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Sample records for metallurgical industrial city

  1. Modern recycling methods in metallurgical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maj

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of environment caused by increased industrial activities is the main topic of discussions in Poland and in the world. The possibilities of waste recovery and recycling vary in different sectors of the industry, and the specific methods, developed and improved all the time, depend on the type of the waste. In this study, the attention has been focussed mainly on the waste from metallurgical industry and on the available techniques of its recycling

  2. The use of radioisotope tracers in the metallurgical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easey, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Radioisotope techniques have been widely used in the metallurgical industries for many years. They have been shown to be very suitable for studying large scale plant and, in many cases, they are the most suitable techniques for such investigations. Applications of radioisotope tracers to some specific metallurgical problems are discussed. (author)

  3. New radionuclide specific laboratory detection system for metallurgical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burianova, L.; Solc, J.; Dryak, P.; Moser, H.; Branger, T.; Garcia-Torano, E.; Peyres, V.; Capogni, M.; Luca, A.; Vodenik, B.; Oliveira, C.; Portugal, L.; Tzika, F.; Lutter, G.; Szucs, L.; Dziel, T.; Burda, O.; Dirk, A.; Martinkovic, J.; Sliskonen, T.; Mattila, A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the main outputs of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) project 'Ionising radiation metrology for the metallurgical industry' (MetroMetal) was the recommendation on a novel spectrometric detection system optimized for the measurement of radioactivity in metallurgical samples. The recommended system, prototypes of which were constructed at two project partner's laboratories, was characterized by using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Six different MC codes were used to model the system and a range of cylindrical samples of cast steel, slag and fume dust. The samples' shape, density, and elemental composition were the same as the ones of the calibration standards developed within the project to provide traceability to end-users. The MC models were used to calculate full-energy peak and total detection efficiencies as well as true coincidence summing correction (TCSC) factors for selected radionuclides of interest in the metallurgical industry: 60 Co, 137 Cs, 192 Ir, 214 Bi, 214 Pb, and 208 Tl. The MC codes were compared to each other on the basis of the calculated detection efficiencies and TCSC factors. In addition, a 'Procedural guide for calculation of TCSC factors for samples in metallurgical industry' was developed for end-users. The TCSC factors reached in certain cases up to 32% showing that the summing effects are of high importance in the close measurement geometries met in routine analysis of metallurgical samples. (authors)

  4. Safety performance indicators in the metallurgical industry using WEB programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cioca

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development has a significant impact today in Romania and worldwide. In this context, risk assessment becomes mandatory for enterprises. This paper analyzes the situation of occupational risks in the metallurgical industry in the European Union, Romania, and the United States and highlights the main causes for work accidents in Romanian metallurgical industry. The analysis covers the period 2010 - 2016. The data collected from Romania is compared to the data related to the European Union and the United States. Moreover, the paper aims to present an occupational risk assessment tool, which is customizable for each area of activity. The last section of the paper discusses the research results and limitations.

  5. Regional distribution of the metallurgical industry in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    T. Sadilek

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present the regional distribution of the metallurgical industry in the Czech Republic and to describe the specific factors which determine the localization of the industry in Czech regions. In order to achieve that goal, traditional tools of regional analysis are used, such as concentration analysis, used in business-to-business marketing, which does not describe the absolute size of the industry, but its relative size, focusing on the relation between the employe...

  6. Economic statistics for the extractive and metallurgical industries for 1974/1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medaets, J

    1977-11-01

    Statistical data are presented for the extractive industries (coal, ore, quarries etc); coke and agglomerates manufacture; metallurgical industries; and the related hydrology. (In French and in Dutch)

  7. Efficiency of Polish metallurgical industry based on data envelopment analysis

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    J. Baran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to compare the technical efficiency of 12 sectors manufacturing basic metals and metal products in Poland. This article presents the use of Data Envelopment Analysis models, to determine overall technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency of metallurgical branches in Poland. The average technical efficiency of metallurgical industry in Poland was quite high. The analysis gives a possibility to create a ranking of sectors. Three branches were found to be fully efficient: manufacture of basic iron and steel and of ferroalloys, manufacture of basic precious and other non - ferrous metals and manufacture of tubes, pipes, hollow profiles and related fittings, of steel. The results point out the reasons of the inefficiency and provide improving directions for the inefficient sectors.

  8. Inventory management in a metallurgical of the automotive industry

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    Marcos Antonio Maia de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the importance of inventory management in a metallurgical company, located in Santo André city, in Grande São Paulo, since the inventory management is crucial within a company that wants to survive nowadays, by studying the main features and trends in the methods used for inventory control. In this case study the basic concepts for good control were considered, showing tools currently used in the market, providing data for material purchase, sales control, parts in stock, future orders, MRP, storage space, among others once many companies have high and unnecessary cost of stock for not being aware of the real importance of this control. It is felt that the logistics of the company should invest in technology by purchasing the MRP system, visiting fairs and attending seminars. This way, the company will have better inventory control thus consequently decrease the purchase of materials.

  9. Reprocessing of metallurgical slag into materials for the building industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pioro, L.S.; Pioro, I.L.

    2004-01-01

    Several methods of reprocessing metallurgical (blast furnace) slag into materials for the building industry, based on melting aggregates with submerged combustion, were developed and tested. The first method involves melting hot slag with some additives directly in a slag ladle with a submerged gas-air burner, with the objective of producing stabilized slag or glass-ceramic. The second method involves direct draining of melted slag from a ladle into the slag receiver, with subsequent control of the slag draining into the converter where special charging materials are added to the melt, with the objective of producing glass-ceramic. A third method involves melting cold slag with some additives inside a melting converter with submerged gas-air burners, with the objective of producing glass-ceramic fillers for use in road construction. Specific to the melting process is the use of a gas-air mixture with direct combustion inside the melt. This feature provides melt bubbling to help achieve maximum heat transfer from combustion products to the melt, improve mixing (and therefore homogeneity of the melt), and increases the rate of chemical reactions. The experimental data for different aspects of the proposed methods are presented. The reprocessed blast-furnace slag in the form of granules can be used as fillers for concretes, asphalts, and as additives in the production of cement, bricks and other building materials. As well, reprocessed blast-furnace slag can be poured into forms for the production of glass-ceramic tiles

  10. Cleaner metallurgical industry in Serbia: a road to the sustainable development

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    D. Panias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the sustainable development has been a global and fundamental objecttive, a metallurgical industrial sector faces some of the most difficult sustainability challenges of any industrial sector. On the other hand, the metallurgical production in Serbia is a very important part of the economy. Due to present facilities and technologies, metallurgical companies face a great challenge to fulfill the requirements introduced by legislature referring to the cleaner production and sustainable development. The state of art in the production, facilities, pollution with some answers to imposed challenges is presented.

  11. DIFFERENCES OF COMMITMENT BETWEEN GENERATIONS X AND Y – A STUDY IN A METALLURGICAL INDUSTRY

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    Fábio Teodoro Tolfo Ribas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The way each generation acts in society and in organizations is always a matter of study and appreciation (LOMBARDIA; STEIN & PIN, 2008. Thus, this study aimed to examine the organizational commitment in its affetctive, instrumental and normative dimensions in different generational groups (X and Y of Metallurgical Industry in the city of Caxias do Sul (RS. The research is descriptive and quantitative in nature. To reach its objective it uses a validated questionnaire, based on Ribas 2010, with 96 professional of the administrative sector. The results identify that the respondents have very similar approaches regarding affective, instrumental and normative commitment perceptions. Still, it was noticed that the highest means for both generations, were obtained in the construct of affective commitment. The clearest difference emerged in the focus of instrumental commitment, which determines the individual’s need to remain in business.

  12. Retail optimization in Romanian metallurgical industry by applying of fuzzy networks concept

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    Ioana Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our article presents possibilities of applying the concept Fuzzy Networks for an efficient metallurgical industry in Romania. We also present and analyze Fuzzy Networks complementary concepts, such as Expert Systems (ES, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP, Analytics and Intelligent Strategies (SAI. The main results of our article are based on a case study of the possibilities of applying these concepts in metallurgy through Fuzzy Networks. Also, it is presented a case study on the application of the FUZZY concept on the Romanian metallurgical industry.

  13. Economic statistics for the mining and metallurgical industries: 1990. Statistique economique des industries extractives et metallurgiques annee 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rzonzef, L.

    1991-01-01

    Provides economic statistics for the Belgian mining and metallurgical industries in 1990. The review is divided into 4 parts: the extractive industries (including an analysis of the coal market and mines, quarries and associated industries); coke and briquette making; metallurgy (i.e. blast furnaces, steel making, rolling mills and manpower and materials consumption in the steel industry); and the extraction of sand from the Belgian continental shelf. 17 tabs.

  14. Metallurgical engineering and inspection practices in the chemical process industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moller, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    The process industries, in particular the petroleum refining industry, adopted materials engineering and inspection (ME and I) practices years ago and regularly updated them because they were faced with the handling and refining of flammable, toxic, and corrosive feed stocks. These industries have a number of nonproprietary techniques and procedures, some of which may be applicable in the nuclear power generation field. Some specific inspection and engineering techniques used by the process industries within the framework of the guidelines for inspections and worthy of detailed description include the following: (1) sentry drilling or safety drilling of piping subject to relatively uniform corrosion, such as feedwater heater piping, steam piping, and extraction steam piping; (2) on-stream radiography for thickness measurement and detection of unusual conditions - damaged equipment such as valve blockage; (3) critical analysis of the chemical and refining processes for the relative probability of corrosion; (4) communication of valuable experience within the industry; (5) on-stream ultrasonic thickness testing; and (6) on-stream and off-stream crack and flaw detection. The author, trained in the petroleum refining industry but versed in electric utilities, pulp and paper, chemical process, marine, mining, water handling, waste treatment, and geothermal processes, discusses individual practices of these various industries in the paper

  15. IFM – SCIENTIFIC CENTRE OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE UKRAINIAN METALLURGICAL INDUSTRY

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    BOLSHAKOV V. I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of creation and development of the Institute of ferrous metallurgy of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences named after Z. I. Nekrasov is regarded in the article. IFM has become the scientific centre of the development of the metallurgical industry of Ukraine. Researches of the outstanding scientists show their significant contribution in the development of the metallurgical science and implementation of their achievements in the production of the metallurgical industry of Ukraine. Analysis of publications. History of the Institute of the ferrous metallurgy is regarded in the fundamental works devoted to the development of the metallurgical industry in Ukraine and in the works published to the jubilee dates of the prominent scientists academicians Z. I. Nekrasov, V. I. Bol’shakov and others. The purpose of the article is to analyze the process of the creation of the Institute and the stages of its development in the 20th and 21st centuries and to define the influence of the economic and political situation in the country upon this process? To regard the role of the outstanding scientists and influence of their achievements on the development of the metallurgical industry of Ukraine. The history of IFM began in 1939 when it was organized in Kharkiv as a part of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. At the beginning of the Great Patriotic war the Institute was moved to Ufa – the capital of Bashkiria. During the war the scientists of the Institute tried to increase the output of metal and special steels for the defence industry. In 1943 the Institute moved to Moscow and then to Kiev. In 1952 it was decided to move the Institute to Dnepropetrovsk. In order to combine the scientific researches and production of metal. Z. I. Nekrasov was elected Director of the Institute. The departments of the Indtitute were headed by academicians Z. I. Nekrasov, A. P. Chekmariov, K. F. Starodubov, Correspondence Members of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences

  16. In-line metallurgical process control in the steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanin, M.

    1993-01-01

    The steel products manufacturing involves a long line of complex processes: liquid metal elaboration, solidification, hot and cold transformation by rolling surface protection by coating. The Process Control aims at improving global productivity and quality of the resulting products by optimizing each elementary process as well as management of tools or workshops interfaces. Complex processes, involving generally many variables, require for their control more or less sophisticated models. These process models are either analytical when physical and thermodynamical mechanisms are known or statistical or knowledge based, according to circumstances. In any case, it is necessary to have a reliable and precise instrumentation to adjust undetermined parameters during model development and to be able to take into account external parameters variability during current working. This instrumentation concerns both running of machines and testing of manufactured materials under harsh environment conditions of Iron and Steel industry: temperature, dusts, steam, electromagnetic interferences, vibrations, .. . In this context, in-line Non Destructive Testing methods contribute efficienly because they may give directly and in real time products characteristics, integrating both drifts of machines and sensors due to their ageing and the abnormal spread of material entering the process. These methods induce the development of sophisticated inspection equipments whose strategic significance is such that their failure to operate can require production shutdown. The paper gives some representative examples of improvement of the accuracy of an in-line measurement or controlling of elementary processes or processes interfaces: temperature measurement by infrared pyrometry, thickness profile determination by X-ray array sensor, recrystallization control in continuous by X-ray and ultrasonic methods, automatic detection and indentification of surface defects by optics, cracks detection on

  17. Occupational exposure in South African metallurgical plants and industries involving naturally occurring radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, I.D.

    2002-01-01

    South Africa has a very large mining and minerals processing industry exploiting a variety of ores and minerals containing elevated levels of NORM. The industry employs more than 300,000 persons. Doses have been assessed to workers in the mining industry in South Africa. In the gold mining industry radon measurements have been performed since the early 1970s. Regulations have been in force since 1990. The mean annual dose to underground gold mine workers, mostly from radon progeny, is about 5 mSv with maximum doses exceeding 20 mSv. The maximum annual dose to surface workers in gold mines is 5 mSv. In South African coal mines the mean annual dose from inhalation of radon decay products has been estimated from limited radon concentration measurements to be about 0.6 mSv. In the phosphoric acid and fertilizer production industry the doses to the workers do not exceed 6 mSv/y. There are 3 mineral sands operations in South Africa, for which the maximum annual dose to workers is 3 mSv. One open pit copper mine contains elevated levels of U, which is extracted as a by-product. The maximum annual doses to workers are 5 mSv for workers in the mine and 20 mSv for workers in the metallurgical plant. Worker doses in the metallurgical plant have since been reduced with the introduction of radiation protection measures

  18. Seed production of woody plants in conditions of environment pollution by metallurgical industry emissions

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    Z. V. Gritzay

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of environment pollution by metallurgical industry emissions on woody plants bearing parameters was examined. The results obtained show the decrease of bearing rate, diminution of seeds, fruits and seed cells sizes in woody plants affected by technogenic emissions. Attenuation of the 1000 seeds’ weight was established. Incresing the amount of fruits with development deviations was ascertained. It was found aplasia and abnormal form of the samara fruit of ash and ailanthus trees, arcuation and narrowing of some parts of the catalpa fruitcases. Practical recommendations on using seeds’ sensitive parameters in biomonitoring of woody phytocenoses under technogenic stressful conditions are proposed.

  19. Influence of material and gear parameters on the safety of gearing in metallurgical industry

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    S. Medvecká - Beňová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the appropriate choice of parameters to obtain the desired level of safety of gears in a gearbox to drive the conveyor in the metallurgical industry under increased load. Steel with surface hardness up to 350 HBW, or heat treated steel with hardness of 500 - 650 HBW are used. As a final heat treatment are used surface hardening, cementation and hardening, nitridation. Good properties of heat-treated steels are at the correct thickness of the heat-treated layer of the tooth. Results are presented for dual-ratio gearbox with spur gears from operation of an integrated steel company.

  20. Combined geophysical investigation for the detection of ancient metallurgical installations near Keratea City, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulos, George V.

    2014-05-01

    Archaeological excavation in an area of Lavrio (mining area from ancient times) has revealed ancient metallurgical installations which offer valuable information on this activity at those times. Within this context, a combined geophysical investigation was carried out in a place near Keratea City to find out whether there are additional installations apart from those that have already been revealed in the immediate area. More importantly, the objective was to locate the ancient tanks which provided water to the installations. Archaeological and geological information have helped in the design of the survey. EMI method measuring apparent conductivity was used to cover the whole area of investigation. Conductivity maps in various investigation depths have positioned the tanks and stacked first derivative maps in two directions (the two directions of the revealed walls) show covered walls. The EMI survey has indicated the position of three (3) ERT profiles made with the dipole-dipole array, which presented the ancient tanks with great detail in depth. GPR profiles for the detection of walls were noisy with the coarse material surface layer but the interrelation with ERT and EMI results confirmed the detected features.

  1. Employment and other selected personnel attributes in metallurgical and industrial enterprises of different size - research results

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    A. Pawliczek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with the issue of employment and other selected personnel attributes as employees’ affiliations, employees’ benefits, monitoring of employees’ satisfaction, monitoring of work productivity, investments into employees education and obstacles in hiring qualified human resources. The characteristics are benchmarked on the background of enterprise size based on the employees count in the year 2013. The relevant data were collected in Czech industrial enterprises, including metallurgical companies, with the help of university questionnaire research in order to induce synergy effect arising from mutual communication of academy-students-industry. The most important results are presented later in the paper, complemented with discussion based on relevant professional literature sources. The findings suggest that bigger companies check productivity and satisfaction and dismiss employees more frequently, unlike medium companies which do not reduce their workforce and solve the impact of crisis by decreased affiliations, reduced benefits and similar savings.

  2. Occupational exposure to PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs of metallurgical workers in some industrial plants of the Brescia area, northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abballe, Annalisa; Barbieri, Pietro Gino; di Domenico, Alessandro; Garattini, Siria; Iacovella, Nicola; Ingelido, Anna Maria; Marra, Valentina; Miniero, Roberto; Valentini, Silvia; De Felip, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The study was carried out in order to respond to public concern on the occupational exposure of metallurgical workers to highly toxic PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in the area of the city of Brescia, northern Italy. The study investigated the effects on the haematic burden of occupational exposures to the aforesaid contaminants in different work environments, attempting to establish causal relationships and providing indications for occupational health preventive measures. Chemical concentrations were measured in blood serum of "professionally exposed" (PE) and "not professionally exposed" (NPE) subjects. NPE subjects included industrial administrative employees, Brescia inhabitants, and remote rural people. The central tendency indexes of contaminant cumulative concentrations were higher in PE than in NPE samples (for the mean values: PCDDs+PCDFs, 22.9 vs. 19.5 pgWHO-TEQ(1997)/g lb; DL-PCBs, 26.0 vs. 23.6 pgWHO-TEQ(1997)/g lb; PCDDs+PCDFs+DL-PCBs (TEQ(TOT)), 48.9 vs. 43.1 pgWHO-TEQ(1997)/g lb; Σ(6)[NDL-PCBs], 427 vs. 401 ng g(-1)lb); however, no statistical differences were detected at P=0.05. A significant difference for PCDDs+PCDFs and TEQ(TOT) was observed as the NPE data were progressively reduced to those of the remote rural people. The existence of a differential occupational exposure due to different environments was detected by applying the factor analysis to congener-specific data (analytical profiles). Findings indicate that metallurgical workers may be exposed to PCDD, PCDF, and PCB more than the general population, in particular due to non-negligible contributions to exposure from workplace ambient air. Findings also suggest that an improvement of preventive measures may be required to avoid chemical overexposure in certain metallurgical workplaces. To identify exposure groups, the DL- and NDL-PCB analytical profiles seemed to be more sensitive to environmental exposure sources/pathways than those of PCDDs and PCDFs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All

  3. Advances in refractories for the metallurgical industries III: proceedings of the international symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allaire, C.; Rigaud, M. [eds.] [Ecole Polytchnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    In the three years since the last symposium key innovations have been made in the penetration of monoliths in all sectors of the metallurgical industries. The symposium was presented within the 38th Annual Conference of Metallurgists of the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum. Broad international coverage was maintained with papers originating from 12 different countries including: Australia, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Iran, Japan, Korea, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, and the United States. The 27 papers presented are divided into seven sessions to reflect the interests of the participants. The sessions included mold fluxes I and II, aluminum refractories, alumina castables, andalusite castables, continuous casting of refractories, aluminum refractories II and copper-nickel refineries. One paper on refractories for exhaust gas scrubbers is abstracted separately.

  4. Characteristic and Source of Atmospheric PM10- and PM2.5-bound PAHs in a Typical Metallurgic City Near Yangtze River in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Wang, Ruwei; Xue, Huaqin; Hu, Ruoyu; Liu, Guijian

    2018-02-01

    The characteristics of atmospheric PM 10 - and PM 2.5 -bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in Tongling city, China. Results showed that the total concentrations of PM 10 - and PM 2.5 -bound PAHs exhibited distinct seasonal and spatial variability. The metallurgic sites showed the highest PAH concentrations, which is mainly attributed to the metallurgic activities (mainly copper ore smelting) and coal combustion as the smelting fuel. The rural area showed the lowest concentrations, but exhibited significant increase from summer to autumn. This seasonal fluctuation is mainly caused by the biomass burning at the sites in the harvest season. The diagnostic ratio indicated that the main PAHs sources were vehicle exhausts, coal combustion and biomass burning. The total BaP equivalent concentration (BAP-TEQ) was found to be maximum at DGS site in winter, whereas it was minimum at BGC site in summer. Risk assessment indicates that residential exposure to PAHs in the industrial area, especially in the winter season, may pose a greater inhalation cancer risk than people living in living area and rural area.

  5. Manganese Ores from South Sulawesi: Their Potential Uses as Raw Materials for Metallurgical Industry

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    Sufriadin Sufriadin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of manganese ores from Barru and Bone regencies of South Sulawesi has been conducted with the aim at clarification of their mineralogical and chemical composition for their potential uses as the raw materials for metallurgical industry. Mineralogical properties of the ores analyzed by means of optical microscopy and X-ray diffractometry (XRD show that samples from Barru consist mainly of rhodochrosite (MnCO3 with less cryptomelane, groutite, bixbyite, and todorokite. Goethite, calcite and small amount of quartz present as impurities. Manganese ore samples from Bone are predominantly composed of pyrolusite (MnO2 with subordinate ramsdellite and hollandite. Barite, quartz, hematite and clay are present as gangue minerals. Chemical compositions determined by using XRF method revealed that Barru samples contain higher in MnO (average is 40.07 wt% than the Bone samples (average is 34.36 wt%. Similarly, Fe2O3 and CaO are also higher in Barru than those of the Bone samples. In contrast, concentrations of SiO2 and total alkali (K2O + Na2O are lower in the Barru samples. The average P2O5 content of samples in both areas is low (<0.2 wt%. Relatively higher grade of Fe2O3 in the Barru ore implies that it has potential application for ferromanganese production; whereas the elevated SiO2 content of the Bone ore is a good indication for silicomanganese manufacture. However, both ores may not favorable to be directly used as raw materials in metallurgical uses. Prior to be used, the ores should be treated by applying physical beneficiation in order to reduce deleterious elements.

  6. Modeling of Thermochemical Behavior in an Industrial-Scale Rotary Hearth Furnace for Metallurgical Dust Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Liang; Jiang, Ze-Yi; Zhang, Xin-Xin; Xue, Qing-Guo; Yu, Ai-Bing; Shen, Yan-Song

    2017-10-01

    Metallurgical dusts can be recycled through direct reduction in rotary hearth furnaces (RHFs) via addition into carbon-based composite pellets. While iron in the dust is recycled, several heavy and alkali metal elements harmful for blast furnace operation, including Zn, Pb, K, and Na, can also be separated and then recycled. However, there is a lack of understanding on thermochemical behavior related to direct reduction in an industrial-scale RHF, especially removal behavior of Zn, Pb, K, and Na, leading to technical issues in industrial practice. In this work, an integrated model of the direct reduction process in an industrial-scale RHF is described. The integrated model includes three mathematical submodels and one physical model, specifically, a three-dimensional (3-D) CFD model of gas flow and heat transfer in an RHF chamber, a one-dimensional (1-D) CFD model of direct reduction inside a pellet, an energy/mass equilibrium model, and a reduction physical experiment using a Si-Mo furnace. The model is validated by comparing the simulation results with measurements in terms of furnace temperature, furnace pressure, and pellet indexes. The model is then used for describing in-furnace phenomena and pellet behavior in terms of heat transfer, direct reduction, and removal of a range of heavy and alkali metal elements under industrial-scale RHF conditions. The results show that the furnace temperature in the preheating section should be kept at a higher level in an industrial-scale RHF compared with that in a pilot-scale RHF. The removal rates of heavy and alkali metal elements inside the composite pellet are all faster than iron metallization, specifically in the order of Pb, Zn, K, and Na.

  7. Roadmap report of the Metallurgical Industry and Foundries [in the Netherlands]; Rapportage Routekaart Metallurgische Industrie en Gieterijen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-15

    The roadmap describes the direction VNMI and AVNeG consider as feasible to realize substantial improvements with regard to energy efficiency in metallurgical production processes and in the usage of metal products. The aim of the report is to guide development efforts and describe technical and organizational options for businesses and industries in the metal sector [Dutch] De Routekaart beschrijft de richting die VNMI en AVNeG als haalbaar zien om naar 2030 toe substantiele energie-efficientieverbeteringen te realiseren in metallurgische productieprocessen en in de gebruiksfase van metaal producten. Het rapport is richtinggevend voor ontwikkelingsinspanningen en beschrijft technische en organisatorische mogelijkheden waar bedrijven individueel en in sectorverband zich voor zullen inzetten.

  8. THE PROFITABILITY AND LIQUIDITY UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF THE FINANCING POLICY IN THE METALLURGICAL INDUSTRY OF EU 28

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBROTĂ GABRIELA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the problems of the economic system, the use of the capital and his structure represent important elements in the process of the financial decisions. The aim of this paper is to identify the influence of funding policy on rentability in metallurgical industry, dimensioned with the help of a set of relevant indicators, determined on the base of some aggregated data for a significant sample of very large firms from EU 28. Also, the paper present the situation of liquidity, reflected through the cash- flow and liquidity ratio, in the metallurgical industry of EU 28, being used dates for the period 2004 – 2013, for the mentioned sample. The conclusion of the realised study is that a funding policy well-founded, correlated with the efficient management of expenses and proactive risk management can positively influence the profitability and liquidity.

  9. Development of market strategies of metallurgical enterrprises after restructuring of steel industry

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    B. Gajdzik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Before metallurgical enterprises started implementation of marketing activities they had to go through restructuring processes which included all areas of their market activities. Privatised metallurgical enterprises after economic transformation gradually implemented marketing to their business activities. The article presents notions connected with development of marketing strategies from the period of last 20 years. The range of analysis includes categories corresponding with instruments of mix marketing (4P − product, price, place, promotion.

  10. Vistas of the post-industrial city.

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    Malcolm Miles

    2000-02-01

    prosperity, as redundant industrial buildings are re-coded as sites of culture. But if the post-industrial city is a post-modern site of abundance, its benefits are unevenly distributed; centres of affluence construct margins of deprivation. Just as public art lent a veneer of cultural value to urban development in the 1980s, so the re-coding of industrial buildings as sites of culture in the ’90s contributes to a continuing aestheticisation of the city which affirms a dominant spatial order. What strategies, then, are appropriate for art in post-industrial cities?

  11. Microbiological and physicochemical treatments applied to metallurgic industry aiming water reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Roberto Crystal Bello

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on the reuse of the water in a system composed of a sewage treatment plant (STP using prolonged aeration with activated sludge and a compact water treatment plant (CWTP in a metallurgic industry. The processes for obtaining the water for reuse were microbiological and physicochemical. The domestic sewage was then pumped to the STP, where biological flocks were formed and clarified water was obtained. The efficiency of the microbiological process in the STP was evaluated for removal of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD and sedimentary solids (SS. The efficiency of physicochemical processes for clarifying the water and disinfection was evaluated through analysis of pH, turbidity, color, aerobic heterotrophic bacterial count, free chlorine, hardness, alkalinity, chlorides, sulfates and dissolved total solids (DTS. In the reuse of the water, acute toxicity for the microcrustaceans Daphnia similis was also evaluated.Estudou-se o reuso de água de um sistema composto por estação de tratamento de esgoto (ETE com aeração prolongada e lodo ativado, e em uma estação compacta de tratamento de água (ECTA de uma indústria metalúrgica. Os processos para obtenção da água de reuso foram: microbiológico e físico-químico. O esgoto doméstico foi bombeado para a ETE, onde houve formação de flocos biológicos e água clarificada. Avaliou-se a eficiência do processo microbiológico da ETE mediante a remoção de demanda bioquímica de oxigênio (DBO, demanda química de oxigênio (DQO e sólidos sedimentáveis (SS. A eficiência do processo físico-químico de clarificação e desinfecção foi avaliada mediante análises de pH, turbidez, cor, contagem de bactérias heterotróficas aeróbias, cloro livre, dureza, alcalinidade, cloretos, sulfatos, sólidos totais dissolvidos (STD. Na água de reuso além desses parâmetros avaliou-se a toxicidade aguda ao microcrustáceo Daphnia similis.

  12. The use of by-products from metallurgical and mineral industries as filler in cement-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosberg, Helena; Lagerblad, Björn; Forssberg, Eric

    2003-02-01

    This investigation has been made in order to make it possible to increase the use of by-products in cement-based materials. Use of by-products requires a screening procedure that will reliably determine their impact on concrete. A test procedure was developed. The most important properties were considered to be strength development, shrinkage, expansion and workability. The methods used were calorimetry, flow table tests, F-shape measurements, measurements of compressive and flexural strength and shrinkage/expansion measurements. Scanning electron microscopy was used to verify some results. Twelve by-products were collected from Swedish metallurgical and mineral industries and classified according to the test procedure. The investigation showed that the test procedure clearly screened out the materials that can be used in the production of concrete from the unsuitable ones.

  13. Pyrolysis of chromium rich tanning industrial wastes and utilization of carbonized wastes in metallurgical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tôrres Filho, Artur; Lange, Liséte Celina; de Melo, Gilberto Caldeira Bandeira; Praes, Gustavo Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    Pyrolysis is the thermal degradation of organic material in oxygen-free or very lean oxygen atmosphere. This study evaluates the use of pyrolysis for conversion of leather wastes from chromium tanning processes into Carbonized Leather Residues (CLR), and the utilization of CLR in metallurgical processes through the production of iron ore pellets. CLR was used to replace mineral coal in proportions of 10% and 25% on fixed carbon basis content in the mixtures for pellets preparation. Experimental conversions were performed on a pilot scale pyrolysis plant and a pelletizing reactor of the "pot grate" type. The results demonstrated the technical feasibility of using the charcoal product from animal origin as an energy source, with recovery of up to 76.47% of chromium contained in CLR in the final produced of iron ore pellets. Pellets with 25% replacement of fixed carbon in the coal showed an enhanced compressive strength, with an average value of 344kgfpellet(-1), compared to 300kgfpellet(-1) for standard produced pellets. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Environmental Conflicts in Mining, Quarrying and Metallurgical Industries in the Iberian Peninsula (19th and 20th Century): Pollution and Popular Protest

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Paulo Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICTS IN MINING, QUARRYING, AND METALLURGICAL INDUSTRIES IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA (19TH AND 20TH CENTURY): POLLUTION AND PUBLIC PROTEST. Paulo E. Guimarães, NICPRI / University of Évora (Portugal) J. D. Pérez Cebada, Universidad of Huelva (Spain) Comparative and transnational analyses of social conflicts, related to the environmental changes produced by modern and contemporary mining industries, have been a topic of growing academic interest for the last two decad...

  15. Economic statistics for the mining and metallurgical industries - 1978 and 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medaets, J.

    1982-04-01

    The statistics are compiled in 5 sections : 1) The mining industries (coal, metallurgy, quarries and associated industries); 2) The manufacture of coke and briquettes; 3) Iron and steel; 4) Hydrology; and 5) The extraction of sand on Belgium's 'continental shelf'.

  16. Biological recovery of metals, sulfur and water in the mining and metallurgical industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijma, J.; Copini, C.F.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Schultz, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    Metals of particular interest in acid mine drainage and industrial wastewaters include copper, zinc, cadmium, arsenic, manganese, aluminum, lead, nickel, silver, mercury, chromium, uranium and iron, in a concentration that can range from 106 to 102 g/l. The composition of such wastewater reflects

  17. Implementation of methodology for analyzing the added value in a metallurgical industry of custom products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Mayer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the implementation of a methodology for the analysis of added value in a job where steel sheets operations are processed by oxyfuel in a CNC (computer numerical control machine. The method used was based on a case study, followed by descriptive research by observing and recording the movements of the work. For this purpose, all the movements and tasks of the operators and the machine were defined, and classified according to the concepts adopted by Ohno (2002. Their chrono-analyses occurred in the period from March to June 2010 and later improvements were made throughout the workplace, allowing the elimination and reduction of losses, significant increase in the added value and increased occupation of the machine. Through this case study, it was found that the understandings of Ohno (2002 about the added value developed for an automotive industry manufacturing a standard product are perfectly applicable to a company that works with a production system under design and does not manufacture standard products

  18. Application of Zn isotopes in environmental impact assessment of Zn–Pb metallurgical industries: A mini review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Nang-Htay; Sivry, Yann; Benedetti, Marc F.; Lens, Piet N.L.; Hullebusch, Eric D. van

    2016-01-01

    Zn and Pb smelters are the major contributors to Zn and Pb emissions among all anthropogenic sources, thus, it is essential to understand Zn isotopic variations within the context of metallurgical industries, as well as its fractionation in different environments impacted by smelting activities. This mini review outlines the current state of knowledge on Zn isotopic fractionation during the high-temperature roasting process in Zn and Pb refineries; δ"6"6Zn values variations in air emissions, slags and effluents from the smelters in comparison to the geogenic Zn isotopic signature of ores formation and weathering. In order to assess the environmental impact of these smelters, the available and measured δ"6"6Zn values are compiled for smelter impacted natural water bodies (groundwater, stream and river water), sediments (lake and reservoir) and soils (peat bog soil, inland soil). Finally, the discussion is extended to the fractionation induced during numerous physicochemical reactions and transformations, i.e. adsorption, precipitation as well as both inorganic and organic surface complexation. - Highlights: • Zn and Pb smelters are the major contributors to Zn emissions among all anthropogenic sources. • Zn isotopic variations in this context has been widely studied over the last 15 years. • Zn isotopic fractionation during the high-temperature roasting process and electroplating process is summarize. • Subsequent δ"6"6Zn values variations in air emissions, slags and effluents from the smelters are compared to the geogenic one. • The usefulness of δ"6"6Zn values to trace environmental impact of these smelters is discussed.

  19. Applications of Moessbauer spectroscopy to the structural characterization of minerals and products of the country 's mining - metallurgical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera Palma, Victoria; Cruz Inclan, Carlos Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Since the seventies of the past century Moessbauer Spectroscopy (MS) has been systematically and successfully applied at CEADEN in the study and characterization of lateritic and other iron-rich ores, and different products of their industrial processing as well. Due to their high iron and chrome content these materials seemed to be attractive as raw material for the production of several enriched fractions in metallurgical applications. Such studies showed that the systematic application of MS combined with X- Ray Diffraction and other techniques like neutron Diffraction, Thermal and Calorimetric analysis and Optical and Electron Microscopies, has allowed a higher level of accuracy in the crystallographic characterization, and the phase composition and other specific properties assessment. As examples in this direction, in the present paper results of the study on two different iron-bearing materials are reported: a) magnetite of Mina Grande (in Santiago de Cuba), and b) Monitoring of a proposed process using concentration tables for chrome enrichment from tailings of the nickel plant 'Hector Ramos Latour' at Holguin, both areas located in the east of Cuba. It is evidenced that a right combination of 57 Fe Moessbauer Spectroscopy with other mentioned methods is nowadays the wisest and most efficient way for a thorough identification and characterization of iron-bearing mineral ores and products in mining and metallurgical industry. (Author)

  20. Post-industrial Objects and Buildings in the Structure of the Contemporary City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopotowski, Maciej; Zagroba, Marek

    2017-12-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, provincial Bialystok became the largest industrial city in the eastern territories of the former Republic of Poland. The cause of this economic growth was the development of the railway network and changing customs policy in the Russian Empire. Over a dozen or so years, several dozens of textile factories and numerous craft workshops were established in the city. The industrial prosperity of the city development was interrupted by the First and Second World War. The second half of the twentieth century also brought political and economic changes. They resulted from the nationalization of industry and the introduction of a socialist economy. In the following decades, heavy and light industries developed in the city. Metallurgical plants and factories of houses, furniture, carpets, packaging, electronics, glassworks and food processing were established. On the outskirts of the city appeared industrial districts, which except the factories concentrated also storage facilities. Economic changes that took place in Poland after 1989 caused another change in the area of Białystok industry. Many state-owned factories went bankrupt and the remaining facilities and areas had to change their intended use. The conducted research compares the methods of dealing with the currently unnecessary structure. This has taken into account its location value in the city’s structure and its cultural characteristics. Analyses allowed to indicate new use of post-industrial facilities. There were selected post-industrial buildings that currently serve residential, office, educational and commercial purposes or house cultural institutions. There are also indicated facilities that have not found their new destination and have been demolished or are not currently in use. In conclusion, the research found that the city’s post-industrial legacy is equal to its heritage - it builds the identity of the place and it is also the difficult urban problem of

  1. Influence of trees and shrubs on microclimate and sanitary state of air layers close to the ground surface at industrial sites of metallurgical works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reva, M L; Filatova, R Ya

    1976-01-01

    The effect of trees and shrubs on working conditions was investigated at metallurgical works in the Ukraine. Indices used included air temperature and humidity, sulfuric anhydride, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide content. Indices were measured at varying distances from the sources of the industrial waste. In areas with trees and shrubs, air temperature was 3 to 5 degrees lower and relative humidity 8 to 10 degrees higher than out in the open. The level of industrial waste given off as gas was consistently less prevalent in areas with trees and shrubs than out in the open. Trees and shrubs were concluded to be essential for the health and well-being of the workers.

  2. Job Prospects for Metallurgical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    Job prospects in mining, metal-extraction, steel, and refining industries are depressed, but technological discoveries are opening up new fields for metallurgical engineers. Enrollment/employment opportunities and salaries in these areas are discussed a well as the roles of foreign competition, plastics applications, and ceramics research and…

  3. Characterization and environmental risk assessment of heavy metals in construction and demolition wastes from five sources (chemical, metallurgical and light industries, and residential and recycled aggregates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaofeng; Gu, Yilu; Xie, Tian; Zhen, Guangyin; Huang, Sheng; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-06-01

    Total concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd, and Ni) were measured among 63 samples of construction and demolition (C&D) wastes collected from chemical, metallurgical and light industries, and residential and recycled aggregates within China for risk assessment. The heavy metal contamination was primarily concentrated in the chemical and metallurgical industries, especially in the electroplating factory and zinc smelting plant. High concentrations of Cd were found in light industry samples, while the residential and recycled aggregate samples were severely polluted by Zn. Six most polluted samples were selected for deep research. Mineralogical analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry and X-ray diffraction (XRD), combined with element speciation through European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction, revealed that a relatively slight corrosion happened in the four samples from electroplating plants but high transfer ability for large quantities of Zn and Cu. Lead arsenate existed in the acid extractable fraction in CI7-8 and potassium chromium oxide existed in the mobility fraction. High concentration of Cr could be in amorphous forms existing in CI9. The high content of sodium in the two samples from zinc smelter plants suggested severe deposition and erosion on the workshop floor. Large quantities of Cu existed as copper halide and most of the Zn appeared to be zinc, zinc oxide, barium zinc oxide, and zincite. From the results of the risk assessment code (RAC), the samples from the electroplating factory posed a very high risk of Zn, Cu, and Cr, a high risk of Ni, a middle risk of Pb, and a low risk of Cd. The samples from the zinc smelting plant presented a high risk of Zn, a middle risk of Cu, and a low risk of Pb, Cr, Cd, and Ni.

  4. Metallurgical plasma torches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapovalov, V.A.; Latash, Yu.V.

    2000-01-01

    The technological equipment for the plasma heating of metals, plasma melting and plasma treatment of the surface is usually developed on the basis of are plasma torches using direct or alternating current. The reasons which partly restrict the industrial application of the plasma torches are the relatively short service life of the electrode (cathode) on which the arc is supported, and the contamination of the treated metal with the products of failure of the electrode. The aim of this work was to determine the reasons for the occurrence of negative phenomena observed in the process of service of plasma torches, and propose suitable approaches to the design of metallurgical plasma torches characterised by a long service life

  5. Metallurgical Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to increase basic knowledge of metallurgical processing for controlling the microstructure and mechanical properties of metallic aerospace alloys and...

  6. Energy rational and economic use in a metallurgical industry: opportunity for replacing electricity by natural gas; Uso racional e economico da energia dentro de uma industria metalurgica: oportunidade de troca de eletricidade para gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro; Kanayama, Paulo Helio; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica]. E-mail: lcgalvao@pea.usp.br; paulo.kanayama@poli.usp.br; udaeta@pea.usp.br; Rocha, Cidar Ramon Oliva; Affonso, Octavio Ferreira [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia (IEE)]. E-mail: cidar_2001@yahoo.com; octavio@pea.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents an initial diagnostic on the economic and efficient use of the energy input in metallurgical industries using electrical furnaces. From the foundations of modern energy management and industry characterization the electricity consumption is evaluated for presenting the facility with the energy change to natural gas and the modern methods of complete combustion with oxygen from the air. Taking into consideration the characteristics of real metallurgical industry production, the dimensioning of a natural gas furnace were calculated for replacing the existent electric furnace, with growing margin in the demand. The paper allows to conclude the the possibility is real, also considering the possibility of using the modern methods of co-generation for a complete use of gas which would imply in additional investment to produce electric energy by using a steam turbine.

  7. Atmospheric corrosion of metals in industrial city environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Kusmierek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric corrosion is a significant problem given destruction of various materials, especially metals. The corrosion investigation in the industrial city environment was carried out during one year exposure. Corrosion potential was determined using the potentiometric method. The highest effect of corrosion processes was observed during the winter season due to increased air pollution. Corrosion of samples pre-treated in tannic acid before the exposure was more difficult compared with the samples without pretreatment. The corrosion products determined with the SEM/EDS method prove that the most corrosive pollutants present in the industrial city air are SO2, CO2, chlorides and dust.

  8. Atmospheric corrosion of metals in industrial city environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusmierek, Elzbieta; Chrzescijanska, Ewa

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric corrosion is a significant problem given destruction of various materials, especially metals. The corrosion investigation in the industrial city environment was carried out during one year exposure. Corrosion potential was determined using the potentiometric method. The highest effect of corrosion processes was observed during the winter season due to increased air pollution. Corrosion of samples pre-treated in tannic acid before the exposure was more difficult compared with the samples without pretreatment. The corrosion products determined with the SEM/EDS method prove that the most corrosive pollutants present in the industrial city air are SO2, CO2, chlorides and dust.

  9. Towards preventative eco-industrial development: an industrial and urban symbiosis case in one typical industrial city in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Liang; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Dai, Ming

    2016-01-01

    situation. In order to investigate the eco-benefits of eco-industrial development in China, this study focused on an industrial and urban symbiosis case of Guiyang city in which process synergy, municipal solid wastes recycling and waste energy utilization were incorporated in this typical industrial city...... policy implications to address the barriers of promoting industrial and urban symbiosis were proposed. This study is critical for future industrial and urban planning policy making and shed a light on innovative eco-industrial development in China....

  10. Evaluation of solubility in simulated lung fluid of metals present in the slag from a metallurgical industry to produce metallic zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Rosilda M G; Carneiro, Luana G; Afonso, Júlio C; Cunha, Kenya M D

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the solubility parameters (rapid and slow dissolution rates, rapid and slow dissolution fractions) for nickel, cadmium, zinc and manganese compounds present in a pile of slag accumulated under exposure to weathering. This slag was generated by a metallurgical industry that produced zinc and zinc alloys from hemimorphite (Zn(4)(OH)(2)Si(2)O(7).H(2)O) and willemite (Zn(2)SiO(4)) minerals. A static dissolution test in vitro was used to determine the solubility parameters and Gamble's solution was used as the simulated lung fluid (SLF), on a time basis ranging from 10 min to 1 year. The metal concentrations in the slag samples and in the SLF were determined using Particle Induced X-rays Emission (PIXE). There are significant differences in terms of solubility parameters among the metals. The results indicated that the zinc, nickel, cadmium and manganese compounds present in the slag were moderately soluble in the SLF. The rapid dissolution fractions of these metals are associated with their sulfates. In conclusion, this study confirms the harmful effects on the neighboring population of the airborne particles containing these metals that came from the slag.

  11. Atmospheric corrosion of metals in industrial city environment

    OpenAIRE

    Kusmierek, Elzbieta; Chrzescijanska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric corrosion is a significant problem given destruction of various materials, especially metals. The corrosion investigation in the industrial city environment was carried out during one year exposure. Corrosion potential was determined using the potentiometric method. The highest effect of corrosion processes was observed during the winter season due to increased air pollution. Corrosion of samples pre-treated in tannic acid before the exposure was more difficult compared with the s...

  12. Princes and Merchants: European City Growth before the Industrial Revolution.

    OpenAIRE

    De Long, J Bradford; Shleifer, Andrei

    1993-01-01

    As measured by the pace of city growth in western Europe from 1000 to 1800. absolutist monarchs stunted the growth of commerce and industry. A region ruled by an absolutist prince saw its total urban population shrink by one hundred thousand people per century relative to a region without absolutist government. This might be explained by higher rates of taxation under revenue-maximizing absolutist governments than under non-absolutist governments. which care more about general economic prospe...

  13. Analytical control in metallurgical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coedo, A.G.; Dorado, M.T.; Padilla, I.

    1998-01-01

    This paper illustrates the role of analysis in enabling metallurgical industry to meet quality demands. For example, for the steel industry the demands by the automotive, aerospace, power generation, tinplate packaging industries and issue of environment near steel plants. Although chemical analysis technology continues to advance, achieving improved speed, precision and accuracy at lower levels of detection, the competitiveness of manufacturing industry continues to drive property demands at least at the same rate. Narrower specification ranges, lower levels of residual elements and economic pressures prescribe faster process routes, all of which lead to increased demands on the analytical function. These damands are illustrated by examples from several market sectors in which customer issues are considered together with ther analytical implications. (Author) 5 refs

  14. Metallurgical coating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, L.C.; Whittaker, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel metallurgical coating system which provides corrosion resistance and non-stick properties to metallic components which are subjected to unusually severe operating conditions. The coating system comprises a first layer comprising tantalum which is deposited upon a substrate and a second layer comprising molybdenum disilicide which is deposited upon the first layer

  15. A comprehensive Radiological Investigation for the Industrial Helwan City Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wafaa, F.; El-Tahawy, M.S.; El-Mongy, S.A.; Sayed, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    The non nuclear process industries supply a considerable contribution to the radiological pollution of the environment. A comprehensive radiological studies for determining radiation levels and radionuclides distribution in the environment of Helwan city (the major industrial region in Cairo) are carried out. The radioactivity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232, K-40 and the man made Cs-137 in samples of soil plants, ores and products collected from and around some of Helwan factories were analyzed using high resolution gamma spectrometers. A bad correlation between the observed 137 Cs and 40 K was found. The collected water and factories waste water samples were also analyzed by laser fluorimetry. The absorbed dose rates due to the natural radioactivity in the soil one meter above the ground and the radium equivalent activities are calculated and presented. The representative external hazard index values for the soil samples to be used as construction materials are also estimated and given. The results obtained are considered as reference values to be used in the case of emergency action and as baseline data for drawing a radiological map of the city

  16. [Mortality among able-bodied population in industrial cities in accordance with specific enterprise forming a company city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonova, G I; Gorchakova, T Iu; Churanova, A N

    2013-01-01

    The article covers comparative analysis of mortality causes and levels among male able-bodied population in small and medium industrial cities of Murmansk region in accordance with specific enterprise forming a company city. Findings are that, if compared to Murmansk having no enterprise forming a company, other industrial cities in the region, situated in the same climate area, demonstrated higher levels of mortality among the male able-bodied population with the death causes associated etiologically to occupational hazards on the enterprises forming a company city.

  17. Levels and composition of atmospheric particulates (PM10) in a mining-industrial site in the city of Lavrion, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protonotarios, V; Petsas, N; Moutsatsou, A

    2002-11-01

    The present work focuses on the characterization of air quality and the identification of pollutant origin at a former mining site in the city of Lavrion, Greece. A historical metallurgy complex is reused for establishing the Lavrion Technology and Cultural Park (LTCP). A serious problem with this is the severe soil contamination that resulted from intensive mining and metallurgical activities that has taken place in the greater area for the past 3,000 years. Among other consequences, surface-polluted depositions, rich in heavy and toxic metals, are loose and easily wind-eroded, resulting in transportation of particulate matter (PM) in the surrounding atmosphere. On the other hand, there are a number of industries relatively close to the site that are potential sources of PM air pollution. The current study deals with the collection and analysis of PM10 samples with respect to their concentration in heavy metals, such as Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cr, and Ni. Though not a heavy metal, As also is included. Furthermore, the source of these elements is verified using statistical correlation and by calculating enrichment factors (EFs), considering that some substances are certainly of contaminated soil origin. Results show that PM10 and element concentrations are relatively low during winter but significantly increase during summer. Fe, Pb, Zn, Mn, and Cu may be considered of contaminated soil origin, while As, Ni, Cd, and Cr are very much enriched with respect to contaminated soil, indicating another possible source attributed to the adjacent industrial plants.

  18. Dor orofacial e absenteísmo em trabalhadores da indústria metalúrgica e mecânica Orofacial pain and absenteeism in workers of the metallurgic and mechanics industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimari Telino de Lacerda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a prevalência de dor orofacial e sua relação com absenteísmo em trabalhadores do setor metalúrgico e mecânico do município de Xanxerê, Santa Catarina. Realizou-se um estudo transversal envolvendo todos os trabalhadores do sexo masculino (n = 480 das 13 indústrias do setor no município. As informações foram coletadas por meio de entrevistas estruturadas. Informações sócio-demográficas, prevalência, severidade e localização de dor orofacial no último semestre, bem como sobre falta ao trabalho devido à dor orofacial, compuseram o questionário. Dados de identificação, setor e turno de trabalho foram coletados nos departamentos de recursos humanos das empresas. Os dados foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva e testes de associação de qui-quadrado de Pearson entre absenteísmo e dor orofacial. A prevalência de dor orofacial foi de 66,1%, sendo dor de dente provocada ou dor de dente espontânea os tipos mais frequentes. O absenteísmo devido a dor orofacial no último semestre foi relatado por 9,3% dos trabalhadores, mostrando-se associado à dor de dente espontânea (p The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of orofacial pain and its association with absenteeism in worke rs of the metallurgic and mechanics industry of the city of Xanxerê, Brazil. A cross sectional study was performed involving all male workers(n=480 of the 13 industries of the sector in the city. The information was collected by means of structured interviews. Socio-demographic information, prevalence, severity and localization of orofacial pain in the last semester as well as on absenteeism due to orofacial pain formed the questionnaire. Identification data, work sector and shift were collected in the departments of human resources of the companies. The data were assessed using descriptive statistics and Pearson chi-squared tests between absenteeism and pain in the orofacial region. The

  19. Sustainable cost reduction by lean management in metallurgical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Todorut

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the need for sustainable cost reduction in the metallurgical industry by applying Lean Management (LM tools and concepts in metallurgical production processes leading to increased competitiveness of corporations in a global market. The paper highlights that Lean Management is a novel way of thinking, adapting to change, reducing waste and continuous improvement, leading to sustainable development of companies in the metallurgical industry. The authors outline the main Lean Management instruments based on recent scientific research and include a comparative analysis of other tools, such as Sort, Straighten, Shine, Standardize, Sustain (5S, Visual Management (VM, Kaizen, Total Productive Maintenance (TPM, Single-Minute Exchange of Dies (SMED, leading to a critical appraisal of their application in the metallurgical industry.

  20. Alopecia areata - pattern in industrial city of Baroda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain S

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, S.S.G. Hospital, Baroda. The profile of Alopecia areata (AA was studied in 150 subjects in industrial city of Baroda, alopecia areata is the problem of young males as 52.1 %patients are in 2-39 years age group and male to female ratio being 1.7: 1. Most of alopecia areata presents within 6 month of onset. The problem of AA is of cosmetic significance. AA pattern is the commonest and only few have combined AA and ophiasis. The common site is scalp (parietal, occipital, frontal followed by beard and moustache. Associated atopic state is not common hence indicating good prognosis. Nail involvement though not common but is in form of pitting.

  1. Problems of placement of industrial wastes in landfills in the industrial city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEPANOV Evgeniy Georgievich,

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that the anthropogenic transformation of the environment increases when production wastes and consumption are placed in landfills. Hygienic condition of the areas with high population density and developed industry is determined by the increased amount of household and industrial waste, mainly deposited in the numerous landfills. This situation is studied on the example of landfills used for industrial wastes produced by the enterprises JSC «Gazprom Neftekhim Salavat», JSC «Salavatsteklo», located in the city of Salavat of the Republic of Bashkortostan. The sources of industrial pollution in Salavat have been analyzed. One should note that the city-forming enterprise is the JSC «Gazprom Neftekhim Salavat» which share of the total amount of wastes generated in the city per year is 80%. Another company which contributes significantly to this process is the JSC «Salavatsteklo». To study the possible migration of contaminants to the aquifer an observation well has been made at the landfill site. The research of the water obtained from the observation well at the polygon identified maximum allowable concentrations for chemical oxygen demand (COD, phenol and oil products. The groundwater occurrence modes have been studied. The migration of the chemicals contained in the body of the landfill, to groundwater, has been revealed. That leads to contamination of surface water. Laboratory studies of water objects in the zone of influence of industrial waste landfill in Romodanovskomu career have been performed. It was determined that excess of maximum permissible concentration of benzene, and the presence of toluene, lead, phenol indicates the pollution of groundwater by substances stored in landfills Romanovskogo career, both by infiltration and subsequent migration to groundwater of adjacent aquifers and through surface runoff and infiltration from snowmelt and rainwater.

  2. Impact of the Smart City Industry on the Korean National Economy: Input-Output Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyunam Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the smart city industry and its effects on the national economy of Korea are investigated using input-output analysis. The definition and industrial classification of a smart city are established using the Delphi technique for experts in various fields, from information and communication technologies (ICT to governmental policies for urban matters. The results of the analysis, including the production, value added and employment induction effects, show that the smart city industry has intermediate characteristics between ICT and urban construction industries, indicating that acquisition of the competitive edge of both the ICT and construction industries is the key to the success of the smart city industry. The crucial industries related to the smart city industry are identified based on an analysis of the forward and backward linkage effects, the results of which suggest the importance of the relevant service industries. The economic effects on the national economy induced by the governmental program for smart city demonstration are estimated using input-output analysis results. Overall, the results of this study indicate that facilitation of the smart city industry plays a key role not only in the sustainable city, but also in the growth of the national economy.

  3. City branding in China's Northeastern region : How do cities reposition themselves when facing industrial decline and ecological modernization?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Meiling; de Jong, W.M.; Cui, Zhuqing; Lu, H.; Sun, Baiqing

    2018-01-01

    The past decade has seen a surge in the use of city branding, which is used to attract specific target groups of investors, high-tech green firms and talented workforce and reflects a desired shift from old, polluting manufacturing industries to new, clean service industries. Previous studies in

  4. City branding in China's Northeastern region : How do cities reposition themselves when facing industrial decline and ecological modernization?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, M. (Meiling); M. de Jong (Martin); Cui, Z. (Zhuqing); Xu, L. (Limin); H. Lu (Haiyan); Sun, B. (Baiqing)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThe past decade has seen a surge in the use of city branding, which is used to attract specific target groups of investors, high-tech green firms and talented workforce and reflects a desired shift from old, polluting manufacturing industries to new, clean service industries. Previous

  5. Processing and utilization of metallurgical slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Pribulová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Metallurgy and foundry industry create a huge amount of slags that are by-products in production of pig iron, steel and cast iron. Slag is produced in a very large amount in pyrometallurgical processes, and is a huge source of waste if not properly recycled and utilized. With rapid growth of industrialization, land available for land-filling of large quantity of metallurgical slag is being reduced all over the world and disposal cost is becoming increasingly higher. Metallurgical slag from different metallurgical processes treated and utilized in different ways based on different slag characteristics. The most economic and efficient option for reducing metallurgical waste is through recycling, which is a significant contribution to saving natural resources and reducing CO2 emissions. Characteristic of slags as well as its treatment and utilization are given in the paper. Slag from pig iron and steel production is used most frequently in building industry. From experiments using blast furnace slag and granulated blast furnace slag as gravel, and water glass as binder it can be concluded that that the best results – the best values of compression strength and tensile strength were reached by using of 18% of water glass as a solidification activating agent. According to cubic compression strength, mixture from 50% blast furnace gravel, 50% granulated blast furnace slag and 18% water glass falls into C35/45 class of concrete. Such concrete also fulfils strength requirements for road concrete, moreover, it even exceeds them considerably and, therefore, it can find an application in construction of road communications or in production of concrete slabs.

  6. Industrial and natural sources of gaseous elemental mercury in the Almadén district (Spain): an updated report on this issue after the ceasing of mining and metallurgical activities in 2003 and major land reclamation works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higueras, Pablo; Esbrí, José María; Oyarzun, Roberto; Llanos, Willans; Martínez-Coronado, Alba; Lillo, Javier; López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; García-Noguero, Eva Maria

    2013-08-01

    Two events during the last decade had major environmental repercussions in Almadén town (Spain). First it was the ceasing of activities in the mercury mine and metallurgical facilities in 2003, and then the finalization of the restoration works on the main waste dump in 2008. The combination of both events brought about a dramatic drop in the emissions of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) to the atmosphere. Although no one would now call the Almadén area as 'mercury-free', the GEM levels have fallen beneath international reference safety levels for the first time in centuries. This has been a major breakthrough because in less than one decade the site went from GEM levels in the order of "tens of thousands" to mere "tens" nanogram per cubic meter. Although these figures are per se a remarkable achievement, they do not mark the end of the environmental concerns in the Almadén district. Two other sites remain as potential environmental hazards. (1) The Las Cuevas mercury storage complex, a partially restored ex-mining site where liquid mercury is being stored. The MERSADE Project (LIFE-European Union) has tested the Las Cuevas complex as a potential site for the installation of a future European prototype safe deposit of surplus mercury from industrial activities. Despite restoration works carried out in 2004, the Las Cuevas complex can still be regarded as hotspot of mercury contamination, with high concentrations above 800μgg(-1) Hgsoil and 300ngm(-3) Hggas. However, as predicted by air contamination modeling using the ISC-AERMOD software, GEM concentrations fade away in a short distance following the formation of a NW-SE oriented narrow plume extending for a few hundred meters from the complex perimeter. (2) Far more dangerous from the human health perspective is the Almadenejos area, hosting the small Almadenejos village, the so-called Cerco de Almadenejos (CDA; an old metallurgical precinct), and the mines of La Nueva Concepción, La Vieja Concepción and El

  7. Metallurgical applications: fractography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meny, L.

    1978-01-01

    The principal metallurgical uses of the scanning electron microscope and the microprobe described here employ images obtained on a CRT from an electron signal or X rays. The various electron signals are the back scattered electrons, secondary electrons and absorbed electrons. The differences in the intensity of thee signals with the acceleration tension E 0 , the inclination angle β, the atomic number Z of the target and any potential applied to the sample give rise to contrasts: atomic number contrast, given by the sample current or the back scattered electrons; topographical contrast, given by the emission of the secondary electrons Δ that vary with α (the angle between the normal to the surface and the direction of the incident beam) [fr

  8. Crisis management in metallurgical enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of report analysis which presents situation in metallurgical sector after 2008 the range of changes implemented in management of metallurgical enterprises was characterised. A definition approach to crisis management was suggested as the process when the enterprise is managed during the breakdown period in market condition of the economy in the way directed towards preventing the negative effects of crisis inside enterprises. The publication presents the key aspects of enterprise management in the period of collapse of the balance between the supply and demand on the metallurgical market.

