry is faced with 3 main challenges that are not necessarily mutually exclusive: deeper deposits, lower grades and chemically complex ores. The deposits of the next half of 21. century are likely to face at least one but potentially a combination of two or three of these challenges

  14. Metallurgical evaluation of laser additive manufactured Ti6Al4V components

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mutombo, K

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available of contact between single deposited layer and Ti6Al4V base as well as the tensile properties of the component were evaluated. Powdered metal globularization, size segregation, un-melted or semi-melted particles and chemical surface contamination were revealed...

  15. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding Overcoming challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch Finding ... myths Overcoming challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch Finding ...

  16. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... section Back to section menu It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work ... It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural Planning ahead Addressing breastfeeding myths Overcoming challenges Common questions ...

  17. Properties of CMR composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian. Institute ... Colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) composites form an interesting field ..... field and composition sensitive competition between the positive and negative MR.

  18. Metallurgical characterization of melt-spun ribbons of U-5.4 wt%Nb alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rong; Ren, Zhiyong; Tang, Qingfu; Chen, Dong; Liu, Tingyi; Su, Bin; Wang, Zhenhong; Luo, Chao

    2018-06-01

    The microstructures and micro-mechanical properties of the melt-spun ribbons of U-5.4 wt%Nb alloy were characterized using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and nanoindentation. Observed variations in microstructures and properties are related to the changes in ribbon thicknesses and cooling rates. The microstructures of the melt-spun ribbon consist of fine-scale columnar grains (∼1 μm) adjacent to the chill surface and coarse cellular grains in the remainder of the ribbon. In addition, the formation of inclusions in the ribbon is suppressed kinetically due to the high cooling rate during melt spinning. Compared with the water-quenched specimen prepared by traditional gravity casting and solution heat treatment, the elastic modulus values of the U-5.4 wt%Nb alloy were examined to vary with grain size and exhibited diverse energy dissipation capacities.

  19. A metallurgical approach toward alloying in rare earth permanen magnet systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branagan, Daniel J. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-02-23

    The approach was developed to allow microstructural enhancement and control during solidification and processing. Compound additions of Group IVA, VA, or VIA transition metals (TM) and carbon were added to Nd2Fe14B (2-14-1). Transition metal carbides formed in IVA (TiC, ZrC, HfC) and Group VA (VC, NbC, TaC) systems, but not in the VIA system. The alloying ability of each TM carbide was graded using phase stability, liquid and equilibrium solid solubility, and high temperature carbide stability. Ti with C additions was chosen as the best system. The practically zero equilibrium solid solubility means that the Ti and C additions will ultimately form TiC after heat treatment which allows the development of a composite microstructure consisting of the 2-14-1 phase and TiC. Thus, the excellent intrinsic magnetic properties of the 2-14-1 phase remain unaltered and the extrinsic properties relating to the microstructure are enhanced due to the TiC stabilized microstructure which is much more resistant to grain growth. When Ti + C are dissolved in the liquid melt or solid phases, such as the glass or 2-14-1 phase, the intrinsic properties are changed; favorable changes include increased glass forming ability, reduced optimum cooling rate, increased optimum energy product, and enhanced nucleation kinetics of crystallization.

  20. Low drift type N thermocouples in out-of-pile advanced gas reactor mock-up test: metallurgical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scervini, M.; Palmer, J.; Haggard, D.C.; Swank, W.D.

    2015-01-01

    Thermocouples are the most commonly used sensors for temperature measurement in nuclear reactors. They are crucial for the control of current nuclear reactors and for the development of GEN IV reactors. In nuclear applications thermocouples are strongly affected by intense neutron fluxes. As a result of the interaction with neutrons, the thermoelements of the thermocouples undergo transmutation, which produces a time dependent change in composition and, as a consequence, a time dependent drift of the thermocouple signal. Thermocouple drift can be very significant for in-pile temperature measurements and may render the temperature sensors unreliable after exposure to nuclear radiation for relatively short times compared to the life required for temperature sensors in nuclear applications. Previous experiences with type K thermocouples in nuclear reactors have shown that they are affected by neutron irradiation only to a limited extent. Similarly type N thermocouples are expected to be only slightly affected by neutron fluxes. Currently the use of Nickel based thermocouples is limited to temperatures lower than 1000 deg. C due to drift related to phenomena other than nuclear irradiation. As part of a collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the University of Cambridge a variety of Type N thermocouples have been exposed at INL in an Advanced Gas Reactor mock-up test at 1150 deg. C for 2000 h, 1200 deg. C for 2000 h, 125 deg. C for 200 h and 1300 deg. C for 200 h, and later analysed metallurgically at the University of Cambridge. The use of electron microscopy allows to identify the metallurgical changes occurring in the thermocouples during high temperature exposure and correlate the time dependent thermocouple drift with the microscopic changes experienced by the thermoelements of different thermocouple designs. In this paper conventional Inconel 600 sheathed type N thermocouples and a type N using a customized sheath developed at the University of

  1. Low drift type N thermocouples in out-of-pile advanced gas reactor mock-up test: metallurgical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scervini, M. [University of Cambridge, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, 27 Charles Babbage Road, CB30FS Cambridge, (United Kingdom); Palmer, J.; Haggard, D.C.; Swank, W.D. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3840, (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Thermocouples are the most commonly used sensors for temperature measurement in nuclear reactors. They are crucial for the control of current nuclear reactors and for the development of GEN IV reactors. In nuclear applications thermocouples are strongly affected by intense neutron fluxes. As a result of the interaction with neutrons, the thermoelements of the thermocouples undergo transmutation, which produces a time dependent change in composition and, as a consequence, a time dependent drift of the thermocouple signal. Thermocouple drift can be very significant for in-pile temperature measurements and may render the temperature sensors unreliable after exposure to nuclear radiation for relatively short times compared to the life required for temperature sensors in nuclear applications. Previous experiences with type K thermocouples in nuclear reactors have shown that they are affected by neutron irradiation only to a limited extent. Similarly type N thermocouples are expected to be only slightly affected by neutron fluxes. Currently the use of Nickel based thermocouples is limited to temperatures lower than 1000 deg. C due to drift related to phenomena other than nuclear irradiation. As part of a collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the University of Cambridge a variety of Type N thermocouples have been exposed at INL in an Advanced Gas Reactor mock-up test at 1150 deg. C for 2000 h, 1200 deg. C for 2000 h, 125 deg. C for 200 h and 1300 deg. C for 200 h, and later analysed metallurgically at the University of Cambridge. The use of electron microscopy allows to identify the metallurgical changes occurring in the thermocouples during high temperature exposure and correlate the time dependent thermocouple drift with the microscopic changes experienced by the thermoelements of different thermocouple designs. In this paper conventional Inconel 600 sheathed type N thermocouples and a type N using a customized sheath developed at the University of

  2. Ice core based Pb pollution from gasoline in South America in the context of a 2000 year metallurgical history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Anja; Gramlich, Gabriela; Kellerhals, Thomas; Tobler, Leonhard; Schwikowski, Margit

    2015-04-01

    Lead (Pb) is highly neurotoxic and, in contrast to many other heavy metals including cobalt, copper, and zinc, it has no beneficial effects to humans even at low concentrations. The introduction of leaded gasoline in the 1920s initiated a period of unabated growth in the global emissions of Pb. Prior to the onset of leaded gasoline phase-out in the 1970s, atmospheric Pb levels increased dramatically. Long-term histories of Pb pollution in Eastern and Western Europe, Asia, and North America suggest that emissions from leaded gasoline within the Northern Hemisphere are dominant compared to that from metallurgy and coal combustion during the second half of the 20th century. However, there is no equivalent data for Southern America. Although exploitation of the extensive polymetallic deposits of the Andean Altiplano in South America since pre-colonial times has caused substantial emissions of neurotoxic Pb into the atmosphere, its historical significance compared to recent Pb pollution from leaded gasoline is not yet resolved. Here we present the first comprehensive, high-resolution two millennia Pb emission history for South America, based on ice core records of Pb concentrations, Pb enrichment factors (EFs), and Pb isotope ratios from Illimani glacier in Bolivia. Complementary to local air pollution recorded in lake sediments, ice cores from mid latitude glaciers provide information about more extended source areas. Illimani is the highest mountain of the eastern Bolivian Andes and is located at the northeastern margin of the Bolivian Altiplano. The ice core Pb deposition history revealed enhanced Pb EFs due to metallurgical processing for silver production during periods of the Tiwanaku/Wari culture (AD 450-950), the Inca empires (AD 1450-1532), colonial times (AD 1532-1900), and tin production at the beginning of the 20th century. After the 1960s 208Pb/207Pb ratios decreased significantly, whereas Pb EFs increased by a factor of three compared to the emission level

  3. Chemical, Mechanical, and Durability Properties of Concrete with Local Mineral Admixtures under Sulfate Environment in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Qingke; Zhou, Changjun; Shu, Xiang; He, Qiang; Huang, Baoshan

    2014-05-13

    Over the vast Northwest China, arid desert contains high concentrations of sulfate, chloride, and other chemicals in the ground water, which poses serious challenges to infrastructure construction that routinely utilizes portland cement concrete. Rapid industrialization in the region has been generating huge amounts of mineral admixtures, such as fly ash and slags from energy and metallurgical industries. These industrial by-products would turn into waste materials if not utilized in time. The present study evaluated the suitability of utilizing local mineral admixtures in significant quantities for producing quality concrete mixtures that can withstand the harsh chemical environment without compromising the essential mechanical properties. Comprehensive chemical, mechanical, and durability tests were conducted in the laboratory to characterize the properties of the local cementitious mineral admixtures, cement mortar and portland cement concrete mixtures containing these admixtures. The results from this study indicated that the sulfate resistance of concrete was effectively improved by adding local class F fly ash and slag, or by applying sulfate resistance cement to the mixtures. It is noteworthy that concrete containing local mineral admixtures exhibited much lower permeability (in terms of chloride ion penetration) than ordinary portland cement concrete while retaining the same mechanical properties; whereas concrete mixtures made with sulfate resistance cement had significantly reduced strength and much increased chloride penetration comparing to the other mixtures. Hence, the use of local mineral admixtures in Northwest China in concrete mixtures would be beneficial to the performance of concrete, as well as to the protection of environment.

  4. 3Q/4Q99 Annual M-Area and Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facilities Groundwater Monitoring and Corrective-Action Report - Third and Fourth Quarters 1999 - Volumes I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, J.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the groundwater monitoring and corrective-action program at the M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) and the Metallurgical Laboratory (Met Lab) HWMF at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during 1999

  5. Influence of batch annealing conditions on the mechanical properties of a drawing steel. Influencia de las condiciones de recocido en campaa sobre las propiedades mecanicas de un acero de embuticion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saura, J.J.; Carcel, A.; Cembrero, J.; Villena, J. (Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y de Materiales, ETSI. Industriales Valencia (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this work was to establish correlations between annealing conditions and mechanical properties of extra low carbon deep drawing steel sheets. The mechanical properties can be interpreted on the basis of the microstructures obtained and crystallographic textures. The relationship between process parameters allow to select annealing conditions to achieve the required mechanical and metallurgical characteristics. Author (7 refs.)

  6. Investigations on the structure – Property relationships of electron beam welded Inconel 625 and UNS 32205

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devendranath Ramkumar, K.; Sridhar, R.; Periwal, Saurabh; Oza, Smitkumar; Saxena, Vimal; Hidad, Preyas; Arivazhagan, N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Joining of dissimilar metals of Inconel 625 and UNS S32205 using electron beam welding. • Detailed structure – property relationship of dissimilar welds. • Improved metallurgical and tensile properties from the EB welding. - Abstract: The metallurgical and mechanical properties of electron beam welded Ni based superalloy Inconel 625 and UNS S32205 duplex stainless steel plates have been investigated in the present study. Interface microstructure studies divulged the absence of any grain coarsening effects or the formation of any secondary phases at the heat affected zone (HAZ) of the electron beam (EB) weldments. Tensile studies showed that the fracture occurred at the weld zone in all the trials and the average weld strength was reported to be 850 MPa. Segregation of Mo rich phases was witnessed at the inter-dendritic arms of the fusion zone. The study recommended the use of EB welding for joining these dissimilar metals by providing detailed structure – property relationships

  7. [Strut fracture of a convex-concave 60 degree Björk-Shiley mitral valve prosthesis 5 years after implantation--metallurgic analysis of the prosthesis strut].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, B; Rathmann, J; Wiebe, V; Witzel, U

    1991-08-01

    Acute mechanical failure of prosthetic heart valves is rare, but associated with high mortality when occurring. For convexo-concave Björk-Shiley prostheses only fractures of the outlet strut are reported. We present a case of lethal mechanical complication 5 years after implantation. By additional metallurgic analysis we were able to identify a sequential course of the outlet strut fracture. This could lead to new approaches for early detection of this complication.

  8. Environmental Conflicts in Mining, Quarrying and Metallurgical Industries in the Iberian Peninsula (19th and 20th Century): Pollution and Popular Protest

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Paulo Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICTS IN MINING, QUARRYING, AND METALLURGICAL INDUSTRIES IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA (19TH AND 20TH CENTURY): POLLUTION AND PUBLIC PROTEST. Paulo E. Guimarães, NICPRI / University of Évora (Portugal) J. D. Pérez Cebada, Universidad of Huelva (Spain) Comparative and transnational analyses of social conflicts, related to the environmental changes produced by modern and contemporary mining industries, have been a topic of growing academic interest for the last two decad...

