WorldWideScience

Sample records for metallic mineral resources

  1. Mineral resources of Slovakia, questions of classification and valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baláž Peter

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Constitution of Slovak Republic, mineral resources of Slovakia are in the ownership of Slovak Republic. In 1997, 721 exclusive mineral deposits of mineral fuels, metals and industrial minerals were registered in Slovakia. The classification for economic and uneconomic reserves/resources requires an annual updating, concerning changes of market mineral prices and mine production costs. In terms of economic valuation of mineral resources, a new United Nations international classification for reserves/resources appears as a perspective alternative. Changes of geological and mining legislation are necessary for real valuation of Slovak mineral resources.

  2. Review of Biohydrometallurgical Metals Extraction from Polymetallic Mineral Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen R. Watling

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review has as its underlying premise the need to become proficient in delivering a suite of element or metal products from polymetallic ores to avoid the predicted exhaustion of key metals in demand in technological societies. Many technologies, proven or still to be developed, will assist in meeting the demands of the next generation for trace and rare metals, potentially including the broader application of biohydrometallurgy for the extraction of multiple metals from low-grade and complex ores. Developed biotechnologies that could be applied are briefly reviewed and some of the difficulties to be overcome highlighted. Examples of the bioleaching of polymetallic mineral resources using different combinations of those technologies are described for polymetallic sulfide concentrates, low-grade sulfide and oxidised ores. Three areas for further research are: (i the development of sophisticated continuous vat bioreactors with additional controls; (ii in situ and in stope bioleaching and the need to solve problems associated with microbial activity in that scenario; and (iii the exploitation of sulfur-oxidising microorganisms that, under specific anaerobic leaching conditions, reduce and solubilise refractory iron(III or manganese(IV compounds containing multiple elements. Finally, with the successful applications of stirred tank bioleaching to a polymetallic tailings dump and heap bioleaching to a polymetallic black schist ore, there is no reason why those proven technologies should not be more widely applied.

  3. Preliminary Mineral Resource Assessment of Selected Mineral Deposit Types in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Orris, Greta J.; Bolm, Karen S.; Peters, Stephen G.; ,

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Wise decision-making and management of natural resources depend upon credible and reliable scientific information about the occurrence, distribution, quantity and quality of a country's resource base. Economic development decisions by governments require such information to be part of a Mineral Resource Assessment. Such Mineral Assessments are also useful to private citizens and international investors, consultants, and companies prior to entry and investment in a country. Assessments can also be used to help evaluate the economic risks and impact on the natural environment associated with development of resources. In February 2002, at the request of the Department of State and the then U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan (Robert P. Finn), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) prepared a detailed proposal addressing natural resources issues critical to the reconstruction of Afghanistan. The proposal was refined and updated in December 2003 and was presented as a 5-year work plan to USAID-Kabul in February 2004. USAID-Kabul currently funds this plan and this report presents a part of the preliminary results obligated for fiscal year 2006. A final Preliminary Assessment of the Non Fuel Mineral Resource of Afghanistan will be completed and delivered at the end of fiscal year 2007. Afghanistan has abundant metallic and non-metallic resources, but the potential resources have never been systematically assessed using modern methods. Much of the existing mineral information for Afghanistan was gathered during the 1950s and continued in the late 1980s until the departure of the geologic advisors from the Soviet Union. During this period, there were many mineral-related activities centered on systematic geologic mapping of the country, collection of geochemical and rock samples, implementation of airborne geophysical surveys, and exploration focused on the discovery of large mineral deposits. Many reports, maps, charts, and tables were produced at that time. Some of

  4. Evaluation of mineral resource potential of the Finnish precambrian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltonen, K.

    1993-05-01

    In the report the undiscovered mineral resource potential of metallogenic regions in Finland is evaluated. The evaluation is based on known deposits. The criteria of the evaluation were: ore and mineral deposit density, regional distribution of valuable metals, and the amount and the nature of prospecting methods used. The information for the study has been collected from the data base for ore minerals maintained by the Geological Survey of Finland. Regions with mineral resource potential conclusively under national average are Presvecokarelidic and Svecokarelidic granitoids and rapakivi Massif. The mineral resource potential of basic rocks in relation to their surface area is multiple compared to non-basic rocks

  5. Main types of rare-metal mineralization in Karelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashchenko, V. I.

    2016-03-01

    Rare-metal mineralization in Karelia is represented by V, Be, U deposits and In, Re, Nb, Ta, Li, Ce, La, and Y occurrences, which are combined into 17 types of magmatic, pegmatite, albitite-greisen, hydrothermal-metasomatic, sedimentary, and epigenetic groups. The main vanadium resources are localized in the Onega ore district. These are deposits of the Padma group (556 kt) and the Pudozhgorsky complex (1.5 Mt). The REE occurrences are primarily characterized by Ce-La specialization. The perspective of HREE is related to the Eletozero-Tiksheozero alkaline and Salmi anorthosite-rapakivi granite complexes. Rare-metal pegmatites bear complex mineralization with insignificant low-grade resources. The Lobash and Jalonvaara porphyry Cu-Mo deposits are potential sources of rhenium: Re contents in molybdenite are 20-70 and 50-246 ppm and hypothetical resources are 12 and 7.5 t, respectively. The high-grade (˜100 ppm) and metallogenic potential of indium (˜2400 t) make the deposits of the Pitkäranta ore district leading in the category of Russian ore objects most prospective for indium. Despite the diverse rare-metal mineralization known in Karelia, the current state of this kind of mineral commodities at the world market leaves real metallogenic perspective only for V, U, Re, In, and Nb.

  6. U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program—Mineral resource science supporting informed decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Aleeza M.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

    2016-09-19

    The USGS Mineral Resources Program (MRP) delivers unbiased science and information to increase understanding of mineral resource potential, production, and consumption, and how mineral resources interact with the environment. The MRP is the Federal Government’s sole source for this mineral resource science and information. Program goals are to (1) increase understanding of mineral resource formation, (2) provide mineral resource inventories and assessments, (3) broaden knowledge of the effects of mineral resources on the environment and society, and (4) provide analysis on the availability and reliability of mineral supplies.

  7. Summary of the mineral- and energy-resource endowment, BLM roswell resource area, east-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch-Winkler, S.; Sutphin, D.M.; Ball, M.M.; Korzeb, S.L.; Kness, R.F.; Dutchover, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    In this summary of two comprehensive resource reports produced by the U.S. Bureau of Mines and the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, we discuss the mineral- and energyresource endowment of the 14-millon-acre Roswell Resource Area, New Mexico, managed by the Bureau of Land Management. The Bureau and Survey reports result from separate studies that are compilations of published and unpublished data and integrate new findings on the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, mineral, industrial, and energy commodities, and resources for the seven-county area. The reports have been used by the Bureau of Land Management in preparation of the Roswell Resource Area Resource Management Plan, and will have future use in nationwide mineral- and energy-resource inventories and assessments, as reference and training documents, and as public-information tools. In the Roswell Resource Area, many metals, industrial mineral commodities, and energy resources are being, or have been, produced or prospected. These include metals and high-technology materials, such as copper, gold, silver, thorium, uranium and/or vanadium, rare-earth element minerals, iron, manganese, tungsten, lead, zinc, and molybdenum; industrial mineral resources, including barite, limestone/dolomite, caliche, clay, fluorspar, gypsum, scoria, aggregate, and sand and gravel; and fuels and associated resources, such as oil, gas, tar sand and heavy oil, coal, and gases associated with hydrocarbons. Other commodities that have yet to be identified in economic concentrations include potash, halite, polyhalite, anhydrite, sulfur, feldspar, building stone and decorative rock, brines, various gases associated with oil and gas exploration, and carbon dioxide. ?? 1993 Oxford University Press.

  8. Beryllium—A critical mineral commodity—Resources, production, and supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Graham W.; Foley, Nora K.; Jaskula, Brian W.; Ayuso, Robert A.

    2016-11-14

    Beryllium is a lightweight metallic element used in a wide variety of specialty and industrial applications. As a function of its unique chemical and physical properties, such as a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, resistance to temperature extremes, and high thermal conductivity, beryllium cannot be easily replaced by substitute materials in applications where combinations of these properties make it the material of choice. Because the number of beryllium producers is limited and the use of substitute materials in specific defense-related applications that are vital to national security is inadequate, several studies have categorized beryllium as a critical and strategic material. This categorization has led to the United States Government recommending that beryllium be stockpiled for use in the event of a national emergency. As of December 31, 2015, the National Defense Stockpile inventory of hot-pressed beryllium metal powder, structured beryllium metal powder, and vacuum-cast beryllium metal totaled 78 metric tons (t).The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program supports research on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources vital to the economy and national security. The USGS, through its National Minerals Information Center (NMIC), collects, analyzes, and disseminates information on more than 90 nonfuel mineral commodities from more than 180 countries. This fact sheet provides information on the production, consumption, supply chain, geology, and resource availability of beryllium in a global context.

  9. The mineral base and productive capacities of metals and non-metals of Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizaj, M.; Beqiri, E.; McBow, I.; O'Brien, E. Z.; Kongoli, F.

    2008-08-01

    All historical periods of Kosovo—Ilirik, Roman, Medieval, Turkish, and former Yugoslavian—are linked with the intensive development of mining and metallurgy. This activity influenced and still is influencing the overall position of Kosovo as a country. For example, according to a 2006 World Bank report as well as other studies, Kosovo has potential lignite resources (geological reserves) of about 1.5 billion tonnes, which are ranked fifth in the world in importance. Other significant Kosovan mineral resources include lead, zinc, gold, silver, bauxite, and uranium, and rare metals accompanying those minerals, including indium, cadmium, thallium, gallium, and bismuth. These rare metals are of particular importance in developing advanced industrial technologies. Kosovo also has reserves of high-quality non-metals, including magnesite, quartz grit, bentonite, argil, talc, and asbestos. No database exists for these non-metal reserves, and further research and studies are needed.

  10. Brazilian mineral resources of refractory metals: Nb, Ta, W and Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, F.M.; Manso, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    A brief outlook of selected Brazilian refractory metals resources is presented. The metals are dealt separately with topics covering resources availability, production, Brazilian foreign trade, apparent consumption, and supply-demand balance with emphasis varying according to the specific metal characteristics. (E.G.) [pt

  11. Minerals Yearbook, volume I, Metals and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  12. Analysis of stream sediment reconnaissance data for mineral resources from the Montrose NTMS Quadrangle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyth, M.; Broxton, D.; McInteer, C.; Averett, W.R.; Stablein, N.K.

    1980-06-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis to support the National Uranium Resource Evaluation and to evaluate strategic and other commercially important mineral resources was carried out on Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance data from the Montrose quadrangle, Colorado. The analysis suggests that: (1) the southern Colorado Mineral Belt is an area favorable for uranium mineral occurrences; (2) carnotite-type occurrences are likely in the nose of the Gunnison Uplift; (3) uranium mineral occurrences may be present along the western and northern margins of the West Elk crater; (4) a base-metal mineralized area is associated with the Uncompahgre Uplift; and (5) uranium and base metals are associated in some areas, and both are often controlled by faults trending west-northwest and north

  13. Resource nationalism in Indonesia—Effects of the 2014 mineral export ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Graham W.

    2016-09-27

    Resource nationalism encompasses a broad range of political and economic actions taken by Governments to regulate the extraction of natural resources within their borders. Policies such as increased tariffs or export restrictions can have far-reaching economic effects on international trade. As the Governments of several developing countries consider enacting nationalistic policies, an examination of the 2014 mineral export ban in Indonesia provides an instructive example of the possible impacts of resource nationalism. Significant changes in the production and trade of unprocessed (that is, ores and concentrates) and processed (that is, refined metal) aluminum, copper, and nickel before and after the export ban form the basis of this study.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Minerals Information Center (NMIC) tracks production and trade of mineral commodities between producer and consumer countries. Materials flow studies clarify the effects of an export ban on different mineral commodities by assessing changes in production, processing capacity, and trade. Using extensive data collection and monitoring procedures, the USGS NMIC investigated the effects of resource nationalism on the flow of mineral commodities from Indonesia to the global economy.

  14. Mineral resource potential map of the Sugarloaf Roadless Area, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Robert E.; Matti, Jonathan C.; Cox, Brett F.; Oliver, Howard W.; Wagini, Alexander; Campbell, Harry W.

    1983-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and a survey of mines and prospects indicate that the Sugaloaf Roadless Area contains subeconomic graphite and magnesian marble resources. Parts of the area have a low potential for the occurrence of additional low-grade graphite resources, but there is no potential for additional magnesian marble resources within the roadless area. Sand, gravel, and construction stone other than carbonate rocks are found in the roadless area, but similar or better quality materials are abundant and more accessible outside the area. The roadless area has no identified energy mineral resources, but parts of the area have a low to moderate potential for low-grade uranium resources. There are no identified metallic mineral resources within the area, and there is no evidence of a potential for the occurrence of such resources. No previously unknown mineral occurrence was located during this study.

  15. Mineral resources of the Swasey Mountain and Howell Peak Wilderness Study Areas, Millard County, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, D.A.; Zimbelman, D.R.; Campbell, D.L.; Duval, J.S.; Cook, K.L.; Podwysocki, M.H.; Brickey, D.W.; Yambrick, R.A.; Tuftin, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    The Swasey Mountain and the Howell Peak Wilderness Study Areas are underlain by an east-dipping sequence of carbonate rocks, shale, and quartzite of Cambrian age. The Sand Pass mineralized area, immediately northwest of the Swasey Mountain Wilderness Study Area, contains numerous occurrences of jasperoid, small igneous intrusions of Tertiary age, and geochemical anomalies; the mineralized area has been explored for gold. Although no identified resources of metals are known in or near the wilderness study areas, the distribution of geologic structures and stream-sediment geochemical anomalies indicates there is a moderate potential for undiscovered resources of lead, zinc, copper, molybdenum, silver, and gold. An area of moderate potential for undiscovered resources of these metals extends south and east into the Swasey Mountain Wilderness Study Area from the Sand Pass mineralized area. A second area of moderate potential for undiscovered resources of these metals extends from the southern part of the Swasey Mountain Wilderness Study Area across the western part of the Howell Peak Wilderness Study Area. Both study areas contain inferred subeconomic resources of quartzite, high-purity limestone, and sand and gravel. Both areas have moderate resource potential for high-purity limestone and dolomite. Fossils, especially trilobites, of interest to collectors are present in both areas. The potential for undiscovered resources is moderate for oil and gas and is low for geothermal energy within the study areas. There is no potential for undiscovered resources of coal.

  16. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Minerals

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This point occurrence data set represents the current mineral and selected energy resources of Utah. The data set coordinates were derived from USGS topographic maps...

  17. Mineral resources in Afghanistan. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    Despite Afghanistan's wide variety of mineral resources and long history of small-scale mining of gems, gold, copper, and coal, it was not until the 1950's that the country's mineral resources were subject to systematic exploration. The report documents the past and present status of these resources and examines alternative strategies for their exploitation. Chapter 2 provides a brief history of minerals exploration, exploitation, and planning in Afghanistan, including the roles of Great Britain, France, Germany, the Soviet bloc, and the United States in Afghanistan's mineral sector; mineral policy in the five national plans during the years 1962-83; and sector assessments conducted by the World Bank (1978) and the US Department of Energy (1989). Chapter 3 discusses three strategies for developing the country's mineral and hydrocarbon resources. (1) a national orientation focusing on domestic needs; (2) a regional strategy that would consider markets in countries close to Afghanistan; and (3) an international strategy that would place Afghan resources on the international market

  18. United States mineral resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobst, Donald A.; Pratt, Walden P.

    1973-01-01

    The work on this volume began in January 1972, but in a broader sense its production began many years ago. The chapters were written by geologists most of whom have had many years of experience studying the geology of mineral deposits, and more particularly the commodities about which they have written here. A total of nearly 2,300 man-years of professional experience in the geology of mineral resources is represented by the authors of the volume, and about 30 man-years went directly into its preparation. Each chapter contains not only a synthesis of the state of knowledge of the geology of the commodity, but also an appraisal of the known resources, and an examination of the geologic possibilities for finding additional deposits. In January 1972, responsibility for the preparation of the volume was assigned to us as co-editors, and we were given a tentative list of commodities and authors. We provided each author with a suggested outline of general topics to be covered, and some guidelines as to scope and philosophy of approach, but beyond that we avoided any attempt to fit each chapter into a stereotype. Moreover, the types of commodities range from the major metals and industrial minerals such as copper, silver, and fluorspar, which have been the subject of geologic research for years, to other commodities that are of such varied geologic nature (such as pigments or gemstones) or of such minor present importance (such as scandium or thallium) that they cannot be treated from the same viewpoint as the major minerals. The chapters range, therefore, from comprehensive summary reports to general essays that reflect the individuality of the authors as well as the variation among commodities. Throughout the book the emphasis is on geology, but each chapter contains some summary information on uses, technology, and economics. These summaries are not meant to be exhaustive, however, and additional details are in the 1970 edition of "Mineral Facts and Problems" (Bulletin

  19. Undiscovered porphyry copper resources in the Urals—A probabilistic mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Phillips, Jeffrey; Berger, Byron R.; Denning, Paul; Dicken, Connie; Mars, John; Zientek, Michael L.; Herrington, Richard J.; Seltmann, Reimar

    2017-01-01

    A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of metal resources in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits of the Ural Mountains in Russia and Kazakhstan was done using a quantitative form of mineral resource assessment. Permissive tracts were delineated on the basis of mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks assigned to tectonic zones that include magmatic arcs where the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits within 1 km of the Earth's surface are possible. These permissive tracts outline four north-south trending volcano-plutonic belts in major structural zones of the Urals. From west to east, these include permissive lithologies for porphyry copper deposits associated with Paleozoic subduction-related island-arc complexes preserved in the Tagil and Magnitogorsk arcs, Paleozoic island-arc fragments and associated tonalite-granodiorite intrusions in the East Uralian zone, and Carboniferous continental-margin arcs developed on the Kazakh craton in the Transuralian zone. The tracts range from about 50,000 to 130,000 km2 in area. The Urals host 8 known porphyry copper deposits with total identified resources of about 6.4 million metric tons of copper, at least 20 additional porphyry copper prospect areas, and numerous copper-bearing skarns and copper occurrences.Probabilistic estimates predict a mean of 22 undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within the four permissive tracts delineated in the Urals. Combining estimates with established grade and tonnage models predicts a mean of 82 million metric tons of undiscovered copper. Application of an economic filter suggests that about half of that amount could be economically recoverable based on assumed depth distributions, availability of infrastructure, recovery rates, current metals prices, and investment environment.

  20. Characterization of minerals, metals and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Bai, Chengguang; Carpenter, John; Cai, Mingdong; Firrao, Donato; Kim, Byoung-Gon

    2012-01-01

    This state-of-the-art reference contains chapters on all aspects of the characterization of minerals, metals, and materials. The title presents papers from one of the largest yearly gatherings of materials scientists in the world and thoroughly discusses the characterization of minerals, metals, and materials The scope includes current industrial applications and research and developments in the following areas:  Characterization of Ferrous Metals Characterization of Non-Ferrous Materials Characterization of Minerals and Ceramics Character

  1. South Africa's mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The main aim of the Minerals Bureau in presenting this annual review is to provide an up-to-date reference document on the current state of the mineral industry in South Africa. This includes a brief look at the production, trade, economy, resources and deposits of precious metals and minerals, energy minerals, metallic minerals, and non-metallic minerals. One article discusses the production, trade, export, deposits and economy of uranium

  2. Global mineral resource assessment: porphyry copper assessment of Mexico: Chapter A in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Ludington, Steve; Gray, Floyd; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Cendejas-Cruz, Francisco; Espinosa, Enrique; Pérez-Segura, Efrén; Valencia-Moreno, Martín; Rodríguez-Castañeda, José Luis; Vásquez-Mendoza, Rigobert; Zürcher, Lukas

    2010-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about distributions of mineral deposits in the Earth’s crust. A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in Mexico was done as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 km of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000; (2) provide a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in undiscovered deposits for each permissive tract. The assessment was conducted using a three-part form of mineral resource assessment based on mineral deposit models (Singer, 1993). Delineation of permissive tracts primarily was based on distributions of mapped igneous rocks related to magmatic arcs that formed in tectonic settings associated with subduction boundary zones. Using a GIS, map units were selected from digital geologic maps based on lithology and age to delineate twelve permissive tracts associated with Jurassic, Laramide (~90 to 34 Ma), and younger Tertiary magmatic arcs. Stream-sediment geochemistry, mapped alteration, regional aeromagnetic data, and exploration history were considered in conjunction with descriptive deposit models and grade and tonnage models to guide estimates.

  3. Status of mineral resources evaluation and forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hanfeng; Li Ziying; Luo Yi; Li Shengxiang; Sun Wenpeng

    2007-01-01

    The work of resources evaluation and forecast is a focus to the governments of every country in the world, it is related to the establishment of strategic policy on the national mineral resources. In order to quantitatively evaluate the general potential of uranium resources in China and better forecast uranium deposits, this paper briefly introduces the method of evaluating total amount of mineral resources, especially 6 usual prospective methods which are recommended in international geology comparison programs, as well as principle of usual mineral resources quantitative prediction and its steps. The work history of mineral resources evaluation and forecast is reviewed concisely. Advantages and disadvantages of each method, their application field and condition are also explained briefly. At last, the history of uranium resources evaluation and forecast in China and its status are concisely outlined. (authors)

  4. China's mineral resources security under economic globalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Environment and Spatial Informatics

    2002-10-01

    The concept and intention of mineral resources security are introduced. From the insurance and leverage that mineral resources has on China's socio-economic development, the strength of support, the opportunity and challenge imposed by globalised economy, the effect of mineral resource development on the safety of the eco-environment, the author analyses the basic situation and existing problem of the mineral resources security in China; summarizes the current research situation of mineral resources security and the main tactics which are used to ensure mineral resources security in the developed countries; presents the essence of mineral resources security, the basic principles of research and the problems focused; and points out the research areas and goals that should be strengthened urgently. 15 refs.

  5. Petroleum and mineral resources of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovar, Karel; Behrendt, John Charles

    1983-01-01

    No known petroleum or mineral resources occur in Antarctica. The data on these subjects have been collected, mainly since the IGY (International Geophysical Year), 1957-58, as a part of other research carried out by geologists and geophysicists from a number of countries. Specific resource-related studies have not been made. Wright and Williams (1974) summarized what was known of Antarctic mineral resources a decade ago.The U.S. Geological Survey has been actively pursuing various investigations in Antarctica since 194 7. In the course of this work and that of our colleagues elsewhere in the United States and in other countries, much information relevant to petroleum and mineral resources has been obtained. Since 1976, modern state-of-the-art multichannel seismic reflection and aeromagnetic surveys by several countries over the continental margin of Antarctica have indicated thick sedimentary basins. However, no offshore drilling beneath the continental shelf has taken place since the DSDP (Deep Sea Drilling Project) holes in the Ross Sea in 1973. Geologic field investigations begun at the turn of the twentieth century have been intensified in the past two decades; most rock outcrops have been visited and samples collected. Technology to exploit resources, particularly in the Arctic, has been developing at a rapid rate, and much of it could be applied to Antarctica. As a result of the petroleum price increases of the past decade, the attention of a number of countries has turned to Antarctica, but under the policy of "voluntary restraint" adopted by the Antarctic Treaty nations, no active petroleum or mineral exploration is taking place. The Antarctic treaty countries are in the process of negotiating an Antarctic mineral resources regime that is anticipated to be completed within the next several years. Therefore it seemed timely to us to readdress the question of petroleum and mineral resources. These reports review and summarize the available information. The

  6. Mineral transformations during the dissolution of uranium ore minerals by dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasauer, S.; Weidler, P.; Fakra, S.; Tyliszczak, T.; Shuh, D.

    2011-12-01

    Carnotite minerals [X2(UO2)2(VO4)2]; X = K, Ca, Ba, Mn, Na, Cu or Pb] form the major ore of uranium in the Colorado Plateau. These deposits are highly oxidized and contain U(VI) and V(IV). The biotransformation of U(VI) bound in carnotite by bacteria during dissimilatory metal reduction presents a complex puzzle in mineral chemistry. Both U(VI) and V(V) can be respired by metal reducing bacteria, and the mineral structure can change depending on the associated counterion. We incubated anaerobic cultures of S. putrefaciens CN32 with natural carnotite minerals from southeastern Utah in a nutrient-limited defined medium. Strain CN32 is a gram negative bacterium and a terrestrial isolate from New Mexico. The mineral and metal transformations were compared to a system that contained similar concentrations of soluble U(VI) and V(V). Electron (SEM, TEM) microscopies and x-ray spectromicroscopy (STXM) were used in conjunction with XRD to track mineral changes, and bacterial survival was monitored throughout the incubations. Slow rates of metal reduction over 10 months for the treatment with carnotite minerals revealed distinct biotic and abiotic processes, providing insight on mineral transformation and bacteria-metal interactions. The bacteria existed as small flocs or individual cells attached to the mineral phase, but did not adsorb soluble U or V, and accumulated very little of the biominerals. Reduction of mineral V(V) necessarily led to a dismantling of the carnotite structure. Bioreduction of V(V) by CN32 contributed small but profound changes to the mineral system, resulting in new minerals. Abiotic cation exchange within the carnotite group minerals induced the rearrangement of the mineral structures, leading to further mineral transformation. In contrast, bacteria survival was poor for treatments with soluble U(VI) and V(V), although both metals were reduced completely and formed solid UO2 and VO2; we also detected V(III). For these treatments, the bacteria

  7. Mineral resource potential of the Piedra Wilderness Study Area, Archuleta and Hinsdale counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Alfred L.; Condon, Steven M.; Franczyk, Karen J.; Brown, S.Don

    1983-01-01

    The mineral resource potential of the Piedra Wilderness Study Area is low. No occurrences of metallic minerals, of valuable industrial rocks and minerals, or of useful concentrations of organic fuels are known in the study area. However, a noneconomic occurrence of gypsum in the Jurassic Wanakah Formation lies a few hundred feet west of the WSA boundary, is believed to extend into the WSA, and has a low resource potential. Particular attention was paid to the possible occurrence of organic fuels in the Pennsylvanian Hermosa Formation, of uranium and vanadium in the Jurassic Entrada Sandstone and Morrison Formation, and of coal in the Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone. Thin coaly beds in the Dakota have a low resource potential. Extensive sampling of stream sediments, limited sampling of rock outcrops and springs, and a number of scintillometer traverses failed to pinpoint significant anomalies that might be clues to mineral deposits.

  8. Economical characteristics of base types of minerals. 1. Metallic minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1990-01-01

    Metallic minerals is raw materials base of black and colour metallurgy. In this article of book author describes the group of black metals (iron, manganese, chromium), group of tempers (titanium, vanadium, nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, tungsten), colour metals (copper, lead, zinc, aluminium, tin, mercury, antimony, bismuth) and etc.

  9. Platinum-group elements in southern Africa: mineral inventory and an assessment of undiscovered mineral resources: Chapter Q in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Causey, J. Douglas; Parks, Heather L.; Miller, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The platinum-group elements, platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, and osmium, possess unique physical and chemical characteristics that make them indispensable to modern technology and industry. However, mineral deposits that are the main sources of these elements occur only in three countries in the world, raising concerns about potential disruption in mineral supply. Using information in the public domain, mineral resource and reserve information has been compiled for mafic and ultramafic rocks in South Africa and Zimbabwe that host most of the world’s platinum-group element resources.

  10. Book review: Economic geology: Principles and practice: Metals, minerals, coal and hydrocarbons—Introduction to formation and sustainable exploitation of mineral deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This volume, available in both hardcover and paperback, is an English translation of the fifth edition of the German language text Mineralische und Energie-Rohstoffe. The book provides an extensive overview of natural resources and societal issues associated with extracting raw materials. The comprehensive list of raw materials discussed includes metals, industrial minerals, coal, and hydrocarbons. The book is divided into four parts: (1) “Metalliferous ore deposits,” (2) “Nonmetallic minerals and rocks,” (3) “Practice of economic geology,” and (4) “Fossil energy raw materials—coal, oil, and gas.” These sections are bound by a brief introduction and an extensive list of up-to-date references as well as an index. Each chapter begins with a concise synopsis and concludes with a summary that contains useful suggestions for additional reading. All figures are grayscale images and line drawings; however, several have been grouped together and reproduced as color plates. Also included is a companion website (www.wiley.com/go/pohl/geology) that contains additional resources, such as digital copies of figures, tables, and an expanded index, all available for download in easy-to-use formats.Economic Geology: Principles and Practice: Metals, Minerals, Coal and Hydrocarbons—Introduction to Formation and Sustainable Exploitation of Mineral Deposits. Walter l. Pohl. 2011. Wiley-Blackwell. Pp. 663. ISBN 978-1-4443-3663-4 (paperback).

  11. Annotated bibliography: overview of energy and mineral resources for the Nevada nuclear-waste-storage investigations, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, E.J.; Larson, L.T.

    1982-09-01

    This Annotated Bibliography was prepared for the US Department of Energy as part of the Environmental Area Characterization for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). References were selected to specifically address energy resources including hydrocarbons, geothermal and radioactive fuel materials, mineral resources including base and precious metals and associated minerals, and industrial minerals and rock materials which occur in the vicinity of the NNWSI area

  12. Minerals with metal-organic framework structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huskić, Igor; Pekov, Igor V; Krivovichev, Sergey V; Friščić, Tomislav

    2016-08-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are an increasingly important family of advanced materials based on open, nanometer-scale metal-organic architectures, whose design and synthesis are based on the directed assembly of carefully designed subunits. We now demonstrate an unexpected link between mineralogy and MOF chemistry by discovering that the rare organic minerals stepanovite and zhemchuzhnikovite exhibit structures found in well-established magnetic and proton-conducting metal oxalate MOFs. Structures of stepanovite and zhemchuzhnikovite, exhibiting almost nanometer-wide and guest-filled apertures and channels, respectively, change the perspective of MOFs as exclusively artificial materials and represent, so far, unique examples of open framework architectures in organic minerals.

  13. Taxation and our future mineral resources. [Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R D

    1976-05-01

    Canada's known reserves of minerals are estimated in general to be adequate to meet domestic requirements and current export demands until the mid-1980's. Beyond that time, an increasing proportion of reserves needed to maintain, let alone increase, present mineral production must come from mineral deposits not yet discovered, delineated or developed. The major question for Canada is whether present tax and regulatory programs will provide sufficient incentives for the industry to spend the large amounts required--perhaps $1.2 billion annually--in the exploration and development of mineral resources. Without such a major capital commitment to the development of new mineral resources, Canada will not be able to maintain the relative importance of its mining sector, or the contribution that the sector has made to our balance of payments, employment, and the opening of new frontiers. However, present levels of exploration and development expenditures are likely to be totally inadequate in maintaining, let alone increasing present production. The article refers to two major new reports that provide new information on Canada's resource industries and their future.

  14. Mineral Resource Information System for Field Lab in the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, H.B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    The Osage Mineral Reservation Estate is located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Minerals on the Estate are owned by members of the Osage Tribe who are shareholders in the Estate. The Estate is administered by the Osage Agency, Branch of Minerals, operated by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Oil, natural gas, casinghead gas, and other minerals (sand, gravel, limestone, and dolomite) are exploited by lessors. Operators may obtain from the Branch of Minerals and the Osage Mineral Estate Tribal Council leases to explore and exploit oil, gas, oil and gas, and other minerals on the Estate. Operators pay a royalty on all minerals exploited and sold from the Estate. A mineral Resource Information system was developed for this project to evaluate the remaining hydrocarbon resources located on the Estate. Databases on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets of operators, leases, and production were designed for use in conjunction with an evaluation spreadsheet for estimating the remaining hydrocarbons on the Estate.

  15. The Australian mineral resources industry in 2006 - ongoing business and new challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leschhorn, F.

    2006-08-15

    Australia has the potential to remain as a stable long-term supplier of important minerals for the entire world (Table 1). The national income of Australia is direct related to the exports of minerals and it is no wonder that the annual poker-style price negotiations for iron ore and coking coal have become the most important events on the Australian economic calendar. The 2005 price increases for the two biggest export commodities, iron ore and coal, alone have contributed to a 2% rise of the national income. The total value of exported minerals will be 91.8 bn AS in 2006/2007. This boom was mainly driven by the surge of demand from China. In addition to iron ore and coal there are also gold, copper, nickel, bauxite, and many more metals which are creating headlines. Diamond and recently uranium mining have become hot topics. Besides the big players there are hundreds of small exploration and mining companies especially in the gold and base metal sector. Australia's rich resources, social stability and economic strengths have shaped a unique investment environment which continues to attract investors from around the world. The following will give you an overview on Australia's supply potential for the most important minerals. (orig.)

  16. Investigations needed to stimulate the development of Jordan's mineral resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, V.E.

    1979-01-01

    The level of living that any society can attain is a direct function of the use it makes of all kinds of raw materials (soil, water, metals, nonmetals, etc.), all kinds of energy (both animate and inanimate), and all kinds of human ingenuity; and is an inverse function of the size of the population that must share the collective product. The relation between raw materials, energy and ingenuity is such that use of a large amount of one may offset the need for large amounts of others. The most vital raw materials are water, soil, and construction materials, for these are needed in large quantities and are hard to import. Metals, chemicals, and inanimate energy are necessary for industrialization. The more of these minerals a nation possess, the better, but not nation can hope to be self-sufficient in all of the m and therefore must trade for some essential materials. Jordan’s natural resources have been little explored. The grantitc-metamorphic terrane in the southeastern part of the Kingdom could contain deposits of tungsten, rare earths, feldspar, mica, fluorite etc. and the sedimentary terrane over much of the rest of the county is favorable for the occurrence of oil. Even if none of these minerals is found, however, Jordan’s other mineral resource, if fully explored and developed in the light of modern technology, will support a far higher level of living than her people now enjoy. Very likely she can increase her rainfall by about 10 percent by cloud seeding, and she undeveloped supplies in both surface and ground water that are sufficient to nearly double her usable water supply. Even if she does not have oil or have it in large quantities, she can buy it cheaply from neighboring counties, and in addition has undeveloped sources of hydroelectric power, large reserves of bituminous limestone, large reserves of nuclear power as uranium in phosphate rock, and can use solar and wind power for special purposes. Her large supplies of construction, fertilizer, and

  17. [Inventories of the Earth. Mineral resource appraisals and the rise of resource economics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    How do the earth sciences mediate between the natural and social world? This paper explores the question by focusing on the history of nonfuel mineral resource appraisal from the late nineteenth to the mid twentieth century. It argues that earth sciences early on embraced social scientific knowledge, i.e. economic knowledge, in particular, when it came to determining or deposits and estimating the magnitude of mineral reserves. After 1900, assessing national and global mineral reserves and their "life span" or years of supply became ever more important, scaling up and complementing traditional appraisal practices on the level of individual mines or mining and trading companies. As a consequence, economic methods gained new weight for mineral resource estimation. Natural resource economics as an own field of research grew out of these efforts. By way of example, the mineral resource appraisal assigned to the U.S. Materials Policy Commission by President Harry S. Truman in 1951 is analyzed in more detail. Natural resource economics and environmental economics might be interpreted as a strategy to bring down the vast and holistically conceived object of geological and ecological research, the earth, to human scale, and assimilate it into social matters.

  18. Mineral resource potential map of the Raywood Flat Roadless Areas, Riverside and San Bernardino counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Cox, Brett F.; Iverson, Stephen R.

    1983-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies within the Raywood "Flat Roadless Areas, together with an investigation of mines and prospects within the further planning area, resulted in (1) identification of nonmetallic mineral resources at a marble mine in the further planning area and (2) recognition of a small area in the recommended wilderness that has moderate potential for base-metal resources. Except for these two areas of identified and suspected resources, we did not observe indications of resource potential elsewhere in the Raywood Flat Roadless Areas.

  19. Mineral Resource Points, US EPA Region 9, 2006, USGS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Mineral resource occurrence data covering the world, most thoroughly within the U.S. This database contains the records previously provided in the Mineral Resource...

  20. Mineral resources potential of Antarctica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Splettstoesser, John F; Dreschhoff, Gisela A. M

    1990-01-01

    .... This volume of the Antarctic Research Series results from an attempt to assemble a summary of current factual knowledge and scientific data related to issues of mineral resources in Antarctica...

  1. The seabed - an important mineral resource of Slovakia in the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Blišťan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1987, Slovakia bought part of the ocean bottom with the occurrence of mineral resources future - polymetallic nodules. The polymetallic nodule is a geological term for naming natural features consisting of more than 40 metals and other chemical elements. These special services originated in the ocean for two to three million years and nowadays, they are of main interest for countries whose mineral wealth is little or no available. Nodules contain about 30 % manganese, 1.2 % copper, 1.2 % nickel, 0.2 % cobalt, rare earth elements, etc. The existence of submarine nodules was found by the British ship HMS "Challenger" by oceanographic research in 1872 - 1876. Research and the subsequent mining of nodules were particularly points of interest for Western countries as well as the USSR. Rules for the use of mineral resources of the seabed beyond the limits of national jurisdiction were codified in the Convention on the Law of 1982, which came into force on 16.11.1994, and in the Slovakia on 21.7.1996. The seabed is one of the international space next to the high seas, Antarctica, outer space and celestial bodies, which are not subject to the sovereignty of any state authority.

  2. Mineral and energy resource assessment maps of the Mount Katmai, Naknek, and western Afognak quadrangles, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, S.E.; Riehle, J.R.; Magoon, L.B.; Campbell, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    On the basis of new geologic mapping and exploration geochemical studies, we have provided a mineral and energy resource assessment of the Mount Katmai, Naknek, and western Afognak quadrangles, Alaska. We delineate four tracts of ground that have metallic mineral resources. The mineral deposit types considered in each tract are summarized in table 4. Estimates of the number of undiscovered mineral deposits have been made for porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits. We estimate that one undiscovered porphyry copper deposit is present in the Katmai study area at the ten percent probability level. Although the sampling density may be too low to give an accurate estimate of the number of undiscovered polymetallic vein deposits, we suggest that, at a minimum, there is a five percent probability for five or more undiscovered polymetallic vein deposits in the Katmai study area. In addition, several areas have potential for undiscovered porphyry molybdenum, massive sulfide, and epithermal gold and mercury deposits.

  3. VT Mineral Resources - MRDS Extract

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) MRDSVT is an extract from the Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS) covering the State of Vermont only. MRDS database contains the records provided...

  4. Mineral resource of the month: potash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    The article offers basic information about the mineral resource potash. According to the author, potash is the generic term for a variety of mined and manufactured salts that contain the mineral potassium in a water-soluble form. The author adds that potash is used in fertilizers, soaps and detergents, glass and ceramics, and alkaline batteries.

  5. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  6. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  7. Probability calculations for three-part mineral resource assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2017-06-27

    Three-part mineral resource assessment is a methodology for predicting, in a specified geographic region, both the number of undiscovered mineral deposits and the amount of mineral resources in those deposits. These predictions are based on probability calculations that are performed with computer software that is newly implemented. Compared to the previous implementation, the new implementation includes new features for the probability calculations themselves and for checks of those calculations. The development of the new implementation lead to a new understanding of the probability calculations, namely the assumptions inherent in the probability calculations. Several assumptions strongly affect the mineral resource predictions, so it is crucial that they are checked during an assessment. The evaluation of the new implementation leads to new findings about the probability calculations,namely findings regarding the precision of the computations,the computation time, and the sensitivity of the calculation results to the input.

  8. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - MO 2014 Industrial Mineral Mines (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This data set contains names, locations and additional data for active Industrial Mineral Mines permitted with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division...

  9. Recovering byproduct heavy minerals from sand and gravel, placer gold, and industrial mineral operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, J.M.; Martinez, G.M.; Wong, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines, as part of an effort to maximize minerals and metals recovery from domestic resources, has investigated the feasibility of recovering heavy minerals as byproducts from sand and gravel, placer gold, and industrial mineral operations in northern California. Sand samples from about 50 locations were treated by gravity separation to yield heavy-mineral cocentrates (black sands). Mineral compositions of the concentrates were determined by chemical analysis and mineralogical examination. Individual zircon, ilmenite, magnetite, platinum-group metals, thoria, and silica products were prepared from heavy-mineral concentrates by selective separation using low- and high-intensity magnetic, high-tension, and flotation equipment.

  10. The Analysis of Pricing Power of Preponderant Metal Mineral Resources under the Perspective of Intergenerational Equity and Social Preferences: An Analytical Framework Based on Cournot Equilibrium Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirui Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper combines intergenerational equity equilibrium and social preferences equilibrium with Cournot equilibrium solving the technological problem of intergenerational equity and strategic value compensation confirmation, achieving the effective combination between sustainable development concept and value evaluation, thinking and expanding the theoretical framework for the lack of pricing power of mineral resources. The conclusion of the theoretical model and the numerical simulation shows that intergenerational equity equilibrium and social preferences equilibrium enhance international trade market power of preponderant metal mineral resources owing to the production of intergenerational equity compensation value and strategic value. However, the impact exerted on Cournot market power by social preferences is inconsistent: that is, changes of altruistic Cournot equilibrium and reciprocal inequity Cournot equilibrium are consistent, while inequity aversion Cournot equilibrium has the characteristic of loss aversion, namely, under the consideration of inequity aversion Cournot competition, Counot-Nash equilibrium transforms monotonically with sympathy and jealousy of inequity aversion.