  9. Engines for experiment: laboratory revolution and industrial labor in the nineteenth-century city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierig, Sven

    2003-01-01

    This article brings together what until now have been separate fields of nineteenth-century history: the development of experimental physiology, the growth of mechanized industry, and the city, where their threads intertwined. The main argument is that the laboratory in the city employed the same technological and organizational approaches to modernize that the city used to industrialize. To bring the adoption of technology into focus, the article discusses laboratory research as it developed after the introduction of small-scale power engines. With its machines, the industrialized city provided not only the key metaphor of the nineteenth-century life sciences but also a key technology that shifted experimental practices in animal research from a kind of preindustrial craft to a more mechanized production of knowledge. With its "factory-laboratories," the late-nineteenth-century city became the birthplace for the first living, data-producing hybird---part animal and part machine.

  10. Implementation of sustainable processes in regional industries: recycling of metallurgical residual as a project to chance masonry used in construction in Bogotá, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Quijano B.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rev.esc.adm.neg This paper shows the analysis of the possibilities to implement a new process, viable from the environmental and economic point of view, which includes two regional industries within the framework of the generation of sustainable solutions for the regional economy. In it, the description of how to use residuals from the steel industry as a source to transform the masonry industry, both located in the region of Bogota.

  11. Production of brown coal fuel dust as a high value and effective energy carrier for substituting heating oil, natural gas and black coal in the cement and metallurgical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubasch, A.

    1985-01-01

    Poduction and industrial use of brown coal dust in the German Democratic Republic are reviewed. Dust production in 14 brown coal briquetting plants increased from 818.4 kt in 1980 to 2064 kt in 1984 and will exceed 4000 kt in 1990. Quality parameters of dusts according to the TGL 15380 industrial standard are listed. The railroad car loading and shipping technology is explained with the example of modern facilities of the Schwarze Pumpe briquetting plant: dust bunkers of 200 t storage capacity, pneumatic feeding and telescope discharge systems with nitrogen gas inertization, fire prevention, and railroad car cleaning equipment, rail track heating for improved winter loading conditions, etc. Since 1979 the Deuna, Karsdorf and Bernburg cement plants have been converted to brown coal dust combustion after installation of new fuel dust shipping, storage and combustion equipment. Substitution of heating oil and gas in metallurgical blast furnaces by brown coal dust is further described. Techogical advantages of the pneumatic KOSTE fuel feeding method are enumerated.

  12. ACTUAL ISSUES OF MASTOPATHY DIAGNOSTICS IN LARGE INDUSTRIAL CITY OF CHELYABINSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zurochka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban ecological problems are associated with industrial pollution emissions, waste of metallurgical production, unhealthy lifestyle and reproductive behavior lead to a steady rise in cancer pathology in theChelyabinskregion. Women in early reproductive age living in areas of ecological concern with suspected mastopathies, exhibit significantly higher levels of tumor markers associated with the tumor cell membranes of (CA19-9, SA15-5, CA125, CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen. Therefore, it seems necessary to perform massive laboratory programs for oncological screening, especially, among young working population, in order to identify breast diseases, and to arrange appropriate risk groups at this basis, aiming for development of effective preventive measures for the future.

  13. ACTUAL ISSUES OF MASTOPATHY DIAGNOSTICS IN LARGE INDUSTRIAL CITY OF CHELYABINSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zurochka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban ecological problems are associated with industrial pollution emissions, waste of metallurgical production, unhealthy lifestyle and reproductive behavior lead to a steady rise in cancer pathology in theChelyabinskregion. Women in early reproductive age living in areas of ecological concern with suspected mastopathies, exhibit significantly higher levels of tumor markers associated with the tumor cell membranes of (CA19-9, SA15-5, CA125, CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen. Therefore, it seems necessary to perform massive laboratory programs for oncological screening, especially, among young working population, in order to identify breast diseases, and to arrange appropriate risk groups at this basis, aiming for development of effective preventive measures for the future. 

  14. Evaluating Pillar Industry's Transformation Capability: A Case Study of Two Chinese Steel-Based Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhidong; Marinova, Dora; Guo, Xiumei; Gao, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Many steel-based cities in China were established between the 1950s and 1960s. After more than half a century of development and boom, these cities are starting to decline and industrial transformation is urgently needed. This paper focuses on evaluating the transformation capability of resource-based cities building an evaluation model. Using Text Mining and the Document Explorer technique as a way of extracting text features, the 200 most frequently used words are derived from 100 publications related to steel- and other resource-based cities. The Expert Evaluation Method (EEM) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) techniques are then applied to select 53 indicators, determine their weights and establish an index system for evaluating the transformation capability of the pillar industry of China's steel-based cities. Using real data and expert reviews, the improved Fuzzy Relation Matrix (FRM) method is applied to two case studies in China, namely Panzhihua and Daye, and the evaluation model is developed using Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE). The cities' abilities to carry out industrial transformation are evaluated with concerns expressed for the case of Daye. The findings have policy implications for the potential and required industrial transformation in the two selected cities and other resource-based towns.

  15. [Metallic content of water sources and drinkable water in industrial cities of Murmansk region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doushkina, E V; Dudarev, A A; Sladkova, Yu N; Zachinskaya, I Yu; Chupakhin, V S; Goushchin, I V; Talykova, L V; Nikanov, A N

    2015-01-01

    Performed in 2013, sampling of centralized and noncentralized water-supply and analysis of engineering technology materials on household water use in 6 cities of Murmansk region (Nikel, Zapolyarny, Olenegorsk, Montchegorsk, Apatity, Kirovsk), subjected to industrial emissions, enabled to evaluate and compare levels of 15 metals in water sources (lakes and springs) and the cities' drinkable waters. Findings are that some cities lack sanitary protection zones for water sources, most cities require preliminary water processing, water desinfection involves only chlorination. Concentrations of most metals in water samples from all the cities at the points of water intake, water preparation and water supply are within the hygienic norms. But values significantly (2-5 times) exceeding MACs (both in water sources and in drinkable waters of the cities) were seen for aluminium in Kirovsk city and for nickel in Zapolarny and Nikel cities. To decrease effects of aluminium, nickel and their compounds in the three cities' residents (and preserve health of the population and offsprings), the authors necessitate specification and adaptation of measures to purify the drinkable waters from the pollutants. In all the cities studied, significantly increased concentrations of iron and other metals were seen during water transportation from the source to the city supply--that necessitates replacement of depreciated water supply systems by modern ones. Water taken from Petchenga region springs demonstrated relatively low levels of metals, except from strontium and barium.

  16. Interpretation of Disruptive Innovation in the Era of Smart Cities of the Fourth Industrial Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Nick

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The exponential development of information technology and, in this context, the latest generation of open innovation systems result in revolutionary changes in almost every industry as well as in other areas of life. From the automotive industry to the energy sector and to tourism, newcomers emerge everywhere, building on the tools of disruptive innovation, which with earlier unprecedented speeds transform their previous industry power. The essence of the smart city approach is to put the latest tools of technological advancement in serving the social, economic and ecological sustainability of cities' lives for the inhabitants as well as for the enterprises of the city. Industry 4.0 is an imagined future, which in our opinion – in direct or indirect ways – would have a fundamental influence on smart cities and their environment and regions, given that their primary goal is to improve a country's competitiveness. In our study, we review the relevant literature on the definition of and approach to innovation as well as the smart city concept in this new revolutionary age, we demonstrate relevant correlations between the concepts of disruptive innovation, smart city and Industry 4.0

  17. Industry in motion: using smart phones to explore the spatial network of the garment industry in New York City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Williams

    Full Text Available Industrial agglomerations have long been thought to offer economic and social benefits to firms and people that are only captured by location within their specified geographies. Using the case study of New York City's garment industry along with data acquired from cell phones and social media, this study set out to understand the discrete activities underpinning the economic dynamics of an industrial agglomeration. Over a two week period, data was collected by employing the geolocative capabilities of Foursquare, a social media application, to record every movement of fashion workers employed at fashion design firms located both inside and outside the geographical boundaries of New York City's Garment District. This unique method of studying worker activity exposed the day-to-day dynamics of an industrial district with a precision thus far undocumented in literature. Our work suggests that having access to the cluster provides almost the same agglomeration economies as residing within its borders.

  18. Industry in motion: using smart phones to explore the spatial network of the garment industry in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sarah; Currid-Halkett, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Industrial agglomerations have long been thought to offer economic and social benefits to firms and people that are only captured by location within their specified geographies. Using the case study of New York City's garment industry along with data acquired from cell phones and social media, this study set out to understand the discrete activities underpinning the economic dynamics of an industrial agglomeration. Over a two week period, data was collected by employing the geolocative capabilities of Foursquare, a social media application, to record every movement of fashion workers employed at fashion design firms located both inside and outside the geographical boundaries of New York City's Garment District. This unique method of studying worker activity exposed the day-to-day dynamics of an industrial district with a precision thus far undocumented in literature. Our work suggests that having access to the cluster provides almost the same agglomeration economies as residing within its borders.

  19. Plasma technology in metallurgical processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haile, O.

    1995-12-31

    This literature work is mainly focusing on the mechanisms of plasma technology and telling about metallurgical processing, particularly iron and steelmaking as well as the advantage of the unique properties of plasma. The main advantages of plasma technology in metallurgical operations is to direct utilization of naturally available raw materials and fuels without costly upgrading andlor beneficiation, improved environmental impact, improve process control, significant amplification of reactor and process equipment utilization and increased efficiency of raw materials, energy and man power. This literature survey is based on the publication `plasma technology in metallurgical processing` presents a comprehensive account of the physical, electrical, and mechanical aspects of plasma production and practical processing. The applications of plasma technology in metallurgical processing are covered in depth with special emphasis on developments in promising early stages. Plasma technology of today is mature in the metallurgical process applications. A few dramatic improvements are expected in the near future this giving an impetus to the technologists for the long range planning. (18 refs.) (author)

  20. Industrial and natural sources of gaseous elemental mercury in the Almadén district (Spain): An updated report on this issue after the ceasing of mining and metallurgical activities in 2003 and major land reclamation works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higueras, Pablo; María Esbrí, José; Oyarzun, Roberto; Llanos, Willans; Martínez-Coronado, Alba

    2013-01-01

    Two events during the last decade had major environmental repercussions in Almadén town (Spain). First it was the ceasing of activities in the mercury mine and metallurgical facilities in 2003, and then the finalization of the restoration works on the main waste dump in 2008. The combination of both events brought about a dramatic drop in the emissions of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) to the atmosphere. Although no one would now call the Almadén area as ‘mercury-free’, the GEM levels have fallen beneath international reference safety levels for the first time in centuries. This has been a major breakthrough because in less than one decade the site went from GEM levels in the order of “tens of thousands” to mere “tens” nanogram per cubic meter. Although these figures are per se a remarkable achievement, they do not mark the end of the environmental concerns in the Almadén district. Two other sites remain as potential environmental hazards. (1) The Las Cuevas mercury storage complex, a partially restored ex-mining site where liquid mercury is being stored. The MERSADE Project (LIFE—European Union) has tested the Las Cuevas complex as a potential site for the installation of a future European prototype safe deposit of surplus mercury from industrial activities. Despite restoration works carried out in 2004, the Las Cuevas complex can still be regarded as hotspot of mercury contamination, with high concentrations above 800 μg g −1 Hg soil and 300 ng m −3 Hg gas . However, as predicted by air contamination modeling using the ISC-AERMOD software, GEM concentrations fade away in a short distance following the formation of a NW–SE oriented narrow plume extending for a few hundred meters from the complex perimeter. (2) Far more dangerous from the human health perspective is the Almadenejos area, hosting the small Almadenejos village, the so-called Cerco de Almadenejos (CDA; an old metallurgical precinct), and the mines of La Nueva Concepción, La

  1. The role of creative industries in regional development of East Asian cities

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ho Yeon

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the so-called creative industry is gaining attention as a new engine of regional economic growth. Using this new industrial classification, many countries are starting to promote the cultural creation activities with the purpose of seeking out new directions in regional development. The synergy effects can also be attained by promoting the traditional sectors to the creative industry. This concept is useful not only for mega cities like Tokyo, Seoul, Beijing and Shanghai, but also f...

  2. Promoting low-carbon city through industrial symbiosis: A case in China by applying HPIMO model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Liang; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Zhang, Hui; Dai, Ming; Fujii, Minoru; Ohnishi, Satoshi; Geng, Yong; Liu, Zhu

    2013-01-01

    China launched low-carbon city strategy to respond global climate change. Industrial symbiosis (IS) could generate both economic and environmental benefits in clustered industries and communities. This research shed light on how industrial symbiosis contributes to city's low-carbon development. An urban-level hybrid physical input and monetary output (HPIMO) model which covers physical energy inputs and air pollutants emissions, is established for addressing case study in a Chinese typical industrial city (Liuzhou). Based on current energy consumption and industrial symbiosis and the application of HPIMO model, scenarios related to industrial symbiosis, including waste plastics recycling, scrap tires recycling, flying ash recycling and biomass utilization are explored. Results show that compared with business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, IS can reduce solid wastes and further contribute to the co-benefits of energy saving, CO 2 emissions reduction and air pollutants reduction. The finding is critical for national low-carbon strategy. Finally, policy implications to support the ever-improvement of IS promotion in China are proposed and discussed. - Highlights: • Industrial symbiosis could contribute to low-carbon city in terms of co-benefit. • Co-benefit of IS was in terms of waste reduction and air pollutants reduction. • Waste plastics recycling and biomass utilization generated large co-benefit. • Coal fly ash recycling reduced the solid waste while increased air pollutants. • The prices of wastes and facilities investment affected the total cost-benefit

  3. Design and applications of Computed Industrial Tomographic Imaging System (CITIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishna, G.S.; Umesh Kumar; Datta, S.S.; Rao, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    Computed tomographic imaging is an advanced technique for nondestructive testing (NDT) and examination. For the first time in India a computed aided tomography system has been indigenously developed in BARC for testing industrial components and was successfully demonstrated. The system in addition to Computed Tomography (CT) can also perform Digital Radiography (DR) to serve as a powerful tool for NDT applications. It has wider applications in the fields of nuclear, space and allied fields. The authors have developed a computed industrial tomographic imaging system with Cesium 137 gamma radiation source for nondestructive examination of engineering and industrial specimens. This presentation highlights the design and development of a prototype system and its software for image reconstruction, simulation and display. The paper also describes results obtained with several tests specimens, current development and possibility of using neutrons as well as high energy x-rays in computed tomography. (author)

  4. Catering industry development in the city of Sochi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana А. Yudina

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present article the author studies catering services provided to athletes during 2010 Winter Olympic Games in Vancouver (Canada. The author has examined catering businesses in Sochi, their equipment and services as well as human resources issues. The author has proposed various approaches and solutions of problems (in Sochi, such as developing chain restaurants and fine cuisine restaurants, creation of Restaurateur’s Association in Sochi which will coordinate this branch of hospitality industry before and after the Games.

  5. Investigation of metallurgical coatings for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jun Feng

    Metallurgical coatings have been widely used in the automotive industry from component machining, engine daily running to body decoration due to their high hardness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance and low friction coefficient. With high demands in energy saving, weight reduction and limiting environmental impact, the use of new materials such as light Aluminum/magnesium alloys with high strength-weight ratio for engine block and advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) with better performance in crash energy management for die stamping, are increasing. However, challenges are emerging when these new materials are applied such as the wear of the relative soft light alloys and machining tools for hard AHSS. The protective metallurgical coatings are the best option to profit from these new materials' advantages without altering largely in mass production equipments, machinery, tools and human labor. In this dissertation, a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating processing on aluminum alloys was introduced in engine cylinder bores to resist wear and corrosion. The tribological behavior of the PEO coatings under boundary and starve lubrication conditions was studied experimentally and numerically for the first time. Experimental results of the PEO coating demonstrated prominent wear resistance and low friction, taking into account the extreme working conditions. The numerical elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) and asperity contact based tribological study also showed a promising approach on designing low friction and high wear resistant PEO coatings. Other than the fabrication of the new coatings, a novel coating evaluation methodology, namely, inclined impact sliding tester was presented in the second part of this dissertation. This methodology has been developed and applied in testing and analyzing physical vapor deposition (PVD)/ chemical vapor deposition (CVD)/PEO coatings. Failure mechanisms of these common metallurgical hard coatings were systematically

  6. The effect of industrial vehicles on the road’s level of service of industrial area in Malang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustin, I. W.; Sumantri, Y.

    2017-06-01

    Malang was a great city that has the characteristics of diverse industries and it was spread in each district. Industry was one of the activities that have the characteristics of the movement with the goal of shipping and distribution. The vehicles used are large vehicles such as trucks and trailers. Problems related to the road’s performance that is the emergence of several points of delay and congestion due to the movement and the volume of vehicles as well as the limited capacity of existing roads. It encourages researchers to do research related to the effect of the industrial vehicle movements on the performance of existing roads in the city of Malang. The main purpose of the research is to analyze the effect of industrial vehicles movement on the road’s level of service of industrial area and to find out alternative solutions to improve the road’s level of service of industrial area. The research used multiple linear regression and do something analysis. The results showed that the types of industry in the city of Malang are ILMETTA, IATT, Agrokim, Sentra and Large Industries. Determining the location of the main observation based on the distribution of industry, have a major impact directly on the street, and the class of the national road are located in Sunandar Priyo Sudarmo Street. Existing land use in Sunandar Priyo Sudarmo Street are industrial, healthcare, office and it dominated by trade and services. Related to the variables that affect the movement of industrial vehicles are the number of employees (X3) and the delivery frequency (X6). The road’s level of service of Sunandar Priyo Sudarmo Street are D and E. While the effect of industrial vehicles movement on the road’s level of service which ranged from 13.77 per cent to 22.13 per cent of the total volume of vehicles on the road. Some referrals will be used to handle the problems that the road widening and the selection of alternative routes for the industrial vehicles.

  7. Study on radon and thoron levels in different types of granitic work industries around Tumkur city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagabhushan, S.R.; Ujjinappa; Srilatha; Sannappa, J.

    2013-01-01

    Radon, Thoron and its progeny monitoring has become a global phenomenon due to its health hazards on human being. The concentration of radon, thoron and their progeny levels have been measured in different types of Granite and brick work industries around Tumkur city by using LR-115 type II Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) have been used for the measurement of these gases. The higher concentration of radon, thoron and their progeny were observed in the dwellings near brick industries compared to Granite cutting and polishing industries. The inhalation dose due to Radon, Thoron and their progeny to the workers and public living near these industries have been estimated. (author)

  8. Cermet crucible for metallurgical processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boring, Christopher P.

    1995-01-01

    A cermet crucible for metallurgically processing metals having high melting points comprising a body consisting essentially of a mixture of calcium oxide and erbium metal, the mixture comprising calcium oxide in a range between about 50 and 90% by weight and erbium metal in a range between about 10 and 50% by weight.

  9. TMI-2 VIP Metallurgical Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.; Neimark, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of the TMI-2 VIP Metallurgical Program are to conduct metallurgical examinations and mechanical-property tests on samples of material removed from the lower head of the TMI-2 nuclear reactor in order to deduce the temperatures, determine the mechanical properties, and assess the integrity of the TMI-2 lower head during the loss-of-coolant accident. The TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project Metallurgical Program is a part of the international TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project being conducted jointly by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Participants in the international project include the US, Japan, the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), Finland, France, Italy, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom (UK). Fifteen samples have been removed from the lower head and are being examined. Mechanical tests will be conducted on specimens cut from these lower head samples. In addition, archive material from the lower head of the Midland nuclear reactor has been procured for conducting supplemental metallurgical evaluations and mechanical-property determinations. The information obtained from these examinations and tests, supplemented by results obtained from parallel examinations of instrument nozzles, guide tubes, and core debris at Argonne National Laboratory and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory will be used to deduce a scenario for the loss-of-coolant accident and assess the integrity of the lower head during the accident

  10. Recent rapid increases in the demand for city gas in manufacturing industries and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusano, Shigero

    1992-01-01

    City gas companies in Japan are experiencing an expansion in demand for gas in all manufacturing industries. The reason for this is, first and foremost, external, in that the first and second oil crises and the recent Gulf War have placed the oil market in a state of flux. That is to say, supply and demand in the oil products market is unstable while the stability of city gas, which is the main raw material for LNG, is being highly appraised. Another external reason is related to a subject much in the news recently the world over - the environment. City gas is highly regarded for its minimum environmental impact. Domestic reasons for the expansion include the fact that with the increase in use of city gas in manufacturing industries, the end user is beginning to recognize the various special qualities that city gas possesses. The expansion is also due in part to the unrelenting efforts in sales by the gas producers themselves. This report focuses on the expansion in demand in city gas over the past ten years from the point of view of Tokyo Gas as a producer that has been party to the increased sales of city gas in manufacturing industries for over 10 years giving views on the reasons for the increase. Graphic reports of the actual situation of the industry at meetings such as these are rare and therefore although this is slightly different from the main theme, I would like to proceed with the debate in the hope that this will be beneficial in the expansion of future gas demand in countries all over the world

  11. 7th european metallurgical conference EMC 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko R. Stopić

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available From June 23 – 26, 2013, the GDMB Society for Mining, Metallurgy, Resource and Environmental Technology organized 7th European Metallurgical Conference (EMC 2013 in Weimar, Germany. The previous European metallurgical conferences were organized by  the GDMB in Friedrichshafen (2001, Hanover (2003, Leipzig (2005, Duesseldorf (2007, Innsbruck (2009, and Duesseldorf (2011. The GDMB is a non-profit organization from Clausthal, Germany,,focused on combining science with practical experience in metallurgy, mining, materials engineering, mineral processing, recycling and refining of metals, and  manufacturing of semi- and finishing products. The European Metallurgical conference EMC is one of the most well-known conferences worldwide in the field of non-ferrous metallurgy and is attended regularly by decision makers from industry and universities. The scientific program contained 6 plenary lectures and more than 130 presentations. An extensive poster exhibition was held, during which the authors had an opportunity to introduce their posters to the entire plenum as a part of a brief presentation., The € 500 worth “Poster Award EMC 2011 was awarded to Christoph Pichler from the Montan-University in Leoben, Austria. Not only the most important European countries were represented here, but also more than one third of the lecturers were from countries outside Europe (Canada, Japan, China, USA, South Africa, Australia. The origin of the participants reflects the aim of the organizers: to make this conference a worldwide platform for the scientific exchange of experience and information. The scientific presentations of the conference are presented in Proceedings: Vol. 1: Copper, Precious Metals, Waste effluents Treatment/ Biohydrometallurgical applications; Process Metallurgy, Bridging Non-Ferrous and Ferrous Metallurgy; Vol. 2: Lead and Zinc, Light metals, Sustainable technologies, Sustainable of non-ferrous metals production, Process Control

  12. Proceedings of papers. 3. Balkan Metallurgical Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickovski, Jovan

    2003-01-01

    This Conference aims to be a central event in the metallurgy research of Balkan, fulfilling the goals to present the most outstanding relevant developments in modern metallurgy; to inspire high standards of excellence in pure and applied metallurgy research; to attract outstanding scientists to present central lectures on modem metallurgical research, and on the challenges imposed by the needs of society; to inspire the young generation of metallurgists in Balkan and other countries. Following these lines, the 3. Balkan Conference on Metallurgy will provide a unique opportunity for academic and industrial metallurgists from the Balkan countries and wider, to exchange ideas, expertise, and experience on topics related to the theme of the Conference - Balkan Metallurgy in Search for New Ways of Development. The aim of the organizers was to bring together distinguished experts, not only to present their work, but also to discuss the major scientific and technological challenges facing metallurgy in this millennium.The 6 sections of the conference were entitled: Section A: Extractive metallurgy; Section B: Physical metallurgy and materials science - ferrous metals and non ferrous metals; Section C: Management, maintenance control and optimization of metallurgical processes; Section D: New technologies and techniques; Section E: Refractory and powder; Section F: Corrosion and protection of metals. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  13. Industrial symbiosis as a countermeasure for resource dependent city: a case study of Guiyang, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hong; Dong, Liang; Ren, Jingzheng

    2015-01-01

    Solutions towards sustainable cities are of vital importance for China's stakeholders due to the rapid urbanizations, serious resources depletion and environmental contaminations in China. China as the second largest economy is suffering from the dilemma of rapid industrialization and urbanization......, and sustainable development. One of the most severe problems affecting China's sustainable urban development is the resource dependent city, in which resource mining and process industries dominate the local economy. With the depletion of natural resources and the degradation of environment, the concept...... of sustainability and economy transition solutions become more and more important. Under this condition, this study aims to conduct a comprehensive review on the major projects for a more sustainable future in China's national resource dependent cities and propose a countermeasure for the sustainability transition...

  14. Travel and Tourism Industry: Program Options for City College of San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    City Coll. of San Francisco, CA.

    In an effort to determine the current occupational outlook and resulting implications for education and training, the City College of San Francisco (CCSF), in California, undertook a study of current trends in the travel and tourism industry. This report provides findings from the project, which involved consultation with local and national…

  15. Decoding the industrial and digital city: visions of security in Holmes' and Sherlock’s London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kustritz, A.; Kohnen, M.E.S.; Stein, L.E.; Busse, K.

    2012-01-01

    Both the original and BBC Sherlock Holmes rely on the science of deduction to solve crimes and dazzle audiences. Emerging in times of cultural transformation, both characters offer reassurance about safety in the city by decoding people and places using contemporary technologies. In industrial

  16. Geothermal-energy files in computer storage: sites, cities, and industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Dea, P.L.

    1981-12-01

    The site, city, and industrial files are described. The data presented are from the hydrothermal site file containing about three thousand records which describe some of the principal physical features of hydrothermal resources in the United States. Data elements include: latitude, longitude, township, range, section, surface temperature, subsurface temperature, the field potential, and well depth for commercialization. (MHR)

  17. Uncovering opportunity of low-carbon city promotion with industrial system innovation: Case study on industrial symbiosis projects in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Liang; Gu, Fumei; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Yoshitsugu; Gao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    There is a dilemma for rapid industrializing China to balance economic growth and low carbonization. Industrial symbiosis (IS) provides a system innovation to utilize the industry to fight climate change and pursue sustainable urban development, while few attentions are paid in literatures. Under this circumstance, this study reviews the low-carbon city practice in China and conducts a case study to calculate the CO 2 emissions reduction potential under promoting IS projects in two cities of China, named Jinan and Liuzhou. With the real national project in Jinan as advanced example, new scenarios related to IS are designed for Liuzhou, including comprehensive energy network, waste plastics recycling, scrap tires recycling and flying ash recycling. The material/waste and energy exchange is quantified in the IS network, as well as the related environmental benefit. The material/energy exchange is over 10 million ton and 20 thousands tce in Jinan's case, and 2.5 million ton and 45 thousand tce in Liuzhou's case. Results highlight that IS could effectively reduce CO 2 emissions. The total reduction potential amounts to 3944.05 thousands tCO 2 /year and 2347.88 thousands tCO 2 /year in Jinan and Liuzhou. Finally, policy implications on the ever-improvement of industrial symbiosis and China's sustainable urban development are proposed and discussed. - Highlights: • Investigate two real industrial symbiosis projects in Jinan and Liuzhou of China. • Quantify the material exchange and the CO 2 reduction potential of the IS network. • CO 2 reduction potential is 3944.05 and 2347.88 ktCO 2 /year in Jinan and Liuzhou. • In current China, IS is main in term of material symbiosis. • How to coordinate IS and low-carbon city is discussed

  18. Heavy Metal Contamination in Urban Soils II Comparison of Urban Park Soils Between Two Cities with Different City and Industrial Activities

    OpenAIRE

    KOMAI, Yutaka

    1981-01-01

    A comparative investigation on the state of heavy metal contamination in park soils of two cities with different city and industrial activities was carried out. Sakai and Kishiwada, both situated in southern Osaka Prefecture, were chosen as the investigated cities which had similar natural conditions but different human activities. Park soils were regarded as suitable sites for the investigation of heavy metal problem in urban environments. Samples were taken at 34 parks distributed widely in...

  19. The Spatialities of Urban Economic Geographies: New Industrial Spaces in the Outer City of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Høgni Kalsø; Winther, Lars

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on the transformation of the industrial structure and the location dynamics on the edge of the metropolitan region of Copenhagen with the aim of explaining the rise of new spaces in the urban economic geography. The main concern of the paper is the role the transformation...... of the outer city plays in the urban economy of Copenhagen. The centre of attention is on the changing industrial structure, the progressively higher complexity of firm location, and the division of labour that have emerged in the past decade of growth as a result of the resurgence of the metropolitan region...... of Copenhagen. The recent changes in the economic geographies of the outer city of Copenhagen are used as a launch pad for discussing the theoretical and analytical challenges in understanding the industrial change in new urban forms....

  20. Test and Analysis of Metallurgical Converter Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Pang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen top-blow converter is the main equipment in steel making, and its work reliability decides the security and economy of steel production. Therefore, how to design and test analysis of convertor has been an important subject of industry research. Geometric modelling and structure analysis of converter tilting device by using Pro/E program .The design Principle, basic design structure were analyzed in detail. The computer simulation software of metallurgical converter equipment and how to use it were introduced .It developed by VC++ software. The position of barycentre and moment curve in No.3 and No.4 are calculated. The converter acceleration down dip can be resolved by comparing the moment curve and center curve.

  1. Ionising radiation metrology for the metallurgical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Toraño E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year millions tons of steel are produced worldwide from recycled scrap loads. Although the detection systems in the steelworks prevent most orphan radioactive sources from entering the furnace, there is still the possibility of accidentally melting a radioactive source. The MetroMetal project, carried out in the frame of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP, addresses this problem by studying the existing measurement systems, developing sets of reference sources in various matrices (cast steel, slag, fume dust and proposing new detection instruments. This paper presents the key lines of the project and describes the preparation of radioactive sources as well as the intercomparison exercises used to test the calibration and correction methods proposed within the project.

  2. Creating new path for Old Industrial Areas: A Case Study on Dalian city, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimei Yin and Zhigao Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of new industries has recently been widely studied, but little research attention has been paid to the formation of new industries in old industrial districts, especially in transitional countries such as China. Based on fieldwork and rereading historical archives, this paper uses an example of Dalian tourism cluster to contribute to understanding the emergence of new economy in old industrial areas in a transitional country. The Section 2 of this paper will provide the theoretical framework from evolutionary economics for my empirical study. In Section 3, this paper will discuss the main characteristics of the decline of old industrial areas in Northeast China and the significances of developing new economy to revitalizing old industry areas. Section 4 will introduce the transitional history of Dalian economy from a high industrial region to a new economy city and also provides descriptive information about the development process of Dalian tourism industry. In Section 5, this paper will probe into the dynamics of the Dalian tourism cluster, from viewpoints of co-evolution and co-adaptation of firm, technology and institutions. Finally, we will give some policy suggestions of how to foster and promote new industries in old industrial areas, especially for transitional countries.

  3. MAP SUPPORT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING OF A MEDIUM-SIZE INDUSTRIAL CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Matyushkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a set of thematic maps reflecting the current geo-ecological urban area conditions of Birobidzhan, an administrative and industrial center of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast. The maps shows landscape-functional complexes of the city; main types of natural and anthropogenic soils; urban area zoning by the degree of disturbance of soil ecological functions; levels of contamination of soils, dendroflora and snow with heavy metals. Component-based maps help improving environmental urban planning including ecological and functional city zoning and designing the ecological carcass with all its structural elements.

  4. Characteristics of fine particulate matter and its sources in an industrialized coastal city, Ningbo, Yangtze River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weifeng; Yu, Jie; Cui, Yang; He, Jun; Xue, Peng; Cao, Wan; Ying, Hongmei; Gao, Wenkang; Yan, Yingchao; Hu, Bo; Xin, Jinyuan; Wang, Lili; Liu, Zirui; Sun, Yang; Ji, Dongsheng; Wang, Yuesi

    2018-05-01

    Chemical information is essential in understanding the characteristics of airborne particles, and effectively controlling airborne particulate matter pollution, but it remains unclear in some regions due to the scarcity of measurement data. In the present study, 92 daily PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) samples as well as historical observation data of air pollutants were collected in urban Ningbo, one of important industrial cities in the coastal area of the Yangtze River Delta, China in autumn and winter (from Nov. 2014 to Feb. 2015). Various chemical species in PM2.5 were determined including water soluble ions, organic and elemental carbon and elements. Positive matrix factorization model, cluster analysis of back trajectories, potential source contribution function (PSCF) model and concentration-weighted trajectory (CWT) model were used for identifying sources, apportioning contributions from each source and tracking potential areas of sources. The results showed the PM2.5 concentration has been reducing; nonetheless, the concentrations of PM2.5 are still much higher than the World Health Organization guideline with high PM2.5 concentrations observed in autumn and winter for the past few years. During the sampling period, the average PM2.5 mass concentration was 77 μg/m3 with the major components of OC, NO3-, SO42 -, NH4+ and EC, accounting for 24.7, 18.8, 14.5, 11.8 and 6.4% in the total mass concentration, respectively. When the aerosol pollution got worse during the sampling period, the NO3-, SO42 - and NH4+ concentrations increased accordingly and NO3- appeared to increase at fastest rate. SO42 - transported from industrial areas led to slight difference in spatial distribution of SO42 - in Ningbo. More secondary organic carbon was formed and the enrichment factor values of Cu, Ag, Cd, Sn and Pb increased with the degradation of air quality. Ten types of sources were identified for PM2.5 in the autumn and winter of

  5. Precarious City: Marginal Workers, The State, And Working-Class Activism In Post-Industrial San Francisco, 1964-1979

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Laura Renata

    2014-01-01

    This project investigates the effects of San Francisco's transition from an industrial to a post-industrial economy on the city's social movements between 1964 and 1979. I re-contextualize the city's Black freedom, feminist, and gay and transgender liberation movements as struggles over the changing nature of urban working-class life and labor in the postwar period. I argue that as San Francisco was increasingly emptied of its white ethnic industrial work force, working-class life became more...

  6. Characterization of Carbonyl Compounds in the Ambient Air of an Industrial City in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ok Baek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize spatial and temporal variations of carbonyl compounds in Gumi city, where a number of large electronic-industrial complexes are located. Carbonyl samples were collected at five sites in the Gumi area: three industrial, one commercial, and one residential area. Sampling was carried out throughout a year from December 2003 to November 2004. At one industrial site, samples were taken every six days, while those of the other sites were for seven consecutive days in every season. Each sample was collected for 150 minutes and at intervals of three times a day (morning, afternoon, and evening. A total of 476 samples were analyzed to determine 15 carbonyl compounds by the USEPA TO-11A (DNPH-cartridge/HPLC method. In general, acetaldehyde appeared to be the most abundant compound, followed by formaldehyde, and acetone+acrolein. Mean concentrations of acetaldehyde were two to three times higher in the industrial sites than in the other sites, with its maximum of 77.7 ppb. In contrast, ambient levels of formaldehyde did not show any significant difference between the industrial and non-industrial groups. Its concentrations peaked in summer probably due to the enhanced volatilization and photochemical reactivity. These results indicate significant emission sources of acetaldehyde in the Gumi industrial complexes. Mean concentrations of organic solvents (such as acetone+acrolein and methyl ethyl ketone were also significantly high in industrial areas. In conclusion, major sources of carbonyl compounds, including acetaldehyde, are strongly associated with industrial activities in the Gumi city area.

  7. An advanced analysis and modelling the air pollutant concentration temporal dynamics in atmosphere of the industrial cities: Odessa city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyadzhi, V. V.; Glushkov, A. V.; Khetselius, O. Yu; Ternovsky, V. B.; Serga, I. N.; Bykowszczenko, N.

    2017-10-01

    Results of analysis and modelling the air pollutant (dioxide of nitrogen) concentration temporal dynamics in atmosphere of the industrial city Odessa are presented for the first time and based on computing by nonlinear methods of the chaos and dynamical systems theories. A chaotic behaviour is discovered and investigated. To reconstruct the corresponding strange chaotic attractor, the time delay and embedding dimension are computed. The former is determined by the methods of autocorrelation function and average mutual information, and the latter is calculated by means of correlation dimension method and algorithm of false nearest neighbours. It is shown that low-dimensional chaos exists in the nitrogen dioxide concentration time series under investigation. Further, the Lyapunov’s exponents spectrum, Kaplan-Yorke dimension and Kolmogorov entropy are computed.

  8. Possibilities of industrial heritage reuse as tourist attractions: A case study of city of Zrenjanin (Vojvodina, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial heritage tourism is a new form of tourism, which often involves reuse of abandoned industrial facilities for tourism purposes. Former industrial cities, affected by deindustrialization are looking for an opportunity to economically and socially revitalize themselves through this type of tourism, which is a general trend in developed countries. The subject of this paper is investigating possibilities for reuse of industrial heritage of the city of Zrenjanin in tourism purposes, which has been hit hard by deindustrialization due to wars, economic crisis and isolation during the last decade of the 20th century. Abandoned factory complexes that serve no purpose now occupy city center, but have an important tourist potential. Some of these complexes include Zrenjanin brewery, the old city slaughterhouse and abandoned facilities of Šinvoz factory. Adaptation of these buildings into cultural, sports and shopping centers would instigate the development of tourism in the city.

  9. Geophysical investigation to reveal the groundwater condition at new Borg El-Arab industrial city, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basheer, Alhussein A.; Mansour, Khamis Q.; Abdalla, Mohammed A.

    2014-12-01

    New Borg El-Arab City, 60 km to the southwest of Alexandria City, is one of new industrial cities planned by the Egyptian Government through its program to transfer the population from the condensed Nile Delta to other places in Egypt. Because such a city includes airport, huge buildings, factories, and worker settlements, a careful geophysical study is planned to reveal the groundwater condition. This will help in defining the places of wells that are supposed to be drilled. Therefore more industrial and agricultural activities will be flourished. The present study embraces Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES'es) and Time Domain Electromagnetic sounding (TEM) to investigate the study area. The study aims to delineate the main subsurface conditions from the viewpoint of groundwater location, depth and water quality. Analysis and interpretation of the obtained results reveal that the subsurface consists of five geoelectrical layers with a gentle general slope toward the Mediterranean Sea. The third and the fourth layers in the succession are suggested to be the two water bearing formations of which the third layer is saturated with fresh water overlying saline water at the bottom of the fourth one. It is worth mentioning that the fresh water depth varies between 50 and 354 m under the ground surface. The thickness of the fresh water aquifer varies from 9.5 to 66 m; and the saline water depth varies between 116 and 384 m below the ground surface, the thickness of saline water aquifer differs from 34 to 90.5 m.

  10. An environmental pollution study of Indian metropolitan cities and industrial surroundings by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.N.; Chutke, N.L.; Ambulkar, M.N.

    1995-01-01

    The process of urbanization and industrialization during last two decades has resulted in increased level of air pollution causing hazards to human health. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using short and long term irradiation has been employed for the determination of more than 30 elements in suspended particulate matter (SPM) from six metropolitan cities and three industrial surroundings. A comparison of mean elemental contents in dust particulates from commercial, industrial and residential zones of Delhi, Calcutta, Madras, Cochin, Bombay and Nagpur cities has shown wide variation in toxic pollutant (As, Br, Cr, Cu, Hg and Sb) concentrations. Coastal areas have shown higher concentrations of Na, K, Cl and Br. Highly industrialized Bombay showed highest levels of Br, Cl, Cr, Fe, Mg, P, Rb and Sc. Mean elemental contents in fugitive and ambient dust of a cement factory and thermal power station (both in central India) are widely different. SPM levels in fugitive dust of the two industrial surroundings are higher by an order of magnitude compared to ambient air. Analysis of ambient air dust from a paper mill showed highest concentrations of Hg, Sb and Zn. Elemental data have been compared with those of Urban Particulate Matter (SRM 1648), Coal Fly Ash (SRM 1633a) and Vehicle Exhaust Particulate (NIES No. 8) which were analysed for quality control. An attempt has been made to attribute the elemental contents to possible sources of origin. (author) 26 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  11. Restoration in a mining and metallurgical industries area as a model project. Subproject 1: Factory for amalgamation Halsbruecke. Final report; Modellhafte Sanierung in einer Region mit Bergbau- und Huettenindustrie. Teilvorhaben 1: Amalgamierwerk Halsbruecke, Land Sachsen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichos, C.; Menzer, V.; Schaal, A.

    1993-06-01

    Technology development for the restoration of a metallurgical site contaminated by heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Hg, As) with the aims of far-reaching recycling as well as minimizing of residues and demonstration of this technology contains in a first step - detailed historical exploration; - chemical, physical and mineralogical materials analysis; - bench scale investigations for process engineering. Starting from historical appraisal and geogene/anthropogene conditions the methods of material characterization bring statements on processing of noxious materials (metallurgical), harmless dumping abilities (immobilization, stabilization) and technological process stages (particularly wet mechanical processes). The same methodology is useful for analogous mining, metallurgical and used material sites with contamination by heavy metals and consisting of heterogeneous materials. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die modellhafte Technologieentwicklung und die Demonstration dieser Technologie zur Sanierung eines durch Schwermetalle (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Hg, As) komplex belasteten Huettenstandortes unter dem Aspekt einer weitgehenden Reststoffverwertung sowie Minimierung der zu entsorgenden Rueckstaende umfasst in der ersten Phase - eine detaillierte historische Analyse/Erkundung; - eine chemische, physikalische und mineralogische Stoffcharakterisierung; verfahrenstechnische Untersuchungen im Labormassstab. Ausgehend von der historischen Bewertung und der geogenen/anthropogenen Verhaeltnisse fuehren die Methoden der Stoffcharakterisierung zu Aussagen der Schadstoffweiterverarbeitung (metallurgisch) sowie der gefahrlosen Deponierung (Immobilisierung, Stabilisierung) und zu technologischen Verfahrensschritten (bes. nassmechanische Verfahren). Die Herangehensweise ist fuer analoge Bergbau- aber besonders Huettenstandorte ggf. auch fuer andere Altlastenstandorte mit komplexer Schwermetallkontamination und heterogenem Material relevant. (orig.)

  12. Process of optimization of district heat production by utilizing waste energy from metallurgical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovšek, Damjan; Fužir, Miran; Slatinek, Matic; Šepul, Tanja; Plesnik, Kristijan; Lečnik, Samo

    2017-07-01

    In a consortium with SIJ (Slovenian Steel Group), Metal Ravne, the local community of Ravne na Koro\\vskem and the public research Institut Jožef Stefan, with its registered office in Slovenia, Petrol Energetika, d.o.o. set up a technical and technological platform of an innovative energy case for a transition of steel industry into circular economy with a complete energy solution called »Utilization of Waste Heat from Metallurgical Processes for District Heating of Ravne na Koro\\vskem. This is the first such project designed for a useful utilization of waste heat in steel industry which uses modern technology and innovative system solutions for an integration of a smart, efficient and sustainable heating and cooling system and which shows a growth potential. This will allow the industry and cities to make energy savings, to improve the quality of air and to increase the benefits for the society we live in. On the basis of circular economy, we designed a target-oriented co-operation of economy, local community and public research institute to produce new business models where end consumers are put into the centre. This innovation opens the door for steel industry and local community to a joint aim that is a transition into efficient low-carbon energy systems which are based on involvement of natural local conditions, renewable energy sources, the use of waste heat and with respect for the principles of sustainable development.

  13. Air quality evaluation of some industrial cities of Pakistan using INAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Rahman, A.; Daud, M.; Rahman, S.; Ahmad, S.; Islam, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) have been employed for the characterization of 40 trace elements in suspended particulate matter (SPM) and soil samples from Pakistan's industrially important cities of Gujranwala and Faisalabad. The air particulates, which were collected from five different locations of each city, indicate moderate to unhealthy air quality with SPM levels above the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Enrichment factors (EF) for all the elements have been calculated with respect to their concentrations in the soils. Some of the areas of Gujranwala show high EF values for Pb, Cr, Cu, Cd and Ca, which may indicate contributions due to heavy traffic with automotive exhaust, tanneries and many other acute anthropogenic activities in this area. The presence of high concentration of Cr is due to chrome plating units and leather industry in the adjoining areas. Similarly few sites from Faisalabad have high Pb, Cd and Sb contents from vehicular aerosols with the contributions from coal combustion, battery manufacturing industries, lead smelters and numerous other industries. IAEA Reference Materials were analyzed for the validation of INAA and AAS procedures employed and to ensure the accuracy and precision of the characterized data. (orig.)

  14. Substitutes for metallurgical coke in pyrometallurgical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshkarov, V.Ya.

    1982-08-01

    A briquetting process using sulphurous petroleum coke and a bituminous binder is described. The characteristics of briquettes made of petroleum coke, blends of coal and petroleum coke, and coal and metallurgical coke are compared. The prospect of replacing 25 to 50% of the metallurgical coke used in lime kilns with non-calcined petroleum coke briquettes is described. (4 refs.)

  15. Value creation in industrial heritage management. Evidence from the City of Paper (Fabriano, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Cerquetti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the open, inclusive, dynamic, proactive notion of cultural heritage that is emerging in the international scientific debate. Some significant innovations are examined first: the overcoming of the dualism between tangible and intangible cultural heritage, the increasing role of local communities in the processes of heritage recognition, safeguarding and enhancement and the need for valorisation as a democratic mandate. Aiming at developing this approach, the second step of the research focuses on industrial heritage, investigating its specific features and values. A case study is provided in order to understand some crucial issues concerning industrial heritage management and value creation. Focusing on the City of Paper (Fabriano, Italy, the activities carried out by the Museum of Paper and Watermark and by the Institute of Paper History Gianfranco Fedrigoni (ISTOCARTA are analysed in-depth, highlighting the role of collaboration among the different actors involved in industrial heritage management in order to promote sustainable local development.

  16. Mining-metallurgical projects for the production of uranium concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajuria-Garza, S.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents an overall view of a complete project for a mining-metallurgical complex for the production of uranium concentrates. Relevant aspects of each important topic are discussed as parts of an integrated methodology. The principal project activities are analyzed and the relationships among the various factors affecting the design are indicated. A list of 96 principal activities is proposed as an example. These activities are distributed in eight groups: initial evaluations preliminary feasibility studies, project engineering, construction, industrial operation, decommissioning and post-decommissioning activities. The environmental impact and the radiological risks due to the construction and operation of the mining metallurgical complex are analyzed. The principles of radiological protection and the regulations, standards and recommendations for radiological protection in uranium mines and mills are discussed. This report is also a guide to the specialized literature: a bibliography with 765 references is included. (author)

  17. Business Analysis Skills and Techniques Among Software Developers from Various BPO Industries In Iloilo City, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ledonio

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Iloilo City, Philippines, BPO Industry is booming and an upcoming Megaworld Business District situates a multitude of BPO companies. In this study the software developers of various BPO companies in Iloilo City were evaluated according to their competency on Business Analysis Skill and Techniques. A common misconception is that IT programmers should be detached to business analysis process and will just have to wait for the requirement solution to implement through software development. This study will gauge how much skills and knowledge they possess on the Business Analysis side. The result of the study reveals that software developers evaluated has an average rating on Business Analysis Tasks and Techniques. Respondents are lacking skills generally on business planning, business requirements analysis, and elicitation processes. These results can be used as a baseline data to recommend a necessary adjustment in school curricula.

  18. Arsenic precipitation from metallurgical effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, P.; Vargas, C.; Araya, E.; Martin, I.; Alguacil, F. J.

    2004-01-01

    In the mining-metallurgical companies different liquid effluents are produced, which can contain a series of dissolved elements that are considered dangerous from an environmental point of view. One of these elements is the arsenic, especially in the state of oxidation +5 that can be precipitated as calcium or iron arsenate. To fulfil the environmental requests it should have in solution a content of arsenic lower than 0,5 mg/l and the obtained solid product should be very stable under the condition in which it will be stored. this work looks for the best conditions of arsenic precipitation, until achieving contents in solution lower than such mentioned concentration. Also, the stability of the precipitates was studied. (Author) 7 refs

  19. Engaging creative communities in an industrial city setting: A question of enclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Gibson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the politics and practicalities of research process in a major government-funded, academic/community collaborative research project on cultural assets in Wollongong, a regional industrial city 85 km south of Sydney, Australia. It does so through the theoretical concept of ‘enclosure’, which helps illuminate how policy discourses are framed, and reveals capacities to challenge and reframe policy imaginations through research. The setting is pivotal: Wollongong has a legacy of steel and coal industries that dominates contemporary discourses about the city’s future prosperity. Cultural industries such as music, film, art, circus and theatre have at various times been either marginalised as insignificant to economic futures or, when they have been noticed, have been worked into city planning in very particular ways – as cultural pastimes, as prospects for economic diversification or as means to renew socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Such visions have rested on notions of what constitutes ‘culture’ and ‘creativity’, with a focus on the performing arts, while other forms of vernacular creativity have remained largely unnoticed. Our research project has sought to respond to this, identifying and engaging with people involved in forms of vernacular creativity outside the arts orthodoxy among Wollongong’s blue-collar and youth populations (including surfboard shapers, Aboriginal rappers, custom car designers and alternative music subcultures. Our hope is that such engagement can better inform future planning for cultural industries in Wollongong. However, engaging with such creative communities is complicated, and in different times and places research strategies confronted apathy, suspicion, absence of representative organisation and ‘consultation fatigue’. We discuss our efforts at engagement with creative communities beyond the arts orthodoxy, and appraise some of the prospects and

  20. Development strategy of green energy industry for Taipei—A modern medium-sized city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Shyi-Min; Huang, May-Yao; Su, Pu-Ti; Tseng, Kuo-Tung; Chen, Falin

    2013-01-01

    Taipei, a subtropical modern medium city, is essentially featured with high population density, scarce land, and large traffic flow. Moreover, there are abundant green energy resources reserved in Taipei. If they were fully developed, there would be 13,040 GWh electricity generated per year, resulting in a total of 9.37 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions abatement. The development of the green energy industry in this city not only can bring significant energy-saving and carbon-reducing benefits, but also may create huge derivative business opportunities. For example, the total output values of the solar PV and electric vehicles industries would be as high as 700 billion yuan. In this study, through Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis, we concluded that the top priorities for Taipei for the development of green energy industries are building energy conservation and electrified transportation, specifically, the following four items: electric vehicles, Light-Emitting Diode (LED) lighting, inverter air conditioning, and Energy Service Company (ESCO). Meanwhile, Taipei is a domestic and international key of politics, transportation, technology, commerce, and finance. Taipei is very likely to become an internationalized green energy industrial hub, achieving the “3E” goals of economic prosperousness, environmental protection, and energy security. -- Highlights: •Building energy conservation and electrified transportation are top priorities. •SWOT analysis applied to systematically conclude four green energy industrial items for Taipei. •Specifically, electric vehicles, LED lighting, inverter air conditioning, and ESCO. •13,040 GWh electricity would be generated per year from Taipei's rich renewables. •The derivative business opportunities would exceed 700 billion yuan

  1. Building competitiveness on IT industry: the case of Osijek Software City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Mesarić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although eastern Croatia, due to its natural resources and very good geographic location, used to be industrially highly developed, nowadays it is one of the least developed regions in the Republic of Croatia. Driven by a war situation, the disappearance of traditional industries (textile industry, furniture, foodprocessing, metal working contributed to weak development. With market opening and disappearance of labour-intensive industries, the need for change in thinking became obvious, together with education and encouraging of self-employment. Rapid development of ICT in the world on the one hand and the involvement of numerous highly educated and enthusiastic IT experts on the other has increased the development of IT industry in Osijek. This is an industry where market has no limits, entry costs are low and revenues are relatively high. Since numerous IT start-ups were founded in the area of Osijek, several people, mostly owners of those enterprises, decided in 2012 to initiate the project named Osijek Software City (later abbreviated to OSC. In this paper, the case study of OSC will be shown in detail, as well as its influence on the region’s competitiveness. The key point of OSC initiative is employment of IT related and educated young people since there is a deficit of quality staff in the regional IT industry. For the purpose of this paper, the interview with the OSC Association secretary has been conducted, which showcases their achievements from the initial stages to the present. In addition, future trends of local IT industry will be assessed.

  2. Municipal solid waste disposal by using metallurgical technologies and equipments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Jiuju; Sun, Wenqiang [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Eco-industry, Institute of Thermal and Environmental Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2012-07-01

    Pyrolysis of municipal solid waste can take full advantage of energy and resource and avoid producing hazardous material during this period. In combination with mature metallurgical technologies of coking by coke oven, regenerative flame furnace technology and melting by electric arc furnace, technologies of regenerative fixed bed pyrolysis technology for household waste, co-coking technology for waste plastic and blend coal, and incineration ash melting technology by electric arc technology for medical waste were respectively developed to improve current unsatisfied sorting status of waste. The investigation results of laboratory experiments, semi-industrial experiments and industrial experiments as well as their economic benefits and environmental benefits for related technologies were separately presented.

  3. Evaluation of toxicity level of the polluted eco-system for an industrial city of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husaini, S.N.; Matiullah; Akram, M.; Arif, M.

    2011-01-01

    The indiscriminate discharge of untreated industrial effluents and solid wastes into the open environment poses a serious threat to the ecosystem. Gujranwala is an industrial city of Pakistan wherein a large number of different industries are situated and majority of them are not equipped with proper recycling or effluent treatment plants. Unfortunately, untreated industrial effluents are locally used for the irrigation purposes which may result in higher concentrations of toxic metals in the crops and vegetables. Therefore, prime objective of the present study was to determine concentrations of toxic metals in the polluted soils, vegetables and crops grown in the vicinity of industrial areas using neutron activation analysis technique. The results obtained showed higher values of toxic metals in the studied samples. The observed highest concentration of As (0.94 ± 0.06) in spinach, Br (69 ± 9) in turnip, Co (0.83 ± 0.01) in millet, Cr (51.7 ± 4.2) in wheat, Mn (76.2 ± 7.3) in tomato, Sb (0.5 ± 0.06) in rice, Cl (31698 ± 3921) and Se (3.4 ± 0.4) in carrot. These values are higher than those reported in the literature. (author)

  4. Comparing Antonovsky's sense of coherence scale across three UK post-industrial cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David; McCartney, Gerry; McCullough, Sarah; Buchanan, Duncan; Jones, Russell

    2014-11-25

    High levels of 'excess' mortality (ie, that seemingly not explained by deprivation) have been shown for Scotland compared to England and Wales and, especially, for its largest city, Glasgow, compared to the similarly deprived English cities of Liverpool and Manchester. It has been suggested that this excess may be related to differences in 'Sense of Coherence' (SoC) between the populations. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether levels of SoC differed between these cities and whether, therefore, this could be a plausible explanation for the 'excess'. Three post-industrial UK cities: Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester. A representative sample of more than 3700 adults (over 1200 in each city). SoC was measured using Antonovsky's 13-item scale (SOC-13). Multivariate linear regression was used to compare SoC between the cities while controlling for characteristics (age, gender, SES etc) of the samples. Additional modelling explored whether differences in SoC moderated city differences in levels of self-assessed health (SAH). SoC was higher, not lower, among the Glasgow sample. Fully adjusted mean SoC scores for residents of Liverpool and Manchester were, respectively, 5.1 (-5.1 (95% CI -6.0 to -4.1)) and 8.1 (-8.1 (-9.1 to -7.2)) lower than those in Glasgow. The additional modelling confirmed the relationship between SoC and SAH: a 1 unit increase in SoC predicted approximately 3% lower likelihood of reporting bad/very bad health (OR=0.97 (95% CI 0.96 to 0.98)): given the slightly worse SAH in Glasgow, this resulted in slightly lower odds of reporting bad/very bad health for the Liverpool and Manchester samples compared to Glasgow. The reasons for the high levels of 'excess' mortality seen in Scotland and particularly Glasgow remain unclear. However, on the basis of these analyses, it appears unlikely that a low SoC provides any explanation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go

  5. MERCURY IN ATMOSPHERE OVER RURAL, URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL PARTS OF ZAGREB CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav A. Palinkaš

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years Zagreb city encounters severe pollution problems in aquatic, terrrestrial and atmospheric environment. A random or permanent monitoring of some inorganic gaseous pollutants in atmosphere has already been organized and published alsewhere. By means of a sophisticated mercury vapor analyser with a Zeeman effect background corrector, however, continuous registration along two traverses (monitoring routes over rural, urban and industrial parts of Zagreb has been elaborated for the first lime. Data show strong anthropogenic influence in the Žitnjak industrial area. The anomaly high 105 ngm Hg, on the 22 October moved slightly to downtown by change of wind direction on the 31 October. Intensity raised as much as 155 ngm Hg, 13 times augmented in comparison to a background value on the Medvednica mountain. Explanation should be sought in denser public traffic, change of wind direction and lowering of atmospheric pressure.

  6. Study of black carbon levels in city centers and industrial centers in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamasha, K.M.; Almomani, M.S.; Abu-Allaban, M.; Arnott, W. P.

    2010-01-01

    Light absorption coefficients of black carbon (B abc ) were measured at serveral urban and industrial locations in Jordan during summer of 2007 and winter of 2008 using the photoacoustic instrument at a wavelength of 870 nm. Black carbon mass concentration (BC) was calculated using B abc .Black carbon levels at urban locations in the summer of 2007 were higher than those obtained at industrial centers.Zarqa had the highest value of BC in summer (29.24μg/m 3 ) and in winter (13.27μg/m 3 ). Ibbeen and Irbid city center had relatively high values of BC in winter: 11.75μg/m 3 and 12.48μg/m 3 , respectively. (authors).

  7. Quantifying the Contribution of Urban-Industrial Efficiency and Symbiosis to Deep Decarbonization: Impact of 637 Chinese Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, A.; Tong, K.; Fang, A.; Lal, R.; Nagpure, A.; Li, Y.; Yu, H.; Jiang, D.; Russell, A. G.; Shi, L.; Chertow, M.; Wang, Y.; Wang, S.