  9. Environmental management and educational needs of the small and medium-sized businesses of the metallurgical sector in the south region of Madrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urena, A.; Rams, J.; Mendez, F. J.; Rodriguez, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the environmental management and needs of the small and medium-sized businesses of the metallurgical industry in the south region of Madrid were analysed. Information was obtained through a telephone questionnaire distributed to more than 170 companies. Although most of the respondent employees do not consider environmental training one of their priorities, they expressed their interest in implementing Environmental Management Systems, waste minimization and higher knowledge of the specific legal aspects. (Author) 7 refs

  10. Assessment of the effect of Nd:YAG laser pulse operating parameters on the metallurgical characteristics of different tool steels using DOE software

    OpenAIRE

    Muhič, T.; Kosec, L.; Liedl, G.; Pleterski, M.

    2011-01-01

    To ensure the reliability of repair welded tool surfaces, clad quality should be improved. The relationships between metallurgical characteristics of cladding and laser input welding parameters were studied using the design of experiments software. The influence of laser power, welding speed, focal point position and diameter of welding wire on the weld-bead geometry (i.e. penetration, cladding zone width and heat-affected-zone width), microstructural homogeneity, dilution and bond strength w...

  11. 3D Model Studies on the Effect of Bed and Powder Type Upon Radial Static Pressure and Powder Distribution in Metallurgical Shaft Furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panic B.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The flow of gases in metallurgical shaft furnaces has a decisive influence on the course and process efficiency. Radial changes in porosity of the bed cause uneven flow of gas along the radius of the reactor, which sometimes is deliberate and intentional. However, holdup of solid particles in descending packed beds of metallurgical shaft furnaces can lead to unintentional changes in porosity of the bed along the radial reactor. Unintentional changes in porosity often disrupt the flow of gas causing poor performance of the furnace. Such disruptions of flow may occur in the blast furnace due to high level of powder content in gas caused by large amount of coal dust/powder insufflated as fuel substitute. The paper describes the model test results of radial distribution of static pressure and powder hold up within metallurgical reactor. The measurements were carried out with the use of 3D physical model of two-phase flow gas-powder in the moving (descending packed bed. Sinter or blast furnace pellets were used as packed bed while carbon powder or iron powder were used as the powder. Wide diversity within both static pressure distribution and powder distribution along the radius of the reactor were observed once the change in the type of powder occurred.

  12. Metallurgical and mechanical characterization of a submerged arc welded joint in a 316 type stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piatti, G.; Vedani, M.

    1990-01-01

    The tensile (deformation and fracture) behaviour of a multipass submerged arc welded joint Type 316 stainless steel is investigated by tests at room temperature and at 400 0 C on all-weld metal and transverse to weld (composite) specimens as well as by microstructural and compositional analyses (optical, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy). The as-deposited metal is characterised by a systematic variation in the tensile properties across the thickness with the higher strength and the lower ductility in the weld centre. These variations are related to material variability (mainly in dislocation density) because of local dissimilarities in thermal and mechanical histories occurring during the welding process. However, the material variability in the fusion zone, although important is not so large in the present weld and it does not influence the tensile properties of the weld as a whole. Moreover, the tensile behaviour concerning the transverse to weld specimens is characterized by a supporting effect from the higher yield strength material zone (fusion zone) to the lower yield strength material zone (parent metal) justified by the different contribution of the parent metal and of the weld-deposit metal to the integral plastic strain of the specimens. (author)

  13. Powder metallurgical processing of self-passivating tungsten alloys for fusion first wall application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Ruiz, P.; Ordás, N.; Iturriza, I.; Walter, M.; Gaganidze, E.; Lindig, S.; Koch, F.; García-Rosales, C.

    2013-01-01

    Self-passivating tungsten based alloys are expected to provide a major safety advantage compared to pure tungsten, presently the main candidate material for first wall armour of future fusion reactors. In case of a loss of coolant accident with simultaneous air ingress, a protective oxide scale will be formed on the surface of W avoiding the formation of volatile and radioactive WO 3 . Bulk WCr12Ti2.5 alloys were manufactured by mechanical alloying (MA) and hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and their properties compared to bulk WCr10Si10 alloys from previous work. The MA parameters were adjusted to obtain the best balance between lowest possible amount of contaminants and effective alloying of the elemental powders. After HIP, a density >99% is achieved for the WCr12Ti2.5 alloy and a very fine and homogeneous microstructure with grains in the submicron range is obtained. Unlike the WCr10Si10 material, no intergranular ODS phase inhibiting grain growth was detected. The thermal and mechanical properties of the WCr10Si10 material are dominated by the silicide (W,Cr) 5 Si 3 ; it shows a sharp ductile-to brittle transition in the range 1273–1323 K. The thermal conductivity of the WCr12Ti2.5 alloy is close to 50 W/mK in the temperature range of operation; it exhibits significantly higher strength and lower DBTT – around 1170 K – than the WCr10Si10 material

  14. Metallurgical characterization of a new nickel-titanium wire for rotary endodontic instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alapati, Satish B; Brantley, William A; Iijima, Masahiro; Clark, William A T; Kovarik, Libor; Buie, Caesar; Liu, Jie; Ben Johnson, William

    2009-11-01

    A novel thermomechanical processing procedure has been developed that yields a superelastic (SE) nickel-titanium (NiTi) wire (M-Wire) that laboratory testing shows has improved mechanical properties compared with conventional SE austenitic NiTi wires used for manufacture of rotary instruments. The objective of this study was to determine the origin of the improved mechanical properties. Specimens from 2 batches of M-Wire prepared under different processing conditions and from 1 batch of standard-processed SE wire for rotary instruments were examined by scanning transmission electron microscopy, temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry, micro-x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy with x-ray energy-dispersive spectrometric analyses. The processing for M-Wire yields a microstructure containing martensite, that the proportions of NiTi phases depend on processing conditions, and that the microstructure exhibits pronounced evidence of alloy strengthening. The presence of Ti(2)Ni precipitates in both microstructures indicates that M-Wire and the conventional SE wire for rotary instruments are titanium-rich.

  15. Influence of coal batch preparation on the quality of metallurgical соkе

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Катерина Олегівна Шмельцер

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To study the influence of coal batch properties on coke strength we have considered the quality of the coke produced at the plant in Krivoy Rog from 2008 till 2012. Such factors as the large number of coal suppliers, imprecise selection of the optimal degree of batch crushing result in the decline in coke quality, the batch density and contents of the lean class (<0,5 mm are not optimum; poor blending of the batch after crushing; increased moisture and ash content of the coking batch; and extreme fluctuation in the coal and batch characteristics. It was found that high humidity of coal batch and its large fluctuations has most profound effect on the mechanical properties of coke. Under deteriorating resource base the quality of the coking batch preparation is important, To have batch of proper quality the following key aspects must be taken into account: the batch must be crushed to an optimum degree that will result in leaning components decrease and increased contents of vitrivite in it which improves the sinterability and coking, and hence the quality of coke; the degree of mixing of the coking batch in all indices must be up to 98-99%, for uneven distribution in the coal chamber worsens the quality of coke

  16. Purification of melt-spun metallurgical grade silicon micro-flakes through a multi-step segregation procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, F. A.; Nordstrand, E. F.; Gibson, U. J.

    2013-01-01

    Melt-spun metallurgical grade (MG) micron dimension silicon flakes have been purified into near solar grade (SG) quality through a multi-step melting and re-solidification procedure. A wet oxidation-applied thermal oxide maintained the sample morphology during annealing while the interiors were melted and re-solidified. The small thickness of the flakes allowed for near elimination of in-plane grain boundaries, with segregation enhanced accumulation of impurities at the object surface and in the few remaining grain boundaries. A subsequent etch in 48% hydrofluoric acid (HF) removed the impure oxide layer, and part of the contamination at the oxide-silicon interface, as shown by electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and backscattered electron imaging (BEI). The sample grains were investigated by electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) after varying numbers of oxidation-annealing-etch cycles, and were observed to grow from ˜5 μm to ˜200 μm. The concentration of iron, titanium, copper and aluminium were shown by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICPMS) to drop between five and six orders of magnitude. The concentration of boron was observed to drop approximately one order of magnitude. A good correlation was observed between impurity removal rates and segregation models, indicating that the purification effect is mainly caused by segregation. Deviations from these models could be explained by the formation of oxides and hydroxides later removed through etching.

  17. Morphology, chemistry and distribution of neoformed spherulites in agricultural land affected by metallurgical point-source pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leguedois, Sophie; Oort, Folkert van; Jongmans, Toine; Chevallier, Pierre

    2004-07-01

    Metal distribution patterns in superficial soil horizons of agricultural land affected by metallurgical point-source pollution were studied using optical and electron microscopy, synchrotron radiation and spectroscopy analyses. The site is located in northern France, at the center of a former entry lane to a bunker of World War II, temporarily paved with coarse industrial waste fragments and removed at the end of the war. Thin sections made from undisturbed soil samples from A and B horizons were studied. Optical microscopy revealed the occurrence of yellow micrometer-sized (Ap horizon) and red decamicrometer-sized spherulites (AB, B{sub 1}g horizons) as well as distinct distribution patterns. The chemical composition of the spherulites was dominated by Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Ca, and P. Comparison of calculated Zn stocks, both in the groundmass and in spherulites, showed a quasi-exclusive Zn accumulation in these neoformed features. Their formation was related to several factors: (i) liberation of metal elements due to weathering of waste products, (ii) Ca and P supply from fertilizing practices, (iii) co-precipitation of metal elements and Ca and P in a porous soil environment, after slow exudation of a supersaturated soil solution in more confined mineral media. - Metal spherulites may act as high metal-trapping mineral phases in polluted agricultural soils.

  18. Concentration of gold, sulphide minerals, and uranium oxide minerals by flotation from ores and metallurgical plant products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, D.

    1976-01-01

    A process is described for the concentration by flotation of gold, gold bearing minerals and uranium oxide minerals from ores and metallurgical plant products. A pulp of a ground ore is agitation conditioned in at least two agitation conditioning stages wherein in at least one stage the pH of the pulp is lowered with an acid agent to within the pH range of about 1.5 to 5.0, and wherein in at least one additional agitation conditioning stage the pH of the pulp is raised to within the pH range of about 6.0 to 11.0 and wherein in at least the last stage prior to flotation at least one collector selected from the group of sulfhydryl anionic collectors is present. Subsequently, the at least two stage agitation conditioned pulp is subjected to flotation to produce a flotation concentrate enriched in at least one of the mineral values from the group consisting of gold, gold bearing minerals and uranium minerals

  19. Effects of metallurgical factors on stress corrosion cracking of Ni-base alloys in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, T.; Sasaguri, N.; Onimura, K.

    1988-01-01

    Nickel-base Alloy 600 is the principal material used for the steam generator tubes of PWRs. Generally, this alloy has been proven to be satisfactory for this application, however when it is subjected to extremely high stress level in PWR primary water, it may suffer from stress corrosion cracking. The authors have systematically studied the effects of test temperature and such metallurgical factors as cold working, chemical composition and heat treatment on the stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in high temperature water, and also on that of Alloy 690 which is a promising material for the tubes and may provide improved crrosion resistance for steam generators. The test materials, the stress corrosion cracking test and the test results are reported. When the test temperature was raise, the stress corrosion cracking of the nickel-base alloys was accelerated. The time of stress corrosion cracking occurrence decreased with increasing applied stress, and it occurred at the stress level higher than the 0.2 % offset proof stress of Alloy 600. In Alloy 690, stress corrosion cracking was not observed at such stress level. Cold worked Alloy 600 showed higher resistance to stress corrosion cracking than the annealed alloy. (Kako, I.)

  20. Effects of CaO on the compaction and sintering by plasma of Powder-metallurgical iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza Suarez, H. G.; Sarmiento Santos, A.; Ortiz Otálora, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    This work the effect of the addition of Calcium Oxide (CaO) in the compaction and sintering of powder metallurgical iron Ancoor Steel 1000® is studied. Iron samples were made with proportions of: 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2% by weight of CaO. The samples were sintered in a luminescent discharge furnace, in an atmosphere of H2+Ar at a temperature of 1150°C. XRD analysis was used to determine the formation of compounds, this analysis evidenced the formation of: hematite and magnetite, which were found both on the surface and in the volume. A characterization of the ability to protect against corrosive effects was carried out using the EIS electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method on the samples, in a solution of 1000ppm of chloride, with this procedure it was found that at a concentration of 0.5% and 1% CaO, the electrochemical impedance value is increased with values of 11.7MΩ, 2.2MΩ respectively.

  1. Metallurgical Bonding Development of V-4Cr-4Ti Alloy for the DIII-D Radiative Divertor Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.P.; Johnson, W.R.; Trester, P.W.

    1998-01-01

    General Atomics (GA), in conjunction with the Department of Energy's (DOE) DIII-D Program, is carrying out a plan to utilize a vanadium alloy in the DIII-D tokamak as part of the DIII-D Radiative Divertor (RD) upgrade. The V-4Cr-4Ti alloy has been selected in the U.S. as the leading candidate vanadium alloy for fusion applications. This alloy will be used for the divertor fabrication. Manufacturing development with the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy is a focus of the DIII-D RD Program. The RD structure, part of which will be fabricated from V-4Cr-4Ti alloy, will require many product forms and types of metal/metal bonded joints. Metallurgical bonding methods development on this vanadium alloy is therefore a key area of study by GA. Several solid state (non-fusion weld) and fusion weld joining methods are being investigated. To date, GA has been successful in producing ductile, high strength, vacuum leak tight joints by all of the methods under investigation. The solid state joining was accomplished in air, i.e., without the need for a vacuum or inert gas environment to prevent interstitial impurity contamination of the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy

  2. Projects development for mining-metallurgical units for production of uranium concentrates. An analysis an a methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajuria G, S.; Blanco P, B.; Manzanera Q, C.; Pena A, J.