  11. Proceedings of the 6. international symposium on waste processing and recycling in the mineral and metallurgical industries : WALSIM : water, air and land sustainability issues in mineral and metal extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, C.Q.; Pickles, C.A.; Brienne, S.; Rao, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    The proceedings of the 2008 conference of metallurgists of CIM includes a collection 7 separate symposia, namely (1) aerospace materials and manufacturing, (2) water, air and land sustainability issues in mineral and metal extraction (WALSIM), (3) current status and future trends of functional nanometers, (4) recent developments in advanced high strength steels processing, (5) corrosion and wear of materials, (6) advanced characterization techniques applied to mineral, metals and materials, and (7) management in metallurgy. The WALSIM symposium dealt with environmental issues, with particular reference to the three topics of water, air and land sustainability associated with mineral and metal extraction, processing and fabrication. It provided an opportunity for scientists, engineers and plant operators to report on work aimed at achieving more efficient, environmentally sound and sustainable performance of the mineral and metals industry by enabling related organizations to exchange information on the latest developments in this field of activity with considerations of both industry and society. The sessions were entitled: resource recovery from waste material; by-products processing of slag, fly ash and electric arc furnace dust; metal recycling; wastewater and effluent treatment; gaseous pollutants treatment; and, sustainability and basic research. The symposium featured 43 presentations, of which 17 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  12. Proceedings of the 6. international symposium on waste processing and recycling in the mineral and metallurgical industries : WALSIM : water, air and land sustainability issues in mineral and metal extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, C.Q. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry; Pickles, C.A. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mining Engineering; Brienne, S. [Teck Cominco Metals Ltd., Trail, BC (Canada). Applied Research and Engineering; Rao, S.R. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Mining and Materials Engineering] (eds.)

    2008-07-01

    The proceedings of the 2008 conference of metallurgists of CIM includes a collection 7 separate symposia, namely (1) aerospace materials and manufacturing, (2) water, air and land sustainability issues in mineral and metal extraction (WALSIM), (3) current status and future trends of functional nanometers, (4) recent developments in advanced high strength steels processing, (5) corrosion and wear of materials, (6) advanced characterization techniques applied to mineral, metals and materials, and (7) management in metallurgy. The WALSIM symposium dealt with environmental issues, with particular reference to the three topics of water, air and land sustainability associated with mineral and metal extraction, processing and fabrication. It provided an opportunity for scientists, engineers and plant operators to report on work aimed at achieving more efficient, environmentally sound and sustainable performance of the mineral and metals industry by enabling related organizations to exchange information on the latest developments in this field of activity with considerations of both industry and society. The sessions were entitled: resource recovery from waste material; by-products processing of slag, fly ash and electric arc furnace dust; metal recycling; wastewater and effluent treatment; gaseous pollutants treatment; and, sustainability and basic research. The symposium featured 43 presentations, of which 17 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  13. Impact of mineral resource depletion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In a letter to the editor, the authors comment on BA Steen's article on "Abiotic Resource Depletion: different perceptions of the problem with mineral deposits" published in the special issue of the International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment...

  14. Critical mineral resources of the United States—An introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Many changes have taken place in the mineral resource sector since the publication by the U.S. Geological Survey of Professional Paper 820, “United States Mineral Resources,” which is a review of the long-term United States resource position for 65 mineral commodities or commodity groups. For example, since 1973, the United States has continued to become increasingly dependent on imports to meet its demands for an increasing number of mineral commodities. The global demand for mineral commodities is at an alltime high and is expected to continue to increase, and the development of new technologies and products has led to the use of a greater number of mineral commodities in increasing quantities to the point that, today, essentially all naturally occurring elements have several significant industrial uses. Although most mineral commodities are present in sufficient amounts in the earth to provide adequate supplies for many years to come, their availability can be affected by such factors as social constraints, politics, laws, environmental regulations, land-use restrictions, economics, and infrastructure.This volume presents updated reviews of 23 mineral commodities and commodity groups viewed as critical to a broad range of existing and emerging technologies, renewable energy, and national security. The commodities or commodity groups included are antimony, barite, beryllium, cobalt, fluorine, gallium, germanium, graphite, hafnium, indium, lithium, manganese, niobium, platinum-group elements, rare-earth elements, rhenium, selenium, tantalum, tellurium, tin, titanium, vanadium, and zirconium. All these commodities have been listed as critical and (or) strategic in one or more of the recent studies based on assessed likelihood of supply interruption and the possible cost of such a disruption to the assessor. For some of the minerals, current production is limited to only one or a few countries. For many, the United States currently has no mine production or any

  15. Short Course Introduction to Quantitative Mineral Resource Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Donald A.

    2007-01-01

    This is an abbreviated text supplementing the content of three sets of slides used in a short course that has been presented by the author at several workshops. The slides should be viewed in the order of (1) Introduction and models, (2) Delineation and estimation, and (3) Combining estimates and summary. References cited in the slides are listed at the end of this text. The purpose of the three-part form of mineral resource assessments discussed in the accompanying slides is to make unbiased quantitative assessments in a format needed in decision-support systems so that consequences of alternative courses of action can be examined. The three-part form of mineral resource assessments was developed to assist policy makers evaluate the consequences of alternative courses of action with respect to land use and mineral-resource development. The audience for three-part assessments is a governmental or industrial policy maker, a manager of exploration, a planner of regional development, or similar decision-maker. Some of the tools and models presented here will be useful for selection of exploration sites, but that is a side benefit, not the goal. To provide unbiased information, we recommend the three-part form of mineral resource assessments where general locations of undiscovered deposits are delineated from a deposit type's geologic setting, frequency distributions of tonnages and grades of well-explored deposits serve as models of grades and tonnages of undiscovered deposits, and number of undiscovered deposits are estimated probabilistically by type. The internally consistent descriptive, grade and tonnage, deposit density, and economic models used in the design of the three-part form of assessments reduce the chances of biased estimates of the undiscovered resources. What and why quantitative resource assessments: The kind of assessment recommended here is founded in decision analysis in order to provide a framework for making decisions concerning mineral

  16. 36 CFR 293.15 - Gathering information about resources other than minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... resources other than minerals. 293.15 Section 293.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... than minerals. (a) The Chief, Forest Service, shall allow any activity, for the purposes of gathering information about resources, other than minerals, in National Forest Wilderness, except that any such activity...

  17. Indicator minerals as guides to base metal sulphide mineralisation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zn-bearing minerals that act as indicator minerals for base metal sulphide mineralization from the Proterozoic Betul Belt,central India with special emphasis on their genetic significance have been discussed.Sulphide mineralisation is hosted by the felsic volcanic rocks and has similarities with volcanic-hosted massive ...

  18. Mineral supply for sustainable development requires resource governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Saleem H.; Giurco, Damien; Arndt, Nicholas; Nickless, Edmund; Brown, Graham; Demetriades, Alecos; Durrheim, Ray; Enriquez, Maria Amélia; Kinnaird, Judith; Littleboy, Anna; Meinert, Lawrence D.; Oberhänsli, Roland; Salem, Janet; Schodde, Richard; Schneider, Gabi; Vidal, Olivier; Yakovleva, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Successful delivery of the United Nations sustainable development goals and implementation of the Paris Agreement requires technologies that utilize a wide range of minerals in vast quantities. Metal recycling and technological change will contribute to sustaining supply, but mining must continue and grow for the foreseeable future to ensure that such minerals remain available to industry. New links are needed between existing institutional frameworks to oversee responsible sourcing of minerals, trajectories for mineral exploration, environmental practices, and consumer awareness of the effects of consumption. Here we present, through analysis of a comprehensive set of data and demand forecasts, an interdisciplinary perspective on how best to ensure ecologically viable continuity of global mineral supply over the coming decades.

  19. Preliminary Assessment of Non-Fuel Mineral Resources of Afghanistan, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Afghanistan has abundant mineral resources, including known deposits of copper, iron, barite, sulfur, talc, chromium, magnesium, salt, mica, marble, rubies, emeralds, lapis lazuli, asbestos, nickel, mercury, gold and silver, lead, zinc, fluorspar, bauxite, beryllium, and lithium (fig. 1). Between 2005 and 2007, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funded a cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) to assess the non-fuel mineral resources of Afghanistan as part of the effort to aid in the reconstruction of that country. An assessment is an estimation or evaluation, in this instance of undiscovered non-fuel mineral resources. Mineral resources are materials that are in such form that economic extraction of a commodity is currently or potentially feasible. In this assessment, teams of scientists from the USGS and the AGS compiled information about known mineral deposits and then evaluated the possible occurrence of undiscovered deposits of all types. Quantitative probabilistic estimates were made for undiscovered deposits of copper, mercury, rare-earth elements, sulfur, chromite, asbestos, potash, graphite, and sand and gravel. These estimates were made for undiscovered deposits at depths less than a kilometer. Other deposit types were considered and discussed in the assessment, but quantitative estimates of numbers of undiscovered deposits were not made. In addition, the assessment resulted in the delineation of 20 mineralized areas for further study, of which several may contain resources amenable to rapid development.

  20. Evaluation of mineral status in feed resources and effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of mineral status in feed resources and effects of supplementation to farm animals in northern Ghana. ... Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science ... A survey was conducted on the mineral concentration of available feed resources at three locations in the northern Guinea Savannah Zone between 1992 and 1997.

  1. Geology and mineral potential of Ethiopia: a note on geology and mineral map of Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadesse, S.; Milesi, J.P.; Deschamps, Y. [University of Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia). Dept. for Geology & Geophysics

    2003-05-01

    This work presents a geoscientific map and database for geology, mineral and energy resources of Ethiopia in a digital form at a scale of 1 : 2,000,000, compiled from several sources. The final result of the work has been recorded on CD-ROM in GIS format. Metallic resources (precious, rare, base and ferrous-ferroalloy metals) are widely related to the metamorphic meta-volcano-sedimentary belts and associated intrusives belonging to various terranes of the Arabian-Nubian Shield, accreted during the East and West Gondwana collision (Neoproterozoic, 900-500 Ma). Industrial minerals and rock resources occur in more diversified geological environments, including the Proterozoic basement rocks, the Late Paleozoic to Mesozoic sediments and recent (Cenozoic) volcanics and associated sediments. Energy resources (oil, coal, geothermal resources) are restricted to Phanerozoic basin sediments and Cenozoic volcanism and rifting areas.

  2. The United Nations' endeavour to standardize mineral resource classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schanz, J.J. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The United Nations' Economic and Social Council passed a resolution in July 1975 calling for the development of a mineral resources classification system to be used in reporting data to the United Nations. Following preparation of background papers and an agenda by the UN Centre for Natural Resources, Energy and Transport, a panel of experts recommended a classification system to the Council's Committee on Natural Resources. The Committee met in Turkey in June 1979 and has reported favourably to the Council on the proposed system. The classification system is designed to provide maximum capability for requesting and receiving data from the resources data systems already used internally by major mineral producing nations. In addition, the system provides for flexibility in adjusting to the particular needs of individual mineral commodities. The proposed system involves three basic categories of in-situ resources: R-1, reliable estimates of known deposits; R-2, preliminary estimates of the extensions of known deposits; and, R-3, tentative estimates of quantities to be found in undiscovered deposits. As an option for given countries and commodities, the R-1 category can be further sub-divided into: R-1-E, economic; R-1-M, marginal; and R-1-S, sub-economic. Finally, the classification scheme provides for all categories to have a parallel set of estimates of recoverable mineral quantities. (author)

  3. Sustainable mineral resources management: from regional mineral resources exploration to spatial contamination risk assessment of mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Gyozo

    2009-07-01

    Wide-spread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe has triggered social responses to improve related environmental legislation, the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Mining has some unique features such as natural background contamination associated with mineral deposits, industrial activities and contamination in the three-dimensional subsurface space, problem of long-term remediation after mine closure, problem of secondary contaminated areas around mine sites, land use conflicts and abandoned mines. These problems require special tools to address the complexity of the environmental problems of mining-related contamination. The objective of this paper is to show how regional mineral resources mapping has developed into the spatial contamination risk assessment of mining and how geological knowledge can be transferred to environmental assessment of mines. The paper provides a state-of-the-art review of the spatial mine inventory, hazard, impact and risk assessment and ranking methods developed by national and international efforts in Europe. It is concluded that geological knowledge on mineral resources exploration is essential and should be used for the environmental contamination assessment of mines. Also, sufficient methodological experience, knowledge and documented results are available, but harmonisation of these methods is still required for the efficient spatial environmental assessment of mine contamination.

  4. Mineral resources of the Hawk Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Honey County, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrin, B.D.; Conrad, J.E.; Plouff, D.; King, H.D.; Swischer, C.C.; Mayerle, R.T.; Rains, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Hawk Mountain Wildeness Study Area in south-central Oregon is underlain by Miocene age basalt, welded tuff, and interbedded sedimentary rock. The western part of this study area has a low mineral resource potential for gold. There is a low mineral resource potential for small deposits of uranium in the sedimentary rocks. This entire study area has a low potential for geothermal and oil and gas resources. There are no mineral claims or identified resources in this study area

  5. Mineralogy and heavy metal content of secondary mineral salts: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secondary minerals associated with acid mine drainage play an important role in metal cycling and may pose a geochemical hazard. The occurrence of secondary minerals indicates prevailing and past geochemical conditions. Detecting and characterising secondary minerals is necessary to the planning of remediation ...

  6. Classification system of the mineral reserves and resources of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovinyukov, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the system used to classify the resources and reserves of all minerals and fuels in Ukraine. The classification system is part of an official procedure determined by the Ukrainian State Commission on Reserves. Following preparation of resource estimates the results are registered with the State, which maintains an official inventory of all mineral resources. This paper compares the Ukrainian system to, and finds it compatible with the United Nations International Framework of resource classification. The UN system is based on economics of production and mineability. (author)

  7. Classification system of the mineral reserves and resources of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovyunikov, V.I.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the system used to classify the resources and reserves of all minerals and fuels in Ukraine. The classification system is part of an official procedures determined by the Ukrainian State Commission on Reserves. Following preparation of resource estimates the results are registered with the State, which maintains an official inventory of all mineral resources. This paper compares the Ukrainian system to, and finds it compatible with the United Nations International Framework of resources classification. The UN system is based on economics of production and mineability. (author). 1 tab

  8. Adsorption and redox reactions of heavy metals on synthesized Mn oxide minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Xionghan; Zhai Limei; Tan Wenfeng; Liu Fan; He Jizheng

    2007-01-01

    Several Mn oxide minerals commonly occurring in soils were synthesized by modified or optimized methods. The morphologies, structures, compositions and surface properties of the synthesized Mn oxide minerals were characterized. Adsorption and redox reactions of heavy metals on these minerals in relation to the mineral structures and surface properties were also investigated. The synthesized birnessite, todorokite, cryptomelane, and hausmannite were single-phased minerals and had the typical morphologies from analyses of XRD and TEM/ED. The PZCs of the synthesized birnessite, todorokite and cryptomelane were 1.75, 3.50 and 2.10, respectively. The magnitude order of their surface variable negative charge was: birnessite ≥ cryptomelane > todorokite. The hausmannite had a much higher PZC than others with the least surface variable negative charge. Birnessite exhibited the largest adsorption capacity on heavy metals Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ , Co 2+ , Cd 2+ and Zn 2+ , while hausmannite the smallest one. Birnessite, cryptomelane and todorokite showed the greatest adsorption capacity on Pb 2+ among the tested heavy metals. Hydration tendency (pK 1 ) of the heavy metals and the surface variable charge of the Mn minerals had significant impacts on the adsorption. The ability in Cr(III) oxidation and concomitant release of Mn 2+ varied greatly depending on the structure, composition, surface properties and crystallinity of the minerals. The maximum amounts of Cr(III) oxidized by the Mn oxide minerals in order were (mmol/kg): birnessite (1330.0) > cryptomelane (422.6) > todorokite (59.7) > hausmannite (36.6). - The characteristics of heavy metal adsorption and Cr(III) oxidation on Mn oxide minerals are determined by their structure, composition, surface property and crystallinity

  9. Mineral resource of the month: magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium is the eighthmost abundant element in Earth’s crust, and the second-most abundant metal ion in seawater. Although magnesium is found in more than 60 minerals, only brucite, dolomite, magnesite and carnallite are commercially important for their magnesium content. Magnesium and its compounds also are recovered from seawater, brines found in lakes and wells, and bitterns (salts).

  10. Mineral resources of Peru's ancient societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, W.E.

    2003-01-01

    Northern Peru has an exceptionally rich archaeological heritage that includes metalwork, ceramics and textiles. The success of at least a half-dozen pre-Columbian societies dating back 3,000 years and subsequent Spanish colonization in the 1400s has rested on the effective use of northern Peru's abundant resources. In the summer of 2000, my son Matt and I learned about that connection firsthand by volunteering at the Santa Rita B archaeological site in the Chao Valley near Trujillo in northern Peru. Riding donkey-back through the Andes and talking with local people, we got our hands dirty in the rich archaeology and geology of the area. We were able to correlate mineral occurrences to their various roles in society - opening a window into the region's fascinating past. From construction to metallurgy, pre-Columbian societies flourished and advanced because of their understanding and use of the available mineral resources.

  11. The Alaskan mineral resource assessment program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Ambler River Quadrangle, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Charles F.; Tailleur, I.L.; Albert, N.R.; Ellersieck, Inyo; Grybeck, Donald; Hackett, S.W.

    1983-01-01

    The Ambler River quadrangle, consisting of 14,290 km2 (5,520 mi2) in northwest Alaska, was investigated by an interdisciplinary research team for the purpose of assessing the mineral resource potential of the quadrangle. This report provides background information for a folio of maps on the geology, reconnaissance geochemistry, aeromagnetics, Landsat imagery, and mineral resource evaluation of the quadrangle. A summary of the geologic history, radiometric dates, and fossil localities and a comprehensive bibliography are also included. The quadrangle contains jade reserves, now being mined, and potentially significant resources of copper, zinc, lead, and silver.

  12. Heavy metal immobilization in mineral phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apblett, A.

    1993-01-01

    A successful waste form for toxic or radioactive metals must not only have the ability to chemically incorporate the elements but it must also be extremely stable in the geological environment. Thus, ceramic wasteforms are sought which mimic those minerals that have sequestered the hazardous metals for billions of years. One method for producing ceramics, metal organic deposition (MOD) is outstanding in its simplicity, versatility, and inexpensiveness. The major contribution that the MOD process can make to ceramic waste forms is the ability to mix the toxic metals at a molecular level with the elements which form the ceramic matrix. With proper choice of organic ligands, the inclusion of significant amounts of alkali metals in the ceramic and, hence, their detrimental effect on durability may be avoided. In the first stage of our research we identified thermally-unstable ligands which could fulfill the role of complexing toxic metal species and allowing their precipitation or extraction into nonaqueous solvents

  13. Management of Canadian mineral resources: an industry viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powis, A

    1976-03-01

    Federal and provincial governments in Canada are developing strategies for a national mineral policy, the theme being to obtain optimum benefit for Canada from present and future use of minerals. The provisions of the British North America Act, the centerpiece of Canada's constitution, place ownership of natural resources under the jurisdiction of the province in which they are found, although it retains exclusive authority for the Federal government over the export and interprovincial trade of such resources. Contradiction and challenges are now being experienced between these two levels of government, resulting in excess taxation policies in the minerals industry. Mr. Powis discussed these issues at the 32nd Annual Conference of Provincial Ministers of Mines in Saskatoon on September 15, 1975. The roles of the private sector and governments, the Economic Council of Canada trade strategy report, the mineral area planning study, and the public and political perceptions are reviewed. Options for the future are summarized. Mr. Powis concludes that the atmosphere of confrontation in Canadian mineral policy leads to irrational management of Canadian resources; further, he sees a lack of communication between industry and government as complicating the issue. The Canadian mining industry also faces the other serious problems: (1) mining problems in inhospitable areas; (2) continuing difficulty in attracting and retaining trained labor forces; (3) increasing costs of exploration and transport; (4) competing with larger and more accessible deposits in other parts of the world; and (5) the impact of inflation in all areas of the industry. (MCW)

  14. Africa: Mineral resources, environment, and governance | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-25

    Jan 25, 2011 ... Africa: Mineral resources, environment, and governance ... benefits the poor, more effective social and environmental policies, and respect for human ... Who should claim responsibility for local crime prevention and security?

  15. U.S. Geological Survey Energy and Minerals science strategy: a resource lifecycle approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Richard C.; Kolak, Jonathan J.; Bills, Donald J.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Cordier, Daniel J.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Hein, James R.; Kelley, Karen D.; Nelson, Philip H.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Seal, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    The economy, national security, and standard of living of the United States depend heavily on adequate and reliable supplies of energy and mineral resources. Based on population and consumption trends, the Nation’s use of energy and minerals can be expected to grow, driving the demand for ever broader scientific understanding of resource formation, location, and availability. In addition, the increasing importance of environmental stewardship, human health, and sustainable growth places further emphasis on energy and mineral resources research and understanding. Collectively, these trends in resource demand and the interconnectedness among resources will lead to new challenges and, in turn, require cutting- edge science for the next generation of societal decisions. The long and continuing history of U.S. Geological Survey contributions to energy and mineral resources science provide a solid foundation of core capabilities upon which new research directions can grow. This science strategy provides a framework for the coming decade that capitalizes on the growth of core capabilities and leverages their application toward new or emerging challenges in energy and mineral resources research, as reflected in five interrelated goals.

  16. Effect of soil metal contamination on glyphosate mineralization: role of zinc in the mineralization rates of two copper-spiked mineral soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bojeong; Kim, Young Sik; Kim, Bo Min; Hay, Anthony G; McBride, Murray B

    2011-03-01

    A systematic investigation into lowered degradation rates of glyphosate in metal-contaminated soils was performed by measuring mineralization of [(14)C]glyphosate to (14)CO(2) in two mineral soils that had been spiked with Cu and/or Zn at various loadings. Cumulative (14)CO(2) release was estimated to be approximately 6% or less of the amount of [(14)C]glyphosate originally added in both soils over an 80-d incubation. For all but the highest Cu treatments (400 mg kg(-1)) in the coarse-textured Arkport soil, mineralization began without a lag phase and declined over time. No inhibition of mineralization was observed for Zn up to 400 mg kg(-1) in either soil, suggesting differential sensitivity of glyphosate mineralization to the types of metal and soil. Interestingly, Zn appeared to alleviate high-Cu inhibition of mineralization in the Arkport soil. The protective role of Zn against Cu toxicity was also observed in the pure culture study with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, suggesting that increased mineralization rates in high Cu soil with Zn additions might have been due to alleviation of cellular toxicity by Zn rather than a mineralization specific mechanism. Extensive use of glyphosate combined with its reduced degradation in Cu-contaminated, coarse-textured soils may increase glyphosate persistence in soil and consequently facilitate Cu and glyphosate mobilization in the soil environment. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  17. Maintaining and increasing the contribution made to South Africa by the minerals and metals industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochens, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    This review article first highligts the past performance of the industry and discusses the manner in which the development of the industry has followed a logical progression from mining to the production of mineral and metal products of specification purity. Then the numerous constraints against a greater contribution by the industry are enumerated. Attention is drawn to the extent of further processing that can be undertaken in the context of mining and metallurgical processing, not only to indicate the benefits that can be derived from the added-value conferred on a mineral or metal commodity during each stage of its further processing, but also to point out some important corollaries of further processing. The many opportunities and challenges for an increased contribution by the minerals and metals industry are then reviewed. This major section includes a list of commodities for which increased penetration of export markets could be sought because the increasing resistance level (a term developed in this paper) has not been attained: a list of commodities that are imported at present, many of which could be produced locally on the basis of identified resources and expertise; a list of commodities for which additional uses should be developed so that South Africa, which possesses the largest reserves and is the largest exporter, can increase its production rate; and examples of commodities for which further processing is still at an early stage

  18. Mineral resources and energy. Report by the 'Soil and underground' group of the Ancre Alliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-06-01

    After comments on the growth of the world consumption of raw materials, on the relocation of productions and on the loss of interest by industrialized countries in mineral resources and their dependency, and a discussion of the relationship between energy and mineral raw materials, this study proposes an assessment and a discussion of energy needs for mining and metal industries. In the next part, needs in raw materials for the energy sector are analysed and discussed with respect to their field of application, to their intensity, to energy scenarios, and to application to research. The value chain is then analysed as well as its risks which can be political, industrial, related to infrastructures, economic, environmental, geological, technical, or social. Recycling capacities and the potential of substitution are then addressed. Themes and axis of research are identified for the assessment of needs, social acceptability, geology and exploration, mining, ore processing and metal industry, recycling, and substitution

  19. Formation and development of theoretical principles for mineral resources logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Б. К. Плоткин

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Market transformations in Russia became foundations for formation and development of a new scientific and practical field in economics – logistics. Out of more than 30 existing definitions of logistics the authors according to their opinion have chosen the most appropriate. Logistics of mineral resources should be attributed to production (industrial logistics. It is a proven fact that processes of supply chain management in mining industry and its infrastructure in the framework of mineral resources chain have some fundamental distinctions. Importance of material resources recycling in theory and practice of mineral resources logistics has been highlighted. Special features of merchandise assortment and classifications in the mining industry have been examined in conjunction with substantial contents of material flow. Special consideration has been given to relevant issues in the field of price formation for mining produce, in the view of specific relations between its costs and logistic procurement of the industry. Moreover, questions of inventory control in the mining industry, activity of commodity exchanges, management of mining logistics system have been addressed.

  20. World Mineral resources and the Limits to Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardi Ugo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This presentation describes how the present economic situation can be described in terms of the system dynamics models developed in the series of studies that were titled “The Limits to Growth”. The result of this examination is that mineral depletion may be a major factor in causing the slowdown in economic growth in several countries. The effect is not the result of “running out” of any resource, but of the gradual increase in extraction costs which is forcing the economy to dedicate larger and larger resources to the production of mineral commodities.

  1. Eliminating Heavy Metals from Water with NanoSheet Minerals as Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoxian Song

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals usually referred to those with atomic weights ranging from 63.5 to 200.6. Because of natural-mineral dissolution and human activities such as mining, pesticides, fertilizer, metal planting and batteries manufacture, etc., these heavy metals, including zinc, copper, mercury, lead, cadmium and chromium have been excessively released into water courses, like underground water, lake and river, etc. The ingestion of the heavy metals-contaminated water would raise serious health problems to human beings even at a low concentration. For instance, lead can bring human beings about barrier to the normal function of kidney, liver and reproductive system, while zinc can cause stomach cramps, skin irritations, vomiting and anemia. Mercury is a horrible neurotoxin that may result in damages to the central nervous system, dysfunction of pulmonary and kidney, chest and dyspnea. Chromium (VI has been proved can cause many diseases ranging from general skin irritation to severe lung carcinoma. Accordingly, the World Health Organization announced the maximum contaminant levels (MCL for the heavy metals in drinking water. There are numerous processes for eliminating heavy metals from water in order to provide citizens safe drinking water, including precipitation, adsorption, ion exchange, membrane separation and biological treatment, etc. Adsorption is considered as a potential process for deeply removing heavy metals, in which the selection of adsorbents plays a predominant role. Nano-sheet minerals as the adsorbents are currently the hottest researches in the field. They are obtained from layered minerals, such as montmorillonite, graphite and molybdenite, through the processing of intercalation, electrochemical and mechanical exfoliation, etc. Nano-sheet minerals are featured by their large specific surface area, relatively low costs and active adsorbing sites, leading to be effective and potential adsorbents for heavy metals removal from water

  2. Sustainable Management of Mineral Resources-another view on criticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, F.-W.

    2012-04-01

    Generally investigations of criticality capture the supply risks on one hand and on the other hand the impact on the economy, the vulnerability to supply disruptions. The classification is a relative one and the analyses are always only a snapshot of a dynamic system: in the seventies of the last century chromium was generally considered the most critical metal. Today others are considered far more critical. These are especially the rare earth and the platinum group elements. Regardless in which direction technology develops these elements together with the steel alloy and electronic metal elements will most probably be the decisive elements to produce the high-tech products necessary for the well-being of Europe in the 21st century. These elements- often in small quantities- have a high economic lever effect. In a new research programme of the German Ministry of Education and Research they have been termed, therefore: economic-strategic raw materials. This paper will concentrate not so much on the critical materials as such, but on the factors critical in the background, critical to produce them: water, energy and the social acceptance of mining —the license to operate. From the point of sustainable management of mineral resources an important question with regard to critical aspects is also, how fast and to what extent mankind is able to reactivate the secondary materials in the technosphere to replace resource requirements from the geosphere under the limiting factors to minimize the environmental impact and energy needs. There will always be losses which have to be compensated from the geosphere (thermodynamical impossibility of a 100% closed loop, losses due to different redox potential, losses due to dispersal effects like wear and corrosion), however losses occurring today due to low scrap values can be minimized by better technology. Developments are well under way to replace more and more relative proportions of the major metal needs by material from the

  3. Mineral Adsorbents for Removal of Metals in Urban Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, Karin; Li, Loretta

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the capacity of four different soil minerals to adsorb metals frequently detected in urban runoff. These are low-cost, natural and commercially available soil minerals. Contaminated surface runoff from urban areas is a major cause of concern for water quality and aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Pollution in urban areas is generated by a wide array of non-point sources, including vehicular transportation and building materials. Some of the most frequently detected pollutants in urban runoff are metals. Exhaust gases, tire wear and brake linings are major sources of such metals as Pb, Zn and Cu, while impregnated wood, plastics and galvanized surfaces may release As, Cd, Cr and Zn. Many metals have toxic effects on aquatic plants and animals, depending on metal speciation and bioavailability. The removal efficiency of pollutants in stormwater depends on treatment practices and on the properties the pollutant. The distribution of metals in urban runoff has shown, for example, that Pb is predominantly particle-associated, whereas Zn and Cd are present mainly in dissolved form. Many metals are also attached to colloids, which may act as carriers for contaminants, thereby facilitating their transport through conventional water treatment processes. Filtration of stormwater is one of the most promising techniques for removal of particulates, colloidal and truly dissolved pollutants, provided that effective filtration and adsorption media are used. Filtration and infiltration are used in a wide array of stormwater treatment methods e.g. porous paving, infiltration drains and rain gardens. Several soil minerals were investigated for their potential as stormwater filter materials. Laboratory batch tests were conducted to determine the adsorption capacity of these minerals. A synthetic stormwater was tested, with spiked concentrations corresponding to levels reported in urban runoff, ranging from 50-1,500 µg/L for Zn; 5-250 µg/L for Cu

  4. Binding of heavy metal ions in aggregates of microbial cells, EPS and biogenic iron minerals measured in-situ using metal- and glycoconjugates-specific fluorophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Likai; Guo, Yuan; Byrne, James M.; Zeitvogel, Fabian; Schmid, Gregor; Ingino, Pablo; Li, Jianli; Neu, Thomas R.; Swanner, Elizabeth D.; Kappler, Andreas; Obst, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Aggregates consisting of bacterial cells, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and Fe(III) minerals formed by Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria are common at bulk or microscale chemical interfaces where Fe cycling occurs. The high sorption capacity and binding capacity of cells, EPS, and minerals controls the mobility and fate of heavy metals. However, it remains unclear to which of these component(s) the metals will bind in complex aggregates. To clarify this question, the present study focuses on 3D mapping of heavy metals sorbed to cells, glycoconjugates that comprise the majority of EPS constituents, and Fe(III) mineral aggregates formed by the phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria Rhodobacter ferrooxidans SW2 using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) in combination with metal- and glycoconjugates-specific fluorophores. The present study evaluated the influence of glycoconjugates, microbial cell surfaces, and (biogenic) Fe(III) minerals, and the availability of ferrous and ferric iron on heavy metal sorption. Analyses in this study provide detailed knowledge on the spatial distribution of metal ions in the aggregates at the sub-μm scale, which is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of microbe-mineral-metal interactions. The heavy metals (Au3+, Cd2+, Cr3+, CrO42-, Cu2+, Hg2+, Ni2+, Pd2+, tributyltin (TBT) and Zn2+) were found mainly sorbed to cell surfaces, present within the glycoconjugates matrix, and bound to the mineral surfaces, but not incorporated into the biogenic Fe(III) minerals. Statistical analysis revealed that all ten heavy metals tested showed relatively similar sorption behavior that was affected by the presence of sorbed ferrous and ferric iron. Results in this study showed that in addition to the mineral surfaces, both bacterial cell surfaces and the glycoconjugates provided most of sorption sites for heavy metals. Simultaneously, ferrous and ferric iron ions competed with the heavy metals for sorption sites on the organic

  5. Survey and critique of quantitative methods for the appraisal of mineral resources. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.P.

    1976-01-01

    Two major categories of appraisal methods (models) for regional mineral resources are identified by virtue of the manner in which mineral endowment is treated in the appraisal: implicit and explicit models. Implicit models do not identify nor specify the mineral endowment model. Mineral resources are inferred to exist as required to fulfill economic or secular relationships. Econometric models of mineral supply and Hubbert's time-rate trend projection are varieties of implicit models. Explicit mineral resource models separate the economic and endowment models and state the endowment model explicitly. Explicit models describe mineral endowment as a function of some physical aspect of the earth's crust, such as geology, volume of rock, density of mineral occurrences, and crustal abundance of an element. Economic factors are introduced subsequent to the appraisal of endowment either as an explicit model which interacts with the deposits inferred by the endowment model, or as a simple adjustment made directly on some aggregate measure of endowment

  6. Circular Economy: Questions for Responsible Minerals, Additive Manufacturing and Recycling of Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Giurco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the circular economy proposes new patterns of production, consumption and use, based on circular flows of resources. Under a scenario where there is a global shift towards the circular economy, this paper discusses the advent of two parallel and yet-to-be-connected trends for Australia, namely: (i responsible minerals supply chains and (ii additive manufacturing, also known as 3D production systems. Acknowledging the current context for waste management, the paper explores future interlinked questions which arise in the circular economy for responsible supply chains, additive manufacturing, and metals recycling. For example, where do mined and recycled resources fit in responsible supply chains as inputs to responsible production? What is required to ensure 3D production systems are resource efficient? How could more distributed models of production, enabled by additive manufacturing, change the geographical scale at which it is economic or desirable to close the loop? Examples are given to highlight the need for an integrated research agenda to address these questions and to foster Australian opportunities in the circular economy.

  7. CO2 Mineralization and Utilization using Steel Slag for Establishing a Waste-to-Resource Supply Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chung, Tai-Chun; Ho, Chang-Ching; Hou, Chin-Jen; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2017-12-08

    Both steelmaking via an electric arc furnace and manufacturing of portland cement are energy-intensive and resource-exploiting processes, with great amounts of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission and alkaline solid waste generation. In fact, most CO 2 capture and storage technologies are currently too expensive to be widely applied in industries. Moreover, proper stabilization prior to utilization of electric arc furnace slag are still challenging due to its high alkalinity, heavy metal leaching potentials and volume instability. Here we deploy an integrated approach to mineralizing flue gas CO 2 using electric arc furnace slag while utilizing the reacted product as supplementary cementitious materials to establish a waste-to-resource supply chain toward a circular economy. We found that the flue gas CO 2 was rapidly mineralized into calcite precipitates using electric arc furnace slag. The carbonated slag can be successfully utilized as green construction materials in blended cement mortar. By this modulus, the global CO 2 reduction potential using iron and steel slags was estimated to be ~138 million tons per year.

  8. Mineral resources of the Turtle Mountains Wilderness Study Area, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Keith A.; Nielson, Jane E.; Simpson, Robert W.; Hazlett, Richard W.; Alminas, Henry V.; Nakata, John K.; McDonnell, John R.

    1988-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, approximately 105,200 acres of the Turtle Mountains Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-307) were evaluated for mineral resources (known) and resource potential (undiscovered). In this report, the area studied is referred to as "the wilderness study area" or simply "the study area"; any reference to the Turtle Mountain Wilderness Study Area refers only to that part of the wilderness study area for which a mineral survey was requested by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management.The wilderness study area is in southeastern San Bernardino County, Calif. Gold, silver, copper, and lead have been mined within and adjacent to the study area. Copper-zinc-silver-gold mineral occurrences are found in the southern part and gold-silver mineral occurrences are found in the northern part of the study area; identified low- to moderate-grade gold-silver resources occur adjacent to the study area along the western boundary. Six areas in the south-central and northwestern parts of the study area have high resource potential, two broad areas have moderate resource potential, and part of the southwest corner has low resource potential for lode gold, silver, and associated copper, lead, zinc, molybdenum, and tungsten. Alluvium locally within one of these areas has moderate resource potential for placer gold and silver, and the entire area has low resource potential for placer gold and silver. There is low resource potential for perlite, ornamental stone (onyx marble and opal), manganese, uranium and thorium, pegmatite minerals, and oil and gas within the study area. Sand and gravel are abundant but are readily available outside the wilderness study area.

  9. Economic filters for evaluating porphyry copper deposit resource assessments using grade-tonnage deposit models, with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey global mineral resource assessment: Chapter H in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gilpin R.; Menzie, W. David

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the amount and location of undiscovered mineral resources that are likely to be economically recoverable is important for assessing the long-term adequacy and availability of mineral supplies. This requires an economic evaluation of estimates of undiscovered resources generated by traditional resource assessments (Singer and Menzie, 2010). In this study, simplified engineering cost models were used to estimate the economic fraction of resources contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, predicted in a global assessment of copper resources. The cost models of Camm (1991) were updated with a cost index to reflect increases in mining and milling costs since 1989. The updated cost models were used to perform an economic analysis of undiscovered resources estimated in porphyry copper deposits in six tracts located in North America. The assessment estimated undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the land surface in three depth intervals.

  10. Sustainable development and the exploitation of mineral and energy resources: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, F.-W.; Becker-Platen, J. D.

    2002-04-01

    Natural resources, e.g., metals, industrial minerals, water, and soil, are the essential basis for our economy and well-being. We have to know where these raw materials come from and how they are mined. Sustainable development requires the maintenance, rational use and enhancement of natural resources, as well as a balanced consideration of ecology, economy and social justice. Four general rules concerning the implementation of sustainable development for renewable and non-renewable resources are discussed. Examples of the consumption of selected materials from historical times to the present day are presented, as well as of regional distribution, usage (in contrast to consumption), lifetimes of resources, the supply-and-demand cycle, recycling and substitution in modern times. To fulfill the requirement of sustainable development, the efficiency with which resources are utilized has to be improved. The learning process, often driven by financial rewards, leads from one technology to a better one, thus increasing the efficiency of the use of a resource or commodity. Examples of learning curves are discussed. Industrial countries have to transfer their advanced technologies to developing countries in order to avoid undesirable development in the mining industry and use of natural resources in those regions. The use of the best available technology by the mining industry, taking into account economic considerations, and the necessity to establish environmental guidelines are essential if environmental impact of the production of non-renewable resources is to be minimized. Far more critical than the production of non-renewable resources under the aspect of sustainable development and the capacity of the pollutant sinks of the Earth is the element of natural attenuation with regard to the resources soil and water.

  11. Mineral supply constraints necessitate a global policy response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickless, Edmund

    2016-04-01

    Adoption on 12 December 2015 of The Paris Agreement, the first universal climate agreement, suggests that nations will invest in infrastructures for renewable energy sources paving the way to a global low-carbon society. These large-scale changes will require vast amounts of metals and minerals. Regardless of whether known supplies are enough to meet demand in the near future, efforts must be made now to forestall unpredictable yet inevitable supply shortages in the decades to come, shortages that would dramatically impact the building of additional generation and distribution capacity, and deployment of low-carbon technology. But in response to the current downturn in commodity prices, the global mining industry is downsizing and reducing investment in the new exploration, putting at risk future security of supply. Mining and climate change are inextricably linked; the new adaptive technologies needed to tackle climate change depend on extraction of minerals and metals. An interdisciplinary group supported by the International Union of Geological Sciences, the International Council for Science Unions and UNESCO proposes measures to avert the looming minerals crisis that is developing in the context of current recycling capacity and exploration trends. Our immediate goal is to stimulate discussion of supply constraints using available data on mineral reserves. We build on recent discussions of supply risk and criticality with a focus on the source of primary resources over the next two to three decades when the availability of metals for recycling will remain low. Current massive production of iron ore and other such commodities despite record low prices indicates a failure of the traditional supply and demand constraints. Broader discussions of metal and mineral supply beyond current criticality are needed given the pace of technological and demographic change as well as rapid development spurts. Furthermore, accessible mineral deposits are irregularly distributed

  12. Modern Trends of Additional Professional Education Development for Mineral Resource Extracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Olga; Frolova, Victoria; Merzlikina, Elena

    2017-11-01

    The article contains the results of development of additional professional education research, including the field of mineral resource extracting in Russia. The paper describes the levels of education received in Russian Federation and determines the place and role of additional professional education among them. Key factors influencing the development of additional professional education are identified. As a result of the research, the authors proved the necessity of introducing additional professional education programs on educational Internet platforms for mineral resource extracting.

  13. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  14. IMMOBILIZATION OF HEAVY METALS IN SOILS AND WATER BY A MANGANESE MINERAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    A synthesized Mn mineral used in study on adsorption of heavy metals from water has shown a great adsorption capability for Pb, Cu, Cd, Co, Ni and Zn on this mineral over a pH range from 2 to 8. The retention of Pb on this mineral was as high as 10% of its weight. Application of ...

  15. Mineral Resource of the Month: Antimony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guberman, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Antimony is a lustrous silvery-white semimetal or metalloid. Archaeological and historical studies indicate that antimony and its mineral sulfides have been used by humans for at least six millennia. The alchemist Basil Valentine is sometimes credited with “discovering” the element; he described the extraction of metallic antimony from stibnite in his treatise “The Triumphal Chariot of Antimony,” published sometime between 1350 and 1600. In the early 18th century, Jöns Jakob Berzelius chose the periodic symbol for antimony (Sb) based on stibium, which is the Latin name for stibnite.

  16. Proceedings for a Workshop on Deposit Modeling, Mineral Resource Assessment, and Their Role in Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briskey, Joseph A.; Schulz, Klaus J.

    2007-01-01

    The world's use of nonfuel mineral resources continues to increase to support a growing population and increasing standards of living. The ability to meet this increasing demand is affected especially by concerns about possible environmental degradation associated with minerals production and by competing land uses. What information does the world need to support global minerals development in a sustainable way?Informed planning and decisions concerning sustainability and future mineral resource supply require a long–term perspective and an integrated approach to resource, land use, economic, and environmental management worldwide. Such perspective and approach require unbiased information on the global distribution of identified and especially undiscovered resources, the economic and political factors influencing their development, and the potential environmental consequences of their exploitation.The U.S. Geological Survey and the former Deposit Modeling Program of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) sponsored a workshop on "Deposit Modeling, Mineral Resource Assessment, and Their Role in Sustainable Development" at the 31st International Geological Congress (IGC) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on August 18–19, 2000. The purpose of the workshop was to review the state-of-the-art in mineral deposit modeling and resource assessment and to examine the role of global assessments of nonfuel mineral resources in sustainable development.The workshop addressed questions such as the following: Which of the available mineral deposit models and assessment methods are best suited for predicting the locations, deposit types, and amounts of undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources remaining in the world? What is the availability of global geologic, mineral deposit, and mineral exploration information? How can mineral resource assessments be used to address economic and

  17. Mineral resources accounting: A technique formonitoring the Philippine mining industry for sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Teodoro M.; Zaratan, May L.