    2016-12-01

    Urban activities in China contribute significantly to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to local air pollution-related health risks. Co-location analysis can help inform the potential for energy- and material-exchanges across homes, businesses, infrastructure and industries co-located in cities. Such co-location dependent urban-industrial symbiosis strategies offer a new pathway toward urban energy efficiency and health that have not previously been quantified. Key examples includes the use of waste industrial heat in other co-located industries, and in residential-commercial district heating-cooling systems of cities. To quantify the impact of these strategies: (1) We develop a new data-set of 637 Chinese cities to assess the potential for efficiency and symbiosis across co-located homes, businesses, industries and the energy and construction sectors in the different cities. (2) A multi-scalar urban systems model quantifies trans-boundary CO2 impacts as well as local health benefits of these uniquely urban, co-location-dependent strategies. (3) CO2 impacts are aggregated across the 637 Chinese cities (home to 701 million people) to quantify national CO2 mitigation potential. (4) The local health benefits are modeled specific to each city and mapped geospatially to identify areas where co-benefits between GHG mitigation and health are maximized. Results: A first order conservative analysis of co-location dependent urban symbiosis indicates potential for reducing 6% of China's national total CO2 emissions in a relatively short time period, yielding a new pathway not previously considered in China's energy futures models. The magnitude of these reductions (6%) was similar in magnitude to sector specific industrial, power sector and buildings efficiency strategeies that together contributed 9% CO2 reduction aggregated across the nation. CO2 reductions mapped to the 637 cities ranged from 40,000 premature deaths (avoided) across all cities. These results

  8. Role of the state in solving the environmental problems of the industrial monoprofile cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musina, L. M.; Neucheva, M. U.

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays the problem of sustainable socio-economic development of monotowns refers to one of the priority issues of the state policy. The author analyzes monotowns state policy support in Russia with main focus on programs aimed at ecological restoration of industrial monoprofile cities. The processes of program control in monotowns within the state economic policy are analyzed. In order to evaluate the results of programs (of city-forming enterprises and monotowns level) the principles of development of criteria development system have been substantiated. The environmental situation of monotowns depends on a complex system of interaction between the city (represented by its people and municipal authorities), private capital and the state. Long-term sustainable development of monotowns requires the interests of all three parties to be in balance. This is possible to achieve by increasing the social responsibility of businesses, increasing the development of local government and urban identity and active influence of local communities on the activities of the municipal authorities.

  9. Modernization of boiler for manufacturing factories in an industrial area of Nanping City, Fujian Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted of the project for energy conservation and greenhouse effect gas reduction by introducing the energy utilization system combined with CCS equipment and cogeneration system to general industry plants at the industrial complex in Nanping City, Fujian Province, China. As a result of the field survey, it was concluded that the capacity suitable for CCS center was 200,000 t/y and the size suitable for pulverized coal boiler at each site was 35 t/h. The energy conservation amount in this project was the coal use reduction amount by 88,000 t/y (48,000 toe/y), and the greenhouse effect gas reduction amount was approximately 90,000 t-CO2/y. As to the economical efficiency of the project, the period of ROI was about 5.1 years, and the internal earning rate at each site was 14-23%. The materialization of the project was confirmed. However, in the case of raising the required funds from city banks in China, financing conditions are strict, and the financing seems to be difficult at each site. It is necessary to raise low-interest funds such as the special environment yen credit. (NEDO)

  10. Associations between air pollution in the industrial and suburban parts of Ostrava city and their use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirik, Vitezslav; Brezna, Barbara; Machaczka, Ondrej; Honkysova, Sabina; Miturova, Hana; Janout, Vladimir

    2017-08-01

    Selecting the locations and numbers of air quality monitoring stations is challenging as these are expensive to operate. Representative concentrations of pollutants in certain areas are usually determined by measuring. If there are significant correlations with concentrations of other pollutants or with other monitoring sites, however, concentrations could also be computed, partly reducing the costs. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of such possible relationships using data on concentrations of ambient air pollutants obtained in different areas of a larger city. Presented are associations between industrial (IP) and suburban parts (SP) as well as correlations between concentrations of various pollutants at the same site. Results of air pollutant monitoring come from Ostrava, an industrial city in Central Europe with a population of over 300,000. The study showed that certain pollutants were strongly correlated, especially particulate matter (r = 0.940) and ozone (r = 0.923) between the IP and SP. Statistically significant correlations were also found between different pollutants at the same site. The highest correlations were between PM 10 and NO 2 (r IP  = 0.728; r SP  = 0.734), NO 2 and benzo(a)pyrene (r IP  = 0.787; r SP  = 0.697), and NO 2 and ozone (r IP  = -0.706; r SP  = -0.686). This could contribute to more cost-effective solutions for air pollution monitoring in cities and their surroundings by using computational models based on the correlations, optimization of the network of monitoring stations, and the best selection of measuring devices.

  11. Anaerobic microbiological method of cleaning water contaminated by metallurgical slags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Леонідівна Дан

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of environmental protection and rational use of water resources is one of the most important problems of environmental policy in Ukraine. This problem in Mariupol is particularly acute as metallurgical and coke industries cause significant damage to adjacent water bodies (the Kalchyk, the Kalmius and coastal zone of the Sea of Azov. One of the most harmful components of wastewater of these enterprises are sulfide-containing compounds. These compounds in water can cause great harm to both human health and the environment. For example, in 1999 the main city enterprises (AZOVSTAL IRON & STEEL WORKS and ILYICH IRON AND STEEL WORKS discharged 885,0 million m³ of wastewater (including 403,9 million m³ of polluted waste water into water bodies. The slag dumps and landfills in close proximity to the sea form a source of dangerous pollution, because contaminated water infiltration washed out here in the groundwater and surface water, get into the Sea of Azov later on. There are 97 mg/l of sulfides in the protective dam of AZOVSTAL IRON & STEEL WORKS, what exceeds the standards (MPC = 10 mg/l. It makes it possible for us to put forward biochemical purification processes. Anaerobic microbiological method proposed in the article has several advantages (compact hardware design, a minimum amount of activated sludge and lack of energy consumption for aeration over the existing wastewater treatment (chemical, mechanical, biological. The experimental procedure consisted in introducing the medium to be purified purified into microbial communities of high concentration (Thiobacillus «X», Thiobacillus concretivorus, which assimilated organic substances of the medium as a primary energy source. The kinetics of sulfide compounds removal by means of anaerobic microbiological method was considered. The effectiveness of wastewater treatment with changing purification process conditions has been also assessed (concentration of sulfides, reactor type, p

  12. Heterogeneity of Soil and Vegetation in the Urban Habitats of New Industrial Cities in the Desert Landscape of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monier Abd EL-GHANI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between vegetation and soil supporting the habitats in 4 new industrial cities were assessed. Five main habitats were distinguished from inner city toward outskirts: lawns, home gardens, public gardens, waste lands and desert outskirts. After application of Twinspan, 26 vegetation groups were identified in the 5 recognized habitats, demonstrating that some groups are chatracteristic of a certain city, e.g. Asphodelus aestivus - Deverra tortuosa - Thymelaea hirsuta group was confined to the desert habitat of Burg El-Arab city; Thymelaea hirsuta - Linaria albifrons and Atriplex halimus - Atriplex lindleyi subsp. inflata - Suaeda vermiculata - Typha domingensis groups were found in the waste lands of Burg El-Arab city; Conyza bonariensis - Cynodon dactylon - Sonchus oleraceus group in the home garden habitat of 10th Ranadan city; Cynodon dactylon group in the lawns of Burg El-Arab city; Bassia indica - Plantago major group in the public gardens of Burg El-Arab city; Oxalis corniculata - Plantago lagopus group in the public gardens of 10th Ramadan city; Sonchus oleraceus - Cynodon dactylon and Dactyloctenium aegyptium - Leptochloa fusca - Phragmites australis groups in the public gardens of 6th October city. Silt, clay, organic matter, carbonates and carbon contents showed significant diffrences among the 5 habitats.

  13. From metallurgical coatings to surface engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sproul, William D.

    2003-01-01

    The history of the Vacuum Metallurgy Division (VMD), which is now the Advanced Surface Engineering Division (ASED), of the American Vacuum Society is reviewed briefly. The focus of the VMD moved from vacuum melting of materials to metallurgical coatings. The division sponsored two conferences, the Conference on Vacuum Metallurgy and the International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings. As the interest in vacuum metallurgy eventually subsided, interest grew in the deposition of metallurgical coatings. However, the emphasis at the Metallurgical Coatings conference has changed from just depositing coatings to surface engineering of a component. Today, the challenge is to use the tools of surface engineering with advances in deposition technology such as high-power pulsed sputtering. To align itself with the changing interests of the majority of its members, the VMD changed its name to the ASED

  14. Comparative Study on the Optimization Path of Industrial Value Chain in China’s Resource-Based Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menglin Xing

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available China’s resource-based cities have currently entered a period of comprehensive transformation. The differences in the economic and technical environment and significant policy orientation make it unique to some extent. This study applied value chain theory to analyze the industrial value chain of China’s resource-based cities, and three important types of optimization paths that have been applied differently by different cities were proposed. Grey relational analysis was used to compare the comprehensive value creation capacity of the three paths and its relationship with the comparative advantage of local industry. We found that a circular economy system has significant capacity to optimize economic and social value and favorable prospects for environmental value. However, this may have obvious instability in early periods of transition. This disadvantage can be remedied by cultivating related industries that have significantly comprehensive advantages in the early period. In the long term, the other two paths need to be combined with cultivating emerging industries. Finally, we found that the value creation capacity of China’s resource-based cities has roots in optimization of the industrial value chain rather than enhancement of the industrial comparative advantage. The reason for this is that value creation capacity has not yet been transformed into a source of industrial comparative advantage.

  15. Chemical speciation of trace metals in the industrial sludge of Dhaka City, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Saiful; Al-Mamun, Md Habibullah; Feng, Ye; Tokumura, Masahiro; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess total concentration and chemical fractionation of trace metals in the industrial wastewater and sludge collected from seven different types of industries in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. The sludge from industries is either dumped on landfills or reused as secondary resources in order to preserve natural resources. Metals were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ranges of Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, and Pb in the sludges were 1.4-9,470, 4.8-994, 12.8-444, 2.2-224, 1.9-46.0 and 1.3-87.0 mg/kg, respectively. As a whole, the average concentrations of trace metals in samples were in the decreasing order of Cr > Ni > Cu > As > Pb > Cd. The results of the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction showed that the studied metals were predominantly associated with the residual fraction followed by the oxidizable fraction. The study revealed that the mobile fractions of trace metals are poorly predictable from the total content, and bioavailability of all fractions of elements tends to decrease.

  16. The Analysis Of Factors Affect The Quality Of Competitive Strategy In Industry SME For Embroidery At Padang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dahliana kamener dahlia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to analyze the quality factors of competitive strategy on SME for Industrial embroidery in Padang city. With this research is expected to provide benefits to the industry, especially SMEs Industrial embroidery to be able to improve and consider the factors that can affect the quality of competitive strategy in this industry, which the factors influenced such as Quality Strategic Asset, Environment Adabtability and price strategic to the Quality Strategic Competition. The populations of this study were SME industry for the embroidery product in the city of Padang and used census sampling. Data retrieved from the primary data by spreading questionnaires and the measurement by using a Likert scale. Methods of analysis by using descriptive analysis, multiple regression analysis to test the hyphotheses. The result showed that the quality of asset strategik was postively significant effect the Quality Strategic Competition, and enviromental adaptability and price strategy have positively not significant effect on the Quality Strategic Competition.

  17. Review of China's Low-Carbon City Initiative and Developments in the Coal Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Khanna, Nina Zheng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hong, Lixuan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    As China continues its double-digit economic growth, coal remains the principal fuel for the country’s primary energy consumption and electricity generation. China’s dependence on coal in coming years makes its carbon emission intensity reduction targets more difficult to achieve, particularly given rising electricity demand from a growing number of Chinese cities. This paradox has led the government to pursue cleaner and more efficient development of the coal industry on the supply side and “low carbon” development of cities on the demand side. To understand and assess how China may be able to meet its energy and carbon intensity reduction targets, this report looks at the recent development of low carbon cities as well as new developments and trends in the coal industry. Specifically, we review low-carbon city and related eco-city development in China before delving into a comparison of eight pilot lowcarbon city plans to highlight their strengths and weaknesses in helping achieve national energy and carbon targets. We then provide insights into the future outlook for China’s coal industry by evaluating new and emerging trends in coal production, consumption, transport, trade and economic performance.

  18. Magnetohydrodynamic research in fusion blanket engineering and metallurgical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuhiro, A.

    1991-11-01

    A review of recent research activities in liquid metal magnetohydrodynamics (LM-MHDs) is presented in this article. Two major reserach areas are discussed. The first topic involves the thermomechanical design issues in a proposed tokamak fusion reactor. The primary concerns are in the magneto-thermal-hydraulic performance of a self-cooled liquid metal blanket. The second topic involves the application of MHD in material processing in the metallurgical and semiconductor industries. The two representative applications are electromagnetic stirring (EMS) of continuously cast steel and the Czochralski (CZ) method of crystal growth in the presence of a magnetic field. (author) 24 figs., 10 tabs., 136 refs

  19. Characterization and thermal behaviour of textile waste from the industrial city of Aleppo in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majanny, Abdulkader; Nassour, Abdallah; Gose, Sven; Scholz, Reinhard; Nelles, Michael

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes the present waste management practices in the industrial city Alsheikh Najjar of Aleppo, mainly with regard to textile waste materials, and provides some insights into future prospects. As a first exploration for energy recovery from textile waste materials, the thermal behaviour of seven different types of textile waste were studied by thermogravimetry. There were assorted differential thermogravimetry peaks found over a particular range of temperatures. Pyrolysis experiments were carried out to identify the pyrolysis products such as gas, liquid, and solid residues known as char. In a subsequent analysis, the combustion behaviour of textile waste was determined and analysed. Typical parameters - reaction front velocity, ignition rate - were considered for the evaluation of the combustion behaviour and the results were compared with values observed for waste wood.

  20. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ok Baek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory

  1. Arsenic and mercury in the soils of an industrial city in the Donets Basin, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conko, Kathryn M.; Landa, Edward R.; Kolker, Allan; Kozlov, Kostiantyn; Gibb, Herman J.; Centeno, Jose; Panov, Boris S.; Panov, Yuri B.

    2013-01-01

    Soil and house dust collected in and around Hg mines and a processing facility in Horlivka, a mid-sized city in the Donets Basin of southeastern Ukraine, have elevated As and Hg levels. Surface soils collected at a former Hg-processing facility had up to 1300 mg kg−1 As and 8800 mg kg−1 Hg; 1M HCl extractions showed 74–93% of the total As, and 1–13% of the total Hg to be solubilized, suggesting differential environmental mobility between these elements. In general, lower extractability of As and Hg was seen in soil samples up to 12 km from the Hg-processing facility, and the extractable (1M HCl, synthetic precipitation, deionized water) fractions of As are greater than those for Hg, indicating that Hg is present in a more resistant form than As. The means (standard deviation) of total As and Hg in grab samples collected from playgrounds and public spaces within 12 km of the industrial facility were 64 (±38) mg kg−1 As and 12 (±9.4) mg kg−1 Hg; all concentrations are elevated compared to regional soils. The mean concentrations of As and Hg in dust from homes in Horlivka were 5–15 times higher than dust from homes in a control city. Estimates of possible exposure to As and Hg through inadvertent soil ingestion are provided.

  2. Determination of Some Heavy Metals In The Environment of SADAT Industrial City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassef, M.; EI-Tahawy, M.S.; Hannigan, R.; EL Sayed, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the heavy metal concentration in the soil and the groundwater of Sadat City in Egypt and its relation to the highly developed industrial activities in that area. The levels of Pb, Cr, Cu, Cd, Zr, and V were determined in the groundwater samples (as drinking water supplies) and also the same elements in the soil samples. 10 soil samples and 18 groundwater samples were collected from the city. The soil and the groundwater samples were analysed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The concentration of Pb, Cr, Cu, Cd, Zr, and V measured (in ppm) in the soil samples ranged from 0.48 to 11.3, 0.36 to 2.56, 43.7 to 304.0, 0.34 to 2.64, 0.209 to 21.7, and 0.10 to 17.0, respectively. The concentration of Pb, Cr, Cu, Cd, Zr, and V measured (in ppb) in the groundwater samples of all studied wells ranged from 0.11 to 41.32, 0.10 to 2.63, 0.14 to 5.76, 0.03 to 21.7, 11.4 to 134, and 0.08 to 5.08, respectively. The levels of Pb and Zr exceeded the threshold limits set by the WHO health-based guideline for drinking water in some studied groundwater wells

  3. Impact to Tourism Industry of Massage Spa Therapy in Batangas City, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmy Lei T. Atienza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the benefits of massage spa therapy in tourism industry of Batangas City and their adherence to the standards to DOT on Spa operation and maintenance. The study aimed to identify the profile of massage spa in terms of type of ownership, length of years in the business, type of spa and different spa services offered; to assess the benefits of massage spa to the tourism industry; and to determine the extent of adherence of the massage spa to DOT standards about spa operation and maintenance; and propose a plan of action based on the results of the study. Descriptive method was used in the study. Results showed that the Sole Proprietorship got the highest rank in terms of type of ownership. With the length of years in service, it shows that most of spa business already exists for 4-6 years. Type of spa shows that majority of the spa business were Spa Town. With regards to different spa services, majority offers peat pulp bath and the least is sauna and steam bath. The over-all assessment of the respondents’ on the benefits of spa was agree by the result. It was also observed that all items were assessed as agree and it enhances the awareness of the tourists about the beauty of Batangas City. It was followed by provide taxes for the government, became a tourist attraction and improves socio-economic of local residents and improvement on the lifestyle both of the local residents and tourists

  4. City/industry/utility partnership leads to innovative combined heat and power project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, J. [Savage and Associates, Quesnel, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation discussed a combined heat and power (CHP) project that was launched in Quesnel, British Columbia. The CHP is being developed in phases in which new components will enter the system, providing added benefits. Hot oil from a sawmill bioenergy system will be used to heat lumber kilns, generate electricity at an Organic Rankine Cycle co-generation plant, and heat water for a District Energy Loop (DEL) to heat up to 22 existing buildings in the city as well as sawmill and planer buildings. The DEL piping would comprise a 5 kilometre loop. The energy would come from recovered sawmill space heating, recovered stack energy, and additional biomass energy. All of the district heating and 41 per cent of the power would be from heat recovered from the existing industrial operation. This bio-economy vision ultimately involves incorporating a biogas digester into the system to process food, regional organic waste, and pulp mill residuals, relying on bio-solids and heat from the mill. The fertilizer from the digester would then be used in a biomass plantation, which would provide materials to industry for many products, including bio-refining. This project evolved in response to concerns about the ecological effects and long-term economics of aggressive utilization of forest biomass. 15 figs.

  5. Study on radon and thoron levels in different types of granitic work industries around Tumkur city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagabhushan, S.R.; Ningappa, C.; Srilatha; Shekar, Usha; Sannappa, J.

    2011-01-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive noble gas generated by the decay of uranium and thorium bearing minerals in rocks, soils and building materials. Radon and decay products are the major contributors to human exposure from natural radiation sources. Epidemiological evidence indicates that indoor radon and thoron were responsible for a substantial number of lung cancer in publics. UNSCEAR reported recently indicates that there is a remarkable coherence between the risk estimates developed from epidemiological studies from miners and residential case-control radon studies. Hence to select the study area for the estimation of dose due to radon and thoron to the publics and workers, concentration of radon, thoron and their progeny were measured by using SSNTD. Since, activity concentration in granite more, higher concentrations of radon and thoron have been observed in the dwellings near to granite industry and lesser concentration of radon and thoron have been observed in the dwellings near brick industries of Tumkur city. From the study, the concentration of radon and thoron varied from 31 to 70.4 Bq.m 3 and 11.6 to 46.3 Bq.m 3 , respectively. Corresponding progeny level varied from 0.11 to 2.5 mWL and 1.1 to 3.4 mWL, respectively. (author)

  6. The administration and the environmental behavior of the small and medium industrial companies: The case of a city of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman Ramos, Aldo; Fernandez, Guillermina

    2001-01-01

    The present article approaches the subject of the management and the environmental behavior in the industrial activity, especially in the small and medium companies, a city of Argentina. It is considers that the environmentalist strategies can be a possible exit to the socioeconomic and environmental crisis, but single for the great companies; since the rest of the companies presents/displays serious difficulties (economic, social, psychological, etc.) in order to initiate a sustainable industrial development

  7. Microwave-assisted grinding of metallurgical coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruisanchez, E.; Juarez-Perez, E. J.; Arenillas, A.; Bermudez, J. M.; Menendez, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Metallurgical cokes are composed of graphitic carbon (s2p2) and different inorganic compounds with very different capacities to absorb microwave radiation. Moreover, due to the electric conductivity shown by the metallurgical cokes, microwave radiation produces electric arcs or microplasmas, which gives rise to hot spots. Therefore, when these cokes are irradiated with microwaves some parts of the particle experiment a rapid heating, while some others do not heat at all. As a result of the different expansion and stress caused by thermal the shock, small cracks and micro-fissures are produced in the particle. The weakening of the coke particles, and therefore an improvement of its grind ability, is produced. This paper studies the microwave-assisted grinding of metallurgical coke and evaluates the grinding improvement and energy saving. (Author)

  8. Entropy and the City. GHG Emissions Inventory: a Common Baseline for the Design of Urban and Industrial Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Pezzagno

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available From a thermodynamic point of view, the attribution of the adjective sustainable to an open system like the city is, at least, very problematic. The biosphere is a closed system, kept far from the thermodynamic equilibrium by the flow of energy coming from the sun. The biosphere maintains and increases its internal order dispersing entropy, generated by all the internal processes, as thermal infrared radiation. But then, the elegant picture of sustainability given by thermodynamics can not be applied to open systems, and notably to the city, without raising both theoretical and practical problems. The city is almost by definition a place of consumption and of degradation of potentials, kept in local equilibrium by external flows of matter and energy, but at the same time plays a key role in shaping and maintaining the global flows of matter, energy, and information, and this role must be taken into account when interpreting thermodynamic-based descriptions. The urban capital probably represents the greatest investment made by mankind. Materials have been harvested from the earth crust and from the natural systems, and have been concentrated and ordered in the city. But the "city" is not the infrastructure: it's concept of a different logical type. The city is a further level of organization that produces services of higher level. The urban infrastructure is necessary, but not sufficient to produce the city services. The city is the most important social and health "device". A proper accounting must consider the city-performance of the urban infrastructure, beyond the mere, local energy and carbon efficiency. In this context, local GHG accounting is proposed as a rather simple and useful basis to ground process-wise studies and projects, including the creation of effective local industrial ecologies, in a continuous city-making effort toward higher sustainability.

  9. Municipal strategies for introducing housing on industrial estates as part of compact-city policies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals Altes, W.K.; Tambach, M.

    2009-01-01

    Promoting mixed-use development is part of policies aimed at enhancing urban quality. Until recently, however, industry and housing have rarely been found together in the same development as there is a long tradition of keeping these functions separate. As part of a compact-city policy, Dutch local

  10. Real time information management for improving productivity in metallurgical complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bascur, O.A.; Kennedy, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Applying the latest information technologies in industrial plants has become a serious challenge to management and technical teams. The availability of real time and historical operations information to identify the most critical part of the processing system from mechanical integrity is a must for global plant optimization. Expanded use of plant information on the desktop is a standard tool for revenue improvement, cost reduction, and adherence to production constraints. The industrial component desktop supports access to information for process troubleshooting, continuous improvement and innovation by plant and staff personnel. Collaboration between groups enables the implementation of an overall process effectiveness index based on losses due to equipment availability, production and product quality. The key to designing technology is to use the Internet based technologies created by Microsoft for its marketplace-office automation and the Web. Time derived variables are used for process analysis, troubleshooting and performance assessment. Connectivity between metallurgical complexes, research centers and their business system has become a reality. Two case studies of large integrated mining/metallurgical complexes are highlighted. (author)

  11. Diagnosis of employee engagement in metallurgical enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the theoretical part of the publication an overview of the definitions of employee engagement was conducted together with the analysis of the methods and techniques which influence the professional activity of the employees in the metallurgical enterprise. The practical part discusses the results of diagnosis of engagement in steelworks. Presented theories, as well as the research, fill the information gap concerning the engagement of the employees in metallurgical enterprises. This notion is important due to the fact that modern conditions of human resources management require the engagement of the employees as something commonly accepted and a designation of manufacturing enterprises.

  12. Groundwater contamination and risk assessment of industrial complex in Busan Metropolitan City, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, S.-Y.; Ryu, S. M.; Cheong, J.-Y.; Woo, Y.-J.

    2003-04-01

    In Korea, the potential of groundwater contamination in urban areas is increasing by industrial and domestic waste waters, leakage from oil storage tanks and sewage drains, leachate from municipal landfill sites and so on. Nowadays, chlorinated organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), which are driving residential area as well as industrial area, are recognized as major hazardous contaminants. As well known, TCE is wisely used industrial activities such as degreasing, metal stripping, chemical manufacturing, pesticide production, coal gasification plants, creosote operation, and also used in automobile service centers, photo shops and laundries as cleaning solvent. Thus, groundwater protection in urban areas is important issue in Korea This study is to understand groundwater quality and contamination characteristics and to estimate risk assessment in Sasang industrial complex, Busan Metropolitan City. Busan Metropolitan City is located on southeastern coast of the Korean peninsula and is the second largest city in South Korea with a population of 3.8 millions. The geology of the study area is composed of andesite, andesitic tuff, biotite granite and alluvium (Kim et al., 1998). However, geology cannot be identified on the surface due to pavement and buildings. According to drill logs in the study area, the geologic section consists in landfill, fine sand, clay, gravelly clay, and biotite granite from the surface. Biotite granite appears 5.5- 6 m depth. Groundwater samples were collected at twenty sites in Sasang industrial complex. The groundwater samples are plotted on Piper's trilinear diagram, which indicates Ca-Cl2 type. The groundwater may be influenced by salt water because Sasang industrial complex is located near the mouse of Nakdong river that flows to the South Sea. The Ca-Cl2 water type may be partly influenced by anthropogenic contamination in the study area, since water type in granite area generally belongs Ca

  13. Hazardous Heavy metal distribution in Dahuofang catchment, Fushun, Liaoning, an important industry city in China: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Gang [State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bejing (China); The CAS/Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Process, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Yantai Institute of Costal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai (China); Wu, Ji-You [State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bejing (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Shao, Hong-Bo [The CAS/Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Process, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Yantai Institute of Costal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai (China); Institute for Life Sciences, Qingdao University of Science and Technology (QUST), Qingdao (China)

    2012-12-15

    Located in Liaoning Province, one of the traditional heavy industrial areas in China, Dahuofang Reservoir provides drinking water for nearly 30 000 000 citizens, as well as industrial and agricultural water for dozens of several cities and rural areas. The distribution of hazardous heavy metals is described in several types of soil, crops, and in different industrial or mining areas and main sewage irrigation areas. Five possible reasons that may cause the pollution are analyzed and listed. Also we provide some pragmatic suggestions for the remediation of heavy metals in contaminated soils. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Proceedings of the 48. conference of metallurgists : international symposium on process control applications in mining and metallurgical plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, H. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). School of Engineering; Ryan, L. [Barrick Gold Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada); Kennedy, S. [Barrick Gold Corp., Dar Es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)] (eds.)

    2009-07-01

    This international symposium on process control applications in mining and metallurgical plants was held to promote economic and sustainable production practices in Canadian industry applications. Topics related to process control in mining and metallurgical plants included expert systems, model-based control technology, as well as recent advances in simulation, monitoring, and optimization techniques. Methods of improving the process and energy efficiency of mining and metallurgical plants were discussed along with technologies designed to improve monitoring accuracy. The symposium was divided into the following 5 sessions: (1) expert system, control, and performance monitoring, (2) flotation, (3) metallurgical processes, modelling, (4) mining applications, and (5) monitoring, analysis. The symposium featured 23 presentations, of which 2 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  15. First Mining workshop of Mining and metallurgical of MERCOSUR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In the city of Montevideo, capital of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, at 23 days of September 1994, under the First Meeting of Mercosur Mining Metallurgical, meet representatives of the mining sector in the countries signed the Treaty of Asuncion , attended as observers, authorities of the Republic of Bolivia and Ecuador and representatives of the productive labor, legislative and research. The primary objective is to integrate the mining sectors of those countries, taking into account the specificity of the mining, given by the resource it uses, the need for high-risk investment with slow recoveries of capital and infrastructure problems, taking into account leverage and its remarkable impact on the development of regional economies.

  16. Response of magnetic properties to heavy metal pollution in dust from three industrial cities in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Zongmin; Li, Zhonggen; Bi, Xiangyang; Han, Zhixuan; Yu, Genhua

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Elevated magnetic particles and heavy metals coexist in dust. ► Morphology and mineralogy of magnetic particles were studied by SEM-EDX and XRD. ► Magnetic minerals in the dust consist of magnetite, hematite, and metallic iron. ► Impact of metallic iron particles and multi-sources of metal pollutants was notable. -- Abstract: Magnetic method is a reliable and powerful technique for identification of the relative contribution of industrial pollutants. However, it has not been fully applied in urban area impacted by non-ferrous metal (NFM) smelting/processing activities. The aim of this study is to explore the applicability of magnetic methods for detecting heavy metal contamination in dust from three NFM smelting/processing industrial cities (Ezhou, Zhuzhou, and Hezhang) in China. The enhancements of magnetic susceptibility (MS) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) together with heavy metals were significant in the studied areas in comparison with the background values. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that magnetic particles in dust from Ezhou were dominated by spherules, while those from Zhuzhou and Hezhang were mainly consisted of irregular-shaped particles. κ–T curves and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicated that the magnetic particles from Ezhou were dominated by magnetite and metallic iron, whereas those from Zhuzhou and Hezhang were consisted of magnetite and hematite. Our study indicates that magnetic properties of the dust are sensitive to the NFM smelting/processing related heavy metal pollutants. However, the relationship between magnetic parameters and heavy metals was influenced by the presence of metallic iron particles and multi-sources of metal pollutants

  17. Morphological and anatomical characteristics of Scots pine needles under industrial pollution impact of Krasnoyarsk city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Skripal’shchikova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes of morphological and anatomical characteristics of Scots pine needles as well as their fluctuating asymmetry (FA were studied in pine stands under the influence of industrial emissions of Krasnoyarsk. Observations were made in forest-steppe zone on windward pine forest edges in the conditions of long-term anthropogenic effect. Background site was pine stand 100 km from the city outside the direction of wind pollution. The investigations were carried out in 2013–2014 in pure pine stands of grass type, V–VI class of age. For every model tree the needle lengths in pairs were measured, as well as the cross section area of needle, area of central cylinder and conducting bindles areas and the number of resin canals. Indices of fluctuating asymmetry were calculated by method of Palmer and Strobeck (1986. The content of copper, nickel, zinc, cobalt, aluminum, cadmium, lead, fluorine and sulfur were analyzed in needle samples in parallel. The dimensions of needles and its internal structure elements showed the tendency to decrease under the influence of urban industrial emissions in comparison with background sites. On the other hand, there were adaptations of morphological and anatomical parameters of physiologically active needles to the changing environment through a compensatory mechanism. Fluctuating asymmetry indices of needles parameters were found to vary both in technogenic conditions and background ones. The variations were caused by abiotic factors of habitats and levels of technogenic loadings in these stands. Correlation analysis revealed relations between concentrations of heavy metals, aluminum and fluorine and morphological and anatomical characteristics of needles and FA indices. The most unfavorable effects were produced by high concentrations of lead and fluorine.

  18. Cyril Stanley Smith's Translations of Metallurgical Classics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 6. Cyril Stanley Smith's Translations of Metallurgical Classics. Martha Goodway. General Article Volume 11 Issue 6 June 2006 pp 63-66. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  19. Utilization of secondary energy resources of metallurgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with a heat output of 4200 kW, a working agent R 600, a source of low-potential heat-circulating water: a 460 kW gas engine. The proposed scheme showed high efficiency of power supply of the town in comparison with the gas boiler. Keywords: heat pump; internal combustion engine metallurgical plant; energy efficiency ...

  20. Evaluating Sustainability and Democracy in the Development of Industrial Port Cities: Some Italian Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Attardi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA is a major policy evaluation tool, for institutional processes, when they need to cope with fundamental risks, give voice to non-human agents, manage commons, and address environmental justice. The interplay of SEA with planning, unravels key issues and criticalities in both urban governance and environmental democracy. How can evaluation be developed to support the process? Structured evaluation methods applied in environmental assessment are maybe not sufficient to solve complex social conflicts. We point out some key reflections with the aim of opening up the discussion, by taking the case study of the environmental assessment of pollutant activities in the main industrial port cities of Southern Italy. They represent, at the moment, the most significant social criticality in our country, related to the interplay between environmental assessment and risk for labor. The paper focuses on the case study by mentioning the evolution of some thoughts about the red stripe that links sustainability, environmental democracy, and social evaluation, and illustrates the issues of these aspects in the case study, with the aim of underlining the difficulty of environmental assessment tools as a major support for planning processes, when social conflicts arise.

  1. Field monitoring of volatile organic compounds using passive air samplers in an industrial city in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Kazunari; Ohura, Takeshi; Amagai, Takashi; Fusaya, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    Highly portable, sensitive, and selective passive air samplers were used to investigate ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) levels at multiple sampling sites in an industrial city, Fuji, Japan. We determined the spatial distributions of 27 species of VOCs in three campaigns: Mar (cold season), May (warm season), and Nov (mild season) of 2004. In all campaigns, toluene (geometric mean concentration, 14.0 μg/m 3 ) was the most abundant VOC, followed by acetaldehyde (4.76 μg/m 3 ), and formaldehyde (2.58 μg/m 3 ). The spatial distributions for certain VOCs showed characteristic patterns: high concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde were typically found along major roads, whereas high concentrations of toluene and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) were usually found near factories. The spatial distribution of PCE observed was extremely consistent with the diffusion pattern calculated from Pollutant Release and Transfer Register data and meteorological data, indicated that passive air samplers are useful for determining the sources and distributions of ambient VOCs. - Passive air samplings with hood are useful for determining the identities, sources, and distributions of ambient VOC pollutants

  2. The Methodological Background for Harmonizing Components of Sustainable Development of an Industrial City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prushkivskyj Volodymyr G.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to develop a methodological background for harmonizing components of sustainable development of an industrial city. The ways of harmonization of economic, environmental and social components are studied. It is proposed to use the rule of «golden ratio» to determine the «ideal» values of the components of sustainable development. On the basis of the index method the components of sustainable development are evaluated. The comparative analysis of the actual and harmonic distribution between the sub-indices of sustainable development is performed. Based on the rule of «golden ratio» it is proved that the harmonization allows to state the existence of differences as well as to carry out a quantitative analysis. It is justified that the existence of disharmony between the components of sustainable development requires elaboration of an appropriate mechanism on the basis of redistribution of investment resources as well as other economic instruments to support the components at a certain level.

  3. The 6th European metallurgical conference EMC 2011: Proceedings review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko R. Stopić

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The GDMB Society for Mining, Metallurgy, Resource and Environmental Technology organized the 6th European Metallurgical Conference (2011 in Duesseldorf from June 26 to 29, 2011. The same venue hosted the most important international metallurgical trade fairs for metallurgy of iron and steel, new casting and thermochemical processes METEC, GIFA, THERMOPROCESS and NEWCAST. The previous European metallurgical conferences were organized by GDMB in Friedrichshafen (2001, Hanover (2003, Leipzig (2005, Duesseldorf (2007, Innsbruck (2009. The GDMB is a non-profit organization situated in Clausthal in Germany, which is related to combining science with the practical experience in metallurgy, mining, materials engineering, mineral processing, recycling and refining of metals, and manufacturing of semi- and finishing products. The European Metallurgical conference EMC is one of the most known conferences worldwide in the field of non-ferrous metallurgy and is attended regularly by the decision makers from the industry and universities. The scientific program contained 6 plenary lectures and more than 160 presentations from 40 countries in 5 parallel series. An extensive poster exhibition was held, during which the authors had an opportunity to introduce their posters to the entire plenum as a part of a brief presentation. The best poster from the Montan-University in Leoben, Austria, was awarded the € 500 'Poster Award EMC 2011'. Not only were the most important European countries represented here, more than one third of the lecturers were from the non-European countries (Canada, Japan, China, USA, South Africa, Australia. The origin of the participants reflects the aim of the organizers: to make this conference a worldwide platform for the scientific exchange of experience and information. More than 400 participants from all over the world participated at this conference. The scientific presentations of the conference are presented in five Proceedings

  4. [Driving forces of carbon emission from energy consumption in China old industrial cities: a case study of Shenyang City, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wan-Xia; Geng, Yong; Xue, Bing

    2012-10-01

    To quantitatively analyze the effects of anthropogenic factors on regional environmental quality is a hot topic in the field of sustainable development research. Taking the typical old industrial city Shenyang in Northeast China as a case, and by using the IPCC method for calculating carbon emission from energy consumption, this paper estimated the carbon emission from energy consumption in the city in 1978-2009, and a time series analysis on the anthropogenic factors driving this carbon emission was made by the STIRPAT model based upon Kaya equation and ridge regression. In 1978-2009, the carbon emission in the city had a slow increase first, slow decrease then, and a rapid increase thereafter. The total carbon emission in 2009 was 4.6 times of that in 1978. Population growth was the main factor driving the growth of the emission, and there existed an equal-proportional variation between the population growth and the carbon emission growth. Urbanization was another main driving factor followed by population growth, and the per capita GDP was positively correlated with the carbon emission. Kuznets curve did not exist for the relationship between economic development and carbon emission in Shenyang. Energy source intensity reduction (representing technology improvement) was the main factor driving the reduction of the total carbon emission.

  5. Beyond Texas City: the state of process safety in the unionized U.S. oil refining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuiston, Thomas H; Lippin, Tobi Mae; Bradley-Bull, Kristin; Anderson, Joseph; Beach, Josie; Beevers, Gary; Frederick, Randy J; Frederick, James; Greene, Tammy; Hoffman, Thomas; Lefton, James; Nibarger, Kim; Renner, Paul; Ricks, Brian; Seymour, Thomas; Taylor, Ren; Wright, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The March 2005 British Petroleum (BP) Texas City Refinery disaster provided a stimulus to examine the state of process safety in the U.S. refining industry. Participatory action researchers conducted a nation-wide mail-back survey of United Steelworkers local unions and collected data from 51 unionized refineries. The study examined the prevalence of highly hazardous conditions key to the Texas City disaster, refinery actions to address those conditions, emergency preparedness and response, process safety systems, and worker training. Findings indicate that the key highly hazardous conditions were pervasive and often resulted in incidents or near-misses. Respondents reported worker training was insufficient and less than a third characterized their refineries as very prepared to respond safely to a hazardous materials emergency. The authors conclude that the potential for future disasters plagues the refining industry. In response, they call for effective proactive OSHA regulation and outline ten urgent and critical actions to improve refinery process safety.

  6. MYSTICISM IN BATIK INDUSTRIAL RELATION: The Study of Trust Achievement on the Survivability of Small-Medium Batik Industry at Pekalongan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Kanafi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between economy and religion had been known for long time ago as it was found in Max Weber’s books “The Protestant Ethic and The Spirit of Capitalism” and “The Protestant Sects and The Spirit of Capitalism”. This paper examines the extent to which mysticism practices have been conducted among the employers and employees of Batik Industries in Pekalongan City. It argues that mysticism has an important role to reinforce the social capital and make the industry survive, especially to face many problems related to productivity, motivation, trust as well as wage issues. By practicing mystics and religious traditions, like dhikiran, manakiban, hawl and muludan, people have spiritual force which has an important role both for personally and professionally in the work place, especially to maintain the relationship between employees and employers. Also they could be stronger when faced the changes and challenges of business and their industry can survive.

  7. Qualifications versus useful knowledge in metallurgical enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents notions connected with resource structure of useful knowledge packages in metallurgical enterprise. Dependence between building competence of employees and using knowledge for the need of better efficiency of the enterprise was discussed here. ArcelorMittal Poland enterprise served as case study here due to the fact that it strives at World Class Management by putting emphasis on bringing areas of business activity to perfection through participation and involvement of employees.

  8. Fuel for domestic and metallurgical uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, D.; Chakrabarti, R.K.

    1981-02-01

    To meet the energy requirements in the domestic and metallurgical sectors CMPDI have taken in hand some developmental projects using coal as a feedback. 4 projects are described - mechanized conversion of coal to domestic coke, formed coke making by Didier-Keihan-Sumitomo process, domestic briquette making based on non-copking coal resources, and smokeless coal blocks utilising inferior grade raw coal and washery by-products.

  9. Possibilities of Formation of Dioxins and Furans in Metallurgical Processes as well as Methods of their Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holtzer, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The metallurgical industry, among others, generates various kinds of wastes: gaseous, dusts, wastes and sewage. Special attention of the European Union is directed towards the elimination or significant reduction of the gaseous-dust contamination emissions including the most hazardous compounds, such as dioxins and furans. In the article the sources of dioxins and furans in metallurgical industry are described along with the reduction methods of these pollutants. Particularly the activities recommended as the Best Available Techniques (BAT in order to reduce the PCDD/PCDF emission from sintering processes, non-ferrous metallurgy and foundry engineering have been presented.

  10. Remotely sensed thermal pollution and its relationship with energy consumption and industry in a rapidly urbanizing Chinese city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Huina; Zhao, Juanjuan; Qiu, Quanyi; Tapper, Nigel; Hua, Lizhong

    2013-01-01

    Taking the city of Xiamen, China, as an example, we used thermal infrared remote sensing to detect thermal pollution, and examined its relationship to energy consumption and the industrial economy. Monthly changes in 2002 and dynamics throughout the period of rapid urbanization (1987–2007) are analysed. It is found that seasonal variation led to distinct shapes and sizes of thermal pollution areas, and winter thermal pollution was highly indicative of industrial and energy transformation sources. Industrial enterprises were the dominant sources of winter thermal pollution in Xiamen. The number and ratio of industrial thermal pollution sources increased stably in the earlier years, and dramatically in the later period (2002–2007), attributable to the effects of China entering the World Trade Organization. Linear regression shows that the number of thermal pollution sources was strongly correlated with several factors of the industrial economy and energy consumption, including industrial outputs, industrial enterprise numbers, LPG and electricity. Related mitigation measures are also discussed. This research builds a link between remote sensing-detected thermal pollution information and statistical energy consumption data, as well as industrial economy statistics. It thereby enhances understanding of the relationship between urbanization, industrialization, energy consumption and related environmental effects. - Highlights: ► A method was provided for detecting thermal pollution through remote sensing. ► Seasonal dynamics and dynamics with the process of urbanization were examined. ► Winter thermal pollution is quite indicative of industrial energy consumption. ► Thermal pollution has high correlations with industrial economy and energy factors. ► It builds a link between remotely sensed thermal pollution and energy-economic data

  11. TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project Metallurgical Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.; Neimark, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    The TMI-2 [Three Mile Island unit 2] Vessel Investigation Project Metallurgical Program at Argonne National Laboratory is a part of the international TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project being conducted jointly by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The overall project consists of three phases, namely (1) recovery of material samples from the lower head of the TMI-2 reactor, (2) examination and analysis of the lower head samples and the preparation and testing of archive material subjected to a similar thermal history, and (3) procurement, examination, and analysis of companion core material located adjacent to or near the lower head material. The specific objectives of the ANL Metallurgical Program, which accounts for a major portion of Phase 2, are to prepare metallographic and mechanical test specimen blanks from the TMI-2 lower head material, prepare similar test specimen blanks from suitable archive material subjected to the appropriate thermal processing, determine the mechanical properties of the lower vessel head and archive materials under the conditions of the core-melt accident, and assess the lower head integrity and margin-to-failure during the accident. The ANL work consists of three tasks: (1) archive materials program, (2) fabrication of metallurgical and mechanical test specimens from the TMI-2 pressure vessel samples, and (3) mechanical property characterization of TMI-2 lower pressure vessel head and archive material

  12. Production of iron from metallurgical waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, David W; Iwasaki, Iwao

    2013-09-17

    A method of recovering metallic iron from iron-bearing metallurgical waste in steelmaking comprising steps of providing an iron-bearing metallurgical waste containing more than 55% by weight FeO and FeO equivalent and a particle size of at least 80% less than 10 mesh, mixing the iron-bearing metallurgical waste with a carbonaceous material to form a reducible mixture where the carbonaceous material is between 80 and 110% of the stoichiometric amount needed to reduce the iron-bearing waste to metallic iron, and as needed additions to provide a silica content between 0.8 and 8% by weight and a ratio of CaO/SiO.sub.2 between 1.4 and 1.8, forming agglomerates of the reducible mixture over a hearth material layer to protect the hearth, heating the agglomerates to a higher temperature above the melting point of iron to form nodules of metallic iron and slag material from the agglomerates by melting.

  13. Study of ants as bioindicators of industrial pollution in Kemerovo Region, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinova, S. V.; Dobrydina, T. I.

    2018-01-01

    The myrmecocomplexes of five industrial cities in the territory of Kuzbass, Russia, were studied. The general trends in the reaction of ants to the pollution by gaseous (chemical industry) and solid (coal and cement dust, lead and zinc waste and metallurgical industry) emissions were revealed. It was found out that the proportion of species of subfamilies, species richness and density of the settlement can be used as bioindicators. The predominance of L. niger and M. rubra nests in myrmecocomplexes immediately indicates a high degree of man-made impact.

  14. Route planning of raw materials transportation in the industrial hub of Mariupol city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлія Вікторівна Булгакова

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The multi-modal freight transportation routes planning problem is viewed in this paper. The case study of iron ore deliveries to the metallurgical enterprises of Mariupol from Kryvyi Rih is presented. Based on the analysis of Ukrainian railroads and sea ports infrastructures six possible routes of multi-modal iron ore transportation are built. The paper presents a short review of route planning problem in multi-modal freight transportations, which are use sea and land parts together, regarding decision support methods of routes evaluation and selection. The lack of studies dedicated to fuzzy logic theory application for solving the stated problems is identified. The relevance of fuzzy set application to the route planning problem is proved. Taking into account the peculiarities of iron ore transportations technology, the following criterions of routes evaluation are chosen: «transportation costs», «delivery times», «transportation risks». The model of multicriterion decision-making of routes evaluation and the optimal route selection, based on fuzzy logic theory, is developed. Criteria of routes evaluation are set by three terms Gaussian and sigmoidal membership functions. The approach to each function construction is practice-based and executed together with iron ore supply chain manager. The model is created in MATLAB Fuzzy Logic Tool Box environment using Mamdani’s fuzzy inference

  15. Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs) in surface soils from coastal cities in North China: Correlation between diastereoisomer profiles and industrial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yueqing; Li, Qifeng; Lu, Yonglong; Jones, Kevin; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) is a brominated flame retardant with a wide range of industrial applications, although little is known about its patterns of spatial distribution in soils in relation to industrial emissions. This study has undertaken a large-scale investigation around an industrialized coastal area of China, exploring the concentrations, spatial distribution and diastereoisomer profiles of HBCDD in 188 surface soils from 21 coastal cities in North China. The detection frequency was 100% and concentrations of total HBCDD in the surface soils ranged from 0.123 to 363 ng g(-1) and averaged 7.20 ng g(-1), showing its ubiquitous existence at low levels. The spatial distribution of HBCDD exhibited a correlation with the location of known manufacturing facilities in Weifang, suggesting the production of HBCDD as major emission source. Diastereoisomer profiles varied in different cities. Diastereoisomer compositions in soils were compared with emissions from HBCDD industrial activities, and correlations were found between them, which has the potential for source identification. Although the contemporary concentrations of HBCDD in soils from the study were relatively low, HBCDD-containing products (expanded/extruded polystyrene insulation boards) would be a potential source after its service life, and attention needs to be paid to prioritizing large-scale waste management efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The influence of wind speed on airflow and fine particle transport within different building layouts of an industrial city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Dan; Wen, Meng; Xu, Xuemei; Zhu, Yuzheng; Xing, Futang

    2018-04-20

    In atmospheric environment, the layout difference of urban buildings has a powerful influence on accelerating or inhibiting the dispersion of particle matters (PM). In industrial cities, buildings of variable heights can obstruct the diffusion of PM from industrial stacks. In this study, PM dispersed within building groups was simulated by Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations coupled Lagrangian approach. Four typical street building arrangements were used: (a) a low-rise building block with Height/base H/b = 1 (b = 20 m); (b) step-up building layout (H/b = 1, 2, 3, 4); (c) step-down building layout (H/b = 4, 3, 2, 1); (d) high-rise building block (H/b = 5). Profiles of stream functions and turbulence intensity were used to examine the effect of various building layouts on atmospheric airflow. Here, concepts of particle suspension fraction and concentration distribution were used to evaluate the effect of wind speed on fine particle transport. These parameters showed that step-up building layouts accelerated top airflow and diffused more particles into street canyons, likely having adverse effects on resident health. In renewal old industry areas, the step-down building arrangement which can hinder PM dispersion from high-level stacks should be constructed preferentially. High turbulent intensity results in formation of a strong vortex that hinders particles into the street canyons. It is found that an increase in wind speed enhanced particle transport and reduced local particle concentrations, however, it did not affect the relative location of high particle concentration zones, which are related to building height and layout. This study has demonstrated the height variation and layout of urban architecture affect the local concentration distribution of particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere and for the first time that wind velocity has particular effects on PM transport in various building groups. The findings may have general implications in optimization

  17. Meteorological and sulphur dioxide dispersion modelling for an industrial complex near Mexico city metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, V.R.; Sosa, G.; Molina, M.M.; Palmerin-ruiz, M.E.; Melgarejo-flores, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    Major sulphur dioxide emissions in Mexico are due largely to fuel of oil refining and coal combustion. In Tula-Vito-Apasco industrial corridor (TVA) are located two important sources of SO/sub 2/: the 'Miguel Hidalgo' refinery and the 'Francisco Perez Rios' power plant. Due to from March 25 to April 22 of 2006 a major field campaign took place as part of a collaborative research program called MILAGRO. Data collected around the Industrial Complex were used to: a) evaluate the air quality to local and regional scale; b) study the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer (BL); and c) validate meteorological and dispersion models. In this study we presented the behaviour of daytime BL, and the results of meteorological and dispersion modelling for selected episodes of high sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/). The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) and the Hybrid and Particle Concentration Transport Model (HYPACT) were used to evaluate the impact of SO/sub 2/ emissions to regional scale. For modelling, we selected the days where higher mean daily levels of SO/sub 2 /surface concentrations were observed, these corresponded to March 31 and April 6. The results indicate that: The daytime BL in TVA, exhibited a normal behavior, a stable layer or thermal inversion close to surface was observed at 0800 LST (up to 80% of the cases), then the mixing height (MH) growths, with a growth rate of 313 m h-1 (between 0800 to 1200 LST). The most rapid MH growth happened between 1200 to 1500 LST;. The maximum MH was observed at 1500 LST (90% of the cases); the mean maximum MH was close to 2794 m AGL; Potential temperature and humidity profiles showed a normal behavior; High persistence in wind direction (> 0.6) close to surface up to 500 m AGL, was observed at 1500, and 1800 LST, at the same time, a low level jet, penetrating from the NE, with wind speed between 6 to 8 m s/sup -1/ was observed. Meteorological modelling was used to determine the circulation patterns in the region

  18. The cooperation of the government and digital media industry in social development (a study in Cirebon city, West Java, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, M.; Mariana, D.; Anwar, R. K.

    2018-03-01

    This study explores the role of government in encouraging and providing a model of economic growth, including in the field of micro, small, and medium enterprises. The case studied in this research is the digital media industry. It could be a potential in creating public welfare. The questions in this research are about how to model a development of community-based digital media industry in Cirebon City, West Java; whether the government could bring people to the digital media industry to foster a productive economic society; and how the community appreciates and becomes a part of the digital media industry. By using descriptive and qualitative methods, this study finds that the government has sufficiently active roles in the development of the digital media industry in the society. The society itself has already been open-minded in responding the government’s programs and the development of contemporary technology, such as in the field of selling goods and services. Still, some obstacles might continue to be refined for the success of the community’s digital media industry.

  19. The Effectiveness of Behavior Therapy and Symptoms of PTSD in Trauma Survivors Fire Accident in Industrial Pole of Shahid Babaie City Shazand

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sadeghi; M. Naderi-Nabi; M. Chegini; A. Ghaedniaye-Jahromi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this present study was to the effectiveness of behavior therapy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and general health of in Trauma Survivors Fire Accident in Industrial Pole of Shahid Babaie City Shazand in 1387. Methods: The present plan study of experimental design with pre - and post - test method after the test. community study all the survivors industrial hub of fire martyr Babaie city shazand township to approach the census initial screenin...

  20. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and their contribution to ozone formation potential in a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chenhui; Mao, Xiaoxuan; Huang, Tao; Liang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Yanan; Shen, Yanjie; Jiang, Wanyanhan; Wang, Huiqin; Bai, Zhilin; Ma, Minquan; Yu, Zhousuo; Ma, Jianmin; Gao, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Hourly air concentrations of fifty-three non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were measured at downtown and suburb of Lanzhou, a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China in 2013. The measured data were used to investigate the seasonal characteristics of NMHCs air pollution and their contributions to the ozone formation in Lanzhou. Annually averaged NMHCs concentration was 38.29 ppbv in downtown Lanzhou. Among 53 NMHCs, alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics accounted for 57%, 23% and 20% of the total NMHCs air concentration, respectively. The atmospheric levels of toluene and propane with mean values of 4.62 and 4.56 ppbv were higher than other NMHCs, respectively. The ambient levels of NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou were compared with measured NMHCs data collected at a suburban site of Lanzhou, located near a large-scale petrochemical industry. Results show that the levels of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics in downtown Lanzhou were lower by factors of 3-11 than that in west suburb of the city. O3-isopleth plots show that ozone was formed in VOCs control area in downtown Lanzhou and NOx control area at the west suburban site during the summertime. Propylene-equivalent (Prop-Equiv) concentration and the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) in downtown Lanzhou indicate that cis-2-butene, propylene, and m/p-xylene were the first three compounds contributing to ozone formation potentials whereas in the petrochemical industrialized west suburb, ethane, propene, and trans-2-Butene played more important role in the summertime ozone formation. Principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were further applied to identify the dominant emission sources and examine their fractions in total NMHCs. Results suggest that vehicle emission, solvent usage, and industrial activities were major sources of NMHCs in the city, accounting for 58.34%, 22.19%, and 19.47% of the total monitored NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou, respectively. In the west suburb of the city

  1. Proceedings of the 6. international symposium on waste processing and recycling in the mineral and metallurgical industries : WALSIM : water, air and land sustainability issues in mineral and metal extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, C.Q.; Pickles, C.A.; Brienne, S.; Rao, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    The proceedings of the 2008 conference of metallurgists of CIM includes a collection 7 separate symposia, namely (1) aerospace materials and manufacturing, (2) water, air and land sustainability issues in mineral and metal extraction (WALSIM), (3) current status and future trends of functional nanometers, (4) recent developments in advanced high strength steels processing, (5) corrosion and wear of materials, (6) advanced characterization techniques applied to mineral, metals and materials, and (7) management in metallurgy. The WALSIM symposium dealt with environmental issues, with particular reference to the three topics of water, air and land sustainability associated with mineral and metal extraction, processing and fabrication. It provided an opportunity for scientists, engineers and plant operators to report on work aimed at achieving more efficient, environmentally sound and sustainable performance of the mineral and metals industry by enabling related organizations to exchange information on the latest developments in this field of activity with considerations of both industry and society. The sessions were entitled: resource recovery from waste material; by-products processing of slag, fly ash and electric arc furnace dust; metal recycling; wastewater and effluent treatment; gaseous pollutants treatment; and, sustainability and basic research. The symposium featured 43 presentations, of which 17 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  2. Proceedings of the 6. international symposium on waste processing and recycling in the mineral and metallurgical industries : WALSIM : water, air and land sustainability issues in mineral and metal extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, C.Q. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry; Pickles, C.A. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mining Engineering; Brienne, S. [Teck Cominco Metals Ltd., Trail, BC (Canada). Applied Research and Engineering; Rao, S.R. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Mining and Materials Engineering] (eds.)

    2008-07-01

    The proceedings of the 2008 conference of metallurgists of CIM includes a collection 7 separate symposia, namely (1) aerospace materials and manufacturing, (2) water, air and land sustainability issues in mineral and metal extraction (WALSIM), (3) current status and future trends of functional nanometers, (4) recent developments in advanced high strength steels processing, (5) corrosion and wear of materials, (6) advanced characterization techniques applied to mineral, metals and materials, and (7) management in metallurgy. The WALSIM symposium dealt with environmental issues, with particular reference to the three topics of water, air and land sustainability associated with mineral and metal extraction, processing and fabrication. It provided an opportunity for scientists, engineers and plant operators to report on work aimed at achieving more efficient, environmentally sound and sustainable performance of the mineral and metals industry by enabling related organizations to exchange information on the latest developments in this field of activity with considerations of both industry and society. The sessions were entitled: resource recovery from waste material; by-products processing of slag, fly ash and electric arc furnace dust; metal recycling; wastewater and effluent treatment; gaseous pollutants treatment; and, sustainability and basic research. The symposium featured 43 presentations, of which 17 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  3. Lead isotopic fingerprinting of aerosols to characterize the sources of atmospheric lead in an industrial city of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Indra S.; Bizimis, Michael; Tripathi, Sachchida Nand; Paul, Debajyoti

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic Pb in the environment is primarily sourced from combustion of fossil fuel and high-temperature industries such as smelters. Identifying the sources and pathways of anthropogenic Pb in the environment is important because Pb toxicity is known to have adverse effects on human health. Pb pollution sources for America, Europe, and China are well documented. However, sources of atmospheric Pb are unknown in India, particularly after leaded gasoline was phased out in 2000. India has a developing economy with a rapidly emerging automobile and high temperature industry, and anthropogenic Pb emission is expected to rise in the next decade. In this study, we report on the Pb-isotope compositions and trace metal ratios of airborne particulates collected in Kanpur, a large city in northern part of India. The study shows that the PM10 aerosols had elevated concentration of Cd, Pb, Zn, As, and Cu in the Kanpur area, however their concentrations are well below the United States Environmental Protection Agency chronic exposure limit. Lead isotopic and trace metal data reveal industrial emission as the plausible source of anthropogenic Pb in the atmosphere in Kanpur. However, Pb isotopic compositions of potential source end-members are required to fully evaluate Pb contamination in India over time. This is the first study that characterizes the isotopic composition of atmospheric Pb in an Indian city after leaded gasoline was phased out by 2000.