    1978-07-01

    An analysis and a methodology for the complete development of a mining- metallurgist project is presented, from the sampling and the evaluation of a deposit until the outburst of a metallurgical plant. The main objectives of this work are three: On one hand it is to establish a methodology for standardize the internal activities of the Sub management of Benefits. It is convenient standardize the experimental procedures, the evaluation approaches and the form of presentation of results so that they are directly comparable and that it is easy their interpretation and use. Given the nature so variable of the minerals this document cannot be but that a guide and it is indispensable that in all moment the personnel that develops these activities uses his knowledge, experience and professional approach to obtain the best results. On the other hand it is to establish a base to facilitate the coordination of the activities of the Sub management of Benefit with other work groups, inside of and outside of the INEN that should collaborate in the projects. Finally it is to present a vision of group of the whole project like reference base for the participant personnel. Many of the specialists that contribute to the project would not be metallurgists, but rather they practice other disciplines. It is therefore convenient to facilitate the one that are formed an image of the complete project. (Author)

  3. Metallurgical and Corrosion Characterization of POST Weld Heat Treated Duplex Stainless Steel (uns S31803) Joints by Friction Welding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif M., Mohammed; Shrikrishna, Kulkarni Anup; Sathiya, P.

    2016-02-01

    The present study focuses on the metallurgical and corrosion characterization of post weld heat treated duplex stainless steel joints. After friction welding, it was confirmed that there is an increase in ferrite content at weld interface due to dynamic recrystallization. This caused the weldments prone to pitting corrosion attack. Hence the post weld heat treatments were performed at three temperatures 1080∘C, 1150∘C and 1200∘C with 15min of aging time. This was followed by water and oil quenching. The volume fraction of ferrite to austenite ratio was balanced and highest pit nucleation resistance were achieved after PWHT at 1080∘C followed by water quench and at 1150∘C followed by oil quench. This had happened exactly at parameter set containing heating pressure (HP):40 heating time (HT):4 upsetting pressure (UP):80 upsetting time (UP):2 (experiment no. 5). Dual phase presence and absence of precipitates were conformed through TEM which follow Kurdjumov-Sachs relationship. PREN of ferrite was decreasing with increase in temperature and that of austenite increased. The equilibrium temperature for water quenching was around 1100∘C and that for oil quenching was around 1140∘C. The pit depths were found to be in the range of 100nm and width of 1.5-2μm.

  4. Analysis on environmental impact of radiation from metallurgical project for rare metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Zitong; Zhang Baozeng

    2012-01-01

    Rare metals are the composition of many high-property metal materials, which has a wide range of uses in the field of national defense advanced science technology. Since Ta-Nb material is associated radioactive mineral resources, and it contains high radionuclide, resulting in some radioactive indicators in process and workplace of the Ta-Nb smelting projects were significantly higher than that of the surrounding environmental radiation background. Based on the analysis of Ta-Nb smelting projects, the major sources of pollution were identified. and the possible radiation impact of the project was analyzed and evaluated, corrective measures on the process layout were also proposed, and reasonable suggestions of how to optimize the radiation protection were made. (authors)

  5. Twenty third scientific conference on research-scientific problems of constructing mine buildings and metallurgical plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiadrowski, W

    1978-01-01

    Annual conference was held in Krynica from 16-23 September 1977. One hundred and nineteen papers were delivered, of these 24 papers were on mine buildings. It was noted that damage caused by underground coal mining is prevalent and characterized by a tendency to increase. In the middle of the 1970s damages paid by mines (mainly by coal mines) reached 5 billion zlotys yearly. Damages which were not compensated, and social cost of mining damages are not included in the calculation. The following problems were discussed: interaction between foundations of buildings with ground in areas affected by deformations; influnce of underground coal mining on properties of soil; improving construction of large industrial plants located on grounds characterized by surface deformations; influence of underground coal mining on deformations of walls of sedimentation tanks; complex utilization of mined deposits in the Upper Silesian basin, Rybnik basin and in the Lublin black coal basin (coal and other minerals). (In Polish)

  6. Grain boundary microchemistry and metallurgical characterization of Eurofer'97 after simulated service conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, P.; Garcia-Mazario, M.; Lancha, A.M.; Lapena, J.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the microstructural investigations, the mechanical properties (hardness, tensile and charpy) and the grain boundary microchemistry studied by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), of the Eurofer'97 steel aged in the range of temperatures from 400 to 600 deg. C up to 10,000 h. After these thermal aging treatments the steel showed a high microstructural stability, and similar values of hardness, ultimate tensile strength and 0.2% proof stress regardless of the material condition. A slight DBTT increase was observed in the material aged at 600 deg. C for 5000 and 10,000 h. The Auger results showed chromium enrichment at grain boundaries in all material conditions. In addition, phosphorus was detected at the grain boundaries after the aging treatments at 500 deg. C

  7. Structure-chemical and metallurgical investigations in boride- and boron nitride systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smid, I.

    1987-01-01

    Thermodynamic phase equilibria in the systems (Ti, Zv, Hf)-B-N were determined in an isothermal cut at 1500 O C and 1 atm. The phase field separation is dominated by the high stability of the metal mononitrides and metal diborides. No ternery compounds were found. There are varying solubilities of B and N in the nitrides and borides. The system Cr-B-N was investigated at 1000 O C under 1 atm argon and vacuum, and at 1400 O C at 1 atm argon and 1 atm nitrogen. For the system Mn-B-N the phase field separation was determined at 900 O C under 1 atm Ar and under vacuum. The properties of hard metals with various binding phases and TiBr as hard constituents were investigated. 6 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs. (qui)

  8. Powder metallurgical processing of self-passivating tungsten alloys for fusion first wall application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Ruiz, P.; Ordás, N.; Iturriza, I. [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Walter, M.; Gaganidze, E. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Lindig, S.; Koch, F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); García-Rosales, C., E-mail: cgrosales@ceit.es [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    Self-passivating tungsten based alloys are expected to provide a major safety advantage compared to pure tungsten, presently the main candidate material for first wall armour of future fusion reactors. In case of a loss of coolant accident with simultaneous air ingress, a protective oxide scale will be formed on the surface of W avoiding the formation of volatile and radioactive WO{sub 3}. Bulk WCr12Ti2.5 alloys were manufactured by mechanical alloying (MA) and hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and their properties compared to bulk WCr10Si10 alloys from previous work. The MA parameters were adjusted to obtain the best balance between lowest possible amount of contaminants and effective alloying of the elemental powders. After HIP, a density >99% is achieved for the WCr12Ti2.5 alloy and a very fine and homogeneous microstructure with grains in the submicron range is obtained. Unlike the WCr10Si10 material, no intergranular ODS phase inhibiting grain growth was detected. The thermal and mechanical properties of the WCr10Si10 material are dominated by the silicide (W,Cr){sub 5}Si{sub 3}; it shows a sharp ductile-to brittle transition in the range 1273–1323 K. The thermal conductivity of the WCr12Ti2.5 alloy is close to 50 W/mK in the temperature range of operation; it exhibits significantly higher strength and lower DBTT – around 1170 K – than the WCr10Si10 material.

  9. Metallurgical and fatigue assessments of welds in cast welded hydraulic turbine runners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trudel, A; Sabourin, M

    2014-01-01

    Decades of hydraulic turbine operation around the world have shown one undeniable fact; welded turbine runners can be prone to fatigue cracking, especially in the vicinity of welds. In this regard, three factors are essential to consider in runner fatigue assessments: (1) the runner's design, which can induce stress concentrations in the fillets, (2) the casting process, which inherently creates defects such as shrinkage cavities and (3) the welding process, which induces significant residual stresses as well as a heat affected zone in the cast pieces near the interface with the filler metal. This study focuses on the latter, the welding process, with emphasis on the influence of the heat affected zone on the runner's fatigue behavior. In a recently concluded study by a large research consortium in Montreal, the microstructure and fatigue crack propagation properties of a CA6NM runner weld heat affected zone were thoroughly investigated to find if this zone deteriorates the runner's resistance to fatigue cracking. The main results showed that this zone's intrinsic fatigue crack propagation resistance is only slightly lower than the unaffected base metal because of its somewhat finer martensitic microstructure leading to a less tortuous crack path. However, it was also confirmed that weld-induced residual stresses represent the dominant influencing factor regarding fatigue crack propagation, though post-weld heat treatments are usually very effective in reducing such residual stresses. This paper aims to further confirm, through a case study, that the weld-induced heat affected zone does not compromise the reliability of welded turbine runners when its fatigue crack propagation properties are considered in fatigue damage models

  10. Metallurgical Parameters Controlling the Eutectic Silicon Charateristics in Be-Treated Al-Si-Mg Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed F; Elgallad, Emad M; Valtierra, Salvador; Doty, Herbert W; Samuel, Fawzy H

    2016-01-27

    The present work was carried out on Al-7%Si-0.4%Mg-X alloy (where X = Mg, Fe, Sr or Be), where the effect of solidification rate on the eutectic silicon characteristics was investigated. Two solidification rates corresponding to dendrite arm spacings (DAS) of 24 and 65 μm were employed. Samples with 24 μm DAS were solution heat-treated at 540 °C for 5 and 12 h prior to quenching in warm water at 65 °C. Eutectic Si particle charateristics were measured using an image analyzer. The results show that the addition of 0.05% Be leads to partial modification of the Si particles. Full modification was only obtained when Sr was added in an amount of 150-200 ppm, depending on the applied solidification rate. Increasing the amount of Mg to 0.8% in Sr-modified alloys leads to a reduction in the effectiveness of Sr as the main modifier. Similar observations were made when the Fe content was increased in Be-treated alloys due to the Be-Fe interaction. Over-modification results in the precipitation of hard Sr-rich particles, mainly Al₄SrSi₂, whereas overheating causes incipient melting of the Al-Cu eutectic and hence the surrounding matrix. Both factors lead to a deterioration in the alloy mechanical properties. Furthermore, the presence of long, acicular Si particles accelerates the occurrence of fracture and, as a result, yields poor ductility. In low iron (less than 0.1 wt%) Al-Si-Mg alloys, the mechanical properties in the as cast, as well as heat treated conditions, are mainly controlled by the eutectic Si charatersitics. Increasing the iron content and, hence, the volume fraction of Fe-based intermetallics leads to a complex fracture mode.

  11. Metallurgical Parameters Controlling the Eutectic Silicon Charateristics in Be-Treated Al-Si-Mg Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out on Al-7%Si-0.4%Mg-X alloy (where X = Mg, Fe, Sr or Be, where the effect of solidification rate on the eutectic silicon characteristics was investigated. Two solidification rates corresponding to dendrite arm spacings (DAS of 24 and 65 μm were employed. Samples with 24 μm DAS were solution heat-treated at 540 °C for 5 and 12 h prior to quenching in warm water at 65 °C. Eutectic Si particle charateristics were measured using an image analyzer. The results show that the addition of 0.05% Be leads to partial modification of the Si particles. Full modification was only obtained when Sr was added in an amount of 150–200 ppm, depending on the applied solidification rate. Increasing the amount of Mg to 0.8% in Sr-modified alloys leads to a reduction in the effectiveness of Sr as the main modifier. Similar observations were made when the Fe content was increased in Be-treated alloys due to the Be-Fe interaction. Over-modification results in the precipitation of hard Sr-rich particles, mainly Al4SrSi2, whereas overheating causes incipient melting of the Al-Cu eutectic and hence the surrounding matrix. Both factors lead to a deterioration in the alloy mechanical properties. Furthermore, the presence of long, acicular Si particles accelerates the occurrence of fracture and, as a result, yields poor ductility. In low iron (less than 0.1 wt% Al-Si-Mg alloys, the mechanical properties in the as cast, as well as heat treated conditions, are mainly controlled by the eutectic Si charatersitics. Increasing the iron content and, hence, the volume fraction of Fe-based intermetallics leads to a complex fracture mode.

  12. Some aspects of metallurgical assessment of boiler tubes-Basic principles and case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Satyabrata

    2006-01-01

    Microstructural changes in boiler tubes during prolong operation at high temperature and pressure decrease load bearing capacity limiting their useful lives. When the load bearing capacity falls below a critical level depending on operating parameters and tube geometry, failure occurs. In order to avoid such failures mainly from the view point of economy and safety, this paper describes some basic principles behind remaining life assessment of service exposed components and also a few case studies related to failure of a reheater tube of 1.25Cr-0.5Mo steel, a carbon steel tube and final superheater tubes of 2.25Cr-1Mo steel and remaining creep life assessment of service exposed but unfailed platen superheater and reheater tubes of 2.25Cr-1Mo steel. Sticking of fly ash particles causing reduction in effective tube wall thickness is responsible for failure of reheater tubes. Decarburised metal containing intergranular cracks at the inner surface of the carbon steel tube exhibiting a brittle window fracture is an indicative of hydrogen embrittlement responsible for this failure. In contrast, final superheater tube showed that the failure took place due to short-term overheating. The influence of prolong service revealed that unfailed reheater tubes exhibit higher tensile properties than that of platen superheater tubes. In contrast both the tubes at 50 MPa meet the minimum creep rupture properties when compared with NRIM data. The remaining creep life of platen superheater tube as estimated at 50 MPa and 570 deg. C (1058 o F) is more than 10 years and that of reheater tube at 50 MPa and 580 deg. C (1076 o F) is 9 years

  13. A Metallurgical Evaluation of the Powder-Bed Laser Additive Manufactured 4140 Steel Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wesley; Kelly, Shawn

    2016-03-01

    Using laser powder bed fusion (PBF-L) additive manufacturing (AM) process for steel or iron powder has been attempted for decades. This work used a medium carbon steel (AISI 4140) powder to explore the feasibility of AM. The high carbon equivalent of 4140 steel (CEIIW ≈ 0.83) has a strong tendency toward cold cracking. As such, the process parameters must be carefully controlled to ensure the AM build quality. Through an orthogonally designed experimental matrix, a laser-welding procedure was successfully developed to produce 4140 steel AM builds with no welding defects. In addition, the microstructure and micro-cleanliness of the as-welded PBF-L AM builds were also examined. The results showed an ultra-fine martensite lath structure and an ultra-clean internal quality with minimal oxide inclusion distribution. After optimizing the PBF-L AM process parameters, including the laser power and scan speed, the as-welded AM builds yielded an average tensile strength higher than 1482 MPa and an average 33 J Charpy V-notch impact toughness at -18°C. The surface quality, tensile strength, and Charpy V-notch impact toughness of AM builds were comparable to the wrought 4140 steel. The excellent mechanical properties of 4140 steel builds created by the PBF-L AM AM process make industrial production more feasible, which shows great potential for application in the aerospace, automobile, and machinery industries.