    Mining which extracts exhaustible mineral resources has been condemned by certain sectors as promoting social inequity and underdevelopment. This is so because once a tonne of copper, say, is mined it is forever lost to the future generation. Such perception translates into policies that are usually disadvantageous or even hostile to the industry. Despite this adverse criticism, recent developments in natural resources accounting indicate that mining can truly contribute to the sustainable economic development of a society. True worth of mining in economic development can be assessed and monitored on a continuing basis through an appropriate system of natural accounts (SNA). If the industry is found deficient, such SNA can also point out how the industry can be made to constribute to sustainable growth. The prevailing SNA is criticized as having failed to capture the adverse effects on the welfare of society of producing a nonrenewable resource such as minerals. For instance, the production of copper for a particular year registers an increase in gross national product equivalent to its monetary value. However, the concomitant depletion of the country's natural wealth due to such production is nowhere recorded in the SNA. This faulty accounting gives rise to policies that result in nonsustainable economic growth. In order to address the preceding problem, this paper presents an accounting formula applicable to any nonrenewable resource whereby revenue is decomposed into income and capital components. To achieve sustainable economic growth, it states that the capital component must be invested to generate future incomes. However, investments need not be confined to the same sector. Application of the accounting scheme to the Philippine copper and gold sectors during the 1980-1990 period leads to the following conclusions: (a) by and large, gold and copper mining operations have indeed contributed positively to national income, contrary to allegations of certain

  18. Using of Mineral Recourses for Water Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumanova, I.V.; Nazarenko, O.B.; Anna, Yu.

    2009-01-01

    Pollution of surface waters results in necessity of underground waters using for drinking. Underground waters are characterized by the high quantity of heavy metals salts. This led to development of methods reducing the concentration of the metal salts in water. Wide spread occurrence, cheapness and high sorption properties of nature minerals allow to consider them as perspective sorbents for different impurities extraction, including dissoluble compounds of heavy metals. Reachable purification efficiency with mineral resources use for the moment satisfies sanitary indexes and standards presenting to portable water in Russia. In given material there are presented the results of research of artificial sorbent and certain minerals sorption characteristics, which are typical for West Siberia. For purification quality improvement from Fe and Mn ions there are suggested to use the method of boiling bed.

  19. Mineral phases and metals in baghouse dust from secondary aluminum production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghouse dust (BHD) is a solid waste generated by air pollution control systems during secondary aluminum processing (SAP). Management and disposal of BHD can be challenging in the U.S. and elsewhere. In this study, the mineral phases, metal content and metal leachability of 78...

  20. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center--providing comprehensive earth science for complex societal issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David G.; Wallace, Alan R.; Schneider, Jill L.

    2010-01-01

    Minerals in the environment and products manufactured from mineral materials are all around us and we use and come into contact with them every day. They impact our way of life and the health of all that lives. Minerals are critical to the Nation's economy and knowing where future mineral resources will come from is important for sustaining the Nation's economy and national security. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program (MRP) provides scientific information for objective resource assessments and unbiased research results on mineral resource potential, production and consumption statistics, as well as environmental consequences of mining. The MRP conducts this research to provide information needed for land planners and decisionmakers about where mineral commodities are known and suspected in the earth's crust and about the environmental consequences of extracting those commodities. As part of the MRP scientists of the Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center (WMERSC or 'Center' herein) coordinate the development of national, geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral-resource databases and the migration of existing databases to standard models and formats that are available to both internal and external users. The unique expertise developed by Center scientists over many decades in response to mineral-resource-related issues is now in great demand to support applications such as public health research and remediation of environmental hazards that result from mining and mining-related activities. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center Results of WMERSC research provide timely and unbiased analyses of minerals and inorganic materials to (1) improve stewardship of public lands and resources; (2) support national and international economic and security policies; (3) sustain prosperity and improve our quality of life; and (4) protect and improve public health, safety, and environmental quality. The MRP

  1. Overview of the Practical and Theoretical Approaches to the Estimation of Mineral Resources. A Financial Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontina Pavaloaia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mineral resources represent an important natural resource whose exploitation, unless it is rational, can lead to their exhaustion and the collapse of sustainable development. Given the importance of mineral resources and the uncertainty concerning the estimation of extant reserves, they have been analyzed by several national and international institutions. In this article we shall present a few aspects concerning the ways to approach the reserves of mineral resources at national and international level, by considering both economic aspects and those aspects concerned with the definition, classification and aggregation of the reserves of mineral resources by various specialized institutions. At present there are attempts to homogenize practices concerning these aspects for the purpose of presenting correct and comparable information.

  2. Quantifying exhaustible resource theory: an application to mineral taxation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, F.A.; Kerkvliet, J.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a dynamic nonlinear programming model of a mineral resource market with several features of heterogeneous quality in the mineral, links with related product markets, incorporation of institutional constraints, resource allocations for each year in the planning period, and analysis of outcomes under various severance tax rates. The model computes privately efficient competitive use paths to perform cost-benefit analysis of public mineral policies. Policy variables are evaluated for their impact on both private behaviour and public benefits. The application is to New Mexico's linked coal and electric power markets. Findings reveal that scarcity rents are currently 4% of coal's price, and peak at 27% in 43 years. Increasing the present 1 dollar/ton New Mexico severance tax to 11 dollars reduces current annual coal output by 25%, prolongs the life of the state's coal industry by three years, and increases discounted severance tax revenues by 850% or 4.2 billion dollars. 38 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Elemental distributions in surficial sediments and potential offshore mineral resources from the western continental margin of India. Part 2. Potential offshore mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paropkari, A.L.; Mascarenhas, A.; Rao, Ch.M.; PrakashBabu, C.; Murty, P.S.N.

    patterns of ten selected elements is surficial sediments. Part 2 projects the potential offshore mineral resources. Target areas for future exploration and indicated and exploration strategies are recommended. Appendix 1 is a compilation of the bibliography...

  4. Availability of mineral resources for society; Disponibilidad y retos actuales de los recursos minerales para la sociedad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, J. G.; Espi, J. A.

    2014-06-01

    Trends in global mineral production and expanding uses of mineral resources foretell a bright future, although with significant challenges, for exploration and development. Demand for mineral resources is likely to remain high and grow to meet increases in world population and standards of living. Significant challenges include meeting future demand with new discoveries and developing the resources in environmentally, socially, and economically sustainable ways. A historical perspective from the last 50 years on finding new mineral districts, discovering new types of ore deposits, and using new technologies in exploration suggests that the world will not run out of mineral resources. It is likely that substitution and recycling will play increasingly major roles in meeting global mineral demand. New technologies for ocean mining will help add to the resource base. Historical perspectives also suggest that mining scams will continue, and environmental, health, and safety concerns will be major factors in deciding where future mines will be located and how they will be operated. (Author)

  5. An Opportunity on Exploiting of Geology and Mineral Resource Data for Regional Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus-Hendratno

    2004-01-01

    Indonesia archipelago have the very complex geo diversity. The complexity of geo diversity gives a lot of opportunity on exploiting of earth resources for society prosperity. In other side, the complexity of geology also gives a lot of resistance and various limitation at one particular region to expand. Hence, various data of geology as well as data of result of mapping of minerals resources (mapping at macro scale and also have detail scale) require to be managed and exploited maximally. Effort the exploiting also require various infrastructure which is concerning regulatory, technological, human resources being, market-drive of an economic geo material, social environment and culture which grow around geology data, and also availability and readiness of geology and mineral resources data. This study is expected can give a few description of how the geology and minerals resources data can be as reference in regional development planning. This paper was writed by assessment of description qualitative and comparative inter-region case study in various regency area, where writer have been involved to conduct the activity of geological mapping and mineral resources data and also involved by a discussion with a few officers of local government in so many opportunity. Some of the case study region for example : in Kampar Regency (Riau), Tanjung Jabung Timur Regency (Jambi), Biak Numfor Regency (Papua), Gunung Kidul Regency (Yogyakarta), Pacitan Regency (East Java), and also Klaten Regency (Central Java). (author)

  6. Trace metals analysis in molybdenite mineral sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamrakar, Praveen Kumar; Pitre, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    DC polarography and other related techniques, viz., DPP and DPASV have been successfully used for the simultaneous determination of trace metals in molybdenite mineral sample. The polarograms and voltammograms of sample solution have been recorded in 0.1 M (NH 4 ) 2 tartrate supporting electrolyte at two different pH values i.e., 2.7±0.1 and 9.0±0.1. The results indicate the presence of Cu 2+ , Mo 6+ , Cd 2+ , Ni 2+ , In 3+ , Fe 3+ and W 6+ metal ions in the sample. For the determination of tungsten(VI), 11 M HCl has been used as supporting electrolyte. Tungsten(VI) produces a well defined wave/peak with E 1/2 /Ep=-0.42V/-0.48V vs SCE in 11 M HCl. The quantitative analysis by the method of standard addition shows the mineral sample to have the following composition, Cu 2+ ( 14.83), Mo 6+ (253.70), Cd 2+ (41.36), Ni 2+ (16.08), In 3+ (3.06), Fe 3+ (83.00)and W 6+ (4.14 )mg/g of the sample. Statistical treatment of the observed voltammetric data reveals high accuracy and good precision of determination. The observed voltammetric results are comparable with those obtained using AAS method. (author)

  7. Synchrotron X-ray Investigations of Mineral-Microbe-Metal Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemner, Kenneth M.; O'Loughlin, Edward J.; Kelly, Shelly D.; Boyanov, Maxim I.

    2005-01-01

    Interactions between microbes and minerals can play an important role in metal transformations (i.e. changes to an element's valence state, coordination chemistry, or both), which can ultimately affect that element's mobility. Mineralogy affects microbial metabolism and ecology in a system; microbes, in turn, can affect the system's mineralogy. Increasingly, synchrotron-based X-ray experiments are in routine use for determining an element's valence state and coordination chemistry, as well as for examining the role of microbes in metal transformations.

  8. Critical Minerals and Energy–Impacts and Limitations of Moving to Unconventional Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C. McLellan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The nexus of minerals and energy becomes ever more important as the economic growth and development of countries in the global South accelerates and the needs of new energy technologies expand, while at the same time various important minerals are declining in grade and available reserves from conventional mining. Unconventional resources in the form of deep ocean deposits and urban ores are being widely examined, although exploitation is still limited. This paper examines some of the implications of the transition towards cleaner energy futures in parallel with the shifts through conventional ore decline and the uptake of unconventional mineral resources. Three energy scenarios, each with three levels of uptake of renewable energy, are assessed for the potential of critical minerals to restrict growth under 12 alternative mineral supply patterns. Under steady material intensities per unit of capacity, the study indicates that selenium, indium and tellurium could be barriers in the expansion of thin-film photovoltaics, while neodymium and dysprosium may delay the propagation of wind power. For fuel cells, no restrictions are observed.

  9. Mineral resources at the beginning of the 21st century - trends and possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grecula Pavol

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The world's population growth might have a positive impact on the geological investigation, the exploration and on the mining industry. The globalization of the world economy will have a positive economic cosequence for mining enterprises. Important is, that mining companies have to accept the environmental laws and to carry out rehabilitation in areas of mining activities. The detail understanding of geology of mineral deposits remains the primary control of their efficient exploitation.In regards to growing concerns about the sustainability of mineral production and environmental quality, as well as the simultaneous increase of demand for mineral-resource information, the Ministry of Environment of Slovak Republic completed the introduction study of the feasibility of assessing and predicting where and how much undiscovered mineral resources remain in Slovakia.

  10. Assessment and Seasonal Variations of Heavy Metals and Mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mal Raji

    ISSN 0794-5698. Assessment and Seasonal Variations of Heavy Metals and Mineral Elements in River ... immediately from Sokoto Cement Factory) at value above WHO's permissible limit in the rainy season. Ag .... level which is considered to represent a threat to the life of .... regulations governing waste management and.

  11. tectonic environments and rare metal mineralization in pegmatites of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    The discrimination diagrams: Rb versus Nb +Y and Nb versus Y, and Th/Ta ratio combined with field observations and empirical information from the literature were used to infer the tectonic environments and sources of the rare metal mineralization in the pegmatites of Komu area, southwestern Nigeria. The discrimination ...

  12. Mineral Resources of the Morey and Fandango Wilderness Study Areas, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, David A.; Nash, J. Thomas; Plouff, Donald; McDonnell, John R.

    1987-01-01

    The Morey (NV-060-191) and Fandango (NV-060-190) Wilderness Study Areas are located in the northern Hot Creek Range about 25 mi north of Warm Springs, Nev. At the request of the Bureau of Land Management, 46,300 acres of the Morey and Fandango Wilderness Study Areas were studied. In this report, the area studied is referred to as 'the wilderness study area', or simply 'the study area'. Geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral surveys were conducted by the USGS and the USBM in 1984 to appraise the identified mineral resources and to assess the mineral resource potential of the study areas. These studies indicate that there are small identified resources of zinc, lead, and silver at the Lead Pipe property in the Fandango Wilderness Study Area, several areas of high potential for the occurrence of gold resources in the Fandango study area, small areas of low and moderate potential for the occurrence of silver, lead, and zinc resources in the Fandango study area, areas of moderate and high potential for the occurrence of silver, lead, and zinc resources in the Morey study area, and an area of low potential for copper, molybdenum, and tin in the Morey study area. Both study areas have low resource potential for petroleum, natural gas, uranium, and geothermal energy.

  13. Eco-socio Impact of Mineral Resource Mining in the Karamoja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eco-socio Impact of Mineral Resource Mining in the Karamoja Region of ... Oftentimes, the economic aspect of mining overshadows ecological and social needs in ... For that reason, Karamoja region has experienced violent ethnic conflicts, ...

  14. ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF MINERAL RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHEAST MINNESOTA

    OpenAIRE

    Maki, Wilbur R.

    1980-01-01

    The economic effects of mineral resource development addressed in this paper are the changes in employment, population and income in the State of Minnesota and in Northeast Minnesota. These include the present mining, processing and shipping of natural ores and taconite pellets and the potential copper-nickel development.

  15. Resource Efficient Metal and Material Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Markus A.; van Schaik, Antoinette

    Metals enable sustainability through their use and their recyclability. However, various factors can affect the Resource Efficiency of Metal Processing and Recycling. Some typical factors that enable Resource Efficiency include and arranged under the drivers of sustainability: Environment (Maximize Resource Efficiency — Energy, Recyclates, Materials, Water, Sludges, Emissions, Land); Economic Feasibility (BAT & Recycling Systems Simulation / Digitalization, Product vis-à-vis Material Centric Recycling); and Social — Licence to Operate (Legislation, consumer, policy, theft, manual labour.). In order to realize this primary production has to be linked systemically with typical actors in the recycling chain such as Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs), Recyclers & Collection, Physical separation specialists as well as process metallurgical operations that produce high value metals, compounds and products that recycle back to products. This is best done with deep knowledge of multi-physics, technology, product & system design, process control, market, life cycle management, policy, to name a few. The combination of these will be discussed as Design for Sustainability (DfS) and Design for Recycling (DfR) applications.

  16. Current knowledge of US metal and nonmetal miner health: Current and potential data sources for analysis of miner health status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoman, K. M.; Halldin, C. N.; Wood, J.; Storey, E.; Johns, D.; Laney, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Little is known about the current health status of US metal and nonmetal (MNM) miners, in part because no health surveillance systems exist for this population. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is developing a program to characterize burden of disease among MNM miners. This report discusses current knowledge and potential data sources of MNM miner health. Recent national surveys were analyzed, and literature specific to MNM miner health status was reviewed. No robust estimates of disease prevalence were identified, and national surveys did not provide information specific to MNM miners. Because substantial gaps exist in the understanding of MNM miners' current health status, NIOSH plans to develop a health surveillance program for this population to guide intervention efforts to reduce occupational and personal risks for chronic illness. PMID:25658684

  17. Framework and evolution of Hercynian mineralization in the Iberian Meseta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schermerhorn, L.J.G.

    1981-01-01

    The Hercynian cycle, starting in Late Precambrian times and terminated at the end of the Palaeozoic, is associated in the Iberian Peninsula with the deposition of a wide variety of metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources. The most famous of these are the base-metal sulphides of the Iberian Pyrite

  18. International standardisation for the reporting of Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, Karilyn

    2014-01-01

    The mining industry is a vital contributor to national and global economies. It is a truly international business that depends on the trust and confidence of investors and other stakeholders for its financial and operational well-being. Unlike many other industries, it is based on depleting mineral assets, the knowledge of which is imperfect prior to the commencement of extraction. It is therefore essential that the industry communicates the risks associated with investment effectively and transparently in order to earn the level of trust necessary to underpin its activities. Enforceable mineral resource and mineral (Ore) reserves codes are critical to earning this confidence.

  19. World mineral energy resources and their distribution in time and space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toens, P.D.; Camisani-Calzolari, F.A.G.M.; Van der Merwe, P.J.; Andreoli, M.A.G.

    1985-01-01

    If the estimated total geological potential of the world mineral energy resources is reduced to a common denominator, then the total resources are estimated at 20 600 terawatt years (TWyr). Assuming that all these resources are recoverable, and applying today's technology, they would suffice for 1 700 years under no-growth conditions and approximately 130 years assuming an annual growth rate of 3%. It should, however, be borne in mind that only about 15% (or 3 100 TWry) of the world's resources can be regarded as proved or partly proved and recoverable at current price levels and with current technology. Assuming a no-growth scenario, these resources will meet future energy requirements for a period of approximately 260 years. At a 3% annual growth rate resources will last for about 70 years. From these figures it is clear that the known mineral energy resources will be depleted in the near future. The challenge to the geologist to locate additional energy potential is enormous and in order to do so, the distribution of known resources in time and space was reappraised. The present investigation confirms the time-bound character of the mineralising processes. These took place in a series of clearly defined rhythms ranging from the early Proterozoic to the Recent. Uranium and thorium constitute the only energy resources of the Proterozoic. In contrast, the Phanerozoiceon contains the totality of fossil fuels and at least 60% of the nuclear resources; strata younger than 600 Ma therefore represent the most favourable target areas for prospecting

  20. Fundamentals of converging mining technologies in integrated development of mineral resources of lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubetskoy, KN; Galchenko, YuP; Eremenko, VA

    2018-03-01

    The paper sets forth a theoretical framework for the strategy of the radically new stage in development of geotechnologies under conditions of rapidly aggravating environmental crisis of the contemporary technocratic civilization that utilizes the substance extracted from the lithosphere as the source of energy and materials. The authors of the paper see the opportunity to overcome the conflict between the techno- and bio-spheres in the area of mineral raw materials by means of changing the technological paradigm of integrated mineral development by implementing nature-like technologies oriented to the ideas and methods of converging resources of natural biota as the object of the environmental protection and geotechnologies as the major source of ecological hazards induced in the course of development of mineral resources of lithosphere.

  1. Professional illnesses in miners caused by heavy metals and toxic substances

    OpenAIRE

    Veličkova N.; Petrova B.

    2013-01-01

    The exposure of humans in an environment contaminated with heavy metals is associated with many diseases, characterized by pathological changes in the respiratory tract, lung function deterioration. The results of the research, conducted with miners working in the “Sasa” lead and zinc mine, were focused on validating the existing professional risk. Most affected are the miners engaged in drilling head and ore. Disease was verified by analysis of acute symptoms. According to the time of ...

  2. Variations in the mineral composition and heavy metals content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Babayemi

    The parts of Moringa oleifera were assessed for mineral composition and some heavy metal ... cadmium from aqueous system (Sharma et al., 2006). ... Crude extracts and essential oil from M. oleifera possess ... into some probable chemical interactions between the .... processing methods that may lead to detoxification and.

  3. Mineral resources, geologic structure, and landform surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattman, L. H.

    1973-01-01

    The use of ERTS-1 imagery for mineral resources, geologic structure, and landform surveys is discussed. Four categories of ERTS imagery application are defined and explained. The types of information obtained by the various multispectral band scanners are analyzed. Samples of land use maps and tectoning and metallogenic models are developed. It is stated that the most striking features visible on ERTS imagery are regional lineaments, or linear patterns in the topography, which reflect major fracture zones extending upward from the basement of the earth.

  4. Mercury contamination in agricultural soils from abandoned metal mines classified by geology and mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Sik; Jung, Myung Chae

    2012-01-01

    This survey aimed to compare mercury concentrations in soils related to geology and mineralization types of mines. A total of 16,386 surface soils (0~15 cm in depth) were taken from agricultural lands near 343 abandoned mines (within 2 km from each mine) and analyzed for Hg by AAS with a hydride-generation device. To meaningfully compare mercury levels in soils with geology and mineralization types, three subclassification criteria were adapted: (1) five mineralization types, (2) four valuable ore mineral types, and (3) four parent rock types. The average concentration of Hg in all soils was 0.204 mg kg(-1) with a range of 0.002-24.07 mg kg(-1). Based on the mineralization types, average Hg concentrations (mg kg(-1)) in the soils decreased in the order of pegmatite (0.250) > hydrothermal vein (0.208) > hydrothermal replacement (0.166) > skarn (0.121) > sedimentary deposits (0.045). In terms of the valuable ore mineral types, the concentrations decreased in the order of Au-Ag-base metal mines ≈ base metal mines > Au-Ag mines > Sn-W-Mo-Fe-Mn mines. For parent rock types, similar concentrations were found in the soils derived from sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks followed by heterogeneous rocks with igneous and metamorphic processes. Furthermore, farmland soils contained relatively higher Hg levels than paddy soils. Therefore, it can be concluded that soils in Au, Ag, and base metal mines derived from a hydrothermal vein type of metamorphic rocks and pegmatite deposits contained relatively higher concentrations of mercury in the surface environment.

  5. Mineral Resources: Reserves, Peak Production and the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence D. Meinert

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The adequacy of mineral resources in light of population growth and rising standards of living has been a concern since the time of Malthus (1798, but many studies erroneously forecast impending peak production or exhaustion because they confuse reserves with “all there is”. Reserves are formally defined as a subset of resources, and even current and potential resources are only a small subset of “all there is”. Peak production or exhaustion cannot be modeled accurately from reserves. Using copper as an example, identified resources are twice as large as the amount projected to be needed through 2050. Estimates of yet-to-be discovered copper resources are up to 40-times more than currently-identified resources, amounts that could last for many centuries. Thus, forecasts of imminent peak production due to resource exhaustion in the next 20–30 years are not valid. Short-term supply problems may arise, however, and supply-chain disruptions are possible at any time due to natural disasters (earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes or political complications. Needed to resolve these problems are education and exploration technology development, access to prospective terrain, better recycling and better accounting of externalities associated with production (pollution, loss of ecosystem services and water and energy use.

  6. Mineralization of alanine enantiomers in soil treated with heavy metals and nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Formánek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the determination of the effect of heavy metals and nutrients applied to the soil on alanine enatiomers mineralization with the main focus on evaluating the effect on L/D alanine respiration rate ratio. This study was initiated because previous research works revealed a change in L/D amino acid respiration under acid- or heavy metal-stress in soil. Generally, D-amino acids artificially supplied to soil are less utilized by microorganisms compared with their L-enantiomers. Stress of soil microorganisms cause decreased discrimination of D-amino acids utilization. Also, previous research showed that an application of fertilizers or combinations of fertilizers may affect the mineralization rate of L-amino acids differently, compared with their D-enantiomers. The results of this study show, that the effect of both heavy metals and nutrients on the L/D ratio was not clear, increasing or decreasing this ratio. Further research is necessary to broaden this study.

  7. Environmental Pollution by Heavy Metals in the Soil Resources of Zakhur District, as Examined through Geological Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalilzadeh, J.; Siahcheshm, K.

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess soil pollution formed on the alteration zones of Zakhur District, we used 20 ICP-MS analyses. Argillic, argillic-phyllic, advanced argillic, silicic along with Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn, Co, Ni, Au and Ag are the most important decentralized natural resource contaminating agents that have formed extensive heavy/toxic metal haloes in this area. Diverse environmental pollution indices (e.g. geo-accumulation-Igeo, modified contamination degree- mCd and potential ecological risk- RI) show that the leve of environmental pollution risk of Pb is considerable and, as in different alteration zones, quaternary sediments are also very high. Soils highly contaminated with sulfur result in the high sulfide mineralization character of the alteration zones in Zakhur District. Calculations of the mass changes in argillic and silisic zones indicate enrichment by Cr, Ni, As, Pb and S and loss of Hg and Cd. Besides the positive correlation of heavy metals with each other, there are significant correlations between them and Mn and Al which may have occurred due to the adsorption processes by manganese, iron oxides and/or clay minerals.

  8. Global supply and demand of metals in the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Carl-Magnus

    2008-01-01

    This article is a short review on the subject of diminishing mineral resources in a world with increasing population. The concepts of reserves, resources, and life index are described. A forecast is made on the global consumption in the year 2050 of the metals iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb). Evidence indicates that a physical depletion of metals does not occur (fixed stock paradigm) but certain metals will become too expensive to extract (opportunity cost paradigm). The future demand for cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), and selenium (Se) is presented. Finally, some metals presently of great interest for mineral prospectors that may have an important role in the future society are presented.

  9. Resources for our Future. Key issues and best practices in resource efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weterings, R.; Bastein, T.; Tukker, A. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands); Rademaker, M.; De Ridder, M. [The Hague Centre for Strategic studies HCSS, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    This book provides an analysis of the issues surrounding international resources and inspiring accounts of industrial best practices. The book consists of two distinct parts. The first part of the book brings together the results of years of research into the geopolitical, economic and ecological dimensions of material scarcity and resource efficiency. Chapter 2 discusses the main challenges and constraints related to the use of energy resources, water and land, industrial and metallic minerals, construction minerals and biotic resources, including water use and ecosystem degradation. The chapter also addresses important linkages between these various resources. Chapter 3 describes the international trends that are shaping the geopolitics of natural resources and looks at the implications for Europe and the Netherlands. Chapter 4 presents a wide range of strategies by which governments, producers and consumers may contribute to the more sustainable use of natural resources. The second part of the book describes 21 inspiring best practices in resource efficiency in a variety of industrial sectors. Based on a series of interviews with industrial pioneers, these chapters relate their first-hand experiences in improving resource efficiency. These business cases demonstrate that innovation and entrepreneurship can result in substantial improvements in resource efficiency. Chapter 5 focuses on best practices in the built environment, where substantial amounts of energy and minerals are used. Chapter 6 presents four ambitious strategies to promote sustainable food production and consumption. Chapter 7 describes recent developments in the chemical process industry, which produces most of the ingredients, compounds and semi-products for the vast range of products used by society. Chapter 8 provides four examples of the state-of-the-art in resource efficiency in the metal and high-tech industries. This chapter presents four business cases highlighting the benefits of the

  10. Porphyry copper assessment of northeast Asia: Far East Russia and northeasternmost China: Chapter W in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Frost, Thomas P.; Light, Thomas D.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Wallis, John C.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Panteleyev, Andre

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey assesses resources (mineral, energy, water, environmental, and biologic) at regional, national, and global scales to provide science in support of land management and decision making. Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about where mineral deposits are known and suspected to be in the Earth’s crust, which commodities may be present, and estimates of amounts of resources in undiscovered deposits.

  11. Development of industrial minerals in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Belinda F.; Knepper, Daniel H.; Langer, William H.; Cappa, James A.; Keller, John W.; Widmann, Beth L.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Klein, Terry L.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Dersch, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Technology and engineering have helped make mining safer and cleaner for both humans and the environment. Inevitably, mineral development entails costs as well as benefits. Developing a mine is an environmental, engineering, and planning challenge that must conform to many Federal, State, and local regulations. Community collaboration, creative design, and best management practices of sustainability and biodiversity can be positive indicators for the mining industry. A better understanding of aesthetics, culture, economics, geology, climate, vegetation and wildlife, topography, historical significance, and regional land planning is important in resolving land-use issues and managing mineral resources wisely. Ultimately, the consuming public makes choices about product use (including water, food, highways, housing, and thousands of other items) that influence operations of the mineral industry. Land planners, resource managers, earth scientists, designers, and public groups have a responsibility to consider sound scientific information, society's needs, and community appeals in making smart decisions concerning resource use and how complex landscapes should change. An effort to provide comprehensive geosciences data for land management agencies in central Colorado was undertaken in 2003 by scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Colorado Geological Survey. This effort, the Central Colorado Assessment Project, addressed a variety of land-use issues: an understanding of the availability of industrial and metallic rocks and minerals, the geochemical and environmental effects of historic mining activity on surface water and groundwater, and the geologic controls on the availability and quality of groundwater. The USDA Forest Service and other land management agencies have the opportunity to contribute to the sustainable management of natural aggregate and other mineral resources through the identification and selective development of mineral resources and the

  12. Metal Recovery from Industrial Solid Waste — Contribution to Resource Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongxiang

    Increased demand of metals has driven the accelerated mining and metallurgical production in recent years, causing fast depletion of primary metals resources. On the contrary, the mining and metallurgical industry generates large amount of solid residues and waste such as tailings, slags, flue dust and leach residues, with relative low valuable metal contents. On the other hand, end-of-life (EoL) consumer products form another significant resources. The current technology and processes for primary metals production are not readily applicable for direct metals extraction from these waste materials, and special adaptation and tailor-made processes are required. In the present paper, various solid waste resources are reviewed, and current technologies and R&D trends are discussed. The recent research at author's group is illustrated for providing potential solutions to future resource problems, including metal recovery from MSW incinerator bottom ashes, zinc recovery from industrial ashes and residues, and rare earth metals recovery from EoL permanent magnets.

  13. Multivariate statistical analysis of stream sediments for mineral resources from the Craig NTMS Quadrangle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyth, M.; McInteer, C.; Broxton, D.E.; Bolivar, S.L.; Luke, M.E.

    1980-06-01

    Multivariate statistical analyses were carried out on Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance data from the Craig quadrangle, Colorado, to support the National Uranium Resource Evaluation and to evaluate strategic or other important commercial mineral resources. A few areas for favorable uranium mineralization are suggested for parts of the Wyoming Basin, Park Range, and Gore Range. Six potential source rocks for uranium are postulated based on factor score mapping. Vanadium in stream sediments is suggested as a pathfinder for carnotite-type mineralization. A probable northwest trend of lead-zinc-copper mineralization associated with Tertiary intrusions is suggested. A few locations are mapped where copper is associated with cobalt. Concentrations of placer sands containing rare earth elements, probably of commercial value, are indicated for parts of the Sand Wash Basin

  14. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Industrial Mineral Mining Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Industrial Mineral Mining Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Industrial Mineral Mining Program. The sub-facility types are listed below:Deep...

  15. Critical mineral resources of the United States—Economic and environmental geology and prospects for future supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    SummaryMineral commodities are vital for economic growth, improving the quality of life, providing for national defense, and the overall functioning of modern society. Minerals are being used in larger quantities than ever before and in an increasingly diverse range of applications. With the increasing demand for a considerably more diverse suite of mineral commodities has come renewed recognition that competition and conflict over mineral resources can pose significant risks to the manufacturing industries that depend on them. In addition, production of many mineral commodities has become concentrated in relatively few countries (for example, tungsten, rare-earth elements, and antimony in China; niobium in Brazil; and platinum-group elements in South Africa and Russia), thus increasing the risk for supply disruption owing to political, social, or other factors. At the same time, an increasing awareness of and sensitivity to potential environmental and health issues caused by the mining and processing of many mineral commodities may place additional restrictions on mineral supplies. These factors have led a number of Governments, including the Government of the United States, to attempt to identify those mineral commodities that are viewed as most “critical” to the national economy and (or) security if supplies should be curtailed.This book presents resource and geologic information on the following 23 mineral commodities currently among those viewed as important to the national economy and national security of the United States: antimony (Sb), barite (barium, Ba), beryllium (Be), cobalt (Co), fluorite or fluorspar (fluorine, F), gallium (Ga), germanium (Ge), graphite (carbon, C), hafnium (Hf), indium (In), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), niobium (Nb), platinum-group elements (PGE), rare-earth elements (REE), rhenium (Re), selenium (Se), tantalum (Ta), tellurium (Te), tin (Sn), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), and zirconium (Zr). For a number of these commodities

  16. Biohydrometallurgy and membrane technology for resource recovery from low-grade ores and mining residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Arite; Meschke, Katja; Bohlke, Kevin; Haseneder, Roland; Daus, Birgit; Repke, Jens-Uwe

    2017-01-01

    The recovery of strategic elements from secondary mineral resources and low grade ores is of increasing relevance, due to a changing global market as well as for reasons of sustainability. The present article shows the potential of biohydrometallurgy as an efficient technology for mobilization of metals from secondary mineral resources. Furthermore, the application of membrane separation as a successful technique for the recovery of metals from bioleaching solutions is presented. These issues are discussed within the scope of recent research projects.

  17. Levels of heavy metals and essential minerals in hair samples of children with autism in Oman: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M; Waly, Mostafa I; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed A; Al-Farsi, Omar A; Al-Khaduri, Maha M; Gupta, Ishita; Ouhtit, Allal; Al-Adawi, Samir; Al-Said, Mona F; Deth, Richard C

    2013-02-01

    Toxic levels of heavy metals and low levels of essential minerals have been suggested to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study documents the levels of heavy metals and essential minerals in hair samples of children with ASD in Muscat, the urbanized capital of Oman, Muscat. The study included 27 children with ASD and 27 matched non-ASD controls. Parental interviews were held and dietary intake questionnaires completed in conjunction with the collection of hair samples. Analysis of heavy metals and essential minerals was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Chi-square analysis and non-parametric Fisher's exact tests were used to assess statistical significance. Children with ASD had significantly higher levels of all 11 analyzed heavy metals in their hair samples (P minerals sulfur, sodium, magnesium, potassium, zinc, and iron, but lower levels of calcium and copper in their hair samples. This study corroborates data from previous studies in different parts of the world indicating the presence of elevated levels of heavy metals and selective depletion of essential minerals in the hair of children with ASD.

  18. Short-term variability of mineral dust, metals and carbon emission from road dust resuspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Fulvio; Schaap, Martijn; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.; Pandolfi, Marco; Alastuey, Andrés; Keuken, Menno; Querol, Xavier

    2013-08-01

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution in cities has severe impact on morbidity and mortality of their population. In these cities, road dust resuspension contributes largely to PM and airborne heavy metals concentrations. However, the short-term variation of emission through resuspension is not well described in the air quality models, hampering a reliable description of air pollution and related health effects. In this study we experimentally show that the emission strength of resuspension varies widely among road dust components/sources. Our results offer the first experimental evidence of different emission rates for mineral dust, heavy metals and carbon fractions due to traffic-induced resuspension. Also, the same component (or source) recovers differently in a road in Barcelona (Spain) and a road in Utrecht (The Netherlands). This finding has important implications on atmospheric pollution modelling, mostly for mineral dust, heavy metals and carbon species. After rain events, recoveries were generally faster in Barcelona rather than in Utrecht. The largest difference was found for the mineral dust (Al, Si, Ca). Tyre wear particles (organic carbon and zinc) recovered faster than other road dust particles in both cities. The source apportionment of road dust mass provides useful information for air quality management.

  19. Assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits of the Kodar-Udokan area, Russia: Chapter M in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Chechetkin, Vladimir S.; Parks, Heather L.; Box, Stephen E.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Cossette, Pamela M.; Dolgopolova, Alla; Hayes, Timothy S.; Seltmann, Reimar; Syusyura, Boris; Taylor, Cliff D.; Wintzer, Niki E.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments integrate and synthesize available information as a basis for estimating the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered mineral resources. This probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits within Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Kodar-Udokan area in Russia is a contribution to a global assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The purposes of this study are to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) to indicate where undiscovered sandstone-hosted copper deposits may occur within 2 km of the surface, (2) provide a database of known sandstone copper deposits and significant prospects, (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within these permissive tracts at several levels of confidence, and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu) and mineralized rock that could be contained in undiscovered deposits within each tract. The workshop for the assessment, held in October 2009, used a three-part form of mineral resource assessment as described by Singer (1993) and Singer and Menzie (2010).

  20. Lung cancer in uranium miners: A tissue resource and pilot study. Final performance report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.; Gilliland, F.D.

    1998-01-01

    This project incorporates two related research projects directed toward understanding respiratory carcinogenesis in radon-exposed former uranium miners. The first project involved a continuation of the tissue resource of lung cancer cases from former underground uranium miners and comparison cases from non-miners. The second project was a pilot study for a proposed longitudinal study of respiratory carcinogenesis in former uranium miners. The objectives including facilitating the investigation of molecular changes in radon exposed lung cancer cases, developing methods for prospectively studying clinical, cytologic, cytogenetic, and molecular changes in the multi-event process of respiratory carcinogenesis, and assessing the feasibility of recruiting former uranium miners into a longitudinal study that collected multiple biological specimens. A pilot study was conducted to determine whether blood collection, induced sputum, bronchial brushing, washings, and mucosal biopsies from participants at two of the hospitals could be included efficiently. A questionnaire was developed for the extended study and all protocols for specimen collection and tissue handling were completed. Resource utilization is in progress at ITRI and the methods have been developed to study molecular and cellular changes in exfoliated cells contained in sputum as well as susceptibility factors

  1. Lung cancer in uranium miners: A tissue resource and pilot study. Final performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samet, J.; Gilliland, F.D.

    1998-08-13

    This project incorporates two related research projects directed toward understanding respiratory carcinogenesis in radon-exposed former uranium miners. The first project involved a continuation of the tissue resource of lung cancer cases from former underground uranium miners and comparison cases from non-miners. The second project was a pilot study for a proposed longitudinal study of respiratory carcinogenesis in former uranium miners. The objectives including facilitating the investigation of molecular changes in radon exposed lung cancer cases, developing methods for prospectively studying clinical, cytologic, cytogenetic, and molecular changes in the multi-event process of respiratory carcinogenesis, and assessing the feasibility of recruiting former uranium miners into a longitudinal study that collected multiple biological specimens. A pilot study was conducted to determine whether blood collection, induced sputum, bronchial brushing, washings, and mucosal biopsies from participants at two of the hospitals could be included efficiently. A questionnaire was developed for the extended study and all protocols for specimen collection and tissue handling were completed. Resource utilization is in progress at ITRI and the methods have been developed to study molecular and cellular changes in exfoliated cells contained in sputum as well as susceptibility factors.

  2. Conversion, ecological and social aspects of the research on mineral resources at the Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukhvatulin, Sh.T.; Belyashova, N.N.; Nedbaev, I.N.

    2000-01-01

    Despite the history of the Semipalatinsk test site in nuclear weapons testing, this territory is of interest for geologic exploration and utilization of mineral resources. The prospect for minerals on this territory was already known before the beginning of tests. Nowadays several companies work on the territory. Positive experience of using Kara Zhira coal deposit, refinement of local gabbros and stone-cutting plant, and preparation of gold mining at Naimanzhal deposit, allow us to hope that these mineral and raw material resources of the Semipalatinsk test site can become an important economic factor for development of the Eastern Kazakhstan region. (author)

  3. Comparing heavy metal contents in crops receiving mineral fertilisers and animal manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Tolstrup; Elsgaard, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Spring barley (grain, straw), grass-clover (two cuts), winter wheat (grain, straw) and silage maize grown in the Askov long-term experiment with different levels (0, ½, 1, 1½, 2) of mineral fertiliser (NPK) and animal manure (AM) had concentrations of As, Pb, Cd and Hg below the EC maximum permis...... of NPK and AM does not pose a threat in terms of feed quality. However, the long-term accumulation of heavy metals added with mineral fertilisers and animal manure is essentially irreversible and may threaten soil quality....... in the analysed metal contents between crops grown with NPK and AM. Crop contents of uranium and thallium were below the analytical detection limits regardless of nutrient source and addition rate. Thus in a farming context similar to that of the Askov experiment, the long-term application of standard rates...

  4. Methodology for an economic valuation of the mineral resources of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco Sepulveda, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    The present article presents a synthesis of the project of investigation; Methodology for an economic valuation of the mineral resources of Colombia, whose objective is the of proposing a methodology, specifically for the calcareous and coal deposits, like a tool for its administration, planning, regulation and control that it can be applied to the generality of the non renewable resources with the end to insert them in the states of national accounts in the long term

  5. Towards zero waste production in the minerals and metals sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, William J.

    The production of mineral and metal commodities results in large quantities of wastes (solid, liquid and gaseous) at each stage of value-adding — from mining to manufacturing. Waste production (both consumer and non-consumer) is a major contributor to environmental degradation. Approaches to waste management in the minerals industry are largely `after the event'. These have moved progressively from foul-and-flee to dilute-and-disperse to end end-of-pipe treatments. There is now a need to move to approaches which aim to reduce or eliminate waste production at source. Modern waste management strategies include the application of cleaner production principles, the use of wastes as raw materials, the reengineering of process flowsheets to minimise waste production, and use of industrial symbioses through industrial ecology to convert wastes into useful by-products. This paper examines how these can be adopted by the minerals industry, with some recent examples. The financial, technical, systemic and regulatory drivers and barriers are also examined.