  4. Dangerous dining: health and safety in the New York City restaurant industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Saru; Dropkin, Jonathan; Siby, Sekou; Alston, Laine Romero; Markowitz, Steven

    2011-12-01

    We characterized the health and safety conditions of New York City restaurant workers, a population comprising largely of immigrants and people of color. We conducted an anonymous questionnaire survey of 502 New York City restaurant workers, addressing working conditions, benefits, demographic factors, psychosocial exposures, and medical symptoms and conditions. Restaurant workers reported fast-paced, repetitive, and physically demanding jobs that sometimes involve chemical exposures. Despite their youth, they experience a high prevalence of musculoskeletal and traumatic injuries. Few receive job benefits despite significant symptoms. Job-related injuries are positively associated with practices that pose a danger to consumers. New York City restaurant workers have stressful jobs, experience significant injury, and illness but receive few job benefits. A healthier work organization and greater access to benefits for restaurant workers would improve their health and public health.

  5. Mapping of electromagnetic fields of industrial frequencies in the city of Petrozavodsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sturman Vladimir Itshakovich

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In a modern city there are numerous sources of electro-magnetic radiation. However, their interaction and overlap are studied extremely insufficiently. We investigated the spatial distribution of strength indicators of electric fields and flux density of magnetic fields in Petrozavodsk. It was established that the intensity of electric fields reaches significant values only near overhead high-voltage lines, but there is no revealed excess of exposure standard outside their security zones. The flux density does not exceed the permissible level, but within the city area it varies wildly. It was represented on the compiled map. The largest levels of the flux density were observed in modern building zones, mainly in the centre of the city. In separate points the abnormal values were noted. They were explained by the influence of underground power cables. The results are useful for working out the method of mapping electrio-magnetic fields.

  6. Application of logistic principles in metallurgical production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Malindžák

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Metallurgical production processes (MPP consist of continuous and discrete types of technology operation, transport, manipulation and storing processes regards the flow of material and also the equipment and machines. Other specifics are: long production cycles, great inertia, tree structure of production processes (from roots up to the leaves, high level of investments etc. These characteristics resulted in some specifics of production logistics. This article deals with these specifics and explains it using the conditions of production processes of continuous slab casting, their heating in push furnaces at rolling temperature and rolling itself in hot wideband steel mill.

  7. THE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES OF CASHEW INDUSTRY IN KENDARI CITY, SOUTHEAST SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asriani Asriani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic development of a region should refer to the agroindustry approach. An industry is not well developed due to the constraints of internal and external factors. This research aimed to identify the internal and external factors which could affect the development of cashew industry and determine the most effective alternative strategies applied in developing the cashew industry in Kendari Southeast Sulawesi Province. The data analysis technique used  Strength, Weakness, Opportuny and Threat (SWOT methods. The results showed that the internal factors that most influenced the development of the cashew industry were availability of adequate labor and limited capital investment funds while the external factors that influence the development included the government support and limited access to markets. The alternative strategies of the cashew industry development in Kendari Southeast Sulawesi Province  include improving the marketing, maintaining the product quality and increasing the working capital.Keyword: development, strategy, cashew industry, SWOT

  8. Evaluation of waste management, manufacturing industries, from an environmental standpoint (Case Study: Savojbolagh city Alborz Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mashaalah nikzad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction and Purpose: The quantity and quality of industrial wastewater is variable owing to the different lines of production and product variety of industry. Meeting the effluent standards requires proper environmental management. The current study aimed to evaluate the industrial wastewater management in Savojbolagh, Alborz, Iran from an environmental perspective in 2013-2014. Methods: This study was cross-sectional. The data were collected through field visits, questionnaire (of Iran's Environmental Protection Agency, and controlling data from industrial plants with more than 50 workers (totally 108 units. The questionnaire included questions about the quantity, quality, and management of wastewater. Based on an environmental perspective, the way of managing industrial wastewater was classified into four index: wastewater production, per capita production, BOD (Biochemical oxygen demand per capita, and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand per capita which were rated from1 to 6. For each index, a higher score was defined for better management. Results: The wastewater produced by industries was estimated to be 1942 cubic meters per day. Food industry alone produced 59% of the entire industrial wastewater. The industry related to animal slaughtering was shown to have the highest BOD per capita, 320 g/day per every worker; and the cellulose industry enjoyed the highest COD per capita, 561 g/day per every worker. 76% of the industries under investigation had no strategy to reduce the wastewater production. 34% of these industries possessed treatment plants, while only 17% of them were following the effluent discharge standards. The most common method of treated and untreated wastewater disposal was found to be absorbing well. Conclusion: Based on this assessment, the management of wastewater was revealed to be favorable in non-metallic minerals industry, but unfavorable in agriculture industry as the wastewater produced by

  9. Metallurgical source-contribution analysis of PM10 annual average concentration: A dispersion modeling approach in moravian-silesian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jančík

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is to present analysis of metallurgical industry contribution to annual average PM10 concentrations in Moravian-Silesian based on means of the air pollution modelling in accord with the Czech reference methodology SYMOS´97.

  10. Methodological Approaches to Ensuring Innovative Development of Metallurgical Enterprises on the Basis of Principles of Economic Nationalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denysov Kostyantyn V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic, energy and environmental aspects of the activities of metallurgical enterprises are analyzed in the context of the need to ensure their sustainable development. The high energy intensity of the production process, the low efficiency and irrational structure of capital expenditures for environmental protection, the dominance of material costs in the final cost of finished products at the expense of labor and social contributions are indicated. There proved the low effectiveness of the previous measures of the industrial policy of the metallurgical industry innovative development that were not in compliance with the requirements of the WTO and led to taking compensatory measures against the Ukrainian steel on world markets. The potential of economic nationalism as a system for ensuring the innovative development of the metallurgical industry is considered. There determined the priorities of the industrial policy for the development of metallurgical enterprises based on the principles of economic nationalism and taking into account the global trends in the development of trade and economic relations and Ukraine’s commitments to the WTO.

  11. Questions of improvement of ecological situation in the industrial cities of the Tashkent region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peremkulov J.A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available the article analyzes ecological reforms of Uzbekistan’s industrial towns, especially towns of Tashkent region, during the years of Independence. The analysis shows the improvement of ecological balance, as a result of governmental arrangements undertaken for solving the ecological problems in the town. The article demonstrates the abatement of industrial pollution as a result of re-organizing industrial factories by investments. The statistical data shows the reduction of air pollution by deleterious waste in the town, which was caused by the effect of industrial plants reorganization that phase down during the first years of Independence, as a joint venture and technical and technological re-equipment of them. The ecological state of each industrial town is analyzed separately in the article. The author uses governmental decrees, periodicals, documents of town hall, archive data, as well newspapers and magazines that show eco-environment of the republic.

  12. The Limits of Water Pricing in a Developing Country Metropolis: Empirical Lessons from an Industrial City of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabbir Ahmad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to question the effectiveness of water pricing as a means of consumer behavioural change in urban centres of the Global South by analysing the domestic usage for water in a major industrial city of Pakistan. Using survey data of 1100 households from Faisalabad city, we estimate the price and income elasticities of water demand. Instrumental variable methods are applied to overcome the endogeneity issues of water pricing. The findings reflect that price and income elasticities vary across different groups. Price elasticities range from −0.43 to −0.71, and income elasticities vary between 0.01 and 0.12. These findings suggest that pricing policies may have limited scope to drive households’ water consumption patterns. However, these empirics may suggest that policy makers should design an appropriate tariff structure to increase revenues that can be invested to further improve the existing water infrastructure. The study findings also suggest that non-pricing instruments, such as water saving campaigns, may be helpful in driving an efficient use of water in rapidly growing cities in the developing world.

  13. Quantifying the uncertainties of China's emission inventory for industrial sources: From national to provincial and city scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Zhou, Yaduan; Qiu, Liping; Zhang, Jie

    2017-09-01

    A comprehensive uncertainty analysis was conducted on emission inventories for industrial sources at national (China), provincial (Jiangsu), and city (Nanjing) scales for 2012. Based on various methods and data sources, Monte-Carlo simulation was applied at sector level for national inventory, and at plant level (whenever possible) for provincial and city inventories. The uncertainties of national inventory were estimated at -17-37% (expressed as 95% confidence intervals, CIs), -21-35%, -19-34%, -29-40%, -22-47%, -21-54%, -33-84%, and -32-92% for SO2, NOX, CO, TSP (total suspended particles), PM10, PM2.5, black carbon (BC), and organic carbon (OC) emissions respectively for the whole country. At provincial and city levels, the uncertainties of corresponding pollutant emissions were estimated at -15-18%, -18-33%, -16-37%, -20-30%, -23-45%, -26-50%, -33-79%, and -33-71% for Jiangsu, and -17-22%, -10-33%, -23-75%, -19-36%, -23-41%, -28-48%, -45-82%, and -34-96% for Nanjing, respectively. Emission factors (or associated parameters) were identified as the biggest contributors to the uncertainties of emissions for most source categories except iron & steel production in the national inventory. Compared to national one, uncertainties of total emissions in the provincial and city-scale inventories were not significantly reduced for most species with an exception of SO2. For power and other industrial boilers, the uncertainties were reduced, and the plant-specific parameters played more important roles to the uncertainties. Much larger PM10 and PM2.5 emissions for Jiangsu were estimated in this provincial inventory than other studies, implying the big discrepancies on data sources of emission factors and activity data between local and national inventories. Although the uncertainty analysis of bottom-up emission inventories at national and local scales partly supported the ;top-down; estimates using observation and/or chemistry transport models, detailed investigations and

  14. Estimation of Aerobic Capacity and Determination of Its Associated Factors among Male Workers of Industrial Sector of Shiraz City, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rajaei Fard

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   In order to physiologically fit the job to the worker’s capability, maximum aerobic capacity (VO2-max is used. This study was conducted to estimate VO2-max and determine its associated factors among workers of industrial sector of Shiraz city.   Methods  In this cross-sectional study, 500 healthy male workers employed in Shiraz city industries participated voluntarily. Subjects’ aerobic capacity was assessed by ergocycle test according to Astrand protocol for 6 minutes. A questionnaire consisted of two parts covering demographic, anthropometric and physiological characteristics was used as data collecting tool.   Results    Mean and standard deviation of age of workers was 32.01 and 7.66 years, respectively. Worker’s aerobic capacity was estimated to be 2.69±0.263 1.min-1 . The results showed that there was association between VO2-max and age, weight and BMI while no association was found between VO2-max and height. Also, statistical analysis revealed association between VO2-max and smoking and exercise per week (P<0.05. Nature of work , shift working, job satisfaction and fatigue had no association with aerobic capacity. Based on the results, regression equations were developed for estimation of aerobic capacity.  Conclusion  Aerobic capacity had association with age, weight, BMI, exercise and smoking.  

  15. Mapping of micro and Small branch of industrial enterprises located in the cities of Agudo and Silveira Martins – RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Hartmann Sturm

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the development of a country are the companies responsible for creating jobs, pay taxes and thus cause the economic and regional development. In Brazil, most of these institutions is made up of micro enterprises and small that often struggling to survive in the market. Therefore, it is necessary investments and public incentives to encourage their development making them competitive. In this sense, this article aims to develop a mapping of micro and small enterprises in the industrial sector in the cities of Agudo and Silveira Martins – Rio Grande do Sul (RS. For this, we used a descriptive research on the purposes and literature as to the means being prepared a questionnaire for collecting data from the sample studied. As results obtained ten micro companies and three small businesses were found in Agudo – RS, and the main industries are the timber industry and the manufacture of bakery products, influenced 65.5% of the employees of micro and small companies analyzed in the municipality. Already in Silveira Martins – RS were found seven micro and small enterprises, where six are classified as micro company and only one as small business. It was found also that the main industrial branch is the timber sector (six companies, in which 96% of employees work in any activity related to wood processing.

  16. Internal exposure to trace elements in non-smoking residents living in a northern Taiwan industrial city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tser-Sheng; Wu, Chin-Ching

    2011-12-01

    A total of 94 (54 males, 40 females) healthy adult residents living in an industrial city in northern Taiwan were recruited to study their exposure to industrial metals by measuring their blood levels of V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Co, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Pb, and W. All participants were non-smokers without obvious direct occupational exposure to these elements, although by working in administrative sectors in industrial facilities their indirect or potential exposure was increased. The average concentrations of V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Co, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Pb, and W in blood were 0.30, 1.49, 15.1, 3.84, 2.73, 21.1, 204, 3.2, 0.76, 51.1, and 0.40 ng/mL, respectively. These values were significantly higher than reference values reported for the general population, in some cases exceeding those of occupationally exposed workers. The principal component and correlation analyses among blood element levels suggested that the predominant sources of exposure were glass manufacturing and traffic-related sources. Despite of some limitations, the study demonstrates that the residents in this industrial area may suffer adverse chronic health effects attributable to exposures to these elements.

  17. The Interactive Constitution of Actors in Industrial Networks: The Case of the Norwegian City of Alesund

    OpenAIRE

    Frans Prenkert

    2013-01-01

    The actor-dimension of the Activitiy-Resource-Actor (ARA)-model has not gained the same attention among Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) scholars as the resource and activity dimensions. However, the issue of what an actor actually is, in the sense of its interactive constitution, is important from an industrial marketing and purchasing perspective that emphasizes the interactive character of the business landscape. This is adressed in this paper. As a concequence of their interactiv...

  18. Expansion Strategy of Agricultural Industrial Chain of Suburban Villages and Towns in the Process of Urbanization - A Case Study of Yongle Town in Nanming District of Guiyano City

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Li; Zhu, Jing

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of introducing the connotation of agricultural industrial chain, taking Yongle Town in Nanming District of Guiyang City as an example, this paper analyzes me advantages and constraint factors of the suburban villages and towns in the process of expanding agricultural industrial chain in the context of urbanization. Corresponding strategies of expanding the agricultural industrial chain of Yongle Town in the process of urbanization as follows, vigorously develop the leading enterp...

  19. Differential Analysis of Sei Cow Meat Treatment from Modern and Household Industry in Kupang City

    OpenAIRE

    Apris A. Adu

    2017-01-01

    Se'i meat is one of the beef processed are made by way of smoked using wood embers of kusambi (Scheichera oleaca), se'i has been known in the city of Kupang as one of the meat food products. The processing of se'i meat require nitrite as a preservative to obtain good color and prevent the growth of microbes. According to the regulations of Food and Drug Supervisory Agency of the Republic of Indonesia number 36 of 2013, Nitrite use is permitted with a maximum limit of use of 30 mg/kg, but in r...

  20. Dust pollution of snow cover in the industrial areas of Tomsk city (Western Siberia, Russia)

    OpenAIRE

    Talovskaya, Anna Valerievna; Filimonenko, Ekaterina Anatolievna; Osipova, Nina Aleksandrovna; Yazikov, Yegor (Egor) Grigoryevich; Nadeina, Louise Vasilievna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the results of long-term monitoring (2007-2014) of snow cover pollution in the territory of Tomsk city. Snow samples were collected in the territory of Tomsk. Determination of dust load level was carried out by comparing with the background and reference values. It has been determined that the north-east and central parts of Tomsk are the most contaminated areas, where brickworks, coal and gas-fired thermal power plant are located. The analysis of long-term dynamics sho...

  1. Certain characteristics of industrial and domestic contamination of soil in cities of the Kusnetsk Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashirova, F N

    1966-01-01

    Analysis of soil samples taken in and near cities of the Kusnetsk Basin, a coal and metal working center, has revealed significant changes caused by various waste products. Soils were found to contain harmful elements such as lead, and to be poor in nutrients. The natural composition of soil was found in gardens and parks where cultivation was maintained to a depth 60-130 cm. It is concluded that with proper agronomic measures these soils can be made to support trees, shrubs, flowers, and grasses.

  2. Analysis of the mitigation and adaptation strategies of the transport industry in the city of Mexicali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argelia Melero Hernández

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop an analysis of mitigation and adaptation strategies in the transport sector in the city of Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. Based on the methodology of the Programs of Action on Climate Change (PACC, we analyzed the Mexicali emissions inventory and generated a diagnosis. Once we analyzed the current situation, we studied mitigation strategies such as Bus Rapid Transit (BRT, the smog check, new importation legislation for used cars, biofuel production, the promotion of lower–emission vehicles and urban planning. On adaptation strategies vehicle recycling and the use of non–motorized transport were studied as an alternative of sustainable mobility.

  3. Source impacts by volatile organic compounds in an industrial city of southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pao-Wen Grace; Yao, Yung-Chen; Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Hsu, Yi-Chyun; Chang, Li-Peng; Chang, Ken-Hui

    2008-07-15

    This study investigates source impacts by airborne volatile organic compounds (VOC) at two sites designated for traffic and industry, in the largest industrial area Kaohsiung, southern Taiwan. The samples were collected at the two sites simultaneously during rush and non-rush hours in summer and autumn seasons. Same pattern of VOC groups were found at both sites: most abundant aromatics (78-95%) followed by alkanes (2-16%) and alkenes (0-6%). The BTEX concentration measured at the two sites ranged from 69 to 301 ppbC. Toluene, isopentane, ethylbenzene, and benzene were found to be the most abundant species. Speciation of VOCs was characterized with several skills including principal component factor analysis and BTEX characteristic ratios. Each of the resulted principal factors at the two sites explained over 80% of the VOCs data variance, and indicated that both of the sampling sites were influenced by both traffic and industrial sources with separately different levels. The remarkable patterns of the first two factors described not only the similarity but also the discrepancy at the two sampling sites, in terms of the source impacts. The high T/B ratios (7.56-14.25) observed at the industrial site implied the important impact from mobile emissions. The indicators, m,p-xylene/benzene and o-xylene/benzene, also confirmed the potential source of motor vehicles at both of the sampling sites. Air age assessment showed that more than half of the total observations located in the domain of fresh air. Low X/E ratios implied somewhat aged air mass transported to the sampling sites. The industrial site might not only encounter emissions from the industry sources, but also under unavoidable impact from the traffic sources.

  4. Key Lake Mining Corporation metallurgical complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lendrum, F.C.

    1984-02-01

    The Key Lake uranium mine is located in Saskatchewan, 550 km northeast of Saskatoon. It began operations in 1983, and is licensed and regulated by both Saskatchewan government agencies and the Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board. This report examines the metallurgical processes used at the mill and discusses the spills that occurred in the first four months the mine was in operation. It finds that all spills of an acidic nature in the mill were small amounts in the CCD or solution pretreatment sections. Contingency procedures are in place and sumps are capable of handling spills. The only major change in design contemplated will be converting the secondary crushing from the use of an impact crusher to the use of a semi-autogeneous grinding mill. The monitoring program set out by the AECB and Saskatchewan Environment is thorough. It monitors effluents and water pathways, and includes aquatic biota and sediments. Air monitoring is also required by Saskatchewan Environment

  5. Life and Death in the City: Demography and Living Standards during Stockholm's Industrialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molitoris, Joseph John

    2015-01-01

    ’s intergenerational social mobility, and infant and child mortality during Stockholm’s industrialization and fertility transition. The results of this work challenge many existing explanations of the fertility decline and reveal how, despite overall improvements in living standards, elite socioeconomic groups were......This dissertation uses longitudinal micro-data from Stockholm between 1878 and 1926 to study the causes and consequences of the fertility transition and to examine the development of living standards inequality during industrialization. Although both processes have received much interest from...... able to continually leverage their superior resources to maintain significantly lower levels of infant and child mortality....

  6. [Assessment of the quality of drinking water in the industrial city and risk for public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konshina, L G; Lezhnin, V L

    2014-01-01

    Karabash city sprang up around the copper plant that uses local copper ore, which was composed of zinc, sulfur, barium, beryllium, arsenic, manganese, lead, antimony, chromium, cadmium, gallium, indium, scandium, thallium, germanium, osmium, and others. Centralized water supply for the city is organized from the lake Serebry and the flowage on the river B. Kialim. Part of the population uses water wells, voids and springs. In Serebry Lake and drinking groundwater there were found significant concentrations of nitrates, manganese, arsenic, cadmium, iron, lead barium, nickel, mercury and zinc. There are most exposed to toxic hazards from drinking water persons using water from Serebry aqueduct (hazard index for--children/ adults 2.75/1.1, respectively) and decentralized water supply sources (hazard index for children/adults--2.35/1.0). Maximal hazard coefficients were calculated for nitrates, arsenic and antimony. Among the systems mostly exposed to toxic effects are digestive, cardiovascular endocrine, nervous system and skin. Carcinogenic risk is caused by arsenic compounds, hexavalent chromium, and dichloroethane. Carcinogenic risk from water sources of decentralized water supply is 9,6 E-05, for water from Kialim reservoir--7,3 E-05. Maximum carcinogenic risk is associated with the water from the Serebry aqueduct, the risk reaches 2,17 E-04 and is characterized as unacceptable.

  7. Effect of metallurgical variables on void swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, W.G.; Lauritzen, T.; Rosolowski, J.H.; Turkalo, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    The mechanism of void swelling is reviewed briefly and the anticipated effects of metallurgical variables are described. Experimental results showing the effects of metallurgical variables are reviewed, most of the work being done by simulation methods employing charged particle bombardments to simulate reactor damage. Although the early emphasis was on structural variables such as grain size, cold work and precipitates to control swelling, it now seems that the practical reduction of swelling will be achieved by modifying alloy composition. Void swelling is strongly influenced by the relative amounts of Fe, Cr, and Ni in an alloy; the amount of swelling can be varied by three orders of magnitude by changing the relative amounts of the three elements in an austenitic ternary alloy. The effect of composition on swelling of a simple ferritic alloy will also be described. The swelling of a simple austenitic alloy of Fe, Cr, and Ni can be reduced by certain minor element additions. The most effective swelling inhibitors are Si, Ti, Zr, and Nb, and combinations of Si and Ti are synergetic. Swelling reductions of two orders of magnitude have been achieved with combined additions. Predictions of swelling in commercial solid solution alloys are made on the basis of the present knowledge of the effects of major composition and minor element additions. The predictions agree with experimental results. For more complex commercial alloys, predictions are made for the effects on swelling of heat treatments that cause changes in matrix composition. In some cases, heat treatment is expected to change the peak swelling by more than a factor of ten, and to shift the peak swelling temperature by almost 100 0 C. Sensitivity of swelling to detailed matrix composition places emphasis on the need for developing understanding of the stability of structure and local composition in an irradiation environment

  8. MODERNISATION OF THE ENTERPRISE AS AN INSTRUMENT FOR CONTROL OF ECOLOGICAL-HYGIENIC RISKS OF THE INDUSTRIAL CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knyazev Dmitriy Konstantinovich

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject: ecological justification of modernization of the enterprise within the framework of formation/development of conditions for sustainable development of industrial city. Research objectives: selection of a complex of the technical and organizational decisions that allow us to reach target (permissible limits of dispersion of harmful emissions, thereby, having minimized the risks of damage to the environment and health of the population. Materials and methods: as primary materials, we used forms of the state statistical reporting “2tp-air”, volumes of maximum permissible emissions of the enterprise-the model site, data about technical and organizational decisions to reduce emissions to the atmosphere. The main methods of the research: geoinformation modeling, functional zoning, the structural analysis. Results: we simulated dispersion of priority pollutant of the leading source of construction dust emissions in the region, and we classified, by the degree of ecological and hygienic risk, the territory of the model site - town of Mikhaylovka. The activities to reduce the range of dispersion of harmful emissions are selected in the form of modernization of technological processes, installation of dust filters, improvement of the ventilation system, carrying out other organizational and technical activities to prevent the spread of dust on the territory of the enterprise and beyond. The environment protection effect of the activities proposed for realization is estimated. Proposals for further development of the analyzed industrial city are formulated. Conclusions: 1. The proposed solutions on modernization of the enterprise allow us to reduce the range of dust dispersion in concentrations that are more than maximum permissible concentration (MPC by 2.6 times (bringing them to the required limits; 2. The population living under the influence of dust in concentration of 0.5-1 MPC, for which there is a risk of long-term health effects, will

  9. Industrial wastes of the cities of Baku and Sumgait and their effect on green plantings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirov, R O; Ismaylov, A R

    1969-01-01

    Baku and Sumgait had large oil production and chemical industries. Investigations showed that injury in green planting depended essentially on the nature of the waste products. Air polluted with SO/sub 2/, chlorine, and fluorine compounds produced dark brown bumps on the leaves. As the distance from the industries increased, the frequency and the intensity of the injuries decreased. Some of the ornamental species were beter adjusted and had a greater resistance. The establishment and development of green plantings were important for combating air pollution and for the sanitary well-being of the industrial area. Plans of landscaping of industrial enterprises included green plantings directly on the territory of the enterprises as well as in areas surrounding them in a radius of 150-500 m. Green shelter belts were needed for protection of the strong northern winds. The selection of plants was made considering their gas resistance, their drought resistance, as well as the plants' ability to grow in solonchak-solonets, clayey, and clayey loam soils characteristic for the Apsheron Peninsula. Trees and bushes were planted by the trench method. Irrigation with waste water was avoided.

  10. Trace elements analysis of crops and vegetables grown around industrial areas of Faisalabad and Gujranwala cities using INAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husaini, S.N.; Zaidi, J.H.; Matiullah; Akram, M.; Subhan, K.

    2010-01-01

    Industrial effluents pollution is a source of risk to the health of people living in industrial cities of Pakistan. Most of the untreated effluents are discharged to the nearby agricultural fields that pollutes the vegetation grown in such soil. A majority of the industries are not equipped with suitable recycling and effluent treatment plants. Consequently, toxic metals enter our food chain and results in significant health risks and serious diseases. In order to evaluate the concentration of toxic metals (namely As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb and Se), in crops and vegetable samples collected from the irrigated areas of Faisalabad and Gujranwala regions. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) and atomic absorption spectrometric (AAS) techniques have been used. All the observed metal concentrations were higher than the reported literature values. Moreover, the highest values of toxic metals of As (0.44 +- .03 mu g/g) and Co (0.5 +- 0.01 mu g/g), Mn (45.3 +- 2.0 mu g/g) and Sb (0.1 +- 0.01 mu g/g), Se (1.28 +- 0.06 mug/g) and Pb (3.84 +- 0.27 mu g/g) were found in tomato, bitter gourd and rice samples respectively. (author)

  11. Stormwater Runoff Pollutant Loading Distributions and Their Correlation with Rainfall and Catchment Characteristics in a Rapidly Industrialized City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongya; Wan, Jinquan; Ma, Yongwen; Wang, Yan; Huang, Mingzhi; Chen, Yangmei

    2015-01-01

    Fast urbanization and industrialization in developing countries result in significant stormwater runoff pollution, due to drastic changes in land-use, from rural to urban. A three-year study on the stormwater runoff pollutant loading distributions of industrial, parking lot and mixed commercial and residential catchments was conducted in the Tongsha reservoir watershed of Dongguan city, a typical, rapidly industrialized urban area in China. This study presents the changes in concentration during rainfall events, event mean concentrations (EMCs) and event pollution loads per unit area (EPLs). The first flush criterion, namely the mass first flush ratio (MFFn), was used to identify the first flush effects. The impacts of rainfall and catchment characterization on EMCs and pollutant loads percentage transported by the first 40% of runoff volume (FF40) were evaluated. The results indicated that the pollutant wash-off process of runoff during the rainfall events has significant temporal and spatial variations. The mean rainfall intensity (I), the impervious rate (IMR) and max 5-min intensity (Imax5) are the critical parameters of EMCs, while Imax5, antecedent dry days (ADD) and rainfall depth (RD) are the critical parameters of FF40. Intercepting the first 40% of runoff volume can remove 55% of TSS load, 53% of COD load, 58% of TN load, and 61% of TP load, respectively, according to all the storm events. These results may be helpful in mitigating stormwater runoff pollution for many other urban areas in developing countries. PMID:25774922

  12. Stormwater runoff pollutant loading distributions and their correlation with rainfall and catchment characteristics in a rapidly industrialized city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongya; Wan, Jinquan; Ma, Yongwen; Wang, Yan; Huang, Mingzhi; Chen, Yangmei

    2015-01-01

    Fast urbanization and industrialization in developing countries result in significant stormwater runoff pollution, due to drastic changes in land-use, from rural to urban. A three-year study on the stormwater runoff pollutant loading distributions of industrial, parking lot and mixed commercial and residential catchments was conducted in the Tongsha reservoir watershed of Dongguan city, a typical, rapidly industrialized urban area in China. This study presents the changes in concentration during rainfall events, event mean concentrations (EMCs) and event pollution loads per unit area (EPLs). The first flush criterion, namely the mass first flush ratio (MFFn), was used to identify the first flush effects. The impacts of rainfall and catchment characterization on EMCs and pollutant loads percentage transported by the first 40% of runoff volume (FF40) were evaluated. The results indicated that the pollutant wash-off process of runoff during the rainfall events has significant temporal and spatial variations. The mean rainfall intensity (I), the impervious rate (IMR) and max 5-min intensity (Imax5) are the critical parameters of EMCs, while Imax5, antecedent dry days (ADD) and rainfall depth (RD) are the critical parameters of FF40. Intercepting the first 40% of runoff volume can remove 55% of TSS load, 53% of COD load, 58% of TN load, and 61% of TP load, respectively, according to all the storm events. These results may be helpful in mitigating stormwater runoff pollution for many other urban areas in developing countries.

  13. IMPACT OF LEATHER PROCESSING INDUSTRIES ON CHROMIUM CONCENTRATION IN GROUNDWATER SOUTH OF CHENNAI CITY, INDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, L.; Brindha, K.; G. Rajesh, V.

    2009-12-01

    The groundwater quality is under threat due to disposal of effluents from a number of industries. Poor practice of treatment of wastes from tanning industries or leather processing industries lead to pollution of groundwater. This study was carried out with the objective of assessing the impact of tanneries on groundwater quality in Chromepet area which is a part of the metropolitan area of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. This area serves as the home town for a number of small and large scale tanning industries. People in certain parts of this area depend on the groundwater for their domestic needs as there is no piped drinking water supply system. Topographically this region is generally flat with gentle slope towards east and north east. The charnockite rocks occur as basement at the depth of about 15m from the surface of this area. Weathered charnockite rock occurs at the depth from 7m to 15m from the ground surface. The upper layer consists of loamy soil. Groundwater occurs in the unconfined condition at a depth from 0.5m to 5m. Thirty six groundwater samples were collected during March 2008 and the groundwater samples were analysed for their heavy metal (chromium) content using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) recommended the maximum permissible limit of chromium in drinking water as 0.05 mg/l. Considering this, it was found that 86% of the groundwater samples possessed concentration of chromium above the maximum permissible limit recommended by BIS. The tanneries use chrome sulphate to strengthen the leather and make it water repellent. The excess of chromium gets washed off and remains in the wastewater. This wastewater is disposed into open uncovered drains either untreated or after partial treatment. Thus the chromium leaches through the soil and reaches the groundwater table. Apart from this, there is also huge quantity of solid waste resulting from the hides and skins which are dumped off without suitable treatment. The

  14. Testing techniques in nuclear, petroleum and metallurgic industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The nondestructive testing techniques by ultrasonic waves, eddy currents, acoustic emission used by Intercontrole (a CEA's affiliated firm in nuclear petrochemical, and engineering site measurements) are presented [fr

  15. Radiation protection in uranium mining and metallurgical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Yingjie.

    1988-01-01

    The main radioactive contaminants in uranium mines are radon and its daughters, while in uranium plants the dust produced in crushing operation is the main source of contamination. In this paper the radiation protection levels and the problems present in China's uranium mines and plants are described and analyzed. 15 protective measures are presented by the auther. The main measurements are: to increase mechanization and automation levels in technology, to reduce the direct contact of man's body with radioactive materials, to strongthen the ventilation for removing radon, to establish a complete ventilation system, and so on

  16. Influence of physical culture and sports on health status of pupils of industrial city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapranov S.V.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to study in the city with large enterprises of ferrous metallurgy and coke health of schoolchildren under the influence of physical education and sports. The research of blood pressure and heart rate (HR were 295 pupils aged 15-17 years, 390 - anthropometric study of body length, body weight, chest circumference and head, while the 584 teenagers - the prevalence of dental caries. HR assessment is made by comparing with the age norms, and indicators of physical development of pupils - centile method. It is shown that under the influence of employment morning gymnastics school students marked normalization of their heart rate. Waiver of physical exercise leads to a decrease in students in body length and circumference of the chest. Classes in morning exercises and sports are the factors antirisk caries among high school students. Proposed preventive recommendations.

  17. Primary sources of PM2.5 organic aerosol in an industrial Mediterranean city, Marseille

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haddad, I.; Marchand, N.; Wortham, H.; Piot, C.; Besombes, J.-L.; Cozic, J.; Chauvel, C.; Armengaud, A.; Robin, D.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.

    2011-03-01

    Marseille, the most important port of the Mediterranean Sea, represents a challenging case study for source apportionment exercises, combining an active photochemistry and multiple emission sources, including fugitive emissions from industrial sources and shipping. This paper presents a Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) approach based on organic markers and metals to apportion the primary sources of organic aerosol in Marseille, with a special focus on industrial emissions. Overall, the CMB model accounts for the major primary anthropogenic sources including motor vehicles, biomass burning and the aggregate emissions from three industrial processes (heavy fuel oil combustion/shipping, coke production and steel manufacturing) as well as some primary biogenic emissions. This source apportionment exercise is well corroborated by 14C measurements. Primary OC estimated by the CMB accounts on average for 22% of total OC and is dominated by the vehicular emissions that contribute on average for 17% of OC mass concentration (vehicular PM contributes for 17% of PM2.5). Even though industrial emissions contribute only 2.3% of the total OC (7% of PM2.5), they are associated with ultrafine particles (Dpheavy metals such as Pb, Ni and V. On one hand, given that industrial emissions governed key primary markers, their omission would lead to substantial uncertainties in the CMB analysis performed in areas heavily impacted by such sources, hindering accurate estimation of non-industrial primary sources and secondary sources. On the other hand, being associated with bursts of submicron particles and carcinogenic and mutagenic components such as PAH, these emissions are most likely related with acute ill-health outcomes and should be regulated despite their small contributions to OC. Another important result is the fact that 78% of OC mass cannot be attributed to the major primary sources and, thus, remains un-apportioned. We have consequently critically investigated the uncertainties

  18. The organs of male reproductive system and correction of disorders in a large industrial city (Zaporozhye and Zaporozhye region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Nikiforov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of male reproductive health is relevant, because it is one of the leading causes of the demographic crisis and depopulation of the Ukrainian nation. The article highlights the problems of male infertility, in particular, the question regarding the reasons of the decline in men reproductive potential under the influence of adverse conditions of the industrial city. Aim. The purpose is to study the factors of male infertility in Zaporozhye and Zaporozhye region, the relationship between the area of residence and occupational status. Methods and results. The analysis of ejaculate indicators in men, living in ecologically unfavorable areas and regularities that reflect the pathogenetic mechanisms of occurrence and development of violations of gametogenesis and the functional inferiority of the sex cells have been studied. Conclusion. This shows the increasing trend of male factor infertility, which is from 40% to 60%, and the demographic losses in Ukraine.

  19. A study on evaluation of public dose for hypothetical exposure from industrial sources in major Indian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekaran, S.; Sivasubramanian, K.; Venkatraman, B.

    2016-01-01

    With expanding industrial establishments in India, the requirements for quality Assurance (QA) have become stringent at every stages of process including selection of raw material, manufacturing process and packing and transport. Radiography, a non-destructive method is widely employed for QA testing. Inadvertent handling or loss of these sources may result in exposure of public/workers to higher levels of ionizing radiation. A well planned emergency preparedness is essential to manage any such untoward incidents. Dose estimation to members of public involved is the major challenge as the time available is very short and eases of availability/labs surrounding the location. This paper determines the dose up to 30m distance as prescribed in AERB safety guidelines and using the population data of four major metropolitan cities in India, public dose is also estimated

  20. Management approaches to integrated solid waste in industrialized zones in Jordan: a case of Zarqa City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrayyan, Bassam; Hamdi, Moshrik R

    2006-01-01

    There is a need to recognize the difficulties experienced in managing waste and to understand the reasons for those difficulties, especially in developing countries such as Jordan. Zarqa is a Governorate located in central Jordan, which has 2874 registered industries, making up more than 52% of the total industries in the country. Zarqa Governorate suffers from serious solid waste problems. These problems arise from an absence of adequate policies, facilitating legislation, and an environmentally enthused public, which therefore have a negative impact on the environment and health. Solid waste generation in Zarqa Governorate has increased exponentially and has polluted natural resources and the environment. A significant change in municipal solid waste generation was evident between the years 1994 and 2000. The Zarqa Governorate generated 482 tons/day in 2002 with a per capita rate of 0.44 kg/cap-day [Consulting Engineers, 2002, Feasibility study for the treatment of industrial wastewater in Zarqa Governorate. A project funded by METAP and Zarqa Chamber of Industry. Unpublished report]. This manuscript assesses the current operational and management practices of solid waste in the Zarqa Governorate; and evaluates the associated issues of solid waste collection, storage, transport, disposal and recycling in developing countries. The lack of techniques, financial funds and awareness among public and private sectors form an obstacle for achieving a successful environmental program. Several options are proposed to address management goals. Although Jordan became the first country in the Middle East to adopt a national environmental strategy; waste disposal is still largely uncontrolled and large quantities of waste go uncollected. Ensuring proper management of solid wastes, enforcing regulations, and implementing proper environmental awareness programs that will enhance the public understanding and achieve greater efficiency, are the findings of this study.

  1. Measuring Service Quality in the Hospitality Industry: A Case Study in Hue City, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Ngoc Liem; Inaba, Yushi

    2015-01-01

    This research is a study on service quality in the hospitality industry in the context of a developing country. The key purposes of this study are twofold. First, it examines the conceptualization and measurement of service quality in the hotel setting. Second, the relationships between service quality, customer satisfaction, and repurchase intention are taken into considerations. The findings from this study confirm that there are three determinants affecting statistically on service quality...

  2. Management approaches to integrated solid waste in industrialized zones in Jordan: A case of Zarqa City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrayyan, Bassam; Hamdi, Moshrik R.

    2006-01-01

    There is a need to recognize the difficulties experienced in managing waste and to understand the reasons for those difficulties, especially in developing countries such as Jordan. Zarqa is a Governorate located in central Jordan, which has 2874 registered industries, making up more than 52% of the total industries in the country. Zarqa Governorate suffers from serious solid waste problems. These problems arise from an absence of adequate policies, facilitating legislation, and an environmentally enthused public, which therefore have a negative impact on the environment and health. Solid waste generation in Zarqa Governorate has increased exponentially and has polluted natural resources and the environment. A significant change in municipal solid waste generation was evident between the years 1994 and 2000. The Zarqa Governorate generated 482 tons/day in 2002 with a per capita rate of 0.44 kg/cap-day [Consulting Engineers, 2002, Feasibility study for the treatment of industrial wastewater in Zarqa Governorate. A project funded by METAP and Zarqa Chamber of Industry. Unpublished report]. This manuscript assesses the current operational and management practices of solid waste in the Zarqa Governorate; and evaluates the associated issues of solid waste collection, storage, transport, disposal and recycling in developing countries. The lack of techniques, financial funds and awareness among public and private sectors form an obstacle for achieving a successful environmental program. Several options are proposed to address management goals. Although Jordan became the first country in the Middle East to adopt a national environmental strategy; waste disposal is still largely uncontrolled and large quantities of waste go uncollected. Ensuring proper management of solid wastes, enforcing regulations, and implementing proper environmental awareness programs that will enhance the public understanding and achieve greater efficiency, are the findings of this study

  3. INAA for the characterization of airborne particulate matter from the industrial area of Islamabad city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasim, M.; Rahman, A.; Waheed, S.; Daud, M.; Ahmad, S.

    2003-01-01

    Air particulate matter (PM) was collected in two size fractions using stacked filter units (SFUs) provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) from the industrial area of Islamabad. Nucleopore polycarbonate filters were used for collecting from Oct 98 to Jun 99 the particulate matter in coarse and fine size fractions. The samples were characterized by the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). About 33 elements were quantified using different irradiation and counting protocols. (author)

  4. Waste-heat recovery potential in Turkish textile industry. Case study for city of Bursa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulat, E.; Etemoglu, A.B.; Can, M. [Uludag University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Mechanical Engineering Department, Gorukle, TR-16059, Bursa (Turkey)

    2009-04-15

    Textile sector of Turkey has a large production capacity and it is one of the important sectors. Many industrial heating processes generate waste energy in textile industry. Therefore, there is a tremendous waste-heat potential to utilize in textile applications. This study assesses the potential of waste-heat obtained from particularly dyeing process at textile industry in Bursa where textile center of Turkey. Energy consumptions could be decreased by using of waste-heat recovery systems (WHRSs). A thermodynamic analysis is performed in this study. An exergy-based approach is performed for optimizing the effective working conditions for WHRSs with water-to-water shell and tube heat exchanger. The payback period is found to be less than 6 months. The variations of the parameters which affect the system performance such as waste-water inlet temperature, mass flow rate, cooling water inlet pressure and dead state conditions are examined respectively. The results of the analysis show that the exergy destruction rate and economical profit increase with increasing of mass flow rate of the waste water. Similarly, exergy destruction rate, effectiveness and economical profit increase while the second law efficiency decreases as the waste-water inlet temperature increases. (author)

  5. The two faces of coal : uncertainty the common prospect for metallurgical and thermal coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlotnikov, D.

    2010-01-01

    Although the methods of producing thermal and metallurgical coal are the same, metallurgical coal is destined to cross the world for steel manufacturing and thermal coal is destined for power plants close to where it was mined. This article discussed the factors influencing the price of these 2 coals. The production of thermal coal can remain steady during an economic crisis because coal-fired power plants generally provide low-cost-base-load electricity that remains stable during economic cycles. However, the demand for metallurgical coal is more volatile during an economic crisis because it is directly related to the demand for steel products in the construction and automotive industry, which are very sensitive to the state of the economy. There have been recent indications that Canada's export market for thermal coal is on the rise. In 2008, China became a net importer of coking coal. China's need for more coal to fuel its growing economy despite the global economic slowdown has meant that producers are diverting excess supply from European markets to China. Higher-end thermal coal offers low sulphur content and higher energy content, both desirable traits for power utilities facing strict emissions control. In addition to having huge reserves of very high-quality coal that is becoming increasingly important to China, Canada has the advantage of having the available transportation capacity in its west coast terminals and on its rail network. 3 figs.

  6. Spatial distribution of the ground beatles populations in industrial cities (on the example of Nikopol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Bolgarin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of abiotic factors on species of Amara, Ophonus, Harpalus in the urban environment has been studied. The features of the ground beetles distribution in the districts of Nikopol have been analysed. The influence of roadway on the vital fuctions of ground beetles has been cleared up. Quantitative data of Amara, Ophonus, Harpalus numbers in the town of Nikopol have been discussed. The advantage of natural factors over anthropogenic ones for the existence of soil mesofauna in industrial town has been established.

  7. Evaluation of total suspended particulate matter in some urban and industrial cities of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadir, M.A.; Iqbal, M.Z.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental studies are very important as the living beings depend greatly on the conditions of the environment. Air is an important component of the environment, which greatly affects the health of humans, animals and plants. Environmental problems in Pakistan are growing with the rise in total sectorial growth in population, economy and industrialization. In connection with atmospheric pollution, measurement of the total suspended particulate matter (TSP) in the urban atmosphere of Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Wah Cantt. and Khanispur (background area) has been carried out and compared to that of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Standards. (author)

  8. Dust pollution of snow cover in the industrial areas of Tomsk city (Western Siberia, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talovskaya, A. V.; Filimonenko, E. A.; Osipova, N. A.; Yazikov, E. G.; Nadeina, L. V.

    2016-03-01

    This article describes the results of long-term monitoring (2007-2014) of snow cover pollution in the territory of Tomsk city. Snow samples were collected in the territory of Tomsk. Determination of dust load level was carried out by comparing with the background and reference values. It has been determined that the north-east and central parts of Tomsk are the most contaminated areas, where brickworks, coal and gas-fired thermal power plant are located. The analysis of long-term dynamics showed a dust load decrease in the vicinity of coal and gas-fired thermal power plant due to upgrading of the existing dust collecting systems. During the monitoring period the high dust load in the vicinity of brickworks did not change. The lowest value of the dust load on snow cover was detected in the vicinity of the petrochemical plant and concrete product plants. The near and far zones of dust load on snow cover were determined with the reference to the location of the studied plants.

  9. Assessment of heavy metal pollution and human health risk in urban soils of steel industrial city (Anshan), Liaoning, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Xiao; Yutong, Zong; Shenggao, Lu

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations and health risk of heavy metals in urban soils from a steel industrial district in China. A total of 115 topsoil samples from Anshan city, Liaoning, Northeast China were collected and analyzed for Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo), pollution index (PI), and potential ecological risk index (PER) were calculated to assess the pollution level in soils. The hazard index (HI) and carcinogenic risk (RI) were used to assess human health risk of heavy metals. The average concentration of Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni were 69.9, 0.86, 45.1, 213, 52.3, and 33.5mg/kg, respectively. The Igeo and PI values of heavy metals were in the descending order of Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb>Ni>Cr. Higher Igeo value for Cd in soil indicated that Cd pollution was moderate. Pollution index indicated that urban soils were moderate to highly polluted by Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb. The spatial distribution maps of heavy metals revealed that steel industrial district was the contamination hotspots. Principal component analysis (PCA) and matrix cluster analysis classified heavy metals into two groups, indicating common industrial sources for Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd. Matrix cluster analysis classified the sampling sites into four groups. Sampling sites within steel industrial district showed much higher concentrations of heavy metals compared to the rest of sampling sites, indicating significant contamination introduced by steel industry on soils. The health risk assessment indicated that non-carcinogenic values were below the threshold values. The hazard index (HI) for children and adult has a descending order of Cr>Pb>Cd>Cu>Ni>Zn. Carcinogenic risks due to Cr, Cd, and Ni in urban soils were within acceptable range for adult. Carcinogenic risk value of Cr for children is slightly higher than the threshold value, indicating that children are facing slight threat of Cr. These results provide basic information of heavy metal pollution control

  10. Numerical computation of fluid flow in different nonferrous metallurgical reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackner, A.

    1996-10-01

    Heat, mass and fluid flow phenomena in metallurgical reactor systems such as smelting cyclones or electrolytic cells are complex and intricately linked through the governing equations of fluid flow, chemical reaction kinetics and chemical thermodynamics. The challenges for the representation of flow phenomena in such reactors as well as the transfers of these concepts to non-specialist modelers (e.g. plant operators and management personnel) can be met through scientific flow visualization techniques. In the first example the fluid flow of the gas phase and of concentrate particles in a smelting cyclone for copper production are calculated three dimensionally. The effect of design parameters (length and diameter of reactor, concentrate feeding tangentially or from the top, ..) and operating conditions are investigated. Single particle traces show, how to increase particle retention time before the particles reach the liquid film flowing down the cyclone wall. Cyclone separators are widely used in the metallurgical and chemical industry for collection of large quantities of dust. Most of the empirical models, which today are applied for the design, are lacking in being valid in the high temperature region. Therefore the numerical prediction of the collection efficiency of dust particles is done. The particle behavior close to the wall is considered by applying a particle restitution model, which calculates individual particle restitution coefficients as functions of impact velocity and impact angle. The effect of design parameters and operating are studied. Moreover, the fluid flow inside a copper refining electrolysis cell is modeled. The simulation is based on density variations in the boundary layer at the electrode surface. Density and thickness of the boundary layer are compared to measurements in a parametric study. The actual inhibitor concentration in the cell is calculated, too. Moreover, a two-phase flow approach is developed to simulate the behavior of

  11. Magnetic spherules from the soils near the slag dump of the Nizhniy Tagil metallurgical plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Makarov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic spherules, which are widespread in soils, can have different origins, but spherules with cosmic origin are the most studied. At that, functioning of numerous industrial enterprises of metallurgical profile, thermal power stations, and motor transport can be their origin. According to the data of previous researchers, spherical magnetic particles in soils can serve as an indicator for quantitative assessment of erosion-accumulative phenomena. The authors studied magnetic spherules, isolated from soil samples taken near the dump of blast furnace and metallurgical slags of a large Nizhny Tagil metallurgical plant located on the left bank of the Olkhovka river, functioning since 1949. The way the dump forms is by draining slag along the slope. Consequently, adjacent territories are exposed to a significant dust load, associated with increased concentrations of a number of heavy metals: chromium, iron, manganese, vanadium, copper and zinc. The study of magnetic spherules performed for samples of soils taken at a distance of 50 and 100 m to the west of the dump showed that the content of magnetic fraction in them was 15.1 and 11.7% respectively, of the mineral part of the samples. The authors studied magnetic spherules on a scanning microscope JEOL JSM 6390LV, an at that provide their morphology and the chemical composition of magnetic spherules (18 analyzes and aggregates on their surface (5 analyzes. Based on the presence of characteristic impurity elements, there are the following varieties: zinc, manganese, vanadium, determined by the peculiarities of metallurgical processes. Low concentrations of spherules in soils do not allow considering them as a significant source of pollution of natural environment, only a slight increase in the content of heavy metals characteristic for them is possible.

  12. Smart City project

    KAUST Repository

    Al Harbi, Ayman

    2018-01-24

    A \\'smart city\\' is an urban region that is highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure, sustainable real estate, communications and market viability. It is a city where information technology is the principal infrastructure and the basis for providing essential services to residents. Yanbu Industrial City- Smart City Project - First large scale smart city in The kingdom.

  13. Impact of Atmospheric Microparticles on the Development of Oxidative Stress in Healthy City/Industrial Seaport Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Golokhvast

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric microsized particles producing reactive oxygen species can pose a serious health risk for city residents. We studied the responses of organisms to microparticles in 255 healthy volunteers living in areas with different levels of microparticle air pollution. We analyzed the distribution of microparticles in snow samples by size and content. ELISA and flow cytometry methods were employed to determine the parameters of the thiol-disulfide metabolism, peroxidation and antioxidant, genotoxicity, and energy state of the leukocytes. We found that, in the park areas, microparticles with a size of 800 μm or more were predominant (96%, while in the industrial areas, they tended to be less than 50 μm (93%, including size 200–300 nm (7%. In the industrial areas, we determined the oxidative modification of proteins (21% compared to the park areas, p≤0.05 and DNA (12%, p≤0.05, as well as changes in leukocytes’ energy potential (53%, p≤0.05. An increase in total antioxidant activity (82%, p≤0.01 and thiol-disulfide system response (thioredoxin increasing by 33%, p≤0.01; glutathione, 30%, p≤0.01 with stable reductases levels maintains a balance of peroxidation-antioxidant processes, protecting cellular and subcellular structures from significant oxidative damage.

  14. Typical winter haze pollution in Zibo, an industrial city in China: Characteristics, secondary formation, and regional contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Ma, Yongliang; Duan, Fengkui; He, Kebin; Zhu, Lidan; Huang, Tao; Kimoto, Takashi; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Ma, Tao; Xu, Lili; Xu, Beiyao; Yang, Shuo; Ye, Siqi; Sun, Zhenli; An, Jiutao; Zhang, Zhaolu

    2017-10-01

    Heavy haze pollution occurs frequently in northern China, most critically in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area (BTH). Zibo, an industrial city located in Shandong province, is often listed as one of the top ten most polluted cities in China, particularly in winter. However, no studies of haze in Zibo have been conducted, which limits the understanding of the source and formation of haze pollution in this area, as well as mutual effects with the BTH area. We carried out online and continuous integrated field observation of particulate matter in winter, from 11 to 25 January 2015. SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , and NH 4 + (SIA) and organics were the main constituents of PM 2.5 , contributing 59.4% and 33.6%, respectively. With the increasing severity of pollution, the contribution of SIA increased while that of organics decreased. Meteorological conditions play an important role in haze formation; high relative humidity (RH) and low wind speed increased both the accumulation of pollutants and the secondary transition from gas precursors (gas-particle phase partitioning). Since RH and the presence of O 3 can indicate heterogeneous and photochemistry processes, respectively, we carried out correlation analysis and linear regression to identify their relative importance to the three main secondary species (sulfate, nitrate, and secondary organic carbon (SOC)). We found that the impact of RH is in the order of SO 4 2-  > NO 3 -  > SOC, while the impact of O 3 is reversed, in the order of SOC > NO 3 -  > SO 4 2- , indicating different effect of these factors on the secondary formation of main species in winter. Cluster analysis of backward trajectories showed that, during the observation period, six directional sources of air masses were identified, and more than 90% came from highly industrialized areas, indicating that regional transport from industrialized areas aggravates the haze pollution in Zibo. Inter-regional joint prevention and control is necessary to prevent further

  15. Characterization of Aerosols Containing Zn, Pb, and Cl from an Industrial Region of Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffet, Ryan C.; Desyaterik, Yury; Hopkins, Rebecca J.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Gilles, Marry K.; Wang, Yan A.; Shutthanandan, V.; Molina, Luisa T.; Abraham, Rodrigo G.; Johnson, Kirsten S.; Mugica, Violeta; Molina, Mario J.; Laskin, Alexander; Prather, Kimberly A.

    2008-01-01

    During the March, 2006 MILAGRO campaign, measurements in the Northern Mexico City Metropolitan Area revealed the frequent appearance of particles with a characteristically high content of internally mixed Zn, Pb, Cl, and P. A comprehensive study of the chemical and physical properties of these particles was performed using a complementary combination of aerosol measurement techniques. Individual particles were analyzed using Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (ATOFMS) and Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (CCSEM/EDX). Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) analysis of bulk aerosol samples provided time-resolved mass concentrations of individual elements. The PIXE measurements indicated that Zn is more strongly correlated with Cl than with any other element and that Zn concentrations are higher than other non-ferrous transition metals. The Zn- and Pb-containing particles have both spherical and non-spherical morphologies. Many metal rich particles had needle-like structures and were found to be composed of ZnO and/or Zn(NO3)2 6H2O as indicated by scanning transmission x-ray microscopy/near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). The Zn and Pb rich particles were primarily in the submicron size range and internally mixed with elemental carbon. The unique chemical associations most closely match signatures acquired for garbage incineration. This unique combination of complementary analytical techniques has allowed for a comprehensive evaluation of Zn- and Pb- containing particles in a complex urban environment, highlighting unique characteristics that give powerful insight into their origin

  16. Soft restructuring process in metallurgical enterprises in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the range and outcomes of soft restructuring in metallurgical enterprises in Poland. The term ‘soft restructuring’ applies to changes in metallurgical enterprises’ employment policy during the period of political transformation in Poland. Steelworks performance under the market economy conditions demanded introducing changes in staff resources. Changes referred both to the staff structure as well as employees’ skills and gradual engaging of the staff in building the steelworks’ competitive advantage.

  17. Identification of emission sources of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the industrial zone of the city of Novi Sad

    OpenAIRE

    Jovčić Nataša S.; Radonić Jelena R.; Turk-Sekulić Maja M.; Vojinović-Miloradov Mirjana B.; Popov Srđan B.

    2013-01-01

    Data on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air accessed at selected locations in the vicinity of the industrial zone of the city of Novi Sad, Serbia, have been presented and analyzed in order to determine seasonal and spatial variations and to identify emission sources of particle-bound PAHs. Previous studies have demonstrated that the major contributors of PAHs in urban areas are the emissions from vehicle exhaust, and emissions releases from industrial processes like a...

  18. A metallurgical study of some viking swords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Alan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available While «pattern-welded» swords have been found all over Europe from sites dating from the Migration Period and into the Early Middle Ages, they were steadily supplanted during the Viking period by swords made out of a few pieces of iron and steel, or even a single piece of steel. Swords with «Ulfberht» or related inscriptions were the most famous of these. The results of the metallurgical study of 44 specimens from «Ulfberht» swords, as well as some other Viking-age swords, together with electron microanalyses carried out on selected examples, are presented here.

    Mientras que se han encontrado en toda Europa espadas forjadas mediante el sistema de ‘pattern welding’ (entrelazado de láminas formando patrones visibles, procedentes de yacimientos que se extienden desde el Periodo de las Migraciones bárbaras hasta la Alta Edad Media, durante el periodo vikingo fueron habitualmente reemplazadas por espadas forjadas a partir de unas pocas piezas de hierro y acero, o incluso de una única pieza de acero. Las más famosas de entre ellas fueron las espadas con la inscripción «Ulfbehrt» u otras relacionadas. Este artículo presenta los resultados del estudio metalúrgico de 44 ejemplares de espadas de «Ulfberht» y otras de época vikinga, así como los microanálisis efectuados sobre algunas muestras seleccionadas.

  19. Survey Situation and Factors Affect on Hearing Protection Large Industry Workers of Hamadan City in 2001-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Emami

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise induced hearing loss in adults is the most cause of sensory neural hearing loss after the presbycusis and industry workers severity affect by degenerative results of that. Three large works of Hamadan city which had more than 200 Workers were selected in this demonstrative quest . The mean of sound pressure level evaluated with sound level meter which amount to 82-95 dB. Total exposed workers with higher noise than 85 dB evaluated by pure tone audiometery and otoscopic evaluation and the means of hearing thresholds in four frequency :0.5,1,2,4 kHz balanced with previously . Method of concentration data was direct observation and questionnaire . 809 workers in local works exposed to invasive noise . 20.02% of them hadn’t any hearing protector and 79.98% had , which combinated of wax or dry cotton and fiber glass (76.20%, earplug (7.42%and earmuff(16.38%. The means of hearing thresholds workers with protector equal to 43.36 dB and without that was equal to 44.03 dB (t=0.29, Pv<0.05. Highest percentage quantity in two groups related to age –bracket 40-49 years old. Women with protection(9.43%were more than without protector(3.7% while the most percentage related to men without protector (96.3% in contrast to 90.57%.In totally highest percentage quantity of NIHL was in workers with past-working more than 15 years (67.54% with protector , 67.28%without protector. For awareness of degenerative results the noise in hearing large industry workers of Hamadan city 75% insignificant and 25% had efficient awareness . Not using of protectors by 20.2% of worker showing light awareness to degenerative results of noise on hearing system and poor educational healthing and noting difference in means of hearing loss at protected group on basis duration of using that, strikes the process of hearing conservation program is superficial.

  20. The behaviour of Pacific metallurgical coal markets: the impact of Japan's acquisition strategy on market price

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, R J [Queensland University, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Graduate School of Management, Faculty of Commerce and Economics

    1993-03-01

    This paper examines whether some elements of Japan's resource acquisition strategies might have caused price and other distortions of market behaviour in the Pacific metallurgical coal trade. The industry chosen for investigation is that of steel manufacture, and the traded resources commodity examined is coking coal, which is the primary energy input for blast furnace iron making. Regression modelling studies to determine historic acquisition value and quality relationships for US, Australian and Canadian coals sold into the Japanese coking coal market are described. Departures from normal demand response behaviour to price competitiveness are also investigated. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Production of highly porous glass-ceramics from metallurgical slag, fly ash and waste glass

    OpenAIRE

    Mangutova Bianka V.; Fidancevska Emilija M.; Milosevski Milosav I.; Bossert Joerg H.