  14. Metallurgical physics. Applications of microplasticity measurements to the fundamental study of deformation mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouzou, J.; D'Haeyer, R.

    1977-01-01

    This work has resulted in formulating a new method for the treatment of plastic phenomena under combined stresses. This method describes any plastic deformation as a combination of shears in the six planes at 45 0 to the principal stresses, and results in a satisfactory description of the macroscopic properties. A new tensile machine was built for microplasticity measurements under very low stresses. This machine includes a piston-pump, driven by a synchronous electric motor which ensures a perfectly linear stress increase, and it is equipped with a new extensometer whose sensitiveness reaches 10 -8 . Tests were performed on four steels, including two high-strength steels, and on pure iron. These tests revealed the existence of a microplastic component which comes into action for stresses much lower than those required for dislocations movements, and which is probably due to kink displacements. Tests were also performed on four ferritic alloys with various silicon and manganese contents. The linear microstrains were measured at various temperatures and for various rates of stress increase, with and without interstitial elements

  15. A Fully Transparent Flexible Sensor for Cryogenic Temperatures Based on High Strength Metallurgical Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Pawlak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Low-temperature electronics operating in below zero temperatures or even below the lower limit of the common −65 to 125 °C temperature range are essential in medical diagnostics, in space exploration and aviation, in processing and storage of food and mainly in scientific research, like superconducting materials engineering and their applications—superconducting magnets, superconducting energy storage, and magnetic levitation systems. Such electronic devices demand special approach to the materials used in passive elements and sensors. The main goal of this work was the implementation of a fully transparent, flexible cryogenic temperature sensor with graphene structures as sensing element. Electrodes were made of transparent ITO (Indium Tin Oxide or ITO/Ag/ITO conductive layers by laser ablation and finally encapsulated in a polymer coating. A helium closed-cycle cryostat has been used in measurements of the electrical properties of these graphene-based temperature sensors under cryogenic conditions. The sensors were repeatedly cooled from room temperature to cryogenic temperature. Graphene structures were characterized using Raman spectroscopy. The observation of the resistance changes as a function of temperature indicates the potential use of graphene layers in the construction of temperature sensors. The temperature characteristics of the analyzed graphene sensors exhibit no clear anomalies or strong non-linearity in the entire studied temperature range (as compared to the typical carbon sensor.

  16. Mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steels in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, G.J.

    1978-03-01

    A detailed review of the mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steels in liquid sodium is presented. Consideration has been given to the influence of the of the impurities in reactor sodium and metallurgical variables upon the stress rupture life, the low cycle fatigue and combined creep/fatigue resistance, elastic-plastic crack propagation rates, the high cycle fatigue life, tensile properties and fracture toughness. The effects of exposure to contaminated sodium prior to testing are also discussed. Examples of the success of mechanistic interpretations of materials behaviour in sodium are given and additionally, the extent to which mechanical properties in sodium may be predicted with the use of appropriate data. (author)

  17. A Metallurgical Investigation of the Direct Energy Deposition Surface Repair of Ferrous Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marya, Manuel; Singh, Virendra; Hascoet, Jean-Yves; Marya, Surendar

    2018-02-01

    Among additive manufacturing (AM) processes, the direct energy deposition (DED) by laser is explored to establish its applicability for the repair of ferrous alloys such as UNS G41400 low-alloy steel, UNS S41000 martensitic stainless steel, UNS S17400 precipitation-strengthened martensitic stainless steel, and UNS S32750 super-duplex stainless steel. Unlike plating, thermal spray, and conventional cladding weld, DED laser powder deposition offers potential advantages, e.g., thin deposits, limited dilutions, narrow heat-affected zones (HAZ), potentially improved surface properties. In this investigation, all AM deposits were completed with an IREPA CLAD™ system using a powder feed of UNS N06625, an alloy largely selected for its outstanding corrosion resistance. This investigation first addresses topological aspects of AM deposits (including visual imperfections) before focusing on changes in microstructure, microhardness, chemical composition across AM deposits and base materials. It has been established that dense, uniform, hard ( 300 HVN), crack-free UNS N06625-compliant AM deposits of fine dendritic microstructures are reliably produced. However, except for the UNS S32750 steel, a significant martensitic hardening was observed in the HAZs of UNS G41400 ( 650 HVN), UNS S41000 ( 500 HVN), and UNS S17400 ( 370 HVN). In summary, this investigation demonstrates that the DED laser repair of ferrous parts with UNS N06625 may restore damaged surfaces, but it also calls for cautions and complementary investigations for alloys experiencing a high HAZ hardening, for which industry standard recommendations are exceeded and lead to an increased risk of delayed cracking in corrosive environments.

  18. A bioactive metallurgical grade porous silicon-polytetrafluoroethylene sheet for guided bone regeneration applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, E G; Clarkin, O M; Raghavendra, R; Tanner, D A

    2014-01-01

    The properties of porous silicon make it a promising material for a host of applications including drug delivery, molecular and cell-based biosensing, and tissue engineering. Porous silicon has previously shown its potential for the controlled release of pharmacological agents and in assisting bone healing. Hydroxyapatite, the principle constituent of bone, allows osteointegration in vivo, due to its chemical and physical similarities to bone. Synthetic hydroxyapatite is currently applied as a surface coating to medical devices and prosthetics, encouraging bone in-growth at their surface and improving osseointegration. This paper examines the potential for the use of an economically produced porous silicon particulate-polytetrafluoroethylene sheet for use as a guided bone regeneration device in periodontal and orthopaedic applications. The particulate sheet is comprised of a series of microparticles in a polytetrafluoroethylene matrix and is shown to produce a stable hydroxyapatite on its surface under simulated physiological conditions. The microstructure of the material is examined both before and after simulated body fluid experiments for a period of 1, 7, 14 and 30 days using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The composition is examined using a combination of Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, Thin film X-ray diffraction, Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and the uptake/release of constituents at the fluid-solid interface is explored using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy. Microstructural and compositional analysis reveals progressive growth of crystalline, 'bone-like' apatite on the surface of the material, indicating the likelihood of close bony apposition in vivo.

  19. A privilege and a challenge: valuation of heirs' property by African American landowners and implications for forest management in the southeastern U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Hitchner; John Schelhas; Cassandra Johnson Gaither

    2017-01-01

    African Americans have historically struggled to retain land that has been held in their families for generations as heirs’ property, or land held collectively by heirs of the original owners without clear title. Ethnographic interviews with sixty landholding African American families in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Alabama reveal the cultural meanings...

  20. Technological properties and structure of titanate melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Power substantiation of existence of tough stream of complex anion ([TiO 6 ] 8- ) as a prevalent unit in titanate melts is given on the base of up-to-date knowledge about structure of metallurgical slags and results of investigations of thermophysical properties of these melts. It is shown that high crystallization ability of titanate melts at technological temperatures is determined by heterogeneity of liquid state - by presence up to 30 % of dispersed particles of solid phase solutions in matrix liquid [ru

  1. Concentration of gold, sulphide minerals and uranium oxide minerals by flotation from ores and metallurgical plant products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, D.

    1974-01-01

    A process for the recovery by froth flotation of gold and mineral values selected from the group consisting of gold bearing minerals, platinum group minerals, silver group minerals, and uranium group minerals, from ores and metallurgical plant products containing at least gold and at least one of the other said minerals comprising: subjecting a suitably prepared pulp of the material to mechanical agitation in at least one agitation conditioning stage wherein the pH of the said pulp has been lowered with an acid agent to an optimum pH point within the pH range of about 1.5 to 5.0 and wherein the agitation conditioning is for a sufficient period of time to bring about heavy activation of at least one of the said mineral values in at least one subsequent mechanical agitation conditioning stage wherein the said pulp is further agitation conditioned for a sufficient period of time and at an optimum pH point in the pH range of about 6.0 to 11.0 in the presence of at least one collector selected from the group of sulfhydryl anionic collectors to produce the said heavy activation of at least gold and at least one of the other said mineral values; and subsequently in the presence of a frother subjecting and said agitation conditioned pulp to flotation to produce a concentrate enriched in gold and at least one of the othersaid mineral values, and a tailings product impoverished in at least gold and at least one of the other said mineral values

  2. Two Millennia of Pb Pollution Related to Altiplano Metallurgical Activities and Leaded Gasoline in South America from Illimani Ice Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, A.; Gramlich, G.; Kellerhals, T.; Tobler, L.; Schwikowski, M.

    2014-12-01

    The exploitation of the extended polymetallic deposits of the Altiplano in South America led to significant emissions of the neurotoxic Pb into the atmosphere already since pre-Colonial times. Long-term histories of Pb pollution in Eastern and Western Europe, Asia, and North America suggest that within the Northern Hemisphere emissions from metallurgy and coal combustion are minor compared to that from leaded gasoline during the second half of the 20th century. However, there is no equivalent data for Southern America. Here we present the first comprehensive, high-resolution two millennia Pb emission history for South America, based on an ice core record from Illimani glacier in Bolivia. Illimani is the highest mountain of the eastern Bolivian Andes and is located at the northeastern margin of the Bolivian Altiplano. The 2000 year ice-core based decadal Pb deposition history revealed highest Pb Enrichment Factors (EFs) during the period 1965-85. Metallurgical processing for silver production during periods of the Tiwanaku culture (400-900 AD), the Inca empire (1450-1532 AD), colonial times (1532-1900 AD), and the tin production at the beginning of the 20th century were identified as major sources for enhanced Pb EFs before the 1960s. Gasoline related Pb emissions in 1965-85, however, led to a threefold increase of the Pb EFs compared to the emission level from metal production, considerably preceding those of the past 2000 years. This finding is complementary to the local air pollution signal preserved in lake sediments and in good agreement with various studies from the Northern Hemisphere.

  3. Application of Zn isotopes in environmental impact assessment of Zn–Pb metallurgical industries: A mini review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Nang-Htay; Sivry, Yann; Benedetti, Marc F.; Lens, Piet N.L.; Hullebusch, Eric D. van

    2016-01-01

    Zn and Pb smelters are the major contributors to Zn and Pb emissions among all anthropogenic sources, thus, it is essential to understand Zn isotopic variations within the context of metallurgical industries, as well as its fractionation in different environments impacted by smelting activities. This mini review outlines the current state of knowledge on Zn isotopic fractionation during the high-temperature roasting process in Zn and Pb refineries; δ"6"6Zn values variations in air emissions, slags and effluents from the smelters in comparison to the geogenic Zn isotopic signature of ores formation and weathering. In order to assess the environmental impact of these smelters, the available and measured δ"6"6Zn values are compiled for smelter impacted natural water bodies (groundwater, stream and river water), sediments (lake and reservoir) and soils (peat bog soil, inland soil). Finally, the discussion is extended to the fractionation induced during numerous physicochemical reactions and transformations, i.e. adsorption, precipitation as well as both inorganic and organic surface complexation. - Highlights: • Zn and Pb smelters are the major contributors to Zn emissions among all anthropogenic sources. • Zn isotopic variations in this context has been widely studied over the last 15 years. • Zn isotopic fractionation during the high-temperature roasting process and electroplating process is summarize. • Subsequent δ"6"6Zn values variations in air emissions, slags and effluents from the smelters are compared to the geogenic one. • The usefulness of δ"6"6Zn values to trace environmental impact of these smelters is discussed.

  4. Metal/metalloid content in plant parts and soils of Corylus spp. influenced by mining-metallurgical production of copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radojevic, Ana A; Serbula, Snezana M; Kalinovic, Tanja S; Kalinovic, Jelena V; Steharnik, Mirjana M; Petrovic, Jelena V; Milosavljevic, Jelena S

    2017-04-01

    The town of Bor and its surroundings (Serbia) have been under environmental pollution for more than a century, due to exploitation of large copper deposits. Naturally present Corylus spp. were sampled in the surroundings of the mine and flotation tailings at 12 sites distributed in six zones with different pollution loads, under the assumption that all the zones were endangered except for the background. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn inputs from soil and the air were evaluated in plant parts, in terms of absorption, accumulation and indication abilities of Corylus spp. The obtained results showed that As and Cu were the most enriched elements in soil, and their concentration exceeded the limit and remediation values proposed by the regulation. Plant parts (root, branch, leaf and catkin) also showed enrichment of most studied elements in wide ranges. According to the enrichment factor for plant, metal/metalloid inputs, particularly in leaves, were from anthropogenic origin. Plant absorption which occurred at the soil-root interface was low, based on the bioaccumulation factor, which could be indicative of resistance mechanisms of root to abiotic stress induced by a high content of elements in soil substrate. The values of bioaccumulation coefficient suggested weak and intermediate absorption and exclusion abilities of Corylus spp. to the studied elements. Element concentrations differ in unwashed and washed leaves, as well as pollution loads in plant and soil samples from the background, traffic and the sites with clear mining-metallurgical influence. Therefore, Corylus spp. could be promising in biomonitoring studies.