  6. Tracing low-temperature aqueous metal migration in mineralized watersheds with Cu isotope fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, R.; Munk, L.A.; Townley, B.; Gou, K.Y.; Gómez Miguélez, N.; Titley, S.; Chen, G.G.; Song, S.; Reich, M.; Tornos, F.; Ruiz, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cu isotope fractionation of ores and waters identifies copper sulfide weathering. • Redox reactions cause isotopic shift measured in areas of sulfide weathering. • Consistent isotope signature in different deposit, climate, or concentration. - Abstract: Copper isotope signatures in waters emanating from mineralized watersheds provide evidence for the source aqueous copper in solution. Low-temperature aqueous oxidation of Cu sulfide minerals produces significant copper isotopic fractionation between solutions and residues. Abiotic experimental data of fractionation (defined as Δ liquid–solid ‰ = δ 65 Cu liquid − δ 65 Cu solid ) are on the order of 1–3‰ and are unique for copper rich-sulfide minerals. Data presented here from ores and waters within defined boundaries of porphyry copper, massive sulfide, skarn, and epithermal ore deposits mimic abiotic experiments. Thus, the oxidation of sulfide minerals appears to cause the signatures in the waters although significant biological, temperature, and pH variations exist in the fluids. Regardless of the deposit type, water type, concentration of Cu in solution, or location, the data provide a means to trace sources of metals in solutions. This relationship allows for tracking sources and degree of metal migration in low temperature aqueous systems and has direct application to exploration geology and environmental geochemistry

  7. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Statistical Treatments for Estimation of Mineral and Energy Resources

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, A; Sinding-Larsen, R

    1988-01-01

    This volume contains the edited papers prepared by lecturers and participants of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Statistical Treatments for Estimation of Mineral and Energy Resources" held at II Ciocco (Lucca), Italy, June 22 - July 4, 1986. During the past twenty years, tremendous efforts have been made to acquire quantitative geoscience information from ore deposits, geochemical, geophys ical and remotely-sensed measurements. In October 1981, a two-day symposium on "Quantitative Resource Evaluation" and a three-day workshop on "Interactive Systems for Multivariate Analysis and Image Processing for Resource Evaluation" were held in Ottawa, jointly sponsored by the Geological Survey of Canada, the International Association for Mathematical Geology, and the International Geological Correlation Programme. Thirty scientists from different countries in Europe and North America were invited to form a forum for the discussion of quantitative methods for mineral and energy resource assessment. Since then, not ...

  8. Directions of development of research methods in the assessment of leaching of heavy metals from mineral waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Król Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many test methods to assess the level of the release of heavy metals into the environment from mineral waste materials. Leaching methods can be different depending on the leaching time periods, leaching dynamics, sample preparation method or the pH of the elution medium. In Poland, little attention is paid to the research on the relationship between the leaching of particular heavy metals from mineral wastes and changes in environmental conditions, including the pH of the environment. Tests being carried out abroad have started to pay great attention to the pH-dependent impact of the environment and the liquid being in contact with the material on the degree of leaching contaminants from wastes. The solubility of all metals depends on the value of the pH. Authors of the paper will try to prove that Polish methods of waste characterization is incomplete and inconsistent with opinions prevailing in the global literature. The procedure described in the Polish standards are insufficient to determine the actual level of leaching of heavy metals having regard to the impact of multiple external conditions on the level of leaching of heavy metals. Paper will present a directions of development of research methods in the assessment of leaching of heavy metals from mineral waste.

  9. Selected social phenomena following the extraction of mineral resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocoń Paweł

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author, due to the didactic needs and seeing a small gap in the way of presenting scientific data on the area of social science, have decided to present this work hoping that it will influence on widening both the social science and geography knowledge of the recipients, having connected the development and creation of certain social phenomena with particular economic activity, that is, the extraction of mineral resources. The aim of the hereby text is to present such social phenomena like organizational culture, discourse and social capital. The notions mentioned above ought to concern not only students, but also the specialists and scientists dealing with any of those two fields, as it seems prudent to follow the path of closely connecting two major issues emerging from two distinctively separate areas of science if that may help to better understand how such mixture influence people’s behaviour and allows to draw conclusion on the effect such actions may have on community or society. Moreover, such fact was prior for the author to decide to work on the problem of protests for mining in the future. On the other hand, the article may help in organizing the process of exploitation of mineral resources in the different organizations involved in this type of activity.

  10. Mineral resource potential map of the Benton Range Roadless Area, Mono County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahoe, James L.; McKee, Edwin D.; Rains, Richard L.; Barnes, Donald J.; Campbell, Harry W.; Denton, David K.; Iverson, Stephen R.; Jeske, Rodney E.; Stebbins, Scott A.

    1983-01-01

    Tungsten-bearing rocks in the Benton Range Roadless Area occur in tactite lenses within the Paleozoic metasedimentary units that surround and are intruded by Triassic granodiorite of the Benton Range. High anomalous tungsten values were found in the southern part of the study area. Quartz-vein deposits with copper, lead, zinc, and silver may occur within the Jurassic granitic rock in the northwestern part of the area. Stream-sediment and panned-concentrate samples from the northwestern part of the roadless area, reveal anomalous values in a number of elements. Some of these elements are indicative of mineral suites that form by hydrothermal alteration and are potential metallic-ore producers. Metals having anomalous values are antimony, copper, lead, molybdenum, tin, and zinc; their presence suggests the potential for deposits of the lead-zinc-silver or copper-molybdenum type. Molybdenum and lead were identified by geochemical sampling as having low to moderate potential in the roadless area. An estimated 190,000 tons (172,000 t) of subeconomic gold and silver resources are inside the roadless area at the Gold Crown, Gold Webb, and Gold Wedge mines; another 60,000 tons (54,000 t) of subeconomic gold and silver resources are just outside the area at the Tower, Gold Webb, and Gold Wedge mines (table 1). Most of the lode gold and silver deposits are in quartz veins and shear zones. Minor amounts of copper, lead, and zinc occur in some gold deposits. About 2,240 oz (70 kg) of gold, 8,450 oz (260 kg) of silver, and 4,600 lb of lead (2,090 kg) have been produced from the roadless area. In addition, 7,257 oz (226 kg) of gold and 350 oz (11 kg) silver were produced at the Tower mine, near the area.

  11. Mineral resources of the South Mccullough Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Clark County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt, E.; Anderson, J.L.; Barton, H.N.; Jachens, R.C.; Podwysocki, M.H.; Brickey, D.W.; Close, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a study of 19,558 acres of the South McCullough Mountains Wilderness Study Area. The study area contains no identified mineral resources and has no areas of high mineral resource potential. However, five areas that make up 20 percent of the study area have a moderate potential either for undiscovered silver, gold, lead, copper, and zinc resources in small vein deposits; for lanthanum and other rare-earth elements, uranium, thorium, and niobium in medium-size carbonatite bodies and dikes; for tungsten and copper in small- to medium-size vein deposits; or for silver and gold in small vein or breccia-pipe deposits. Six areas that makeup 24 percent of the study area have an unknown resource potential either for gold, silver, lead, and copper in small vein deposits; for gold, silver, lead, zinc, copper, and arsenic in small vein or breccia-pipe deposits; for lanthanum and other rare-earth elements, uranium, thorium, and niobium in medium-size carbonatite bodies and dikes; or for tungsten and copper in small vein deposits

  12. Professional illnesses in miners caused by heavy metals and toxic substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličkova N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The exposure of humans in an environment contaminated with heavy metals is associated with many diseases, characterized by pathological changes in the respiratory tract, lung function deterioration. The results of the research, conducted with miners working in the “Sasa” lead and zinc mine, were focused on validating the existing professional risk. Most affected are the miners engaged in drilling head and ore. Disease was verified by analysis of acute symptoms. According to the time of exposure, disease symptoms were most frequent after exposure from 1 to 3 years. This indicates that a short span of exposure can be dangerous for some organs, depending on individual hypersensitivity. The most common lung diseases in exposed workers are, chronic bronchitis and tracheitis, chronic obstructive lung disease, pneumoconiosis and silicosis. The multidisciplinary elaboration of the topic, suggests the need for a more serious approach to this important phenomenon (ecotoxicological impact of heavy metals in exposed workers, and also is a specific model that is capable of application and in other related research.

  13. Rare Earth Metals: Resourcefulness and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijie

    2013-10-01

    When we appreciate the digital revolution carried over from the twentieth century with mobile communication and the Internet, and when we enjoy our high-tech lifestyle filled with iDevices, hybrid cars, wind turbines, and solar cells in this new century, we should also appreciate that all of these advanced products depend on rare earth metals to function. Although there are only 136,000 tons of annual worldwide demand, (Cho, Rare Earth Metals, Will We Have Enough?)1 rare earth metals are becoming such hot commodities on international markets, due to not only to their increasing uses, including in most critical military hardware, but also to Chinese growth, which accounts for 95% of global rare earth metal production. Hence, the 2013 technical calendar topic, planned by the TMS/Hydrometallurgy and Electrometallurgy Committee, is particularly relevant, with four articles (including this commentary) contributed to the JOM October Issue discussing rare earth metals' resourcefulness and recovery.

  14. NOVEL IN-SITU METAL AND MINERAL EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn O' Gorman; Hans von Michaelis; Gregory J. Olson

    2004-09-22

    This white paper summarizes the state of art of in-situ leaching of metals and minerals, and describes a new technology concept employing improved fragmentation of ores underground in order to prepare the ore for more efficient in-situ leaching, combined with technology to continuously improve solution flow patterns through the ore during the leaching process. The process parameters and economic benefits of combining the new concept with chemical and biological leaching are described. A summary is provided of the next steps required to demonstrate the technology with the goal of enabling more widespread use of in-situ leaching.

  15. Arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposit model: Chapter D in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a descriptive model for arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposits. Presented within are geological, geochemical, and mineralogical characteristics that differentiate this deposit type from porphyry copper and alkali-feldspar rhyolite-granite porphyry molybdenum deposits. The U.S. Geological Survey's effort to update existing mineral deposit models spurred this research, which is intended to supplement previously published models for this deposit type that help guide mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments.

  16. Rare earth minerals and resources in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanazawa, Yasuo [Human Resource Department, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)]. E-mail: y.kanazawa@aist.go.jp; Kamitani, Masaharu [Institute for Geo-Resources and Environment, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8567 (Japan)

    2006-02-09

    About 200 rare earth (RE) minerals are distributed in a wide variety of mineral classes, such as halides, carbonates, oxides, phosphates, silicates, etc. Due to the large ionic radii and trivalent oxidation state, RE ions in the minerals have large coordination numbers (c.n.) 6-10 by anions (O, F, OH). Light rare earth elements (LREEs) tend to occupy the larger sites of 8-10 c.n. and concentrate in carbonates and phosphates. On the other hand, heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) and Y occupy 6-8 c.n. sites and are abundant in oxides and a part of phosphates. Only a few mineral species, such as bastnaesite (Ce,La)(CO{sub 3})F, monazite (Ce,La)PO{sub 4}, xenotime YPO{sub 4}, and RE-bearing clay have been recovered for commercial production. Bayan Obo, China is the biggest RE deposit in the world. One of probable hypotheses for ore geneses is that the deposit might be formed by hydrothermal replacement of carbonate rocks of sedimentary origin. The hydrothermal fluid may be derived from an alkaline-carbonatite intrusive series. Following Bayan Obo, more than 550 carbonatite/alkaline complex rocks constitute the majority of the world RE resources. The distribution is restricted to interior and marginal regions of continents, especially Precambrian cratons and shields, or related to large-scale rift structures. Main concentrated areas of the complexes are East African rift zones, northern Scandinavia-Kola peninsula, eastern Canada and southern Brazil. Representative sedimentary deposits of REE are placer- and conglomerate-types. The major potential countries are Australia, India, Brazil, and Malaysia. Weathered residual deposits have been formed under tropical and sub-tropical climates. Bauxite and laterite nickel deposit are the representative. Ion adsorption clay without radioactive elements is known in southern China. Weathering processes concentrate REE in a particular clay mineral-layer in the weathered crusts whose source were originally REE-rich rocks like granite

  17. Rare earth minerals and resources in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Yasuo; Kamitani, Masaharu

    2006-01-01

    About 200 rare earth (RE) minerals are distributed in a wide variety of mineral classes, such as halides, carbonates, oxides, phosphates, silicates, etc. Due to the large ionic radii and trivalent oxidation state, RE ions in the minerals have large coordination numbers (c.n.) 6-10 by anions (O, F, OH). Light rare earth elements (LREEs) tend to occupy the larger sites of 8-10 c.n. and concentrate in carbonates and phosphates. On the other hand, heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) and Y occupy 6-8 c.n. sites and are abundant in oxides and a part of phosphates. Only a few mineral species, such as bastnaesite (Ce,La)(CO 3 )F, monazite (Ce,La)PO 4 , xenotime YPO 4 , and RE-bearing clay have been recovered for commercial production. Bayan Obo, China is the biggest RE deposit in the world. One of probable hypotheses for ore geneses is that the deposit might be formed by hydrothermal replacement of carbonate rocks of sedimentary origin. The hydrothermal fluid may be derived from an alkaline-carbonatite intrusive series. Following Bayan Obo, more than 550 carbonatite/alkaline complex rocks constitute the majority of the world RE resources. The distribution is restricted to interior and marginal regions of continents, especially Precambrian cratons and shields, or related to large-scale rift structures. Main concentrated areas of the complexes are East African rift zones, northern Scandinavia-Kola peninsula, eastern Canada and southern Brazil. Representative sedimentary deposits of REE are placer- and conglomerate-types. The major potential countries are Australia, India, Brazil, and Malaysia. Weathered residual deposits have been formed under tropical and sub-tropical climates. Bauxite and laterite nickel deposit are the representative. Ion adsorption clay without radioactive elements is known in southern China. Weathering processes concentrate REE in a particular clay mineral-layer in the weathered crusts whose source were originally REE-rich rocks like granite and

  18. Studies Concerning the Accumulation of Minerals and Heavy Metals in Fruiting Bodies of Wild Mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stihi, Claudia; Radulescu, Cristiana; Gheboianu, Anca; Bancuta, Iulian; Popescu, Ion V.; Busuioc, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    The minerals and heavy metals play an important role in the metabolic processes, during the growth and development of mushrooms, when they are available in appreciable concentration. In this work the concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd and Pb were analyzed using the Flame Atomic Absorption spectrometry (FAAS) together with Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) in 3 wild mushrooms species and their growing substrate, collected from various forestry fields in Dambovita County, Romania. The analyzed mushrooms were: Amanita phalloides, Amanita rubescens and Armillariella mellea. The accumulation coefficients were calculated to assess the mobility of minerals and heavy metals from substrate to mushrooms [1].

  19. Microbe and Mineral Mediated Transformation of Heavy Metals, Radionuclides, and Organic Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, R.

    2011-12-01

    Microorganisms influence their surroundings in many ways and humans have utilized microbially catalyzed reactions for benefit for centuries. Over the past few decades, microorganisms have been used for the control of contaminant transport in subsurface environments where many microbe mineral interactions occur. This presentation will discuss microbially influenced mineral formation and transformation as well as their influence on the fate of organic contaminants such as chlorinated aliphatics & 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), heavy metals such as chromium, and radionuclides such as uranium & strontium. Both, batch and flow experiments have been performed, which monitor the net effect of microbe mineral interactions on the fate of these contaminants. This invited presentation will place an emphasis on the relative importance of direct microbial (i.e. biotic) transformations, mineral-mediated transformations as well as other abiotic reactions influencing the fate of environmental contaminants. Experiments will be summarized and placed in context of past and future engineered applications for the control of subsurface contaminants.

  20. Seamount mineral deposits: A source of rare metals for high technology industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, James R.; Conrad, Tracey A.; Staudigel, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    The near exponential growth in Earth’s population and the global economy puts increasing constraints on our planet’s finite supply of natural metal resources, and, consequently, there is an increasing need for new sources to supply high-tech industries. To date, effectively all of our raw-metal resources are produced at land-based sites. Except for nearshore placer deposits, the marine environment has been largely excluded from metal mining due to technological difficulties, even though it covers more than 70% of the planet. The case can be made that deep-water seabed mining is inevitable in the future, owing to the critical and strategic metal needs for human society. In this paper, we evaluate the case that seamounts offer significant potential for mining.

  1. Australasian code for reporting of mineral resources and ore reserves (the JORC code)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The latest revision of the Code first published in 1989 becomes effective in September 1999. It was prepared by the Joint Ores Reserves Committee of the Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Australian Institute of Geoscientists and Minerals Council of Australia (JORC). It sets out minimum standards, recommendations and guidelines for public reporting of exploration results, mineral resources and ore reserves in Australasia. In this edition, the guidelines, which were previously separated from the Code, have been placed after the respective Code clauses. The Code is applicable to all solid minerals, including diamonds, other gemstones and coal for which public reporting is required by the Australian and New Zealand Stock Exchanges.

  2. A framework for quantitative assessment of impacts related to energy and mineral resource development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seth S.; Diffendorfer, James; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Berger, Byron R.; Cook, Troy A.; Gautier, Donald L.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Gerritsen, Margot; Graffy, Elisabeth; Hawkins, Sarah; Johnson, Kathleen; Macknick, Jordan; McMahon, Peter; Modde, Tim; Pierce, Brenda; Schuenemeyer, John H.; Semmens, Darius; Simon, Benjamin; Taylor, Jason; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Natural resource planning at all scales demands methods for assessing the impacts of resource development and use, and in particular it requires standardized methods that yield robust and unbiased results. Building from existing probabilistic methods for assessing the volumes of energy and mineral resources, we provide an algorithm for consistent, reproducible, quantitative assessment of resource development impacts. The approach combines probabilistic input data with Monte Carlo statistical methods to determine probabilistic outputs that convey the uncertainties inherent in the data. For example, one can utilize our algorithm to combine data from a natural gas resource assessment with maps of sage grouse leks and piñon-juniper woodlands in the same area to estimate possible future habitat impacts due to possible future gas development. As another example: one could combine geochemical data and maps of lynx habitat with data from a mineral deposit assessment in the same area to determine possible future mining impacts on water resources and lynx habitat. The approach can be applied to a broad range of positive and negative resource development impacts, such as water quantity or quality, economic benefits, or air quality, limited only by the availability of necessary input data and quantified relationships among geologic resources, development alternatives, and impacts. The framework enables quantitative evaluation of the trade-offs inherent in resource management decision-making, including cumulative impacts, to address societal concerns and policy aspects of resource development.

  3. Mineral resource of the month: vermiculite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Arnold O.

    2014-01-01

    Vermiculite comprises a group of hydrated, laminar magnesium-aluminum-iron silicate minerals resembling mica. They are secondary minerals, typically altered biotite, iron-rich phlogopite or other micas or clay-like minerals that are themselves sometimes alteration products of amphibole, chlorite, olivine and pyroxene. Vermiculite deposits are associated with volcanic ultramafic rocks rich in magnesium silicate minerals, and flakes of the mineral range in color from black to shades of brown and yellow. The crystal structure of vermiculite contains water molecules, a property that is critical to its processing for common uses.

  4. Statistical models for optimizing mineral exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wignall, T.K.; DeGeoffroy, J.

    1987-01-01

    The primary purpose of mineral exploration is to discover ore deposits. The emphasis of this volume is on the mathematical and computational aspects of optimizing mineral exploration. The seven chapters that make up the main body of the book are devoted to the description and application of various types of computerized geomathematical models. These chapters include: (1) the optimal selection of ore deposit types and regions of search, as well as prospecting selected areas, (2) designing airborne and ground field programs for the optimal coverage of prospecting areas, and (3) delineating and evaluating exploration targets within prospecting areas by means of statistical modeling. Many of these statistical programs are innovative and are designed to be useful for mineral exploration modeling. Examples of geomathematical models are applied to exploring for six main types of base and precious metal deposits, as well as other mineral resources (such as bauxite and uranium)

  5. The key numbers of the mineral raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandil, C.

    1996-01-01

    Mineral raw materials come from fossil reserves or ores resulting from the geologic and climatic history of the Earth. The access to economic development for 80% of the worldwide population and the high rate of demographic growth (probably 8 billions of inhabitants in 2025) are important factors that can greatly multiply the worldwide consumption of ores. In parallel, environmental concerns and the increasing need for a better equilibrium between wildlife preservation and the supply of economic needs, lead to a more reasonable and mastered use of natural resources. The aim of this book is to shade light and give global elements of thoughts on mineral resources, and for the main of those (about 30 metals and mineral substances), to review the most useful data and references about their production and consumption. For each question, chapters are devoted to the situation of France in its worldwide context. One chapter concerns the uranium ores (reserves, production, prices evolution, consumption, economic flux and companies involved). (J.S.)

  6. Webinar Presentation: Vitamins, Minerals and Metals: Do Healthy Diets Counteract Health Effects of Toxicants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Vitamins, Minerals and Metals: Do Healthy Diets Counteract Health Effects of Toxicants?, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Food and Children's Health held on Dec. 9, 2015.

  7. The United Nations framework classification for fossil energy and mineral reserves and resources 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, D.; Lynch-Bell, M.; Ross, J.; Heiberg, S.; Griffiths, C.; Klett, T.

    2011-01-01

    Effective resource management in a globalizing economy requires accurate assessments of fossil energy and minerals resources. The recoverable quantities must be described and categorized in a manner that is consistent with scientific and social/economic information describing the economy as well as with the information describing the projects to recover them. A number of different standards have evolved over time in response to various professional needs Under a mandate given by the United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) has cooperated with Governments, regulatory agencies, industry, international organizations, and professional organizations (including Committee for Mineral Reserves International Reporting Standards (CRIRSCO), the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the Society of Petroleum Evaluation Engineers (SPEE)), as well as with outstanding experts, to define a global classification for extractive activities (including oil, gas, heavy oil and bitumen extraction) that reflects the principal concerns of existing petroleum and mineral classifications. The United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources-2009 (UNFC-2009) aims to serve the following four principal needs: 1. The needs in international energy and mineral studies to formulate robust and long-sighted policies. 2. The needs of governments in managing their resources accordingly, allowing market prices to be transferred to the wellhead with as little loss as possible. 3. The industries' needs for information while deploying technology, management and finance to secure energy supplies and capture value efficiently within the established frameworks to serve its host countries, shareholders and stakeholders. 4. The financial community's need for information to allocate capital appropriately, providing reduced costs and improved long

  8. Minerals, Toxic Heavy Metals, and Antioxidant Properties of Honeys from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Paul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study reports on major and trace elements as well as antioxidant properties of honey samples from Bangladesh. Four major cationic elements, seven trace elements, and three heavy metals were determined in the 12 honey samples using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Nutritional values in these honey samples were further investigated according to their antioxidant properties. The content of major elements was in the range of 62.75–616.58, 579.48–2219.43, 69.42–632.25, and 0.13–1.20 mg/kg for sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium, respectively. The trace elements varied in the range of 0.41–28, 0.12–3.54, 1.54–2.85, 0.29–0.59, 0.02–0.35, and 0.01–0.06 mg/kg for iron, zinc, copper, nickel, cobalt, and cadmium, respectively. Among the heavy metals, only lead (0.17–2.19 mg/kg was detected. The results of antioxidant analysis based on phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar, and proteins (as nonphenolic antioxidants revealed that multifloral raw honey samples contain significantly higher levels of reducing agents than monofloral and commercial brand honeys. The study provides a useful insight on the minerals, heavy metals, and antioxidant properties of honey samples commonly consumed in Bangladesh and found to be rich source of antioxidants and minerals. Some samples might pose some risk to the health due to lead contamination.

  9. Silicosis and lung cancer in U.S. metal miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amandus, H.; Costello, J.

    1991-01-01

    The association between silicosis and lung cancer mortality was estimated in 9,912 (369 silicotics and 9,543 nonsilicotics) white male metal miners. These miners were examined by the U.S. Public Health Service during 1959-1961 and were followed through 1975. Miners were excluded from this study if they were employed in a mine during 1959-1961 that used diesel equipment underground. The ores that were mined consisted of copper, lead-zinc, iron, mercury, lead silver, gold and gold-silver, tungsten, and molybdenum. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR, U.S. white male rates) for lung cancer was 1.73 (95% CI: .94-2.90) in silicotics and 1.18 (95% CI: .98-1.42) in nonsilicotics. Additionally, SMRs were higher in silicotics than in nonsilicotics, even in most subgroups stratified by cigarette smoking habit, type of ore mined, years of service in an underground job, radon exposure group, or year of hire. When lung cancer mortality between silicotics and nonsilicotics was compared, the age-adjusted rate ratio (95% CI) was 1.56 (.91-2.68), and the age- and smoking-adjusted rate ratio was 1.96 (.98-3.67). Corresponding figures for miners who were employed in mines with low levels of radon exposure were 1.90 (.98-3.67) and 2.59 (1.44-4.68), respectively. These findings indicate that lung cancer mortality risk was increased in silicotics, and this probably did not result from chance or bias. However, confounding from radon exposure could not be ruled out. The findings indicate that further follow-up of this cohort is needed

  10. Life-Cycle environmental impact assessment of mineral industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisan Farjana, Shahjadi; Huda, Nazmul; Parvez Mahmud, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    Mining is the extraction and processing of valuable ferro and non-ferro metals and minerals to be further used in manufacturing industries. Valuable metals and minerals are extracted from the geological deposits and ores deep in the surface through complex manufacturing technologies. The extraction and processing of mining industries involve particle emission to air or water, toxicity to the environment, contamination of water resources, ozone layer depletion and most importantly decay of human health. Despite all these negative impacts towards sustainability, mining industries are working throughout the world to facilitate the employment sector, economy and technological growth. The five most important miners in the world are South Africa, Russia, Australia, Ukraine, Guinea. The mining industries contributes to their GDP significantly. However, the most important issue is making the mining world sustainable thus reducing the emissions. To address the environmental impacts caused by the mining sectors, this paper is going to analyse the environmental impacts caused by the 5 major minerals extraction processes, which are bauxite, ilmenite, iron ore, rutile and uranium by using the life-cycle impact assessment technologies. The analysis is done here using SimaPro software version 8.4 using ReCipe, CML and Australian indicator method.

  11. Chemical changes of minerals trapped in the lichen Trapelia involuta. Implication for lichen effect on mobility of uranium and toxic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasama, Takeshi; Murakami, Takashi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko

    2002-01-01

    To elucidate development of minerals trapped in a lichen, we examined the lichen Trapelia involuta growing directly on secondary uranyl minerals and U-enriched Fe oxide and hydroxide minerals. Sericite and other minerals in the underlying rock are trapped in the lichen T. involuta during its biological growth and chemically changed by lichen activities. The presence of chemically changed sericite accompanied by an Fe-bearing mineral in the lichen suggests that dissolution of sericite is promoted mainly by polysaccharides excreted by the lichen. Oxalic acid or lichen acids absent in the medulla may not play an important role in the dissolution. Our results suggest that lichens on metal-rich surface affect the mobility of uranium and other toxic metals through dissolution followed by trap of minerals from the underlying rock. (author)

  12. The actual status of uranium ore resources at Eko Remaja Sector: the need of verification of resources computation and geometrical form of mineralization zone by mining test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johan Baratha; Muljono, D.S.; Agus Sumaryanto; Handoko Supalal

    1996-01-01

    Uranium ore resources calculation was done after ending all of geological work step. Estimation process of ore resources was started from evaluation drilling, continued with borehole logging. From logging, the result has presented in anomaly graphs, then was processed to determine thickness and grade value of ore. Those mineralization points were correlated one another to form mineralization zones which have direction of N 270 degree to N 285 degree with 70 degree dip to North. From Grouping the mineralization distribution, 19 mineralization planes was constructed which contain 553 ton of U 3 O 8 measured. It is suggested that before expanding measured ore deposit area, mining test should be done first at certain mineralization planes to prove the method applied to calculate the reserve. Results form mining test could be very useful to reevaluate all the work-step done. (author); 4 refs; 2 tabs; 8 figs

  13. Space technology in the discovery and development of mineral and energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, P. D.

    1977-01-01

    Space technology, applied to the discovery and extraction of mineral and energy resources, is summarized. Orbital remote sensing for geological purposes has been widely applied through the use of LANDSAT satellites. These techniques also have been of value for protection against environmental hazards and for a better understanding of crustal structure.

  14. Mining and sustainable development: Considerations for minerals supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Ian B.

    2001-01-01

    Sustainable development involves meeting the needs of human societies while maintaining viable biological and physical Earth systems. The needs include minerals: metals, fuels, industrial and construction materials. There will continue to be considerable demand for virgin mineral resources, even if levels of recycling and efficiency of use are optimal, and rates of population growth and globalisation decrease significantly. This article aims to stimulate debate on strategic issues for minerals supply. While the world has considerable stocks of mineral resources overall, international considerations of the environmental and social aspects of sustainable development are beginning to result in limitations on where mining will be conducted and what types of deposits will be mined. Current and emerging trends favour large mines in parts of the world where mining can be conducted within acceptable limits of environmental and social impact. Finding new deposits that meet such criteria will be all the more challenging given a disturbing global decline in the rate of discovery of major economic resources over the last decade, and the decreasing land area available for exploration and mining. To attract responsible exploration and mining, governments and mining nations will need to provide: regional-scale geo-scientific datasets as required to attract and guide future generations of exploration; resource access through multiple and sequential land use regimes, and frameworks for dealing with indigenous peoples' issues; and arrangements for consideration of mining proposals and regulation of mines that ensure responsible management of environmental and social issues. The minerals industry will need to continue to pursue advances in technologies for exploration, mining, processing, waste management and rehabilitation, and in public reporting of environmental and social performance. (author)

  15. The Battle for New Resources: Minor minerals in green technologies

    OpenAIRE

    David S. ABRAHAM

    2012-01-01

    Emerging green technologies are the most significant and realistic path to reducing global dependence on polluting fossil fuels while simultaneously decreasing the reliance of many countries on oil-rich regimes to meet their energy needs. However, as nations begin to rely on green energy products, they are trading one set of resource dependencies for another. Wind and sun produce energy, but rare minerals like neodymium and tellurium are essential in applications to harness that power. To the...

  16. Preliminary publications book 2 from project on mineral resources, metallogenesis, and tectonics of northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Miller, Robert J.; Naumova, Vera V.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Kuzmin, Mikhail I.; Bounaeva, Tatiana M.; Obolenskiy, Alexander A.; Rodionov, Sergey M.; Seminskiy, Zhan V.; Diggles, Michael F.

    2003-01-01

    This is the Web version of a CD-ROM publication. This report consists of summary major compilations and syntheses accomplished in the six-year project through April 2003 for the study on the Mineral Resources, Metallogenesis, and Tectonics of Northeast Asia (Eastern and Southern Siberia, Mongolia, Northeastern China, South Korea, and Japan). The major scientific goals and benefits of the project are to: (1) provide a comprehensive international data base on the mineral resources of the region that is the first, extensive knowledge available in English; (2) provide major new interpretations of the origin and crustal evolution of mineralizing systems and their host rocks, thereby enabling enhanced, broad-scale tectonic reconstructions and interpretations; and (3) promote trade and scientific and technical exchanges between the North America and Northeast Asia. Data from the project are providing sound scientific data and interpretations for commercial firms, governmental agencies, universities, and individuals that are developing new ventures and studies in the project area, and for land-use planning studies that deal with both mineral potential issues. Northeast Asia has vast potential for known and undiscovered mineral deposits; however, little information existed in English in the West until publication of products from this project. Consequently, data and interpretations from the project are providing basic knowledge for major scientific, commercial, national, and international endeavors by other interested individuals and groups.

  17. Particle morphology and mineral structure of heavy metal-contaminated kaolin soil before and after electrokinetic remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Nicole; Reddy, Krishna R; Al-Hamdan, Ashraf Z

    2009-06-15

    This study aims to characterize the physical distribution of heavy metals in kaolin soil and the chemical and structural changes in kaolinite minerals that result from electrokinetic remediation. Three bench-scale electrokinetic experiments were conducted on kaolin that was spiked with Cr(VI) alone, Ni (II) alone, and a combination of Cr(VI), Ni(II) and Cd(II) under a constant electric potential of 1VDC/cm for a total duration of 4 days. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed on the soil samples before and after electrokinetic remediation. Results showed that the heavy metal contaminant distribution in the soil samples was not observable using TEM and EDX. EDX detected nickel and chromium on some kaolinite particles and titanium-rich, high-contrast particles, but no separate phases containing the metal contaminants were detected. Small amounts of heavy metal contaminants that were detected by EDX in the absence of a visible phase suggest that ions are adsorbed to kaolinite particle surfaces as a thin coating. There was also no clear correlation between semiquantitative analysis of EDX spectra and measured total metal concentrations, which may be attributed to low heavy metal concentrations and small size of samples used. X-ray diffraction analyses were aimed to detect any structural changes in kaolinite minerals resulting from EK. The diffraction patterns showed a decrease in peak height with decreasing soil pH value, which indicates possible dissolution of kaolinite minerals during electrokinetic remediation. Overall this study showed that the changes in particle morphology were found to be insignificant, but a relationship was found between the crystallinity of kaolin and the pH changes induced by the applied electric potential.

  18. Particle morphology and mineral structure of heavy metal-contaminated kaolin soil before and after electrokinetic remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, Nicole; Reddy, Krishna R.; Al-Hamdan, Ashraf Z.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to characterize the physical distribution of heavy metals in kaolin soil and the chemical and structural changes in kaolinite minerals that result from electrokinetic remediation. Three bench-scale electrokinetic experiments were conducted on kaolin that was spiked with Cr(VI) alone, Ni (II) alone, and a combination of Cr(VI), Ni(II) and Cd(II) under a constant electric potential of 1 VDC/cm for a total duration of 4 days. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed on the soil samples before and after electrokinetic remediation. Results showed that the heavy metal contaminant distribution in the soil samples was not observable using TEM and EDX. EDX detected nickel and chromium on some kaolinite particles and titanium-rich, high-contrast particles, but no separate phases containing the metal contaminants were detected. Small amounts of heavy metal contaminants that were detected by EDX in the absence of a visible phase suggest that ions are adsorbed to kaolinite particle surfaces as a thin coating. There was also no clear correlation between semiquantitative analysis of EDX spectra and measured total metal concentrations, which may be attributed to low heavy metal concentrations and small size of samples used. X-ray diffraction analyses were aimed to detect any structural changes in kaolinite minerals resulting from EK. The diffraction patterns showed a decrease in peak height with decreasing soil pH value, which indicates possible dissolution of kaolinite minerals during electrokinetic remediation. Overall this study showed that the changes in particle morphology were found to be insignificant, but a relationship was found between the crystallinity of kaolin and the pH changes induced by the applied electric potential.

  19. Rare earth metals-primary resources and prospects of processing secondary resources in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, B.D.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of Rare earth metals (REMs) in modern technological applications is associated with their spectroscopic and magnetic properties. The occurrence of rare earths in mixed form is commonly reported and their separation to the individual metal is a challenging task because of the similar chemical properties. The economical processing of the primary ores of rare earths is limited to a few countries and their supply at the international level is currently dominated by China. Hence assessing the present scenario of the primary resources of rare earths vis-à-vis their applications and demand is crucial at this stage, besides looking at the alternate resources to ensure availability of REMs; such aspects are covered in the manuscript. In view of the environmental concerns in the processing of ores such as monazite, xenotime, bastnasite, etc, and increasing demand of REMs, corresponding increase in demand of the raw materials has been recorded. It is therefore, necessary to utilize the end-of the-life rare earth containing materials as a rich resource by developing an appropriate recycling technology, which is emerging as a high priority area. To recover the REMs, major secondary resources such as electronic wastes, industrial wastes, spent catalysts and magnets, and phosphors powder, etc, have been considered for now. This will not only open the prospects of utilizing the wastes containing REMs, but will also limit the imports while lowering the production cost and decreasing the load on the primary reserves. The paper also examines the efficient recycling methods to recover a fairly good amount of rare earths which are relevant to India in view of the limited exploitation of the ores. Recovery of REMs from secondary resources using mechanical treatment followed by hydrometallurgical methods is prevalent and the same is reviewed in some detail. The recent R and D work pursued at CSIR-NML to extract (leaching and metal separation using some phosphatic reagents

  20. The Genesis of Precious and Base Metal Mineralization at the Miguel Auza Deposit, Zacatecas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findley, A. A.; Olivo, G. R.; Godin, L.

    2009-05-01

    The Miguel Auza mine located in Zacatecas State, Mexico, is a vein-type polymetallic epithermal deposit hosted in deformed argillite, siltstone and, greywacke of the Cretaceous Caracol Formation. Silver-rich base metal veins (0.2 m to >1.5 m wide) are spatially associated with the NE-striking, steeply SE- dipping (70-80°) Miguel Auza fault over a strike length of 1.6 km and a depth of 460 m. A 2 km2 monzonitic stock located in the proximity of the mineralized zones, has previously been interpreted as the source of the mineralizing fluids. Four distinct structural stages are correlated with hydrothermal mineral deposition: (I) The Pre-ore stage is characterized by normal faulting, fracturing of host rock, and rotation of bedding planes. This stage consists of quartz, illite, chlorite, +/- pyrite alteration of sedimentary wall rocks. (II) The Pyrite-vein stage is associated with reverse-sense reactivation of early normal faults, dilation of bedding planes/fractures, and deposition of generally barren calcite + pyrite veinlets. (III) The Main-ore stage is related to the development of reverse-fault- hosted massive sulphide veins. During this stage three phases of mineral deposition are recorded: early pyrite and arsenopyrite, intermediate chalcopyrite, pyrite, arsenopyrite, and base metals, and late base metals and Ag-bearing minerals. Associated gangue minerals during the main ore stage are quartz, muscovite, calcite and chlorite. (IV) The Post-ore stage involves late NW-SE striking block faulting, brecciation and calcite veining. Later supergene oxidation of veins led to deposition of Fe-oxides and hydroxides, commonly filling fractures or replacing early-formed sulphide assemblages. The various vein types display classic epithermal textures including open space filling, banding, comb quartz and brecciation. The Ag-bearing minerals comprise pyrargyrite [Ag3(Sb,As)S3], argentotennantite [(Cu,Ag)10(Zn,Fe)2(Sn,As)4S13], polybasite-pearceite [(Ag,Cu)16(Sb,As)2S11], and

  1. Information system of mineral deposits in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hribernik, K.; Rokavec, D.; Šinigioj, J.; Šolar, S.

    2010-03-01

    At the Geologic Survey of Slovenia the need for complex overview and control of the deposits of available non-metallic mineral raw materials and of their exploitations became urgent. In the framework of the Geologic Information System we established the Database of non-metallic mineral deposits comprising all important data of deposits and concessionars. Relational database is built with program package MS Access, but in year 2008 we plan to transfer it on SQL server. In the evidence there is 272 deposits and 200 concessionars. The mineral resources information system of Slovenia, which was started back in 2002, consists of two integrated parts, mentioned relational database of mineral deposits, which relates information in tabular way so that rules of relational algebra can be applied, and geographic information system (GIS), which relates spatial information of deposits. . The complex relationships between objects and the concepts of normalized data structures, lead to the practical informative and useful data model, transparent to the user and to better decision-making by allowing future scenarios to be developed and inspected. Computerized storage, and display system is as already said, developed and managed under the support of Geological Survey of Slovenia, which conducts research on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources in order to help the Nation make informed decisions using earth-science information. Information about deposit is stored in records in approximately hundred data fields. A numeric record number uniquely identifies each site. The data fields are grouped under principal categories. Each record comprise elementary data of deposit (name, type, location, prospect, rock), administrative data (concessionar, number of decree in official paper, object of decree, number of contract and its duration) and data of mineral resource produced amount and size of exploration area). The data can also be searched, sorted and

  2. Recycling of Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Metals like iron and aluminium are produced from mineral ore and used for a range of products, some of which have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of municipal waste. Packaging in terms of cans, foils and containers are products with a short lifetime. Other products like...... appliances, vehicles and buildings, containing iron and aluminium metals, have long lifetimes before they end up in the waste stream. The recycling of production waste and postconsumer metals has a long history in the metal industry. Some metal smelters are today entirely based on scarp metals. This chapter...... describes briefly how iron and aluminium are produced and how scrap metal is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of metal recycling. Copper and other metals are also found in waste but in much smaller...

  3. Minerals resource implications of a tokamak fusion reactor economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, E; Conn, R W; Kulcinski, G L; Sviatoslavsky, I

    1979-09-01

    The mineral resource implications of an economy of tokamak-type fusion reactors are assessed based upon the recent conceptual reactor design study, NUWMAK, developed at the University of Wisconsin. For comparative purposes, various structural alloys of vanadium and steel are assumed to be usable in the NUWMAK design in place of the titanium alloy originally selected. In addition, the inner blanket core and magnet system of the conceptual reactor, HFCTR, developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, are assumed to be interchangeable with the comparable components in NUWMAK. These variations permit a range of likely requirements to be assessed.

  4. Minerals resource implications of a tokamak fusion reactor economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, E.; Conn, R.W.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Sviatoslavsky, I.

    1979-09-01

    The mineral resource implications of an economy of tokamak-type fusion reactors are assessed based upon the recent conceptual reactor design study, NUWMAK, developed at the University of Wisconsin. For comparative purposes, various structural alloys of vanadium and steel are assumed to be usable in the NUWMAK design in place of the titanium alloy originally selected. In addition, the inner blanket core and magnet system of the conceptual reactor, HFCTR, developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, are assumed to be interchangeable with the comparable components in NUWMAK. These variations permit a range of likely requirements to be assessed

  5. Metal immobilization by sludge-derived biochar: roles of mineral oxides and carbonized organic compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihua; Huang, Xinchen; Jia, Yanming; Rees, Frederic; Tsang, Daniel C W; Qiu, Rongliang; Wang, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Pyrolyzing sludge into biochar is a potentially promising recycling/disposal solution for municipal wastewater sludge, and the sludge-derived biochar (SDBC) presents an excellent sorbent for metal immobilization. As SDBC is composed of both mineral oxides and carbonized organic compartment, this study therefore compared the sorption behaviour of Pb and Zn on SDBC to those of individual and mixture of activated carbon (AC) and amorphous aluminium oxide (Al 2 O 3 ). Batch experiments were conducted at 25 and 45 °C, and the metal-loaded sorbents were artificially aged in the atmosphere for 1-60 days followed by additional sorption experiments. The Pb sorption was generally higher than Zn sorption, and the co-presence of Pb reduced Zn sorption on each studied sorbent. Higher sorption capacities were observed at 45 °C than 25 °C for SDBC and AC, while the opposite was shown for Al 2 O 3 , indicating the significance of temperature-dependent diffusion processes in SDBC and AC. Nevertheless, metal sorption was more selective on Al 2 O 3 that showed a greater affinity towards Pb over Zn under competition, correlating with the reducible fraction of sequential extraction. Furthermore, significant amounts of Pb and Zn were additionally sorbed on SDBC following 30-day ageing. The X-ray diffraction revealed the formation of metal-phosphate precipitates, while the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed a larger quantity of metal-oxygen bonding after 30-day ageing of metal-loaded SDBC. The results may imply favourable long-term transformation and additional sorption capacity of SDBC. In conclusion, SDBC resembles the sorption characteristics of both organic and mineral sorbents in different aspects, presenting an appropriate material for metal immobilization during soil amendment.