    2004-01-01

    Glass-ceramics composites were produced based on fly-ash obtained from coal power stations, metallurgical slag from ferronickel industry and waste glass from TV monitors, windows and flasks. Using 50% waste flask glass in combination with fly ash and 20% waste glass from TV screens in combination with slag, E-modulus and bending strength values of the designed systems are increased (system based on fly ash: E-modulus from 6 to 29 GPa, and bending strength from 9 to 75 MPa). The polyurethane f...

  2. Studying the Efficiency of Industrial Dairy Farms of Saqqez and Divandarreh Cities: Using Super-Efficiency Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Mohammadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the developed world, particularly in developing countries, livestock is the most important agricultural sub-sector.Livestock of primary and secondary industries has an especial place in the national economybecause of their greatvalue of products, creating job opportunities, providing health products for consumers, increasing export income of the economy throughaccessing global markets of livestock products and finally their undeniable role in acquiring food security.The demand for milk in Iran increased due to an increase in population and the amount of milk production was also increased. The great share of increased produced milk goes to the industrial dairy farms. One of the major methods to increase the amount of milk production continually is to make its production efficient and improve economic conditions. The current study attempts to determine the efficiency and ranking of industrial dairy farms in Saqqez and Divandarreh cities using super-efficiency model. Materials and Methods: The statistical populations of the study are all active industrial dairy farms of Saqqez and Divandarreh cities which are about 19 farms. The required data for calculating the efficiency were gathered by surveying and completing questionnaires for the year 2013. In this study first, for each farm Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA method and GAMS software package were used to estimate super efficiency. Super efficiency is a form of modified DEA model in which each farm can get an efficiency greater than one. Then in order to make sure about being unbiased the obtained super-efficiency scores, the modified model of Banker and Gifford, was re-estimated and the conventional efficiency scores of farms were compared by normalizing and removing some of the scores of outlier farm based on pre-selected screens. The model has suggested conditions for which some of the estimates for dairy farms might have been contaminated with error.As a t result, it has been

  3. Characterization of leaf-level particulate matter for an industrial city using electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sgrigna, G., E-mail: gregorio.sgrigna@ibaf.cnr.it [University of Molise (UniMol), Department of Biosciences and Territory, Contrada Fonte Lappone Pesche (Italy); Institute of Agro Environmental and Forest Biology, National Research Council (IBAF–CNR), Via Marconi, 2 Porano & Via Castellino 111, Napoli (Italy); Baldacchini, C., E-mail: chiara.baldacchini@ibaf.cnr.it [Institute of Agro Environmental and Forest Biology, National Research Council (IBAF–CNR), Via Marconi, 2 Porano & Via Castellino 111, Napoli (Italy); Esposito, R., E-mail: raffaela.esposito@ibaf.cnr.it [Institute of Agro Environmental and Forest Biology, National Research Council (IBAF–CNR), Via Marconi, 2 Porano & Via Castellino 111, Napoli (Italy); Calandrelli, R., E-mail: roberto.calandrelli@ibaf.cnr.it [Institute of Agro Environmental and Forest Biology, National Research Council (IBAF–CNR), Via Marconi, 2 Porano & Via Castellino 111, Napoli (Italy); Tiwary, A., E-mail: a.tiwary@soton.ac.uk [Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield Campus, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Calfapietra, C., E-mail: carlo.calfapietra@ibaf.cnr.it [Institute of Agro Environmental and Forest Biology, National Research Council (IBAF–CNR), Via Marconi, 2 Porano & Via Castellino 111, Napoli (Italy); Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., Bělidla 986/4a, 603 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2016-04-01

    This study reports application of monitoring and characterization protocol for particulate matter (PM) deposited on tree leaves, using Quercus ilex as a case study species. The study area is located in the industrial city of Terni in central Italy, with high PM concentrations. Four trees were selected as representative of distinct pollution environments based on their proximity to a steel factory and a street. Wash off from leaves onto cellulose filters were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, inferring the associations between particle sizes, chemical composition, and sampling location. Modeling of particle size distributions showed a tri-modal fingerprint, with the three modes centered at 0.6 (factory related), 1.2 (urban background), and 2.6 μm (traffic related). Chemical detection identified 23 elements abundant in the PM samples. Principal component analysis recognized iron and copper as source-specific PM markers, attributed mainly to industrial and heavy traffic pollution respectively. Upscaling these results on leaf area basis provided a useful indicator for strategic evaluation of harmful PM pollutants using tree leaves. - Highlights: • Urban tree leaves were used for passive PM{sub 10} monitoring combining SEM and EDX analyses. • Particle mean diameter distributions were modeled by multimode lognormal functions. • Site-specific PM{sub 10} elemental composition was evaluated by principal component analysis. • PM profile (size and composition) was used to distinguish site-specific urban sources. • PM size and relative content of Cu and Fe emerged as possible pollutant source markers.

  4. Mapping of Soil-Ecological Conditions of a Medium-Size Industrial City (Birobidzhan City, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, FarEast of Russia as an Example)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmanova, V. B.; Matiushkina, L. A.

    2018-01-01

    The authors analyze soil relations with other elements of the city ecosystem (the position in the landscape, soil-forming rocks and lithology, vegetation and its state) to develop the legend and map of soils in the City of Birobidzhan (scale 1:25 000). The focus of study is the morphological structure of urban soils with different degree of disturbance of these relations under the impact of technical effects, economic and recreational activities of the city population. The soil cover structure is composed of four large ecological groups of soils: natural untransformed, natural with a disturbed surface, anthropogenic soils and technogenic surface formations. Using cartometry of the mapped soil contours the authors created the scheme of soil-ecological city zoning, which in a general way depicts the state of soil ecological functions in the city as well as identified zones of soils with preserved, partially and fully distured ecological functions and zones of local geochemical anomalies at the initial formation stage (environmental risk zones).

  5. Multimedia fate and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a coking industry city in Northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.L.; Xia, Z.H.; Liu, D.; Qiu, W.X.; Duan, X.L.; Wang, R.; Liu, W.J.; Zhang, Y.H.; Wang, D.; Tao, S.; Liu, W.X.

    2013-01-01

    A steady state Level III fate model was established and applied to quantify source–receptor relationship in a coking industry city in Northern China. The local emission inventory of PAHs, as the model input, was acquired based on energy consumption and emission factors. The model estimations were validated by measured data and indicated remarkable variations in the paired isomeric ratios. When a rectification factor, based on the receptor-to-source ratio, was calculated by the fate model, the quantitatively verified molecular diagnostic ratios provided reasonable results of local PAH emission sources. Due to the local ban and measures on small scale coking activities implemented from the beginning of 2004, the model calculations indicated that the local emission amount of PAHs in 2009 decreased considerably compared to that in 2003. -- Highlights: •A steady-state fate model could well elucidate the multimedia fate of PAHs. •A rectification factor for correcting the paired isomeric ratio was calculated. •The corrected isomeric ratios were successfully applied to source apportionment. -- Based on multimedia model correction, the specific isomeric ratios could provide reasonable apportionments for the local PAHs emission sources

  6. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency and Associated Risk Factors among Employed Women in a Sunny Industrial City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassannia, Tahereh; GhaznaviRad, Ehsan; Vakili, Rosita; Taheri, Sohaila; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a public health concern associated with the pathogenesis of several chronic disorders, particularly in women. To evaluate serum vitamin D levels and its deficiency and risk factors among employed women in a sunny industrial city. In this cross-sectional study, serum vitamin D levels, biochemical and hematological factors were assessed in 382 healthy employed women. Demographic information was collected using a standard questionnaire and data was analyzed by SPSS software. The mean vitamin D serum level was 22 ± 19.8 ng/ml. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were 62 % and 12.94 %, respectively. Deficiency was more common among younger subjects (Organizations (15 ng/ml).Vitamin D deficiency was associated with the lack of sunlight exposure at home, and taking anti-hypertensive medications. The common symptoms in deficiency condition were history of hyperlipidemia, depression, weakness, fatigue, finger tingling, leg cramps, and body and muscle pain. Moreover, LDL-cholesterol serum levels were significantly higher in the vitamin D deficiency group, with a prevalence of 40 %. The symptoms of vitamin D deficiency including depression, weakness, fatigue, tingling, leg cramps and body and muscle pain have been observed in more than 90 % after recruitment and treatment. Therefore, for improving the health and productivity of employees, a routine monitoring system for vitamin D and the other factors should be put in place.

  7. Urban Organization and Planning in the Post-Industrial City: An Editorial and Introduction to the Spring 2006 Issue of Sociation Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George H. Conklin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available 2006 is the year that the world as a whole becomes over half urban, yet no longer is the city the home of the industrial factory in the Western world. What shape should the new city take in the information age? Are we following an obsolete model when we plan in the Western world for a "new urbanism?" Does suburbanization have to fade away to promote racial justice? Why has urbanization concentrated poverty in the rural areas? We must re-examine these areas as sociologists and question past assumptions.

  8. Solid recovered fuels in the steel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepplinger, Werner L; Tappeiner, Tamara

    2012-04-01

    By using waste materials as alternative fuels in metallurgical plants it is possible to minimize the traditionally used reducing agents, such as coke, coal, oil or natural gas. Moreover, by using waste materials in the metallurgical industry it is feasible to recover these materials as far as possible. This also represents another step towards environmental protection because carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced, if the H(2) content of the waste material is greater in comparison with that of the substituted fuel and the effects of global warming can therefore be reduced. In the present article various solid recovered fuels and their applications in the metallurgical industry are detailed.

  9. A toxicological study of inhalable particulates in an industrial region of Lanzhou City, northwestern China: Results from plasmid scission assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhenghui; Shao, Longyi; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Jing; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Deng, Zhenzhen; Wang, Zhen; BéruBé, Kelly

    2014-09-01

    The city of Lanzhou in northwestern China experiences serious air pollution episodes in the form of PM10 that is characterized by having high levels of heavy metals. The Xigu District represents the industrial core area of Lanzhou City and is denoted by having the largest petrochemical bases in western China. This study investigates heavy metal compositions and oxidative potential of airborne PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less) collected in Xigu District in the summer and winter of 2010. An in vitro plasmid scission assay (PSA) was employed to study the oxidative potential of airborne PM10 and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to examine heavy metal compositions. Transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (TEM/EDX) was used to investigate elemental compositions and mixing states of PM10. The average mass concentrations of PM10 collected in Xigu District were generally higher than the national standard for daily PM10 (150 μg/m3). Cr, Zn, Pb and Mn were the most abundant metals in the intact whole particles of PM10. Zn, Mn and As was the most abundant metal in the water-soluble fraction, while Cr, Pb, and V existed primarily in insoluble forms. TD20 values (i.e. toxic dosage of PM10 causing 20% of plasmid DNA damage) varied considerably in both winter and summer (from 19 μg/mL to >1000 μg/mL) but were typically higher in summer, suggesting that the winter PM10 exhibited greater bioreactivity. In addition, the PM10 collected during a dust storm episode had a highest TD20 value and thus the least oxidative damage to supercoiled plasmid DNA, while the particles collected on a hazy day had a lowest TD20 value and thus the highest oxidative damage to supercoiled plasmid DNA. The particles collected on the first day after snow fall and on a day of cold air intrusion exhibited minor oxidative potential (i.e. caused limited DNA damage). The water-soluble Zn, Mn, As, and

  10. Energy-dissipation-model for metallurgical multi-phase-systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavrommatis, K.T. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Entropy production in real processes is directly associated with the dissipation of energy. Both are potential measures for the proceed of irreversible processes taking place in metallurgical systems. Many of these processes in multi-phase-systems could then be modelled on the basis of the energy-dissipation associated with. As this entity can often be estimated using very simple assumptions from first principles, the evolution of an overall measure of systems behaviour can be studied constructing an energy-dissipation -based model of the system. In this work a formulation of this concept, the Energy-Dissipation-Model (EDM), for metallurgical multi-phase-systems is given. Special examples are studied to illustrate the concept, and benefits as well as the range of validity are shown. This concept might be understood as complement to usual CFD-modelling of complex systems on a more abstract level but reproducing essential attributes of complex metallurgical systems. (author)

  11. Energy-dissipation-model for metallurgical multi-phase-systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavrommatis, K T [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Entropy production in real processes is directly associated with the dissipation of energy. Both are potential measures for the proceed of irreversible processes taking place in metallurgical systems. Many of these processes in multi-phase-systems could then be modelled on the basis of the energy-dissipation associated with. As this entity can often be estimated using very simple assumptions from first principles, the evolution of an overall measure of systems behaviour can be studied constructing an energy-dissipation -based model of the system. In this work a formulation of this concept, the Energy-Dissipation-Model (EDM), for metallurgical multi-phase-systems is given. Special examples are studied to illustrate the concept, and benefits as well as the range of validity are shown. This concept might be understood as complement to usual CFD-modelling of complex systems on a more abstract level but reproducing essential attributes of complex metallurgical systems. (author)

  12. Effect of metallurgical variables on environmental fracture of steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, I M; Thompson, A W

    1976-12-01

    The susceptibility of iron alloys, in particular, steels, to hydrogen embrittlement is examined. It is demonstrated by a review of available data on metallurgically well-characterized alloys that the nature and extent of hydrogen susceptibility are sensitive and often predictable functions of such metallurgical variables as composition, grain size, texture, microstructure, and thermal treatment. Specifically, solutes such as carbon and manganese are shown to be capable of leading to a degradation of performance in hydrogen, whereas silicon and titanium are often beneficial additions. Microstructures at equivalent strength levels are ranked in order of susceptibility; generally, a refined substructure gives the best results. The role of heat treatment in controlling the hydrogen-induced crack path and its relationship to thermal embrittlement phenomena are stressed. Finally, possible hydrogen embrittlement mechanisms are assessed in terms of the critical roles of metallurgical variables in the embrittlement.

  13. Implications of Pearl, Gold, Silver (PGS) craft industrial cluster towards settlements region in Karang Pule Village, Sekarbela District Of Mataram City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushanti, I. R.; Fitri, I. S.

    2017-06-01

    The existence of industry clusters in Mataram City gave effect to the surrounding residential areas [1]. In accordance Spatial Plan of Mataram City in 2011-2031 PGS industry cluster in the village of Karang Pule, Sekarbela district established as shopping tourism area. Distribution of industrial locations were in four of seven environments in Karang Pule. Distribution of PGS industry is divided into three (3) groups: craftsmen, craftsmen who is also a seller, and the seller (merchant). The location of the craftsmen, craftsmen who are also businessmen and entrepreneurs are also used as a dwelling house or workshop and store. So most of the people living in settlements around clusters of industry that there is a link between industry cluster and settlements. This study aims to determine the implications or the impact of the presence of PGS industry clusters the surrounding residential areas. The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative with the collection of primary data through direct observation and questionnaires. Based on direct observation on the shopping tourism area there are inequality between the conditions of industry clusters and settlements area by the presence of slums. The results showed that the PGS industry cluster impact on social, economic and environment near settlements area. Impacts that occur are: 1) the social aspect, there is a significant change in the level of education, social welfare and social disparities but less significant to the formation of institutions, particularly in community participation, 2) the economic aspect of the change status of community work, and increased revenue and 3) the environmental aspects of the change to the condition of the building, the quality of public housing, the presence of slums, changes in infrastructure and the environmental pollution.

  14. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  15. Impact of landfills, domestic and industrial waste on the aquifer in Raipur city and contribution of karst feature to the groundwater contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, U.K.; Deodhar, A.; Kulkarni, U.P.; Sharma, Suman

    2004-01-01

    Karst features (landscapes that result from dissolution and surface drainage of carbonate terrains) are potentially a large source of water. They have distinctive features, which distinguish them from fissured and porous aquifers. These features include a general lack of permanent surface streams, existence of surface holes into which surface stream sink, presence of underground big channels and large springs etc. Karst environments are used for potable water supply as well as disposal sites for municipal, agricultural and industrial waste dumping. The peculiar geomorphologic and hydrological features of karst make them highly vulnerable for groundwater pollution. The ease with which they can be polluted make a fit case of taking protection measures in advance. Raipur is a major business, educational center as well as capital city of Chhattisgarh state in India. The city has been rapidly expanding during the last two decades, as a result of rapid industrialisation and various economic developments. Wastes generated from a wide variety of industrial, commercial, agricultural and domestic activities are dumped into pits or low - lying area around the Raipur City. The climate in the area is characterised by very hot summer and well distributed rain over four months during monsoon season. Monsoon precipitation begins from mid June and generally remains active till the end of September. The average annual precipitation is ∼1250 mm. In the study area, groundwater lies in the karstified nature of geological formation and is naturally susceptible to contamination by landfills, domestic and industrial wastes. The karstification feature is exposed to the surface in Raipur city at many places. Environmental isotopes ( 2 H, 3 H, 18 O and 13 C) as well as chemistry of the water samples were used to identify a few places, which are prone to contamination in Raipur city. Deterioration of the groundwater quality is not alarming due to thin shale (impervious layer) cover over the

  16. Study of ecologo-biological reactions of common flax to finely dispersed metallurgical wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, O.; Gusev, A.; Skripnikova, E.; Skripnikova, M.; Krutyakov, Yu; Kudrinsky, A.; Mikhailov, I.; Senatova, S.; Chuprunov, C.; Kuznetsov, D.

    2015-11-01

    Study was carried out on the influence of metallurgic industrial sludge on morphometric and biochemical indicators as well as productivity of common flax under laboratory and field conditions. In laboratory settings negative influence on seed germinating ability and positive influence on sprouts biomass production in water medium were observed. In sand medium suppression of biological productivity under the influence of sludge together with photosynthetic system II (FS II) activity stimulation were registered. Biochemical study showed peroxidase activity decrease in laboratory, while activity of polyphenol oxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase were given a mild boost under the influence of sludge. In the field trial, positive influence of sludge on flax photosynthetic apparatus was shown. Positive influence of sludge on vegetation and yield indicators was observed. The analysis of heavy metals content showed excess over maximum allowable concentration (MAC) of copper and zinc in control plants, it may point to the background soil pollution. In the plants from the trial groups receiving 0.5 and 2 ton/ha heavy metals content below the control values was registered. Application of 4 ton/ha led to the maximum content of copper and zinc in the plants among the trial groups. The analysis of soils from the test plots indicated no excess over maximum allowable concentrations of heavy metals. Thus, further study of possibilities of using metallurgic industrial sludge as a soil stimulator in flax cultivation at the application rate of 0.5 t/ha seems promising.

  17. Metallurgical Evaluation of the Five-Inch Cylindrical Induction Melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imrich, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    A metallurgical evaluation of the 5-inch cylindrical induction melter (CIM) vessel was performed by the Materials Technology Section to evaluate the metallurgical condition after operating for approximately 375 hours at 1400 to 1500 Degrees Celsius during a 2 year period. Results indicate that wall thinning and significant grain growth occurred in the lower portion of the conical section and the drain tube. No through-wall penetrations were found in the cylindrical and conical sections of the CIM vessel and only one leak site was identified in the drain tube. Failure of the drain tube was associated with a localized over heating and intercrystalline fracture

  18. Heavy Metal Pollution Delineation Based on Uncertainty in a Coastal Industrial City in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bifeng Hu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Assessing heavy metal pollution and delineating pollution are the bases for evaluating pollution and determining a cost-effective remediation plan. Most existing studies are based on the spatial distribution of pollutants but ignore related uncertainty. In this study, eight heavy-metal concentrations (Cr, Pb, Cd, Hg, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Zn were collected at 1040 sampling sites in a coastal industrial city in the Yangtze River Delta, China. The single pollution index (PI and Nemerow integrated pollution index (NIPI were calculated for every surface sample (0–20 cm to assess the degree of heavy metal pollution. Ordinary kriging (OK was used to map the spatial distribution of heavy metals content and NIPI. Then, we delineated composite heavy metal contamination based on the uncertainty produced by indicator kriging (IK. The results showed that mean values of all PIs and NIPIs were at safe levels. Heavy metals were most accumulated in the central portion of the study area. Based on IK, the spatial probability of composite heavy metal pollution was computed. The probability of composite contamination in the central core urban area was highest. A probability of 0.6 was found as the optimum probability threshold to delineate polluted areas from unpolluted areas for integrative heavy metal contamination. Results of pollution delineation based on uncertainty showed the proportion of false negative error areas was 6.34%, while the proportion of false positive error areas was 0.86%. The accuracy of the classification was 92.80%. This indicated the method we developed is a valuable tool for delineating heavy metal pollution.

  19. Heavy Metal Pollution Delineation Based on Uncertainty in a Coastal Industrial City in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ruiying; Chen, Songchao; Zhou, Yue; Jin, Bin; Li, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Assessing heavy metal pollution and delineating pollution are the bases for evaluating pollution and determining a cost-effective remediation plan. Most existing studies are based on the spatial distribution of pollutants but ignore related uncertainty. In this study, eight heavy-metal concentrations (Cr, Pb, Cd, Hg, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Zn) were collected at 1040 sampling sites in a coastal industrial city in the Yangtze River Delta, China. The single pollution index (PI) and Nemerow integrated pollution index (NIPI) were calculated for every surface sample (0–20 cm) to assess the degree of heavy metal pollution. Ordinary kriging (OK) was used to map the spatial distribution of heavy metals content and NIPI. Then, we delineated composite heavy metal contamination based on the uncertainty produced by indicator kriging (IK). The results showed that mean values of all PIs and NIPIs were at safe levels. Heavy metals were most accumulated in the central portion of the study area. Based on IK, the spatial probability of composite heavy metal pollution was computed. The probability of composite contamination in the central core urban area was highest. A probability of 0.6 was found as the optimum probability threshold to delineate polluted areas from unpolluted areas for integrative heavy metal contamination. Results of pollution delineation based on uncertainty showed the proportion of false negative error areas was 6.34%, while the proportion of false positive error areas was 0.86%. The accuracy of the classification was 92.80%. This indicated the method we developed is a valuable tool for delineating heavy metal pollution. PMID:29642623

  20. Heavy Metal Pollution Delineation Based on Uncertainty in a Coastal Industrial City in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bifeng; Zhao, Ruiying; Chen, Songchao; Zhou, Yue; Jin, Bin; Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou

    2018-04-10

    Assessing heavy metal pollution and delineating pollution are the bases for evaluating pollution and determining a cost-effective remediation plan. Most existing studies are based on the spatial distribution of pollutants but ignore related uncertainty. In this study, eight heavy-metal concentrations (Cr, Pb, Cd, Hg, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Zn) were collected at 1040 sampling sites in a coastal industrial city in the Yangtze River Delta, China. The single pollution index (PI) and Nemerow integrated pollution index (NIPI) were calculated for every surface sample (0-20 cm) to assess the degree of heavy metal pollution. Ordinary kriging (OK) was used to map the spatial distribution of heavy metals content and NIPI. Then, we delineated composite heavy metal contamination based on the uncertainty produced by indicator kriging (IK). The results showed that mean values of all PIs and NIPIs were at safe levels. Heavy metals were most accumulated in the central portion of the study area. Based on IK, the spatial probability of composite heavy metal pollution was computed. The probability of composite contamination in the central core urban area was highest. A probability of 0.6 was found as the optimum probability threshold to delineate polluted areas from unpolluted areas for integrative heavy metal contamination. Results of pollution delineation based on uncertainty showed the proportion of false negative error areas was 6.34%, while the proportion of false positive error areas was 0.86%. The accuracy of the classification was 92.80%. This indicated the method we developed is a valuable tool for delineating heavy metal pollution.

  1. Distributions, sources and pollution status of 17 trace metal/metalloids in the street dust of a heavily industrialized city of central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhonggen; Feng, Xinbin; Li, Guanghui; Bi, Xiangyang; Zhu, Jianming; Qin, Haibo; Dai, Zhihui; Liu, Jinling; Li, Qiuhua; Sun, Guangyi

    2013-01-01

    A series of representative street dust samples were collected from a heavily industrialized city, Zhuzhou, in central China, with the aim to investigate the spatial distribution and pollution status of 17 trace metal/metalloid elements. Concentrations of twelve elements (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Hg, As, Sb, In, Bi, Tl, Ag and Ga) were distinctly amplified by atmospheric deposition resulting from a large scale Pb/Zn smelter located in the northwest fringe of the city, and followed a declining trend towards the city center. Three metals (W, Mo and Co) were enriched in samples very close to a hard alloy manufacturing plant, while Ni and Cr appeared to derive predominantly from natural sources. Other industries and traffic had neglectable effects on the accumulation of observed elements. Cd, In, Zn, Ag and Pb were the five metal/metalloids with highest pollution levels and the northwestern part of city is especially affected by heavy metal pollution. -- Highlights: •Large-scale Pb/Zn smelters contributed to elevated trace elements in the street dust. •The hard alloy processing caused the enrichment of a few elements. •Cd, In, Zn, Ag and Pb were the most polluted elements. •Northwestern Zhuzhou suffered severe contamination for a range of trace elements. -- Pb/Zn smelting and hard alloy processing operations have caused seriously contamination of trace metal/metalloids in the street dust

  2. Development Framework for Agro-Based Industries in Secondary Cities of Sindh Province, Pakistan: SWOT Analysis of Ten-Year Perspective and Medium-Term Development Framework Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Kalwar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The study intended to explore planning strategies gaps in ten-year perspective and medium-term development framework plans for agro-based industrial development in secondary cities of Sindh Province, Pakistan. Document review and key informant interviews survey techniques were used for data collection. A total of 30 interviews were conducted from agro-based officials. The SWOT analysis technique was applied for data analysis. The results revealed the weaknesses of high priority for textile and sugar industries, lack of planning strategies for agro-based development in secondary cities, dependency on federal government for development funds and absence of finances to implement plans. The threats were unavailability of strategic agro-based infrastructure facilities in secondary cities, centralized planning system, cross border threats such as the war in Afghanistan and migration of Afghan refugees, weak law and order situation and diversion of development budget for defense activities. The study suggests decentralization of powers and robust planning strategies in the development plans to strengthen secondary cities of Sindh Province economically.

  3. Distributions, sources and pollution status of 17 trace metal/metalloids in the street dust of a heavily industrialized city of central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhonggen; Feng, Xinbin; Li, Guanghui; Bi, Xiangyang; Zhu, Jianming; Qin, Haibo; Dai, Zhihui; Liu, Jinling; Li, Qiuhua; Sun, Guangyi

    2013-11-01

    A series of representative street dust samples were collected from a heavily industrialized city, Zhuzhou, in central China, with the aim to investigate the spatial distribution and pollution status of 17 trace metal/metalloid elements. Concentrations of twelve elements (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Hg, As, Sb, In, Bi, Tl, Ag and Ga) were distinctly amplified by atmospheric deposition resulting from a large scale Pb/Zn smelter located in the northwest fringe of the city, and followed a declining trend towards the city center. Three metals (W, Mo and Co) were enriched in samples very close to a hard alloy manufacturing plant, while Ni and Cr appeared to derive predominantly from natural sources. Other industries and traffic had neglectable effects on the accumulation of observed elements. Cd, In, Zn, Ag and Pb were the five metal/metalloids with highest pollution levels and the northwestern part of city is especially affected by heavy metal pollution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Multi-element characterization and source identification of trace metal in road dust from an industrial city in semi-humid area of Northwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengmeng Zhang; Xinwei Lu; Hao Chen; Panpan Gao; Yi Fu

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations and sources of multi-elements in road dusts from an industrial city of northwest China were determined. Dust samples have elevated concentrations of Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Sr and Ba. The dusts were mainly moderate enrichment by Co and Pb, minimal enrichment to moderate enrichment by Sr and Zn, and deficiency to minimal enrichment by other trace metals. Mn, V, Y, La, Hf, Th and U originated from soil. Cu, Pb, Cr, Ba and Sr mainly derived from traffic. Co, Zr, Ni, Ga, As and Zn have mixed sources of nature, industry and traffic. (author)

  5. Examination of the role of competitive advantage in the relationship between the marketing intelligence and export performance of the companies located in the industrial town of Ilam city

    OpenAIRE

    Heidari, Hasan Ali; Faroughi, Hiva; Khaksar, Mansoor

    2015-01-01

    The current paper was conducted with the aim of investigating the role of the competitive advantage in the relationship between the marketing intelligence on the export performance within the scope of the activities of the Industrial towns in the city of Ilam. To attain the research goals, as many as 155 people of mangers and experts were selected through simple random method for responding to the research questionnaires. The research sample group responded to the Marketing Intelligence (L.A....

  6. Study on Spatial Spillover Effects of Logistics Industry Development for Economic Growth in the Yangtze River Delta City Cluster Based on Spatial Durbin Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinxing; Wang, Yuhong

    2017-12-04

    The overall entropy method is used to evaluate the development level of the logistics industry in the city based on a mechanism analysis of the spillover effect of the development of the logistics industry on economic growth, according to the panel data of 26 cities in the Yangtze River delta. On this basis, the paper uses the spatial durbin model to study the direct impact of the development of the logistics industry on economic growth and the spatial spillover effect. The results show that the direct impact coefficient of the development of the logistics industry in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration on local economic growth is 0.092, and the significant spatial spillover effect on the economic growth in the surrounding area is 0.197. Compared with the labor force input, capital investment and the degree of opening to the world, and government functions, the logistics industry's direct impact coefficient is the largest, other than capital investment; the coefficient of the spillover effect is higher than other control variables, making it a "strong engine" of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration economic growth.

  7. Perspectives regarding the use of metallurgical slags as secondary metal resources - A review of bioleaching approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potysz, Anna; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Kierczak, Jakub

    2018-05-05

    Smelting activity by its very nature produces large amounts of metal-bearing waste, often called metallurgical slag(s). In the past, industry used to dispose of these waste products at dumping sites without the appropriate environmental oversight. Once there, ongoing biogeochemical processes affect the stability of the slags and cause the release of metallic contaminants. Rather than viewing metallurgical slags as waste, however, such deposits should be viewed as secondary metal resources. Metal bioleaching is a "green" treatment route for metallurgical slags, currently being studied under laboratory conditions. Metal-laden leachates obtained at the bioleaching stage have to be subjected to further recovery operations in order to obtain metal(s) of interest to achieve the highest levels of purity possible. This perspective paper considers the feasibility of the reuse of base-metal slags as secondary metal resources. Special focus is given to current laboratory bioleaching approaches and associated processing obstacles. Further directions of research for development of more efficient methods for waste slag treatment are also highlighted. The optimized procedure for slag treatment is defined as the result of this review and should include following steps: i) slag characterization (chemical and phase composition and buffering capacity) following the choice of initial pH, ii) the choice of particle size, iii) the choice of the liquid-to-solid ratio, iv) the choice of microorganisms, v) the choice of optimal nutrient supply (growth medium composition). An optimal combination of all these parameters will lead to efficient extraction and generation of metal-free solid residue. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. From an eco-industrial park towards an eco-city : a case study in Suzhou, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Chang; Dijkema, Gerard P. J.; de Jong, Martin; Shi, Han

    2015-01-01

    As eco-industrial park policies have been in place for years, many mature eco-industrial parks tend to acquire more than just industrial functions and become new urban districts. We investigated this development and conducted empirical research in Suzhou Industrial Park, to obtain insight in how a

  9. The R85m President Brand joint metallurgical complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, Adam.

    1977-01-01

    The uranium plant at President Brand, which was built in 1971 and opened last year, is now being extended. The plant forms only part of the extensive joint metallurgical complex being developed by Anglo American Corp. in the Free State, costing a total R85million. This article examines technical details of the recovery processes involved

  10. Radioactivity of raw materials, metallurgical and casting products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hons, J.

    2000-01-01

    At present, the radioactive contamination of metallurgical products and initial materials represent a potential obstacle in foreign and domestic trade. It is of course an undesirable threat o the living environment on the one side and, at the same time, a new incorrectly used means for suppressing competition and forming a protection 'umbrella' of the national market to desirable imports on the other hand

  11. Cost estimation and management over the life cycle of metallurgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates whether all expected costs over the life cycle of metallurgical research projects are included in initial, normal and fi nal cost estimates, and whether these costs are managed throughout a project's life cycle since there is not enough emphasis on the accurate estimation of costs and their management ...

  12. Continuous moisture measurement in metallurgical coke with automatic charge correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watzke, H.; Mehlhose, D.

    1981-01-01

    A process control system has been developed for automatic batching of the coke amount necessary for metallurgical processes taking into account the moisture content. The measurement is performed with a neutron moisture gage consisting of an Am-Be neutron source and a BF 3 counter. The output information of the counter is used for computer-controlled batching

  13. Control of innovation activity in a competitive metallurgical business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, S. V.

    2010-12-01

    Certain competitive advantages of a manufacturer on a goods market can be provided if one creates conditions for bifurcation development of an innovation process in metallurgical business under conditions of market uncertainty of a demand for goods of a specified consumer quality and determines the technical-and-economic versions of stable operation of a production system for performing orders of metal product consumers.

  14. Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Richard A.; Im, Chang J.; Wright, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

  15. Utilizing of the metallurgical slag for production of cementless concrete mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baricová

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In process of pig iron, steel and cast iron production besides main product, also secondary products are formed, that have character of secondary raw materials and industrial wastes. The most abundant secondary product originating in the metallurgical process is furnace slag. Total amount of accured slag, also its chemical, mineralogical, physical – chemical properties and similarity with natural stones predestinate its utilisation in different fields of industry. The contribution deals with production of cementless concrete mixtures, where the main parts were formed by blast furnace granulated slag grinded and different gravel slag from blast furnace, oxygen converter and electric arc furnace. As activators of solidification different kinds of water glass were tested.

  16. Industrial tracer application in people's republic of china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Maoyi

    1987-01-01

    A number of important applications of radioisotopes and their compounds used as tracers in petroleum industry, metallurgical industry, mechanical industry, chemical industry, electronic industry, hydrology and water conservancy in China are introduced in this paper. And the tracer technique applied to entomology is also mentioned. The industrial tracer applications are successful and beneficial in People's Republic of China from the examples given. (author)

  17. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, I.; Wiesenberger, H.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , N 2 O, NH 3 , Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  18. Chemical characterization of individual particles (PM10) from ambient air in Guiyang City, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, R.K.; Seip, H.M.; Leinum, J.R.; Winje, T.; Xiao, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    PM 10 samples were collected during 5 days in Guiyang, China in July 2003. A total of about 2300 particles was analyzed by an automated Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy-Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS). Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was used to identify different particle types that occurred in the aerosol. Seventeen particle types were identified and presented in the order of decreasing number abundance as: silicomanganese slag, soil and fly ash, coal burning, silicomanganese, quartz, syngenite, S-bearing iron, calcium rich, gypsum, sphalerite, dolomite, iron, alloy, lead sulfate, zinc rich, sulfur-rich particles and aluminum manufacturing dust. The majority of the particles in the studied size range are of anthropogenic origin, especially from metallurgical industry. The study illustrates the complexity of particle pollution in air of an industrial Chinese city and the results should be useful in planning mitigation measures

  19. Comparative economic efficiency, operating costs and fuel consumption rates of freight transport modes between the largest industrial cities and seaports in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W J (Wessel Pienaar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with aspects of efficiency within the five modes of freight transport, with special reference to the operating cost and fuel consumption rates between South Africa’s largest industrial cities and seaports. In particular, the paper deals with (a the opportunities that exist for the achievement of efficiency in freight transport; (b the subgroups of economies that can enhance efficiency attainment in the freight transport industry; (c prevailing cost structures, operating cost and fuel consumption rates within the five modes of freight transport; and (d the salient economic features of the freight transport market. The research approach and methodology combine (a a literature survey; (b empiric research, (c an analysis of the cost structures of freight transport operators from different modes of transport; and (d interviews conducted with specialists in the freight transport industry.

  20. Proceedings of papers. 3. Balkan Metallurgical Conference; Kniga na trudovi. 3-ta Balkanska konferencija na metalurzite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickovski, Jovan [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, St. ' Cyril and Methodius' University, Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    This Conference aims to be a central event in the metallurgy research of Balkan, fulfilling the goals to present the most outstanding relevant developments in modern metallurgy; to inspire high standards of excellence in pure and applied metallurgy research; to attract outstanding scientists to present central lectures on modem metallurgical research, and on the challenges imposed by the needs of society; to inspire the young generation of metallurgists in Balkan and other countries. Following these lines, the 3. Balkan Conference on Metallurgy will provide a unique opportunity for academic and industrial metallurgists from the Balkan countries and wider, to exchange ideas, expertise, and experience on topics related to the theme of the Conference - Balkan Metallurgy in Search for New Ways of Development. The aim of the organizers was to bring together distinguished experts, not only to present their work, but also to discuss the major scientific and technological challenges facing metallurgy in this millennium.The 6 sections of the conference were entitled: Section A: Extractive metallurgy; Section B: Physical metallurgy and materials science - ferrous metals and non ferrous metals; Section C: Management, maintenance control and optimization of metallurgical processes; Section D: New technologies and techniques; Section E: Refractory and powder; Section F: Corrosion and protection of metals. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately.

  1. [Hygienic assessment of metal-lurgical slag crushed stone for its use in road-building].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, Iu P; Ippolitova, V P; Bezrokov, M E

    2010-01-01

    The increasing amount of industrial waste generates a need for its use as recycled materials. The paper presents the results of hygienic assessment of metallurgic slag crushed stone to be added to natural materials in highway building. The research program has included the measurement of content of water-soluble forms of metals, the evaluation of the acute toxicity of waste after oral administration to mice and rats, the study of the toxicity of waste by biotesting and the activity of natural radionuclides. The slag crushed stone virtually lacks water-soluble elements when it contains a high level of bulk forms of metals. According to acute toxicity for warm-blooded animals, the slag crushed stone belongs to Hazard Class IV by GOST 12.1.007-76 (low hazard substances). The biotesting on hydrocoles, the slag crushed stone is also referred to as Class IV (low hazard substances). In terms of the level of natural radionuclides, the slag crushed stone poses no hazard to the environment. The performed studies give grounds to recommend metallurgical slag crushed stone to be added to natural materials for highway building.

  2. The analysis of mineralogical and metallurgical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, K.

    1978-01-01

    The increase in mineral processing in South Africa has led to an increasing demand for the determination of a wider range of elements at low concentrations, and this in turn has led to the greater use of instrumental analysis. The objects of this report are, first, to serve as a guide to the various types of instrumentation available for a range of analytical problems and, second, to indicate the facilities that are available at the National Institute for Metallurgy for use by industry in sponsored projects. The analytical techniques available are considered from the points of view of basic principles, interferences, precision and accuracy, advantages, limitations, sample preparation, and possible applications

  3. Modelling of chemical reactions in metallurgical processes

    OpenAIRE

    Kinaci, M. Efe; Lichtenegger, Thomas; Schneiderbauer, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Iron-ore reduction has attracted much interest in the last three decades since it can be considered as a core process in steel industry. The iron-ore is reduced to iron with the use of blast furnace and fluidized bed technologies. To investigate the harsh conditions inside fluidized bed reactors, computational tools can be utilized. One such tool is the CFD-DEM method, in which the gas phase reactions and governing equations are calculated in the Eulerian (CFD) side, whereas the particle reac...

  4. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    . African states as ... regarded as the most important ingredients that went to add value to land and labour in order for countries ... B. Sutcliffe Industry and Underdevelopment (Massachusetts Addison – Wesley Publishing Company. 1971), pp.

  5. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    scholar, Walt W. Rostow presented and supported this line of thought in his analysis of ... A Brief Historical Background of Industrialization in Africa ... indicative) The western model allowed for the political economy to be shaped by market.

  6. The Impact of Climate Change on New York City's Coastal Flood Hazard: Increasing Flood Heights from the Pre-Industrial to 2300 CE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, A. J.; Mann, M. E.; Emanuel, K.; Kopp, R. E.; Lin, N.; Alley, R. B.; Horton, B.; Deconto, R. M.; Donnelly, J. P.; Pollard, D.

    2017-12-01

    The flood hazard in New York City depends on both storm surges and rising sea levels. We combine modeled storm surges with probabilistic sea-level rise projections to assess future coastal inundation in New York City from the pre-industrial through 2300 CE. The storm surges are derived from large sets of synthetic tropical cyclones, downscaled from RCP 8.5 runs of three CMIP5 models. The sea-level rise projections include the collapse of the Antarctic ice sheet to assess future coastal inundation. CMIP5 models indicate that there will be minimal change in storm-surge heights from 2010 to 2100 or 2300, because the predicted strengthening of the strongest storms will be compensated by storm tracks moving offshore at the latitude of New York City. However, projected sea-level rise causes overall flood heights associated with tropical cyclones in New York City in coming centuries to increase greatly compared to pre-industrial or modern flood heights. We find that the 1-in-500-year flood event increases from 3.4 m above mean tidal level during 1970-2005 to 3.9 - 4.8 m above mean tidal level by 2080-2100, and ranges from 2.8 - 13.0 m above mean tidal level by 2280-2300. Further, we find that the return period of a 2.25 m flood has decreased from 500 years prior to 1800 to 25 years during 1970-2005, and further decreases to 5 years by 2030 - 2045 in 95% of our simulations.

  7. Relative impact of on-road vehicular and point-source industrial emissions of air pollutants in a medium-sized Andean city

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, C. M.; Gómez, C. D.; Rojas, N. Y.; Acevedo, H.; Aristizábal, B. H.

    2017-03-01

    Cities in emerging countries are facing a fast growth and urbanization; however, the study of air pollutant emissions and its dynamics is scarce, making their populations vulnerable to potential effects of air pollution. This situation is critical in medium-sized urban areas built along the tropical Andean mountains. This work assesses the contribution of on-road vehicular and point-source industrial activities in the medium-sized Andean city of Manizales, Colombia. Annual fluxes of criteria pollutants, NMVOC, and greenhouse gases were estimated. Emissions were dominated by vehicular activity, with more than 90% of total estimated releases for the majority of air pollutants. On-road vehicular emissions for CO (43.4 Gg/yr) and NMVOC (9.6 Gg/yr) were mainly associated with the use of motorcycles (50% and 81% of total CO and NMVOC emissions respectively). Public transit buses were the main source of PM10 (47%) and NOx (48%). The per-capita emission index was significantly higher in Manizales than in other medium-sized cities, especially for NMVOC, CO, NOx and CO2. The unique mountainous terrain of Andean cities suggest that a methodology based on VSP model could give more realistic emission estimates, with additional model components that include slope and acceleration. Food and beverage facilities were the main contributors of point-source industrial emissions for PM10 (63%), SOx (55%) and NOx (45%), whereas scrap metal recycling had high emissions of CO (73%) and NMVOC (47%). Results provide the baseline for ongoing research in atmospheric modeling and urban air quality, in order to improve the understanding of air pollutant fluxes, transport and transformation in the atmosphere. In addition, this emission inventory could be used as a tool to identify areas of public health exposure and provide information for future decision makers.

  8. Bankruptcy risk forecasting for the metallurgical branch in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Răchişan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available All investment decisions require a thorough analysis of the retrospective evolution of the entities from the concerned area, in order to estimate the long-term evolution perspectives. In this context, the present study analyzes the evolution of the entities from the Romanian metallurgical sector based on the accounting and financial information published for the period 2008 - 2012 and, in fact, it justifies the situation from the perspective of users (managers, investors, auditors and of the economic environment specific to Romania. Starting from this premise we created a regression model particularly useful in forecasting the evolution of the ability to deal with debt for the entities from the Romanian metallurgical sector.

  9. Supercritical water oxidation benchscale testing metallurgical analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norby, B.C.

    1993-02-01

    This report describes metallurgical evaluation of witness wires from a series of tests using supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) to process cutting oil containing a simulated radionuclide. The goal of the tests was to evaluate the technology's ability to process a highly chlorinated waste representative of many mixed waste streams generated in the DOE complex. The testing was conducted with a bench-scale SCWO system developed by the Modell Development Corporation. Significant test objectives included process optimization for adequate destruction efficiency, tracking the radionuclide simulant and certain metals in the effluent streams, and assessment of reactor material degradation resulting from processing a highly chlorinated waste. The metallurgical evaluation described herein includes results of metallographic analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis of witness wires exposed to the SCWO environment for one test series

  10. Elaboration and characterization of metallurgical silicon for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbouche, M; Hajji, M; Krout, F; Ezzaouia, H

    2015-01-01

    There is a small quantity of participants in the global market of silicon, mainly from the developed countries. It should be noticed also that production of metallurgical silicon Mg-Si is among the most important steps to produce solar grade silicon and photovoltaic panels. Therefore, in this paper we focused on the growth of Mg-Si by carbothermal reduction of silica. An investigation was made using FT-IR characterization to study the effect of process conditions (temperature, atmosphere, duration) in Mg-Si production. Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the produced Mg-Si. Based on these results, we established a pilot line production of metallurgical silicon at the 'CRTEn' in Tunisia

  11. The impact of production capacity utilization on metallurgical companies financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kutáč

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important and the most problematic in-house sources of financing of metallurgical companies are profit and depreciations. In the event that the aggregate value of the economic result and depreciations goes over to negative values, then this kind of in-house financing ceases to increase Cash Flow of the company but, on the contrary, it will cause its reduction. It means that this type of financing is to some extent uncertain, particularly in times of crisis, when there are noticeable fluctuations in sales volumes, leading to a significant influence of the volume of production on the amount of profit. The article discusses the impact of production capacity utilization on metallurgical companies financing.

  12. Assessment of heavy metals and metalloids in tissues of two frog species: Rana tigrina and Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis from industrial city Sialkot, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Irfan Zia; Kashif, Zeshan; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Su, Xiaomei; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Ullah, Kalim; Hu, Jinxing; Dawood, Muhammad

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the concentrations of Ni, Fe, Pb, Cu, Co, Zn, Cd, Mn, and Cr in selected body tissues (liver, stomach, kidney, heart, lungs, and skeletal muscles) of two frog species: Rana tigrina and Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis captured from industrial wastewater of Sialkot city known worldwide for its tanning industry. The both frog species had darker appearance, distinctively different wet body weight, and snout-vent length. The results revealed that the heavy metal concentrations were high in the samples collected from industrial sites as compared to non-industrial sites. The different tissues of R. tigrina and E. cyanophlyctis exhibited little significant differences from two sites. The concentrations of heavy metals were more in tissues of R. tigrina as compared to E. cyanophlyctis. Mean concentration of Cd, Fe, Ni, Mn, Cu, and Cr was comparatively greater in R. tigrina, whereas Pb and Co were higher in E. cyanophlyctis. The concentration of Cu and Cd in the liver and kidney were relatively more in both species as compared to other organs. Further, the results indicated that frogs collected from industrial sites showed decreased body length and weight, and greater metal accumulation. The results will help the authorities for the conservation of these frog species which are under the influence of heavy metal contamination.

  13. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  14. LWR surveillance dosimetry improvement program: PSF metallurgical blind test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, F.B.K.; Maerker, R.E.; Stallmann, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    The metallurgical irradiation experiment at the Oak Ridge Research Reactor Poolside Facility (ORR-PSF) was designed as a benchmark to test the accuracy of radiation embrittlement predictions in the pressure vessel wall of light water reactors on the basis of results from surveillance capsules. The PSF metallurgical Blind Test is concerned with the simulated surveillance capsule (SSC) and the simulated pressure vessel capsule (SPVC). The data from the ORR-PSF benchmark experiment are the basis for comparison with the predictions made by participants of the metallurgical ''Blind Test''. The Blind Test required the participants to predict the embrittlement of the irradiated specimen based only on dosimetry and metallurgical data from the SSC1 capsule. This exercise included both the prediction of damage fluence and the prediction of embrittlement based on the predicted fluence. A variety of prediction methodologies was used by the participants. No glaring biases or other deficiencies were found, but neither were any of the methods clearly superior to the others. Closer analysis shows a rather complex and poorly understood relation between fluence and material damage. Many prediction formulas can give an adequate approximation, but further improvement of the prediction methodology is unlikely at this time given the many unknown factors. Instead, attention should be focused on determining realistic uncertainties for the predicted material changes. The Blind Test comparisons provide some clues for the size of these uncertainties. In particular, higher uncertainties must be assigned to materials whose chemical composition lies outside the data set for which the prediction formula was obtained. 16 references, 14 figures, 5 tables

  15. Thermo-ecological cost (TEC evaluation of metallurgical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Stanek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallurgy represents a complex production system of fuel and mineral non-renewable resources transformation. The effectiveness of resource management in metallurgical chains depends on the applied ore grade and on the irreversibility of components of the system. TEC can be applied to measure the influence of metallurgy on the depletion of natural resources. The paper discusses the possibility of application of TEC in metallurgy and presents illustrative example concerning blast-furnace process.

  16. Towards Representative Metallurgical Sampling and Gold Recovery Testwork Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C. Dominy

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available When developing a process flowsheet, the risks in achieving positive financial outcomes are minimised by ensuring representative metallurgical samples and high quality testwork. The quality and type of samples used are as important as the testwork itself. The key characteristic required of any set of samples is that they represent a given domain and quantify its variability. There are those who think that stating a sample(s is representative makes it representative without justification. There is a need to consider both (1 in-situ and (2 testwork sub-sample representativity. Early ore/waste characterisation and domain definition are required, so that sampling and testwork protocols can be designed to suit the style of mineralisation in question. The Theory of Sampling (TOS provides an insight into the causes and magnitude of errors that may occur during the sampling of particulate materials (e.g., broken rock and is wholly applicable to metallurgical sampling. Quality assurance/quality control (QAQC is critical throughout all programmes. Metallurgical sampling and testwork should be fully integrated into geometallurgical studies. Traditional metallurgical testwork is critical for plant design and is an inherent part of geometallurgy. In a geometallurgical study, multiple spatially distributed small-scale tests are used as proxies for process parameters. These will be validated against traditional testwork results. This paper focusses on sampling and testwork for gold recovery determination. It aims to provide the reader with the background to move towards the design, implementation and reporting of representative and fit-for-purpose sampling and testwork programmes. While the paper does not intend to provide a definitive commentary, it critically assesses the hard-rock sampling methods used and their optimal collection and preparation. The need for representative sampling and quality testwork to avoid financial and intangible losses is

  17. Highlights of the metallurgical behaviour of CANDU pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, E.G.

    1984-10-01

    This paper is an overview of the service induced metallurgical changes that take place in Zircaloy-2 and Zr-2.5 wt. percent Nb pressure tubes in CANDU reactors. It incorporates the findings of an evaluation program, that followed a significant pressure tube failure at Ontario Hydro's Pickering Nuclear Generating Station, and also provides valid reasons for continued confidence in the current CANDU design

  18. SECI model and facilitation in change management in metallurgical enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Grzybowska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Organisational change management is not efficient without gaining and sharing knowledge by the members of the enterprise. Both in the conditions of relative organisational stability and in organisational chaos resulting from dynamic introduction and management of changes there is a constant need of improvement and of shaping competences and distribution of knowledge in the enterprise. The publication presents key programs of building knowledge conducted in a metallurgical enterprise.

  19. TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project (VIP) Metallurgical Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.; Neimark, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Three Mile Island Unite 2 (TMI-2) Vessel Investigation Project Metallurgical Program is a part of the international TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project being conducted jointly by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The objectives of the metallurgical program are to deduce the temperatures of, determine the mechanical properties of, and assess the integrity of the TMI-2 lower head during the loss-of-coolant accident. Fifteen samples have been removed from the lower head and are being examined. In addition, archive material from the lower head of the Midland nuclear reactor has been procured for conducting supplemental metallurgical evaluations and mechanical property determinations. Evaluations of the microstructure and mechanical properties of the as-received archive material have been completed, and a series of heat treatment experiments has been conducted to develop standard microstructures to be compared with those present in the TMI-2 samples. Results have been obtained from examinations of two of the fifteen TMI-2 lower head samples. These results indicate that one of these two samples, which contained cracks in the weld cladding extending ∼3 mm into the underlying base metal, apparently reached temperatures on the order of 1000 to 1100C during the accident. A preliminary examination of the core debris deposited on this sample has been performed. The other sample, from an area away from the region of core relocation, did not exceed 727C during the accident

  20. TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project (VIP) Metallurgical Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.; Neimark, L.A.

    1990-06-01

    The TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project (VIP) Metallurgical Program is a part of the international TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project being conducting jointly by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The overall project consists of three phases, namely (1) recovery of material samples from the lower head of the TMI-2 reactor, (2) examination and analysis of the lower head samples and the preparation and testing of archive material subjected to a similar thermal history, and (3) procurement, examination, and analysis of companion core material located adjacent to or near the lower head material. The specific objectives of the ANL Metallurgical Program, which comprises a major portion of Phase 2, are to prepare metallographic and mechanical test specimen blanks from the TMI-2 lower head material, prepare similar test specimen blanks from suitable archive material subjected to the appropriate thermal processing, determine the mechanical properties of the lower vessel head and archive materials under the conditions of the core-melt accident, and assess the lower head integrity and margin-to-failure during the accident. The ANL work consists of three tasks: (1) archive materials program, (2) fabrication of metallurgical and mechanical test specimens from the TMI-2 pressure vessel samples, and (3) mechanical property characterization of TMI-2 lower pressure vessel head and archive material

  1. Mechanical fasteners used in historical Siberian shipbuilding: perspectives for metallurgical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, A. E.; Mednikov, D. M.; Karelin, N. M.; Nasyrov, I. R.

    2017-10-01

    Recent discoveries of shipwrecked vessels in the northern reaches of the river Yenisei led to a number of questions concerning the history of shipbuilding in Siberia and the technical features of the first vessels of the industrial era to navigate the Northern Sea Route and the Yenisei. One of these questions addresses the features of mechanical fasteners used in the construction of the Siberian vessels. The answer to this question may provide information on how the first vessels, constructed in Siberia during the 1870’s, were able to sail the high seas of the Arctic Ocean and reach European ports. In this paper, we provide a description of iron mechanical fasteners obtained from one shipwrecked vessel and discuss on the perspectives of a metallurgical analysis This research has been funded by a grant of the Russian Fund of Humanities Research (Russian Fund of Fundamental Research) and the Krasnoyarsk Regional Science Fund under Grant number 16-11-24010.

  2. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  3. The industrial city and its structural changes in local plans on the example of Ruda Śląska, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rysz Kamil

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the modern world, the subject of spatial planning is being increasingly raised by residents of municipalities - mainly because of the lack of a direct influence on the process of local development and aesthetics of the surroundings. Today, the primary objective of spatial planning is not only to form a proper connection between function and space but also to balance public and private interests. Constantly developed geographic spatial information systems allow not only for easy navigation around the city, but more importantly for more advanced analyses, such as the recognition of the current trends in estate development, communication systems, changes in agricultural and forest areas. The main objective of the research is to define functional-spatial links determined by social-economic needs reflected in local plans and to verify the similarities between local plans, that were drawn up in three different periods (PRL, the transition period, and in accordance with nowadays applicable laws, how the changing economic, social goals and current needs of the city affected the continuation of the adopted solutions. The study shows that despite changes in the law and abandoning the idea of industrial city, in which the landscape is dominated by blast furnaces and mine shafts, the basic trend has been maintained and local plans prepared in subsequent years form a continuum, and despite the different scales of development are closely linked. At the same time it has been shown that modern GIS tools enable verification of the continuity of spatial policy of the municipality.

  4. Environmental Analysis of The Impacts of Batik Waste Water Polution on The Quality of Dug Well Water in The Batik Industrial Center of Jenggot Pekalongan City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiyanto, Slamet; Anies; Purnaweni, Hartuti; Sunoko, Henna Rya

    2018-02-01

    The city of Pekalongan known as "Kota Batik" is one of Batik Industrial Centers in Indonesia with 917 batik industry. There are 203 batik industries located in Jenggot Village, which is the biggest batik industrial center in Pekalongan City. The process of making batik requires a dye derived from synthetic dyes containing heavy metals. Most of the waste is directly discharged into the environment without going through the processing first. This is due to the lack of optimal management of existing WWTP as well as lack of public awareness of environmental conservation. This condition has a negative impact on the surrounding community, especially in terms of environmental health. The result of measurement of 5 (five) batik industrial waste outlets and 5 point of batik waste water in residential sewer shows almost equal number for 3 (three) parameters of heavy metals Cd, Cr and Pb with average number: Cd 0.07 Mg / L, Cr 0.76 mg / L and Pb 0.78 mg / L. These three parameters exceed the maximum level of quality standard established by Government Regulation No.82 of 2001 on Water Quality Management and Water Pollution Control. The average result of the water quality measurement of the well digging population to the heavy metal content are: Cd 0,001 mg / L, Cr 0,002 mg / L and Pb 0.04 mg / L. Of the three parameters of heavy metals, heavy metals of Pb are on average higher than the maximum level of quality standards established by Decree of the Minister of Health Number. 492 / Menkes / Per / IV / 2010 regarding Water Quality Requirements. Potential occurrence of dug well water contamination due to infiltration of batik waste water is big enough. Survey results of 15 dug wells show that the construction of dug wells is not sufficient. There is a dug well with a damaged outer wall of 16.1%, damaged inner wall of 17.9% and a damaged well floor of 19.7%. Improper well construction impacts on the infiltration of batik waste water into the well. Survey results of physical well

  5. Pilgrimages to the museums of the new age: appropriating European industrial museums in New York City (1927–1937

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Jaume Sastre-Juan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available How did industrial museums cross the Atlantic? When the first American museums of science and industry were created in the 1920s, they looked to Europe in order to import what was seen at that time as a burgeoning cultural institution. In this article, I look at this process of appropriation through an analysis of the changing perceptions of European industrial museums as expressed in the reports, surveys and books written by the curators, directors and trustees of the New York Museum of Science and Industry. I will pay particular attention to the 1927 film Museums of the New Age, documenting the main national industrial museums in Europe, and to a 1937 report on the techniques of display at the Palais de la Découverte. I will argue that their contrasting assessment of European industrial museums, which in only ten years ceased to be seen as cathedrals of a new age to become old-fashioned storehouses, is symptomatic of the significant transformation of museums of science and industry as cultural institutions during the 1930s in the United States.

  6. The Effectiveness of Behavior Therapy and Symptoms of PTSD in Trauma Survivors Fire Accident in Industrial Pole of Shahid Babaie City Shazand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sadeghi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this present study was to the effectiveness of behavior therapy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and general health of in Trauma Survivors Fire Accident in Industrial Pole of Shahid Babaie City Shazand in 1387. Methods: The present plan study of experimental design with pre - and post - test method after the test. community study all the survivors industrial hub of fire martyr Babaie city shazand township to approach the census initial screening . 111 people , including the study sample of adults in post - traumatic stress disorder after the damage to the non - random sampling method available and chosen at random in 2 men's and 6 women's group exposure. at the beginning of the Check - List post - traumatic stress disorder , and public health , then 7 completed training session behavioral therapy group manner, and again in the final session by evaluated questionnaires. Results: Do intervention in increasing public health survivors and reduce the symptoms of post - traumatic stress disorder, anxiety , depression , the signs of physical and social function is effective survivors (p<0/0001. Conclusion: Psychological treatments to reduce the symptoms of post- traumatic stress disorder is effective in the survivors.