  5. Trial-by-fire transformation: an interview with Globe Metallurgical's Arden C. Sims. Interview by Bruce Rayner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, A C

    1992-01-01

    Globe Metallurgical Inc., a $115 million supplier of specialty metals, is best known as the first small company to win the Baldrige Award in 1988. But there is much more to this gutsy little company than total quality. During the 1980s, Globe transformed itself from a rust-belt has-been on the verge of bankruptcy into a high-technology, high-quality industry leader. Along the way, the company went private in a management-led leveraged buyout, embraced flexible work teams, adopted a high-value-added, niche marketing strategy, and took its business global. Leading the way in Globe's reinvention was Chief Executive Arden C. Sims, the slow-talking son of a West Virginian coal miner. When he joined the company in 1984, Sims had no experience in the new managerial techniques. He was a product of the old school of management: cut costs and trim operations to regain competitiveness. But he soon discovered that old-style management was not enough to battle offshore competitors, an unproductive work force, rising costs, and outdated production technology. He was forced to go looking for new ideas and practices. In a succession of learning experiences, Sims attended a seminar on total quality in 1985, paving the way for the company's quality program; he discovered the power of flexible work teams when management was forced to run the furnaces during a year-long strike; he organized an LBO, allowing him to change the work order even more dramatically; and he took the company global and into highly profitable niche markets by severing a long-standing relationship with Globe's sales and marketing representative. As a result of these and other changes, Globe leads the specialty metals industry in virtually all performance measures.

  6. Evaluation of properties of low activation Mn-Cr steel (2). Physical properties and aging properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Shigeru; Fukaya, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ishiyama, Shintaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Sato, Ikuo; Kusuhashi, Mikio; Hatakeyama, Takeshi [Japan Steel Works Ltd., Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan). Muroran Plant; Takahashi, Heishichiro [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan); Kikuchi, Mitsuru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2000-08-01

    The JT-60SU (Super Upgrade) program is under discussion at JAERI. Its design optimization activity requires the vacuum vessel material to be non-magnetic, very strong and with low induced activation. However, there is no suitable material available to fulfill all the requirements. JAERI started to develop a new material for the vacuum vessel together with the Japan Steel Works LTD. (JSW). Chemical composition and metallurgical processes were optimized and a new steel named VC9, which has the composition of Cr :16wt%, Mn :15.5wt%, C :0.2wt%, N :0.2wt% with nonmagnetic single {gamma} phase, was selected as a candidate material. Here, physical properties and aging properties of VC9 were studied and the results were compared with those of 316L stainless steel. (author)

  7. Process parameters-weld bead geometry interactions and their influence on mechanical properties: A case of dissimilar aluminium alloy electron beam welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mastanaiah

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of weld bead geometry is always an interesting and challenging research topic as it involves understanding of complex multi input and multi output system. The weld bead geometry has a profound impact on the load bearing capability of a weld joint, which in-turn decides the performance in real time service conditions. The present study introduces a novel approach of detecting a relationship between weld bead geometry and mechanical properties (e.g. tensile load for the purpose of catering the best the process could offer. The significance of the proposed approach is demonstrated by a case of dissimilar aluminium alloy (AA2219 and AA5083 electron beam welds. A mathematical model of tensile braking load as a function of geometrical attributes of weld bead geometry is presented. The results of investigation suggests the effective thickness of weld – a geometric parameter of weld bead has the most significant influence on tensile breaking load of dissimilar weld joint. The observations on bead geometry and the mechanical properties (microhardness, ultimate tensile load and face bend angle are correlated with detailed metallurgical analysis. The fusion zone of dissimilar electron beam weld has finer grain size with a moderate evaporation and segregation of alloying elements magnesium and copper respectively. The mechanical properties of weld joint are controlled by optimum bead geometry and HAZ softening in weaker AA5083 Al alloy. Keywords: Electron beam welding, AA2219, AA5083, Bead geometry, Tensile breaking load

  8. Overcoming challenges

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    Full Text Available ... Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental Health Pain Pregnancy Reproductive Health Sexual Health Sexually Transmitted Infections ... breastfeeding Overcoming challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch ...

  9. Overcoming challenges

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    Full Text Available ... menu It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work for you Addressing breastfeeding ... in the African-American community Incredible facts about babies, breastmilk, and breastfeeding Overcoming challenges Common questions about ...

  10. Overcoming challenges

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    Full Text Available ... facts about babies, breastmilk, and breastfeeding Overcoming challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch Finding support It takes a village: Building ...

  11. Cognitive Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alliance Our Story Our Vision Our Team Our Leadership Our Results Our Corporate Policies FAQs Careers Contact Us Media Store Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Cognitive Challenges Approximately 45% to 60% of individuals with TSC ...

  12. Overcoming challenges

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    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding means to them. Subscribe To receive Breastfeeding email updates Enter email Submit Overcoming challenges Breastfeeding has a long list ... breastfeeding means to them. Subscribe To receive Breastfeeding email updates Enter email Submit All material contained on ...

  13. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... into your life Breastfeeding in daily life: At home and in public Laws that support breastfeeding 10 ... and jobs View all pages in this section Home It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural ...

  14. Dynamic properties of the Sulfolobus CRISPR/Cas and CRISPR/Cmr systems when challenged with vector-borne viral and plasmid genes and protospacers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðbergsdóttir, Sóley Ruth; Deng, Ling; Chen, Zhengjun

    2011-01-01

    The adaptive immune CRISPR/Cas and CRISPR/Cmr systems of the crenarchaeal thermoacidophile Sulfolobus were challenged by a variety of viral and plasmid genes, and protospacers preceded by different dinucleotide motifs. The genes and protospacers were constructed to carry sequences matching...... individual spacers of CRISPR loci, and a range of mismatches were introduced. Constructs were cloned into vectors carrying pyrE/pyrF genes and transformed into uracil auxotrophic hosts derived from Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 or Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A. Most constructs, including those carrying different...... protospacer mismatches, yielded few viable transformants. These were shown to carry either partial deletions of CRISPR loci, covering a broad spectrum of sizes and including the matching spacer, or deletions of whole CRISPR/Cas modules. The deletions occurred independently of whether genes or protospacers...

  15. Challenges in computational evaluation of redox and magnetic properties of Fe-based sulfate cathode materials of Li- and Na-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkin, Maxim; Sato, Hirofumi

    2017-06-01

    Several Fe-based sulfates have been proposed recently as cathode materials characterized by a high average operating voltage (i.e. Li2Fe(SO4)2 and Na2Fe2(SO4)3) or low fabrication temperature (e.g. Na2Fe(SO4)2·2H2O)). In this work, we apply three methods to evaluate the redox potentials and magnetic properties of these materials: (1) local density functional theory (DFT) in Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof parametrization; (2) rotationally invariant DFT  +  U and (3) DFT  +  U with magnetic exchange, suggested herein. The U parameters used for DFT  +  U calculations have been evaluated by using a linear response method (this applies to DFT  +  U as well as DFT  +  U calculations with a magnetic exchange term). Moreover, we have performed adjustments of U and, for the case of magnetic exchange, J parameters, to find better agreement with experimental measurements of redox and magnetic properties. We find that a self-consistent DFT  +  U/linear response approach yields quite overestimated redox potentials as compared to experiment. On the other hand, we also show that DFT  +  U calculations are not capable of providing a reasonably accurate description of both redox and magnetic properties for the case of Li2Fe(SO4)2, even when adjusted U parameters are employed. As a solution, we demonstrate that a DFT  +  U methodology augmented by a magnetic exchange term potentially provides more precise values for both the redox potentials and the magnetic moments of the Fe ions in the studied materials. Thus our work shows that for a more accurate description of redox and magnetic properties, further extensions of the DFT  +  U method, such as inclusion of the contribution of magnetic exchange, should be considered.

  16. Challenges in computational evaluation of redox and magnetic properties of Fe-based sulfate cathode materials of Li- and Na-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishkin, Maxim; Sato, Hirofumi

    2017-01-01

    Several Fe-based sulfates have been proposed recently as cathode materials characterized by a high average operating voltage (i.e. Li 2 Fe(SO 4 ) 2 and Na 2 Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ) or low fabrication temperature (e.g. Na 2 Fe(SO 4 ) 2 ·2H 2 O)). In this work, we apply three methods to evaluate the redox potentials and magnetic properties of these materials: (1) local density functional theory (DFT) in Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof parametrization; (2) rotationally invariant DFT  +   U ; and (3) DFT  +   U with magnetic exchange, suggested herein. The U parameters used for DFT  +   U calculations have been evaluated by using a linear response method (this applies to DFT  +   U as well as DFT  +   U calculations with a magnetic exchange term). Moreover, we have performed adjustments of U and, for the case of magnetic exchange, J parameters, to find better agreement with experimental measurements of redox and magnetic properties. We find that a self-consistent DFT  +   U /linear response approach yields quite overestimated redox potentials as compared to experiment. On the other hand, we also show that DFT  +   U calculations are not capable of providing a reasonably accurate description of both redox and magnetic properties for the case of Li 2 Fe(SO 4 ) 2 , even when adjusted U parameters are employed. As a solution, we demonstrate that a DFT  +   U methodology augmented by a magnetic exchange term potentially provides more precise values for both the redox potentials and the magnetic moments of the Fe ions in the studied materials. Thus our work shows that for a more accurate description of redox and magnetic properties, further extensions of the DFT  +   U method, such as inclusion of the contribution of magnetic exchange, should be considered. (paper)

  17. Metallurgical study of the iberian weapons found in jutia valley (Nerpio-Yeste, Albacete, Spain. Work, weaponry, rituals and mountain communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Gener Moret

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a metallurgical study of weapons of the Iberian Iron Age documented in the high-altitude valley of Jutia (Nerpio-Yeste, Albacete, Spain integrated in the analysis of their specific archaeological context and as part of our ongoing research about the forms of organization of mountain landscapes during the Iron Age. The results are especially valid in the case of a soliferreum, whose metallographic analysis allows us to characterize the technology of its production process, and a lance tip, whose analysis raises arguments about the complex social life and the various social actions potentially linked to the objects placed in ritual and funerary contexts.

  18. Assessment of the effect of Nd:YAG laser pulse operating parameters on the metallurgical characteristics of different tool steels using DOE software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Muhič

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the reliability of repair welded tool surfaces, clad quality should be improved. The relationships between metallurgical characteristics of cladding and laser input welding parameters were studied using the design of experiments software. The influence of laser power, welding speed, focal point position and diameter of welding wire on the weld-bead geometry (i.e. penetration, cladding zone width and heat-affected-zone width, microstructural homogeneity, dilution and bond strength was investigated on commonly used tool steels 1,2083, 1,2312 and 1,2343, using DOE software.

  19. In Vitro Evaluation of Swine-Derived Lactobacillus reuteri: Probiotic Properties and Effects on Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cells Challenged with Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhilin; Wang, Li; Chen, Zhuang; Ma, Xianyong; Yang, Xuefen; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Zongyong

    2016-06-28

    Probiotics are considered as the best effective alternatives to antibiotics. The aim of this study was to characterize the probiotic potential of lactobacilli for use in swine farming by using in vitro evaluation methods. A total of 106 lactic acid bacterial isolates, originating from porcine feces, were first screened for the capacity to survive stresses considered important for putative probiotic strains. Sixteen isolates showed notable acid and bile resistance, antibacterial activity, and adherence to intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-1). One isolate, LR1, identified as Lactobacillus reuteri, was selected for extensive study of its probiotic and functional properties in IPEC-1 cell models. L. reuteri LR1 exhibited good adhesion to IPEC-1 cells and could inhibit the adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) to IPEC-1 cells. L. reuteri LR1 could also modulate transcript and protein expression of cytokines involved in inflammation in IPEC-1 cells; the Lactobacillus strain inhibited the ETEC-induced expression of proinflammatory transcripts (IL-6 and TNF-α) and protein (IL-6), and increased the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10). Measurement of the permeation of FD-4 showed that L. reuteri LR1 could maintain barrier integrity in monolayer IPEC-1 cells exposed to ETEC. Immunolocalization experiments showed L. reuteri LR1 could also prevent ETEC-induced tight junction ZO-1 disruption. Together, these results indicate that L. reuteri LR1 exhibits desirable probiotic properties and could be a potential probiotic for use in swine production.

  20. Environmental challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conable, B.; Warford, J.; Partow, Z.; Lutz, E.; Munasinghe, M.

    1991-09-01

    The contents include the following: Development and the Environment: A Global Balance; Evolution of the World Bank's Environmental Policy; Accounting for the Environment; Public Policy and the Environment; Managing Drylands; Environmental Action Plans in Africa; Agroforestry in Sub-Saharan Africa; Irrigation and the Environmental Challenge; Curbing Pollution in Developing Countries; Global Warming and the Developing World; and The Global Environment Facility

  1. Challenging Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    depends on the conceptual or ideological constellation in which it takes part. This volume on one hand demonstrates the role of notions of identity in a variety of European contexts, and on the other hand highlights how there may be reasons to challenge the use of the term and corresponding social...

  2. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Us Blog Popular topics Vision and mission Leadership Programs and activities In your community Funding opportunities Internships and jobs View all pages in this section Home It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural Planning ahead Addressing breastfeeding myths ...

  3. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... we are What we do Programs and activities Work with us Contact Us Blog Popular topics Vision and mission Leadership Programs and activities In your community Funding opportunities Internships and jobs View all pages in this section Home It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural ...

  4. The Carbomer-Lecithin Adjuvant Adjuplex Has Potent Immunoactivating Properties and Elicits Protective Adaptive Immunity against Influenza Virus Challenge in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Frank; Moghaddam, Amin E.; Schiffner, Torben; Gartlan, Kate H.; Powell, Timothy J.; Russell, Rebecca A.; Baart, Matthijs; Carrow, Emily W.