  6. Mineral statistics yearbook 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A summary of mineral production in Saskatchewan was compiled and presented as a reference manual. Statistical information on fuel minerals such as crude oil, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas and coal, and of industrial and metallic minerals, such as potash, sodium sulphate, salt and uranium, was provided in all conceivable variety of tables. Production statistics, disposition and value of sales of industrial and metallic minerals were also made available. Statistical data on drilling of oil and gas reservoirs and crown land disposition were also included. figs., tabs

  7. To accelerate technology of in situ leaching and heap leaching for mining mineral resources of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Mei

    1999-01-01

    Recently, in situ leaching and heap leaching are the most advanced technology for mining low-grade mineral resources in the world. The author briefly expounds the basic concept and advantages of in situ leaching and heap leaching and deals with the main research content of the hydrometallurgical technology of in situ leaching and heap leaching, its development and present application at home and abroad. Having expounded the gap existing between China's technology of in situ leaching and heap leaching and the foreign technology, the author forecasts the prospects of accelerating the mining of China's mineral resources by using the technology of in situ leaching and heap leaching

  8. The diesel exhaust in miners study: IV. Estimating historical exposures to diesel exhaust in underground non-metal mining facilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, R.; Coble, J.B.; Lubin, J.H.; Portengen, L.; Blair, A.; Attfield, M.D.; Silverman, D.T.; Stewart, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    We developed quantitative estimates of historical exposures to respirable elemental carbon (REC) for an epidemiologic study of mortality, including lung cancer, among diesel-exposed miners at eight non-metal mining facilities [the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS)]. Because there were no

  9. Coastal placer minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Gujar, A.R.

    to be processed and purified to extract the metal either by sulphate or chloride route. The economical aspects of placer mining would involve the cost to benefit ratio, which would encompass the money Selective sorting has resulted in two distinct sediments... or mineral at the national and international levels. Interestingly, though gold is the most sought metal and the prices per gram keep rising, there are others that are much more costly such as diamond and rare earth metals. Uses of Heavy Minerals...

  10. Geological structure and prospects of noble metal ore mineralization of the Khayrkhan gabbroid massif (Western Mongolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurumshieva, K. R.; Gertner, I. F.; Tishin, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    An analysis of the distribution of noble metals in zones of sulfide mineralization makes it possible to justify the isolation of four ore-bearing horizons with a specific geochemical zonation. A rise in the gold content relative to palladium and platinum is observed from the bottom upwards along the section of the stratified series of gabbroids. The study of the mineral phases of sulphides and the noble minerals itself indicates the evolution of hydrothermal solutions, which determines the different activity and mobility of the fluid (mercury, tellurium, sulfur) and ore (copper, nickel, iron, platinum, gold and silver) components.

  11. Geology mineralogy, structure and texture of Agh-Otagh base- precious metal mineralization (North Takab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Rahmati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Agh-Otagh mineralization area in the north of Takab, was formed within the andesistic tuffaceous rocks of the Oligo- Miocene age. Mineralization include polymetallic (Cu-Pb-Zn-Au-Ag quartz veins and silicified zones, which occurred as breccia and vein- veinlets with comb, cockade and disseminated textures. Chalcopyrite, pyrite, galena and sphalerite are common ore minerals. Alteration zones consist of silicification, sericitization, argillitic, propelitic and carbonatization. Cu-Au mineralization is associated with silicification and sericitization. Analytical results of the samples from the ore- bearing quartz veins and the silicified zones indicate that the highest grade for Au is 664 ppb (ave.181 ppb. The highest and the average grades for Ag, Cu, Pb, and Zn are 120 ppm (300 ppm, 1.3 % (0.38 %, 5.5 % (0.06 % and 4.5 % (0.28 %, respectively. The investigations indicate that the Agh-Otagh mineralization was formed in four stages. In the first stage or the pre-mineralization stage, the host rock, as a result of hydrothermal process, underwent brecciation and some quartz veins and siliceous cap were formed. In the second stage or the mineralization stage the sulfide minerals formed within the quartz veins and silicification zones developed at the third stage, some unmineralized quartz, barite and carbonate vein- veinlets crosscut the previous stages. The last stage of mineralization related to supergene processes. Based on geological, mineralogical, alteration, structural and textural evidences, the Agh-Otagh base- precious metal mineralization is similar to the medium sulfidation epithermal deposits.

  12. Investor's and procurement guide South Africa. Pt. 1. Heavy minerals, rare earth elements, antimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graupner, Torsten; Schwarz-Schampera, Ulrich; Hammond, Napoleon Q.; Opperman, Rehan; Long'a Tongu, Elisa; Kenan, Abdul O.; Nondula, Unathi; Tsanwani, Matamba

    2014-01-01

    This is the first part of the ''Investor's and Procurement Guide South Africa'', a handbook for investing and doing business in South Africa's mineral industry. It is anticipated that this publication will aid potential investors into considering South Africa as an investment destination, not only for raw materials, but also for related industries. This manual supplements the many publications available on the economic geology and mineral wealth in South Africa and has been designed to guide prospective and current investors, suppliers and mine equipment exporters through the process of doing business in Africa's biggest and dynamic economy. As well as detailing the mineral raw materials heavy minerals, rare-earth metals and antimony, the handbook provides a general introduction to South Africa and its infrastructure, the economical, political and judicial frame of the South African mining industry and an overview of the economic geology. South Africa has a long and complex geological history which dates back in excess of 3.6 billion years. The country has a vast mineral wealth, undoubtedly due to the fact that a significant proportion of the Archaean and younger rocks have been preserved. The mining of the enormous Witwatersrand gold deposits, commencing in 1886, has led to the establishment of South Africa's well-developed infrastructure and to the sustained growth of an industrial and service sector in the country. With the world's largest resources of PGMs, gold, chromite, vanadium and manganese and significant resources of iron, coal and numerous other minerals and metals, the minerals industry will continue to play a pivotal role in the growth of South Africa's economy in the foreseeable future. South Africa is one of the top destinations in Africa for foreign direct investments. South African headquartered companies have been major investors into foreign direct investments on the African continent in the past decade. Investing in South African companies

  13. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. → The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. → We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. → Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. → Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection

  14. Analysis on uranium resource situations and metallogenic potential of Heyuan mineralization belt of Guangdong province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhuhai; Zheng Mingliang; Song Shizhu; Liang Yewu; Zhao Wei

    2008-01-01

    Heyuan mineralization belt is a structure-magmatic activities belt which is charcterized by strong plastic deformation and shearing. The squeeze (overthrust) structure is formed early. Later stretch produced slide shovel-shaped normal fault which control the red basin and uranium mineralization. Comprehensive study shows that this area is of favorable uranium metallogenic condition due to the rich uranium source and higher degree of geology work, it is a target for the new round resources exploration. (authors)

  15. Geology and mineral resources of the Johnson City, Phenix City, and Rome 10 x 20 NTMS quadrangles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karfunkel, B.S.

    1981-11-01

    This document provides geologic and mineral resources data for the Savannah River Laboratory-National Uranium Resource Evaluation hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reports for the Johnson City, Phenix City, and Rome 1 0 x 2 0 National Topographic Map Series quadrangles in the southeastern United States

  16. Mineral composition and heavy metal contamination of sediments originating from radium rich formation water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzowski, Zbigniew; Michalik, Bogusław

    2015-03-01

    Radium rich formation water is often associated with fossil fuels as crude oil, natural gas and hard coal. As a result of fossil fuels exploitation high amount of such water is released into environment. In spite of the high radium content such waters create a serious radiation risk neither to humans nor biota directly. First and foremost due to very high mineralization they are not drinkable at all. But after discharge chemical and physical conditions are substantially changed and sediments which additionally concentrated radium are arising. Due to features of technological processes such phenomenon is very intensive in underground coal mining where huge volume of such water must be pumped into surface in order to keep underground galleries dry. Slightly different situation occurs in oil rigs, but finally also huge volume of so called process water is pumped into environment. Regardless their origin arising sediments often contain activity concentration of radium isotopes exceeding the clearance levels set for naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) (Council Directive, 2013). The analysis of metals and minerals content showed that besides radioactivity such sediments contain high amount of metals geochemically similar to radium as barium, strontium and lead. Correlation analysis proved that main mechanism leading to sediment creation is co-precipitation radium with these metals as a sulfate. The absorption on clay minerals is negligible even when barium is not present in significant quantities. Owing to very low solubility of sulfates radium accumulated in this way should not migrate into environment in the neighborhood of a site where such sediment were deposited. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sustainable Development Strategy for Russian Mineral Resources Extracting Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotsenko, Elena; Ezdina, Natalya; Prilepskaya, Angelina; Pivnyk, Kirill

    2017-11-01

    The immaturity of strategic and conceptual documents in the sphere of sustainable development of the Russian economy had a negative impact on long-term strategic forecasting of its neo-industrialization. At the present stage, the problems of overcoming the mineral and raw material dependence, the negative structural shift of the Russian economy, the acceleration of the rates of economic growth, the reduction of technological gap from the developed countries become strategically in demand. The modern structure of the Russian economy, developed within the framework of the proposed market model, does not generate a sustainable type of development. It became obvious that in conditions of the market processes' entropy, without neo-industrial changes, the reconstruction of industry on a new convergence-technological basis and without increasing the share of high technology production the instability of macroeconomic system, the risks of environmental and economic security of Russia are growing. Therefore, today we need a transition from forming one industry development strategy to the national one that will take into account both the social and economic and environmental challenges facing Russia as a mineral resources extracting country.

  18. Active Learning Techniques Applied to an Interdisciplinary Mineral Resources Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    An interdisciplinary active learning course was introduced at the University of Puget Sound entitled 'Mineral Resources and the Environment'. Various formative assessment and active learning techniques that have been effective in other courses were adapted and implemented to improve student learning, increase retention and broaden knowledge and understanding of course material. This was an elective course targeted towards upper-level undergraduate geology and environmental majors. The course provided an introduction to the mineral resources industry, discussing geological, environmental, societal and economic aspects, legislation and the processes involved in exploration, extraction, processing, reclamation/remediation and recycling of products. Lectures and associated weekly labs were linked in subject matter; relevant readings from the recent scientific literature were assigned and discussed in the second lecture of the week. Peer-based learning was facilitated through weekly reading assignments with peer-led discussions and through group research projects, in addition to in-class exercises such as debates. Writing and research skills were developed through student groups designing, carrying out and reporting on their own semester-long research projects around the lasting effects of the historical Ruston Smelter on the biology and water systems of Tacoma. The writing of their mini grant proposals and final project reports was carried out in stages to allow for feedback before the deadline. Speakers from industry were invited to share their specialist knowledge as guest lecturers, and students were encouraged to interact with them, with a view to employment opportunities. Formative assessment techniques included jigsaw exercises, gallery walks, placemat surveys, think pair share and take-home point summaries. Summative assessment included discussion leadership, exams, homeworks, group projects, in-class exercises, field trips, and pre-discussion reading exercises

  19. Biohydrometallurgy and membrane technology for resource recovery from low-grade ores and mining residuals; Biohydrometallurgie und Membrantechnik zur Wertstoffgewinnung aus Armerzlagerstaetten und bergbaulichen Altablagerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Arite; Meschke, Katja; Bohlke, Kevin; Haseneder, Roland [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik, Umwelt-, Naturstoffverfahrenstechnik (ITUN); Daus, Birgit [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung GmbH - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. Analytik; Repke, Jens-Uwe [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). FG Dynamik und Betrieb Technischer Anlagen

    2017-02-15

    The recovery of strategic elements from secondary mineral resources and low grade ores is of increasing relevance, due to a changing global market as well as for reasons of sustainability. The present article shows the potential of biohydrometallurgy as an efficient technology for mobilization of metals from secondary mineral resources. Furthermore, the application of membrane separation as a successful technique for the recovery of metals from bioleaching solutions is presented. These issues are discussed within the scope of recent research projects.

  20. TUCS/phosphate mineralization of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, K.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This program has as its objective the development of a new technology that combines cation exchange and mineralization to reduce the concentration of heavy metals (in particular actinides) in groundwaters. The treatment regimen must be compatible with the groundwater and soil, potentially using groundwater/soil components to aid in the immobilization process. The delivery system (probably a water-soluble chelating agent) should first concentrate the radionuclides then release the precipitating anion, which forms thermodynamically stable mineral phases, either with the target metal ions alone or in combination with matrix cations. This approach should generate thermodynamically stable mineral phases resistant to weathering. The chelating agent should decompose spontaneously with time, release the mineralizing agent, and leave a residue that does not interfere with mineral formation. For the actinides, the ideal compound probably will release phosphate, as actinide phosphate mineral phases are among the least soluble species for these metals. The most promising means of delivering the precipitant would be to use a water-soluble, hydrolytically unstable complexant that functions in the initial stages as a cation exchanger to concentrate the metal ions. As it decomposes, the chelating agent releases phosphate to foster formation of crystalline mineral phases. Because it involves only the application of inexpensive reagents, the method of phosphate mineralization promises to be an economical alternative for in situ immobilization of radionuclides (actinides in particular). The method relies on the inherent (thermodynamic) stability of actinide mineral phases.

  1. Understanding Contaminants Associated with Mineral Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanck, Philip L.

    2008-01-01

    Interdisciplinary studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have resulted in substantial progress in understanding the processes that control *the release of metals and acidic water from inactive mines and mineralized areas, *the transport of metals and acidic water to streams, and *the fate and effect of metals and acidity on downstream ecosystems. The potential environmental effects associated with abandoned and inactive mines, resulting from the complex interaction of a variety of chemical and physical processes, is an area of study that is important to the USGS Mineral Resources Program. Understanding the processes contributing to the environmental effects of abandoned and inactive mines is also of interest to a wide range of stakeholders, including both those responsible for managing lands with historically mined areas and those responsible for anticipating environmental consequences of future mining operations. The recently completed (2007) USGS project entitled 'Process Studies of Contaminants Associated with Mineral Deposits' focused on abandoned and inactive mines and mineralized areas in the Rocky Mountains of Montana, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Arizona, where there are thousands of abandoned mines. Results from these studies provide new information that advances our understanding of the physical and biogeochemical processes causing the mobilization, transport, reaction, and fate of potentially toxic elements (including aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, lead, and zinc) in mineralized near-surface systems and their effects on aquatic and riparian habitat. These interdisciplinary studies provide the basis for scientific decisionmaking and remedial action by local, State, and Federal agencies charged with minimizing the effects of potentially toxic elements on the environment. Current (2007) USGS research highlights the need to understand (1) the geologic sources of metals and acidity and the geochemical reactions that release them from their

  2. Placer mineral resources of Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anil Kumar, V.

    2016-01-01

    Tamil Nadu, the southernmost state with second longest coast line in India has many placer heavy mineral deposits. These deposits contain economically important light heavy minerals like ilmenite, rutile, leucoxene, monazite, zircon, garnet, sillimanite, kyanite and non-economic minerals like pyroxenes, amphiboles and magnetite along with associated accessory minerals like staurolite, epidote, spinel, biotite and tourmaline. Geologically, granulitic rocks, principally Khondalites (garnet-sillimanite-graphite gneisses), charnockites and granitic gneisses bordered by sedimentary rocks are exposed along the eastern coastal plains of the Tamil Nadu. The principal highland areas, as for example, Shavaroys, Nilgiris, Palni-Kodaikanal Hills and Cardomom hills consists primarily of Charnockites. The margins of highland show a gradation into less metamorphosed rocks generally of amphibolite facies. The khondalites are found south of Kodaikanal massif. Anorthosites and layered mafic complexes occur at Sittampundi, Kadavur areas. Alkaline rocks and carbonatites are prominent at Simalpatti, Sevattur and Sivamalai. Coastal sedimentaries include, Gondwanas, Cretaceous, Tertiary and Quaternary rocks along with lateritic soils and beach sands

  3. Acid extraction of molybdenum, nickel and cobalt from mineral sludge generated by rainfall water at a metal recycling plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemic, M; Bordas, F; Guibaud, G; Comte, S; Joussein, E; Lens, P N L; Van Hullebusch, E D

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the leaching yields of Mo, Ni and Co from a mineral sludge of a metal recycling plant generated by rainfalls. The investigated mineral sludge had a complex heterogeneous composition, consisting of particles of settled soil combined with metal-bearing particles (produced by catalysts, metallic oxides and battery recycling). The leaching potential of different leaching reagents (stand-alone strong acids (HNO3 (68%), H2SO4 (98%) and HCl (36%)) and acid mixtures (aqua regia (nitric + hydrochloric (1:3)), nitric + sulphuric (1:1) and nitric + sulphuric + hydrochloric (2:1:1)) was investigated at changing operational parameters (solid-liquid (S/L) ratio, leaching time and temperature), in order to select the leaching reagent which achieves the highest metal leaching yields. Sulphuric acid (98% H2SO4) was found to be the leachant with the highest metal leaching potential. The optimal leaching conditions were a three-stage successive leaching at 80 °C with a leaching time of 2 h and S/L ratio of 0.25 g L(-1). Under these conditions, the achieved mineral sludge sample leaching yields were 85.5%, 40.5% and 93.8% for Mo, Ni and Co, respectively. The higher metal leaching potential of H2SO4 in comparison with the other strong acids/acid mixtures is attributed to the fact that H2SO4 is a diacidic compound, thus it has more H(+) ions, resulting in its stronger oxidizing power and corrosiveness.

  4. Bio-processing of solid wastes and secondary resources for metal extraction - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Chun; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2012-01-01

    Metal containing wastes/byproducts of various industries, used consumer goods, and municipal waste are potential pollutants, if not treated properly. They may also be important secondary resources if processed in eco-friendly manner for secured supply of contained metals/materials. Bio-extraction of metals from such resources with microbes such as bacteria, fungi and archaea is being increasingly explored to meet the twin objectives of resource recycling and pollution mitigation. This review focuses on the bio-processing of solid wastes/byproducts of metallurgical and manufacturing industries, chemical/petrochemical plants, electroplating and tanning units, besides sewage sludge and fly ash of municipal incinerators, electronic wastes (e-wastes/PCBs), used batteries, etc. An assessment has been made to quantify the wastes generated and its compositions, microbes used, metal leaching efficiency etc. Processing of certain effluents and wastewaters comprising of metals is also included in brief. Future directions of research are highlighted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of Mongolian Natural Minerals and Their Application for Heavy Metal Adsorbent

    OpenAIRE

    Dolgormaa, Munkhbat; Shiomori, Koichiro; Bayanjargal, Ochirkhuyag

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the structural characteristic and the adsorption properties of heavy metals on Mongolian natural minerals were investigated. The natural samples were confirmed as Heulandite group of Clinoptilolite type zeolite and clay sample that contains albite and quartz by X-ray diffraction analysis. According to BET surface analysis, natural zeolites have mesoporous type of pore. The results of adsorption study showed that adsorption ability of natural zeolite is high effective for lead i...

  6. Creep of crystals: High-temperature deformation processes in metals, ceramics and minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, J. P.

    An introductory text describing high-temperature deformation processes in metals, ceramics, and minerals is presented. Among the specific topics discussed are: the mechanical aspects of crystal deformation; lattice defects; and phenomenological and thermodynamical analysis of quasi-steady-state creep. Consideration is also given to: dislocation creep models; the effect of hydrostatic pressure on deformation; creep polygonization; and dynamic recrystallization. The status of experimental techniques for the study of transformation plasticity in crystals is also discussed.

  7. Mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    (placers), biogenous (ooze, limestone) or chemogenous (phosphorites and polymetallic nodules) type. In recent years, hydrothermal deposits, cobalt crust and methane gas hydrates are considered as frontier resources. Their distribution depends upon proximity...

  8. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    Taiwan is an island of 36,000 sq km located 160 km east of mainland China. Geologically, the oldest rocks are Tertiary, and the only igneous rocks on the island are Quaternary andesites and basalts. Copper, gold, and silver are the only known metallic minerals produced. Uranium occurrences and exploration efforts are unknown. The potential uranium resource of Taiwan is considered a category 1 resource. (author)

  9. Geology and mineral resources of the Florence, Beaufort, Rocky Mount, and Norfolk 10 x 20 NTMS quadrangles. National Uranium Resource Evaluation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, W.B.

    1982-08-01

    This document provides geologic and mineral resources data for previously-issued Savannah River Laboratory hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reports of the Beaufort, Florence, Norfolk, and Rocky Mount 1 0 x 2 0 National Topographic Map Series quadrangles in the southeastern United States. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program

  10. Analyses of heavy metals in mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembri, Matthew; Peplow, George; Camilleri, Josette

    2010-07-01

    Portland cement is used in the construction industry as a binder in concrete. It is manufactured from chalk, limestone, and clay, which are clinkered at very high temperatures and ground with gypsum to form Portland cement. The raw materials and the manufacturing process can result in the inclusion of heavy metals in Portland cement. Portland cement with a four to one addition of bismuth oxide is marketed as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), which is used mainly as a dental material. Heavy metal inclusion can be of concern because MTA is in contact with hard and soft tissues. Measurements of arsenic, lead, and chromium in hydrated gray and white Portland cement, ProRoot MTA, and MTA Angelus were conducted with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry after acid digestion on the hydrated material. The leaching of the metal ions from the solid material in water and simulated body fluid (SBF) was also determined. All cement types showed high relative values of leached chromium compared with arsenic and lead in both the total metal content and leached species. The gray Portland cement showed the highest total amount of metal. The white Portland and both MTAs had lower values for all the leached metal ions. Both MTAs released more arsenic than the amount specified in ISO 9917-1 (2007). Portland cements and MTAs showed evidence of heavy metals in the acid-soluble form as well as leaching in deionized water and SBF. MTA contained levels of arsenic higher than the safe limit specified by the ISO 9917-1 (2007). Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Porphyry copper assessment of the Tibetan Plateau, China: Chapter F in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Mars, John L.; Miller, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with the China Geological Survey to conduct a mineral-resource assessment of resources in porphyry copper deposits on the Tibetan Plateau in western China. This area hosts several very large porphyry deposits, exemplified by the Yulong and Qulong deposits, each containing at least 7,000,000 metric tons (t) of copper. However, large parts of the area are underexplored and are likely to contain undiscovered porphyry copper deposits.

  12. National symposium on raw materials and energy management of mineral based industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    Mineral Resources are very essential for industrialization and hence facilitating socioeconomic developments. Resources like coal, iron ore, Bauxite, chromite, limestone, ilmenite and many other ores and minerals are the raw materials for development of various thermal, metallurgical, chemical and refractory industries. The mineral resources are being harnessed from their respective mines and the mining industries have expanded rapidly to meet their growing demands of various 'mineral based industries. The energy and reductants required for these industries are met from both - coking and non coking coal. Nearly 70% of the energy requirement of India is met from coal. In recent years, with the increasing demand of metals, alloys, refractories and thermal energy, most of the high-grade ores and minerals have been consumed. Unfortunately most of the low grade ores and minerals are left at the mine sites as wastes. As a matter of fact, these low grade ores are much larger in quantities compared to the high grade ones. Therefore, it has been essential to mine and beneficiate the low grade ores which can be suitably-utilized in the respective industries. It has also been necessary to develop more efficient technology to utilize these raw materials more effectively producing minimum amount of wastes and also conserving the energy resources as far as possible. Time has come to develop environment friendly most suitable technology to utilize all types of low grade and complex ores and minerals in order to meet the requirements of rapidly expanding mineral based industries of India. Unless effective programmes are made in this regard and implement those in time, India is bound to face a disastrous situation both in industrial and economic sectors. The conference is organised keeping these in view to take a stock of new and economically viable processes for mining and beneficiating low and complex ores and minerals and utilizing these judiciously in the industries. Papers

  13. Bio-processing of solid wastes and secondary resources for metal extraction – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae-chun; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Review focuses on bio-extraction of metals from solid wastes of industries and consumer goods. ► Bio-processing of certain effluents/wastewaters with metals is also included in brief. ► Quantity/composition of wastes are assessed, and microbes used and leaching conditions included. ► Bio-recovery using bacteria, fungi and archaea is highlighted for resource recycling. ► Process methodology/mechanism, R and D direction and scope of large scale use are briefly included. - Abstract: Metal containing wastes/byproducts of various industries, used consumer goods, and municipal waste are potential pollutants, if not treated properly. They may also be important secondary resources if processed in eco-friendly manner for secured supply of contained metals/materials. Bio-extraction of metals from such resources with microbes such as bacteria, fungi and archaea is being increasingly explored to meet the twin objectives of resource recycling and pollution mitigation. This review focuses on the bio-processing of solid wastes/byproducts of metallurgical and manufacturing industries, chemical/petrochemical plants, electroplating and tanning units, besides sewage sludge and fly ash of municipal incinerators, electronic wastes (e-wastes/PCBs), used batteries, etc. An assessment has been made to quantify the wastes generated and its compositions, microbes used, metal leaching efficiency etc. Processing of certain effluents and wastewaters comprising of metals is also included in brief. Future directions of research are highlighted.

  14. Minerals From the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Michael J.

    The current interest in minerals centering on, among other things, potential shortages, long-term needs, and deep seabed nodules, accentuates the usefulness and timeliness of this little book authored by a former chairman of the British National Environmental Research Council.In less than 100 pages, the author puts into perspective the potential for producing minerals from offshore areas of the world. After introducing the reader to the ocean environment and the extraordinary variety of the nature of the seabed, the author describes in some detail the variety of minerals found there. This is done in seven separate chapters entitled ‘Bulk and Non-Metallic Minerals From the Seas’ ‘Metals From the Shallow Seas’ ‘Metals From the Deep Oceans’ ‘Minerals From Solution’ ‘Oil and Gas from the Shallow Seas’ ‘Oil and Gas From Deep Waters’ and ‘Coal Beneath the Sea.’ The remaining chapters give a brief regional review of marine minerals distribution for eight areas of significant socioeconomic structure, and a short recapitulation of special problems of mineral recovery in the marine environment including such matters as the effect of water motion on mineral processing and of international law on investments. Glossaries of geological periods and technical terms, a short list of references, and an index complete the work.

  15. 30 CFR 281.8 - Rights to minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rights to minerals. 281.8 Section 281.8 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General § 281.8 Rights to minerals. (a) Unless...

  16. Geology and undiscovered resource assessment of the potash-bearing Central Asia Salt Basin, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan: Chapter AA in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jeff; Orris, Greta J.; Dunlap, Pamela; Cocker, Mark D.; Bliss, James D.

    2016-03-23

    Undiscovered potash resources in the Central Asia Salt Basin (CASB) of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan were assessed as part of a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey. The term “potash” refers to potassium-bearing, water-soluble salts derived from evaporite basins, where seawater dried up and precipitated various salt compounds; the word for the element “potassium” is derived from potash. Potash is produced worldwide at amounts exceeding 30 million metric tons per year, mostly for use in fertilizers. The term “potash” is used by industry to refer to potassium chloride, as well as potassium in sulfate, nitrate, and oxide forms. For the purposes of this assessment, the term “potash” refers to potassium ores and minerals and potash ore grades. Resource and production values are usually expressed by industry in terms of K2O (potassium oxide) or muriate of potash (KCl, potassium chloride).

  17. Evaluation of mineral content and heavy metals of dromedary camel milk in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh MOSTAFIDI

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the amount of major mineral compounds and heavy metals of camel milk in Iran. For this purpose camel milk samples were collected from seven regions of Iran include Qazvin, Golestan, Semnan, Sistan-Baluchestan, Khuzestan, Bushehr and Tehran. The samples were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES method. The results showed that among the mineral contents, iron and zinc of camel milk were greater than bovine milk. Based on the codex standard 193-2007 standards, the maximum acceptable limit for lead and cadmium is 20 µg/kg and 10 µg/kg, respectively. The results of this study showed that the measured amounts of lead, cadmium and nickel in all samples were less than the acceptable limit for bovine milk. Bovine milk and dairy products are a poor source of iron, while the obtained data revealed that camel milk is a major source of minerals, especially iron. The camel milk’s iron was 10 times more than bovine milk. However, variations in mineral content in camel milk could be due to feed, stage of lactation, milk collection time, drought conditions, environmental conditions and associated analytical methods. Camel milk recommended as a valuable source of food for the human.

  18. What are we missing? Scope 3 greenhouse gas emissions accounting in the metals and minerals industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Suzanne E.

    2018-05-01

    Metal and mineral companies have significant greenhouse gas emissions in their upstream and downstream value chains due to outsourced extraction, beneficiation and transportation activities, depending on a firm's business model. While many companies move towards more transparent reporting of corporate greenhouse gas emissions, value chain emissions remain difficult to capture, particularly in the global supply chain. Incomplete reports make it difficult for companies to track emissions reductions goals or implement sustainable supply chain improvements, especially for commodity products that form the base of many other sector's value chains. Using voluntarily-reported CDP data, this paper sheds light on hotspots in value chain emissions for individual metal and mineral companies, and for the sector as a whole. The state of value chain emissions reporting for the industry is discussed in general, with a focus on where emissions could potentially be underestimated and how estimates could be improved.

  19. Competitive platinum-group-metal (PGM) supply from the Eastern Limb, Bushveld Complex: Geological, mining and mineral economic aspects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    McGill, JE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available -GROUP-METAL (PGM) SUPPLY FROM THE EASTERN LIMB, BUSHVELD COMPLEX: GEOLOGICAL, MINING, AND MINERAL ECONOMIC ASPECTS Dr. Jeannette E. McGill & Prof. Murray W. Hitzman ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ? COUNCIL FOR SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH (CSIR) ? Centre for Mining... Innovation ? Office of Graduate Studies, Fogarty Endowment ? Mr. VISHNU PILLAY (EXECUTIVE HEAD: JV?S ? Anglo Platinum) ? ACADEMIC ADVISORS Prof. Murray Hitzman (Economic Geology); Dr. Hugh Miller (Mining Engineering); Prof. Rodderick Eggert (Mineral...

  20. Metal ions released from fixed orthodontic appliance affect hair mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulewicz, Marcin; Wołowiec, Paulina; Loster, Bartłomiej; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate metal ion accumulation in hair of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances in time. The patients (N = 47) participated in a questionnaire survey. Hair sampling was performed at the beginning and in the 4th, 8th, and 12th month of the treatment. The content of metals (Cr, Ni, Fe) in hair was analyzed by ICP-OES equipped with USN nebulizer. The peak release of Cr and Fe occurred after 4 months of the treatment, and the peak release of Ni gradually increased throughout the whole year of the therapy. During 1 year treatment, an average accumulation of metals in hair tissue was 7.42 ± 14.19 μg of Ni, 8.94 ± 13.1 μg of Cr, and 131 ± 279 μg of Fe. The mean content of Cr was higher than the 90th percentile value for this element. The upper limit of literature reference ranges for Cr, Ni, and Fe in hair was not exceeded. The value of exposure (kinetics and dose) of orthodontic patients to metal ions released from orthodontic appliances can be assessed by hair mineral analysis. The content of Cr was statistically significantly higher during the treatment than before the beginning of therapy.

  1. Selenide Mineralization in the Příbram Uranium and Base-Metal District (Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Škácha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Selenium mineralization in the Příbram uranium and base-metal district (Central Bohemia, Czech Republic bound to uraninite occurrences in calcite hydrothermal veins is extremely diverse. The selenides antimonselite, athabascaite, bellidoite, berzelianite, brodtkorbite, bukovite, bytízite, cadmoselite, chaméanite, clausthalite, crookesite, dzharkenite, eskebornite, eucairite, ferroselite, giraudite, hakite, klockmannite, naumannite, permingeatite, příbramite, sabatierite, tiemannite, and umangite were found here, including two new mineral phases: Hg-Cu-Sb and Cu-As selenides. Those selenides—and in some cases their sulphidic equivalents—are characterized using wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy, reflected light, powder X-ray diffraction, single crystal X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and electron backscatter diffraction. The selenide mineralization in the Příbram uranium district is bound to the border of the carbonate-uraninite and subsequent carbonate-sulphidic stages. Selenides crystallized there at temperatures near 100 °C in the neutral-to-weakly-alkaline environment from solutions with high oxygen fugacity and a high Se2/S2 fugacity ratio.

  2. THE ANALYSIS OF THE GEOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC MINERAL RESOURCES IN THE RAIL ROAD CORRIDOR "URAL INDUSTRIAL – URAL POLAR"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Pakhomov

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The article brings forth the geological-economic analysis of the mineral resource in the area of the transport corridor "Urals industrial – Urals Polar". Given is the analysis of the potential finding of coal on the territory, chromate and other important excavations, the whereabouts of which are more easily approachable for the acquiring with the condition of building a railroad with the path of station Polunochnoye-Obskaya. Given are the possible masses of the delivery of the products accordingly. Distinguished is the size of the investments, that are needed for the mineral resources of the given territory.

  3. Lung cancer in uranium miners: A tissue resource and pilot study. Progress report, September 25, 1992 - May 31, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.M.

    1993-05-01

    This project involves two related activities directed toward understanding respiratory carcinogenesis in radon-exposed former uranium miners. The first activity involves a continuation of the tissue resource of lung cancer cases from former underground uranium miners and comparison cases from non-miners. The second activity is a pilot study for a proposed longitudinal study of respiratory carcinogenesis in former uranium miners. The objectives are to facilitate the investigation of molecular changes in radon exposed lung cancer cases and to develop methods for prospectively studying clinical, cytologic, cytogenetic, and molecular changes in the multi-event process of respiratory carcinogenesis, and to assess the feasibility of recruiting former uranium miners into a longitudinal study that collects multiple biologic specimens

  4. Bone mineral density and blood metals in premenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollack, A.Z.; Mumford, S.L.; Wactawski-Wende, J.; Yeung, E.; Mendola, P.; Mattison, D.R.; Schisterman, E.F.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to metals, specifically cadmium, lead, and mercury, is widespread and is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in older populations, but the associations among premenopausal women are unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between these metals in blood and BMD (whole body, total hip, lumbar spine, and non-dominant wrist) quantified by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 248 premenopausal women, aged 18–44. Participants were of normal body mass index (mean BMI 24.1), young (mean age 27.4), 60% were white, 20% non-Hispanic black, 15% Asian, and 6% other race group, and were from the Buffalo, New York region. The median (interquartile range) level of cadmium was 0.30 μg/l (0.19–0.43), of lead was 0.86 μg/dl (0.68–1.20), and of mercury was 1.10 μg/l (0.58–2.00). BMD was treated both as a continuous variable in linear regression and dichotomized at the 10th percentile for logistic regression analyses. Mercury was associated with reduced odds of decreased lumbar spine BMD (0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.99), but overall, metals at environmentally relevant levels of exposure were not associated with reduced BMD in this population of healthy, reproductive-aged women. Further research is needed to determine if the blood levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury in this population are sufficiently low that there is no substantive impact on bone, or if effects on bone can be expected only at older ages.

  5. Bone mineral density and blood metals in premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollack, A.Z., E-mail: pollacka@mail.nih.gov [Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Mumford, S.L. [Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Wactawski-Wende, J. [Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Yeung, E.; Mendola, P.; Mattison, D.R.; Schisterman, E.F. [Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Exposure to metals, specifically cadmium, lead, and mercury, is widespread and is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in older populations, but the associations among premenopausal women are unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between these metals in blood and BMD (whole body, total hip, lumbar spine, and non-dominant wrist) quantified by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 248 premenopausal women, aged 18-44. Participants were of normal body mass index (mean BMI 24.1), young (mean age 27.4), 60% were white, 20% non-Hispanic black, 15% Asian, and 6% other race group, and were from the Buffalo, New York region. The median (interquartile range) level of cadmium was 0.30 {mu}g/l (0.19-0.43), of lead was 0.86 {mu}g/dl (0.68-1.20), and of mercury was 1.10 {mu}g/l (0.58-2.00). BMD was treated both as a continuous variable in linear regression and dichotomized at the 10th percentile for logistic regression analyses. Mercury was associated with reduced odds of decreased lumbar spine BMD (0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.99), but overall, metals at environmentally relevant levels of exposure were not associated with reduced BMD in this population of healthy, reproductive-aged women. Further research is needed to determine if the blood levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury in this population are sufficiently low that there is no substantive impact on bone, or if effects on bone can be expected only at older ages.

  6. Clay minerals and metal oxides strongly influence the structure of alkane-degrading microbial communities during soil maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Annelie; Schulz, Stefanie; Giebler, Julia; Schulz, Stephan; Pronk, Geertje J; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Harms, Hauke; Wick, Lukas Y; Schloter, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Clay minerals, charcoal and metal oxides are essential parts of the soil matrix and strongly influence the formation of biogeochemical interfaces in soil. We investigated the role of these parental materials for the development of functional microbial guilds using the example of alkane-degrading bacteria harbouring the alkane monooxygenase gene (alkB) in artificial mixtures composed of different minerals and charcoal, sterile manure and a microbial inoculum extracted from an agricultural soil. We followed changes in abundance and community structure of alkane-degrading microbial communities after 3 and 12 months of soil maturation and in response to a subsequent 2-week plant litter addition. During maturation we observed an overall increasing divergence in community composition. The impact of metal oxides on alkane-degrading community structure increased during soil maturation, whereas the charcoal impact decreased from 3 to 12 months. Among the clay minerals illite influenced the community structure of alkB-harbouring bacteria significantly, but not montmorillonite. The litter application induced strong community shifts in soils, maturated for 12 months, towards functional guilds typical for younger maturation stages pointing to a resilience of the alkane-degradation function potentially fostered by an extant 'seed bank'.

  7. Mineralogy and mineral chemistry of rare-metal pegmatites at Abu Rusheid granitic gneisses, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fahmy Raslan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Abu Rushied area, situated in the South Eastern Desert of Egypt is a distinctive occurrence of economically important rare-metal mineralization where the host rocks are represented by granitic gneisses. Correspondingly, mineralogical and geochemical investigation of pegmatites pockets scattered within Abu Rusheid granitic gneisses revealed the presence of Hf-zircon, ferrocolumbite and uranyl silicate minerals (uranophane and kasolite. Electronmicroprobe analyses revealed the presence of Nb-Ta multioxide minerals (ishikawaite, uranopyrochlore, and fergusonite, uraninite, thorite and cassiterite as numerous inclusions in the recorded Hf-zircon and ferrocolumbite minerals.Abu Rusheid pegmatites are found as small and large bodies that occur as simple and complex (zoned pegmatites.Abu Rusheid rare-metal pegmatites occur as steeply dipping bodies of variable size, ranging from 1 to 5 m in width and 10 to 50 m in length. The zoned pegmatites are composed of wall zone of coarser granitic gneisses, intermediated zone of K-feldspar and pocket of mica (muscovite and biotite, and core of quartz and pocket ofmica with lenses of rare metals.The zircon is of bipyramidal to typical octahedral form and short prisms. Because the zircon of the investigated Abu Rushied pegmatite frequently contains hafnium in amounts ranging between 2.31 and 11.11%, the studied zircon was designated as Hf-rich zircon. This zircon commonly exhibits a normal zoning with rims consistentlyhigher in Hf than cores. The bright areas in the crystal either in core or rim showed a remarkable enrichment in hafnium content (8.83–11.11% with respect to the dark zones (3.19%. The investigated ferroclumbite commonly exhibits zoning; the dark zone is low in the Ta and U but the light zone is enriched in Ta (13% and U (1%. EMPAanalyses indicate the chemical composition of ishikawaite with U ranging from 0.68 to 0.79 per formula unit.Uranopyrochlore species has dominant uranium in the A

  8. Cobalt deposition in mineralized bone tissue after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing: Quantitative μ-X-ray-fluorescence analysis of implant material incorporation in periprosthetic tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Michael; Busse, Björn; Procop, Mathias; Zustin, Jozef; Amling, Michael; Katzer, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    Most resurfacing systems are manufactured from cobalt-chromium alloys with metal-on-metal (MoM) bearing couples. Because the quantity of particulate metal and corrosion products which can be released into the periprosthetic milieu is greater in MoM bearings than in metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) bearings, it is hypothesized that the quantity and distribution of debris released by the MoM components induce a compositional change in the periprosthetic bone. To determine the validity of this claim, nondestructive µ-X-ray fluorescence analysis was carried out on undecalcified histological samples from 13 femoral heads which had undergone surface replacement. These samples were extracted from the patients after gradient time points due to required revision surgery. Samples from nonintervened femoral heads as well as from a MoP resurfaced implant served as controls. Light microscopy and µ-X-ray fluorescence analyses revealed that cobalt debris was found not only in the soft tissue around the prosthesis and the bone marrow, but also in the mineralized bone tissue. Mineralized bone exposed to surface replacements showed significant increases in cobalt concentrations in comparison with control specimens without an implant. A maximum cobalt concentration in mineralized hard tissue of up to 380 ppm was detected as early as 2 years after implantation. Values of this magnitude are not found in implants with a MoP surface bearing until a lifetime of more than 20 years. This study demonstrates that hip resurfacing implants with MoM bearings present a potential long-term health risk due to rapid cobalt ion accumulation in periprosthetic hard tissue. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1855-1862, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Selection of a mineral binder for the stabilization - solidification of waste containing aluminum metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahalle, H.; Cau Dit Counes, C.; Lambertin, D.; Antonucci, P.; Delpech, S.