  7. PENGELOLAAN LINGKUNGAN INDUSTRI BERBASIS EKO-EFISIENSI DI KAWASAN SIMONGAN KOTA SEMARANG (An Ecological–Efficiency-based for Industrial Management in Simongan Areas, Semarang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenuri Zaenuri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan nntuk menganalisis bentuk-bentuk eko-efisiensi, serta keterkaitannya dengan pengelolaan lingkungan. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis secara deskriptif-komparatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan, bentuk eko-efisiensi yang dilakukan industri galvanis adalah recycle air limbah yang dihasilkan. Industri galvanis PMDN telah berhasil mendaur-ulang seluruh air limbah yang dihasilkan, sedangkan industri galvanis PMA berhasil mendaur-ulang sebanyak 1.742,2 m 3 atau 46,2 % air limbah yang dihasilkan pada tahun 2004 hingga mencapai 83,4% pada tahun 2008. Di samping itu, industri galvanis PMA telah berhasil mengelola limbah yang bernilai ekonomis, yakni zinc ash dan zinc dross selama kurun waktu 2006-2008, senilai Rp 3.488.910.000,00. Industri farmasi melakukan eko-efisiensi melalui program penghematan air, pemanfaatan kertas bekas untuk amplop gaji pegawai (reuse, penggunaan e-mail, dan pengelolaan barang bekas/limbah nonB3. Pemakaian air awal sebelum program penghematan rata-rata perbulan ± 10.000 m 3 (tahun 2000. Pemakaian air setelah program penghematan rata-rata perbulan ± 4.250 m 3 (tahun 2008 atau turun 57,5 %. Rata-rata penggunaan e-mail perbulan ± 2.500 email per bulan. Rata-rata penjualan barang bekas/ limbah nonB3 yang masih bernilai ekonomis (karton, plastik bekas, dll ± Rp 5.750.000,00 perbulan. Industri furniture menghasilkan limbah yang bernilai ekonomis, seperti serpihan kayu, serbuk gergaji, dan sisa potongan kayu. Setiap hari rata-rata dihasilkan 30 m 3 serpihan kayu, 12 m 3 serbuk gergaji, dan 7 m 3 sisa potongan kayu. Di samping itu, dihasilkan sisa karton dan gabus rata-rata 2 m 3 per hari. Industri tekstil pemintalan menghasilkan limbah kapas dan benang, serta limbah bekas packing kapas dan serat, masing-masing 40 ton dan 10 colt perbulan, dengan nilai Rp 220.000.000,00. Dengan melakukan eko-efisiensi perusahaan telah melakukan pengelolaan lingkungan (aspek ekologi untuk meraih efisiensi penggunaan

  8. HIT Solar Cells with N-Type Low-Cost Metallurgical Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A conversion efficiency of 20.23% of heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT solar cell on 156 mm × 156 mm metallurgical Si wafer has been obtained. Applying AFORS-HET software simulation, HIT solar cell with metallurgical Si was investigated with regard to impurity concentration, compensation level, and their impacts on cell performance. It is known that a small amount of impurity in metallurgical Si materials is not harmful to solar cell properties.

  9. Venous thromboembolism in an industrial north american city: temporal distribution and association with particulate matter air pollution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly H Chiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence, mainly from Europe and Asia, indicates that venous thromboembolism (VTE occurs most often in winter. Factors implicated in such seasonality are low temperature-mediated exacerbation of coagulation and high levels of particulate matter (PM air pollution. However, in contrast to most European and Asian cities, particulate matter pollution peaks in the summer in many North American cities. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to exploit this geographical difference and examine the temporal distribution of VTE in a cold-weather, North American city, Detroit, with a summer PM peak. Our goal was thereby to resolve the influence of temperature and PM levels on VTE. METHODS: Our retrospective, analytical semi-ecological study used chart review to confirm 1,907 acute, ambulatory VTE cases, divided them by location (Detroit versus suburban, and plotted monthly VTE frequency distributions. We used Environmental Protection Agency data to determine the temporal distribution of PM pollution components in Detroit. Suburban PM air pollution is presumed negligible and therefore not monitored. RESULTS: Acute VTE cases in Detroit (1,490 exhibited a summer peak (June 24(th and differed from both a uniform distribution (P<0.01 and also that of 1,123 no-VTE cases (P<0.02. Levels of 10 µm diameter PM and coarse particle (2.5 to 10 µm PM also exhibited summer peaks versus a winter peak for 2.5 µm diameter PM. Contrary to their urban counterparts, suburban cases of acute VTE (417 showed no monthly variation. CONCLUSIONS: The summer peak of acute VTE in Detroit indicates that low temperature is not a major factor in VTE pathogenesis. In contrast, concordance of the 10 µm diameter PM, coarse particle, and the Detroit VTE monthly distributions, combined with no monthly suburban VTE variation, is consistent with a role for PM pollution. Furthermore, divergence of the VTE and 2.5 µm PM distributions suggests that particle size may play a role.

  10. Discussion of the Investigation Method on the Reaction Kinetics of Metallurgical Reaction Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ruiling; Wu, Keng; Zhang, Jiazhi; Zhao, Yong

    Reaction kinetics of metallurgical physical chemistry which was successfully applied in metallurgy (as ferrous metallurgy, non-ferrous metallurgy) became an important theoretical foundation for subject system of traditional metallurgy. Not only the research methods were very perfect, but also the independent structures and systems of it had been formed. One of the important tasks of metallurgical reaction engineering was the simulation of metallurgical process. And then, the mechanism of reaction process and the conversion time points of different control links should be obtained accurately. Therefore, the research methods and results of reaction kinetics in metallurgical physical chemistry were not very suitable for metallurgical reaction engineering. In order to provide the definite conditions of transmission, reaction kinetics parameters and the conversion time points of different control links for solving the transmission and reaction equations in metallurgical reaction engineering, a new method for researching kinetics mechanisms in metallurgical reaction engineering was proposed, which was named stepwise attempt method. Then the comparison of results between the two methods and the further development of stepwise attempt method were discussed in this paper. As a new research method for reaction kinetics in metallurgical reaction engineering, stepwise attempt method could not only satisfy the development of metallurgical reaction engineering, but also provide necessary guarantees for establishing its independent subject system.

  11. 150 years of land degradation and development: loss of habitats, natural resources due to quarrying and industrialization followed by land reclamation in the heart of Budapest city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Ákos

    2017-04-01

    The urban development and land degradation is an accelerated process in the 21st century; however several examples are known when this happened in the past. A historic case study is discussed in this research when clump of three former small towns (named: Buda, Pest and Óbuda) became a million population city more than hundred years ago invoking significant land degradation, drastic and surprising changes in land use. Budapest which is now the capital of Hungary has seen rapid land use changes in the past 150 years especially from 1850'ies to early 20th century. The population of the city rapidly grown from the end of 19th century to early 20th century; i.e. it is tripled from 1880 to 1920 and reached nearly 1 million in 40 years. This population boom induced significant land degradation, changes in land use and loss of habitats. The paper presents examples how the land use has changed in the past 105 years with historic maps and interpreted cases suggesting different pathways leading to land degradation. The first one focuses on vineyards and grape cultivation and explains how these areas were first converted to limestone quarries to provide construction material to the city and then transformed to urban habitat in the early 20th century again. The cellars - former quarry galleries - than were used for housing (urban habitat) and later were used as storage facilities and mushroom cultivation sites. At present these subsurface openings cause high risk of land development (collapse) and limit the land use of the given area. The current paper also outlines the development of the city via the perspective of natural resources, since drinking water and industrial water need modified the land development and urbanization. Another example is also given how the brewery industry exploited natural resources and the surface water use was shifted to exploitation of karstic waters causing land degradation and drop of water table. Additional example demonstrates how the former

  12. Environmental management and educational needs of the small and medium-sized businesses of the metallurgical sector in the south region of Madrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urena, A.; Rams, J.; Mendez, F. J.; Rodriguez, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the environmental management and needs of the small and medium-sized businesses of the metallurgical industry in the south region of Madrid were analysed. Information was obtained through a telephone questionnaire distributed to more than 170 companies. Although most of the respondent employees do not consider environmental training one of their priorities, they expressed their interest in implementing Environmental Management Systems, waste minimization and higher knowledge of the specific legal aspects. (Author) 7 refs

  13. Suitability analysis of wind energy development on brownfields, landfills and industrial sites in the city of Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyodorova, Valeryia A.

    In 2011 renewable energy generated only about 5% of total U.S. electricity and 3% came from wind power. Wind power is the oldest and fastest growing renewable energy, and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) anticipates that by 2030 the potential of the U.S. to generate wind power will rise up to 20% (National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2008). Currently, the rural areas serve as the primary choice of wind turbine installation because there are less wind obstacles that create wind turbulence, which in turn is disruptive for the proper functioning of the wind turbines, and allows more laminar (streamline) wind flow. However according to various literatures, the installation of wind turbines in rural areas has its drawbacks. The infrastructure is underdeveloped and usually the selected sites require the construction of new roads and transmission lines. The new construction and occasional deforestation lead to soil erosion and environmental degradation. On top of that transporting energy to cities that are the primary consumers of wind energy results in energy transmission loss. Urban areas, on the other hand, have well developed infrastructure, and the installation of turbines on abandoned and contaminated urban lands which are expensive to clean and rehabilitate for other uses would lower installation costs and would have little environmental degradation effect. The objective of this research was to provide a preliminary wind power suitability analysis for installing medium (100 -1000 kW) and large (1000 - 3000 kW) size wind turbines in urban areas, such as city of Chicago. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and a multi attribute Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) method that is based on the concept of weighted average were primary tools utilized to conduct the analysis. The criteria that were used to select suitable sites were the same criteria used for rural wind farms, such as wind speeds, historic landmarks, avian and wildlife habitat, conservation lands, proximity

  14. The history of decisions on creation of nuclear and metallurgical complex on the basis of the Kola nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudrin B. I.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Some reasons for the choice of directions for using electric and thermal energy of the Kola nuclear power plant located beyond the Arctic Circle have been presented. The regions of the country and their large-scale industrial productions based on metallurgical enterprises have been indicated; the electrical supply of these enterprises is implemented from the Kola NPP. The results of research of energy inputs for the production of a ton of steel and cast iron have been presented. It has been determined that the main direction of technological modernization in the steel industry is avoiding the use of organic fuels (particularly in coke-blast furnace production as the most energy-intensive and its replacement with the technology of direct reduction of iron with hydrogen. As an alternative energy source for organic fuels the creation of a fuel-free nuclear-metallurgical electrified complex has been proposed. The principal scheme of the fuel-free nuclear-metallurgical electrified complex has been described, here the main novelty has a reducing gases preparation block giving the potential ability for creating waste-free process. It has been noted that this technology requires using high temperatures and solving technical problems related to heat resistance of constructions. Some examples of world research on the implementation of similar projects have been presented. It has been determined that the use of new technology will cause the need for optimization of power consumption structure due to the redistribution of capacity and electrical consumption between productions. The introduction of new technologies requires solving a number of problems on electric power supply and electrical equipment designing. It has been observed that on the Kola NPP large-scale reconstruction was carried out during the working period, it helped to increase its project capacity and extend the operation life. Nowadays the region has excess installed capacity that can be

  15. Fatigue analysis of a structure with welds considering metallurgical discontinuities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrillat, M.T.; Lejeail, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Within the frameworks of a creep-fatigue experimental program, called EVASION, thermo-mechanical tests were conducted on two mock-ups, the first one was fully machined and the second one welded and then machined (in order to eliminate geometrical discontinuities, thus only leaving metallurgical discontinuities). These two mock-ups were submitted to exactly the same loading history. Plastic analyses with a correct description of mechanical properties and fatigue strength of materials are conducted and compared with experimental results in order to highlight the influence of the weld. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Wear and corrosion performance of metallurgical coatings in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.N.; Farwick, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    The friction, wear, and corrosion performance of several metallurgical coatings in 200 to 650 0 C sodium are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on those coatings which have successfully passed the qualification tests necessary for acceptance in breeder reactor environments. Tests include friction, wear, corrosion, thermal cycling, self-welding, and irradiation exposure under as-prototypic-as-possible service conditions. Materials tested were coatings of various refractory metal carbides in metallic binders, nickel-base and cobalt-base alloys and intermetallic compounds such as the aluminides and borides. Coating processes evaluated included plasma spray, detonation gun, sputtering, spark-deposition, and solid-state diffusion

  17. Some results of medical researches at Ulba Metallurgical Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artemieva, G.I.; Novikov, V.G.; Savchuk, V.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant, Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The results of 45-years medical researches at beryllium production of Ulba Metallurgical Plant are summarized in this report. Statistic data on different kinds of occupational diseases, related to beryllium production and the dynamics of changing occupational diseases with the development of beryllium production, are given there. Data on average duration of life of occupational disease patients are presented in the report. It includes the description of problems, related to berylliosis diagnosis. Issues, connected to beryllium production effect on health of man, located nearby beryllium production are also discussed there as well. (author)

  18. Comparative metallurgical study of thick hard coatings without cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemendot, F.; Van Duysen, J.C.; Champredonde, J.

    1992-07-01

    Wear and corrosion of stellite type hard coatings for valves of the PWR primary system raise important problems of contamination. Substitution of these alloys by cobalt-free hard coatings (Colmonoy 4 and 4.26, Cenium 36) should allow to reduce this contamination. A comparative study (chemical, mechanical, thermal, metallurgical), as well as a corrosion study of these coatings were carried out. The results of this characterization show that none of the studied products has globally characteristics as good as those of grade 6 Stellite currently in service

  19. ALTERNATIVE BINDERS TO BENTONITE FOR IRON ORE PELLETIZING : PART II : EFFECTS ON METALLURGICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Sivrikaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was started to find alternative binders to bentonite and to recover the low preheated and fired pellet mechanical strengths of organic binders-bonded pellets. Bentonite is considered as a chemical impurity for pellet chemistry due to acid constituents (SiO2 and Al2O3. Especially addition of silica-alumina bearing binders is detrimental for iron ore concentrate with high acidic content. Organic binders are the most studied binders since they are free in silica. Although they yield pellets with good wet strength; they have found limited application in industry since they fail to give sufficient physical and mechanical strength to preheated and fired pellets. It is investigated that how insufficient preheated and fired pellet strengths can be improved when organic binders are used as binder. The addition of a slag bonding/strength increasing constituent (free in acidic contents into pellet feed to provide pellet strength with the use of organic binders was proposed. Addition of boron compounds such as colemanite, tincal, borax pentahydrate, boric acid together with organic binders such as CMC, starch, dextrin and some organic based binders, into magnetite and hematite pellet mixture was tested. After determining the addition of boron compounds is beneficial to recover the low pellet physical and mechanical qualities in the first part of this study, in this second part, metallurgical and chemical properties (reducibility - swelling index – microstructure – mineralogy - chemical content of pellets produced with combined binders (an organic binder plus a boron compound were presented. The metallurgical and chemical tests results showed that good quality product pellets can be produced with combined binders when compared with the bentonite-bonded pellets. Hence, the suggested combined binders can be used as binder in place of bentonite in iron ore pelletizing without compromising the pellet chemistry.

  20. Ergonomic analysis of workplaces in the iron casting industrial pole in Claudio, Minas Gerais--Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottin, Artur Caron; de Miranda, Carlos A Silva; Pagnan, Caroline Salvan; Monken, Olavo Pena

    2012-01-01

    Brazil is currently recognized as the 10th largest producer of castings, and the city of Cláudio, MG is known worldwide as the "Greatest foundry and metallurgical pole in Latin America", with more than 80 companies. However, this large number of enterprises and increasing investments in product development has demanded an increase in manpower and working hours of workers in the sector, proportionally increasing the incidence of occupational related health problems like RSI (repetitive strain injury), WMSDs (work-related musculoskeletal disorders) and industrial accidents. This article aims to characterize the industry from previously conducted case studies to relate the main causes of occupational diseases and outline possible interventions through design, showing how this tool can contribute to improve the working environment, workplace, tools and equipment through ergonomics adjustments.

  1. 500 Cities: City Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...

  2. Synergetic use of lignite fly ash and metallurgical converter slag in geopolymer concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Mucsi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The application and utilization of the industrial wastes and by-products in the construction industry is a key issue from an environmental and economic point of view. The increased use of lignite has substantially increased the available quantities of lignite fired power plant fly ash, which can be mainly classified as class C fly ash. The utilization of such raw material however has some difficulties. In the present paper lignite fired power station fly ash and metallurgical converter slag were used for the production of geopolymer concrete. The fly ash was used as a geopolymer based binder material, and a converter slag as aggregate, thus created a geopolymer concrete which contains mainly industrial wastes. As preliminary test experimental series were carried out using andesite as aggregate. The optimal aggregate/binder ratio was determined. The effect of the amount of alkaline activator solution in the binder, the aggregate type on the geopolymer concretes’ compressive strength and density was investigated. Furthermore, the physical properties - freeze-thaw resistance and particle size distribution - of the applied aggregates were measured as well. As a result of the experiments it was found that physical properties of the andesite and converter slag aggregate was close. Therefore andesite can be replaced by converter slag in the concrete mixture. Additionally, geopolymer concrete with nearly 20 MPa compressive strength was produced from class C fly ash and converter slag.

  3. Monitoring of airborne PM2.5 in the 3d and 4th industrial complex area of Daejeon city in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Yong Sam; Lim, Jong Myoung; Lee, Jin Hong

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research is to enhance the use of a nuclear analytical technique (instrumental neutron activation analysis) in the field of air pollution studies through a routine and long-term monitoring. For the collection of fine airborne particulate matter (<2.5 μm EAD), the Gent stacked filter unit (a low volume sampler) and polycarbonate membrane filters were employed. Samples were collected with selected sampling dates at the 3rd and 4th industrial complex of Daejeon city in Korea. Mass concentration of the air particulates was measured and the elemental content in the samples collected were analyzed by using INAA. Variations of the concentrations of the particulate matter and the enrichment factors for the elements analyzed were determined. From the monitoring data, a factor analysis was performed to identify and to classify the emission sources. (author)

  4. Genetic k-means clustering approach for mapping human vulnerability to chemical hazards in the industrialized city: a case study of Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weifang; Zeng, Weihua

    2013-06-20

    Reducing human vulnerability to chemical hazards in the industrialized city is a matter of great urgency. Vulnerability mapping is an alternative approach for providing vulnerability-reducing interventions in a region. This study presents a method for mapping human vulnerability to chemical hazards by using clustering analysis for effective vulnerability reduction. Taking the city of Shanghai as the study area, we measure human exposure to chemical hazards by using the proximity model with additionally considering the toxicity of hazardous substances, and capture the sensitivity and coping capacity with corresponding indicators. We perform an improved k-means clustering approach on the basis of genetic algorithm by using a 500 m × 500 m geographical grid as basic spatial unit. The sum of squared errors and silhouette coefficient are combined to measure the quality of clustering and to determine the optimal clustering number. Clustering result reveals a set of six typical human vulnerability patterns that show distinct vulnerability dimension combinations. The vulnerability mapping of the study area reflects cluster-specific vulnerability characteristics and their spatial distribution. Finally, we suggest specific points that can provide new insights in rationally allocating the limited funds for the vulnerability reduction of each cluster.

  5. Genetic k-Means Clustering Approach for Mapping Human Vulnerability to Chemical Hazards in the Industrialized City: A Case Study of Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Zeng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing human vulnerability to chemical hazards in the industrialized city is a matter of great urgency. Vulnerability mapping is an alternative approach for providing vulnerability-reducing interventions in a region. This study presents a method for mapping human vulnerability to chemical hazards by using clustering analysis for effective vulnerability reduction. Taking the city of Shanghai as the study area, we measure human exposure to chemical hazards by using the proximity model with additionally considering the toxicity of hazardous substances, and capture the sensitivity and coping capacity with corresponding indicators. We perform an improved k-means clustering approach on the basis of genetic algorithm by using a 500 m × 500 m geographical grid as basic spatial unit. The sum of squared errors and silhouette coefficient are combined to measure the quality of clustering and to determine the optimal clustering number. Clustering result reveals a set of six typical human vulnerability patterns that show distinct vulnerability dimension combinations. The vulnerability mapping of the study area reflects cluster-specific vulnerability characteristics and their spatial distribution. Finally, we suggest specific points that can provide new insights in rationally allocating the limited funds for the vulnerability reduction of each cluster.

  6. Justice in the Air: Tracking Toxic Pollution from America's Industries and Companies to Our States, Cities, and Neighborhoods

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Ash; James Boyce; Grace Chang; Justin Scoggins; Manuel Pastor

    2009-01-01

    This new environmental justice study, (co-authored by PERI’s James Boyce, Michael Ash, & Grace Chang, along with Manuel Pastor, Justin Scoggins, & Jennifer Tran of the Program for Environmental and Regional Equity at the University of Southern California) examines not only who receives the disproportionate share of toxic air releases -- low-income communities and people of color -- but who is releasing them. Justice in the Air: Tracking Toxic Pollution from America's Industries and Companies ...

  7. Ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency programs in a restructuredelectri city industry: Issues and options for regulators andlegislators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph; Goldman, Charles; Nadel, Stephen

    1998-05-01

    Electric industry restructuring requires state regulators and legislators to re-examine the purposes served by and the continuing need for ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency programs, as well as the mechanisms to collect funds for these programs and the institutions appropriate to administer them. This paper offers background to these issues and a series of recommendations based on analysis of recent state experiences. Our recommendations are summarized.

  8. Analysis of PAEs contaminants in water sources for agriculture, industrial and residential areas from local city district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qidan; Chen, Qixian; Wu, Fei; Liao, Jia; Zhao, Xi

    2018-02-01

    The technology of DEHP and DBP detection by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was developed and applied in analysis of local water sources from agriculture, industrial and residential areas. Under the optimized sample pretreatment and detection conditions, DEHP and DBP were well separated and detected in 4 mins. The detection limit of DBP was 0.002 mg/L and DEHP was 0.006 mg/L, and it meets the Chinese National Standard limitations for drinking water quality. The linear correlation coefficient of DBP and DEHP standard calibration curves was 0.9998 and 0.9995. The linear range of DBP was 0.020 mg/L ∼20.0 mg/L, with the standard deviation of 0.560% ∼5.07%, and the linear range of DEHP was 0.060 mg/L ∼15.0 mg/L, with the standard deviation of 0.546% ∼5.74%. Ten water samples from Jinwan district of Zhuhai in Guangdong province of China were analyzed. However, the PAEs amounts found in the water sources from industrial areas were higher than the agriculture and residential areas, industries grow incredibly fast in the district in recently years and more attention should be paid to the increasing risks of water sources pollution.

  9. PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB in the ambient air of a tropical Andean city: passive and active sampling measurements near industrial and vehicular pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, J; González, C M; Morales, L; Abalos, M; Abad, E; Aristizábal, B H

    2014-09-01

    Concentration gradients were observed in gas and particulate phases of PCDD/F originating from industrial and vehicular sources in the densely populated tropical Andean city of Manizales, using passive and active air samplers. Preliminary results suggest greater concentrations of dl-PCB in the mostly gaseous fraction (using quarterly passive samplers) and greater concentrations of PCDD/F in the mostly particle fraction (using daily active samplers). Dioxin-like PCB predominance was associated with the semi-volatility property, which depends on ambient temperature. Slight variations of ambient temperature in Manizales during the sampling period (15°C-27°C) may have triggered higher concentrations in all passive samples. This was the first passive air sampling monitoring of PCDD/F conducted in an urban area of Colombia. Passive sampling revealed that PCDD/F in combination with dioxin-like PCB ranged from 16 WHO-TEQ2005/m(3) near industrial sources to 7 WHO-TEQ2005/m(3) in an intermediate zone-a reduction of 56% over 2.8 km. Active sampling of particulate phase PCDD/F and dl-PCB were analyzed in PM10 samples. PCDD/F combined with dl-PCB ranged from 46 WHO-TEQ2005/m(3) near vehicular sources to 8 WHO-TEQ2005/m(3) in the same intermediate zone, a reduction of 83% over 2.6 km. Toxic equivalent quantities in both PCDD/F and dl-PCB decreased toward an intermediate zone of the city. Variations in congener profiles were consistent with variations expected from nearby sources, such as a secondary metallurgy plant, areas of concentrated vehicular emissions and a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI). These variations in congener profile measurements of dioxins and dl-PCBs in passive and active samples can be partly explained by congener variations expected from the various sources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Control and metallurgical examination on safety injection piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thebault, Y.; Grandjean, Y.; Gauthier, V.; Lambert, B.; Debustcher, B.

    1998-01-01

    From 1992 until 1997, cracking phenomena by thermal fatigue regarding safety injection piping were evidenced on several PWR 900 MW reactors. These events led EDF to the implementation of a first maintenance programme. In December 1996, a new leak occurred on an EDF 900 MW PWR in operation and was located on a safety injection pipe. In site inspections and metallurgical examinations carried out in the EDF hot Laboratory evidenced defects inside the pipe, out of the welding areas. These degradations are the consequence of a fatigue cracking phenomenon with thermal cycling linked to permanent tensile stresses. Following this incident, a programme of non destructive testing was implemented on all the EDF 900 MW plants. These inspections exhibited the same defects on other PWR 900 MW units. The results of the metallurgical examinations and also in site inspection results allowed EDF to understand the phenomenon and to validate an inspection programme on the one hand and a modification of the design of the circuits on the other hand. (authors)

  11. LWR surveillance dosimetry improvement program: PSF metallurgical blind test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, F.B.K.; Stallmann, F.W.; Guthrie, G.; McElroy, W.N.

    1985-01-01

    The ORR-PSF benchmark experiment was designed to simulate the surveillance capsule-pressure vessel configuration in power reactors and to test the validity of procedures which determine the radiation damage in the vessel from test results in the surveillance capsule. The PSF metallurgical blind test was initiated to give participants an opportunity to test their current embrittlement prediction methodologies. Experimental results were withheld from the participants except for the type of information which is normally contained in surveillance reports. Preliminary analysis of the PSF metallurgical blind test results shows that: (1) current prediction methodologies, as used by the PSF Blind Test participants, are adequate, falling within +- 20 0 C of the measured values for Δ NDT. None of the different methods is clearly superior; (2) the proposed revision of Reg. Guide 1.99 (Rev. 2) gives a better representation of the fluence and chemistry dependency of Δ NDT than the current version (Rev. 1); and (3) fluence rate effects can be seen but not quantified. Fluence spectral effects are too small to be detectable in this experiment. (orig.)

  12. Analytical study of getting clinker from metallurgical wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Петрович Кравченко

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The opportunities to get clinker (cement on the basis of 2-component mixtures of raw materials: waste slag + limestone (less than 10mm fraction unsuitable for sinter production and being a technological waste of preparing raw materials for steel production have been investigated. Chemical compositions of waste slag and limestone wastes were investigated in the central laboratory at the Illych plant. The waste slag was got at the «Ilyich» plant while waste limestone - less than 10 mm fraction - was got in the dumps of the mine group in Komsomolsk. Taking into account chemical composition fluctuations of the waste dump slags and limestone within a few percent, the optimal ratio of raw materials is 55-65% limestone waste, while it is 35-45% waste slag. The clinker quality is evaluated by its hydraulic module, which is equal to: m = 2,37 and is determined on the basis of the chemical composition of the 2-component raw material mixture. For this method of clinker production, the value of the hydraulic module is rather high; and the possibility of obtaining high-quality clinker of metallurgical wastes has been confirmed. The offered method for producing clinker makes it possible to utilize metallurgical wastes and to get substantial ecological and economic benefits

  13. Energy conservation and efficiency in Giprokoks designs at Ukrainian ferrous-metallurgical enterprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.I. Fal' kov [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Energy conditions at Ukrainian ferrous-metallurgical enterprises are analyzed. Measures to boost energy conservation and energy efficiency are proposed: specifically, the introduction of systems for dry slaking of coke; and steam-gas turbines that employ coke-oven gas or a mixture of gases produced at metallurgical enterprises. Such turbines may be built from Ukrainian components.

  14. An Overview of Mexico’s Medical Tourism Industry: The Cases of Mexico City and Monterrey. version 1.0

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez, Emanuel Orozco; Arias, Rosa María Bejarano; Martínez, Matilde Elizabeth Aguilar; Larios, José Arturo Ruiz; Crooks, Valorie; Labonté, Ronald; Snyder, Jeremy; Nigenda, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    In this report we offer some general information on Mexico and its health system before going into detail about key developments in its medical tourism industry. Complementing the main text, nine Appendices provide additional detailed insights. Appendix 1 offers a synthesis of media coverage of medical tourism in Mexico City’s main newspapers in recent years, while Appendix 2 is a synthesis of media coverage of 2 | P a g e medical tourism in Monterrey. In Appendix 3 we share a summary of poli...

  15. Environmental Analysis of The Impacts of Batik Waste Water Polution on The Quality of Dug Well Water in The Batik Industrial Center of Jenggot Pekalongan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiyanto Slamet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The city of Pekalongan known as "Kota Batik" is one of Batik Industrial Centers in Indonesia with 917 batik industry. There are 203 batik industries located in Jenggot Village, which is the biggest batik industrial center in Pekalongan City. The process of making batik requires a dye derived from synthetic dyes containing heavy metals. Most of the waste is directly discharged into the environment without going through the processing first. This is due to the lack of optimal management of existing WWTP as well as lack of public awareness of environmental conservation. This condition has a negative impact on the surrounding community, especially in terms of environmental health. The result of measurement of 5 (five batik industrial waste outlets and 5 point of batik waste water in residential sewer shows almost equal number for 3 (three parameters of heavy metals Cd, Cr and Pb with average number: Cd 0.07 Mg / L, Cr 0.76 mg / L and Pb 0.78 mg / L. These three parameters exceed the maximum level of quality standard established by Government Regulation No.82 of 2001 on Water Quality Management and Water Pollution Control. The average result of the water quality measurement of the well digging population to the heavy metal content are: Cd 0,001 mg / L, Cr 0,002 mg / L and Pb 0.04 mg / L. Of the three parameters of heavy metals, heavy metals of Pb are on average higher than the maximum level of quality standards established by Decree of the Minister of Health Number. 492 / Menkes / Per / IV / 2010 regarding Water Quality Requirements. Potential occurrence of dug well water contamination due to infiltration of batik waste water is big enough. Survey results of 15 dug wells show that the construction of dug wells is not sufficient. There is a dug well with a damaged outer wall of 16.1%, damaged inner wall of 17.9% and a damaged well floor of 19.7%. Improper well construction impacts on the infiltration of batik waste water into the well. Survey results

  16. A Detailed Analysis of Aerosols Containing Zn, Pb, and Cl from an Industrial Region of Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffet, R. C.; Desyaterik, Y.; Hopkins, R. J.; Tivanski, A. V.; Gilles, M. K.; Shutthanandan, V.; Molina, L. T.; Gonzalez-Abraham, R.; Johnson, K. S.; Mugica, V.; Molina, M. J.; Laskin, A.; Prather, K. A.

    2008-12-01

    Measurements in the Northern Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the March, 2006 MILAGRO campaign revealed the frequent appearance of particles with a characteristically high content of internally mixed Zn, Pb, Cl, and P. A detailed analysis of the chemical and physical properties of these particles was performed using a complementary combination of aerosol measurement techniques. Single particles were analyzed using Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (ATOFMS) and Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (CCSEM/EDX). Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) analysis of bulk aerosol samples provided time-resolved mass concentrations of individual elements. The PIXE measurements indicated that Zn is more strongly correlated with Cl than with any other element and that Zn concentrations are higher than other non-ferrous transition metals. The Zn- and Pb - containing particles have both spherical and non-spherical morphologies. Many metal rich particles had needle-like structures and were found to be composed of ZnO and/or Zn(NO3)2-6H2O as indicated by scanning transmission x-ray microscopy/near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). The Zn and Pb rich particles were primarily in the submicron size range and internally mixed with elemental carbon. The unique chemical associations most closely match signatures acquired for garbage incineration.

  17. Identification of emission sources of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the industrial zone of the city of Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovčić Nataša S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in ambient air accessed at selected locations in the vicinity of the industrial zone of the city of Novi Sad, Serbia, have been presented and analyzed in order to determine seasonal and spatial variations and to identify emission sources of particle-bound PAHs. Previous studies have demonstrated that the major contributors of PAHs in urban areas are the emissions from vehicle exhaust, and emissions releases from industrial processes like aluminium production, creosote and wood preservation, waste incineration, cement manufacture, petrochemical and related industries, commercial heat/power production etc. The sampling campaigns have been conducted at three sampling sites, during the two 14-day periods. The first site was situated near industrial area, with a refinery, power plant and heavy-traffic road in the vicinity. The second site was located nearby the heavy traffic area, especially busy during the rush hour. The third site was residential district. Summer sampling period lasted from June 26th to July 10th 2008, while sampling of ambient air during the winter was undertaken from January 22nd to February 5th 2009. Eighty-four (84 air samples were collected using a high volume air sampler TCR Tecora H0649010/ECHO. 16 US EPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in all samples using a gas chromatographer with a mass spectrometer as a detector (Shimatzu MDGC/GCMS-2010. The total average concentrations of PAHs ranged from 1.21 to 1.77 ng/m3 during the summer period and from 6.31 to 7.25 ng/m3 in the winter. Various techniques, including diagnostic ratio (DR and principal component analysis (PCA, have been used to define and evaluate potential emission sources of PAHs. Diagnostic ratio analysis indicated that vehicles, diesel or/and gasoline, industrial and combustion emissions were sources of PAHs in the vicinity of the industrial zone. Additionally, principal component analysis was used

  18. Spatial distribution, environmental risk and source of heavy metals in street dust from an industrial city in semi-arid area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Xiufeng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental risks associated with Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in street dust collected from Baotou, a medium-sized industrial city in a semi-arid area of northwest China, were assessed by using enrichment factor and the potential ecological index. Their spatial distributions and sources in the dust were analyzed on the basis of geostatistical methods and multivariate statistical analysis, respectively. The results indicate that street dust in Baotou has elevated heavy metal concentrations, especially of Co, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. Co in the dust was significantly enriched. Cr and Pb were from moderate to significant enrichment. Cu and Zn were from minimal to moderate enrichment, whereas Mn, Ni and V in the dust were from deficient to minimal enrichment. The ecological risk levels of Co and Pb in the dust were moderate to considerable and low to moderate, respectively, whereas those of other heavy metals studied in the dust presented low ecological risk. Different distribution patterns were found among the analyzed heavy metals. Three main sources of these heavy metals were identified. Cr, Mn, Ni and V originated from nature and industrial activities. Cu, Pb and Zn derived mainly from traffic sources, and Co was mainly from construction sources.

  19. Controller: a view about the textile industry of the Brás region in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Augusto Orsi Araujo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a highly competitive environment with internal and external competition, the Brazilian textile sector faces difficulties to maintain its activities and has the growth prospects affected. This scenario is strengthened when evaluating the small and medium enterprises. In this way, the company that has some concern with the structure of its management, through concepts presented by the comptroller, achieves some prominence in the industry and remain competitive. Thus, the present study sought to identify the perceptions of industry managers about the Controllership and verify if this area is part of the business, albeit informally, in the companies surveyed. There were 41 managers interviewed from clothing companies established in the Brás region, in São Paulo city. The questionnaire was closed and the responses were collected manually, on-site, from April 28 to May 6, 2014. The main findings of the study shows that there is awareness about the importance of Controllership in the organization, the companies use some type of control, even though by paper or spreadsheets, but there is concern in develop and implement software to improve the management. 

  20. Sulfur dioxide concentration measurements in the vicinity of the Albert Funk mining and metallurgical plant complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M

    1976-01-01

    This article discusses the ambient air concentration of sulfur dioxide in the area of Freiberg, GDR. The emission of sulfur dioxide results for the most part from brown coal combustion in heat and power plants and in metallurgical plants. Sulfur dioxide emission from neighboring industrial centers such as Dresden and North Bohemian towns affects the Freiburg area to some extent. The use of brown coal in household heating contributes an average of 50 kg of sulfur dioxide emission per coal burning household annually. A total of 1260 measurements at 28 points in the vicinity of Freiberg were made in the year 1972 in evaluating the concentration of sulfur dioxide present in the air. In 75% of the measurements the concentrations were below 0.15 mg/mat3, in 12% between 0.15 and 0.2 mg/mat3, in 7% between 0.2 and 0.3 mg/mat3 and in 6% between 0.3 and 0.5 mg/mat3. The results are described as average industrial pollution. The influence of air temperature, wind velocity, fog, season and time of day are also discussed. (4 refs.) (In German)

  1. Silver recovery from zinc metallurgical sludge – analysis of solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietrzyk Stanisław

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the hydrometallurgical process of zinc production, conducted in the ZGH “Bolesław” S.A. in Bukowno [Mine and Metallurgical Plant], about 40,000 tons of sludge is generated. After dehydration in the Larox filter presses, sludge contains ca. 16-18% of Zn, 20-25% of Fe, and 200-300 ppm of Ag. Next, sludge is transported to the Olkusz concentrator for flotation to obtain concentrate enriched with Ag (1,000-1,500 ppm. The concentrate is then sent to the HC “Miasteczko Śląskie” [zinc smelter], while the flotation tailings are subjected to recycling in waelz kiln in Bukowno to regain mainly Zn and Pb, in the form of oxides (also sent later to the HC “Miasteczko Śląskie”.

  2. Powder metallurgical high performance materials. Proceedings. Volume 4: late papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneringer, G; Roedhammer, P; Wildner, H [eds.

    2001-07-01

    This is the fourth volume (late papers) of the 15th International Plansee seminar 2001 which general theme was 'Powder metallurgical high performance materials'. The seminar looked beyond the refractory metals and cemented carbides, which remain as its focus, to novel classes of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, with potential for high temperature applications. This volume 4 contains papers dealing with high performance P/M metals (ITER and fusion reactors, solid targets, materials microstructure, novel alloys, etc.), P/M hard materials ( production and characterization, tungsten carbides, titanium carbides, microstructural design, coatings composition and performance, etc.) and general topics. From 37 papers 24 correspond to INIS subject scope and they were indexed separately. (nevyjel)

  3. Integrated Multimotor Electrical DC Drive for Metallurgical Rolling Table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gała Marek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A drive system of a section of a metallurgical rolling table consisting of six dc motors, 2220 amperes of total current, fed from a single ABB reversible thyristor converter has been described in this paper. Autonomous excitation circuits of the motors are fed from independent thyristor converters working in the so called MULTIFEX system linked with a supervisory high power converter. There are presented schemes of the DSL communication realized by FEX excitation cards of the motors using the SDSC card of the DCS-800-S02 converter and logic control system based on a PLC controller. The parameterization of the DCS-800 converter and the DCF 803 excitation systems was conducted using the DriveWindow software tool. Significant waveforms of voltages, currents and the estimated motor velocity are described and presented for the idle run as well as during transporting sheets discharged from a pusher furnace.

  4. Characterization of Nanocarbon Copper Composites Manufactured in Metallurgical Synthesis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knych, Tadeusz; Kwaśniewski, Paweł; Kiesiewicz, Grzegorz; Mamala, Andrzej; Kawecki, Artur; Smyrak, Beata

    2014-08-01

    Currently, there is a worldwide search for new forms of materials with properties that are significantly improved in comparison to materials currently in use. One promising research direction lies in the synthesis of metals containing modern carbon materials ( e.g., graphene, nanotubes). In this article, the research results of metallurgical synthesis of a mixture of copper and two different kinds of carbon (activated carbon and multiwall carbon nanotubes) are shown. Samples of copper-carbon nanocomposite were synthesized by simultaneously exposing molten copper to an electrical current while vigorously stirring and adding carbon while under an inert gas atmosphere. The article contains research results of density, hardness, electrical conductivity, structure (TEM), and carbon decomposition (SIMS method) for the obtained materials.

  5. Metallurgical aspects of corrosion resistance of aluminium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, M.C. [Pechiney Voreppe Research Centre France (France); CNRS-INP Grenoble, SIMAP-INP Grenoble, Universite France, Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Baroux, B. [SIMAP-INP, Grenoble University, 1130 rue de la piscine, Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)

    2011-03-15

    Aluminium is the second most often used metal after steel. In this paper, the most current uses of aluminium alloys are first summarised. Then, their different corrosion modes, i.e. pitting, crevice, filiform, galvanic and structural corrosion (including inter-granular, exfoliation and stress corrosion cracking) are reviewed, with particular attention paid to metallurgical factors controlling the corrosion process. For each mode, some instances of possible in-service failure are given, followed by the discussion of the involved mechanisms and the presentation of appropriate solutions to prevent corrosion. Last, passivity and polarisation behaviour are discussed with reference to stainless steels. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Cryogenic treatment of steel: from concept to metallurgical understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Matteo; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2017-01-01

    , the metallurgical understanding of the microstructural changes involved in cryogenic treatment of steel has remained poor. It is believed that the improvement in wear resistance is promoted by an enhanced precipitation of carbides during tempering, but no explanation has been given as to how this enhanced......Subjecting steel to cryogenic treatment to improve its properties was conceived in the 30ies of the previous century. The proof of concept that properties, in particular wear resistance, can indeed be improved importantly, was reported in the next decades. Despite many investigations...... precipitation can be obtained. In the last six years, the authors have applied in situ magnetometry, synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction and dilatometry to enlighten the phase transitions occurring in steels at cryogenic temperatures and to point out the connection between different treatment parameters...

  7. Powder metallurgical high performance materials. Proceedings. Volume 4: late papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneringer, G.; Roedhammer, P.; Wildner, H.

    2001-01-01

    This is the fourth volume (late papers) of the 15th International Plansee seminar 2001 which general theme was 'Powder metallurgical high performance materials'. The seminar looked beyond the refractory metals and cemented carbides, which remain as its focus, to novel classes of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, with potential for high temperature applications. This volume 4 contains papers dealing with high performance P/M metals (ITER and fusion reactors, solid targets, materials microstructure, novel alloys, etc.), P/M hard materials ( production and characterization, tungsten carbides, titanium carbides, microstructural design, coatings composition and performance, etc.) and general topics. From 37 papers 24 correspond to INIS subject scope and they were indexed separately. (nevyjel)

  8. Centrifugal Casting Features/Metallurgical Characterization of Aluminum Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirita, G.; Soares, D.; Cruz, D.; Silva, F. S.; Stefanescu, I.

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of centrifugal effects on aluminium castings under high G values. Most of the studies in this domain (FGMs obtained by centrifugal casting) deal with functionally graded composites reinforced with a solid phase such as silicon particles or others. However, in this study it will be shown that unreinforced aluminium alloys may be significantly influenced by the centrifugal effect and that functionally graded castings are also obtained. It has been observed that the centrifugal effect may increase in some alloys, depending on the relative position in the castings, the rupture strength by approx. 50%, and rupture strain by about 300%, as compared to the gravity casting technique. The Young's modulus may also increase by about 20%. It has also been reported that in vertical centrifugal castings there are mainly three aspects that affect the components thus obtained, namely: fluid dynamics; vibration (inherent to the system); and centrifugal force. These features have a different effect on the castings depending on the aluminium alloy. In this paper, an analysis of the most important effects of the centrifugal casting process on metallurgical features is conducted. A solidification characterization at several points along the mould will be made in order to have an accurate idea of both the fluid dynamics inside the mould during the casting and the solidification behavior in different parts of the component. These two analyses will be related to the metallurgical properties (phase distribution; SDAS; eutectic silicon content and shape, pores density and shape) along the component and mainly along the direction of the centrifugal pressure. A comparison between castings obtained by both centrifugal casting technique and gravity casting technique is made for reference (gravity casting)

  9. Environment, gas and city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Here are given all the advantages of natural gas among the others energies sources to avoid air pollution in cities. Pollution, energy economy, energy control are actions of environmental policy of natural gas industry in France

  10. Use of brownfield trust for revitalising a petrochemical industry and a large contaminated site in the city of Montreal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaulieu, M. [Quebec Ministry of the Environment (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    One part, a 210 000 m{sup 2} property including the former refinery, was sold to Kemtech Petrochemical Corporation Inc. (Kemtech). Instead of resuming Gulf activities, refining petroleum hydrocarbons, Kemtech modified the plant to produce para-xylene from naphta. To accomplish that, Kemtech was financially backed by diverse banks and by the Quebec Government. By1991, Kemtech financial situation had seriously deteriorated. The company finally went out of business, leaving behind the property, the plant and the workers. A preliminary assessment pictured a site in a poor condition, with not only a lot of abandoned surface waste and equipment waiting to be manage but also heavily contaminated soil and groundwater. The limited data suggested that if could cost as much as 100 million dollar Can. to restore the site. When this became known, the potential buyers vanished, as well as all the Kemtech preferential creditors which preferred to renounce any claim on this piece of property (and the recovery of their loans) instead of facing the risk to have to cleanup the site. The government, as one of the lender, was left alone to face the problem. If the property could not be sold, the Quebec would end up not only burying a once profitable economic activity but also having the responsibility to secure the site and address its contamination. Facing losses on all side, Quebec looked for an original solution. This solution consisted in creating a Brownfield Trust. Through that mechanism, the Quebec government was able to attract an investor to restart the Kemtech plant, create 250 jobs, realise a soil and groundwater assessment, clean up surface waste, elaborate and apply a program allowing the recovery of contaminated groundwater and start the contaminated soil clean up. Moreover, two other related industries were build later on or close to the Kemtech site, bringing to the area 750 millions Can. dollars investment. The conference will explain what was done at the Kemtech site

  11. Estimation of metallurgical parameters of flotation process from froth visual features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Massinaei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of metallurgical parameters of flotation process from froth visual features is the ultimate goal of a machine vision based control system. In this study, a batch flotation system was operated under different process conditions and metallurgical parameters and froth image data were determined simultaneously. Algorithms have been developed for measuring textural and physical froth features from the captured images. The correlation between the froth features and metallurgical parameters was successfully modeled, using artificial neural networks. It has been shown that the performance parameters of flotation process can be accurately estimated from the extracted image features, which is of great importance for developing automatic control systems.

  12. Surface water quality in a water run-off canal system: A case study in Jubail Industrial City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Mahmood Siddiqi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Water quality in a run-off canal system in an industrial area was evaluated for a range of physical and chemical properties comprising trace metals (including mercury (Hg, chromium (Cr, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, salinity, pH, turbidity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and dissolved oxygen. High concentrations of potassium (K (1.260–2.345 mg/l and calcium (Ca (19.170–35510 mg/l demonstrated that the salinity in the water was high, which indicates that industrial effluents from fertilizer manufacturing and Chlor-alkali units are being discharged into the canal system. Almost all the metal concentrations in water and sediment were within the thresholds established by the local regulatory body. Concentrations of Cr (0.0154–0.0184 mg/l, Mn (0.0608–0.199 mg/l, Fe (0.023–0.035 mg/l, COD (807–916 mg/l, and turbidity (633 ± 15–783 ± 22 NTU were high where the canal discharges into the Persian Gulf; these discharges may compromise the health of the aquatic ecosystem. There is concern about the levels of Hg in water (0.00135–0.0084 mg/l, suspended sediment (0.00308–0.0096 mg/l, and bed sediment (0.00172–0.00442 mg/l because of the bio-accumulative nature of Hg. We also compared the total Hg concentrations in fish from Jubail, and two nearby cities. Hg contents were highest in fish tissues from Jubail. This is the first time that heavy metal pollution has been assessed in this water run-off canal system; information about Hg is of particular interest and will form the basis of an Hg database for the area that will be useful for future investigations.

  13. Monitoring of Lead (Pb) Pollution in Soils and Plants Irrigated with Untreated Sewage Water in Some Industrialized Cities of Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, R; Nayyar, V K

    2016-04-01

    Soil and plant samples were collected from sewage and tubewell irrigated sites from three industrially different cities of Punjab (India) viz. Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Malerkotla. The extent of lead (Pb) pollution was assessed with respect to background concentration of tubewell irrigation. In sewage irrigated surface soil layer (0-15 cm), the extent of Pb accumulation was 4.61, 4.20 and 2.26 times higher than those receiving tubewell irrigation sites in Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Malerkotla, respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that soil pH, organic carbon, calcium carbonate and clay were significant soil parameters explaining the variation in available soil Pb. The mean Pb content in plants receiving sewage irrigation was 4.56, 5.48 and 2.72 times higher than tubewell irrigation in Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Malerkotla, respectively. The content of Pb in plants receiving sewage irrigation revealed that, assuming a weekly consumption of 500-1000 g of vegetables grown on sewage irrigated soils by an adult of 70 kg body weight, the Pb intake may far exceed the World Health Organization proposed tolerable weekly intake of Pb.

  14. Metal Exposure and Associated Health Risk to Human Beings by Street Dust in a Heavily Industrialized City of Hunan Province, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyi Sun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-five urban street dust samples were collected from Zhuzhou, an industrial city in central China and analyzed for a range of toxic elements. Potential carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health effects on children and adults due to exposure to street dust were assessed. Concerning the two subgroups, the child cohort is confronted with considerably greater health risks than adults. According to the Hazard Quotient (HQ method, ingestion of dust particles poses primary risk to children and adults, followed by dermal contact and inhalation for all of the metals investigated except Hg, for which inhalation of its elemental vapor constitute a slightly higher risk than ingestion. For children, Pb, As, Cd, Cr, Hg and Sb exposure were deemed as the highest contributors to non-cancer health risks, while As and Cr represent an enhanced cancer risk for children. For adults, risk indicator values for both cancer and non-cancer effects obtained were within the safety threshold. In a comparison with other locations within and outside mainland China, exposure to arsenic is prominent for the population of Zhuzhou, indicating more attention and preventive actions should been taken.

  15. Preliminary results of NAPL contamination in a disused industry in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, by radon evaluation with CR-39 detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateus, Crislene; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu

    2015-01-01

    Contaminated sites by NAPL (Non-Aqueous Phase-Liquids) may lead to safety risks to human health and to ecosystems, restrictions to urban development and decrease of real estate value. This work used the radon gas as an indicator for the analysis of subsurface soil gas, once this noble gas presents good solubility in a wide range of NAPL, being partially retained in the NAPL contamination. Therefore, a decrease of the activity of radon in the contaminated soil gas can be expected, due to the high capacity of partitioning of radon in NAPL, which allows that the NAPL retain part of the radon previously available in the soil pores. The survey was carried out at a disused industry, contaminated by low volatile NAPL, located at east of Sao Paulo city, in March/2015. Radon was evaluated by passive detection methodology with CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). Radon concentrations for the eight monitoring stations at non-contaminated locations in March/2015 varied from 16.4 ± 1.2 kBq.m -3 to 55 ± 4 kBq.m -3 . For the two monitoring stations assumed as contaminated locations in March/2015, radon concentrations were 1.17 ± 0.08 kBq.m -3 and 4.2 ± 0.3 kBq.m -3 , diminished in a range from 92% to 98% when compared with the results for the non-contaminated areas. (author)

  16. Occurrence and removal of antibiotics, hormones and several other pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment plants of the largest industrial city of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Shishir Kumar; Kim, Hyeong Woo; Oh, Jeong-Eun; Park, Hung-Suck

    2011-09-15

    Occurrence and removal efficiencies of 20 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) including antibiotics, hormones, and several other miscellaneous pharmaceuticals (analgesics, antiepileptics, antilipidemics, antihypertensives, antiseptics, and stimulants) were investigated in five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of Ulsan, the largest industrial city of Korea. The compounds were extracted from wastewater samples by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The results showed that acetaminophen, atenolol and lincomycin were the main individual pollutants usually found in concentrations over 10 μg/L in the sewage influent. In the WWTPs, the concentrations of analgesic acetaminophen, stimulant caffeine, hormones estriol and estradiol decreased by over 99%. On the contrary, the antibiotic sulfamethazine, the antihypertensive metoprolol, and the antiepileptic carbamazepine exhibited removal efficiencies below 30%. Particularly, removal of antibiotics was observed to vary between -11.2 and 69%. In the primary treatment (physico-chemical processes), the removal of pharmaceuticals was insignificant (up to 28%) and removal of majority of the pharmaceuticals occurred during the secondary treatment (biological processes). The compounds lincomycin, carbamazepine, atenolol, metoprolol, and triclosan showed better removal in WWTPs employing modified activated sludge process with co-existence of anoxic-oxic condition. Further investigation into the design and operational aspects of the biological processes is warranted for the efficient removal of PPCPs, particularly antibiotics, to secure healthy water resource in the receiving downstream, thereby ensuring a sustainable water cycle management. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Preliminary results of NAPL contamination in a disused industry in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, by radon evaluation with CR-39 detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateus, Crislene; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu, E-mail: crislene@ipen.br, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Contaminated sites by NAPL (Non-Aqueous Phase-Liquids) may lead to safety risks to human health and to ecosystems, restrictions to urban development and decrease of real estate value. This work used the radon gas as an indicator for the analysis of subsurface soil gas, once this noble gas presents good solubility in a wide range of NAPL, being partially retained in the NAPL contamination. Therefore, a decrease of the activity of radon in the contaminated soil gas can be expected, due to the high capacity of partitioning of radon in NAPL, which allows that the NAPL retain part of the radon previously available in the soil pores. The survey was carried out at a disused industry, contaminated by low volatile NAPL, located at east of Sao Paulo city, in March/2015. Radon was evaluated by passive detection methodology with CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). Radon concentrations for the eight monitoring stations at non-contaminated locations in March/2015 varied from 16.4 ± 1.2 kBq.m{sup -3} to 55 ± 4 kBq.m{sup -3}. For the two monitoring stations assumed as contaminated locations in March/2015, radon concentrations were 1.17 ± 0.08 kBq.m{sup -3} and 4.2 ± 0.3 kBq.m{sup -3}, diminished in a range from 92% to 98% when compared with the results for the non-contaminated areas. (author)

  18. A liveable city:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2014-01-01

    is increas- ingly based in and on cities rather than nations, and cities compete for businesses, branding, tourists and talent. In the western world, urbanisation has happened simultane- ously to de-industrialisation, which has opened industrial neighbourhoods and harbours for new uses – often focus- ing......There are over 20 cities world-wide with a population of over 10 million people. We have entered ‘The Millennium of the City’. The growth of urban populations has been accompanied by profound changes of the cities’ economic and social profile and of the cities themselves. The world economy...

  19. Production of highly porous glass-ceramics from metallurgical slag, fly ash and waste glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangutova Bianka V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass-ceramics composites were produced based on fly-ash obtained from coal power stations, metallurgical slag from ferronickel industry and waste glass from TV monitors, windows and flasks. Using 50% waste flask glass in combination with fly ash and 20% waste glass from TV screens in combination with slag, E-modulus and bending strength values of the designed systems are increased (system based on fly ash: E-modulus from 6 to 29 GPa, and bending strength from 9 to 75 MPa. The polyurethane foam was used as a pore creator which gave the material porosity of 70(5% (fly ash-glass composite and a porosity of 65( 5% (slag-glass composite. E-modulus values of the designed porous systems were 3.5(1.2 GPa and 8.1(3 GPa, while the bending strength values were 6.0(2 MPa and 13.2(3.5 MPa, respectively. These materials could be used for the production of tiles, wall bricks, as well as for the construction of air diffusers for waste water aeration.

  20. A CFD study on the dust behaviour in a metallurgical waste-heat boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongxiang, Yang; Jokilaakso, A [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Materials Processing and Powder Metallurgy

    1998-12-31

    A waste-heat boiler forms an essential part for the treatment of high temperature flue-gases in most metallurgical processes. Flue-dust carried by the furnace off-gas has to be captured efficiently in the waste-heat boilers before entering the downstream gas purification equipment. Flue dust may accumulate and foul on the heat transfer surfaces such as tube-walls, narrow conjunctions between the boiler and the furnace uptake, and thus may cause smelter shutdown, and interrupt the production. A commercial CFD package is used as the major tool on modelling the dust flow and settling in the waste-heat boiler of an industrial copper flash smelter. In the presentation, dust settling behaviour is illustrated for a wide range of particle sizes, and dust capture efficiency in the radiation section of the boiler for different particle sizes has been shown with the transient simulation. The simulation aims at providing detailed information of dust behaviour in the waste-heat boiler in sulphide smelting. (author) 11 refs.

  1. Nuclear methods on service of mountain manufacture Navoi Mining-Metallurgical complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucherskiy, N.I.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: On a number of the major minerals, such as gold, uranium, copper, tungsten, potash salts, phosphorites, caolines, etc. Uzbekistan on the confirmed stocks and predicted resources occupies leading places among the states of the world. The basic deposits of gold and uranium are concentrated in Central-Kysylkum region, which is field of activity of Navoi mining-metallurgical combine. In industrial divisions of the combine, located in five areas of republic about 60000 persons are engaged. At all stages of manufacture of gold (since investigation) analytical maintenance has extremely important role. In NMMC radioanalytical methods are widely used, in particular, on mine 'Muruntau' the unique gamma-activation analysis laboratory has been constructed and entered into operation. For the period of operation of laboratory, i.e. since 1977, it is executed more than nine millions analyses of geological tests with extremely high expressness (about tens seconds). It is used x-ray-radiometric method for large-portion (by dumper) sortings and on lumpy separation of ores. With the help of high-sensitivity radiometric means of measurements it is possible to develop phosphorites for reception of phosphoric fertilizers. Nuclear-physical methods are applied to the decision of other problems. Thus, due to application of nuclear-physical methods of the operative control of technological processes of mining manufacture, quality management of ores, the account of quantity of products of extraction and their preliminary enrichment, the actual problem - increase in profitability of all mining manufacture NMMC is solved

  2. A CFD study on the dust behaviour in a metallurgical waste-heat boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yongxiang; Jokilaakso, A. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Materials Processing and Powder Metallurgy

    1997-12-31

    A waste-heat boiler forms an essential part for the treatment of high temperature flue-gases in most metallurgical processes. Flue-dust carried by the furnace off-gas has to be captured efficiently in the waste-heat boilers before entering the downstream gas purification equipment. Flue dust may accumulate and foul on the heat transfer surfaces such as tube-walls, narrow conjunctions between the boiler and the furnace uptake, and thus may cause smelter shutdown, and interrupt the production. A commercial CFD package is used as the major tool on modelling the dust flow and settling in the waste-heat boiler of an industrial copper flash smelter. In the presentation, dust settling behaviour is illustrated for a wide range of particle sizes, and dust capture efficiency in the radiation section of the boiler for different particle sizes has been shown with the transient simulation. The simulation aims at providing detailed information of dust behaviour in the waste-heat boiler in sulphide smelting. (author) 11 refs.