    2015-01-01

    The continued discovery and development of adjuvants for vaccine formulation are important to safely increase potency and/or reduce the antigen doses of existing vaccines and tailor the adaptive immune response to newly developed vaccines. Adjuplex is a novel adjuvant platform based on a purified lecithin and carbomer homopolymer. Here, we analyzed the adjuvant activity of Adjuplex in mice for the soluble hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein of influenza A virus. The titration of Adjuplex revealed an optimal dose of 1% for immunogenicity, eliciting high titers of HA-specific IgG but inducing no significant weight loss. At this dose, Adjuplex completely protected mice from an otherwise lethal influenza virus challenge and was at least as effective as the adjuvants monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and alum in preventing disease. Adjuplex elicited balanced Th1-/Th2-type immune responses with accompanying cytokines and triggered antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell proliferation. The use of the peritoneal inflammation model revealed that Adjuplex recruited dendritic cells (DCs), monocytes, and neutrophils in the context of innate cytokine and chemokine secretion. Adjuplex neither triggered classical maturation of DCs nor activated a pathogen recognition receptor (PRR)-expressing NF-κB reporter cell line, suggesting a mechanism of action different from that reported for classical pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-activated innate immunity. Taken together, these data reveal Adjuplex to be a potent and well-tolerated adjuvant with application for subunit vaccines. PMID:26135973

  5. Producing metallurgic coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, T.; Isida, K.; Vada, Y.

    1982-11-18

    A mixture of power producing coals with coal briquets of varying composition is proposed for coking in horizontal chamber furnaces. The briquets are produced from petroleum coke, coal fines or semicoke, which make up less than 27 percent of the mixture to be briquetted and coals with a standard coking output of volatile substances and coals with high maximal Gizeler fluidity. The ratio of these coals in the mixture is 0.6 to 2.1 or 18 to 32 percent, respectively. Noncaking or poorly caking coals are used as the power producing coals. The hardness of the obtained coke is DJ15-30 = 90.5 to 92.7 percent.

  6. Metallurgical behavior of fine fractions of copper sulfide minerals in a combined process of modified flotation and agitated bio leaching; Respuesta metalurgica de fracciones finas de minerales sulfurados de cobre en un proceso combinado de flotacion modificada y biolixiviacion agitada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanez, J. P.; Ipinza, J.; Collao, N.; Ahlborn, G.

    2007-07-01

    The metallurgical behaviour of fine fraction of copper sulfide minerals of Compania Minera Quebrada Blanca S. A. was studied by concentration through flotation in aqueous media modified by alcohol followed by bio leaching of the concentrates. By using a 1% v/v of methanol, the metallurgical recovery of copper reaches 88%, while the iron recovery was 43%, the weight recovery was 18%, which indicates a high selectivity. these concentrates were then bio leached with and without nutrient medium, reaching 80% of copper recovery after 10 and 17 days, respectively. then, it is possible to conclude that this concentration-bio leaching metallurgical process is a promising route for copper recovery from the fine fraction of sulfide minerals. (Author) 24 refs.

  7. Characteristic and Source of Atmospheric PM10- and PM2.5-bound PAHs in a Typical Metallurgic City Near Yangtze River in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Wang, Ruwei; Xue, Huaqin; Hu, Ruoyu; Liu, Guijian

    2018-02-01

    The characteristics of atmospheric PM 10 - and PM 2.5 -bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in Tongling city, China. Results showed that the total concentrations of PM 10 - and PM 2.5 -bound PAHs exhibited distinct seasonal and spatial variability. The metallurgic sites showed the highest PAH concentrations, which is mainly attributed to the metallurgic activities (mainly copper ore smelting) and coal combustion as the smelting fuel. The rural area showed the lowest concentrations, but exhibited significant increase from summer to autumn. This seasonal fluctuation is mainly caused by the biomass burning at the sites in the harvest season. The diagnostic ratio indicated that the main PAHs sources were vehicle exhausts, coal combustion and biomass burning. The total BaP equivalent concentration (BAP-TEQ) was found to be maximum at DGS site in winter, whereas it was minimum at BGC site in summer. Risk assessment indicates that residential exposure to PAHs in the industrial area, especially in the winter season, may pose a greater inhalation cancer risk than people living in living area and rural area.

  8. A two-step leaching method designed based on chemical fraction distribution of the heavy metals for selective leaching of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb from metallurgical sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fen; Yu, Junxia; Xiong, Wanli; Xu, Yuanlai; Chi, Ru-An

    2018-01-01

    For selective leaching and highly effective recovery of heavy metals from a metallurgical sludge, a two-step leaching method was designed based on the distribution analysis of the chemical fractions of the loaded heavy metal. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) was used as a leaching agent in the first step to leach the relatively labile heavy metals and then ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) was applied to leach the residual metals according to their different fractional distribution. Using the two-step leaching method, 82.89% of Cd, 55.73% of Zn, 10.85% of Cu, and 0.25% of Pb were leached in the first step by 0.7 M HCl at a contact time of 240 min, and the leaching efficiencies for Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb were elevated up to 99.76, 91.41, 71.85, and 94.06%, by subsequent treatment with 0.2 M EDTA at 480 min, respectively. Furthermore, HCl leaching induced fractional redistribution, which might increase the mobility of the remaining metals and then facilitate the following metal removal by EDTA. The facilitation was further confirmed by the comparison to the one-step leaching method with single HCl or single EDTA, respectively. These results suggested that the designed two-step leaching method by HCl and EDTA could be used for selective leaching and effective recovery of heavy metals from the metallurgical sludge or heavy metal-contaminated solid media.

  9. Studies on the influence of metallurgical variables on the stress corrosion behavior of AISI 304 stainless steel in sodium chloride solution using the fracture mechanics approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatak, H.S.; Gnanamoorthy, J.B.; Rodriguez, P.

    1996-01-01

    Stress corrosion data on a nuclear grade AISI type 304 stainless steel in a boiling solution of 5M NaCl + 0.15M Na 2 SO 4 + 3 mL/L HCl (bp 381 K) for various metallurgical conditions of the steel are presented in this article. The metallurgical conditions used are solution annealing, sensitization, 10 pct cold work, 20 pct cold work, solution annealing + sensitization, 10 pct cold work + sensitization, and 20 pct cold work + sensitization. The fracture mechanics approach has been used to obtain quantitative data on the stress corrosion crack growth rates. The stress intensity factor, K I , and J integral, J I , have been used as evaluation parameters. The crack growth rates have been measured using compact tension type samples under both increasing and decreasing stress intensity factors. A crack growth rate of 5 x 10 -11 m/s was chosen for the determination of threshold parameters. Results of the optical microscopic and fractographic examinations are presented. Acoustic signals were recorded during crack growth. Data generated from acoustic emissions, activation energy measurements, and fractographic features indicate hydrogen embrittlement as the possible mechanism of cracking

  10. Interfacial characterization of SLM parts in multi-material processing: Metallurgical diffusion between 316L stainless steel and C18400 copper alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z.H., E-mail: AZHLIU@ntu.edu.sg; Zhang, D.Q., E-mail: ZHANGDQ@ntu.edu.sg; Sing, S.L., E-mail: SING0011@e.ntu.edu.sg; Chua, C.K., E-mail: MCKCHUA@ntu.edu.sg; Loh, L.E., E-mail: LELOH1@e.ntu.edu.sg

    2014-08-15

    Multi-material processing in selective laser melting using a novel approach, by the separation of two different materials within a single dispensing coating system was investigated. 316L stainless steel and UNS C18400 Cu alloy multi-material samples were produced using selective laser melting and their interfacial characteristics were analyzed using focused ion beam, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and electron back scattered diffraction techniques. A substantial amount of Fe and Cu element diffusion was observed at the bond interface suggesting good metallurgical bonding. Quantitative evidence of good bonding at the interface was also obtained from the tensile tests where the fracture was initiated at the copper region. Nevertheless, the tensile strength of steel/Cu SLM parts was evaluated to be 310 ± 18 MPa and the variation in microhardness values was found to be gradual along the bonding interface from the steel region (256 ± 7 HV{sub 0.1}) to the copper region (72 ± 3 HV{sub 0.1}). - Highlights: • Multi-material processing was successfully implemented and demonstrated in SLM. • Bi-metallic laminates of steel/Cu were successfully produced with the SLM process. • A substantial amount of Fe and Cu diffusion was observed at the bond interface. • Good metallurgical bonding was obtained at the interface of the steel/Cu laminates. • Highly refined microstructure was obtained due to rapid solidification in SLM.

  11. Intellectual property rights and challenges for development of affordable human papillomavirus, rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccines: Patent landscaping and perspectives of developing country vaccine manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Amin, Tahir; Kim, Joyce; Furrer, Eliane; Matterson, Anna-Carin; Schwalbe, Nina; Nguyen, Aurélia

    2015-11-17

    The success of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance depends on the vaccine markets providing appropriate, affordable vaccines at sufficient and reliable quantities. Gavi's current supplier base for new and underutilized vaccines, such as the human papillomavirus (HPV), rotavirus, and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is very small. There is growing concern that following globalization of laws on intellectual property rights (IPRs) through trade agreements, IPRs are impeding new manufacturers from entering the market with competing vaccines. This article examines the extent to which IPRs, specifically patents, can create such obstacles, in particular for developing country vaccine manufacturers (DCVMs). Through building patent landscapes in Brazil, China, and India and interviews with manufacturers and experts in the field, we found intense patenting activity for the HPV and pneumococcal vaccines that could potentially delay the entry of new manufacturers. Increased transparency around patenting of vaccine technologies, stricter patentability criteria suited for local development needs and strengthening of IPRs management capabilities where relevant, may help reduce impediments to market entry for new manufacturers and ensure a competitive supplier base for quality vaccines at sustainably low prices. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Challenging the in-vivo assessment of biomechanical properties of the uterine cervix: A critical analysis of ultrasound based quasi-static procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, M M; Badir, S; Pensalfini, M; Bajka, M; Abitabile, P; Zimmermann, R; Mazza, E

    2015-06-25

    Measuring the stiffness of the uterine cervix might be useful in the prediction of preterm delivery, a still unsolved health issue of global dimensions. Recently, a number of clinical studies have addressed this topic, proposing quantitative methods for the assessment of the mechanical properties of the cervix. Quasi-static elastography, maximum compressibility using ultrasound and aspiration tests have been applied for this purpose. The results obtained with the different methods seem to provide contradictory information about the physiologic development of cervical stiffness during pregnancy. Simulations and experiments were performed in order to rationalize the findings obtained with ultrasound based, quasi-static procedures. The experimental and computational results clearly illustrate that standardization of quasi-static elastography leads to repeatable strain values, but for different loading forces. Since force cannot be controlled, this current approach does not allow the distinction between a globally soft and stiff cervix. It is further shown that introducing a reference elastomer into the elastography measurement might overcome the problem of force standardization, but a careful mechanical analysis is required to obtain reliable stiffness values for cervical tissue. In contrast, the maximum compressibility procedure leads to a repeatable, semi-quantitative assessment of cervical consistency, due to the nonlinear nature of the mechanical behavior of cervical tissue. The evolution of cervical stiffness in pregnancy obtained with this procedure is in line with data from aspiration tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mobility Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lassen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    This article takes point of departure in the challenges to understand the importance of contemporary mobility. The approach advocated is a cross-disciplinary one drawing on sociology, geography, urban planning and design, and cultural studies. As such the perspective is to be seen as a part...... of the so-called ‘mobility turn’ within social science. The perspective is illustrative for the research efforts at the Centre for Mobility and Urban Studies (C-MUS), Aalborg University. The article presents the contours of a theoretical perspective meeting the challenges to research into contemporary urban...... mobilities. In particular the article discusses 1) the physical city, its infrastructures and technological hardware/software, 2) policies and planning strategies for urban mobility and 3) the lived everyday life in the city and the region....