    2015-01-01

    The dismantling of nuclear facilities produces radioactive waste materials, some of which may contain aluminum metal. In a strongly alkaline medium, such as that encountered in conventional cementitious materials based on Portland cement, aluminum metal becomes corroded, with a continued production of dihydrogen. In order to develop a mineral matrix having enhanced compatibility with aluminum, a literature review was first undertaken to identify binders capable of reducing the pore solution pH compared with Portland cement. An experimental study was then carried out to measure the hydrogen production resulting from corrosion of aluminum metal rods encapsulated in the different selected cement pastes. The best results were achieved with magnesium phosphate cement, which released very little hydrogen over the duration of the study. This production could be reduced further by adding a corrosion inhibitor (lithium nitrate) to the mixing solution

  10. Mineral, Energy, and Fertilizer Resources of the North Coast of Peru: Perspective from the Santa Rita B Archaeological Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William E.; Kent, Jonathan D.; Willett, Jason C.

    2004-01-01

    The Santa Rita B archaeological site is in the Chao Valley, approximately 65 km southeast of Trujillo, northern Peru. Location of Santa Rita B at the emergence of several drainages from the Andean cordillera is an important factor in the almost continuous occupation of the site over the past 3,000 years. Mineral resources are abundant throughout the Andes; however, the north coast of Peru was an important center for pre-Columbian mining, metallurgy, and craftsmanship. Success of the Chavin, Moche, Chimu, and other north coast cultures is directly related to the availability and exploitation of mineral and energy resources that include: gold (?silver), as electrum, mainly from placers, and copper from local oxide and carbonate occurrences and from sulfides related to copper porphyry occurrences in the cordillera. An alloy of these three metals is referred to as tumbaga, which is the primary material for Andean metalcraft. Anthracite was used for mirrors by north coast cultures and is available near Rio Chicama, Rio Santa, and east of Santa Rita B. These outcrops are a part of the Alto Chicama, Peru's largest coalfield, which extends from Rio Chicama, in the north, for 200 km southward to Rio Santa. Charcoal from the algorrobo tree and llama dung are considered to be the common pre-Columbian energy sources for cooking and metalwork; however, availability and the higher heat content of anthracite indicate that it was used in metallurgical applications. Bitumen is available from petroleum seeps near Talara, north of the study area, and may have been used as glue or as cement. Hematite, goethite, limonite, and manganese oxides from clay-altered volcanic rock may have provided color and material for ceramics. Guano from the Islas Gua?apes, Chinchas, and Ballestas was used as fertilizer for cotton and other crops.

  11. Mineral resources of the southern half of Zone III Santander, Norte de Santander and Boyaca, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Dwight Edward; Goldsmith, Richard; Cruz, Bruna B.; Restrepo, Jaime; Hernan, A.

    1970-01-01

    The areas covered by this report lies in the eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes in the region around Bucaramanga. This part of the eastern Cordillera consists of a structurally complex core of metamorphic and igneous rocks of Precambrian to Mesozoic age, flanked to east and west by faulted and folded sedimentary strata of late Paleozoic to Tertiary age. Infaulted blocks of sedimentary rocks are locally present in the massif. Unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age, primarily terraced alluvium, are 10cally extensive in valleys on the flanks of the range. The crystalline central core of the range is called the Santander massif. In it are located the principal sold deposits and scattered deposits of copper, lead, zinc, and fluorite. The sedimentary rocks flanking the massif contain significant deposits of phosphate rock and gypsum, as well as other nonmetallic industrial minerals such as limestone, barite, glass sand, and coal. A belt of lead-zinc prospects in carbonate and sandstone beds of Cretaceous age on the east side of the range warrants further investigation. Gold and silver are the only important metallic minerals that have been produced in the Santander massif. Mining dates back to colonial and possibly to pre-colonial times and continues on a small scale at present. The California and Vetas district was the main area of investigation of metallic minerals during the present project. Results of geochemical sampling of stream sediments and assays of vein material indicate that the main potential of the area is in gold with lesser potentials in copper, lead, zinc, and silver. Mineralization of the district is probably younger than Early Cretaceous. Although no copper minerals have been mined elsewhere in the massif, small amounts of copper minerals in various rocks in scattered areas is revealed by green and blue stains of copper carbonates and sulfates. Deposits of greatest areal extent are in arkosic conglomeratic beds of the Giron Formation. These

  12. Molecular Studies of Complex Soil Organic Matter Interactions with Metal Ions and Mineral Surfaces using Classical Molecular Dynamics and Quantum Chemistry Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, A.; Govind, N.; Laskin, A.

    2017-12-01

    Mineral surfaces have been implicated as potential protectors of soil organic matter (SOM) against decomposition and ultimate mineralization to small molecules which can provide nutrients for plants and soil microbes and can also contribute to the Earth's elemental cycles. SOM is a complex mixture of organic molecules of biological origin at varying degrees of decomposition and can, itself, self-assemble in such a way as to expose some biomolecule types to biotic and abiotic attack while protecting other biomolecule types. The organization of SOM and SOM with mineral surfaces and solvated metal ions is driven by an interplay of van der Waals and electrostatic interactions leading to partitioning of hydrophilic (e.g. sugars) and hydrophobic (e.g., lipids) SOM components that can be bridged with amphiphilic molecules (e.g., proteins). Classical molecular dynamics simulations can shed light on assemblies of organic molecules alone or complexation with mineral surfaces. The role of chemical reactions is also an important consideration in potential chemical changes of the organic species such as oxidation/reduction, degradation, chemisorption to mineral surfaces, and complexation with solvated metal ions to form organometallic systems. For the study of chemical reactivity, quantum chemistry methods can be employed and combined with structural insight provided by classical MD simulations. Moreover, quantum chemistry can also simulate spectroscopic signatures based on chemical structure and is a valuable tool in interpreting spectra from, notably, x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). In this presentation, we will discuss our classical MD and quantum chemistry findings on a model SOM system interacting with mineral surfaces and solvated metal ions.

  13. Uranium resources inventory on systematic prospection stage at Jumbang II Sector West Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subiantoro, Lilik; Paimin; Suripto; Widito, P.; Marzuki, Anang

    2002-01-01

    Some uranium occurrences have been discovered as mineralized outcrops and soils at Jumbang II sector. The aim of this investigation is to find the mineralization characteristic, geometric and distribution and resources estimation. The investigation method is systematic topographic, geologic, and radiometric mapping and identification of uranium on the geological aspect. At Jumbang II have been identified four mineralization zones within total area 8.56 hectare. The mineralization zones consist of quartzite rock associations. The quartzite is characterized by the existence of some mineralized veins. The veins contain uraninite and secondary uranium mineral autunite and gummite, and it also contains monazite, tourmaline, biotite, feldspar, quartz, zircon, and some ore minerals. The ore minerals consist of molybdenite, pyrrhotite, magnetite, pyrite, hematite, chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite and arsenopyrite. Uranium content of quartzite is about 28 ppm to 18,500 ppm U (A zone), 1,125.9 ppm U (B zone) and 515 ppm U (C and D zone). The lateral and vertical ore distributions are locally. The mineralization is veins type and is controlled by intersection WNW-ESE, NNE-EEW structure direction, which was vertical to sub vertical fractures. Resources potential within 80-m depth is 3,106.893 tons U metal

  14. Petrochemical Characteristics and Age of Rare Metal (Ta-Nb Mineralization in Precambrian Pegmatites, Komu, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. OLUGBENGA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Precambrian pegmatites of Komu area intrude semi discordantly older rock types, such as biotite gneiss, amphibolites and pelitic schists. The pegmatites occur as near flat lying bodies. This study aims at elucidating the geological setting, petrography, geochemical features and age of mineralization of these pegmatite bodies, with a view to classifying them and knowing their economic potential. The petrographic analysis shows that the pegmatite samples contain mainly quartz (35%, plagioclase (15%, microcline (10% and muscovite (12% with accessories like tourmaline, tantalum, niobium and illmeno-rutiles. Geochemical analysis of the muscovites extracted from pegmatites show that these rocks are enriched in silica (>60% and Al2O3 (>12% and depleted in Fe2O3, MgO and TiO2. Trace element analysis shows that the pegmatites contain rare metals with moderately high Ta, Nb, Sn, Rb, Li and Cs values and depleted in Ti, Ba and Zr. Elemental ratios indicate low ratios of K/Cs, Th/U and K/Rb. Variation plots of Ta/(Ta+Nb versus Mn/ (Mn+Fe show that the pegmatites plot in the complex (beryl subtype field. The Na/K versus Sn, Nb, Rb variation plots show that the pegmatites of Komu area are mineralized and compare favourably with those of other mineralized pegma-tite areas like Egbe and Ijero in southwestern Nigeria. The variation plots of Ta versus K/Cs, and Ta/W versus Cs, also confirm rare metal mineralization of Komu pegmatites, which plot over the mineralized line of Beus and Gordiyenko. The K/Rb versus Rb, Cs and Sn plots indicate low K/Rb ratios indicating moderate differentiation. The Rare Earth Elements (REE show high heavy REE values and lower light REE values with prominent positive Ce anomaly and negative Eu anomaly from normalized chondrite plots. K/Ar dating of the age of mineralization of muscovites extracted from the pegmatite yielded late Pan-African ages between 502.8±13Ma and 514.5±13.2Ma. This period represents the cooling ages of the

  15. Inter-annual trends of heavy metals in marine resources from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inter-annual trends of heavy metals in marine resources from the Nigerian territorial waters. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... Abstract. In an attempt to monitor and assess the pollution status of marine resources in the Nigerian territorial waters, this study was carried out to reveal the levels and ...

  16. Extracted how the quest for mineral wealth is plundering the planet

    CERN Document Server

    Bardi, Ugo

    2014-01-01

    As we dig, drill, and excavate to unearth the planet’s mineral bounty, the resources we exploit from ores, veins, seams, and wells are gradually becoming exhausted. Mineral treasures that took millions, or even billions, of years to form are now being squandered in just centuries—or sometimes just decades. Will there come a time when we actually run out of minerals? Debates already soar over how we are going to obtain energy without oil, coal, and gas. But what about the other mineral losses we face? Without metals, and semiconductors, how are we going to keep our industrial system running? Without mineral fertilizers and fuels, how are we going to produce the food we need? Ugo Bardi delivers a sweeping history of the mining industry, starting with its humble beginning when our early ancestors started digging underground to find the stones they needed for their tools. He traces the links between mineral riches and empires, wars, and civilizations, and shows how mining in its various forms came to be one...

  17. 30 CFR 702.16 - Stockpiling of minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stockpiling of minerals. 702.16 Section 702.16 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL EXEMPTION FOR COAL EXTRACTION INCIDENTAL TO THE EXTRACTION OF OTHER MINERALS § 702.16 Stockpiling of...

  18. PROJECT MANAGEMENT FOR THE STATE-GOVERNED GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION OF MINERAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Lygin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the research. Creating high-efficient and innovation-oriented system of studying the subsoil and the mineral resource base is one of the priority areas of developing the geological sphere. The purpose of the present study is to substantiate the rationale for the adoption of the project management methods for the exploration work. Research methods: method of system analysis, method of comparison and analogies, and method of scientific generalization. The results and their application. This article deals with the content of the main standard legislative documents which determine the strategy and lines of the country’s geological sector development in the nearest future. The article discloses the purposes and their strategic objectives and the content of the state program of the Russian Federation called “Reproduction and use of natural resources”. The resource support of the program and its subroutines is also revealed. The structure of geological industry management in modern conditions is presented. The main activities for restructuring of the geological industry are set out. They include the following points. The transformation of the Federal state unitary enterprises of information and expert profile, the advancement of scientific organizations engaged in scientific and analytical support of performed public functions. These functions are concerned with the geological study of subsoil and reproduction of the mineral resource base, as well as improving its management. The consolidation of specialized geological organizations on the types of exploration and mining, and also the main results of reorganization of the enterprises is taken into account. All of the aforementioned is subordinated to and is conducted by the Federal Agency for subsoil management. The shortcomings of the current system of management of works on the state geological study of the subsoil were revealed at the expense of the Federal budget. The

  19. Mineral resource potential map of the Blanco Mountain and Black Canyon roadless areas, Inyo and Mono counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggles, Michael F.; Blakely, Richard J.; Rains, Richard L.; Schmauch, Steven W.

    1983-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and a survey of mines and prospects, the mineral resource potential for gold, silver, lead, zinc, tungsten, and barite of the Blanco Mountain and Black Canyon Roadless Areas is judged to be low to moderate, except for one local area that has high potential for gold and tungsten resources.

  20. GIS-based identification of areas that have resource potential for critical minerals in six selected groups of deposit types in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Susan M.; Jones, James V.; Hayes, Timothy S.

    2016-11-16

    Alaska has considerable potential for undiscovered mineral resources. This report evaluates potential for undiscovered critical minerals in Alaska. Critical minerals are those for which the United States imports more than half of its total supply and which are largely derived from nations that cannot be considered reliable trading partners. In this report, estimated resource potential and certainty for the state of Alaska are analyzed and mapped for the following six selected mineral deposit groups that may contain one or more critical minerals: (1) rare earth elements-thorium-yttrium-niobium(-uranium-zirconium) [REE-Th-Y-Nb(-U-Zr)] deposits associated with peralkaline to carbonatitic igneous intrusive rocks; (2) placer and paleoplacer gold (Au) deposits that in some places might also produce platinum group elements (PGE), chromium (Cr), tin (Sn), tungsten (W), silver (Ag), or titanium (Ti); (3) platinum group elements(-cobalt-chromium-nickel-titanium-vanadium) [PGE(-Co-Cr-Ni-Ti-V)] deposits associated with mafic to ultramafic intrusive rocks; (4) carbonate-hosted copper(-cobalt-silver-germanium-gallium) [Cu(-Co-Ag-Ge-Ga)] deposits; (5) sandstone-hosted uranium(-vanadium-copper) [U(-V-Cu)] deposits; and (6) tin-tungsten-molybdenum(-tantalum-indium-fluorspar) [Sn-W-Mo(-Ta-In-fluorspar)] deposits associated with specialized granites.This study used a data-driven, geographic information system (GIS)-implemented method to identify areas that have mineral resource potential in Alaska. This method systematically and simultaneously analyzes geoscience data from multiple geospatially referenced datasets and uses individual subwatersheds (12-digit hydrologic units) as the spatial unit of classification. The final map output uses a red, yellow, green, and gray color scheme to portray estimated relative potential (High, Medium, Low, Unknown) for each of the six groups of mineral deposit types, and it indicates the relative certainty (High, Medium, Low) of that estimate for

  1. Remediation of biochar on heavy metal polluted soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuguang; Xu, Yan; Norbu, Namkha; Wang, Zhan

    2018-01-01

    Unreasonable mining and smelting of mineral resources, solid waste disposal, sewage irrigation, utilization of pesticides and fertilizers would result in a large number of heavy metal pollutants into the water and soil environment, causing serious damage to public health and ecological safety. In recent years, a majority of scholars tried to use biochar to absorb heavy metal pollutants, which has some advantages of extensive raw material sources, low-cost and high environmental stability. This paper reviewed the definition, properties of biochar, the mechanism of heavy metal sorption by biochar and some related problems and prospects, to provide some technical support for the application of biochar into heavy metal polluted soils.

  2. Porphyry copper assessment of Southeast Asia and Melanesia: Chapter D in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Ludington, Steve; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Setiabudi, Bambang Tjahjono; Sukserm, Wudhikarn; Sunuhadi, Dwi Nugroho; Wah, Alexander Yan Sze; Zientek, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with member countries of the Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) on an assessment of the porphyry copper resources of Southeast Asia and Melanesia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The region hosts world-class porphyry copper deposits and underexplored areas that are likely to contain undiscovered deposits. Examples of known porphyry copper deposits include Batu Hijau and Grasberg in Indonesia; Panguna, Frieda River, and Ok Tedi in Papua New Guinea; and Namosi in Fiji.

  3. Investor's and procurement guide South Africa. Pt. 1. Heavy minerals, rare earth elements, antimony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graupner, Torsten; Schwarz-Schampera, Ulrich [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Berlin (Germany); Hammond, Napoleon Q.; Opperman, Rehan; Long' a Tongu, Elisa; Kenan, Abdul O.; Nondula, Unathi; Tsanwani, Matamba [Council for Geoscience (CGS), Pretoria (South Africa). Dept. of Mineral Resources Development; Liedke, Maren; Marbler, Herwig [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Berlin (Germany). Deutsche Rohstoffagentur (DERA)

    2014-03-15

    This is the first part of the ''Investor's and Procurement Guide South Africa'', a handbook for investing and doing business in South Africa's mineral industry. It is anticipated that this publication will aid potential investors into considering South Africa as an investment destination, not only for raw materials, but also for related industries. This manual supplements the many publications available on the economic geology and mineral wealth in South Africa and has been designed to guide prospective and current investors, suppliers and mine equipment exporters through the process of doing business in Africa's biggest and dynamic economy. As well as detailing the mineral raw materials heavy minerals, rare-earth metals and antimony, the handbook provides a general introduction to South Africa and its infrastructure, the economical, political and judicial frame of the South African mining industry and an overview of the economic geology. South Africa has a long and complex geological history which dates back in excess of 3.6 billion years. The country has a vast mineral wealth, undoubtedly due to the fact that a significant proportion of the Archaean and younger rocks have been preserved. The mining of the enormous Witwatersrand gold deposits, commencing in 1886, has led to the establishment of South Africa's well-developed infrastructure and to the sustained growth of an industrial and service sector in the country. With the world's largest resources of PGMs, gold, chromite, vanadium and manganese and significant resources of iron, coal and numerous other minerals and metals, the minerals industry will continue to play a pivotal role in the growth of South Africa's economy in the foreseeable future. South Africa is one of the top destinations in Africa for foreign direct investments. South African headquartered companies have been major investors into foreign direct investments on the African continent in the past

  4. Inter-annual trends of heavy metals in marine resources from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    In an attempt to monitor and assess the pollution status of marine resources in the Nigerian territorial waters, this study was carried out to reveal the levels and inter-annual trend of heavy metals in marine resources from the Lagos lagoon marine ecosystem. Studies were carried out annually in the month of. July between ...

  5. Mapping Potential Areas For Gold And Base Metals Mineralization In Southeastern Desert, Egypt: An Approach By Using Remote Sensing And GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElFouly, A.; Salem, H.

    2003-01-01

    Integration of Landsat-Thematic Mapper (TM), aero magnetic data, structural geology along with the known mineralization occurrences in the area are mainly the factors used to recognize favorable sites for structurally controlled mineralization at the northern part of the southeastern Desert of Egypt. Two knowledge-driven models were constructed based on a conceptual gold exploration model. The Density of Lineament Intersection (DLI) results from this study along with Dempster-Shafer (D-S) Belief approach show good results in delineating favorable mineralization areas. The basic assignment probability maps for the heat source, strong magnetism, hydrothermal alteration, geologic structure, and known mineralization occurrences in the area are the main D-S Belief approach recognition criteria component used for mineral exploration in the study area. The DLI method is maximizing the use of Landsat remote sensing data that could be used efficiently in the exploration for structurally controlled hydrothermal related mineralization. The DLI method results show higher resolution and accurate results for gold and base metals exploration. The high favorability areas by using the DLI method is 2196 Km 2 which are concise area than the D-S Belief approach for about 3976.5 Km 2 . These results are useful to be a strong base for planning accurate exploration program. The potential favorability maps of gold and base metals ore deposits from the northern part of the South Eastern Desert predicted the known areas of mineralization as well as identified high potential areas not known before with mineralization for future exploration

  6. Afghanistans Oil, Gas, and Minerals Industries: $488 Million in U.S. Efforts Show Limited Progress Overall, and Challenges Prevent Further Investment and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    26 SIGAR 16-11-AR/Afghanistan’s Extractive Industries Page vi ABBREVIATIONS AGS Afghanistan Geological Survey APA ...home to a variety of geological formations with an abundance of minerals, precious metals, gemstones, and hydrocarbons, estimated by TFBSO to be worth...mineral resources. The MoMP’s Afghan Petroleum Authority ( APA ) has exclusive responsibility for establishing hydrocarbon policy and regulating the

  7. Metal recycling - a renewable resource in Gulf Cooperative Countries region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, M.E. [Bahrain Univ. (Bahrain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-12-01

    The exhaustion of natural resources and growing environmental awareness highlighted the necessity of metal recycling all over the world. The production/consumption activities in the GCC region do generate annually a huge amount of valuable ferrous and nonferrous metal scrap. This paper deals with the benefits of metal recycling to the GCC region in lights of energetic, environmental and economic points of view. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die abnehmenden Vorraete von Primaermetallen sowie das zunehmende Umweltbewusstsein machen das Metall-Recycling auf der ganzen Welt notwendig. Die Produktions- und Verbrauchsaktivitaeten in der GCC-Region erzeugen jaehrlich riesige Mengen von wertvollem eisen- und nicht eisenhaltigen Schrott. Dieser Beitrag befasst sich mit dem Energie-Verbrauch, dem Umweltschutz und der Wirtschaft des Recycling und stellt dessen Vorteile fuer die GCC-Region vor. (orig.)

  8. Oceans: Geochemistry and mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joao, H.M.; Paropkari, A.L.

    , Indian became the first country to have been allocated exclusive rights of exploration in the pioneer area in the Central Indian Ocean Basin. Presently world wide some of the near-shore deposits are being exploited. However, the mining for other mineral...

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF USE, DEVELOPMENT AND DISPOSAL OF MINERAL WOOL IN THE CONTEXT OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES POLLUTION BY WASTE RETARDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Nowak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study presents the environmental aspects of the use, management and disposal of mineral wool. Fiber structure makes that wool products have many unique properties enabling them to be versatile. With all the advantages of mineral wool is one very significant drawback - does not decompose. From the point of view of slowing (retardation transformation of environmental resources, the introduction of mineral wool to crops under glass, in a very much reduced use of peatlands, which for reasons of natural resources are extremely important. On the other hand, problems of rational use of mineral wool already postconsumer caused among others formation of "wild dumps" and thus transforming the landscape, and, due to their characteristics (respirable fibers, the risk to health. Manufacture of asbestiform can cause ecological consequences within almost all elements of the environment. Therefore, the overall assessment of the impact in this case, mineral wool on the environment would need to be so. "Life cycle assessment" - called the method of LCA (Life Cycle Assessmentwhich is commonly called the "cradle to grave" - that is, from extraction of raw materials, through processing, exploitation, to the storage of waste. Therefore, the responsibility for the redevelopment of the post-production of mineral wool should lie with the producer of wool. These issues are the subject of discussion in this study.

  10. Geology and mineral resources of central Antioquia Department (Zone IIA), Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.B.; Alvarez A., Jairo; Rico H., Hector

    1973-01-01

    This report summarizes the geology of an area of some 6000 square kilometers in the northern part of the Central Cordillera of the Colombian Andes. The area, in north-central Department of Antioquia, was mapped between 1964 and 1968 as part of the Inventario Minero Nacional (IMN) project. Mineral resources are summarized within a larger area, designated as subzone ILK of IMN Zone If, which comprises almost 22,000 sq. kin, including the area mapped geologically by IMN and additional areas mapped by other agencies. The oldest formation is a micaceous paragneiss of early Paleozoic or possibly late Precambrian age. A thick geosynclinal sedimentary series accumulated during the Paleozoic Era and became regionally metamorphosed to greenschist (locally amphibolite) facies during the Permian or early Triassic; these schists and gneisses are designated collectively as the Valdivia Group. The Permian(?) orogenic episode included intrusion of concordant syntectonic plutons, mostly of tonalitic composition. Rocks of unequivocal Triassic or Jurassic age are not recognized. The Cretaceous is well represented by both igneous and sedimentary assemblages. Eugeosynclinal alpine ophiolites comprising submarine basalt flows and numerous intrusions of gabbro and serpentinite are prominent in the Lower Cretaceous, together with flysch composed of marine shale and lesser sandstone and conglomerate. The Upper Cretaceous is represented along the west border of the mapped area by submarine basalt flows and pyroclastic rocks, locally Interbedded with fine-grained clastic sedimentary beds, and lenses of dark laminated chert, at least part of which is radiolarian. The Late Cretaceous was marked by an orogenic event that profoundly folded and faulted all rocks and in the Central Cordillera caused low-grade metamorphism, the overprint of which is hardly observable in pre-Cretaceous rocks elsewhere. The Late Cretaceous orogeny culminated with discordant intrusion of the epizonal tonalitic

  11. Porphyry copper assessment of western Central Asia: Chapter N in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Mars, John L.; Denning, Paul; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drew, Lawrence J.; with contributions from Alexeiev, Dmitriy; Seltmann, Reimar; Herrington, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an assessment of resources associated with porphyry copper deposits in the western Central Asia countries of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Tajikistan and the southern Urals of Kazakhstan and Russia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits; (2) compile a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) where data permit, estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in those undiscovered deposits.

  12. 30 CFR 256.80 - Leases of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leases of other minerals. 256.80 Section 256.80 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Section 6 Leases § 256.80 Leases of other minerals. The...

  13. Analysis of development achievement of overseas resources and study of plans of system improvement (bituminous coal, general mineral resources)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J N [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    Development policy of overseas resources of Korea should be carried out as a part of long-term resources security policy that can prepare for the stable supply and demand of needed resources under the proper economic size and industrial structure. This study tried to search for the ways to promote overseas development of bituminous coal and, general mineral resources, and support them more effectively per field. For this, development achievements so far, domestic and foreign pending issues, and operation status of the support system are studied, analyzed, and the improvement plans are drafted per field. Financial support for overseas resources development should be more expanded than the present in the future. For this, the current collateral system centered on real right should be improved and financial support centered on the credit of enterprise should be reinforced. Besides, in the related tax support system, related tax laws and systems should be improved in order to alleviate the tax burden of business operators so that they can carry out the overseas resources development business with more advantageous conditions through the additive introduction of current deduction system of indirect payment tax. Since payback period of overseas resources development business tends to become long-term, it should be continuously carried out based on future-oriented development investment plan and will of more than twenty (20) years rather than on temporary development support plan based on short-term market trend. 25 refs., 73 tabs.

  14. Utilization of mining and mineral wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Woong; Choi, Young Yoon; Kim, Byung Gyu; Park, Je Shin [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Up to now, it is estimated that more than 50 million tons of mineral wastes have been generated mining industries and deposited on the land in Korea. Much of cultivated land and hilly areas have been occupied by this wastes, which cause pollution of the environment. Utilization of the mineral wastes is preferable to stabilization because full use would both eliminate the waste and broaden the mineral resource base. Therefore, the development of utilization techniques of mineral wastes is very important not only for improving the environment but also for resource conservation. In countries with high population and poor natural resources like Korea, the utilization of these wastes is essential to decrease the environmental problem and the secure the resources and the study on this field play a important part. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop the utilization techniques of the mineral wastes. In first year's research, the contents and scope of this study are 1) Present condition and Field Survey on the mineral wastes with respect of their utilization, 2) Reviews of Current effects and research to utilize mineral wastes, 3) Characterization of mineral wastes and environmental test, 4) Evaluation and study on the utilization. (author). 67 refs., 25 tabs., 54 figs.

  15. Utilization of mining and mineral wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Woong; Choi, Young Yoon; Kim, Byung Gyu; Park, Je Shin [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Up to now, it is estimated that more than 50 million tons of mineral wastes have been generated mining industries and deposited on the land in Korea. Much of cultivated land and hilly areas have been occupied by this wastes, which cause pollution of the environment. Utilization of the mineral wastes is preferable to stabilization because full use would both eliminate the waste and broaden the mineral resource base. Therefore, the development of utilization techniques of mineral wastes is very important not only for improving the environment but also for resource conservation. In countries with high population and poor natural resources like Korea, the utilization of these wastes is essential to decrease the environmental problem and the secure the resources and the study on this field play a important part. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop the utilization techniques of the mineral wastes. In first year's research, the contents and scope of this study are 1) Present condition and Field Survey on the mineral wastes with respect of their utilization, 2) Reviews of Current effects and research to utilize mineral wastes, 3) Characterization of mineral wastes and environmental test, 4) Evaluation and study on the utilization. (author). 67 refs., 25 tabs., 54 figs.

  16. Earth mineral resource of the month: asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the characteristics and feature of asbestos. According to the author, asbestos is a generic name for six needle-shaped minerals that possess high tensile strengths, flexibility, and resistance to chemical and thermal degradation. These minerals are actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, chrysolite, crocilodite and tremolite. Asbestos is used for strengthening concrete pipe, plastic components, and gypsum plasters.

  17. The mineralization and mechanism of the endogenetic mineral deposit in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yonghong

    2010-01-01

    In the process of mineralization, due to the difference in rank, scale and order of structures orebody, mine colomn or rich ore bag are often produced in the specific structural parts. Obviously, it is controlled by favourite structure. The important and direct control of the structure to metal endogenetic mineralization evolution are representative on the affect of pulse action of structure to the multi-stage of mineralization evolution. According to the formation environment of the mineralization, it can be classified as collision orogeny mineralization, release(extension)mineralization, slide draw-division basin mineralization and shear zone extension mineralization. Throng the discuss of endogenetic deposit in the geological evolution, structure and formation machenism, the metallogenic model was preliminary established,and the criteria for delineating favourable metallogenic area was identified. (authors)

  18. GIS-based identification of areas with mineral resource potential for six selected deposit groups, Bureau of Land Management Central Yukon Planning Area, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James V.; Karl, Susan M.; Labay, Keith A.; Shew, Nora B.; Granitto, Matthew; Hayes, Timothy S.; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Todd, Erin; Wang, Bronwen; Werdon, Melanie B.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    This study, covering the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Central Yukon Planning Area (CYPA), Alaska, was prepared to aid BLM mineral resource management planning. Estimated mineral resource potential and certainty are mapped for six selected mineral deposit groups: (1) rare earth element (REE) deposits associated with peralkaline to carbonatitic intrusive igneous rocks, (2) placer and paleoplacer gold, (3) platinum group element (PGE) deposits associated with mafic and ultramafic intrusive igneous rocks, (4) carbonate-hosted copper deposits, (5) sandstone uranium deposits, and (6) tin-tungsten-molybdenum-fluorspar deposits associated with specialized granites. These six deposit groups include most of the strategic and critical elements of greatest interest in current exploration.

  19. Sustainable governance of scarce metals: The case of lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior, Timothy; Wäger, Patrick A.; Stamp, Anna; Widmer, Rolf; Giurco, Damien

    2013-01-01

    Minerals and metals are finite resources, and recent evidence suggests that for many, primary production is becoming more difficult and more expensive. Yet these resources are fundamentally important for society—they support many critical services like infrastructure, telecommunications and energy generation. A continued reliance on minerals and metals as service providers in modern society requires dedicated and concerted governance in relation to production, use, reuse and recycling. Lithium provides a good example to explore possible sustainable governance strategies. Lithium is a geochemically scarce metal (being found in a wide range of natural systems, but in low concentrations that are difficult to extract), yet recent studies suggest increasing future demand, particularly to supply the lithium in lithium-ion batteries, which are used in a wide variety of modern personal and commercial technologies. This paper explores interventions for sustainable governance and handling of lithium for two different supply and demand contexts: Australia as a net lithium producer and Switzerland as a net lithium consumer. It focuses particularly on possible nation-specific issues for sustainable governance in these two countries' contexts, and links these to the global lithium supply chain and demand scenarios. The article concludes that innovative business models, like ‘servicizing’ the lithium value chain, would hold sustainable governance advantages for both producer and consumer countries. - Highlights: • Lithium is a geochemically scare metal, but demand is forecast to increase in future • We explore sustainable lithium governance implications for Australia and Switzerland • One governance mechanism is the ‘servicization’ of the lithium value chain • We explore one actual, and two hypothetical lithium service business models • ‘Servicizing’ a commodity would require fundamental innovations in minerals policy

  20. Bio-Reclamation of Strategic and Energy Critical Metals from Secondary Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Ilyas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Metals with an average crustal abundance of <0.01 ppm, which are high in supply shortage due to soaring demand, can, under the excessive environmental risk and <1% recycling rate of their production, be termed as ‘critical’ in a limited geo-boundary. A global trend to the green energy and low carbon technologies with geopolitical scenario is challenging for the sustainable reclamation of these metals from secondary resources. Among the available processes, bio-reclamation can be a sustainable technique for extracting and concentrating these metals. Therefore, in the present paper, the potential reclamation of critical metals (including rare earth elements, precious metals, and a common nuclear fuel element, uranium via their interaction with microbe/s has been reviewed.

  1. Atmospherically deposited trace metals from bulk mineral concentrate port operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark Patrick

    2015-05-15

    Although metal exposures in the environment have declined over the last two decades, certain activities and locations still present a risk of harm to human health. This study examines environmental dust metal and metalloid hazards (arsenic, cadmium, lead and nickel) associated with bulk mineral transport, loading and unloading port operations in public locations and children's playgrounds in the inner city of Townsville, northern Queensland. The mean increase in lead on post-play hand wipes (965 μg/m(2)/day) across all sites was more than 10-times the mean pre-play loadings (95 μg/m(2)/day). Maximum loading values after a 10-minute play period were 3012 μg/m(2), more than seven times the goal of 400 μg/m(2) used by the Government of Western Australia (2011). Maximum daily nickel post-play hand loadings (404 μg/m(2)) were more than 26 times above the German Federal Immission Control Act 2002 annual benchmark of 15 μg/m(2)/day. Repeat sampling over the 5-day study period showed that hands and surfaces were re-contaminated daily from the deposition of metal-rich atmospheric dusts. Lead isotopic composition analysis of dust wipes ((208)Pb/(207)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb) showed that surface dust lead was similar to Mount Isa type ores, which are exported through the Port of Townsville. While dust metal contaminant loadings are lower than other mining and smelting towns in Australia, they exceeded national and international benchmarks for environmental quality. The lessons from this study are clear - even where operations are considered acceptable by managing authorities, targeted assessment and monitoring can be used to evaluate whether current management practices are truly best practice. Reassessment can identify opportunities for improvement and maximum environmental and human health protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Novel Biotechnological Approaches for the Recovery of Metals from Primary and Secondary Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Pollmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have developed various mechanisms to deal with metals, thus providing numerous tools that can be used in biohydrometallurgical processes. “Biomining” processes—including bioleaching and biooxidation processes—facilitate the degradation of minerals, accompanied by a release of metals. These processes are especially attractive for low-grade ores and are used on an industrial scale mainly for sulfidic ores. In biosorption processes, biomass or certain biomolecules are used to bind and concentrate selected ions or other molecules from aqueous solutions. Biosorptive materials can be an environmentally friendly and efficient alternative to conventional materials, such as ion exchange resins. Other interesting mechanisms are bioaccumulation, bioflotation, bioprecipitation, and biomineralisation. Although these processes are well-known and have been studied in detail during the last decades, the recent strong progress of biotechnologies (e.g., genetic engineering and molecule design, as well as their combination with novel developments in material sciences (e.g., nanotechnologies facilitate new strategies for the application of biotechnologies in mineral processing. The article gives a summary of current activities in this field that are being performed in our group.

  3. The key numbers of the mineral raw materials; Les chiffres cles des matieres premieres minerales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandil, C. [Directeur General de l`Energie et des Matieres Premieres, France (France)]|[Ministere de l`Industrie, des Postes et Telecommunications et du Commerce Exterieur, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    Mineral raw materials come from fossil reserves or ores resulting from the geologic and climatic history of the Earth. The access to economic development for 80% of the worldwide population and the high rate of demographic growth (probably 8 billions of inhabitants in 2025) are important factors that can greatly multiply the worldwide consumption of ores. In parallel, environmental concerns and the increasing need for a better equilibrium between wildlife preservation and the supply of economic needs, lead to a more reasonable and mastered use of natural resources. The aim of this book is to shade light and give global elements of thoughts on mineral resources, and for the main of those (about 30 metals and mineral substances), to review the most useful data and references about their production and consumption. For each question, chapters are devoted to the situation of France in its worldwide context. One chapter concerns the uranium ores (reserves, production, prices evolution, consumption, economic flux and companies involved). (J.S.).

  4. Stepwise effects of the BCR sequential chemical extraction procedure on dissolution and metal release from common ferromagnesian clay minerals: A combined solution chemistry and X-ray powder diffraction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, P.C. [Geology Department, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States)], E-mail: pryan@middlebury.edu; Hillier, S. [Macaulay Institute, Aberdeen, AB15 8QH UK (United Kingdom); Wall, A.J. [Department of Geosciences, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, 16802 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    Sequential extraction procedures (SEPs) are commonly used to determine speciation of trace metals in soils and sediments. However, the non-selectivity of reagents for targeted phases has remained a lingering concern. Furthermore, potentially reactive phases such as phyllosilicate clay minerals often contain trace metals in structural sites, and their reactivity has not been quantified. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to analyze the behavior of trace metal-bearing clay minerals exposed to the revised BCR 3-step plus aqua regia SEP. Mineral quantification based on stoichiometric analysis and quantitative powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) documents progressive dissolution of chlorite (CCa-2 ripidolite) and two varieties of smectite (SapCa-2 saponite and SWa-1 nontronite) during steps 1-3 of the BCR procedure. In total, 8 ({+-} 1) % of ripidolite, 19 ({+-} 1) % of saponite, and 19 ({+-} 3) % of nontronite (% mineral mass) dissolved during extractions assumed by many researchers to release trace metals from exchange sites, carbonates, hydroxides, sulfides and organic matter. For all three reference clays, release of Ni into solution is correlated with clay dissolution. Hydrolysis of relatively weak Mg-O bonds (362 kJ/mol) during all stages, reduction of Fe(III) during hydroxylamine hydrochloride extraction and oxidation of Fe(II) during hydrogen peroxide extraction are the main reasons for clay mineral dissolution. These findings underscore the need for precise mineral quantification when using SEPs to understand the origin/partitioning of trace metals with solid phases.

  5. Mineral resources of the Desolation Canyon, Turtle Canyon, and Floy Canyon Wilderness Study Areas, Carbon Emery, and Grand counties, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashion, W.B.; Kilburn, J.E.; Barton, H.N.; Kelley, K.D.; Kulik, D.M.; McDonnell, J.R.

    1990-09-01

    This paper reports on the Desolation Canyon, Turtle Canyon, and Floy Canyon Wilderness Study Areas which include 242,000 acres, 33,690 acres, and 23,140 acres. Coal deposits underlie all three study areas. Coal zones in the Blackhawk and Nelsen formations have identified bituminous coal resources of 22 million short tons in the Desolation Canyon Study Area, 6.3 million short tons in the Turtle Canyon Study Area, and 45 million short tons in the Floy Canyon Study Area. In-place inferred oil shale resources are estimated to contain 60 million barrels in the northern part of the Desolation Canyon area. Minor occurrences of uranium have been found in the southeastern part of the Desolation Canyon area and in the western part of the Floy Canyon area. Mineral resource potential for the study areas is estimated to be for coal, high for all areas, for oil and gas, high for the northern tract of the Desolation Canyon area and moderate for all other tracts, for bituminous sandstone, high for the northern part of the Desolation Canyon area, and low for all other tracts, for oil shale, low in all areas, for uranium, moderate for the Floy Canyon area and the southeastern part of the Desolation Canyon area and low for the remainder of the areas, for metals other than uranium, bentonite, zeolites, and geothermal energy, low in all areas, and for coal-bed methane unknown in all three areas

  6. Minerals Yearbook, volume II, Area Reports—Domestic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  7. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  8. Investigating the effectiveness of different forms of mineral resources governance in meeting the objectives of the UK petroleum fiscal regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, Hafez

    2014-01-01

    After 40 years of oil investments, the UK is now a mature oil province. During these 40 years or so, the UK Government has changed the type of governance it uses to manage its petroleum resources. This paper introduces the theoretical background to two models of mineral resource governance: proprietorial and non-proprietorial regimes. It investigates how adoption any of these two models by the UK Government has historically affected the achievement of the objectives of the UK petroleum fiscal regime. The analysis tracks the changes in the governance of the UK petroleum resources using changes in the average petroleum tax rate, and how this last influenced the achievement of the objectives of the UK petroleum Regime. The findings remain significant for their policy implications. The study concludes that the UK Government adopted a proprietorial type of mineral governance during the period 1975–1982, before changing to a non-proprietorial regime in the period 1983–2000. Since 2000 it has begun to move back towards a proprietorial style of governance. The excessive use of one type of these modes of governance leads to the objectives of the UK petroleum fiscal regime being not met. - Highlights: • UK petroleum fiscal regime has historically been unstable, It has shifted between two different types of minerals governance. • Proprietorial and non-proprietorial philosophies of minerals governance have been used exchangeable in the UK. • Excessive use of either type of governance restricts meeting objectives of the UK petroleum fiscal regime. • The UK needs to use a transparent type of minerals governance by using tools from the two governance philosophies

  9. Climate-change-driven deterioration of water quality in a mineralized watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Andrew S; Manning, Andrew H; Verplanck, Philip L; Crouch, Caitlin; McKnight, Diane M; Dunham, Ryan

    2012-09-04

    A unique 30-year streamwater chemistry data set from a mineralized alpine watershed with naturally acidic, metal-rich water displays dissolved concentrations of Zn and other metals of ecological concern increasing by 100-400% (400-2000 μg/L) during low-flow months, when metal concentrations are highest. SO(4) and other major ions show similar increases. A lack of natural or anthropogenic land disturbances in the watershed during the study period suggests that climate change is the underlying cause. Local mean annual and mean summer air temperatures have increased at a rate of 0.2-1.2 °C/decade since the 1980s. Other climatic and hydrologic indices, including stream discharge during low-flow months, do not display statistically significant trends. Consideration of potential specific causal mechanisms driven by rising temperatures suggests that melting of permafrost and falling water tables (from decreased recharge) are probable explanations for the increasing concentrations. The prospect of future widespread increases in dissolved solutes from mineralized watersheds is concerning given likely negative impacts on downstream ecosystems and water resources, and complications created for the establishment of attainable remediation objectives at mine sites.

  10. An Analysis of the Published Mineral Resource Estimates of the Haji-Gak Iron Deposit, Afghanistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutphin, David M.; Renaud, Karine M.; Drew, Lawrence J.