  3. Prediction of the ledge thickness inside a high-temperature metallurgical reactor using a virtual sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBreux, Marc; Désilets, Martin; Lacroix, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    A non-intrusive inverse heat transfer procedure for predicting the time-varying thickness of the phase-change ledge on the inner surface of the walls of a high-temperature metallurgical reactor is presented. An extended Kalman filter with augmented state is coupled with a nonlinear state-space model of the reactor in order to estimate on-line the position of the phase front. The data are collected by a heat flux sensor located inside or outside of the reactor wall. This non-intrusive method can be seen as a virtual sensor which is defined as the combination of an estimation algorithm with measurements for the estimation of 'hard to measure' on-line process variables. The inverse prediction of the ledge thickness with the virtual sensor is thoroughly tested for typical operating conditions that prevail inside an industrial facility. Due to the fact that the melting/solidification process inside the reactor is highly nonlinear, results show that the accuracy of the state-space identification and the virtual sensor estimation is far superior when a nonlinear state-space model and the extended Kalman filter are employed, as opposed to a linear state-space model and the classic Kalman filter. In the former, it is shown that the discrepancy between the exact and the estimated ledge thickness remains smaller than 10% at all times.

  4. Metallurgical electrochemistry: the interface between materials science and molten salt chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadoway, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Even though molten salt electrolysis finds application in the primary extraction of metals (electrowinning), the purification and recycling of metals (electrorefining), and in the formation of metal coatings (electroplating), the technology remains in many respects underexploited. Electrolysis in molten salts as well as other nonaqueous media has enormous potential for materials processing. First, owing to the special attributes of nonaqueous electrolytes electrochemical processing in these media has an important role to play in the generation of advanced materials, i.e., materials with specialized chemistries or tailored microstructures (electrosynthesis). Secondly, as environmental quality standards rise beyond the capabilities of classical metals extraction technologies to comply, molten salt electrolysis may prove to be the only acceptable route from ore to metal. Growing public awareness of pollution from the metals industry could stimulate a renaissance in molten salt electrochemistry. Challenges facing metallurgical electrochemistry as relates to the environment fall into two categories: (1) improving existing electrochemical technology, and (2) developing clean electrochemical technology to displace current nonelectrochemical technology. In both instances success hinges upon the discovery of advanced materials and the ecologically sound extraction of metals, the close coupling between materials science and molten salt chemistry is manifest. (author) 6 refs

  5. Stoichiometry of water-soluble ions in PM2.5: Application in source apportionment for a typical industrial city in semi-arid region, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haijun; Lü, Changwei; He, Jiang; Gao, Manshu; Zhao, Boyi; Ren, Limin; Zhang, Lijun; Fan, Qingyun; Liu, Tao; He, Zhongxiang; Dudagula; Zhou, Bin; Liu, Hualin; Zhang, Yu

    2018-05-01

    Water-soluble ions (WSIs) are major components of PM2.5 and it is valuable for understanding physical and chemical characteristics, sources, behaviors and formation mechanism of WSIs. Baotou is a traditionally industrial city in semi-arid region and frequently subjected to dust storms from March to May. In recent years, air pollution has been listed as one of the most important environmental problems in Baotou. To investigate the seasonal variations and sources of WSIs in PM2.5, the WSIs including SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, F-, NH4+, K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were monitored at six urban sites in Baotou. The results showed that high concentrations of Ca2+ and Na+ were found responding to dust storm events, while high concentrations of SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, K+ and Cl- were observed during haze days. The correlations analysis indicated that excess sulfuric and nitric acid was likely neutralized by carbonate minerals such as calcite, aragonite and dolomite in normal days and cations were fully neutralized during all the sampling periods, while cations were excessive in dust storm days. The concentrations of [NH4+ + SO42- + NO3-], [Na+ + Ca2+ + Mg2+] and [Cl- + K+ + F-] indicated the northwest and southeast region of Baotou presented comparatively high contributions of secondary aerosol and crustal dust, respectively, which were mainly related to the industrial distribution and urbanization process. The cluster analysis, ternary diagram and principal component analysis have a good agreement in source apportionment, where crustal dust sources, secondary aerosol source and the mixture of coal combustion, biomass burning and industrial pollution sources were the main sources of WSIs in PM2.5. The seasonal pattern of sulfur oxidation ratio (SOR) was September > April > November > January, while the nitrogen oxidation ratio (NOR) April > January > November > September in Baotou. This work evaluated the seasonal variation, distribution and source of WSIs on the basis of its stoichiometry in

  6. Post-failure metallurgical investigation of KNK steam generator tube damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, H; Herberg, G

    1975-07-01

    In September 1973 the sodium-cooled reactor KNK was shut down due to a steam generator tube damage. Failure location and results of the metallurgical examination of the damage are described. The cause of the damage is discussed. (author)

  7. Metallurgical sessions. Second ALAMET congress (held in) Buenos Aires, Argentina, 6-10 May 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This congress was held in Buenos Aires, Argentine Republic, on May 6-10, 1991, gathering experts from all over the world. The present volume includes the papers presented at the Metallurgical Sessions - II. ALAMET Congress [es

  8. Autonomous and professional maintenance in metallurgical enterprise as activities within total productive maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The content of this publication consists of notions connected with Total Productive Maintenance (TPM in metallurgical enterprise. The basic areas of devices condition management through Autonomous and Professional Maintenance are described here. Mentioned areas of activities are performed in metallurgical enterprise ArcelorMittal Poland within pillars of World Class Manufacturing (WCM. The aims of UR programs are to maintain the basic functionality of the devices and decrease the number of failures in order to reach improvement of production efficiency.

  9. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, samples from 18 groundwater monitoring wells of the AMB series at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility were analyzed for certain heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Six parameters exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria during the quarter. The results for fourth quarter 1992 are fairly consistent with the rest of the year's data. Tetrachloroethylene exceeded the final PDWS in well AMB 4D only two of the four quarters; in the other three wells in which it was elevated, it was present at similar levels throughout the year. Trichloroethylene consistently exceeded its PDWS in wells AMB 4A, 4B, 4D, 5, and 7A during the year. Trichloroethylene was elevated in well AMB 6 only during third and fourth quarters and in well AMB 7 only during fourth quarter. Total alpha-emitting radium was above the final PDWS for total radium in well AMB 5 at similar levels throughout the year and exceeded the PDWS during one of the three quarters it was analyzed for (third quarter 1992) in well AMB 10B

  10. Fundamental metallurgical aspects of axial splitting in zircaloy cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H. M.

    2000-01-01

    Fundamental metallurgical aspects of axial splitting in irradiated Zircaloy cladding have been investigated by microstructural characterization and analytical modeling, with emphasis on application of the results to understand high-burnup fuel failure under RIA situations. Optical microscopy, SEM, and TEM were conducted on BWR and PWR fuel cladding tubes that were irradiated to fluence levels of 3.3 x 10 21 n cm -2 to 5.9 x 10 21 n cm -2 (E > 1 MeV) and tested in hot cell at 292--325 C in Ar. The morphology, distribution, and habit planes of macroscopic and microscopic hydrides in as-irradiated and posttest cladding were determined by stereo-TEM. The type and magnitude of the residual stress produced in association with oxide-layer growth and dense hydride precipitation, and several synergistic factors that strongly influence axial-splitting behavior were analyzed. The results of the microstructural characterization and stress analyses were then correlated with axial-splitting behavior of high-burnup PWR cladding reported for simulated-RIA conditions. The effects of key test procedures and their implications for the interpretation of RIA test results are discussed

  11. NMR investigation of boron impurities in refined metallurgical grade silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafe, Hans-Joachim; Loeser, Wolfgang; Schmitz, Steffen; Sakaliyska, Miroslava [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW), Dresden (Germany); Wurmehl, Sabine [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW), Dresden (Germany); Institute for Solid State Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Eisert, Stefan; Reichenbach, Birk; Mueller, Tim [Adensis GmbH, Dresden (Germany); Acker, Joerg; Rietig, Anja; Ducke, Jana [Department of Chemistry, Faculty for Natural Sciences, Brandenburg Technical University Cottbus-Senftenberg, Senftenberg (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method was applied for tracking boron impurities in the refining process of metallurgical grade (MG) silicon. From the NMR signal of the {sup 11}B isotope at an operating temperature 4.2 K, the boron concentration can be estimated down to the order of 1-10 wppm B. After melting and resolidification of MG-Si alloyed with Ca and Ti, a major fraction of B impurities remains in the Si solid solution as inferred from the characteristic NMR frequency. The alloying element Ti does not form substantial fractions of TiB{sub 2}. Acid leaching of crushed powders of MG-Si alloyed with Ca and Ti can diminish the initial impurity content of B suggesting its accumulation in the grain boundary phases. NMR signals of TiB{sub 2} at 4.2 K and room temperature (RT), and of poly-Si with different B doping at 4.2 K. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Analytical ultrasonics for characterization of metallurgical microstructures and transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, M.

    1986-01-01

    The application of contact (piezoelectric) and noncontact (laser generation and detection) ultrasonic techniques for dynamic investigation of precipitation hardening processes in aluminum alloys, as well as crystallization and phase transformation in rapidly solidified amorphous and microcrystalline alloys is discussed. From the variations of the sound velocity and attenuation the precipitation mechanism and kinetics were determined. In addition, a correlation was established between the observed changes in the velocity and attenuation and the mechanical properties of age-hardenable aluminum alloys. The behavior of the elastic moduli, determined ultrasonically, were found to be sensitive to relaxation, crystallization and phase decomposition phenomena in rapidly solidified metallic glasses. Analytical ultrasonics enables determination of the activation energies and growth parameters of the reactions. Therefrom theoretical models can be constructed to explain the changes in mechanical and physical properties upon heat treatment of glassy alloys. The composition dependence of the elastic moduli in amorphous Cu-Zr alloys was found to be related to the glass transition temperature, and consequently to the glass forming ability of these alloys. Dynamic ultrasonic analysis was found to be feasible for on-line, real-time, monitoring of metallurgical processes.

  13. ECOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT IN THE MINING AND METALLURGICAL MARAMURES AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel POP

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is part of the interdisciplinary recent concerns of "environmental management", looking to determine the damages caused by pollution, remediation expenditures, and benefits that may arise through the application of remediation techniques and decontamination technologies in the mining and metallurgical Maramureş area. Large areas of land were diverted from their original destination (pastures, arable land, forests being now covered with ponds and dumps of mine or flotation tailings, deposits that are insufficiently protected, and have become sources of pollution to surrounding areas. All Eastern European countries have in common major environmental problems, the most serious being due to mining, metallurgy and chemistry. In the relationship of "economic-ecological" equilibrium, should be considered both economic criteria, as well as ecological ones. Pollution as the deterioration of environment, requires costs for rehabilitation of degraded areas, and for environmental protection, costs for new technologies, non polluting ones. The assessment foundation of environmental damages, is necessary for establishing the priority directions in the allocation of funds for projects to protect and rehabilitate the environment.

  14. Metallurgical Analysis of Cracks Formed on Coal Fired Boiler Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishor, Rajat; Kyada, Tushal; Goyal, Rajesh K.; Kathayat, T. S.

    2015-02-01

    Metallurgical failure analysis was carried out for cracks observed on the outer surface of a boiler tube made of ASME SA 210 GR A1 grade steel. The cracks on the surface of the tube were observed after 6 months from the installation in service. A careful visual inspection, chemical analysis, hardness measurement, detailed microstructural analysis using optical and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were carried out to ascertain the cause for failure. Visual inspection of the failed tube revealed the presence of oxide scales and ash deposits on the surface of the tube exposed to fire. Many cracks extending longitudinally were observed on the surface of the tube. Bulging of the tube was also observed. The results of chemical analysis, hardness values and optical micrographs did not exhibit any abnormality at the region of failure. However, detailed SEM with EDS analysis confirmed the presence of various oxide scales. These scales initiated corrosion at both the inner and outer surfaces of the tube. In addition, excessive hoop stress also developed at the region of failure. It is concluded that the failure of the boiler tube took place owing to the combined effect of the corrosion caused by the oxide scales as well as the excessive hoop stress.

  15. Evaluation of the properties of the CaCO3CaO system for metallurgical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapia, O.; Grijalva, M.; Rodriguez, A.; Formoso, A.

    1999-01-01

    The principal goal of this work, is to make a preliminary and comparative study on the physical chemistry, structural and thermal properties of the metallurgical lime production using experimental, and in some cases industrial measurements. This is important, because the characterization of the CaCO 3 CaO system, predicts the dissolution grade of the lime on the slag solution in the steel making. The mineral is located on the border of Michoacan (Lazaro Cardenas)and the Guerrero states (La Union) Mexico. This study evidences limited properties of this lime, which is due to the thermal and physical chemistry behaviour of the obtained results of this material. However, it is necessary to make a study in the future about the kinetic behavior during decomposition. This is necessary because it is important to obtain an increase in the basic oxides concentration and a decrease in the loss of ignition, which is important for the competitive lime production. (Author) 25 refs

  16. Diferencias en el Posicionamiento Competitio entre Empresas de Indumentaria: Evidencia de dos ciudades Argentinas (Competitive positioning differnces between garment industry companies:A comparison between two argentinean cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Liseras

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo es identificar y analizar los principales factores que explican, en la fase de comercialización, las diferencias en el posicionamiento competitivo entre empresas de indumentaria orientadas a moda y diseño (EMD. La motivación de este trabajo proviene del distinto grado de posicionamiento competitivo de firmas de indumentaria nacidas y radicadas en Mar del Plata con respecto a las empresas líderes de la industria. Mediante una metodología cuantitativa, se compara una muestra de firmas de la ciudad de Mar del Plata orientadas a moda y diseño, con otra muestra de empresas nacionales líderes en la industria. Los resultados indican que las firmas líderes se diferencian a partir de una clara idea del concepto de marca de la empresa, centrado principalmente en el diseño; la generación en los locales de venta de un ambiente asociado al concepto de marca; la realización de acciones de difusión; la interacción con clientes; la realización de promociones; el desarrollo en tiempo de colecciones y la implementación de franquicias, entre otros. Lo anterior denota el importante rol del gerente en la definición de la estrategia comercial y competitiva de la empresa. De los resultados surge la importancia de que la firma sea capaz de efectuar y adoptar innovaciones comerciales, identificar e incorporar nuevas tecnologías y contratar servicios especializados intensivos en conocimiento. En este sentido, el trabajo constituye un aporte a la toma de decisiones de las pymes del sector textil-confecciones.   ABSTRACT This work aims at identifying and analyzing the main factors that can be used to explain competitive differences in the marketing stage for fashion designoriented garment companies (FDC. The incentive for the study came from the different competitive positioning strategies of companies located in the city of Mar del Plata in relation to national industry leaders. A sample of fashion design companies from

  17. Solar cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roaf, S.; Fuentes, M.; Gupta, R.

    2005-01-01

    programmes and strategies of the Oxford Solar Initiative developed to meet the three aims of reducing CO/sub 2/ emissions from the buildings of the city, to stimulate local industry and to ensure that the citizens of Oxford are future-proofed, in safe and comfortable homes, against the risks posed by both climate change and increasingly expensive fossil fuels. (author)

  18. Metallurgical recovery of metals from electronic waste: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Jirang; Zhang Lifeng

    2008-01-01

    Waste electric and electronic equipment, or electronic waste, has been taken into consideration not only by the government but also by the public due to their hazardous material contents. In the detailed literature survey, value distributions for different electronic waste samples were calculated. It is showed that the major economic driver for recycling of electronic waste is from the recovery of precious metals. The state of the art in recovery of precious metals from electronic waste by pyrometallurgical processing, hydrometallurgical processing, and biometallurgical processing are highlighted in the paper. Pyrometallurgical processing has been a traditional technology for recovery of precious metals from waste electronic equipment. However, state-of-the-art smelters are highly depended on investments. Recent research on recovery of energy from PC waste gives an example for using plastics in this waste stream. It indicates that thermal processing provides a feasible approach for recovery of energy from electronic waste if a comprehensive emission control system is installed. In the last decade, attentions have been removed from pyrometallurgical process to hydrometallurgical process for recovery of metals from electronic waste. In the paper, hydrometallurgical processing techniques including cyanide leaching, halide leaching, thiourea leaching, and thiosulfate leaching of precious metals are detailed. In order to develop an environmentally friendly technique for recovery of precious metals from electronic scrap, a critical comparison of main leaching methods is analyzed for both economic feasibility and environmental impact. It is believed that biotechnology has been one of the most promising technologies in metallurgical processing. Bioleaching has been used for recovery of precious metals and copper from ores for many years. However, limited research was carried out on the bioleaching of metals from electronic waste. In the review, initial researches on the

  19. Metallurgical recovery of metals from electronic waste: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Jirang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Alfred Getz vei 2, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)], E-mail: Jirang.Cui@material.ntnu.no; Zhang Lifeng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Alfred Getz vei 2, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)], E-mail: zhanglife@mst.edu

    2008-10-30

    Waste electric and electronic equipment, or electronic waste, has been taken into consideration not only by the government but also by the public due to their hazardous material contents. In the detailed literature survey, value distributions for different electronic waste samples were calculated. It is showed that the major economic driver for recycling of electronic waste is from the recovery of precious metals. The state of the art in recovery of precious metals from electronic waste by pyrometallurgical processing, hydrometallurgical processing, and biometallurgical processing are highlighted in the paper. Pyrometallurgical processing has been a traditional technology for recovery of precious metals from waste electronic equipment. However, state-of-the-art smelters are highly depended on investments. Recent research on recovery of energy from PC waste gives an example for using plastics in this waste stream. It indicates that thermal processing provides a feasible approach for recovery of energy from electronic waste if a comprehensive emission control system is installed. In the last decade, attentions have been removed from pyrometallurgical process to hydrometallurgical process for recovery of metals from electronic waste. In the paper, hydrometallurgical processing techniques including cyanide leaching, halide leaching, thiourea leaching, and thiosulfate leaching of precious metals are detailed. In order to develop an environmentally friendly technique for recovery of precious metals from electronic scrap, a critical comparison of main leaching methods is analyzed for both economic feasibility and environmental impact. It is believed that biotechnology has been one of the most promising technologies in metallurgical processing. Bioleaching has been used for recovery of precious metals and copper from ores for many years. However, limited research was carried out on the bioleaching of metals from electronic waste. In the review, initial researches on the

  20. Quest for steel quality: the role of metallurgical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, A. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science

    2000-10-01

    Improvements in the quality of steels and the role played by metallurgical chemistry to bring about those improvements are discussed. The particular emphasis is on the chemical behaviour of solutes in molten steel and the reaction between steel, slag and refractory materials and the manner in which they influence the physical properties and performance of the steel product. As an illustration of the contribution of chemistry to steel making the case of the steel plates used in the construction of the Titanic is cited. In 1911 when the Titanic was constructed by Harland and Wolff at their Belfast shipyard, the steel plates used in the hull met all then current specifications. In 1992 when a number of steel samples recovered from the Titanic were examined, it was found that the hull of the vessel was constructed of low carbon, semi-killed steel, produced in the open-hearth process. Microstructural analysis showed extensive carbon banding, typical of hot rolled 0.2 per cent carbon steel. Also found were long manganese sulphide inclusions elongated in the rolling direction, some of which exceeded 25 mm in length. It was determined that as a consequence of these inclusions, at a seawater temperature of 0 degree C, the hull plates of the Titanic had essentially no resistance to fracture. Today's high quality steels used in applications such as Arctic pipelines, offshore platforms, icebreakers and ships for the transportation of natural gas, oxygen and sulphur concentrations are frequently less than 10 ppm. These elements have a profound influence of the quality of the final steel products by virtue of their effect of hindering the formation of inclusions. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Cooperation in the field of materials and metallurgical technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilous, V.; Kletecka, Z.; Matejovic, K.

    1989-01-01

    The SKODA Works cooperate extensively with the Mechanical and Electrical Engineering College in Plzen and with other organizations in many branches of science and technology, among others in the field of materials science and metallurgical technologies. For instance, the technology was mastered of welding low-pressure rotors from a medium-alloy high-strength steel with reduced carbon content of the CrNiMoV type, with yield points of 600 MPa in the basic material and 550 MPa in the welded joint. The welded rotor is used in three low-pressure parts of a 1000 MW steam turbine for a nuclear power plant, which is also produced at SKODA. Problems of protection against corrosion and erosion in saturated steam turbines, caused by wet steam at pressures of 0.5 to 5 MPa and humidity as high as 11%, were also solved. A complex of problems was tackled in the production of reactor pressure vessels. It was found that heat treatment of 25Cr/13Ni overlays of the CrMoV reactor steel at 665 degC results in the formation of a carburized zone between the overlay and the CrMoV steel. This zone constituted a good barrier against the diffusion of hydrogen from the austenitic overlay to the steel. The width of the zone where the diffusion had taken place did not increase in the working conditions, i.e. under the effect of a temperature of 320 degC, while the hardness of this zone increased considerably due to the redistribution of carbon within the 1.6 μm width. The occurrence of the carburized high-hardness zone had a favourable effect on the stabilization of the rate of crack propagation and on its diversion. Recovery annealing at 480 degC is suitable for reducing the hydrogen content of the austenitic overlays. (P.A.). 5 figs., 14 refs

  2. Carbonitriding of low alloy steels: Mechanical and metallurgical responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dal' Maz Silva, W., E-mail: waltermateriais@me.com [Institut Jean Lamour – UMR CNRS–Université de Lorraine, 7198, Parc de Saurupt, Nancy 54011 (France); Institut de Recherche Technologique M2P, Metz 57070 (France); Dulcy, J., E-mail: jacky.dulcy@univ-lorraine.fr [Institut Jean Lamour – UMR CNRS–Université de Lorraine, 7198, Parc de Saurupt, Nancy 54011 (France); Ghanbaja, J., E-mail: jaafar.ghanbaja@univ-lorraine.fr [Institut Jean Lamour – UMR CNRS–Université de Lorraine, 7198, Parc de Saurupt, Nancy 54011 (France); Redjaïmia, A., E-mail: abdelkrim.redjaimia@univ-lorraine.fr [Institut Jean Lamour – UMR CNRS–Université de Lorraine, 7198, Parc de Saurupt, Nancy 54011 (France); Michel, G., E-mail: gregory.michel@irt-m2p.fr [Institut de Recherche Technologique M2P, Metz 57070 (France); Thibault, S., E-mail: simon.thibault@safran.fr [Safran Tech, Magny les Hameaux (France); Belmonte, T., E-mail: thierry.belmonte@univ-lorraine.fr [Institut Jean Lamour – UMR CNRS–Université de Lorraine, 7198, Parc de Saurupt, Nancy 54011 (France)

    2017-05-02

    Metallurgical and mechanical responses of alloys 16NiCrMo13 and 23MnCrMo5 to the addition of carbon and/or nitrogen were investigated. Diffusion profiles of these interstitial elements were established by atmospheric pressure carburizing, austenitic nitriding, and a sequence of carburizing and nitriding – the carbonitriding. All treatments were performed at 1173 K under CO-H{sub 2} and/or NH{sub 3} based atmospheres. After enrichment, each sample was (i) room-temperature oil-quenched and (ii) immersed in boiling nitrogen prior to (iii) the stress relief treatment. Cross-section hardness profiles were evaluated after each of these steps. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) allowed for the determination of both carbon and nitrogen diffusion profiles after quenching. In order to estimate the fraction of nitrides formed during the enrichment of the alloys, these measured profiles were employed in the simulation of local equilibrium at each evaluated position. This allowed for the computation of total solid solution interstitial content, which was expressed in atomic fraction. Plots of as-quenched hardness against the square root of the computed interstitial content, i.e. the sum of solution carbon and the remaining nitrogen, show the complementary character of these elements in determining the mechanical properties of the materials prior to stress relief treatment. Tempering of carbon-nitrogen martensite resulted in hardness drop to a lesser degree than the one measured on carbon martensite with equivalent interstitial content. In order to investigate this behavior, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses were performed. Results showed the precipitation of two morphologies of Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} in the nitrogen-rich case and image analysis confirmed the simulated fraction of nitrides.

  3. Metallurgical test work to support development of the Kintyre Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maley, M.; Ring, R.; Paulsen, E.; Maxton, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Kintyre uranium deposit is located in the Pilbara region of Western Australia and is jointly owned by Cameco and Mitsubishi. The current indicated resource estimate is approximately 55 million pounds of U 3 O 8 equivalent [~21,000 t U] at an average grade of 0.58% [0.49% U]. Due to the high levels of carbonate minerals in the deposit, alkaline leaching was strongly considered as an option to the usually preferred acid route. Following a detailed assessment, the acid option was chosen, with the preferred flowsheet involving an acid leach, followed by solvent extraction and precipitation. As part of the Kintyre metallurgical investigations, ANSTO Minerals performed an extensive work program, examining numerous aspects of the proposed flowsheet. This included a leach optimisation program, followed by a study determining the effects of sample variability in leaching. Settling, filtration and rheology work on slurries and tailings was performed, as well as testwork to determine the effect of neutralisation conditions on metal precipitation and radionuclide deportment. In addition, an extensive laboratory and solvent extraction mixer-settler mini-pilot plan campaign was performed to compare the performance of conventional ammonia/ammonium sulphate strip and the non-conventional strong acid strip (400 g/L H 2 SO 4 ) using leach liquor generated from Kintyre ore. The pilot plant involved two campaigns of three days continuous operation using each stripping system, with >99.5% uranium recovery achieved in each campaign. This paper will present an overview of the key results from the Kintyre leaching and neutralisation testwork undertaken at ANSTO Minerals, and will also outline the performance of the solvent extraction mini pilot plant. (author)

  4. Metallurgical factors that contribute to cracking in BWR piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    During the fall of 1974 and early winter of 1975, cracks have been discovered in the 4 in. bypass lines of several Boiling Water Reactors (BWR's) in the United States. Further, similar cracks were discovered at two BWR's in Japan during the same period. More recently, cracks have been discovered in the core spray piping and in a furnace-sensitized ''safe end'' and adjacent ''dutchman'' at the Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 2. Although inspections at all other U.S. BWR's have not disclosed further instances of cracking in core spray piping, leaking cracks have been found in the core spray piping of two BWR's overseas. Metallurgical examinations of these cracks are not yet complete. The following observations have been made to date. All cracks (except those in the furnace-sensitized safe end and dutchman) occurred in seamless type 304 stainless steel piping or in elbows fabricated from such piping, in the outer heat affected zone of either field or shop welds, in lines isolated from the main primary coolant flow during full power operation, except for the not yet examined cracks in the Monticello bypass lines. The cracks are exclusively intergranular, and occur in metal that has been lightly sensitized by the welding process, with only intermittent grain boundary carbides. They developed in the areas of peak axial residual stresses from welding rather than in the most heavily sensitized areas. No fatigue striations have been found on the fracture surfaces. The evidence received to date strongly indicates that these cracks were caused by intergranular stress corrosion of weld-sensitized stainless steel by BWR water containing greater than 0.2 ppM oxygen. The possible role of fatigue or alternating stresses in this corrosion is not clear. Further, not all the cracks detected to date necessarily have occurred by the same mechanism

  5. Occupational safety of different industrial sectors in Khartoum State, Sudan. Part 1: Safety performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Gehan R; El-Marakby, Fadia A; H Deign El-Nor, Yasser; Nofal, Faten H; Zakaria, Adel M

    2012-12-01

    Safety performance evaluation enables decision makers improve safety acts. In Sudan, accident records, statistics, and safety performance were not evaluated before maintenance of accident records became mandatory in 2005. This study aimed at evaluating and comparing safety performance by accident records among different cities and industrial sectors in Khartoum state, Sudan, during the period from 2005 to 2007. This was a retrospective study, the sample in which represented all industrial enterprises in Khartoum state employing 50 workers or more. All industrial accident records of the Ministry of Manpower and Health and those of different enterprises during the period from 2005 to 2007 were reviewed. The safety performance indicators used within this study were the frequency-severity index (FSI) and fatal and disabling accident frequency rates (DAFR). In Khartoum city, the FSI [0.10 (0.17)] was lower than that in Bahari [0.11 (0.21)] and Omdurman [0.84 (0.34)]. It was the maximum in the chemical sector [0.33 (0.64)] and minimum in the metallurgic sector [0.09 (0.19)]. The highest DAFR was observed in Omdurman [5.6 (3.5)] and in the chemical sector [2.5 (4.0)]. The fatal accident frequency rate in the mechanical and electrical engineering industry was the highest [0.0 (0.69)]. Male workers who were older, divorced, and had lower levels of education had the lowest safety performance indicators. The safety performance of the industrial enterprises in Khartoum city was the best. The safety performance in the chemical sector was the worst with regard to FSI and DAFR. The age, sex, and educational level of injured workers greatly affect safety performance.

  6. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  7. SWOT Analysis of the Family Hotel Industry in Beidaihe City%北戴河家庭旅馆业的 SWOT 分析及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 刘纬纬; 白晟

    2015-01-01

    Family hotels industry in Beidaihe city is an indispensible force in solving the seasonal tourist problem in Qinhuang-dao ,which is not be ignored in the development of the tourist industry.With SWOT analysis, the paper analyzed the present situa-tion of the family hotel industry in Beidaihe city and proposed Brand Construction Strategy to improve the management ability and promote the healthy development of family hotel industry.%北戴河家庭旅馆业解决秦皇岛市旅游季节性矛盾突出的问题,满足了多层次旅游的需求,是旅游经济发展不可忽视的力量。通过SWOT法剖析北戴河家庭旅馆业经营现状,提出实施品牌建设战略、实行多种经营、加大扶持力度、提高管理能力等策略,促进家庭旅馆产业的健康发展。

  8. Assessment of natural and artificial radioactivity levels and radiation hazards and their relation to heavy metals in the industrial area of Port Said city, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, T E; Shendi, E H; Shehata, M A

    2015-02-01

    A detailed gamma ray spectrometry survey was carried out to make an action in environmental impact assessment of urbanization and industrialization on Port Said city, Egypt. The concentrations of the measured radioelements U-238, Th-232 in ppm, and K-40 %, in addition to the total counts of three selected randomly dumping sites (A, B, and C) were mapped. The concentration maps represent a base line for the radioactivity in the study area in order to detect any future radioactive contamination. These concentrations are ranging between 0.2 and 21 ppm for U-238 and 0.01 to 13.4 ppm for Th-232 as well as 0.15 to 3.8 % for K-40, whereas the total count values range from 8.7 to 123.6 uR. Moreover, the dose rate was mapped using the same spectrometer and survey parameters in order to assess the radiological effect of these radioelements. The dose rate values range from 0.12 to 1.61 mSv/year. Eighteen soil samples were collected from the sites with high radioelement concentrations and dose rates to determine the activity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232, and K-40 using HPGe spectrometer. The activity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232, and K-40 in the measured samples range from 18.03 to 398.66 Bq kg(-1), 5.28 to 75.7 Bq kg(-1), and 3,237.88 to 583.12 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In addition to analyze heavy metal for two high reading samples (a 1 and a 10) which give concentrations of Cd and Zn elements (a 1 40 ppm and a 10 42 ppm) and (a 1 0.90 ppm and a 10 0.97 ppm), respectively, that are in the range of phosphate fertilizer products that suggested a dumped man-made waste in site A. All indicate that the measured values for the soil samples in the two sites of three falls within the world ranges of soil in areas with normal levels of radioactivity, while site A shows a potential radiological risk for human beings, and it is important to carry out dose assessment program with a specifically detailed monitoring program periodically.

  9. Intake fractions of industrial air pollutants in China. Estimation and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming; Li, Ji; Lu, Yongqi; Ho, Mun S.

    2006-01-01

    Intake fractions, an emissions-intake relationship for primary pollutants, are defined and are estimated in order to make simple estimates of health damages from air pollution. The sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and total suspended particles (TSP) intake fractions for five cities of China are estimated for the four main polluting industries-electric power generation, mineral (mostly cement) products industry, chemical process industry and metallurgical industry (mainly iron and steel smelting). The Industrial Source Complex Long Term (ISTLT3) model is used to simulate the spatial distribution of incremental ambient concentrations due to emissions from a large sample of site-specific sources. Detailed population distribution information is used for each city. The average intake fractions within 50 km of these sources are 4.4x10 -6 for TSP, and 4.2x10 -6 for SO 2 , with standard deviations of 8.15x10 -6 and 9.16x10 -6 , respectively. They vary over a wide range, from 10 -7 to 10 -5 . Although the electric power generation has been the focus of much of the air pollution research in China, our results show that it has the lowest average intake fraction for a local range among the four industries, which highlights the importance of pollutant emissions from other industrial sources. Sensitivity analyses show how the intake fractions are affected by the source and pollutant characteristics, the most important parameter being the size of the domain. However, the intake fraction estimates are robust enough to be useful for evaluating the local impacts on human health of primary SO 2 and TSP emissions. An application of intake fractions is given to demonstrate how this approach provides a rapid population risk estimate if the dose-response function is linear without threshold, and hence can help in prioritizing pollution control efforts. (author)

  10. Smart Cities Will Need Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru WOINAROSCHY

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A smart city is a sustainable and efficient urban centre that provides a high quality of life to its inhabitants through optimal management of its resources. Chemical industry has a key role to play in the sustainable evolution of the smart cities. Additionally, chemistry is at the heart of all modern industries, including electronics, information technology, biotechnology and nano-technology. Chemistry can make the smart cities project more sustainable, more energy efficient and more cost effective. There are six broad critical elements of any smart city: water management systems; infrastructure; transportation; energy; waste management and raw materials consumption. In all these elements chemistry and chemical engineering are deeply involved.

  11. Metallurgical analysis of high pressure gas pipelines rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, F.; Ahmed, F.

    2007-01-01

    On 6 July 2004, two parallel-running gas pipelines (18-inch and 24-inch diameters), in the main transmission network of SNGPL (a gas company in Pakistan) were ruptured. The ruptures occurred in the early hours of the morning about 8 miles downstream of the compressor station AC-4. The ruptures were indicated by the increased gas flow at the outlet of AC-4 (1), first at about 0648 hours and then again about 20 minutes later. The gas escaping from the ruptured lines had caught fire, and the flames had also 'affected' a third parallel-running pipeline of 30-inch diameter, lying next to the 24-inch line. The metallurgical examination of the two ruptured lines showed that the 24-inch line was ruptured with the help of an explosive device that had been placed on the underside of the pipe. An examination of the 18-inch line showed that this pipe had failed as a result of the heating of the pipe-wall, presumably, by the flame emanating from the 24-inch line. These two observations clearly suggested that the 24-inch line was the first to rupture (by explosives), and the fire following this rupture had heated the 18-inch pipe to a temperature where its yield strength was unable to support the inside gas pressure. The 20 minutes time interval between the two ruptures was obviously the time taken by the 18 inch pipe to be heated upto the level where it started to yield. The 30-inch line lying next to the 24-inch line was affected to the extent that its coating had been burnt-off over a length of about 40-50 feet. However, the pipe did not exhibit any signs of deshaping or deformation what-so-ever. A replica metallographic examination indicated that the microstructure of the pipe was not measurably affected by the heat. It was thus decided not to replace the affected part of the 30-inch pipe, but only to re-coat this affected portion. (author)

  12. A metallurgical study of Nāga Bhasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Nath Singh Gautam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The metal Nāga (Lead is being used by Indians since ancient times. Its external and internal uses have been described in Caraka, Suśruta and other Ayurvedic Saṃhitā. According to most of the Rasa texts, Nāga Bhasma and its formulations are used in many diseases such as Prameha, Jvara, Gulma, Śukrameha etc. Objectives: In the present study, Nāga Bhasma was prepared by the traditional Puṭa method (TPM and by the electric muffle furnace Puṭa method (EMFPM and standardized using Metallographic studies. Doing so helps in the study of the microstructure of Nāga Bhasma and also helps in the identification of the metal particles along with the nature of compound formed during the Māraṇa (Bhasmīkaraṇa process. Setting and Design: Different samples from initial raw material to final product of Nāga Bhasma were collected during the pharmaceutical process (1st, 30th and 60th Puṭa from both methods i.e. TPM and EMFPM. Samples from both methods were studied using metallographic examination. Materials and Methods: The processing of the Nāga Bhasma (ṣaṣṭipuṭa was done according to Ānanda Kanda[9] Samples from the raw material i.e. Aśodhita Nāga (raw Lead and that processed after 1st, 30th and 60th Puṭa from both methods i.e. traditional Puṭa method (using heat from burning of cow dung cakes and electric muffle furnace Puṭa method were taken. They were mounted on self hardening acrylic base. After careful polishing to obtain scratch free surface of product, they were used for metallurgical study. Conclusion: This study shows that traditional Puṭa method may be better than electric muffle furnace Puṭa method because of more homogeneous distribution of Lead sulphide in the Nāga Bhasma which is prepared by traditional method.

  13. Metal mobilization from metallurgical wastes by soil organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potysz, Anna; Grybos, Malgorzata; Kierczak, Jakub; Guibaud, Gilles; Fondaneche, Patrice; Lens, Piet N L; van Hullebusch, Eric D

    2017-07-01

    Three types of Cu-slags differing in chemical and mineralogical composition (historical, shaft furnace, and granulated slags) and a matte from a lead recovery process were studied with respect to their susceptibility to release Cu, Zn and Pb upon exposure to organic acids commonly encountered in soil environments. Leaching experiments (24-960 h) were conducted with: i) humic acid (20 mg/L) at pH t 0  = 4.4, ii) fulvic acid (20 mg/L) at pH t 0  = 4.4, iii) an artificial root exudates (ARE) (17.4 g/L) solution at pH t 0  = 4.4, iv) ARE solution at pH t 0  = 2.9 and v) ultrapure water (pH t 0  = 5.6). The results demonstrated that the ARE contribute the most to the mobilization of metals from all the wastes analyzed, regardless of the initial pH of the solution. For example, up to 14%, 30%, 24% and 5% of Cu is released within 960 h from historical, shaft furnace, granulated slags and lead matte, respectively, when exposed to the artificial root exudates solution (pH 2.9). Humic and fulvic acids were found to have a higher impact on granulated and shaft furnace slags as compared to the ultrapure water control and increased the release of metals by a factor up to 37.5 (Pb) and 20.5 (Cu) for granulated and shaft furnace slags, respectively. Humic and fulvic acids amplified the mobilization of metals by a maximal factor of 13.6 (Pb) and 12.1 (Pb) for historical slag and lead matte, respectively. The studied organic compounds contributed to different release rates of metallic contaminants from individual metallurgical wastes under the conditions tested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Conceptual design for treatment of mining and metallurgical wastewaters which contains arsenic and antimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kamberović

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a preliminary design for treatment of mining and metallurgical wastewaters (MMW from the basin of antimony “Zajača“, which contains high concentrations of arsenic and antimony. MMW have been investigated in laboratory, due to large difference in concentrations of pollutants. Metallurgical wastewaters were treated using iron (II-sulfate and lime milk used to adjust the pH value at 7. After chemical treatment of metallurgical wastewater and its joining with mining wastewater, residual amount of arsenic in water was below maximum allowed concentrations, while the concentration of antimony, remained above the maximum allowed value. The final phase of purification process was performed using ion exchange resin. After treatment of MMW, they can be used as technical water in the smelting process of secondary raw lead materials.

  15. ORNL evaluation of the ORR-PSF metallurgical experiment and blind test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stallmann, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    A methodology is described to evaluate the dosimetry and metallurgical data from the two-year ORR-PSF metallurgical irradiation experiment. The first step is to obtain a three-dimensional map of damage exposure parameter values based on neutron transport calculations and dosimetry measurements which are obtained by means of the LSL-M2 adjustment procedure. Metallurgical test data are then combined with damage parameter, temperature, and chemistry information to determine the correlation between radiation and steel embrittlement in reactor pressure vessels including estimates for the uncertainties. Statistical procedures for the evaluation of Charpy data, developed earlier, are used for this investigation. The data obtained in this investigation provide a benchmark against which the predictions of the PSF Blind Test can be compared. The results of this investigation and the Blind Test comparison are discussed

  16. Microwave-assisted grinding of metallurgical coke; Molienda asistida con microondas de un coque metalurgico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruisanchez, E.; Juarez-Perez, E. J.; Arenillas, A.; Bermudez, J. M.; Menendez, J. A.

    2014-10-01

    Metallurgical cokes are composed of graphitic carbon (s2p2) and different inorganic compounds with very different capacities to absorb microwave radiation. Moreover, due to the electric conductivity shown by the metallurgical cokes, microwave radiation produces electric arcs or microplasmas, which gives rise to hot spots. Therefore, when these cokes are irradiated with microwaves some parts of the particle experiment a rapid heating, while some others do not heat at all. As a result of the different expansion and stress caused by thermal the shock, small cracks and micro-fissures are produced in the particle. The weakening of the coke particles, and therefore an improvement of its grind ability, is produced. This paper studies the microwave-assisted grinding of metallurgical coke and evaluates the grinding improvement and energy saving. (Author)

  17. Radioisotope tracers in industrial flow studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easey, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    The scope of radioisotope tracer work carried out by ANSTO has involved most sectors of Australian industry including iron and steel coal, chemical, petrochemical, natural gas, metallurgical, mineral, power generation, liquified air plant, as well as port authorities, water and sewerage instrumentalities, and environmental agencies. A major class of such studies concerns itself with flow and wear studies involving industrial equipment. Some examples are discussed which illustrate the utility of radioisotope tracer techniques in these applications

  18. Effects of mechanical activation on the carbothermal reduction of chromite with metallurgical coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Yıldız

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The carbothermal reduction of mechanically activated chromite with metallurgical coke under an argon atmosphere was investigated at temperatures between 1100 and 1400°C and the effects of the mechanical activation on chromite structure were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. An increase in specific surface area resulted in more contact points. The activation procedure led to amorphization and structural disordering in chromite and accelerated the degree of reduction and metalization in the mixture of chromite and metallurgical coke. Carbothermal reduction products were analzed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS.

  19. Comparison of Metallurgical and Ultrasonic Inspections of Galvanized Steel Resistance Spot Welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, Timothy J.; Ghaffari, Bita; Mozurkewich, George; Reverdy, Frederic; Hopkins, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    Metallurgical examination of galvanized steel resistance spot welds was used to gauge the capabilities of two ultrasonic, non-destructive, scanning techniques. One method utilized the amplitude of the echo from the weld faying surface, while the other used the spectral content of the echo train to map the fused area. The specimens were subsequently sectioned and etched, to distinguish the fused, zinc-brazed, and non-fused areas. The spectral maps better matched the metallurgical maps, while the interface-amplitude method consistently overestimated the weld size

  20. A novel application of resin in pulp in the metallurgical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, C.A.; Cromberge, G.

    1985-01-01

    The results are presented of several small-scale pilot-plant investigations that demonstrate the feasibility of a resin-in-pulp process for the combined extraction of gold and uranium. Both metals are leached into an aqueous solution as anionic complexes, and, under appropriate conditions, both metal anions can be stabilized in the same solution and extracted from that solution by anion-exchange resins. Three different lead materials containing gold and uranium were tested, and several configurations for leaching and the resin-in-pulp process were examined so that the efficiency of extraction of the process could be demonsrated. The results of the various pilot-plant investigations are discussed with particular emphasis on the deportment of gold and uranium during the leaching extraction, and elution steps

  1. Environmental impact of the minero-metallurgic industry on the marine ecosystem in Moa, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Canals, M.; Pedro Garcia, L.

    1999-01-01

    One of the biggest nickel mineral deposits of the world is located in Moa; therefore two plants are installed for the extraction of this metal in the region, and another is in its construction phase. During the technological processes, residuals that contain great quantity of metallic elements, and high acidity level are discharged into the environment. The objectives of this research were to establish the levels of pollution of eleven metals, Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the superficial bottom sediments, sea water and organisms of the marine aquatorium (green and white sea urchins, blue crabs, oysters and mangrove leaves). The dynamics of pollution in superficial sediments was also determined in the course of a 9-year study. As complementary analyses, pH and salinity were determined for the supradjacent water to the marine bottom, as well as the content of organic carbon, and granulometry of the sediment

  2. Evaluation of HPGe spectrometric devices in monitoring the level of radioactive contamination in metallurgical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrucci, A., E-mail: andrea.petrucci@enea.it [ENEA – Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazione Ionizzanti, Rome (Italy); Arnold, D.; Burda, O. [PTB – Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); De Felice, P. [ENEA – Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazione Ionizzanti, Rome (Italy); Garcia-Toraño, E.; Mejuto, M.; Peyres, V. [CIEMAT – Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Šolc, J. [CMI – Czech Metrology Institute, Radiova 1a, 102 00 Praha 10 (Czech Republic); Vodenik, B. [IJS – Laboratory for Radioactivity Measurements, Institute Jožef Stefan, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana Slovenia (Slovenia)

    2015-10-11

    This paper presents the results of the tests of High Purity Germanium (HPGe) based gamma spectrometers employed for radioactivity control carried out on a daily basis in steel factories. This new application of this type of detector is part of the Joint Research Project (JRP) MetroMETAL supported by the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). The final purpose of the project was the improvement and standardisation of the measurement methods and systems for the control of radioactivity of recycled metal scraps at the beginning of the working process and for the certification of the absence of any radioactive contamination above the clearance levels (IAEA-TECDOC-8S5) in final steel products, Clearance levels for radionuclides in solid materials: application of exemption principles). Two prototypes based on HPGe detectors were designed and assembled to suit the needs of steel mills which had been examined previously. The evaluation of the two prototypes, carried out at three steel factories with standard sources of {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 241}Am in three different matrices (slag, fume dust and cast steel) and with samples provided on-site by the factories, was successful. The measurements proved the superiority of the prototypes over the scintillation detectors now commonly used regarding energy resolution and multi-nuclide identification capability. The detection limits were assessed and are presented as well.

  3. Water Use Efficiency Improvement against a Backdrop of Expanding City Agglomeration in Developing Countries—A Case Study on Industrial and Agricultural Water Use in the Bohai Bay Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghao Bai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Most city agglomerations of developing countries face water shortages and pollution due to population growth and industrial aggregation. To meet such water security challenges, policy makers need to evaluate water use efficiency at the regional or basin level because the prosperity of city agglomerations is indispensable to the sustainable development of the region or basin. To solve the issue, this paper adopts a non-directional distance function within the framework of environmental production technology to measure water use efficiency. Based on the distance between actual water use efficiency and the ideal efficiency, it calculates the potential reduction space of water input and pollutants by slack adjustment. Added to the Malmquist index, it forms a non-radial Malmquist water use performance index, which can be divided into technological change and technical efficiency change, to measure dynamic water use efficiency. Further, water use efficiency change is analyzed from the perspectives of technological improvement and institutional construction. Bohai Bay city agglomeration, a typical water-deficient city agglomeration in China, is taken as a case study, and data on water resource, environment, and economy from 2011 to 2014 have been used. In conclusion, there is much space for water use efficiency improvement on the whole. However, even having considered potential reduction space of water input and pollutant discharge under current environmental production technology, it is still not enough to support the city agglomeration’s sustainable development. To relieve current potential water safety hazards, not only technical improvement but also institution innovation for highly efficient water use should be kept accelerating in Bohai Bay region. In terms of urban water management in developing countries, the research conclusion is of theoretical and practical significance.

  4. Identification and chemical characterization of industrial particulate matter sources in southwest Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier; Plana, Feliciano; Viana, Mar; Ruiz, Carmen R; Sánchez de la Campa, Ana; de la Rosa, Jesús; Mantilla, Enrique; García dos Santos, Saul

    2006-07-01

    A detailed physical and chemical characterization of coarse particulate matter (PM10) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the city of Huelva (in Southwestern Spain) was carried out during 2001 and 2002. To identify the major emission sources with a significant influence on PM10 and PM2.5, a methodology was developed based on the combination of: (1) real-time measurements of levels of PM10, PM2.5, and very fine particulate matter (PM1); (2) chemical characterization and source apportionment analysis of PM10 and PM2.5; and (3) intensive measurements in field campaigns to characterize the emission plumes of several point sources. Annual means of 37, 19, and 16 microg/m3 were obtained for the study period for PM10, PM2.5, and PM1, respectively. High PM episodes, characterized by a very fine grain size distribution, are frequently detected in Huelva mainly in the winter as the result of the impact of the industrial emission plumes on the city. Chemical analysis showed that PM at Huelva is characterized by high PO4(3-) and As levels, as expected from the industrial activities. Source apportionment analyses identified a crustal source (36% of PM10 and 31% of PM2.5); a traffic-related source (33% of PM10 and 29% of PM2.5), and a marine aerosol contribution (only in PM10, 4%). In addition, two industrial emission sources were identified in PM10 and PM2.5: (1) a petrochemical source, 13% in PM10 and 8% in PM2.5; and (2) a mixed metallurgical-phosphate source, which accounts for 11-12% of PM10 and PM2.5. In PM2.5 a secondary source has been also identified, which contributed to 17% of the mass. A complete characterization of industrial emission plumes during their impact on the ground allowed for the identification of tracer species for specific point sources, such as petrochemical, metallurgic, and fertilizer and phosphate production industries.

  5. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , any attempt to create a green city is motivated by certain ecological, political and esthetical perspectives. Therefore the role of plants in tomorrows cities is everything but straightforward. Rather, a broad range of possibilities unfolds. City PLANTastic is the title of the 8th World in Denmark...

  6. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban scenography....

  7. City sewer collectors biocorrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksiażek, Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

  8. Conservation of mining and metallurgic arachaeologic wooden objects by impregnation and radiation curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudy, R.; Slais, E.; Eibner, C.

    1983-05-01

    The conservation of mining and metallurgic archaeologic wooden objects of different grade of destruction by impregnation with radiation-curable impregnating agents followed by in-situ-curing with gamma rays is described. Dry objects have been consolidated after cautious cleaning, whereas wet findings had to be freezedried first. The results are discussed. (Author) [de

  9. QEM*SEM: a necessary tool in the metallurgical evaluation of ore bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creelman, R.A.; Gottlieb, P.; Sutherland, D.; Jackson, R.

    1989-01-01

    The QEM*SEM system for automated image analysis of mineral samples is described. Details of the equipment are given together with information on the methods of measurement. Finally some practical applications are described where QEM*SEM has been used for the solution of metallurgical problems. 14 refs., 1 fig

  10. AUTOMATION OF OPERATIONAL CONTROL OF DATA FLOWS OF THE METALLURGICAL ENTERPRISE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Chichko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available New method for creation of models of operative control of enterprise is offered. The computer variant of the organizational structure, based on analysis of the charging dynamics of control units, is offered and illustrated at the example of one of organizational structures of Belorussian metallurgical works.

  11. Utilisation of metallurgical by-products in road construction in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresta, František

    2017-09-01

    Metallurgical by-products, primarily blast furnace slag and steel slag, have ranked among important alternative sources of fill as well as of material for the structural layers in highways. Main hazards of metallurgical by-products are closely connected to their chemical and mineralogical composition and they can be resulted in volume changes. Fears from possible deformations similar to the D47 motorway meant that metallurgical by-products were excluded from several public tenders of road construction. Comparison of blast furnace slag, steel slag and other metallurgical by products parameters allow us to define the most hazardous material as steelworks waste. Linear swelling of steelwork waste achieves more than 40% at 75°C and swelling pressure was higher than 1.5 MPa. Compositional heterogeneity of steelworks waste makes it difficult to establish the long-term behaviour of this material. At the present time we cannot ascertain which maximum values can be reached by deformation and what are the swelling pressures acting on the material while the volume changes are in progress.

  12. Automatic Processing of Metallurgical Abstracts for the Purpose of Information Retrieval. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Jessica S.

    Objectives of this project were to develop and test a method for automatically processing the text of abstracts for a document retrieval system. The test corpus consisted of 768 abstracts from the metallurgical section of Chemical Abstracts (CA). The system, based on a subject indexing rational, had two components: (1) a stored dictionary of words…

  13. Highly sensitive luminescence method of scandium determination in the products of metallurgical reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveets, M.A.; Akhmetova, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Highly sensitive reaction of scandium with 1,10-phenanthroline and eosin is used for the development of luminescence method of its determination in metallurgical products. The effect of interfering elements is eliminated by scandium extraction with monocarboxylic acids. The method permits to determine scandium content from 5 x 10 -5 % (Sr 0.15 - 0.25)

  14. Study of a metallurgical site in Tuscany (Italy) by radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartocci, A.; Fedi, M.E.; Taccetti, F.; Benvenuti, M.; Chiarantini, L.; Guideri, S.

    2007-01-01

    Tuscany represents one of the most important ancient mining districts of Italy. Metalworking activities have been present in the area since ancient times and several mining centres have been active in the region since the Etruscan period. Two of the more notable mining locations are the island of Elba and the towns of Populonia and Massa Marittima. In order to reconstruct the development of metallurgical techniques in the past, a multi-disciplinary approach is required, involving both archaeological study and archaeometric analysis of the sites of interest. One of the most complex problems is establishing the chronological history of metallurgical exploitation in ancient sites: archaeological remains are sometimes incomplete and the stratigraphy of archaeological horizons might have been deeply altered. Thus, direct dating of metallurgical slags and other remains of mining and metalworking activities using radiocarbon measurements is particularly useful for developing site chronologies. Charcoal samples from a recent excavation in Populonia were dated by AMS radiocarbon in order to reconstruct the chronological evolution of ancient metallurgical production; results reported here are consistent with archaeological observations

  15. Study of a metallurgical site in Tuscany (Italy) by radiocarbon dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartocci, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita e I.N.F.N. Sezione di Firenze, via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Fedi, M.E. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita e I.N.F.N. Sezione di Firenze, via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: fedi@fi.infn.it; Taccetti, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita e I.N.F.N. Sezione di Firenze, via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Benvenuti, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra dell' Universita di Firenze, via La Pira 4, 50121 Florence (Italy); Chiarantini, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra dell' Universita di Firenze, via La Pira 4, 50121 Florence (Italy); Guideri, S. [Societa Parchi Val di Cornia S.p.a., via G. Lerario, Piombino, Livorno (Italy)

    2007-06-15

    Tuscany represents one of the most important ancient mining districts of Italy. Metalworking activities have been present in the area since ancient times and several mining centres have been active in the region since the Etruscan period. Two of the more notable mining locations are the island of Elba and the towns of Populonia and Massa Marittima. In order to reconstruct the development of metallurgical techniques in the past, a multi-disciplinary approach is required, involving both archaeological study and archaeometric analysis of the sites of interest. One of the most complex problems is establishing the chronological history of metallurgical exploitation in ancient sites: archaeological remains are sometimes incomplete and the stratigraphy of archaeological horizons might have been deeply altered. Thus, direct dating of metallurgical slags and other remains of mining and metalworking activities using radiocarbon measurements is particularly useful for developing site chronologies. Charcoal samples from a recent excavation in Populonia were dated by AMS radiocarbon in order to reconstruct the chronological evolution of ancient metallurgical production; results reported here are consistent with archaeological observations.

  16. Investigations for decision making on an old tailing pond of a former experimental metallurgical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razikov, Z.A.; Pavljuk, L.M.; Bezzubov, N.I.

    2002-01-01

    Investigations are described on an abandoned tailing pond of a former experimental metallurgical plant which operated during the period 1945-1950. The aim of these investigations was to explore radiological hazards arising from the tailing pond for the population and to obtain data for decision making on redeployment or dumping of the pond. Methods used, results obtained and conclusions drawn are outlined. (author)

  17. Simulation model for planning metallurgical treatment of large-size billets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeev, M.A.; Echeistova, L.A.; Kuznetsov, V.G.; Semakin, S.V.; Krivonogov, A.B.

    1989-01-01

    The computerized simulation system ''Ritm'' for planning metallurgical treatment of billets is developed. Three principles, specifying the organization structure of the treatment cycle are formulated as follows: a cycling principle, a priority principle and a principle of group treatment. The ''Ritm'' software consists of three independent operating systems: preparation of source data, simulation, data output

  18. Quality of some Nigerian coals as a blending stock in metallurgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lafia- Obi/foreign coals blends possess lower ash and better rheological properties compared to Chikila/foreign coal composites which have high ash and poor rheological properties. These together suggest that amongst the two Nigerian coals, Lafia-Obi is superior for blending with the foreign ones in metallurgical coke ...

  19. Methods for efficient usage of energy and materials in high temperature metallurgical processes; Methoden zur Energie- und Stoffeffizienz in der metallurgischen Hochtemperaturtechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, Reinhard; Stuermer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik

    2012-07-15

    Metallurgy belongs to the most energy intensive industries where the chain of processes, from materials production to materials recycling, proceeds typically at high temperatures. The higher the process temperature, the more valuable is energy recovery. In parallel with the current trends of improving energy efficiencies, one observes an increase of energy conversion costs in conversion processes of both fossil fuels and renewable energy sources. The paper is concerned with methods of improving energy efficiencies, as well as, with establishing their maximum values determined by the thermodynamics of the metallurgical processes considered. In a number of processes, for example in the blast furnace process of pig iron production, these thermodynamic limits have been reached. Then, if the prices of raw materials and/or energy (electricity produced either from fossil fuels or from renewables) are on the rise, the industry does not have any other option but increasing the final product prices which obviously affect competitiveness. (orig.)

  20. Powder metallurgical processing and metal purity: A case for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The paper reviews the role of sintered tantalum as volumetric efficient electrical capacitor. Powder characteristics ... Tantalum is used mainly as a corrosion resistant metal in the chemical industries, as high temperature heating elements and in .... materials cleaning and careful control of plant cleanliness. Table 1. Impurity ...

  1. Reconstructing the ecological impacts of eight decades of mining, metallurgical, and municipal activities on a small boreal lake in northern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, Lorne E; Schiffer, Stephanie T; Liber, Karsten

    2015-07-01

    As a result of long-term metal mining and metallurgical activities, the sediment of Ross Lake (Flin Flon, MB, Canada) is highly contaminated with metals and other elements. Although the effluents likely were discharged into Ross Lake as early as the late 1920s, lake biophysical data were not collected until 1973, more than 4 decades after the onset of mining and municipal activities. The early influence of these activities on the ecology of Ross Lake is unknown, as are the effects of improvements to metallurgical effluent quality and discontinuation of municipal wastewater discharge into the lake's north basin. To address this knowledge gap, analyses typical of paleolimnological investigations were applied to cores of sediment collected in 2009 from the south basin of Ross Lake. Stratigraphic analyses of physicochemical sediment characteristics (e.g., the concentrations of metals and other elements, organic C, total N, and δ(13)C and δ(15)N values) and subfossil remains (diatoms, Chironomidae, Chaoborus, and Cladocera) were used to infer historical biological and chemical changes in Ross Lake. With the onset of mining activities, concentrations of various elements (e.g., As, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Se) increased dramatically in the sediment profile, eventually declining with improved tailings management. Nevertheless, concentrations of metals in recent sediments remain elevated compared with pre-industrial sediments. Constrained cluster analyses demonstrated distinct pre-industrial and postindustrial communities for both the diatoms and chironomids. The biodiversity of the postindustrial diatom assemblages were much reduced compared with the pre-industrial assemblages. The postindustrial chironomid assemblage was dominated by Chironomus and to a lesser extent by Procladius, suggesting that Ross Lake became a degraded environment. Abundances of Cladocera and Chaoborus were severely reduced in the postindustrial era, likely because of metals toxicity. Overall, improvements

  2. Generation Gap Management in Restructured Metallurgical Enterprises in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajdzik Bożena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the problem of generation gap management resulting from personnel restructuring in foundries in Poland. Structural changes to steelworks led to a sharp decline in employment caused by decreased steelworks production. New hiring was limited as a part of employment rationalisation in the steelworks sector. Such personnel policy eventually led to a generation gap. Ratios between individual age groups of employees are imbalanced at steelworks: the numbers of young personnel are low and of those aged 50+ are high. This research forecasts changes in employment levels for the 2013-2019 period, aimed at closing the generation gap. The paper consists of three parts: (1 a descriptive analysis of labor market demographics in Poland’s steel industry; (2 proposed methodology for HR management model, and (3 econometric models forecasting labor demographics in Poland’s steel industry.