  14. Lithium niobate packaging challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E.J.; Holmes, R.J.; Jander, R.B.; Schelling, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    The use of lithium niobate integrated optic devices outside of the research laboratory is predicated on the development of a sound packaging method. The authors present a discussion of the many issues that face the development of a viable, robust packaging technology. The authors emphasize the interaction of lithium niobate's physical properties with available packaging materials and technologies. The broad range of properties (i.e. electro-optic, piezo-electric, pyro-electric, photorefractive...) that make lithium niobate an interesting material in many device applications also make it a packaging challenge. The package design, materials and packaging technologies must isolate the device from the environment so that lithium niobate's properties do not adversely affect the device performance

  15. Ecological Catastrophes in the steppe? Landscape Archaeology at the mining and metallurgical complex of Kargaly (Region of Orenbourg, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicent García, Juan M.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Kargaly is one of the most important centers of mining and metallurgy in the great Eurasian steppe. Dr. E.N. Chernykh and his team (Institute of Archaeology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow and various researchers at the CSIC and other Spanish institutions have developed a joint project to undertake a comprehensive study of the site's two main phases of occupation, the Bronze Age (2nd millenium BC and the first Russian industrialization (1745-1900 AD. The Russian members of the joint team are in charge of the archaeological investigations, while the Spanish members are studying metallurgical and mining technology and production, on the one hand, and the environmental context and impact of these activities, on the other. This article presents the research design and first results of the Palaeoenvironmental research at Kargaly. This work has two aspects. The first consisted of obtaining one of the most complete palaeoenvironmental data sets from the steppes through both the systematic sampling of archaeological sites to recover charcoal, seeds, fruits and pollen and the taking of palynological cores from natural deposits, on the other Both sampling programs were supported by radiocarbon dates. The second aspect, to which the greater part of this article is devoted, was dedicated to contextualizing the palaeobotanical evidence by studying the present-day landscape, with particular attention to understanding the processes which shape the variability of the pollen rain. Our purpose was to obtain explicit and measurable calibrative criteria which would enable us to answer the palaeoenvironmental questions raised by our archaeological and archaeometallurgical research. These questions include, most importantly, the following: what was the extent of forest (the energy base for the mining/metallurgical complex during the Bronze Age? and how do we evaluate subsistence practices? (an issue related to the origins of agriculture on the

  16. Room and ultrahigh temperature structure-mechanical property relationships of tungsten alloys formed by field assisted sintering technique (FAST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browning, Paul N.; Alagic, Sven [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State College, PA-16801 (United States); Pennsylvania State University, Applied Research Laboratory, State College, PA-16801 (United States); Kulkarni, Anil [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Nuclear and Mechanical Engineering, State College, PA-16801 (United States); Matson, Lawrence [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, OH (United States); Singh, Jogender, E-mail: jxs46@arl.psu.edu [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State College, PA-16801 (United States); Pennsylvania State University, Applied Research Laboratory, State College, PA-16801 (United States)

    2016-09-30

    Tungsten based alloys have become of critical importance in a number of applications including plasma-facing materials in nuclear fusion reactors, rocket nozzles for aerospace applications, and in kinetic energy penetrators in the defense industry. Formation of components for these uses by powder metallurgical techniques has proven challenging, due to tungsten's relatively poor sinterability. Here we report the use of field assisted sintering technique (FAST) to produce high density, fine grain alloys with mechanical properties comparable or superior to that of components produced by conventional techniques. Alloys of pure tungsten, W-3 vol%TiC, W-5 vol%TiC, and W-10 vol%Ta were synthesized at 2100 °C, 35 MPa for 25 min using FAST. Microstructural characterization revealed effective reduction of grain size with TiC addition and preferential diffusion of oxygen into the center of tantalum particles in tantalum containing alloys. Tensile testing of alloys revealed TiC addition to W resulted in substantially improved ultimate tensile strength at the cost of ductility in comparison at temperatures up to 1926 °C (3500 °F) however this strengthening effect was lost at 2204 °C (4000 °F). Addition of 10 vol%Ta to W resulted in reduced hardness at room temperature, but substantially increased yield strength at the cost of slightly reduced ductility at 1926 °C and 2204 °C.

  17. Global challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1990-01-01

    A major challenge now facing the world is the supply of energy needed for growth and development in a manner which is not only economically viable but also environmentally acceptable and sustainable in view of the demands of and risks to future generations. The internationally most significant pollutants from energy production through fossil fuels are SO 2 and NO x which cause acid rain, and CO 2 which is the most significant contributor to the greenhouse effect. Nuclear power, now providing about 17% of the world's electricity and 5% of the primary energy already is making a notable contribution to avoiding these emissions. While the industrialized countries will need more energy and especially electricity in the future, the needs of the developing countries are naturally much larger and present a tremendous challenge to the shaping of the world's future energy supply system. The advanced countries will have to accept special responsibilities, as they can most easily use advanced technologies and they have been and remain the main contributors to the environmental problems we now face. Energy conservation and resort to new renewable energy sources, though highly desirable, appear inadequate alone to meet the challenges. The world can hardly afford to do without an increased use of nuclear power, although it is strongly contested in many countries. The objections raised against the nuclear option focus on safety, waste management and disposal problems and the risk for proliferation of nuclear weapons. These issues are not without their problems. The risk of proliferation exists but will not appreciably diminish with lesser global reliance on nuclear power. The waste issue is more of a political than a technical problem. The use of nuclear power, or any other energy source, will never be at zero risk, but the risks are constantly reduced by new techniques and practices. The IAEA sees it as one of its priority tasks to promote such techniques. (author)

  18. Data Challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    McCubbin, N A

    Some two years ago we planned a series of Data Challenges starting at the end of 2001. At the time, that seemed to be comfortingly far in the future... Well, as the saying goes, doesn't time fly when you are having fun! ATLAS Computing is now deep in the throes of getting the first Data Challenge (DC0) up and running. One of the main aims of DC0 is to have a software 'release' in which we can generate full physics events, track all particles through the detector, simulate the detector response, reconstruct the event, and study it, with appropriate data storage en route. As all software is "always 95% ready" (!), we have been able to do most of this, more or less, for some time. But DC0 forces us to have everything working, together, at the same time: a reality check. DC0 should finish early next year, and it will be followed almost immediately afterwards by DC1 (DC0 was foreseen as the 'check' for DC1). DC1 will last into the middle of 2002, and has two major goals. The first is generation, simulation, and r...

  19. Reconstructing the ecological impacts of eight decades of mining, metallurgical, and municipal activities on a small boreal lake in northern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, Lorne E; Schiffer, Stephanie T; Liber, Karsten

    2015-07-01

    As a result of long-term metal mining and metallurgical activities, the sediment of Ross Lake (Flin Flon, MB, Canada) is highly contaminated with metals and other elements. Although the effluents likely were discharged into Ross Lake as early as the late 1920s, lake biophysical data were not collected until 1973, more than 4 decades after the onset of mining and municipal activities. The early influence of these activities on the ecology of Ross Lake is unknown, as are the effects of improvements to metallurgical effluent quality and discontinuation of municipal wastewater discharge into the lake's north basin. To address this knowledge gap, analyses typical of paleolimnological investigations were applied to cores of sediment collected in 2009 from the south basin of Ross Lake. Stratigraphic analyses of physicochemical sediment characteristics (e.g., the concentrations of metals and other elements, organic C, total N, and δ(13)C and δ(15)N values) and subfossil remains (diatoms, Chironomidae, Chaoborus, and Cladocera) were used to infer historical biological and chemical changes in Ross Lake. With the onset of mining activities, concentrations of various elements (e.g., As, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Se) increased dramatically in the sediment profile, eventually declining with improved tailings management. Nevertheless, concentrations of metals in recent sediments remain elevated compared with pre-industrial sediments. Constrained cluster analyses demonstrated distinct pre-industrial and postindustrial communities for both the diatoms and chironomids. The biodiversity of the postindustrial diatom assemblages were much reduced compared with the pre-industrial assemblages. The postindustrial chironomid assemblage was dominated by Chironomus and to a lesser extent by Procladius, suggesting that Ross Lake became a degraded environment. Abundances of Cladocera and Chaoborus were severely reduced in the postindustrial era, likely because of metals toxicity. Overall, improvements

  20. Challenging makerspaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Thestrup, Klaus

    This paper takes its departure in the EU-project MakEY - Makerspaces in the early years – enhancing digital literacy and creativity that is part of a H2020 RISE-program and is running January 2017 - June 2019. Here digital literacy and creative skills of young children between the age of 3......-8 will be developed through participation in creative activities in specially-designed spaces termed ‘makerspaces’. This paper discusses, develops and challenges this term in relation to Danish pedagogical traditions, to expanding makerspaces onto the internet and on how to combine narratives and construction....... The Danish part of the project will be undertaken by a small network of partners: DOKK1, a public library and open urban space in Aarhus, that is experimenting with different kind of makerspaces, spaces and encounters between people, The LEGO-LAB situated at Computer Science, Aarhus University, that has...

  1. 1Q/2Q00 M-Area and Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facilities Groundwater Monitoring and Corrective-Action Report - First and Second Quarters 2000 - Volumes I, II, and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    2000-10-24

    This report describes the groundwater monitoring and corrective-action program at the M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) and the Metallurgical Laboratory (Met Lab) HWMF at the Savannah River site (SRS) during first and second quarters of 2000.

  2. 1Q/2Q00 M-Area and Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facilities Groundwater Monitoring and Corrective-Action Report - First and Second Quarters 2000 - Volumes I, II, and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, J.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the groundwater monitoring and corrective-action program at the M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) and the Metallurgical Laboratory (Met Lab) HWMF at the Savannah River site (SRS) during first and second quarters of 2000

  3. Mechanical properties correlation to processing parameters for advanced alumina based refractories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Marija M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alumina based refractories are usually used in metallurgical furnaces and their thermal shock resistance is of great importance. In order to improve thermal shock resistance and mechanical properties of alumina based refractories short ceramic fibers were added to the material. SEM technique was used to compare the microstructure of specimens and the observed images gave the porosity and morphological characteristics of pores in the specimens. Standard compression test was used to determine the modulus of elasticity and compression strength. Results obtained from thermal shock testing and mechanical properties measurements were used to establish regression models that correlated specimen properties to process parameters.

  4. Preliminary Empirical Models for Predicting Shrinkage, Part Geometry and Metallurgical Aspects of Ti-6Al-4V Shaped Metal Deposition Builds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Palafox, Gustavo; Gault, Rosemary; Ridgway, Keith

    2011-12-01

    Shaped Metal Deposition (SMD) is an additive manufacturing process which creates parts layer by layer by weld depositions. In this work, empirical models that predict part geometry (wall thickness and outer diameter) and some metallurgical aspects (i.e. surface texture, portion of finer Widmanstätten microstructure) for the SMD process were developed. The models are based on an orthogonal fractional factorial design of experiments with four factors at two levels. The factors considered were energy level (a relationship between heat source power and the rate of raw material input.), step size, programmed diameter and travel speed. The models were validated using previous builds; the prediction error for part geometry was under 11%. Several relationships between the factors and responses were identified. Current had a significant effect on wall thickness; thickness increases with increasing current. Programmed diameter had a significant effect on percentage of shrinkage; this decreased with increasing component size. Surface finish decreased with decreasing step size and current.

  5. Preliminary Empirical Models for Predicting Shrinkage, Part Geometry and Metallurgical Aspects of Ti-6Al-4V Shaped Metal Deposition Builds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar-Palafox, Gustavo; Gault, Rosemary; Ridgway, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Shaped Metal Deposition (SMD) is an additive manufacturing process which creates parts layer by layer by weld depositions. In this work, empirical models that predict part geometry (wall thickness and outer diameter) and some metallurgical aspects (i.e. surface texture, portion of finer Widmanstätten microstructure) for the SMD process were developed. The models are based on an orthogonal fractional factorial design of experiments with four factors at two levels. The factors considered were energy level (a relationship between heat source power and the rate of raw material input.), step size, programmed diameter and travel speed. The models were validated using previous builds; the prediction error for part geometry was under 11%. Several relationships between the factors and responses were identified. Current had a significant effect on wall thickness; thickness increases with increasing current. Programmed diameter had a significant effect on percentage of shrinkage; this decreased with increasing component size. Surface finish decreased with decreasing step size and current.

  6. The preferred orientation of the metallurgical enterprises of the Urals to the domestic market — one of the most important conditions for economic security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor' Il'ich Pichurin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It this paper, the author tries to show that the export orientation of the Ural metallurgy, perceived until recently as its dignity and therefore encouraged by the authorities, actually poses a threat to economic security of the region. Being the basis of the regional economy and of Sverdlovsk region in particular, metallurgical industry has suffered serious loss during the global crisis of 2008-2009, thereby causing considerable damage to the socio-economic development of the region. It is generally accepted, but considered as a temporary loss, which was compensated at the end of the crisis. The author puts some suggestions forward on reduction of the global demand for metals in the coming decade. The author tries to prove that without reorientation of the Ural metallurgy onto the domestic market, such losses are very likely also in the future after the crisis overcoming.

  7. Preliminary results on air pollution inside an iron metallurgical plant, using rotating streaker sampler and energy dispersive X-ray microfluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento Filho, V.F.; Silva, R.M.C.; Perez, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Our aim was to study the chemical concentration of some metals in suspended particulate matter inside an-iron metallurgical plant. Using a rotating streaker air-particulate sampler with 8 and 0.45 microns pore diameter filter, it was possible to collect coarse and fine particulates during a week, with one hour step. After this, each strip of the filter was analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray microfluorescence (μ-EDXRF), using in the excitation a collimated x-ray line beam from a Mo target tube (30 kV, 20 mA, Zr filter) with a quartz capillary (120 mm long, 10 mm entrance diameter and 20 microns inner diameter at exit). The detection was carried out using a Si(Li) semiconductor detector coupled to a multichannel analyzer, and the X-ray spectra were fitted with the AXIL software. The profiles of several elements are shown and the results are discussed.

  8. Methods for efficient usage of energy and materials in high temperature metallurgical processes; Methoden zur Energie- und Stoffeffizienz in der metallurgischen Hochtemperaturtechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, Reinhard; Stuermer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik

    2012-07-15

    Metallurgy belongs to the most energy intensive industries where the chain of processes, from materials production to materials recycling, proceeds typically at high temperatures. The higher the process temperature, the more valuable is energy recovery. In parallel with the current trends of improving energy efficiencies, one observes an increase of energy conversion costs in conversion processes of both fossil fuels and renewable energy sources. The paper is concerned with methods of improving energy efficiencies, as well as, with establishing their maximum values determined by the thermodynamics of the metallurgical processes considered. In a number of processes, for example in the blast furnace process of pig iron production, these thermodynamic limits have been reached. Then, if the prices of raw materials and/or energy (electricity produced either from fossil fuels or from renewables) are on the rise, the industry does not have any other option but increasing the final product prices which obviously affect competitiveness. (orig.)

  9. Copper processing in Vinča: New contributions to the thesis about metallurgical character of Vinča culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonović Dragana A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abundant hand written documentation from excavations of Vinča (1908–1934 offers sufficient evidence that confirms the thesis established by investigator of Vinča M. M. Vasić himself that Vinča was metallurgical center. After comparing these data with the finds related to early copper processing on other sites of the central Balkans (Belovode, Pločnik, Gornja Tuzla, Fafos, Selevac it could be assumed that Vinča culture was acquainted with metallurgy from its very outset. This assumption is supported by similar finds from other sides of the world (Tymna, Chinflon, Batán Grande and even more so the results of experimental copper processing.