    2011-01-01

    The Haji-Gak iron deposit of eastern Bamyan Province, eastern Afghanistan, was studied extensively and resource calculations were made in the 1960s by Afghan and Russian geologists. Recalculation of the resource estimates verifies the original estimates for categories A (in-place resources known in detail), B (in-place resources known in moderate detail), and C 1 (in-place resources estimated on sparse data), totaling 110.8 Mt, or about 6% of the resources as being supportable for the methods used in the 1960s. C 2 (based on a loose exploration grid with little data) resources are based on one ore grade from one drill hole, and P 2 (prognosis) resources are based on field observations, field measurements, and an ore grade derived from averaging grades from three better sampled ore bodies. C 2 and P 2 resources are 1,659.1 Mt or about 94% of the total resources in the deposit. The vast P 2 resources have not been drilled or sampled to confirm their extent or quality. The purpose of this article is to independently evaluate the resources of the Haji-Gak iron deposit by using the available geologic and mineral resource information including geologic maps and cross sections, sampling data, and the analog-estimating techniques of the 1960s to determine the size and tenor of the deposit.

  11. Outlook 96: Minerals and Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Papers discussing the future of Australia's minerals and energy are presented under the following headings: Australia in the global minerals and energy markets; minerals exploration; steelmaking raw materials; aluminium and alumina; gold; nickel; base metals; titanium minerals; energy for a sustainable future; electricity; electricity in Asia; crude oil; coal trade; natural gas in Australia and uranium. Relevant papers are individually indexed/abstracted. Tabs., figs., refs

  12. Valuable metals - recovery processes, current trends, and recycling strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, Peter; Lorenz, Tom; Martin, Gunther; Brett, Beate; Bertau, Martin [Institut fuer Technische Chemie, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Leipziger Strasse 29, 09599, Freiberg (Germany)

    2017-03-01

    This Review provides an overview of valuable metals, the supply of which has been classified as critical for Europe. Starting with a description of the current state of the art, novel approaches for their recovery from primary resources are presented as well as recycling processes. The focus lies on developments since 2005. Chemistry strategies which are used in metal recovery are summarized on the basis of the individual types of deposit and mineral. In addition, the economic importance as well as utilization of the metals is outlined. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Mineral exploration with ERTS imagery. [Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolais, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    Ten potential target areas for metallic mineral exploration were selected on the basis of a photo-lineament interpretation of the ERTS image 1172-17141 in central Colorado. An evaluation of bias indicated that prior geologic knowledge of the region had little, if any, effect on target selection. In addition, a contoured plot of the frequency of photo-lineament intersections was made to determine what relationships exist between the photo-lineaments and mineral districts. Comparison of this plot with a plot of the mineral districts indicates that areas with a high frequency of intersections commonly coincide with known mineral districts. The results of this experiment suggest that photo-lineaments are fractures or fracture-controlled features, and their distribution may be a guide to metallic mineral deposits in Colorado, and probably other areas as well.

  14. Characteristics and adaptability of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms used for the recovery of metals from minerals and their concentrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawlings Douglas E

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Microorganisms are used in large-scale heap or tank aeration processes for the commercial extraction of a variety of metals from their ores or concentrates. These include copper, cobalt, gold and, in the past, uranium. The metal solubilization processes are considered to be largely chemical with the microorganisms providing the chemicals and the space (exopolysaccharide layer where the mineral dissolution reactions occur. Temperatures at which these processes are carried out can vary from ambient to 80°C and the types of organisms present depends to a large extent on the process temperature used. Irrespective of the operation temperature, biomining microbes have several characteristics in common. One shared characteristic is their ability to produce the ferric iron and sulfuric acid required to degrade the mineral and facilitate metal recovery. Other characteristics are their ability to grow autotrophically, their acid-tolerance and their inherent metal resistance or ability to acquire metal resistance. Although the microorganisms that drive the process have the above properties in common, biomining microbes usually occur in consortia in which cross-feeding may occur such that a combination of microbes including some with heterotrophic tendencies may contribute to the efficiency of the process. The remarkable adaptability of these organisms is assisted by several of the processes being continuous-flow systems that enable the continual selection of microorganisms that are more efficient at mineral degradation. Adaptability is also assisted by the processes being open and non-sterile thereby permitting new organisms to enter. This openness allows for the possibility of new genes that improve cell fitness to be selected from the horizontal gene pool. Characteristics that biomining microorganisms have in common and examples of their remarkable adaptability are described.

  15. U-Pb age for some base-metal sulfide deposits in Ireland: genetic implications for Mississippi Valley-type mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duane, M.J.; Welke, H.J.; Allsopp, H.L.

    1986-01-01

    Evidence is presented that links the timing of vein-type (Cu-Ag(U)) to stratiform Mississippi Valley-type (MVT, Pb-Zn) ore events in Ireland. The rare occurrence of pitchblende, coffinite(?), and brannerite mineralization, which is regarded as a precursor component to the sulfide mineralization in the Gortdrum deposit (Ireland), provides the first direct radiometric dating tool for these carbonate-hosted deposits. The U-Pb (340 +25/-20 Ma) and Pb-Pb (359 +/- 26 Ma) whole-rock ages constrain the uranium and base-metal mineralizing events to the Early Carboniferous. The data support a model according to which MVT and earlier uranium mineralization stages of some major ore bodies resulted from fracturing coincident with large basin-dewatering events. The Pb-Pb and concordia data are consistent with an Early Carboniferous age for the mineralization at Gortdrum and agree closely with a previously published Rb-Sr age of 359 +/- 22 Ma, obtained for Missouri glauconites. Furthermore, other comparative geologic data from Ireland and from North American MVT mineral provinces support a model of Pb-Zn-Cu(U) mobilization on a regional scale that implicates the later closing stages of the proto-Atlantic. 40 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  16. NATURAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.F. Fenster

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the scientific work that was performed to evaluate and assess the occurrence and economic potential of natural resources within the geologic setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The extent of the regional areas of investigation for each commodity differs and those areas are described in more detail in the major subsections of this report. Natural resource assessments have focused on an area defined as the ''conceptual controlled area'' because of the requirements contained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation, 10 CFR Part 60, to define long-term boundaries for potential radionuclide releases. New requirements (proposed 10 CFR Part 63 [Dyer 1999]) have obviated the need for defining such an area. However, for the purposes of this report, the area being discussed, in most cases, is the previously defined ''conceptual controlled area'', now renamed the ''natural resources site study area'' for this report (shown on Figure 1). Resource potential can be difficult to assess because it is dependent upon many factors, including economics (demand, supply, cost), the potential discovery of new uses for resources, or the potential discovery of synthetics to replace natural resource use. The evaluations summarized are based on present-day use and economic potential of the resources. The objective of this report is to summarize the existing reports and information for the Yucca Mountain area on: (1) Metallic mineral and mined energy resources (such as gold, silver, etc., including uranium); (2) Industrial rocks and minerals (such as sand, gravel, building stone, etc.); (3) Hydrocarbons (including oil, natural gas, tar sands, oil shales, and coal); and (4) Geothermal resources. Groundwater is present at the Yucca Mountain site at depths ranging from 500 to 750 m (about 1,600 to 2,500 ft) below the ground surface. Groundwater resources are not discussed in this report, but are planned to be included in the hydrology

  17. Geology and mineral resources of the Florence, Beaufort, Rocky Mount, and Norfolk 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangles. National Uranium Resource Evaluation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, W.B.

    1982-08-01

    This document provides geologic and mineral resources data for previously-issued Savannah River Laboratory hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reports of the Beaufort, Florence, Norfolk, and Rocky Mount 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ National Topographic Map Series quadrangles in the southeastern United States. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program.

  18. Technologies for the exploration of highly mineralized geothermal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.; Ramazanov, A. Sh.; Kasparova, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    The prospects of the integrated processing of the high-parameter geothermal resources of the East Ciscaucasia of artesian basin (ECAB) with the conversion of their heat energy into electric energy at a binary geoPP and the subsequent extraction of solved chemical compounds from thermal waters are evaluated. The most promising areas for the exploration such resources are overviewed. The integrated exploration of hightemperature hydrogeothermal brines is a new trend in geothermal power engineering, which can make it possible to significantly increase the production volume of hydrogeothermal resources and develop the geothermal field at a higher level with the realization of the energy-efficient advanced technologies. The large-scale exploration of brines can solve the regional problems of energy supply and import substitution and fulfill the need of Russia in food and technical salt and rare elements. The necessity of the primary integrated exploration of the oil-field highly mineralized brines of the South Sukhokumskii group of gas-oil wells of Northern Dagestan was shown in view of the exacerbated environmental problems. Currently, the oil-field brines with the radioactive background exceeding the allowable levels are discharged at disposal fields. The technological solutions for their deactivation and integrated exploration are proposed. The realization of the proposed technological solutions provides 300 t of lithium carbonate, 1650 t of caustic magnesite powder, 27300 t of chemically precipitated chalk, 116100 t of food salt, and up to 1.4 mln m3 of desalinated water from oil-field brines yearly. Desalinated water at the output of a geotechnological complex can be used for different economic needs, which is important for the arid North Caucasus region, where the fresh water deficiency is acute, especially in its plain part within the ECAB.

  19. Sustainable governance of scarce metals: The case of lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prior, Timothy, E-mail: tim.prior@sipo.gess.ethz.ch [Center for Security Studies (CSS), ETH Zürich (Switzerland); Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology, Sydney (Australia); Wäger, Patrick A. [Technology and Society Laboratory, Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Stamp, Anna [Technology and Society Laboratory, Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Institute for Environmental Decisions, ETH Zürich (Switzerland); Widmer, Rolf [Technology and Society Laboratory, Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Giurco, Damien [Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology, Sydney (Australia)

    2013-09-01

    Minerals and metals are finite resources, and recent evidence suggests that for many, primary production is becoming more difficult and more expensive. Yet these resources are fundamentally important for society—they support many critical services like infrastructure, telecommunications and energy generation. A continued reliance on minerals and metals as service providers in modern society requires dedicated and concerted governance in relation to production, use, reuse and recycling. Lithium provides a good example to explore possible sustainable governance strategies. Lithium is a geochemically scarce metal (being found in a wide range of natural systems, but in low concentrations that are difficult to extract), yet recent studies suggest increasing future demand, particularly to supply the lithium in lithium-ion batteries, which are used in a wide variety of modern personal and commercial technologies. This paper explores interventions for sustainable governance and handling of lithium for two different supply and demand contexts: Australia as a net lithium producer and Switzerland as a net lithium consumer. It focuses particularly on possible nation-specific issues for sustainable governance in these two countries' contexts, and links these to the global lithium supply chain and demand scenarios. The article concludes that innovative business models, like ‘servicizing’ the lithium value chain, would hold sustainable governance advantages for both producer and consumer countries. - Highlights: • Lithium is a geochemically scare metal, but demand is forecast to increase in future • We explore sustainable lithium governance implications for Australia and Switzerland • One governance mechanism is the ‘servicization’ of the lithium value chain • We explore one actual, and two hypothetical lithium service business models • ‘Servicizing’ a commodity would require fundamental innovations in minerals policy.

  20. Protein-assisted synthesis of double-shelled CaCO3 microcapsules and their mineralization with heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan Qi; Feng, Zhiwei; Xia, Yinyan; Zeng, Hua Chun

    2012-02-13

    Calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) is one of the most abundant and important biominerals in nature. Due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability and nontoxicity, CaCO(3) has been investigated extensively in recent years for various fundamental properties and technological applications. Inspired by basic wall structures of cells, we report a protein-assisted approach to synthesize CaCO(3) into a double-shelled structural configuration. Due to varying reactivities of outer and inner shells, the CaCO(3) microcapsules exhibit different sorption capacities and various resultant structures toward different kinds of heavy metal ions, analogical to biologically controlled mineralization (BCM) processes. Surprisingly, three mineralization modes resembling those found in BCM were found with these bacterium-like "CaCO(3) cells". Our investigation of the cytotoxicity (MTT assay protocol) also indicates that the CaCO(3) microcapsules have almost no cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells, and they might be useful for future application of detoxifying heavy metal ions after further study. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Application of Research on the Metallogenic Background in the Assessment of Mineral Resources Potentiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, D.; Feng, Y.; Liu, J.; Yao, X.; Zhang, Z.; Ye, T.

    2017-12-01

    1. Working BackgroundCurrent Status of Geological Prospecting: Detecting boundaries and bottoms, making ore search nearby; Seeing the stars, not seeing the Moon; Deep prospecting, undesirable results. The reasons of these problems are the regional metallogenic backgroud unclear and the metallogenic backgroud of the exploration regions unknown. Accordingly, Development and Research Center, CGS organized a geological setting research, in detail investigate metallogenic geological features and acquire mineralization information. 2. Technical SchemeCore research content is prediction elements of Metallogenic Structure. Adopt unified technical requirements from top to bottom, and technical route from bottom to top; Divide elements of mineral forecast and characteristics of geological structure into five elements for research and expression; Make full use of geophysical, geochemical and remote sensing inferences for the interpretation of macro information. After eight years the great project was completed. 3. Main AchievementsInnovation of basic maps compilation content of geological background, reinforce of geological structure data base of potentiality valuation. Preparation of geotectonic facies maps in different scales and professions, providing brand-new geologic background for potentiality assessment, promoting Chinese geotectonic research to the new height. Preparation of 3,375 geological structure thematic base maps of detecting working area in 6 kinds of prediction methods, providing base working maps, rock assemblage, structure of the protolith of geologic body / mineralization / ore controlling for mineral prediction of 25 ores. Enrichment and development of geotectonic facies analysis method, establishment of metallogenic background research thoughts and approach system for assessment of national mineral resources potentiality for the first time. 4. Application EffectOrientation——More and better results with less effort. Positioning——Have a definite

  2. The Early Jurassic Bokan Mountain peralkaline granitic complex (southeastern Alaska): geochemistry, petrogenesis and rare-metal mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, Jaroslav; Kontak, Daniel J.; Karl, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    The Early Jurassic (ca. 177 Ma) Bokan Mountain granitic complex, located on southern Prince of Wales Island, southernmost Alaska, cross-cuts Paleozoic igneous and metasedimentary rocks of the Alexander terrane of the North American Cordillera and was emplaced during a rifting event. The complex is a circular body (~3 km in diameter) of peralkaline granitic composition that has a core of arfvedsonite granite surrounded by aegirine granite. All the rock-forming minerals typically record a two-stage growth history and aegirine and arfvedsonite were the last major phases to crystalize from the magma. The Bokan granites and related dikes have SiO2 from 72 to 78 wt. %, high iron (FeO (tot) ~3-4.5 wt. %) and alkali (8-10 wt.%) concentrations with high FeO(tot)/(FeO(tot)+MgO) ratios (typically >0.95) and the molar Al2O3/(Na2O+K2O) ratio Nd values which are indicative of a mantle signature. The parent magma is inferred to be derived from an earlier metasomatized lithospheric mantle by low degrees of partial melting and generated the Bokan granitic melt through extensive fractional crystallization. The Bokan complex hosts significant rare-metal (REE, Y, U, Th, Nb) mineralization that is related to the late-stage crystallization history of the complex which involved the overlap of emplacement of felsic dikes, including pegmatite bodies, and generation of orthomagmatic fluids. The abundances of REE, HFSE, U and Th as well as Pb and Nd isotopic values of the pluton and dikes were modified by orthomagmatic hydrothermal fluids highly enriched in the strongly incompatible trace elements, which also escaped along zones of structural weakness to generate rare-metal mineralization. The latter was deposited in two stages: the first relates to the latest stage of magma emplacement and is associated with felsic dikes that intruded along the faults and shear deformations, whereas the second stage involved ingress of hydrothermal fluids that both remobilized and enriched the initial

  3. A magnetic survey of mineral resources in northeastern Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista Rodriguez, Jose Alberto [Instituto Superior Minero Metalurgico de Moa (Cuba)

    2006-01-15

    Interpretation of the aeromagnetic survey of northeastern Cuba at scale 1 50 000 is presented. Mainly ophiolitic rocks are characterized by a high magnetic response. The aeromagnetic data was reduced to the pole and the horizontal and vertical gradients, as well as the upward continuation were calculated. To define areas of serpentinized ultrabasic rocks at surface and depth, the magnetic field transformations were interpreted. We discuss lateral extension of outcrops, thickness variation of the ophiolitic rocks, basement extension and fault zones. Hydrothermal alterations indicate associated precious metal secondary mineralization. Operations are planned to limit damage to mining by siliceous material in Fe+Ni laterites. [Spanish] Cuba, en la cual afloran fundamentalmente rocas ofioliticas caracterizadas por un alto grado de magnetizacion. Los datos aeromagneticos fueron reducidos al polo y luego se realizaron los calculos de gradientes horizontales y verticales y la continuacion analitica ascendente. A partir de los resultados de estas transformaciones se delimitaron zonas donde predominan las rocas ultrabasicas serpentinizadas tanto en superficie como en profundidad, definiendose la extension lateral de estas rocas por debajo de las rocas que afloran en superficie. Tambien se estimaron las variaciones de los espesores de las rocas ofioliticas, el basamento de las rocas que afloran, la presencia de estructuras disyuntivas, y se proponen nuevas estructuras de este tipo. Por ultimo se delimitan las zonas de alteracion hidrotermal, lo cual posee gran importancia, ya que con las mismas se pueden vincular mineralizaciones de metales preciosos. Ademas, su delimitacion en depositos lateriticos permite orientar los trabajos de explotacion minera, teniendo en cuenta el dano que causa al proceso metalurgico la presencia de material silicio en las lateritas Fe+Ni.

  4. Blackberry wines mineral and heavy metal content determination after dry ashing: multivariate data analysis as a tool for fruit wine quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidžić Klarić, Daniela; Klarić, Ilija; Mornar, Ana; Velić, Darko; Velić, Natalija

    2015-08-01

    This study brings out the data on the content of 21 mineral and heavy metal in 15 blackberry wines made of conventionally and organically grown blackberries. The objective of this study was to classify the blackberry wine samples based on their mineral composition and the applied cultivation method of the starting raw material by using chemometric analysis. The metal content of Croatian blackberry wine samples was determined by AAS after dry ashing. The comparison between an organic and conventional group of investigated blackberry wines showed statistically significant difference in concentrations of Si and Li, where the organic group contained higher concentrations of these compounds. According to multivariate data analysis, the model based on the original metal content data set finally included seven original variables (K, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ba, Cd and Cr) and gave a satisfactory separation of two applied cultivation methods of the starting raw material.

  5. The parasitoids of the asparagus miner (Diptera: Agromyzidae): field parasitism and the influence of food resources on life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, William R; Gibson, Gary A P; Szendrei, Zsofia

    2014-12-01

    The goals of this study were to identify pupal parasitoids of the asparagus miner, Ophiomyia simplex Loew (Diptera: Agromyzidae), and examine the effect of different diets and floral resources on the lifespan of adult asparagus miners and their parasitoids. We also measured the effect of parasitism on stem damage caused by the asparagus miner. The identity and abundance of the parasitoids of the asparagus miner were determined in asparagus fields in Michigan from weekly asparagus miner pupal collections during the 2010-2013 seasons. Twelve species of hymenopterous parasitoids were reared from asparagus miner pupae, including Chorebus rondanii (Giard) (Ichneumonoidea: Braconidae), 10 species in three families of Chalcidoidea, and one species of Bethylidae (Chrysidoidea), that represent new host records for the asparagus miner. C. rondanii and Thinodytes cephalon (Walker) (Pteromalidae) were the most common parasitoids. The effects of different diets and flowers on the lifespan of the pest and parasitoid adults were also evaluated. Buckwheat resulted in the shortest life span for the asparagus miner, whereas Riddell's goldenrod significantly increased its lifespan relative to the control. Parasitoid lifespan was doubled when individuals were fed sugar-rich diets. In the field, parasitoids preferred stems that contained more pupae and damage. The two most commonly reared parasitoids should be considered as targets for future conservation biological control efforts of the asparagus miner.

  6. The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Tonopah 1 by 2 degree Quadrangle, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, David A.; Nash, J.T.; Plouff, Donald; Whitebread, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle in south-central Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The appraisal is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle.

  7. Development of Ceramic Coating on Metal Substrate using Industrial Waste and Ore Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, S. K.; Thiyagarajan, T. K.; Mishra, S. C.

    2017-02-01

    The technological advancement in modern era has a boon for enlightening human life; but also is a bane to produce a huge amount of (industrial) wastes, which is of great concern for utilization and not to create environmental threats viz. polution etc. In the present piece of research work, attempts have been made to utilize fly ash (wastes of thermal power plants) and along with alumina bearing ore i.e. bauxite, for developing plasma spray ceramic coatings on metals. Fly ash and with 10 and 20% bauxite addition is used to deposit plasma spray coatings on a metal substrate. The surface morphology of the coatings deposited at different power levels of plasma spraying investigated through SEM and EDS analysis. The coating thickness is measured. The porosity levels of the coatings are evaluated. The coating hardness isalso measured. This piece of research work will be beneficial for future development and use of industrial waste and ore minerals for high-valued applications.

  8. Microbiological metal extraction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torma, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    Application of biotechnological principles in the mineral processing, especially in hydrometallurgy, has created new opportunities and challenges for these industries. During the 1950's and 60's, the mining wastes and unused complex mineral resources have been successfully treated in bacterial assisted heap and dump leaching processes for copper and uranium. The interest in bio-leaching processes is the consequence of economic advantages associated with these techniques. For example, copper can be produced from mining wastes for about 1/3 to 1/2 of the costs of copper production by the conventional smelting process from high-grade sulfide concentrates. The economic viability of bio leaching technology lead to its world wide acceptance by the extractive industries. During 1970's this technology grew into a more structured discipline called 'bio hydrometallurgy'. Currently, bio leaching techniques are ready to be used, in addition to copper and uranium, for the extraction of cobalt, nickel, zinc, precious metals and for the desulfurization of high-sulfur content pyritic coals. As a developing technology, the microbiological leaching of the less common and rare metals has yet to reach commercial maturity. However, the research in this area is very active. In addition, in a foreseeable future the biotechnological methods may be applied also for the treatment of high-grade ores and mineral concentrates using adapted native and/or genetically engineered microorganisms. (author)

  9. Mineral resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports that to prevent the concentration of control over federal oil and gas resources in a few companies or individuals, Congress has limited the number of acres of oil and gas leases that one party may control in a single state. An exception to this limitation involves lease acreage within the boundaries of development contracts. These contracts permit oil and gas lease operators and pipeline companies to contract with enough lessees to economically justify large-scale drilling operations for the production and transportation of oil and gas, subject to approval by the Secretary of the Interior, who must find that such contracts are in the public interest. Since 1986 Interior has entered into or approved 10 contracts with 12 lease operators for exploration of largely unleased federal lands-ranging from about 180,000 to 3.5 million acres in four western states-and has designated them as developmental contracts. GAO believes that the 10 contracts do not satisfy the legal requirements for development contracts because they are for oil and gas exploration on largely unleased federal lands, rather than for developing existing leases. By designating the 10 contracts as development contracts, Interior has enabled nine of the 12 contract parties to accumulate lease acreage that vastly exceeds the statutory acreage limitation. All nine of the contract parties were major or large independent oil companies. As a result, other parties who wish to participate in developing federal oil and gas resources within the four states may be adversely affected because the parties to Interior's contracts have been able to compete for and obtain lease acreage beyond the statutory acreage limitation. Although Interior believes that the Secretary has the discretion under law to use development contracts in the current manner, in April 1989 it ceased issuing these contracts pending completion of GAO's review

  10. Electrostatic Beneficiation of Lunar Regolith: Applications in In-Situ Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigwell, Steve; Captain, James; Weis, Kyle; Quinn, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Upon returning to the moon, or further a field such as Mars, presents enormous challenges in sustaining life for extended periods of time far beyond the few days the astronauts experienced on the moon during the Apollo missions. A stay on Mars is envisioned to last several months, and it would be cost prohibitive to take all the requirements for such a stay from earth. Therefore, future exploration missions will be required to be self-sufficient and utilize the resources available at the mission site to sustain human occupation. Such an exercise is currently the focus of intense research at NASA under the In-situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) program. As well as oxygen and water necessary for human life, resources for providing building materials for habitats, radiation protection, and landing/launch pads are required. All these materials can be provided by the regolith present on the surface as it contains sufficient minerals and metals oxides to meet the requirements. However, before processing, it would be cost effective if the regolith could be enriched in the mineral(s) of interest. This can be achieved by electrostatic beneficiation in which tribocharged mineral particles are separated out and the feedstock enriched or depleted as required. The results of electrostatic beneficiation of lunar simulants and actual Apollo regolith, in lunar high vacuum are reported in which various degrees of efficient particle separation and mineral enrichment up to a few hundred percent were achieved.

  11. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2009-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2009 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2008 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Because specific information concerning committed inventory was no longer available from the Defense Logistics Agency, National Defense Stockpile Center, that information, which was included in earlier Mineral Commodity Summaries publications, has been deleted from Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009. National reserves and reserve base information for most mineral commodities found in this report, including those for the United States, are derived from a variety of sources. The ideal source of such information would be comprehensive evaluations that apply the same criteria to deposits in different geographic areas and report the results by country. In the absence of such evaluations, national reserves and reserve base estimates compiled by countries for selected mineral commodities are a primary source of national reserves and reserve base information. Lacking national assessment information by governments, sources such as academic articles, company reports, common business practice, presentations by company representatives, and trade journal articles, or a combination of these, serve as the basis for national reserves and reserve base information reported in the mineral commodity sections of this publication. A national estimate may be assembled from the following: historically reported

  12. Geology and Nonfuel Mineral Deposits of Africa and the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Doebrich, Jeff L.; Orris, Greta; Denning, Paul; Kirschbaum, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    A nation's endowment of nonfuel mineral resources, relative to the world's endowment, is a fundamental consideration in decisions related to a nation's economic and environmental well being and security. Knowledge of the worldwide abundance, distribution, and general geologic setting of mineral commodities provides a framework within which a nation can make decisions about economic development of its own resources, and the economic and environmental consequences of those decisions, in a global perspective. The information in this report is part of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) endeavor to evaluate the global endowment of both identified and undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources. The results will delineate areas of the world that are geologically permissive for the occurrence of undiscovered selected nonfuel mineral resources together with estimates of the quantity and quality of the resources. The results will be published as a series of regional reports; this one provides basic data on the identified resources and geologic setting, together with a brief appraisal of the potential for undiscovered mineral resources in Africa and the Middle East. Additional information, such as production statistics, economic factors that affect the mineral industries of the region, and historical information, is available in U.S. Geological Survey publications such as the Minerals Yearbook and the annual Mineral Commodity Summaries (available at http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals).

  13. Sorption Energy Maps of Clay Mineral Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cygan, Randall T.; Kirkpatrick, R. James

    1999-01-01

    A molecular-level understanding of mineral-water interactions is critical for the evaluation and prediction of the sorption properties of clay minerals that may be used in various chemical and radioactive waste disposal methods. Molecular models of metal sorption incorporate empirical energy force fields, based on molecular orbital calculations and spectroscopic data, that account for Coulombic, van der Waals attractive, and short-range repulsive energies. The summation of the non-bonded energy terms at equally-spaced grid points surrounding a mineral substrate provides a three dimensional potential energy grid. The energy map can be used to determine the optimal sorption sites of metal ions on the exposed surfaces of the mineral. By using this approach, we have evaluated the crystallographic and compositional control of metal sorption on the surfaces of kaolinite and illite. Estimates of the relative sorption energy and most stable sorption sites are derived based on a rigid ion approximation

  14. World resources and the development of the earth's surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, A.; Ishihara, S.; Seki, Y.

    1985-01-01

    This text is an examination of economic (or ore) geology, and engineering geology. Using case studies of Japan and continental North America, this work presents a geological and geochemical summary of ore-forming processes along with discussions of basic principles and approaches to modern engineering geology. Emphasizes the relationship between fossil fuel resources and the evolution of the Earth's crust. Contents - WORLD RESOURCES. The Geochemistry of Metallogenesis. The Geochemistry of Fossil Fuel Deposit. Global Evolution and the Formation of Mineral Deposits. The Development of Continents and Island Arcs and the Formation of Mineral Deposits. DEVELOPMENT OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE. Development of the Earth's Surface and Engineering Geology. Engineering Geology Methods. Features of the Ground and Bedrock in Japan. Engineering Geology - A Case Study. Geology and the Environment - Case Studies. INDEX. Principal World-Wide Metal Deposits (inside front cover). Principal World-Wide Coal, Petroleum and Uranium Deposits (inside back cover)

  15. Quartz-pebble-conglomerate gold deposits: Chapter P in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Anderson, Eric D.

    2018-05-17

    Quartz-pebble-conglomerate gold deposits represent the largest repository of gold on Earth, largely due to the deposits of the Witwatersrand Basin, which account for nearly 40 percent of the total gold produced throughout Earth’s history. This deposit type has had a controversial history in regards to genetic models. However, most researchers conclude that they are paleoplacer deposits that have been modified by metamorphism and hydrothermal fluid flow subsequent to initial sedimentation.The deposits are found exclusively within fault-bounded depositional basins. The periphery of these basins commonly consists of granite-greenstone terranes, classic hosts for lode gold that source the detrital material infilling the basin. The gold reefs are typically located along unconformities or, less commonly, at the top of sedimentary beds. Large quartz pebbles and heavy-mineral concentrates are found associated with the gold. Deposits that formed prior to the Great Oxidation Event (circa 2.4 giga-annum [Ga]) contain pyrite, whereas younger deposits contain iron oxides. Uranium minerals and hydrocarbons are also notable features of some deposits.Much of the gold in these types of deposits forms crystalline features that are the product of local remobilization. However, some gold grains preserve textures that are undoubtedly of detrital origin. Other heavy minerals, such as pyrite, contain growth banding that is truncated along broken margins, which indicates that they were transported into place as opposed to forming by in situ growth in a hydrothermal setting.The ore tailings associated with these deposits commonly contain uranium-rich minerals and sulfides. Oxidation of the sulfides releases sulfuric acid and mobilizes various metals into the environment. The neutralizing potential of the tailings is minimal, since carbonate minerals are rare. The continuity of the tabular ore bodies, such as those of the Witwatersrand Basin, has allowed these mines to be the deepest in

  16. Sustainable governance of scarce metals: the case of lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Timothy; Wäger, Patrick A; Stamp, Anna; Widmer, Rolf; Giurco, Damien

    2013-09-01

    Minerals and metals are finite resources, and recent evidence suggests that for many, primary production is becoming more difficult and more expensive. Yet these resources are fundamentally important for society--they support many critical services like infrastructure, telecommunications and energy generation. A continued reliance on minerals and metals as service providers in modern society requires dedicated and concerted governance in relation to production, use, reuse and recycling. Lithium provides a good example to explore possible sustainable governance strategies. Lithium is a geochemically scarce metal (being found in a wide range of natural systems, but in low concentrations that are difficult to extract), yet recent studies suggest increasing future demand, particularly to supply the lithium in lithium-ion batteries, which are used in a wide variety of modern personal and commercial technologies. This paper explores interventions for sustainable governance and handling of lithium for two different supply and demand contexts: Australia as a net lithium producer and Switzerland as a net lithium consumer. It focuses particularly on possible nation-specific issues for sustainable governance in these two countries' contexts, and links these to the global lithium supply chain and demand scenarios. The article concludes that innovative business models, like 'servicizing' the lithium value chain, would hold sustainable governance advantages for both producer and consumer countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Formation of secondary minerals in a lysimeter approach - A mineral-microbe interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäffner, F.; Merten, D.; De Giudici, G.; Beyer, A.; Akob, D. M.; Ricci, P. C.; Küsel, K.; Büchel, G.

    2012-04-01

    Heavy metal contamination of large areas due to uranium mining operations poses a serious long-term environmental problem. In the Ronneburg district (eastern Thuringia, Germany), leaching of low grade uranium bearing ores (uranium content metals, especially Cd, Ni, Co, Cu and Zn due to a residual contamination even after remediation efforts. To reveal the processes of secondary mineral precipitation in the field a laboratory lysimeter approach was set up under in situ-like conditions. Homogenized soil from the field site and pure quartz sand were used as substrates. In general, in situ measurements of redox potentials in the substrates showed highly oxidizing conditions (200-750 mV). Water was supplied to the lysimeter from below via a mariottés bottle containing contaminated groundwater from the field. Evaporation processes were allowed, providing a continuous flow of water. This led to precipitation of epsomite and probably aplowite on the top layer of substrate, similar to what is observed in field investigations. After 4 weeks, the first iron and manganese bearing secondary minerals became visible. Soil water samples were used to monitor the behaviour of metals within the lysimeter. Saturation indices (SI) for different secondary minerals were calculated with PHREEQC. The SI of goethite showed oversaturation with respect to the soil solution. SEM-EDX analyses and IR spectroscopy confirmed the formation of goethite. Geochemical data revealed that goethite formation was mainly dominated by Eh/pH processes and that heavy metals, e.g. Zn and U, could be enriched in this phase. Although Eh/pH data does not support formation of manganese minerals, Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) could be isolated from field soil samples, supporting the fact that microorganisms may influence this natural attenuation process. Laser ablation ICP-MS data reveal accumulation of manganese in MOB biomass on Mn(II)-containing agar plates. Furthermore, it was possible to show the importance

  18. Mineral commodity summaries 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2015 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2014 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses.

  19. 36 CFR 331.17 - Minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minerals. 331.17 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.17 Minerals. All activities in connection with prospecting, exploration, development, mining or other removal or the processing of mineral resources and all uses reasonably incident...

  20. Economical evaluation of mineral reserves. Economicheskaya otsenka minerae'nykh resursov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astakhov, A S

    1981-01-01

    An approach to the evaluation of mineral resources is presented which takes into account a number of interrelated economical, technological and social aspects. The basic pattern of man and environment interaction in the process of mineral resources recovery is analyzed. Various approaches to classification of mineral resources are presented. Problems related to the development of a criterion and a system of factors characteristic for particular aspects of mineral resources management are discussed in detail. A dynamic approach to the economical evaluation of mineral reserves based on the form, magnitude, and the moment of time when the compensation of damage caused by the loss of resources in question becomes necessary, is presented. The influence of typical technical restrictions on the capacity of mining enterprises and the succession of the development of a field is discussed. Dynamic aspects of the evaluation of promising mineral reserves as a limited and nonreproducible natural resource is studied in detail. Actual methods and the state of current studies in the field of the economical evaluation of mineral deposits in the USSR, the CMEA countries and in capitalistic countries are presented.

  1. 30 CFR 48.26 - Experienced miner training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the physical and health hazards of chemicals in the miner's work area, the protective measures a miner... occurred during the miner's absence and that could adversely affect the miner's health or safety. (1) A... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING...

  2. Airborne Geophysical/Geological Mineral Inventory CIP Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    The Airborne-Geophysical/Geological Mineral Inventory project is a special multi-year investment to expand the knowledge base of Alaska's mineral resources and catalyze private-sector mineral development...

  3. Mineral commodity summaries 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2013 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2012 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2013 are welcomed.

  4. Mineral commodity summaries 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2014-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2013 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2014 are welcomed.

  5. Economic drivers of mineral supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lorie A.; Sullivan, Daniel E.; Sznopek, John L.

    2003-01-01

    The debate over the adequacy of future supplies of mineral resources continues in light of the growing use of mineral-based materials in the United States. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quantity of new materials utilized each year has dramatically increased from 161 million tons2 in 1900 to 3.2 billion tons in 2000. Of all the materials used during the 20th century in the United States, more than half were used in the last 25 years. With the Earth?s endowment of natural resources remaining constant, and increased demand for resources, economic theory states that as depletion approaches, prices rise. This study shows that many economic drivers (conditions that create an economic incentive for producers to act in a particular way) such as the impact of globalization, technological improvements, productivity increases, and efficient materials usage are at work simultaneously to impact minerals markets and supply. As a result of these economic drivers, the historical price trend of mineral prices3 in constant dollars has declined as demand has risen. When price is measured by the cost in human effort, the price trend also has been almost steadily downward. Although the United States economy continues its increasing mineral consumption trend, the supply of minerals has been able to keep pace. This study shows that in general supply has grown faster than demand, causing a declining trend in mineral prices.

  6. Intermediate sulfidation type base metal mineralization at Aliabad-Khanchy, Tarom-Hashtjin metallogenic belt, NW Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouhestani, Hossein; Mokhtari, Mir Ali Asghar; Chang, Zhaoshan; Johnson, Craig A.

    2018-01-01

    The Aliabad-Khanchy epithermal base metal deposit is located in the Tarom-Hashtjin metallogenic belt (THMB) of northwest Iran. The mineralization occurs as Cu-bearing brecciated quartz veins hosted by Eocene volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Karaj Formation. Ore formation can be divided into five stages, with most ore minerals, such as pyrite and chalcopyrite being formed in the early stages. The main wall-rock alteration is silicification, and chlorite, argillic and propylitic alteration. Microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusion assemblages show that the ore-forming fluids have eutectic temperatures between −30 and −52 °C, trapping temperatures of 150–290 °C, and salinities of 6.6–12.4 wt% NaCl equiv. These data demonstrate that the ore-forming fluids were medium- to high-temperature, medium- to low-salinity, and low-density H2O–NaCl–CaCl2 fluids. Calculated δ18O values indicate that ore-forming hydrothermal fluids had δ18Owater ranging from +3.6‰ to +0.8‰, confirming that the ore–fluid system evolved from dominantly magmatic to dominantly meteoric. The calculated 34SH2S values range from −8.1‰ to −5.0‰, consistent with derivation of the sulfur from either magma or possibly from local volcanic wall-rock. Combined, the fluid inclusion and stable isotope data indicate that the Aliabad-Khanchy deposit formed from magmatic-hydrothermal fluids. After rising to a depth of between 790 and 500 m, the fluid boiled and subsequent hydraulic fracturing may have led to inflow and/or mixing of early magmatic fluids with circulating groundwater causing deposition of base metals due to dilution and/or cooling. The Aliabad-Khanchy deposit is interpreted as an intermediate-sulfidation style of epithermal mineralization. Our data suggest that the mineralization at Aliabad-Khanchy and other epithermal deposits of the THMB formed by hydrothermal activity related to shallow late Eocene magmatism. The altered Eocene volcanic and

  7. Raw Materials Synthesis from Heavy Metal Industry Effluents with Bioremediation and Phytomining: A Biomimetic Resource Management Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmah B. Karman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal wastewater poses a threat to human life and causes significant environmental problems. Bioremediation provides a sustainable waste management technique that uses organisms to remove heavy metals from contaminated water through a variety of different processes. Biosorption involves the use of biomass, such as plant extracts and microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, algae, yeast, and represents a low-cost and environmentally friendly method of bioremediation and resource management. Biosorption-based biosynthesis is proposed as a means of removing heavy metals from wastewaters and soils as it aids the development of heavy metal nanoparticles that may have an application within the technology industry. Phytomining provides a further green method of managing the metal content of wastewater. These approaches represent a viable means of removing toxic chemicals from the effluent produced during the process of manufacturing, and the bioremediation process, furthermore, has the potential to save metal resources from depletion. Biomimetic resource management comprises bioremediation, biosorption, biosynthesis, phytomining, and further methods that provide innovative ways of interpreting waste and pollutants as raw materials for research and industry, inspired by materials, structures, and processes in living nature.

  8. Protection of mineral deposits - a way towards difficult compromises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwanek-Bąk, Barbara; Nieć, Marek

    2014-05-01

    Mineral deposits are non-renewable natural resources. Their protection and reasonable exploitation are crucial requests resulting from sustainable development principles. Those are also fundamental issues in frame of the intergeneration justice and fairness concept. Protection of mineral resources should be based on interrelated activities: maintaining the possibility of economic use of the identified mineral resources, reduced consumption of mineral resources and ensuring satisfactory results of new prospecting and development of innovative technologies for the mineral resources base. The main problem with guarantee to the use of mineral resources is the accessibility to sites with documented deposits and prospective areas of their occurrence. Often, this contradicts with the interests of residents, planners and needs of the biotic environment protection, thus is often a source of conflicts. Legislative regulations are necessary to mitigate such arguable matters. SWOT analysis carried out with respect to introducing such legal regulations serves to identify the sources of conflicts and difficulties associated with their solution. Consensus reaching is a difficult task, so all decision makers are required to show their mutual understanding and willingness to achieve the goals taking into consideration all benefits for the population (including future generations). Foundations for finding the middle ground are: making the communities aware of their demands on minerals and of indispensable conditions for satisfying these demands; providing complete and accessible information; factual, non-emotional negotiations between decision makers and the public.

  9. Modeling of Groundwater Resources Heavy Metals Concentration Using Soft Computing Methods: Application of Different Types of Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Alizamir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, groundwater resources play a vital role as a source of drinking water in arid and semiarid regions and forecasting of pollutants content in these resources is very important. Therefore, this study aimed to compare two soft computing methods for modeling Cd, Pb and Zn concentration in groundwater resources of Asadabad Plain, Western Iran. The relative accuracy of several soft computing models, namely multi-layer perceptron (MLP and radial basis function (RBF for forecasting of heavy metals concentration have been investigated. In addition, Levenberg-Marquardt, gradient descent and conjugate gradient training algorithms were utilized for the MLP models. The ANN models for this study were developed using MATLAB R 2014 Software program. The MLP performs better than the other models for heavy metals concentration estimation. The simulation results revealed that MLP model was able to model heavy metals concentration in groundwater resources favorably. It generally is effectively utilized in environmental applications and in the water quality estimations. In addition, out of three algorithms, Levenberg-Marquardt was better than the others were. This study proposed soft computing modeling techniques for the prediction and estimation of heavy metals concentration in groundwater resources of Asadabad Plain. Based on collected data from the plain, MLP and RBF models were developed for each heavy metal. MLP can be utilized effectively in applications of prediction of heavy metals concentration in groundwater resources of Asadabad Plain.