  3. Possibilities of radioisotopic fluorescence analysis application in copper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parus, J.; Kierzek, J.

    1983-01-01

    The main applications of X-ray fluorescence analysis in copper industry such as: copper ores and other materials from flotation analysis, lead and silver determination in blister copper, analysis of metallurgic dusts and copper base alloys analysis are presented. (A.S.)

  4. Securing water for the cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterthwaite, D

    1993-01-01

    Many cities in developing countries have grown so much that they can no longer provide adequate, sustainable water. Over pumping in Dakar and Mexico City has forced those cities to obtain water from ever more distant sources. In Dakar, the result has been saltwater intrusion. Overpumping has caused Mexico City to sink, in some areas by as much as 9 m, resulting in serious damage to buildings and sewage and drainage pipes. Other cities facing similar water problems are coastal cities in Peru (e.g., Lima), La Rioja and Catamarca in Argentina, cities in Northern Mexico, and cities in dry areas of Africa. For some cities, the problem is not so much ever more distant water supplies but insufficient funds to expand supplies. Bangkok and Jakarta both face saltwater intrusion into their overdrawn aquifers. Even through agriculture is the dominant user of water in most countries, demand concentrated in a small area exhausts local and regional sources and pollutes rivers, lakes, and coasts with untreated human and industrial waste. Most cities in Africa and Asia do not have a sewerage system. Further, most cities do not have the drains to deal with storm water and external floodwater, causing frequent, seasonal flooding. The resulting stagnant water provides breeding grounds for insect vectors of diseases (e.g., malaria). The problems in most cities are a result of poor management, not lack of water. Reducing leaks in existing piped distribution systems from the usual 60% loss of water to leaks to 12% would increase the available water 2-fold. Another way to address water shortages would be commercial, industrial, and recreational use of minimally treated waste water, such as is the case in Madras and Mexico City. Political solutions are needed to resolve inadequate water supply and waste management.

  5. Rare earth elements, U and Th in tunnel dusts of SÃO Paulo City, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nory, Renata M.; Figueireido, Ana Maria G., E-mail: renata.nory@ipen.br, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    São Paulo is one of the most populated cities in the world, with about 20 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, more than 12 million motor vehicles and intense industrial activity. Given its importance as a major urban center in South America and the lack of information concerning urban dust composition, the present study aimed to determine rare earth elements (REEs), U and Th mass fractions in tunnel dust, collected in the Jânio Quadros Tunnel, and to assess their possible sources. The study of REEs distribution in urban environments has become of interest over the last decades, due to the increasing industrial use of these elements. The REEs, that are as common as the most familiar metals, are found in metallurgical additives, fluid cracking catalysts and automobile converter catalysts, among other applications. In this study, which employed Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) as analytical technique, the mass fractions of eight REEs were determined and normalized to the chondrite concentration values. The results showed that major concentrations were found for light REEs, following the sequence Ce > La > Nd > Sm > Yb > Eu > Tb > Lu. The pattern of the results pointed to a natural origin for these elements. Regarding U and Th concentrations, the results varied between 1.0 - 9.4 μg g{sup -1} and 3.3 - 35.9 μg g{sup -1}, respectively. Since there is almost no information about the concentration of these elements in this kind of matrix in São Paulo city, these data are important to support further investigations. (author)

  6. On assessing electromagnetic field (300 kmhz – 300mhz in a large industrial city on the basis of 3d modeling and instrumental measuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. May

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article dwells on issues of modeling electromagnetic fields levels (EMF with frequency equal to 300 KMHz - 300 MHz which are created by television and radio broadcasting objects, radiolocation, and mobile communication in a large regional cen-ter, in geoinformation system environment. Our task was to estimate EMF levels on areas where apartment blocks were located; to assess energy flows at various floors, to determine zones in a city as per EMF levels; to verify the obtained results with the direct factor measuring. Our calculation included data on 2,011 EMF sources located on a city territory. We allowed for bulk parameters of 31,949 buildings including 17,307 apartment blocks, 3,160 administrative buildings, 307 pre-school children facilities and 105 secondary schools. We performed our calculations in city coordinate system at 109 thousand points. Each calculation created a picture of EMF spread in a plane at a set height which allowed us to determine exposure level at a control point as per "slice" re-sults and to build up a 3D contamination model. Approximately 80% of all the calculated results had EMF parameters within 0.1-10 safety criterion range. We spotted zones with maximum calculated EMF levels at 18-25 meters. Instrumental research proved high factor levels in these zones including those where levels exceeded safety criterion 4-6 times; it makes for certain vigilance in judgments on environmental safety for people who live on the examined territory permanently. The obtained data can be used for foundation of instrumental research points within the frameworks of specific research or social-hygienic monitoring as well as for consequent exposure and health risk assessment. The materials can be used in epidemiologic research for conjugate spatial analysis of energy flows and children and adults mortality.

  7. Morphology, chemistry and distribution of neoformed spherulites in agricultural land affected by metallurgical point-source pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leguedois, Sophie; Oort, Folkert van; Jongmans, Toine; Chevallier, Pierre

    2004-07-01

    Metal distribution patterns in superficial soil horizons of agricultural land affected by metallurgical point-source pollution were studied using optical and electron microscopy, synchrotron radiation and spectroscopy analyses. The site is located in northern France, at the center of a former entry lane to a bunker of World War II, temporarily paved with coarse industrial waste fragments and removed at the end of the war. Thin sections made from undisturbed soil samples from A and B horizons were studied. Optical microscopy revealed the occurrence of yellow micrometer-sized (Ap horizon) and red decamicrometer-sized spherulites (AB, B{sub 1}g horizons) as well as distinct distribution patterns. The chemical composition of the spherulites was dominated by Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Ca, and P. Comparison of calculated Zn stocks, both in the groundmass and in spherulites, showed a quasi-exclusive Zn accumulation in these neoformed features. Their formation was related to several factors: (i) liberation of metal elements due to weathering of waste products, (ii) Ca and P supply from fertilizing practices, (iii) co-precipitation of metal elements and Ca and P in a porous soil environment, after slow exudation of a supersaturated soil solution in more confined mineral media. - Metal spherulites may act as high metal-trapping mineral phases in polluted agricultural soils.

  8. Eating Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Fisker, Anna Marie; Clausen, Katja Seerup

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed the development of a city based sustainable food strategy for the city of Aalborg. It’s based on 3 cases of food service: food for the elderly as operated by the Municipality, food the hospital patients as operated by the region and food for defense staff as operated...

  9. Process metallurgical evaluation and application of very fine bubbling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catana, C.; Gotsis, V.S.; Dourdounis, E.; Angelopoulos, G.N.; Papamantellos, D.C. [Lab. of Metallurgy, Univ. of Patras, Rio (Greece); Mavrommatis, K. [IEHK, RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    The potential of VFB (Very Fine Bubbling)-technology in steelmaking, developed for the production of super clean steels, was investigated. Recent R and D work has proven that with very fine argon bubbling through a developed Special Porous Plug (SPP) at low flow rates, the total oxygen content of low carbon steel grades can be lowered to a level of 6 ppm under industrial vacuum conditions and to a level of 10 ppm under argon protective atmosphere. The perspective of industrial application of the VFB technology to a 56-t ladle furnace of Helliniki Halyvourgia S.A., Greece, in order to improve steel cleanliness, requires additional R and D efforts. It is important to define the limits of VFB technology in respect of alloys dissolution, mixing time and homogenisation of steel and slag/metal reactions. In this work, a gas driven bubble aqueous reactor model simulating the bottom gas stirred ladle by means of gas injection through a SPP and a conventional porous plug was studied. Various operating conditions as well as different positions for the porous plug with and without a top oil layer were simulated. Tests concerning mixing time, solid-liquid mass transfer and critical gas flow rate, liquid/liquid mass transfer, using the SPP and a conventional porous plug have been performed. The evaluation of experimental results delivered important information for the design and operation of steel ladles, applying VFB-technology. Experimental results with SPP bubbles' agitated steel (1600 C) in laboratory and technical scale experiments in IF and VIF are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  10. Burgundy, the exemplary success of nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugue, Didier

    2013-01-01

    This article comments the successful activity of mechanical and metallurgical industries in the French region of Burgundy in relationship with the nuclear sector. This is notably due to equipment renewal and to the continuity of the French nuclear program. Consequences are also positive for subcontracting small and medium-sized companies of the region. Collaborative action for exports is also an opportunity for the concerned companies, whether big or small

  11. A method of assessment of sustainability of social and labor relations of a city-forming enterprise and a single-industry town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshina Irina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we consider one of the tools for managing a single-industry town – a method of assessment of its social and labor relations sustainability. We describe a mathematical model of calculating the integrated index and give instant assessment examples.

  12. Upgraded metallurgical-grade silicon solar cells with efficiency above 20%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, P.; Rougieux, F. E.; Samundsett, C.; Yang, Xinbo; Wan, Yimao; Macdonald, D. [Research School of Engineering, College of Engineering and Computer Science, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Terrritory 2601 (Australia); Degoulange, J.; Einhaus, R. [Apollon Solar, 66 Cours Charlemagne, Lyon 69002 (France); Rivat, P. [FerroPem, 517 Avenue de la Boisse, Chambery Cedex 73025 (France)

    2016-03-21

    We present solar cells fabricated with n-type Czochralski–silicon wafers grown with strongly compensated 100% upgraded metallurgical-grade feedstock, with efficiencies above 20%. The cells have a passivated boron-diffused front surface, and a rear locally phosphorus-diffused structure fabricated using an etch-back process. The local heavy phosphorus diffusion on the rear helps to maintain a high bulk lifetime in the substrates via phosphorus gettering, whilst also reducing recombination under the rear-side metal contacts. The independently measured results yield a peak efficiency of 20.9% for the best upgraded metallurgical-grade silicon cell and 21.9% for a control device made with electronic-grade float-zone silicon. The presence of boron-oxygen related defects in the cells is also investigated, and we confirm that these defects can be partially deactivated permanently by annealing under illumination.

  13. Production capacity of metallurgical enterprises in modular structure of management accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zambrzhitskaia E.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of constant research in development of management accounting at modern Russian metallurgical works. The required steps of renovation are presented for the modernization of management accounting system in the case of production capacity. The necessary factors with defined values are systematized for modern enterprises. The main ones are those which are regulate the measure of the payload of production capacity. For the purposes of effective management accounting at metallurgical enterprises it is suggested to use the system of controlling parameters which were formulated for the enterprise for production of rolls. Later in the article the necessary changes to the modular structure of management accounting business are described and expanded with new structural element – “Management of production capacity”. The suggested methodical approach will allow the company management to respond quickly to rapidly changing external environment and, as a consequence, to make effective management decisions.

  14. The beryllium production at Ulba metallurgical plant (Ust-Kamenogrsk, Kazakhstan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvinskykh, E.M.; Savchuk, V.V.; Tuzov, Y.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant (Zavod), Ust-Kamenogorsk, Abay prospect 102 (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The Report includes data on beryllium production of Ulba metallurgical plant, located in Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan). Beryllium production is showed to have extended technological opportunities in manufacturing semi-products (beryllium ingots, master alloys, metallic beryllium powders, beryllium oxide) and in production of structural beryllium and its parts. Ulba metallurgical plant owns a unique technology of beryllium vacuum distillation, which allows to produce reactor grades of beryllium with a low content of metallic impurities. At present Ulba plant does not depend on raw materials suppliers. The quantity of stored raw materials and semi-products will allow to provide a 25-years work of beryllium production at a full capacity. The plant has a satisfactory experience in solving ecological problems, which could be useful in ITER program. (author)

  15. Radiation protection aspects in the metallurgical examination of irradiated fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janardhanan, S.; Pillai, P.M.B.; Jacob, J.; Kutty, K.N.; Wattamwar, S.B.; Mehta, S.K. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Health Physics Div.)

    The operational safety requirements of hot cell facilities for metallurgical examination of irradiated natural and enriched uranium fuel elements are highlighted. The cell shielding is designed for handling activities equivalent of 10/sup 2/ to 10/sup 5/ curies of gamma energy of 1.3 Mev. A brief outline of the built-in design features relevant to safety assessment is also incorporated. Reference is made to some salient features of Radiometallurgy Cells at Trombay. Metallurgical operations include investigations on cladding failure of irradiated material structure and specimen preparation from hot fuel element. The radiation protection aspects presented in this paper show that handling low irradiated fuel elements in these beta-gamma cells do not cause serious operational safety problems. The procedures followed and the containment provided would adequately restrict exposure of operational staff to acceptable limits.

  16. Radiation protection aspects in the metallurgical examination of irradiated fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janardhanan, S.; Pillai, P.M.B.; Jacob, John; Kutty, K.N.; Wattamwar, S.B.; Mehta, S.K.

    1981-01-01

    The operational safety requirements of hot cell facilities for metallurgical examination of irradiated natural and enriched uranium fuel elements are highlighted. The cell shielding is designed for handling activities equivalent of 10 2 to 10 5 curies of gamma energy of 1.3 Mev. A brief outline of the built-in design features relevant to safety assessment is also incorporated. Reference is made to some salient features of Radiometallurgy Cells at Trombay. Metallurgical operations include investigations on cladding failure of irradiated material structure and specimen preparation from hot fuel element. The radiation protection aspects presented in this paper show that handling low irradiated fuel elements in these beta-gamma cells do not cause serious operational safety problems. The procedures followed and the containment provided would adequately restrict exposure of operational staff to acceptable limits. (author)

  17. Centralised process control of the metallurgical operation at Roessing, South West Africa/Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.; Erlank, B.

    1987-01-01

    A Honeywell TDC 2000 central process control system was installed at Roessing in 1984. The system controls the metallurgical operations from crushing to the finished product of uranium oxide and manufacture of sulphuric acid. The operation was previously controlled from nine separate local control rooms. The paper briefly reviews the design and commissioning of the control system on an operating plant and discusses the impact on manpower organisation and training needs. Development of the process control system during its first two years of operation is reviewed and a summary is given of the current status of computer control at Roessing. The impact of the new system on overall plant operation and performance efficiency is also briefly described. In conclusion, future developments of computer control and overall optimisation of metallurgical operations are reviewed

  18. 3-D Modelling of Electromagnetic, Thermal, Mechanical and Metallurgical Couplings in Metal Forming Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenot, Jean-Loup; Bay, Francois

    2007-01-01

    The different stages of metal forming processes often involve - beyond the mechanical deformations processes - other physical coupled problems, such as heat transfer, electromagnetism or metallurgy. The purpose of this paper is to focus on problems involving electromagnetic couplings. After a brief recall on electromagnetic modeling, we shall then focus on induction heating processes and present some results regarding heat transfer, as well as mechanical couplings. A case showing coupling for metallurgic microstructure evolution will conclude this paper

  19. Historical Review of the Correlation of Ballistic and Metallurgical Characteristics of Domestic Armor at Watertown Arsenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1945-12-07

    really under- stood. It was learned, then that pearlitic and bainitic microstructures imparted poor impact toughness to steels , pearlitic structures...having a more detrimental effect than bainitic structures, and that a steel could show little or no free ferrite and still pofssess poor shock resistance...arsenal for metallurgical study. The studies at the arsenal revealed that presence of bainitic structures in the core of low alloy NS type steels

  20. Metallurgical Characterization of Reduced Activation Martensitic Steel F-82H Modified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, P.; Lapena, J.; Lancha, A.M.; Gomez-Briceno, D.; Schirra, M.

    1999-12-01

    During 1995-1998 within of research and development programs on reduced ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion, metallurgical characterization of 8Cr-2WVTa steel, denominated F-28H modified, have been carried out. The work has focused on studying the microstructural and mechanical (tensile, creep, low cycle fatigue and charpy) characteristics of as-received state and aged material in the temperature range 300 degree centigrade to 600 degree centigrade for periods up to 5000 h. (Author) 45 refs

  1. Metallurgical bond between magnesium AZ91 alloy and aluminium plasma sprayed coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubatík, Tomáš František; Pala, Zdeněk; Neufuss, Karel; Vilémová, Monika; Mušálek, Radek; Stoulil, J.; Slepička, P.; Chráska, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 282, November (2015), s. 163-170 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-31538P Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Plasma spraying * AZ91 magnesium alloy * Aluminium * Metallurgical bond * X-ray diffraction Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 2.139, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0257897215303297

  2. FINDING WAYS OF RECYCLING DUST OF ARC STEEL FURNACES AT THE BELARUSIAN METALLURGIC PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Demin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part examines the theoretical possibility of recycling dust of arc steel furnaces. The different modes of dust disposal depending on the task of recycling are discussed: recycling at minimal cost; recycling with a maximum extraction of iron; recycling with maximum extraction of zinc. The results of laboratory studies providing information on the technical feasibility of recycling dust formed at the Belarusian metallurgic plant are provided.

  3. Metallurgical flow recognition by random signal analysis of stress wave emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, B.

    1973-01-01

    The present study involves detailed random signal analysis of individual 'bursts' of emission with objective of 'reading' their frequency spectra to identify specific metallurgical mechanisms. Mild steel unnotched testpieces were used in the early stages of development of this research. From a fracture mechanics point of view this research could lead to a powerful nondestructive testing device allowing identification of interior, instead of only surface, deformation mechanisms. (author)

  4. The identification of zones of amplification of disruptions in network supply chains of metallurgic products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kramarz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in the number of participants in a supply chain and network relations results in an increase in the complexity of the entire logistic and production system. Consequently, there appear additional potential sources of disruptions in material flows. The aim of the research presented in the article is to identify the zones of amplification of disruptions in network supply chains of metallurgic products.

  5. The Meat City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the emergence of the Copenhagen slaughterhouse, called the Meat City, during the late nineteenth century. This slaughterhouse was a product of a number of heterogeneous components: industrialization and new infrastructures were important, but hygiene and the significance...... of Danish bacon exports also played a key role. In the Meat City, this created a distinction between rising production and consumption on the one hand, and the isolation and closure of the slaughtering facility on the other. This friction mirrored an ambivalent attitude towards meat in the urban space: one...... where consumers demanded more meat than ever before, while animals were being removed from the public eye. These contradictions, it is argued, illustrate and underline the change of the city towards a ‘post-domestic’ culture. The article employs a variety of sources, but primarily the Copenhagen...

  6. Electric arc spraying for restoration and repair of metallurgical equipment parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В’ячеслав Олександрович Роянов

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that the electric arc spraying with the use of powder wires can be used to repair and restore parts of metallurgical equipment. The technology of spraying parts by means of the cored wire Steelcored M8TUV; T462MMIN5 and combinations of steel and aluminum wires to restore shaft-gears, shaft-beams, cranes axles for the foundry of the Moldavian Metallurgical Plant has been introduced. The composition of the flux-cored wires MMP-2,3 developed at the Department of Equipment and welding production technology of PSTU that provides the required hardness and adhesion of the coating and the substrate have been shown and the results of the coatings properties studies have been published. Studies have shown matching properties of the coatings to be used for details of the metallurgical equipment working under difficult conditions, including the rolls of rolling mills. Cored wire was used for pilot plating of the rolls surface of the skin-rolling stand at the cold-rolling mill at Illich Steel and Iron Works, Mariupol. Residual coating thickness ranged from 15 to 25 microns. Strip sized 0,9 × 1025 mm has been rolled, the squeezing is equal to 0,8...1,0%.

  7. Eco2 Cities : Ecological Cities as Economic Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Hiroaki; Dastur, Arish; Moffatt, Sebastian; Yabuki, Nanae; Maruyama, Hinako

    2010-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the World Bank's Eco2 cities : ecological cities as economic cities initiative. The objective of the Eco2 cities initiative is to help cities in developing countries achieve a greater degree of ecological and economic sustainability. The book is divided into three parts. Part one describes the Eco2 cities initiative framework. It describes the approach, be...

  8. Detection of contaminated metallurgical scrap at borders: a proposal for an 'investigation level'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    In 1995 the IAEA started a program to combat illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials which includes the problem of cross-border movement of contaminated metallurgical scrap. A major activity in this program is the elaboration of a Safety Guide on 'Preventing, Detecting and Responding to Illicit Trafficking', co-sponsored by the World Customs Organization (WCO) and INTERPOL. The guide will provide advice to the Member States, in particular on technical and administrative procedures for detection of radioactive materials at borders. Radiation monitoring systems for contaminated scrap metals have been successfully used in steel plants and larger scrap yards since several years and suitable products are on the market today. Using sophisticated software and dynamic scanning techniques such systems allow for detection of an artificial increase in radiation background level as low as by 20%, even if the natural background signal is substantially suppressed by the vehicle itself entering the monitor. However, the measurement conditions at borders are essentially different from those in plants. Large traffic crossing major borders limits the time for detection and response to a few seconds and multiple checks are nearly impractical. Shielded radioactive sources - even of high activity - which are deeply buried in scrap, cannot be detected without unloading the vehicle, a procedure generally ruled out at borders. Highly sensitive monitoring systems necessarily cause frequent false alarms or nuisance alarms due to innocent radioactive materials such as naturally occurring radioactivity e.g. in fertilizers, scale in pipes used in the oil industry or medical radioisotopes. A particular, rather frequent problem is the unnecessary reject of scrap transports on borders due to the inherent low level contamination of steel with 60 Co, even in sheet metal used for lorries or railroad cars. Such contamination can easily be caused by the routine method to control

  9. Briquetting of EAF Dust for its Utilisation in Metallurgical Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdziarz Aneta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dust generated at an electric arc furnace during steel production industry is still not a solved problem. Electric arc furnace dust (EAF is a hazardous solid waste. Sintering of well-prepared briquetted mixtures in a shaft furnace is one of possible methods of EAFD utilisation. Simultaneously some metal oxides from exhaust gases can be separated. In this way, various metals are obtained, particularly zinc is recovered. As a result, zinc-free briquettes are received with high iron content which can be used in the steelmaking process. The purpose of the research was selecting the appropriate chemical composition of briquettes of the required strength and coke content necessary for the reduction of zinc oxide in a shaft furnace. Based on the results of the research the composition of the briquettes was selected. The best binder hydrated lime and sugar molasses and the range of proper moisture of mixture to receive briquettes of high mechanical strength were also chosen and tested. Additionally, in order to determine the thermal stability for the selected mixtures for briquetting thermal analysis was performed. A technological line of briquetting was developed to apply in a steelworks.

  10. The preferred orientation of the metallurgical enterprises of the Urals to the domestic market — one of the most important conditions for economic security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor' Il'ich Pichurin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It this paper, the author tries to show that the export orientation of the Ural metallurgy, perceived until recently as its dignity and therefore encouraged by the authorities, actually poses a threat to economic security of the region. Being the basis of the regional economy and of Sverdlovsk region in particular, metallurgical industry has suffered serious loss during the global crisis of 2008-2009, thereby causing considerable damage to the socio-economic development of the region. It is generally accepted, but considered as a temporary loss, which was compensated at the end of the crisis. The author puts some suggestions forward on reduction of the global demand for metals in the coming decade. The author tries to prove that without reorientation of the Ural metallurgy onto the domestic market, such losses are very likely also in the future after the crisis overcoming.

  11. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property....... As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  12. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction....... This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge between art...

  13. Trial-by-fire transformation: an interview with Globe Metallurgical's Arden C. Sims. Interview by Bruce Rayner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, A C

    1992-01-01

    Globe Metallurgical Inc., a $115 million supplier of specialty metals, is best known as the first small company to win the Baldrige Award in 1988. But there is much more to this gutsy little company than total quality. During the 1980s, Globe transformed itself from a rust-belt has-been on the verge of bankruptcy into a high-technology, high-quality industry leader. Along the way, the company went private in a management-led leveraged buyout, embraced flexible work teams, adopted a high-value-added, niche marketing strategy, and took its business global. Leading the way in Globe's reinvention was Chief Executive Arden C. Sims, the slow-talking son of a West Virginian coal miner. When he joined the company in 1984, Sims had no experience in the new managerial techniques. He was a product of the old school of management: cut costs and trim operations to regain competitiveness. But he soon discovered that old-style management was not enough to battle offshore competitors, an unproductive work force, rising costs, and outdated production technology. He was forced to go looking for new ideas and practices. In a succession of learning experiences, Sims attended a seminar on total quality in 1985, paving the way for the company's quality program; he discovered the power of flexible work teams when management was forced to run the furnaces during a year-long strike; he organized an LBO, allowing him to change the work order even more dramatically; and he took the company global and into highly profitable niche markets by severing a long-standing relationship with Globe's sales and marketing representative. As a result of these and other changes, Globe leads the specialty metals industry in virtually all performance measures.

  14. Economic and environmental advantages for the use of the industrial potential of cogeneration in Mexico City; Ventajas economicas y ambientales para el aprovechamiento del potencial industrial de cogeneracion en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon de los Santos, G. [Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-03-01

    Mexico has an industrial cogeneration potential very important, not evaluated or projected within its historical growth. The objective of the present work consist of studying the industrial cogeneration potential that exists in Mexico, as well as the economic and environmental savings that it would be achieved if one took advantage of this potential. As a result of the present work we can conclude that the cogeneration in Mexico offers a theoretical potential middle of 28,000 MWe to the 2007. It is estimated an economic saving potential in the construction of generation infrastructure electrical, for the high stage of its utilization of almost 7000 million of dollars and a stage of emissions reduction of 2007- 21.37% instead of 2007- 0.35% for the industrial sector of the country. These prognoses can be obtained, as long as the government changes vision to handle this subject as a measure of energy saving, and substitute it by the policy of complement the development of the national electrical sector. [Spanish] Mexico tiene un importante potencial de cogeneracion industrial que no ha sido evaluado ni proyectado dentro de su crecimiento historico, por ello, el objetivo de este trabajo consiste en estudiar y conocer los ahorros economicos y ambientales que se podrian lograr si se aprovechara dicho potencial. Como resultado, se muestra que la cogeneracion en Mexico ofrece un potencial teorico medio de 28,000 MWe al ano 2007. Se estima tambien un ahorro economico en la construccion de infraestructura de generacion electrica para el escenario alto de su aprovechamiento de casi 7 000 mdd, y un escenario de reduccion de emisiones para el sector industrial del pais de un 0.35% a un 21.4% para el ano 2007. Estos pronosticos se pueden lograr, siempre y cuando el gobierno cambie la vision de manejar este tema como una medida de ahorro de energia, y la sustituya por la politica de complemento al desarrollo del sector electrico nacional.

  15. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  16. Sustainable stormwater management at Fornebu--from an airport to an industrial and residential area of the city of Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astebøl, Svein Ole; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Simonsen, Oyvind

    2004-12-01

    The Oslo Airport at Fornebu was closed in 1998 after 60 years of operation. An area of 3.1 km(2) was made available for one of Norway's biggest property development projects. Plans include 6000 residences and 20,000 workplaces. Fornebu is situated on a peninsula in the Oslo Fjord just outside the city of Oslo and is regarded as a very attractive area for both urbanisation and recreation. The residential area located centrally at Fornebu surrounds a centrally located park area. In the planning process, there was an expressed interest in using water as a life-giving element within the vegetation structure of the park. In Norway, stormwater in urban areas has traditionally been collected and transported in pipe systems to adjacent watercourses. However, there is an increasing interest in alternative "green" solutions for the management of stormwater. The paper presents a concept for sustainable stormwater management at Fornebu. A main objective is to improve the recreational and ecological value of stormwater while achieving a cost-effective solution. This objective is reached by replacing conventional urban drainage pipes with swales, filter strips, wetlands and ponds as collection, storage and treatment systems designed for natural processes. The paper thereby addresses integrated systems for stormwater management by approaching nature's way and sustainable development principles.

  17. Air Quality in Lanzhou, a Major Industrial City in China: Characteristics of Air Pollution and Review of Existing Evidence from Air Pollution and Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqun; Li, Min; Bravo, Mercedes A.; Jin, Lan; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Xu, Yanwen; Guan, Donghong; Wang, Chengyuan; Chen, Mingxia; Wang, Xiao; Tao, Wei; Qiu, Weitao; Zhang, Yawei

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution contributes substantially to global health burdens; however, less is known about pollution patterns in China and whether they differ from those elsewhere. We evaluated temporal and spatial heterogeneity of air pollution in Lanzhou, an urban Chinese city (April 2009–December 2012), and conducted a systematic review of literature on air pollution and health in Lanzhou. Average levels were 141.5, 42.3, and 47.2 µg/m3 for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10), NO2, and SO2, respectively. Findings suggest some seasonality, particularly for SO2, with higher concentrations during colder months relative to warmer months, although a longer time frame of data is needed to evaluate seasonality fully. Correlation coefficients generally declined with distance between monitors, while coefficients of divergence increased with distance. However, these trends were not statistically significant. PM10 levels exceeded Chinese and other health-based standards and guidelines. The review identified 13 studies on outdoor air pollution and health. Although limited, the studies indicate that air pollution is associated with increased risk of health outcomes in Lanzhou. These studies and the high air pollution levels suggest potentially serious health consequences. Findings can provide guidance to future epidemiological studies, monitor placement programs, and air quality policies. PMID:25838615

  18. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote Joint Implementation, etc. Project for the modernization of general industry use boilers at the industrial complex in Namping City, Fujian Province, China; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Chugoku Fukkensho Namping shi danchi no ippan sangyoyo boiler kindaika jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted of the project for energy conservation and greenhouse effect gas reduction by introducing the energy utilization system combined with CCS equipment and cogeneration system to general industry plants at the industrial complex in Namping City, Fujian Province, China. As a result of the field survey, it was concluded that the capacity suitable for CCS center was 200,000 t/y and the size suitable for pulverized coal boiler at each site was 35 t/h. The energy conservation amount in this project was the coal use reduction amount by 88,000 t/y (48,000 toe/y), and the greenhouse effect gas reduction amount was approximately 90,000 t-CO2/y. As to the economical efficiency of the project, the period of ROI was about 5.1 years, and the internal earning rate at each site was 14-23%. The materialization of the project was confirmed. However, in the case of raising the required funds from city banks in China, financing conditions are strict, and the financing seems to be difficult at each site. It is necessary to raise low-interest funds such as the special environment yen credit. (NEDO)

  19. Mineralogy and origin of atmospheric particles in the industrial area of Huelva (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabé, J. M.; Carretero, M. I.; Galán, E.

    The mineralogy of atmospheric particles at the confluence of the Tinto and Odiel rivers, south of Huelva (a highly industrialized city in the SW Spain), was characterized in view to identify source origins. In spite of the small amount of sample collected, mineralogical characterization was performed by X-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with EDS analysis system, using an adequate sample preparation methodology. Sedimentable (SP) and aerosols particles were sampled an one-week basis every two months for one year. Quartz, calcite and feldspars were found to be the major minerals in both fractions, and phyllosilicates, dolomite and gypsum were also identified in lower content. Minor mineral particles included barite, apatite, sphalerite and pyrite. SEM studies revealed the additional presence of chalcopyrite in both SP and aerosols, and of chalcocite-covellite, halite and sylvite in the latter. Siderite, hematite and ankerite were only detected in the SP fraction. The concentrations of the previous minerals increased in summer by effect of the limited rain and the resulting scarcity of atmosphere washing. Non-mineral particles detected by SEM in SP and aerosol fractions included spherical, biological and compositionally complex particles. The main source of mineral particles was found to be the soil suspension in addition to the metallurgical and fertilizer production industries in the area.

  20. Corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr-Mo alloys. Chemical composition and metallurgical condition's effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadorozne, N.S.; Rebak, Raul B.

    2009-01-01

    Ni-Cr-Mo alloys offer an outstanding corrosion resistance in a wide variety of highly-corrosive environments. This versatility is due to the excellent performance of nickel in hot alkaline solutions and the beneficial effect of chromium and molybdenum in oxidizing and reducing conditions, respectively. Alloy C-22 (22 % Cr-13 % Mo-3% W) is a well known versatile member of this family. Due to its excellent corrosion resistance in a wide variety of environments, Alloy C-22 has been selected for the fabrication of the corrosion-resistant outer shell of the high-level nuclear waste container. The increasing demand of the industry for corrosion resistant alloys with particular properties of corrosion and mechanical resistance has led to the development of new alloys. Alloy C-22HS (Ni-21 % Cr-17 % Mo) is a new high-strength corrosion resistant material recently developed and introduced into the market. This alloy provides a corrosion resistance comparable with that of other C-type alloys, and it can also be age hardened to effectively double its yield strength. HASTELLOY HYBRID-BC1 (Ni-22 % Mo-15 % Cr) is a new development intended for filling the gap between Ni-Mo and Ni-Cr-Mo alloys. This novel alloy is able to withstand HCl and H 2 SO 4 , even in the presence of dissolved oxygen and other oxidizing species. Its resistance to chloride-induced pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking is also remarkable. Thermal aging of Ni-Cr-Mo alloys leads to microstructure changes depending on the temperature range and exposure time at temperature. A Long Range Ordering (LRO) reaction can occur in the range of 350 C degrees to 600 C degrees, producing an ordered Ni 2 (Cr,Mo) phase. This ordering reaction does not seem to affect the corrosion resistance and produces only a slight loss in ductility. LRO transformation is homogeneous and has proven to be useful to fabricate the age-hard enable Alloy C22-HS. Tetrahedral Close Packed (TCP) phases, like μ, σ and

  1. The city of the merchant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnow, Niels Finn

    The City of the Merchant deals with cities, towns and villages in the European medieval period - i.e. in post-antique and pre-industrial Europe. In actual fact, the book mainly deals with Denmark and Northern Italy (the City States), with digressions to other "feudal" localities in France on Sici......, in the middle East, the Crusades, in Germany (the Hansatic League) and, finally, as far a field as the Danish West Indies. The book is part of a larger project that comprises other historical environments....

  2. Drone City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    for a new urban condition where cities are networked and connected (as well as disconnected) from the local block to global digital spheres. In the midst of many of the well-known data-creating devices (e.g. Bluetooth, radio-frequency identification (RFID), GPS, smartphone applications) there is a “new kid......This paper address the phenomenon of drones and their potential relationship with the city from the point of view of the so-called “mobilities turn”. This is done in such a way that turns attention to a recent redevelopment of the “turn” towards design; so the emerging perspective of “mobilities...... design” will be used as a background perspective to reflect upon the future of drones in cities. The other perspective used to frame the phenomenon is the emerging discourse of the “smart city”. A city of proliferating digital information and data communication may be termed a smart city as shorthand...

  3. CityGML - Interoperable semantic 3D city models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, Gerhard; Plümer, Lutz

    2012-07-01

    relationship to other standards from the fields of computer graphics and computer-aided architectural design and to the prospective INSPIRE model are discussed, as well as the impact CityGML has and is having on the software industry, on applications of 3D city models, and on science generally.

  4. Expanding cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse

    A number of cities in Africa experience very rapid spatial growth without the benefit of a systematic process of planning and implementation of planning decisions. This process has challenged the road and transport system, created high levels of congestion, and hampered mobility and accessibility...... to both central and new peripheral areas. This paper reports on studies carried out in Accra and Dar es Salaam to address and link 1) mobility practices of residents, 2) local strategies for ‘post-settlement’ network extension, and 3) the city-wide performance of the transport system. The studies draw...... in advance. However, such solutions are often impeded by costly and cumbersome land-acquisition processes, and because of the reactive and often piecemeal approach to infrastructure extensions, the development will often be more costly. Moreover, the lack of compliance to a city-wide development plan...

  5. Vatican City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    Vatican City, the administrative and spiritual capital of the Roman catholic Church, has a population of 1000. Citizenship is generally accorded only to those who reside in Vatican City for reasons of office of employment. Supreme legislative, executive, and judicial power is currentily exercised by Pope John Paul II, the 1st non-italian pope in 5 centuries. The State of Vatican City is recognized by many nations as an independent sovereign state under the temporal jurisdiction of the Pope. By 1984, 108 countries had established diplomatic relations with the Holy See, most of which are not Roman Catholic. Third World countries comprise a large proportion of countries that have recently established relations with the Holy See. The US re-established relations with the Vatican in 1984 and there is frequent contact and consultation between the 2 states on key international issues.

  6. Environmental management and educational needs of the small and medium-sized businesses of the metallurgical sector in the south region of Madrid; Las pequenas y medianas empresas de sector metalurgico en la zona sur de la Comunidad de Madrid: Gestion medioambiental y necesidades de formacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urena, A.; Rams, J.; Mendez, F. J.; Rodriguez, J.

    2004-07-01

    In this study, the environmental management and needs of the small and medium-sized businesses of the metallurgical industry in the south region of Madrid were analysed. Information was obtained through a telephone questionnaire distributed to more than 170 companies. Although most of the respondent employees do not consider environmental training one of their priorities, they expressed their interest in implementing Environmental Management Systems, waste minimization and higher knowledge of the specific legal aspects. (Author) 7 refs.

  7. Fast determination of impurities in metallurgical grade silicon for photovoltaics by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampel, J.; Boldt, F.M.; Gerstenberg, H.; Hampel, G.; Kratz, J.V.; Reber, S.; Wiehl, N.

    2011-01-01

    Standard wafer solar cells are made of near-semiconductor quality silicon. This high quality material makes up a significant part of the total costs of a solar module. Therefore, new concepts with less expensive so called solar grade silicon directly based on physiochemically upgraded metallurgical grade silicon are investigated. Metallurgical grade silicon contains large amounts of impurities, mainly transition metals like Fe, Cr, Mn, and Co, which degrade the minority carrier lifetime and thus the solar cell efficiency. A major reduction of the transition metal content occurs during the unidirectional crystallization due to the low segregation coefficient between the solid and liquid phase. A further reduction of the impurity level has to be done by gettering procedures applied to the silicon wafers. The efficiency of such cleaning procedures of metallurgical grade silicon is studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Small sized silicon wafers of approximately 200 mg with and without gettering step were analyzed. To accelerate the detection of transition metals in a crystallized silicon ingot, experiments of scanning whole vertical silicon columns with a diameter of approximately 1 cm by gamma spectroscopy were carried out. It was demonstrated that impurity profiles can be obtained in a comparably short time. Relatively constant transition metal ratios were found throughout an entire silicon ingot. This led to the conclusion that the determination of several metal profiles might be possible by the detection of only one 'leading element'. As the determination of Mn in silicon can be done quite fast compared to elements like Fe, Cr, and Co, it could be used as a rough marker for the overall metal concentration level. Thus, a fast way to determine impurities in photovoltaic silicon material is demonstrated. - Highlights: → We demonstrate a fast way to determine impurities in photovoltaic silicon by NAA. → We make first experiments of locally

  8. Global Cities and Liability of Foreignness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernicke, Georg; Mehlsen, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we combine the concepts of location, liability of foreignness (LoF), and their relation to factors that drive multinational enterprises (MNEs) towards, or away from, global cities. We argue that three interrelated characteristics of global cities - cosmopolitanism, availability...... indicate that MNEs have a stronger propensity to locate in global cities than in metropolitan or peripheral areas, and that these locational choices are affected by institutional distance and industrial characteristics. The results provide empirical support for our argument that locating in a global city...... can reduce the liability of foreignness suffered by MNEs, and that global cities play a central role in the process of globalisation....

  9. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    During third quarter 1993, samples from AMB groundwater monitoring wells at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility were analyzed for certain heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Eight parameters exceeded standards during the quarter. As in previous quarters, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards; and aluminum, iron, lead, manganese, pH, and total organic halogens exceeded the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria in one or more of the wells. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water-table unit were similar to previous quarters

  10. Obtaining of dense and highly porous ceramic materials from metallurgical slag

    OpenAIRE

    Fidancevska E.; Mangutova B.; Milosevski D.; Milosevski M.; Bossert J.

    2003-01-01

    Glass-ceramics in a dense and highly porous form can be obtained from metallurgical slag and waste glass of TV monitors. Using polyurethane foam as pore creator, a highly porous system with porosity of 65 ± 5 %, E-modulus and flexural strength of 8 ± 3 GPa and 13 ± 3.5 MPa respectively can be obtained. This porous material had durability (mass loss) of 0.03 % in 0.1 M HCl that is identical with the durability of a dense composite.

  11. Obtaining of dense and highly porous ceramic materials from metallurgical slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidancevska E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass-ceramics in a dense and highly porous form can be obtained from metallurgical slag and waste glass of TV monitors. Using polyurethane foam as pore creator, a highly porous system with porosity of 65 ± 5 %, E-modulus and flexural strength of 8 ± 3 GPa and 13 ± 3.5 MPa respectively can be obtained. This porous material had durability (mass loss of 0.03 % in 0.1 M HCl that is identical with the durability of a dense composite.

  12. Influence of carbon nano tubes on mechanical, metallurgical and tribological behavior of magnesium nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.T. Selvamani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, three different reinforcements of Carbon Nano Tubes (in weight % such as 2%, 3% and 4% were added to the magnesium AZ91D grade magnesium alloy to fabricate the Nanocomposites through stir casting method. The effects of volume percentage on the mechanical, metallurgical and wear behavior were analyzed. The composites with 4% reinforcement show high hardness while the composites with 3% reinforcement show better tensile and yield strength and also an improved wear resistance compared to other. Also, the characterization of the Nanocomposites were made using Optical Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Finite Element – Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy to understand its nature.

  13. Production of metallurgical cokes from some Turkish lignites using sulphite liquor binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanik, J.; Saglam, M.; Yuksel, M. (Ege University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1990-04-01

    Soma and Tuncbilek lignites were briquetted at 80{degree}C under 0-100 MPa, using varying amounts of sulphite liquor binders. The briquettes were then carbonized at 950{degree}C, and the resulting formed cokes were examined. The effects of the type and concentration of binders, and of the briquetting pressure, on the strength and porosity of the formcokes were investigated. As a result of these experiments, optimal briquetting conditions were established. It was also stated that formcokes made from both Turkish lignite samples under optimal briquetting conditions could be used for metallurgical purposes, particularly in non-ferrous metallurgy. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  14. Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of Various Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Kyu-Sang; Oh, Soram; Kum, KeeYeon; Kim, Yu-Chan; Jee, Kwang-Koo; Chang, Seok Woo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thermomechanical treatment on mechanical and metallurgical properties of nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments. Eight kinds of NiTi rotary instruments with sizes of ISO #25 were selected: ProFile, K3, and One Shape for the conventional alloy; ProTaper NEXT, Reciproc, and WaveOne for the M-wire alloy; HyFlex CM for the controlled memory- (CM-) wire; and TF for the R-phase alloy. Torsional fracture and cyclic fatigue fracture tests were...

  15. Selection of human capital in metallurgical companies using information technology (IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Iancu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Personnel selection is a process that takes place in a company in order to have better business performance and competitive advantage. Nowadays, companies have realized the importance of human capital as a necessity for survival in today’s competitive market. There are several methods for selecting staff, but this paper seeks to demonstrate that this selection can be done with the help of an expert system. Metallurgical companies face even greater challenges for managing personnel selection. This research will discover and test the key elements of management personnel selection and implementation of an expert system.

  16. Effective recruitment method for the marketing department of a metallurgical enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jaba

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some solutions to recruit staff for the Marketing Department of a metallurgical enterprise. Our goal is to present the psychological characteristics of a certain category of employees on a sample of 107 employees and to evaluate the relationship between the motivation to work and those characteristics. In order to realize such evaluation we used the linear mixed effects model in the statistical software program R. The results showed that a significant effect on work motivation have factors like work climate and the employee agreeability.

  17. A multi-level code for metallurgical effects in metal-forming processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.A.; Silling, S.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Computational Physics and Mechanics Dept.; Hughes, D.A.; Bammann, D.J.; Chiesa, M.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The authors present the final report on a Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project, A Multi-level Code for Metallurgical Effects in metal-Forming Processes, performed during the fiscal years 1995 and 1996. The project focused on the development of new modeling capabilities for simulating forging and extrusion processes that typically display phenomenology occurring on two different length scales. In support of model fitting and code validation, ring compression and extrusion experiments were performed on 304L stainless steel, a material of interest in DOE nuclear weapons applications.

  18. Ti3SiC2 Synthesis by Powder Metallurgical Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kero, Ida; Antti, Marta-Lena; Odén, Magnus

    2007-01-01

    Titanium silicon carbide MAX phase was synthesised by a powder metallurgical method from ball milled TiC/Si powders of two different compositions, with TiC/Si ratios of 3:2 and 3:2.2 respectively. The cold pressed samples were analysed by dilatometry under flowing argon or sintered under vacuum for different times. The sintered samples were evaluated using x-ray diffraction (XRD). This study showed that titanium carbide was always present as a secondary phase and silicon carbide accompanied t...

  19. Powder metallurgical processing of magnetostrictive materials based on rare earth-iron intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malekzadeh, M.

    1978-01-01

    Procedures are described for fabrication of high density rare earth-iron magnetostrictive compounds by powder metallurgical techniques. The fabrication involves a sequence of steps which includes preparing the pre-alloyed compounds, pulverizing them into a fine powder, compacting in suitable sizes and shapes, and sintering. Samples prepared by these procedures are carefully characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, dilatometry, and magnetic measurements. Process steps are found to exert important influences upon densities, microstructure and magnetic properties attained after densification. Investigations on a number of these process steps, including milling time and medium, sintering, and magnetic powder alignment are described

  20. Metallurgical and acoustical characterization of a hydroformed, 304 stainless steel, Caribbean-style musical pan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murr, L.E.; Gaytan, S.M.; Lopez, M.I.; Bujanda, D.E.; Martinez, E.Y.; Whitmyre, G.; Price, H.

    2008-01-01

    We report herein the metallurgical and acoustical characterization of hydroformed 304 stainless steel, Caribbean pans. These pans were fully tuned to chromatic tones and compared to a manufactured, low-carbon, Caribbean steel pan standard. Hydroformed platforms had a Vickers microindentation hardness of HV 345, which was reduced by annealing during pan fabrication to HV 270. Skirts welded to the hydroformed head had a microindentation hardness of HV 440. Microstructural characterization by light optical metallography and transmission electron microscopy illustrated microstructures (including grain structures) characteristic of these pan microindentation hardnesses

  1. City 2020+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  2. Segregation, urban space and the resurgent city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musterd, S.

    2006-01-01

    Currently, many major Western cities aim to be attractive to new and economically successful high-tech industries, financial and business services, cultural industries and consumer services industries. Most of these new activities are dependent upon well-skilled creative workers, which will be

  3. PRODUCTION NETWORKS, AND DIGITAL LOGISTICS AS A TOOL FOR REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT: THE WOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY IN THE CITY OF BURI, SÃO PAULO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Helena Sguizzardi Abascal

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil municipalities and regions face nowadays plenty of challenges to achieve a sustainable development founded in logistic and productive relationship networks. These networks and respective operations require knowledge and domain of productive possibilities and business opportunities that can develop themselves in regional and endogenous territorial scales. These challenges derive of the fact that municipalities are part of many government and administrative regions in brazilian states to actuate in solidary and synergic way, potentializing relationships with respective congeners. Networks formation requests a rigorous knowledge of the socioeconomic conditions, the municipalities and the regions characters, and it requests TIC (Communication and Information Technologies instrumental use, being able to give ways to expand and to know the social actors that are related and their potential partners through digital networks. This type of networks enables a synchronic management of territorial and economic complexities, in real time (just in time. This article analyzes by critical way the causes of socioeconomic depression of Sao Paulo State southwest region, with the objective of identifying the responsible factors of its stagnation. It also analyzes specific characteristics of Buri Municipality that is situated in southwest Sao Paulo State region. Showing business networks formation based on the transformation wood industry. This natural product is available in the region, here we investigate the local development possibilities, productive and logistic networks (Material Networks and we suggest digital networks use. These actions not just only create regional advantages, but indeed releases Sao Paulo metropolis: either its spaces and its circulation highways, unduly congested due vehicle concentration that is responsible by transport, state and federal logistic.

  4. Excite City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun and cult...

  5. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Succesful corporate branding requires that questions related to communication, publicity, and organizational structures are adressed. An uncritical adoption of approaches known from tradition product branding will inevitable give problems as the properties of tangible commodities and services...... to face - these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated...

  6. Fun City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin ...

  7. FUN CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin ...

  8. Sustainable Cities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The case study by Ejigu reveals a tension inherent in urban development in the ... In fact, the price of viable land in the Global South cities is sometimes as high as the ... He discusses the 'piecemeal' construction practice typical of the informal ...

  9. Whose city?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Die Stadt als Beute. But where most of these films follow the money and dissect the power relations in today’s urban planning, Whose city? instead moves back in time to the almost forgotten, but defining architectural disputes of the 1990s. With the fall of the Berlin Wall and the rest of the Iron...

  10. Metallurgical behavior of fine fractions of copper sulfide minerals in a combined process of modified flotation and agitated bio leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibanez, J. P.; Ipinza, J.; Collao, N.; Ahlborn, G.

    2007-01-01

    The metallurgical behaviour of fine fraction of copper sulfide minerals of Compania Minera Quebrada Blanca S. A. was studied by concentration through flotation in aqueous media modified by alcohol followed by bio leaching of the concentrates. By using a 1% v/v of methanol, the metallurgical recovery of copper reaches 88%, while the iron recovery was 43%, the weight recovery was 18%, which indicates a high selectivity. these concentrates were then bio leached with and without nutrient medium, reaching 80% of copper recovery after 10 and 17 days, respectively. then, it is possible to conclude that this concentration-bio leaching metallurgical process is a promising route for copper recovery from the fine fraction of sulfide minerals. (Author) 24 refs

  11. Characterization of Tool Wear in High-Speed Milling of Hardened Powder Metallurgical Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Klocke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental study, the cutting performance of ball-end mills in high-speed dry-hard milling of powder metallurgical steels was investigated. The cutting performance of the milling tools was mainly evaluated in terms of cutting length, tool wear, and cutting forces. Two different types of hardened steels were machined, the cold working steel HS 4-2-4 PM (K490 Microclean/66 HRC and the high speed steel HS 6-5-3 PM (S790 Microclean/64 HRC. The milling tests were performed at effective cutting speeds of 225, 300, and 400 m/min with a four fluted solid carbide ball-end mill (0 = 6, TiAlN coating. It was observed that by means of analytically optimised chipping parameters and increased cutting speed, the tool life can be drastically enhanced. Further, in machining the harder material HS 4-2-4 PM, the tool life is up to three times in regard to the less harder material HS 6-5-3 PM. Thus, it can be assumed that not only the hardness of the material to be machined plays a vital role for the high-speed dry-hard cutting performance, but also the microstructure and thermal characteristics of the investigated powder metallurgical steels in their hardened state.

  12. Study of the Metallurgical Aspects of Steel Micro-Alloying by Titan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kijac, J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The metal properties upgrading applying it’s alloying with the simultaneous limitation of the impurities represents a prospective possibility of the metallurgical production further development. The interaction of the alloying substance active element with oxygen in metal and adjacent multiphase environment occurs under the actual conditions. Present paper is oriented particularly to the thermodynamic aspects of deoxygenation by titan in process of production of micro alloyed low carbon steel in two plants (oxygen converter 1-OC1 and 2-OC2 with the different effect of micro-alloy exploitation. Analysis of the effect of the metallurgical factors on the titan smelting loss in micro-alloyed steel production points at the need to master the metal preparation for the alloying and especially has got the decisive effect upon the oxidizing ability and rate of the slag phase availability. When comparing the micro-alloying matter yield among the individual production units, disclosed have been better results obtained in plant OC 2. Confirmed has been the effect of the slag amount (average amount of 7,3 t at OC 1 and 5,83 t at OC 2 and its quality during the steel tapping as one among the most significant factors affecting the alloying process and which also represent its oxidizing potential.

  13. Residual life assessment of French PWR vessel head penetrations through metallurgical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichon, C.; Boudot, R.; Benhamou, C.; Gelpi, A.

    1994-01-01

    In September 1991, a vessel head penetration was found leaking at Bugey 3 plant during the hydrotest included in the framework of decennial In Service Inspections. Non destructive examinations performed afterwards on several other plants have shown some cracked penetrations. Destructive expertise confirmed quickly that again this new problem is related to stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 used as base material. During the last 15 years, similar cracking have been met in steam generator tubes and secondly in pressurizer instrumentation tubes. In spite of all the work performed since that time an extension appears to be necessary for explaining the features of this new event; however material sensitivity, stress and temperature still remain the key parameters governing the behavior of Alloy 600 in PWR environment. In this paper, only the material sensitivity of vessel head penetrations is examined through metallurgical analysis in relation with SCC tests. On the basis of vessel head field experience in combination with thermomechanical process used for fabrication of original bars criteria for a sensitivity ranking of penetrations are proposed. Metallurgical investigations and SCC tests were carried out to support this sensitivity ranking. The final aim is to use such information among those quoted above for assessment of vessel heads residual life. This document is an overview of the work performed in France concerning the material sensitivity of forged Alloy 600. It represents an important part of the assessments and investigations undertaken in France on the stress corrosion cracking phenomenon affecting the reactor vessel head penetrations in PWR's

  14. Bio-alteration of metallurgical wastes by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a semi flow-through reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hullebusch, Eric D; Yin, Nang-Htay; Seignez, Nicolas; Labanowski, Jérôme; Gauthier, Arnaud; Lens, Piet N L; Avril, Caroline; Sivry, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Metallurgical activities can generate a huge amount of partially vitrified waste products which are either landfilled or recycled. Lead Blast Furnace (LBF) slags are often disposed of in the vicinity of metallurgical plants, and are prone to weathering, releasing potentially toxic chemical components into the local environment. To simulate natural weathering in a slag heap, bioweathering of these LBF slags was studied in the presence of a pure heterotrophic bacterial strain (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and in a semi-flow through reactor with intermittent leachate renewal. The evolution of water chemistry, slag composition and texture were monitored during the experiments. The cumulative bulk release of dissolved Fe, Si, Ca and Mg doubled in the presence of bacteria, probably due to the release of soluble complexing organic molecules (e.g. siderophores). In addition, bacterial biomass served as the bioadsorbent for Pb, Fe and Zn as 70-80% of Pb and Fe, 40-60% of Zn released are attached to and immobilized by the bacterial biomass. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Metals, words and gods. Early knowledge of metallurgical skills in Europe, and reflections in terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solin Paliga

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available How can metallurgical terminology - specifically names of metals - support ar­ chaeological investigation? Can comparative linguistics and archaeology co-operate in order to identify the emergence and development of metallurgical skills? How did Neolithic and Bronze Age man imagine the taming of nature in order to achieve metal artifacts? Such questions -and many others -may arise whenever we try to investigate the beginnings and making of civilization. It is clear that the various aspects connected to archaeometallurgy cannot be analyzed separately from other aspects of human life, like agriculture, trade, urbanization, religious beliefs, early writing systems, pottery techniques, a.o. The earliest known (or identifiable names of metals do reflect a cer­ tain ideology and a certain way of 'seeing' metals as imbued with magic powers. It is certain that colours and reflections - specific to metals - made early man interpret them as divine (Biek and Bayley 1979; Muşu 1981, chapter Symphony of colours, a first attempt in reconstructing pre-Greek names of colours.

  16. A thermo-metallurgical constitutive law of steels for structural mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waeckel, Francois

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this work is to include the metallurgical behaviour of steels (and specifically their phases transformations) into thermo-mechanical studies. For this, a new model of aniso-thermal phase transformations during the cooling stage is proposed. Developed in the thermodynamics framework of simple materials with memory variables, its originality lies in the choice of the temperature time derivative T as independent variable. The identification and the transformation rates computation use the C.C.T. diagrams which are considered as families of particular solutions of evolution equations. The validation shows ability of the model to simulate all C.C.T. deductible tests. Furthermore, for some tests not included into the C.C.T., the numerical results remain good and the model, from which evolution equation form has been let free, allows to incorporate them to the identification data without modifying the C.C.T. simulation accuracy. Lastly, to take into account structural transformations mechanical effects, some currently used models have been introduced, together with the metallurgical model, in a finite element code. They allow whole quenching or welding simulations (up to residual stresses) as demonstrated by application examples. (author) [fr

  17. Industrial and medical applications of accelerators with energies less than 20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggan, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper the medical and industrial application of small accelerators is reviewed. Most of the material is taken from the Seventh Conference on the Application of Accelerators in Research and Industry, which was held in Denton, Texas in November of 1982. The areas covered include medical linacs, cyclotron design and production of medical radioisotopes, radiation processing, ion implantation for the metallurgical and semiconductor industries, oil and mineral exploration, trace, surface and bulk analysis, and unique accelerators for all of the above applications

  18. Metallurgical characterization of pulsed current gas tungsten arc, friction stir and laser beam welded AZ31B magnesium alloy joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmanaban, G.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the influences of welding processes such as friction stir welding (FSW), laser beam welding (LBW) and pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (PCGTAW) on mechanical and metallurgical properties of AZ31B magnesium alloy. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction technique were used to evaluate the metallurgical characteristics of welded joints. LBW joints exhibited superior tensile properties compared to FSW and PCGTAW joints due to the formation of finer grains in weld region, higher fusion zone hardness, the absence of heat affected zone, presence of uniformly distributed finer precipitates in weld region.

  19. Measures to restore metallurgical mine wasteland using ecological restoration technologies: A case study at Longnan Rare Earth Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yunzhang; Gu, Ruizhi; Guo, Ruikai; Zhang, Xueyan

    2017-01-01

    Whereas mining activities produce the raw materials that are crucial to economic growth, such activities leave extensive scarring on the land, contributing to the waste of valuable land resources and upsetting the ecological environment. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate various ecological technologies to restore metallurgical mine wastelands. These technologies include measures such as soil amelioration, vegetation restoration, different vegetation planting patterns, and engineering technologies. The Longnan Rare Earth Mine in the Jiangxi Province of China is used as the case study. The ecological restoration process provides a favourable reference for the restoration of a metallurgical mine wasteland.

  20. Project development for mining-metallurgical complexes for production of uranium concentrates - an analysis and a methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajuria G, S.; Blanco P, B.; Pena A, J.; Manzanera Q, C.

    1978-10-01

    Activities comprising the development of a project for a mining-metallurgical complex for production of uranium concentrates, from sampling and evaluation of an orebody until plant start-up, are analyzed. The analysis of the orebody, characterization of the ore, bench scale and pilot plant metallurgical studies, environmental studies and economic analyses of the project are described. The mining project and mine preparation and engineering and construction of the plant are reviewed in less detail. The estimated time lapse for the development of a typical project under ideal conditions is 66 months. A bar diagram is included showing an approximate timetable for each activity. (author)