  10. Influence of trees and shrubs on microclimate and sanitary state of air layers close to the ground surface at industrial sites of metallurgical works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reva, M L; Filatova, R Ya

    1976-01-01

    The effect of trees and shrubs on working conditions was investigated at metallurgical works in the Ukraine. Indices used included air temperature and humidity, sulfuric anhydride, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide content. Indices were measured at varying distances from the sources of the industrial waste. In areas with trees and shrubs, air temperature was 3 to 5 degrees lower and relative humidity 8 to 10 degrees higher than out in the open. The level of industrial waste given off as gas was consistently less prevalent in areas with trees and shrubs than out in the open. Trees and shrubs were concluded to be essential for the health and well-being of the workers.

  11. Characterization and environmental risk assessment of heavy metals in construction and demolition wastes from five sources (chemical, metallurgical and light industries, and residential and recycled aggregates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaofeng; Gu, Yilu; Xie, Tian; Zhen, Guangyin; Huang, Sheng; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-06-01

    Total concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd, and Ni) were measured among 63 samples of construction and demolition (C&D) wastes collected from chemical, metallurgical and light industries, and residential and recycled aggregates within China for risk assessment. The heavy metal contamination was primarily concentrated in the chemical and metallurgical industries, especially in the electroplating factory and zinc smelting plant. High concentrations of Cd were found in light industry samples, while the residential and recycled aggregate samples were severely polluted by Zn. Six most polluted samples were selected for deep research. Mineralogical analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry and X-ray diffraction (XRD), combined with element speciation through European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction, revealed that a relatively slight corrosion happened in the four samples from electroplating plants but high transfer ability for large quantities of Zn and Cu. Lead arsenate existed in the acid extractable fraction in CI7-8 and potassium chromium oxide existed in the mobility fraction. High concentration of Cr could be in amorphous forms existing in CI9. The high content of sodium in the two samples from zinc smelter plants suggested severe deposition and erosion on the workshop floor. Large quantities of Cu existed as copper halide and most of the Zn appeared to be zinc, zinc oxide, barium zinc oxide, and zincite. From the results of the risk assessment code (RAC), the samples from the electroplating factory posed a very high risk of Zn, Cu, and Cr, a high risk of Ni, a middle risk of Pb, and a low risk of Cd. The samples from the zinc smelting plant presented a high risk of Zn, a middle risk of Cu, and a low risk of Pb, Cr, Cd, and Ni.

  12. Some metallurgical aspects of ancient silver coins discovered in romania (original and imitations) - provenance, destination and commercial networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, Bogdan; Cojocaru, Viorel; Bugoi, Roxana

    2007-01-01

    migrated to the South and Southeast Dacia. - The preference for adding tin (and maybe also lead) in Ag/Cu alloys is due probably to the fact that tin fades the red color of copper, resulting a silvery nuance. In addition the melting point of alloy is lowered which was important for an unsophisticated metallurgy. Although tin does almost not exist in the earth of old Romania territory, bronze objects (huge medals, statues, coins, etc.) were common enough and easy to be found. - Lead concentration also increased in time bringing out to a quaternary alloy (Ag+Cu+Sn+Pb), such as in Varteju-Carlomanesti and/or Radulesti-Hunedoara issues. Such an alloy also generalized in the Roman coinage, but much latter (c. AD 250). 23 - Although hundreds of Geto-Dacian coins were investigated by atomic and nuclear techniques, no entirely bronze or copper coin was found except a few proved modern fakes. In the same time official fake coins made of bronze was a practice in extra Dacian territory. This can be understood by the metallurgical methods used by Geto-Dacians. If the coin alloy had no Au or Ag, the melting into a clay cylinder would wet the clay preventing the formation of a globule necessary for the coin blank. Even for an alloy with a smaller concentration of noble metals, the adding of some charcoal and clay dust will produce a carbon monoxide atmosphere around of metal that prevents the oxides formation and will help the globule appearance. As concerning the Apollonia - Dyrrhachium drachms, five main categories were found: - original coins (similar to drachms emitted before the Civil War) with 97-99% silver, low (1-2%) copper content, - debased coins with silver content down to 70% and copper content from 5 to 25%, probably emitted due to inflation problem, normal phenomenon for an economy in war, - official (original dies) counterfeits from bronze (70% copper and 30% tin) covered by a very thin layer of argentarium (tin-lead alloy imitating the silver), - official counterfeits

  13. The effect of explosive compacting on the properties of the 60% LaCr03-40% Cr cermet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atroshenko, E.S.; Barykin, B.M.; Ivanov, V.S.; Krasulin, Yu.L.; Spirodonov, E.G.

    1976-01-01

    A technique of explosive compacting of composite cermet materials (M + M0) has been used for producing large blanks with a density close to theoretical. A study has been made of the properties of an explosively compacted 60% LaCr0 3 -40% Cr cermet over a wide temperature range. Cermets compacted explosively are shown to have a number of advantages over ones prepared by conventional powder metallurgical techniques. (author)

  14. Glomar challenger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, J P

    1969-01-01

    The Glomar Challenger has a length of 400 ft, a 65-ft beam, and a depth of 27 ft 6-in. She has a draft of 20 ft with a gross displacement of 10,500 long tons. The principal specifications of the vessel are tabulated. To achieve dynamic positioning, 4 fixed thrusters and the vessel's 2 propulsion screws are utilized. The ''fix'' is obtained by placing a sonar beacon, with self contained batteries, on the ocean floor at a selected site. The vessel is provided with 4 hydrophones installed in the hull at the 4 corners of a square. The sonar beacon radiates sound waves at a fixed pulse rate. If the vessel is directly over the beacon, the sound waves will arrive at all hydrophones simultaneously. A difference in time of arrival indicates the vessel is off location. The sound signals received by the hydrophones are fed into a computer. They are changed into coordinate information, which serves as the primary function of determining corrective action by the vessel's propulsion and thruster system. The computer feeds back information into a control system, which enables the propulsion and thrusters to automatically respond, in order to keep the vessel on the predetermined location. The major drilling components are listed. The deep-sea drilling project is described. A summary of the first leg is given in tabular form.

  15. Scrapheap Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Three British guys at CERN recently took a break from work to try their hand at Scrapheap Challenge. Shown on Channel 4 in the UK, it is a show where two teams must construct a machine for a specific task using only the junk they can scavenge from the scrap yard around them. And they have just 10 hours to build their contraption before it is put to the test. The first round, aired 19 September, pitted a team of three women, from the British Army's Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, against the CERN guys - the Up 'n Atoms: Ali Day, David McFarlane and James Ridewood. Each team, with the help of an appointed expert, had the task of making a giant, 3-metre self-propelled "bowling ball", to roll down a 50 metre bowling alley at skittles 4 metres high. The Up 'n Atoms' contraption featured a small car with a huge wheel on its back. Once up to speed, slamming on the brakes caused the wheel to roll over and take the car with it. On their very last run they managed to take out seven pins. Luckily, though, ...

  16. Regulatory challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    The problem for policy makers wanting to liberalize natural gas markets is that its concentrated structure may also be the socially most efficient one. Because of scale economies, more firms operating in the market may incur higher transportation costs unless the market grows sufficiently in each geographic segment. This argument goes for product extension through vertical (or horizontal) integration and the exploitation of economies of scope as well. Thus, the challenge for governments is to intervene in a way that preserves a market structure that has the potential to minimize cost, and at the same lime change its behavior in order to avoid possible lax cost control and exploitation of market power. The existence of scope advantages indicates that liberalization of the market should open for the possibility to bundle services in competition with provision of unbundled services. If operations are unbundled and there exist economies of scope, the gain from increased competition should be weighed against the losses of less efficient operations of each firm. Thus, with the growth in the European market, gradually more arguments support the idea of unbundling. The significant scale economy in trunk pipelines, sunk investments and capital immobility, possible economies of scope in vertical integration and companies' bundling of services influences vertical and horizontal ownership relations and contractual terms in the European gas market. In specific segments of the markets, these relationships may promote efficient investments and pricing without public interference, but the strong concentration of market power indicates that this is rather the exception than the rule. In order to design an efficient and welfare maximizing way of regulating the market one needs a closer identification of the actual goal of the regulation. Microeconomic theory is often used for this purpose. The author discusses the alternatives of laissez-faire, nationalization or regulation for the

  17. Neutron and X-ray characterisation of the metallurgical properties of a 7th century BC Corinthian-type bronze helmet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantos, E.; Kockelmann, W.; Chapon, L. C.; Lutterotti, L.; Bennet, S. L.; Tobin, M. J.; Mosselmans, J. F. W.; Pradell, T.; Salvado, N.; Butí, S.; Garner, R.; Prag, A. J. N. W.

    2005-09-01

    Neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and FTIR were used to examine a Corinthian-type bronze helmet which is now on display at The Manchester Museum, UK. This type of helmet was manufactured out of a single piece of bronze, probably on a rod-anvil, and like all body-armour it was made to measure. Neutron diffraction sampling of the bronze volume in different areas was used to study the composition, microstructure and crystallographic texture of the alloy in order to draw conclusions about the manufacturing processes. The neutron data revealed the presence of microstrains and non-random distributions of bronze grains hinting at annealing-hammering working cycles in order to harden and shape the alloy. X-ray fluorescence showed that the main body of the helmet is a copper-tin alloy, while the noseguard contains zinc in high abundance. This key compositional difference confirms that the noseguard is not the original but is a modern substitute fabricated for restoration purposes. SR XRD and FTIR from several spots on the head and noseguard identified several surface corrosion products and showed a variation of the Cu-Sn or Cu-Zn percentage compositions, and of the mineral phases. Small samples of corrosion flakes extracted from the outside and inside of the helmet were used to obtain powder XRD patterns.

  18. Mechanical properties of NiTi and CuNiTi wires used in orthodontic treatment. Part 2: Microscopic surface appraisal and metallurgical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Abdo Gravina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This research aimed at comparing the qualitative chemical compositions and the surface morphology of fracture regions of eight types of Nickel (Ni Titanium (Ti conventional wires, superelastic and heat-activated (GAC, TP, Ormco, Masel, Morelli and Unitek, to the wires with addition of copper (CuNiTi 27oC and 35oC, Ormco after traction test. METHODS: The analyses were performed in a scanning electronic microscope (JEOL, model JSM-5800 LV with EDS system of microanalysis (energy dispersive spectroscopy. RESULTS : The results showed that NiTi wires presented Ni and Ti as the main elements of the alloy with minimum differences in their composition. The CuNiTi wires, however, presented Ni and Ti with a significant percentage of copper (Cu. As for surface morphology, the wires that presented the lowest wire-surface roughness were the superelastic ones by Masel and Morelli, while those that presented the greatest wire-surface roughness were the CuNiTi 27oC and 35oC ones by Ormco, due to presence of microcavity formed as a result of pulling out some particles, possibly of NiTi. 4 The fracture surfaces presented characteristics of ductile fracture, with presence of microcavities. The superelastic wires by GAC and the CuNiTi 27oC and the heat-activated ones by Unitek presented the smallest microcavities and the lowest wire-surface roughness with regard to fracture, while the CuNiTi 35oC wires presented inadequate wire-surface roughness in the fracture region. CONCLUSION: CuNiTi 35oC wires did not present better morphologic characteristics in comparison to the other wires with regard to surfaces and fracture region.

  19. Fatigue properties of ductile cast iron containing chunky graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro, P., E-mail: ferro@gest.unipd.it [Department of Management and Engineering, University of Padova, Stradella S. Nicola 3, I-36100 Vicenza (Italy); Lazzarin, P.; Berto, F. [Department of Management and Engineering, University of Padova, Stradella S. Nicola 3, I-36100 Vicenza (Italy)

    2012-09-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental determination of high cycle fatigue properties of EN-GJS-400. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaluation of the influence of chunky graphite morphology on fatigue life. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metallurgical analysis and microstructural parameters determination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nodule counting and nodularity rating. - Abstract: This work deals with experimental determination of high cycle fatigue properties of EN-GJS-400 ductile cast iron containing chunky graphite. Constant amplitude axial tests were performed at room temperature under a nominal load ratio R = 0. In order to evaluate the influence of chunky graphite morphology on fatigue life, fatigue tests were carried out also on a second set of specimens without this microstructural defect. All samples were taken from the core of a large casting component. Metallurgical analyses were performed on all the samples and some important microstructural parameters (nodule count and nodularity rating, among others) were measured and compared. It was found that a mean content of 40% of chunky graphite in the microstructure (with respect to total graphite content) does not influence significantly the fatigue strength properties of the analysed cast iron. Such result was attributed to the presence of microporosity detected on the surface fracture of the specimens by means of electron scanning microscope.

  20. Fatigue properties of ductile cast iron containing chunky graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, P.; Lazzarin, P.; Berto, F.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Experimental determination of high cycle fatigue properties of EN-GJS-400. ► Evaluation of the influence of chunky graphite morphology on fatigue life. ► Metallurgical analysis and microstructural parameters determination. ► Nodule counting and nodularity rating. - Abstract: This work deals with experimental determination of high cycle fatigue properties of EN-GJS-400 ductile cast iron containing chunky graphite. Constant amplitude axial tests were performed at room temperature under a nominal load ratio R = 0. In order to evaluate the influence of chunky graphite morphology on fatigue life, fatigue tests were carried out also on a second set of specimens without this microstructural defect. All samples were taken from the core of a large casting component. Metallurgical analyses were performed on all the samples and some important microstructural parameters (nodule count and nodularity rating, among others) were measured and compared. It was found that a mean content of 40% of chunky graphite in the microstructure (with respect to total graphite content) does not influence significantly the fatigue strength properties of the analysed cast iron. Such result was attributed to the presence of microporosity detected on the surface fracture of the specimens by means of electron scanning microscope.