  10. NATURAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.F. Fenster

    2000-12-11

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the scientific work that was performed to evaluate and assess the occurrence and economic potential of natural resources within the geologic setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The extent of the regional areas of investigation for each commodity differs and those areas are described in more detail in the major subsections of this report. Natural resource assessments have focused on an area defined as the ''conceptual controlled area'' because of the requirements contained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation, 10 CFR Part 60, to define long-term boundaries for potential radionuclide releases. New requirements (proposed 10 CFR Part 63 [Dyer 1999]) have obviated the need for defining such an area. However, for the purposes of this report, the area being discussed, in most cases, is the previously defined ''conceptual controlled area'', now renamed the ''natural resources site study area'' for this report (shown on Figure 1). Resource potential can be difficult to assess because it is dependent upon many factors, including economics (demand, supply, cost), the potential discovery of new uses for resources, or the potential discovery of synthetics to replace natural resource use. The evaluations summarized are based on present-day use and economic potential of the resources. The objective of this report is to summarize the existing reports and information for the Yucca Mountain area on: (1) Metallic mineral and mined energy resources (such as gold, silver, etc., including uranium); (2) Industrial rocks and minerals (such as sand, gravel, building stone, etc.); (3) Hydrocarbons (including oil, natural gas, tar sands, oil shales, and coal); and (4) Geothermal resources. Groundwater is present at the Yucca Mountain site at depths ranging from 500 to 750 m (about 1,600 to 2,500 ft) below the ground surface. Groundwater resources are not discussed in this

  11. Recovery of drinking water and valuable minerals from acid mine drainage using an integration of magnesite, lime, soda ash, CO(sub)2 and reverse osmosis treatment processes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masindi, Vhahangwele

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available that drinking water, metals, gypsum, hydrated lime/limestone were recovered from the treatment process as valuable resources. This was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). Morphological properties of initial and recovered minerals...

  12. Fumarolic minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic Zunic, Tonci; Garavelli, Anna; Jakobsson, Sveinn Peter

    2016-01-01

    The fumarolic mineralogy of the Icelandic active volcanoes, the Tyrrhenian volcanic belt (Italy) and the Aegean active arc (Greece) is investigated, and literature data surveyed in order to define the characteristics of the European fumarolic systems. They show broad diversity of mineral...... associations, with Vesuvius and Vulcano being also among the world localities richest in mineral species. Volcanic systems, which show recession over a longer period, show fumarolic development from the hightemperature alkaline halide/sulphate, calcic sulphate or sulphidic parageneses, synchronous...... with or immediately following the eruptions, through mediumtemperature ammonium minerals, metal chlorides, or fluoride associations to the late low-temperature paragenesis dominated by sulphur, gypsum, alunogen, and other hydrous sulphates. The situation can be different in the systems that are not recessing but show...

  13. 3&4D Geomodeling Applied to Mineral Resources Exploration - A New Tool for Targeting Deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Jean-Jacques; Mejia, Pablo; Caumon, Guillaume; Collon-Drouaillet, Pauline

    2013-04-01

    3 & 4D geomodeling, a computer method for reconstituting the past deformation history of geological formations, has been used in oil and gas exploration for more than a decade for reconstituting fluid migration. It begins nowadays to be applied for exploring with new eyes old mature mining fields and new prospects. We describe shortly the 3&4D geomodeling basic notions, concepts, and methodology when applied to mineral resources assessment and modeling ore deposits, pointing out the advantages, recommendations and limitations, together with new challenges they rise. Several 3D GeoModels of mining explorations selected across Europe will be presented as illustrative case studies which have been achieved during the EU FP7 ProMine research project. It includes: (i) the Cu-Au porphyry deposits in the Hellenic Belt (Greece); (ii) the VMS in the Iberian Pyrite Belt including the Neves Corvo deposit (Portugal) and (iii) the sediment-hosted polymetallic Cu-Ag (Au, PGE) Kupferschiefer ore deposit in the Foresudetic Belt (Poland). In each case full 3D models using surfaces and regular grid (Sgrid) were built from all dataset available from exploration and exploitation including geological primary maps, 2D seismic cross-sections, and boreholes. The level of knowledge may differ from one site to another however those 3D resulting models were used to pilot additional field and exploration works. In the case of the Kupferschiefer, a sequential restoration-decompaction (4D geomodeling) from the Upper Permian to Cenozoic was conducted in the Lubin- Sieroszowice district of Poland. The results help in better understanding the various superimposed mineralization events which occurred through time in this copper deposit. A hydro-fracturing index was then calculated from the estimated overpressures during a Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene up-lifting, and seems to correlate with the copper content distribution in the ore-series. These results are in agreement with an Early Paleocene

  14. The use of different analytical techniques as a backup to mineral resources assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Tofani, P. de; Ferreira, M.P.; Gomes, H.; Avelar, M.M.

    1982-01-01

    The Empresas Nucleares Brasileiras S.A. (NUCLEBRAS) has implemented and improved, since their foundation in 1974, several laboratories at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), in Belo Horizonte (MG, Brazil), in order to develop capabilities in the analytical chemistry field. Skillful personnel, using a large spectrum of equipment and procedures, is already able to determine, fast and accurately, almost any chemical element in any matrix. About 340.000 analytical determinations have been performed during the last seven years, concerning mostly chemical elements of great importance in the mineral technology programs. This considerable amount of results has been used, specially, as a backup to assess Brazilian uranium resources. (Author) [pt

  15. Minerals yearbook: The mineral industry of Brazil. 1988 international review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensminger, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Brazil's gross domestic product (GDP) grew only slightly in 1988 to $277 billion at current prices. The growth rate was the smallest registered since 1983, when the rate was minus 2.8%. The economy's performance was strongly influenced by a 2% to 3% decrease in industrial production and civil construction. The mineral industry, however, countered the downward trend in the industrial sector and grew a modest 1.4%. Topics discussed in the report include the following: Government policies and programs; Production; Trade; Commodity review--Metals (Aluminum, Aluminia, and Bauxite, Columbium, Copper, Gold, Iron and Steel, Manganese, Tin, Titanium); Industrial Minerals (Gem stones, Phosphate rock, Quartz); Mineral fuels (Coal, Natural gas, Petroleum, Nuclear power); Nonmineral energy sources (Alcohol, Hydroelectric)

  16. Comprehensive recovery of gold and base-metal sulfide minerals from a low-grade refractory ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-juan; Liu, Shuang; Song, Yong-sheng; Wen, Jian-kang; Zhou, Gui-ying; Chen, Yong

    2016-12-01

    The comprehensive recovery of small amounts of valuable minerals such as gold and base-metal sulfide minerals from a low-grade refractory ore was investigated. The following treatment strategy was applied to a sample of this ore: gold flotation-gold concentrate leaching-lead and zinc flotation from the gold concentrate leaching residue. Closed-circuit trials of gold flotation yielded a gold concentrate that assayed at 40.23 g·t-1 Au with a recovery of 86.25%. The gold concentrate leaching rate was 98.76%. Two variants of lead-zinc flotation from the residue—preferential flotation of lead and zinc and bulk flotation of lead and zinc—were tested using the middling processing method. Foam from the reflotation was returned to the lead rougher flotation or lead-zinc bulk flotation, whereas middlings from reflotation were discarded. Sulfur concentrate was a byproduct. The combined strategy of flotation, leaching, and flotation is recommended for the treatment of this kind of ore.

  17. Indochina area mineral prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-05

    Prospects for commercial mining of various minerals are considered for Kampuchea (Cambodia), Laos, Vietnam, Myanmar (Burma) and Thailand. Mineral production is much below its geologic potential for economic and political reasons. Resource potential is limited to tin, tungsten, lead and zinc, barytes and gemstones, and coal. 1 fig.

  18. Mineral resource of the month: diatomite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses the properties and applications of the mineral diatomite. According to the author, diatomite is a soft, friable and very fine-grained siliceous sedimentary rock made of the remains of fossilized diatoms. The author adds that its properties make diatomite very useful as a filtration medium and as a component in cement.

  19. Microbial Mineral Transformations at the Fe(II)/Fe(III) Redox Boundary for Solid Phase Capture of Strontium and Other Metal/Radionuclide Contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, F.G.; Roden, E.E.

    2000-01-01

    The migration of 90 Sr in groundwater is a significant environmental concern at former nuclear weapons production sites in the US and abroad. Although retardation of 90 Sr transport relative to mean groundwater velocity is known to occur in contaminated aquifers, Sr 2+ does not sorb as strongly to iron oxides and other mineral phases as do other metal-radionuclides contaminants. Thus, some potential exists for extensive 90 Sr migration from sources of contamination. Chemical or biological processes capable of retarding or immobilizing Sr 2+ in groundwater environments are of interest from the standpoint of understanding controls on subsurface Sr 2+ migration. In addition, it may be possible to exploit such processes for remediation of subsurface Sr contamination. In this study the authors examined the potential for the solid phase sorption and incorporation of Sr 2+ into carbonate minerals formed during microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction as a first step toward evaluating whether this process could be used to promote retardation of 90 Sr migrations in anaerobic subsurface environments. The demonstration of Sr 2+ capture in carbonate mineral phases formed during bacterial HFO reduction and urea hydrolysis suggests that microbial carbonate mineral formation could contribute to Sr 2+ retardation in groundwater environments. This process may also provide a mechanism for subsurface remediation of Sr 2+ and other divalent metal contaminants that form insoluble carbonate precipitates

  20. Earth and water resources and hazards in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Charles G.; Fary, R.W.; Guffanti, Marianne; Laura, Della; Lee, M.P.; Masters, C.D.; Miller, R.L.; Quinones-Marques, Ferdinand; Peebles, R.W.; Reinemund, J.A.; Russ, D.P.

    1984-01-01

    Long-range economic development in Central America will depend in large part on production of indigenous mineral, energy, and water resources and on mitigation of the disastrous effects of geologic and hydrologic hazards such as landslides, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and floods. The region has six world-class metal mines at present as well as additional evidence of widespread mineralization. Systematic investigations using modern mineral exploration techniques should reveal more mineral deposits suitable for development. Widespread evidence of lignite and geothermal resources suggests that intensive studies could identify producible energy sources in most Central American countries. Water supply and water quality vary greatly from country to country. Local problems of ground- and surface-water availability and of contamination create a need for systematic programs to provide better hydrologic data, capital improvements, and management. Disastrous earthquakes have destroyed or severely damaged many cities in Central America. Volcanic eruptions, landslides, mudflows, and floods have devastated most of the Pacific side of Central America at one time or another. A regional approach to earthquake, volcano, and flood-risk analysis and monitoring, using modern technology and concepts, would provide the facilities and means for acquiring knowledge necessary to reduce future losses. All Central American countries need to strengthen institutions and programs dealing with earth and water resources and natural hazards. Some of these needs may be satisfied through existing or pending projects and technical and economic assistance from U.S. or other sources. The need for a comprehensive study of the natural resources of Central America and the requirements for their development is evident. The U.S. Caribbean Basin Initiative offers both an excellent opportunity for a regional approach to these pervasive problems and an opportunity for international cooperation.

  1. Selective flotation of phosphate minerals with hydroxamate collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jan D.; Wang, Xuming; Li, Minhua

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for separating phosphate minerals from a mineral mixture, particularly from high-dolomite containing phosphate ores. The method involves conditioning the mineral mixture by contacting in an aqueous in environment with a collector in an amount sufficient for promoting flotation of phosphate minerals. The collector is a hydroxamate compound of the formula; ##STR1## wherein R is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms. M is a cation, typically hydrogen, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. Preferably, the collector also comprises an alcohol of the formula, R'--OH wherein R' is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties so that it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms.

  2. Niger Republic mineral planning (part five): recommendations and suggestions for the developement of mineral resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franconi, A.

    1986-06-01

    The mineral planning present a comprehensive program of prospecting in order to increase mineral industry sector participation to the economc development of the country. Subjects taken in consideration in this volume are: setting up structural and technical means; projects proposal; summary of projects, financial cost estimation and proposals for activities forward looking calendar [fr

  3. 30 CFR 201.100 - Responsibilities of the Associate Director for Minerals Revenue Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities of the Associate Director for Minerals Revenue Management. 201.100 Section 201.100 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT GENERAL Oil and Gas, Onshore § 201.100...

  4. Geology and industrial mineral resources of the Macon-Gordon Kaolin District, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buie, Bennett Frank; Hetrick, J.H.; Patterson, S.H.; Neeley, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    The Macon-Gordon kaolin district is about 80 miles (130 km) southeast of Atlanta, Georgia. It extends across the boundary between, and includes parts of, the Piedmont and Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic provinces. The rocks in the Piedmont are mainly intensely folded sericite schist and granite gneiss containing irregular masses of amphibolite and feldspathic biotite gneiss and scattered igneous intrusive rocks. Most of the crystalline rocks are thought to be of Paleozoic age, but some of the intrusive rocks may be younger. The crystalline rocks are cut by a major unconformity and are overlain by sedimentary formations ranging in age from Cretaceous to Miocene. The valuable kaolin deposits occur in the Cretaceous beds, undivided, and in the Huber Formation which is of Paleocene to middle Eocene age. The resources of kaolin in the district are estimated in millions of metric tons as follows: reserves, 100; subeconomic resources, 700 to 900; undiscovered resources, probably 700 to 1,000. In addition to kaolin, the leading mineral commodity mined in the district, crushed stone and sand are now being produced, and fuller's earth and a minor amount of limestone were formerly produced. The crushed stone is quarried from igneous rocks in the Piedmont province. The sand is washed from the Cretaceous beds, undivided. The fuller's earth was mined from the Twiggs Clay Member of the Barnwell Formation, and limestone was dug from the Tivola Limestone.

  5. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150204 Abaydulla Alimjan(Department of Chemistry and Environmental Sciences,Kashgar Teachers College,Kashgar 844006,China);Cheng Chunying Non-Metallic Element Composition Analysis of Non-Ferrous Metal Ores from Oytagh Town,Xinjiang(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,33(1),2014,p.44-50,5illus.,4tables,28refs.)Key words:nonferrous metals ore,nonmetals,chemical analysis,thermogravimetric analysis Anions in non-ferrous ore materials

  6. Sustainable development for mineral and energy industries (from a legal pont of view)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenz, W.

    2000-01-01

    The principle of sustainable development has become a central idea of environmental law. The idea has been around in legal discussion and political declarations for some time. Now, the principle has been legally fixated. This leads to serious consequences for the legal framework in which mineral and energy industries operate. The concept of sustainable development emerged towards the end of the 70s. It has been incorporated into political declarations, first of all, into the Brundtland report from 1987, later into the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development and into Agenda 21 from 1992. According to these documents the needs of future generations must be safeguarded. Furthermore, ecological, economic and social interests must be reconciled. Significantly, the principle could demand from mineral and energy industries to limit the extraction of non-renewable resources. This could imply new restrictions for the mining and energy industrial sector. The following presents ideas which have been developed in connection with Collaborative Research Center 525 'A Resource-Orientated Analysis of the Material Flow of Metallic Raw Materials'. 8 refs

  7. Mineralization of Carbon Dioxide: Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, V; Soong, Y; Carney, C; Rush, G; Nielsen, B; O' Connor, W

    2015-01-01

    CCS research has been focused on CO2 storage in geologic formations, with many potential risks. An alternative to conventional geologic storage is carbon mineralization, where CO2 is reacted with metal cations to form carbonate minerals. Mineralization methods can be broadly divided into two categories: in situ and ex situ. In situ mineralization, or mineral trapping, is a component of underground geologic sequestration, in which a portion of the injected CO2 reacts with alkaline rock present in the target formation to form solid carbonate species. In ex situ mineralization, the carbonation reaction occurs above ground, within a separate reactor or industrial process. This literature review is meant to provide an update on the current status of research on CO2 mineralization. 2

  8. Deposit model for heavy-mineral sands in coastal environments: Chapter L in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Fey, David L.; Shah, Anjana K.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Hoefen, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a descriptive model of heavy-mineral sands, which are sedimentary deposits of dense minerals that accumulate with sand, silt, and clay in coastal environments, locally forming economic concentrations of the heavy minerals. This deposit type is the main source of titanium feedstock for the titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigments industry, through recovery of the minerals ilmenite (Fe2+TiO3), rutile (TiO2), and leucoxene (an alteration product of ilmenite). Heavy-mineral sands are also the principal source of zircon (ZrSiO4) and its zirconium oxide; zircon is often recovered as a coproduct. Other heavy minerals produced as coproducts from some deposits are sillimanite/kyanite, staurolite, monazite, and garnet. Monazite [(Ce,La,Nd,Th)PO4] is a source of rare earth elements as well as thorium, which is used in thorium-based nuclear power under development in India and elsewhere.

  9. A review of the surface features and properties, surfactant adsorption and floatability of four key minerals of diasporic bauxite resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ningning; Nguyen, Anh V; Zhou, Changchun

    2018-04-01

    Diasporic bauxite represents one of the major aluminum resources. Its upgrading for further processing involves a separation of diaspore (the valuable mineral) from aluminosilicates (the gangue minerals) such as kaolinite, illite, and pyrophyllite. Flotation is one of the most effective ways to realize the upgrading. Since flotation is a physicochemical process based on the difference in the surface hydrophobicity of different components, determining the adsorption characteristics of various flotation surfactants on the mineral surfaces is critical. The surfactant adsorption properties of the minerals, in turn, are controlled by the surface chemistry of the minerals, while the latter is related to the mineral crystal structures. In this paper, we first discuss the crystal structures of the four key minerals of diaspore, kaolinite, illite, and pyrophyllite as well as the broken bonds on their exposed surfaces after grinding. Next, we summarize the surface chemistry properties such as surface wettability and surface electrical properties of the four minerals, and the differences in these properties are explained from the perspective of mineral crystal structures. Then we review the adsorption mechanism and adsorption characteristics of surfactants such as collectors (cationic, anionic, and mixed surfactants), depressants (inorganic and organic), dispersants, and flocculants on these mineral surfaces. The separation of diaspore and aluminosilicates by direct flotation and reverse flotation are reviewed, and the collecting properties of different types of collectors are compared. Furthermore, the abnormal behavior of the cationic flotation of kaolinite is also explained in this section. This review provides a strong theoretical support for the optimization of the upgrading of diaspore bauxite ore by flotation and the early industrialization of the reverse flotation process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Summaries of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities of nonfuel minerals in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Stephen G.; King, Trude V.V.; Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) entered into an agreement with the Afghanistan Geological Survey to study and assess the fuel and nonfuel mineral resources of Afghanistan from October 2009 to September 2011 so that these resources could be economically extracted to expand the economy of Afghanistan. This report summarizes the results of joint studies on 24 important areas of interest (AOIs) of nonfuel mineral resources that were identified for mineral investment and production opportunities in Afghanistan. This report is supported by digital data and archival and non-USGS reports on each AOI, and these data are available from the Afghanistan Geological Survey Data Center in Kabul (http://mom.gov.af/en/ and http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/) and for viewing and download on the USGS public Web site and in a separate viewer at http://mapdss2.er.usgs.gov/.

  11. Superficial mineral resources of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Siddiquie, H.N.; Hashimi, N.H.; Gujar, A; Valsangkar, A

    The sea floor of the Indian Ocean and the continental margins bordering the ocean are covered by a wide variety of terrigenous, biogenous and anthigenic mineral deposits. The biogenous deposits in the Indian Ocean comprise the corals on shallow...

  12. Raw material monitoring assists companies. German Mineral Resources Agency at BGR provides information on global developments in resource markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Germany is dependent on imports for its metalliferous natural resources. Although prices have been declining significantly in recent months, numerous raw materials such as platinum, cobalt and rare earth elements continue to be exposed to price and supply risks. To ensure that German industry can respond better to this situation in their procurement activities, the German Mineral Resources Agency (DERA) at BGR has developed a raw material monitoring system on behalf of the German government. DERA experts have con figured a screening method for the early identification of possible procurement risks. This is the platform which enables German companies to gain the specific advice they require. All of the most important information on this issue is bundled within DERA 's internet portal (www.deutsche-rohstoffagentur.de). BGR also provides its expertise in other important fields with great societal relevance. BGR has been advising the national commission on ''Storage of High-level Radioactive Waste'' since 2014. Due to their comprehensive research activities in the field of radioactive waste disposal, BGR scientists are important technical experts to which the commission can turn to for geological information and advice.

  13. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International—Europe and Central Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geological Survey, U.S.

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  14. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International—Asia and the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geological Survey, U.S.

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  15. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International—Latin America and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  16. Research cooperation project on environmentally friendly technology for highly efficient mineral resources extraction and treatment. Detail design for pilot plant (Mechanical fabrication)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper prepared plans of the mechanical equipment in the detailed design of a pilot plant in the joint research project on the environmental protection technology for highly efficient mineral resource extraction and treatment. (NEDO)

  17. Geological structure and mineral resources of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Dobra

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydrocarbon System Ourd Mya is located in the Sahara Basin. It is one of the producing basins in Algeria. The stratigraphic section consists of Paleozoic and Mesosoic, it is about 5000 m thick. In the eastern part, the basin is limited by the Hassi-Messaoud high zone which is a giant oil field produced from the Cambrian sands. The western part is limited by Hassi R`mel which is one of the biggest gas field in the world, it is produced from the triassic sands. The Mesozoic section lays on the lower Devonian and in the eastern part, on the Cambrian. The main source rock is Silurian shale with an average thickness of 50 m and a total organic matter of 6 % (14 % in some cases. Results of maturation modeling indicate that the lower Silurian source is in the oil window. The Ordovician shales are also a source rock but in a second order. Clastic reservoirs are in the Triassic sequence which is mainly fluvial deposit with complex alluvial channels, it is the main target in the basin. Clastic reservoirs within the lower Devonian section have a good hydrocarbon potential in the east of the basin through a southwest-northeast orientation. The late Triassic-Early Jurassic evaporites overlie the Triassic clastic interval and extend over the entire Oued Mya Basin. This is considered as a super-seal evaporate package, which consists predominantly of anhydrite and halite. For Paleozoic targets, a large number of potential seals exist within the stratigraphic column.This paper describe the main geological structure and mineral resources of Algeria.

  18. Resource power and resource security: the politics of nonfuel minerals trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, O.E.

    1985-01-01

    The developed producers, Canada, Australia, and South Africa, and not the developing producers, are the power wielders and major tracers in nonfuel minerals. Specific circumstances allow producers to obtain compliant behavior from consumers. These include: exporter's market share, importer's degree of dependence, the material's being critical to importer's economy, and the trading system's condoning nonmarket goals. These (and other) criteria comprise an analytical device, the strategic trading relationship, which is used to demonstrate developed producer commodity power and developed consumer vulnerability. Consuming country governments rely on the private sector to deal with national enmeshment in strategic trading relationships. Japan excepted, OECD members fail either to address their continued access to nonfuel minerals, or their ability to survive supply disruption with minimum dislocation. Producer power is exemplified by Canada's threat and use of embargo to make her uranium customers tighten their nonproliferation policies. Structural power deters South Africa's ability to head off wholehearted economic pressure is the classic case

  19. Trace elements and heavy metals in mineral and bottled drinking waters on the Iranian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadiani, Mohammad Rasoul; Dezfooli-Manesh, Shirin; Shoeibi, Shahram; Ziarati, Parisa; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin

    2015-01-01

    A survey of Iranian waters, sampled from 2010 to 2013, is presented. A total of 128 water samples from 42 different brands of bottled mineral and drinking water were collected and analysed for contamination levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg). Determinations were performed using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer for Pb, Cd and Cu, a hydride vapour generation as well as an Arsenator digital kit (Wagtech WTD, Tyne and Wear, UK) for As and a direct mercury analyser for Hg. Arsenic concentration in six bottled gaseous mineral samples was higher than the related limit. Regardless of these, mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, As and Hg in all types of water samples were 4.50 ± 0.49, 1.08 ± 0.09, 16.11 ± 2.77, 5.80 ± 1.63 and 0.52 ± 0.03 µg L⁻¹, respectively. Values obtained for analysed heavy metals in all samples were permissible according to the limits of national and international standards.

  20. Systemic trade risk of critical resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Peter; Obersteiner, Michael; Thurner, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    In the wake of the 2008 financial crisis, the role of strongly interconnected markets in causing systemic instability has been increasingly acknowledged. Trade networks of commodities are susceptible to cascades of supply shocks that increase systemic trade risks and pose a threat to geopolitical stability. We show that supply risk, scarcity, and price volatility of nonfuel mineral resources are intricately connected with the structure of the worldwide trade networks spanned by these resources. At the global level, we demonstrate that the scarcity of a resource is closely related to the susceptibility of the trade network with respect to cascading shocks. At the regional level, we find that, to some extent, region-specific price volatility and supply risk can be understood by centrality measures that capture systemic trade risk. The resources associated with the highest systemic trade risk indicators are often those that are produced as by-products of major metals. We identify significant strategic shortcomings in the management of systemic trade risk, in particular in the European Union.

  1. Trace metals partitioning among different sedimentary mineral phases and the deposit-feeding polychaete Armandia brevis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz-de-Alba, Margarita [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Biomolecules (INBIO), Faculty of Sciences, CEI-MAR, University of Cadiz, Campus Rio S. Pedro, E-11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Huerta-Diaz, Miguel Angel, E-mail: huertam@uabc.edu.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Campus Ensenada, Km. 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada 22800, Baja California (Mexico); Delgadillo-Hinojosa, Francisco [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Campus Ensenada, Km. 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada 22800, Baja California (Mexico); Hare, Landis [Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490, rue de la Couronne, Québec, Québec G1K 9A9 (Canada); Galindo-Riaño, M. Dolores [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Biomolecules (INBIO), Faculty of Sciences, CEI-MAR, University of Cadiz, Campus Rio S. Pedro, E-11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Siqueiros-Valencia, Arturo [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Campus Ensenada, Km. 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada 22800, Baja California (Mexico)

    2016-02-01

    Trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) were determined in two operationally defined fractions (HCl and pyrite) in sediments from Ensenada and El Sauzal harbors (Mexico). The HCl fraction had significantly higher metal concentrations relative to the pyrite fraction in both harbors, underlining the weak tendency of most trace metals to associate with pyrite. Exceptionally, Cu was highly pyritized, with degrees of trace metal pyritization (DTMP) > 80% in both harbors. Dissolved Fe flux measurements combined with solid phase Fe sulfide data indicated that 98 mt of Fe are precipitated as iron sulfides every year in Ensenada Harbor. These Fe sulfides (and associated trace metals) will remain preserved in the sediments, unless they are perturbed by dredging or sediment resuspension. Calculations indicate that dredging activities could export to the open ocean 0.20 ± 0.13 to (0.30 ± 0.56) × 10{sup 3} mt of Cd and Cu, respectively, creating a potential threat to marine benthic organisms. Degrees of pyritization (DOP) values in Ensenada and El Sauzal harbors were relatively low (< 25%) while degrees of sulfidization (DOS) were high (~ 50%) because of the contribution of acid volatile sulfide. DOP values correlated with DTMP values (p ≤ 0.001), indicating that metals are gradually incorporated into pyrite as this mineral is formed. Significant correlations were also found between DTMP values and − log(K{sub sp(MeS)}/K{sub sp(pyr)}) for both harbors, indicating that incorporation of trace metals into the pyrite phase is a function of the solubility product of the corresponding metal sulfide. The order in which elements were pyritized in both harbors was Zn ≈ Mn < Fe < Cd ≈ Pb < Ni ≈ Co < < Cu. Lastly, a strong correlation (r{sup 2} = 0.87, p < 0.01) was found between average reactive trace metal concentrations and metal concentrations measured in Armandia brevis (a deposit-feeding Opheliid polychaete), suggesting that these labile sedimentary metals are

  2. Trace metals partitioning among different sedimentary mineral phases and the deposit-feeding polychaete Armandia brevis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-de-Alba, Margarita; Huerta-Diaz, Miguel Angel; Delgadillo-Hinojosa, Francisco; Hare, Landis; Galindo-Riaño, M. Dolores; Siqueiros-Valencia, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) were determined in two operationally defined fractions (HCl and pyrite) in sediments from Ensenada and El Sauzal harbors (Mexico). The HCl fraction had significantly higher metal concentrations relative to the pyrite fraction in both harbors, underlining the weak tendency of most trace metals to associate with pyrite. Exceptionally, Cu was highly pyritized, with degrees of trace metal pyritization (DTMP) > 80% in both harbors. Dissolved Fe flux measurements combined with solid phase Fe sulfide data indicated that 98 mt of Fe are precipitated as iron sulfides every year in Ensenada Harbor. These Fe sulfides (and associated trace metals) will remain preserved in the sediments, unless they are perturbed by dredging or sediment resuspension. Calculations indicate that dredging activities could export to the open ocean 0.20 ± 0.13 to (0.30 ± 0.56) × 10"3 mt of Cd and Cu, respectively, creating a potential threat to marine benthic organisms. Degrees of pyritization (DOP) values in Ensenada and El Sauzal harbors were relatively low (< 25%) while degrees of sulfidization (DOS) were high (~ 50%) because of the contribution of acid volatile sulfide. DOP values correlated with DTMP values (p ≤ 0.001), indicating that metals are gradually incorporated into pyrite as this mineral is formed. Significant correlations were also found between DTMP values and − log(K_s_p_(_M_e_S_)/K_s_p_(_p_y_r_)) for both harbors, indicating that incorporation of trace metals into the pyrite phase is a function of the solubility product of the corresponding metal sulfide. The order in which elements were pyritized in both harbors was Zn ≈ Mn < Fe < Cd ≈ Pb < Ni ≈ Co < < Cu. Lastly, a strong correlation (r"2 = 0.87, p < 0.01) was found between average reactive trace metal concentrations and metal concentrations measured in Armandia brevis (a deposit-feeding Opheliid polychaete), suggesting that these labile sedimentary metals are

  3. Transitions in Theory and Practice: Managing Metals in the Circular Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Jackson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Transitioning from current resource management practice dominated by linear economic models of consumption and production, to circular models of resource use, will require insights into the stages and processes associated with socio-technical transitions. This paper is concerned with transitions in practice. It explores two frameworks within the transitions literature—the multi-level perspective and transition management theory—for practical guidance to inform a deliberate transition in practice. The critical futures literature is proposed as a source of tools and methods to be used in conjunction with the transition frameworks to influence and enable transitions in practice. This enhanced practical guidance for initiating action is applied to a specific context—transitioning the Australian metals sector towards a circular economy model. This particular transition case study is relevant because the vision of a circular economy model of resource management is gaining traction internationally, Australia is significant globally as a supplier of finite mineral resources and it will also be used in a collaborative research project on Wealth from Waste to investigate possibilities for the circular economy and metals recycling.

  4. Extracting Minerals from Seawater: An Energy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Bardi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of recovering minerals from seawater has been proposed as a way of counteracting the gradual depletion of conventional mineral ores. Seawater contains large amounts of dissolved ions and the four most concentrated metal ones (Na, Mg, Ca, K are being commercially extracted today. However, all the other metal ions exist at much lower concentrations. This paper reports an estimate of the feasibility of the extraction of these metal ions on the basis of the energy needed. In most cases, the result is that extraction in amounts comparable to the present production from land mines would be impossible because of the very large amount of energy needed. This conclusion holds also for uranium as fuel for the present generation of nuclear fission plants. Nevertheless, in a few cases, mainly lithium, extraction from seawater could provide amounts of metals sufficient for closing the cycle of metal use in the economy, provided that an increased level of recycling can be attained.

  5. Perspectives regarding the use of metallurgical slags as secondary metal resources - A review of bioleaching approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potysz, Anna; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Kierczak, Jakub

    2018-05-05

    Smelting activity by its very nature produces large amounts of metal-bearing waste, often called metallurgical slag(s). In the past, industry used to dispose of these waste products at dumping sites without the appropriate environmental oversight. Once there, ongoing biogeochemical processes affect the stability of the slags and cause the release of metallic contaminants. Rather than viewing metallurgical slags as waste, however, such deposits should be viewed as secondary metal resources. Metal bioleaching is a "green" treatment route for metallurgical slags, currently being studied under laboratory conditions. Metal-laden leachates obtained at the bioleaching stage have to be subjected to further recovery operations in order to obtain metal(s) of interest to achieve the highest levels of purity possible. This perspective paper considers the feasibility of the reuse of base-metal slags as secondary metal resources. Special focus is given to current laboratory bioleaching approaches and associated processing obstacles. Further directions of research for development of more efficient methods for waste slag treatment are also highlighted. The optimized procedure for slag treatment is defined as the result of this review and should include following steps: i) slag characterization (chemical and phase composition and buffering capacity) following the choice of initial pH, ii) the choice of particle size, iii) the choice of the liquid-to-solid ratio, iv) the choice of microorganisms, v) the choice of optimal nutrient supply (growth medium composition). An optimal combination of all these parameters will lead to efficient extraction and generation of metal-free solid residue. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Possible Involvement of Permian Phosphoria Formation Oil as a Source of REE and Other Metals Associated with Complex U-V Mineralization in the Northern Bighorn Basin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita L. Moore-Nall

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The origin of V, U, REE and other metals in the Permian Phosphoria Formation have been speculated and studied by numerous scientists. The exceptionally high concentrations of metals have been interpreted to reflect fundamental transitions from anoxic to oxic marine conditions. Much of the oil in the Bighorn Basin, is sourced by the Phosphoria Formation. Two of the top 10 producing oil fields in Wyoming are located approximately 50 km west of two abandoned U-V mining districts in the northern portion of the basin. These fields produce from basin margin anticlinal structures from Mississippian age reservoir rock. Samples collected from abandoned U-V mines and prospects hosted in Mississippian aged paleokarst in Montana and Wyoming have hydrocarbon residue present and contain anomalous high concentrations of many metals that are found in similar concentrations in the Phosphoria Formation. As, Hg, Mo, Pb, Tl, U, V and Zn, often metals of environmental concern occur in high concentrations in Phosphoria Formation samples and had values ranging from 30–1295 ppm As, 0.179–12.8 ppm Hg, 2–791 ppm Mo, <2–146 ppm Pb, 10–490 ppm Tl, 907–86,800 ppm U, 1240–18,900 ppm V, and 7–2230 ppm Zn, in mineralized samples from this study. The REE plus Y composition of Madison Limestone- and limestone breccia hosted-bitumen reflect similar patterns to both mineralized samples from this study and to U.S. Geological Survey rock samples from studies of the Phosphoria Formation. Geochemical, mineralogical and field data were used to investigate past theories for mineralization of these deposits to determine if U present in home wells and Hg content of fish from rivers on the proximal Crow Indian Reservation may have been derived from these deposits or related to their mode of mineralization.

  7. Mineral resource of the month: perlite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    The article talks about perlite, which is a mineral used as an aggregate for lightweight construction products, filler for paints and horticultural soil blends. Perlite comes from viscous lava, mined and processed to produce lightweight material that competes with pumice, exfoliated vermiculite and expanded clay and shale. It is mined in about 35 countries that include Greece, Japan and the U.S. Other uses include insulation, concrete and plaster aggregate, and stonewashing.

  8. FY 1999 research cooperation project. Research cooperation in development of technology to extract/treat mineral resources in environmental harmony and high-efficiently; 1999 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu kobutsu shigen chushutsu shori gijutsu no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This project is aimed at effectively using non-ferrous metal resource in Kazakhstan Republic and at conducting a joint development of the environment-friendly and efficient technology to extract/collect valuable metals (copper, gold, silver, rare metal, etc.) including in quantity in the slag generated with the mine operation in Kazakhstan. For the purpose of collecting valuable metals from slag, etc., the project is to develop the technology to collect valuable metals in saving energy and in low environmental loads by adopting the wet treatment process and to carry out the field survey on the existence of slag, etc. and the research on minerals. As the field research/domestic research, various element technologies are also to be carried out such as leaching, solvent extraction, electrolyte sampling, and waste water treatment. Based on the R and D of the element technology, a pilot plant is designed/fabricated and installed at the site in Kazakhstan. Then, the operation is studied and analyzed to make a technically/economically comprehensive evaluation. In this fiscal year, the field survey, research on the wet treatment, and test on the waste water treatment are conducted. Facilities of a pilot plant were transported to the site. (NEDO)

  9. Natural resources as a factor of economic growth in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haki Shatri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the history of the economic growth, there are numerous examples of countries that have developed based on their available natural resources. Especially, these assets have been the propulsion of the development in the initial period. But we also find some cases where countries with limited natural resources have experienced dynamic economic development. Kosovo is the last federal unit dismembered from former Yugoslavia after a decade under Milosevic’s Serbian regime and a two years’ war. International intervention and the inclusion of the country under an international protectorate created the conditions for the development of devastated economy by war and the robbery to be recovered together with the creation of institutional and economic infrastructure (Lidhja e Ekonomistëve të Kosovës, 1996. Under these conditions, everything had to start from scratch. The only development factor that Kosovo possessed was the human factor - age structure and the abundant natural resources, especially in key sectors such as the energy and in mining and minerals, agriculture and tourism. Thus it is sustainable the conclusion that “The rapid and sustainable economic and social development of Kosovo depends substantially from the implementation of the appropriate policies and suitable economic reforms that enable more rational use of its natural and human resources”. The list of the available resources of Kosovo is long. Kosovo possesses significant amount of all mineral raw materials in both quality and quantity terms. Among the most important raw materials have been ranked the power-lignite mining that is stretched into three basins and it is estimated to be around 9 billion exploitable tons (Kelmendi, 2012. Kosovo also owns mineral resources which are found in the Trepca’s Metals basin. The geological researches show favorable conditions of exploitation and high quality of the ore. Mainly one can found the lead, zinc, silver and other

  10. New opportunities for U.S. coal and mineral exporters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    U.S. exports of coal, metals and industrial minerals to the European Community were valued at $2.4 billion in 1989, representing 47 percent of total export revenues generated by these materials. Coal was the single largest contributor to the value of mineral exports to the EC with total sales of approximately $2 billion in 1989. With the extinction of trade barriers that will be triggered by the economic and political unification of Europe, new opportunities for U.S. minerals exporters are likely to develop. This paper examines the overall impact of European integration on U.S. metal and industrial mineral exports and provides a more rigorous analysis of the outlook for thermal and coking coal exports to the EC during the next decade

  11. Statistical supplement to the report of the Department of Mineral Resources New South Wales for the year ending 30th June 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This annual publication of statistics relating to the New South Wales Mining Industry supplements the annual report of the Department of Mineral Resources. The document focuses on providing detailed statistics on production, value of production, employment and value added statistics for each of the energy and non-energy resource sectors for the financial year 1980 to 1981. For comparative purposes corresponding figures are provided for the previous year.

  12. Identifying Toxic Impacts of Metals Potentially Released during Deep-Sea Mining—A Synthesis of the Challenges to Quantifying Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Hauton

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In January 2017, the International Seabed Authority released a discussion paper on the development of Environmental Regulations for deep-sea mining (DSM within the Area Beyond National Jurisdiction (the “Area”. With the release of this paper, the prospect for commercial mining in the Area within the next decade has become very real. Moreover, within nations' Exclusive Economic Zones, the exploitation of deep-sea mineral ore resources could take place on very much shorter time scales and, indeed, may have already started. However, potentially toxic metal mixtures may be released at sea during different stages of the mining process and in different physical phases (dissolved or particulate. As toxicants, metals can disrupt organism physiology and performance, and therefore may impact whole populations, leading to ecosystem scale effects. A challenge to the prediction of toxicity is that deep-sea ore deposits include complex mixtures of minerals, including potentially toxic metals such as copper, cadmium, zinc, and lead, as well as rare earth elements. Whereas the individual toxicity of some of these dissolved metals has been established in laboratory studies, the complex and variable mineral composition of seabed resources makes the a priori prediction of the toxic risk of DSM extremely challenging. Furthermore, although extensive data quantify the toxicity of metals in solution in shallow-water organisms, these may not be representative of the toxicity in deep-sea organisms, which may differ biochemically and physiologically and which will experience those toxicants under conditions of low temperature, high hydrostatic pressure, and potentially altered pH. In this synthesis, we present a summation of recent advances in our understanding of the potential toxic impacts of metal exposure to deep-sea meio- to megafauna at low temperature and high pressure, and consider the limitation of deriving lethal limits based on the paradigm of exposure to

  13. The CHPM2030 H2020 Project: Combined Heat, Power and Metal extraction from ultra-deep ore bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklovicz, Tamas; Bodo, Balazs; Cseko, Adrienn; Hartai, Eva; Madarasz, Tamas

    2017-04-01

    The CHPM2030 project consortium is working on a novel technology solution that can provide both geothermal energy and minerals, in a single interlinked process. The CHPM technology involves an integrated approach to cross fertilize between two yet separated research areas: unconventional geothermal energy and mineral extraction. This places the project's research agenda onto the frontiers of geothermal resources development, mineral extraction and electro-metallurgy with the objectives of converting ultra-deep metallic mineral formations into an "orebody-enhanced geothermal system". In the envisioned facility, an EGS is established on a 3-4 km deep ore mineralisation. Metal content from the ore body is mobilised using mild leaching and/or nanoparticles, then metals are recovered by high-temperature, high-pressure geothermal fluid electrolysis and gas-diffusion electroprecipitation and electrocrystallisation. Salinity gradient power from pre-treated geothermal fluids will also be used. In the project, all these will be carried out at laboratory scale (technology readiness level of 4-5), providing data for the conceptual framework, process optimisation and simulations. Integrated sustainability assessment will also be carried out on the economic feasibility, social impact, policy considerations, environmental impact and ethics concerns. During the last stage of the research agenda, the work will focus on mapping converging technological areas, setting a background for pilot implementation and developing research roadmaps for 2030 and 2050. Pilot study areas include South West England, the Iberian Pyrite Belt in Portugal, the Banatitic Magmatic and Metallogenic Belt in Romania, and three mining districts in Sweden. The project started in January 2016 and lasts for 42 months. In the first phase, the metallogenesis of Europe was investigated and the potential ore formations have been identified. The rock-mechanical characteristics of orebodies have also been examined

  14. Methods of mineral potential assessment of uranium deposits: A mineral systems approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaireth, S.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral potential represents the likelihood (probability) that an economic mineral deposit could have formed in an area. Mineral potential assessment and prospectivity analysis use a probabilistic concepts to mineral deposits, where the probability of an event (formation of a mineral deposit) is conditional on two factors : i) geological processes occurring in the area, and ii) the presence of geological features indicative of those process. For instance, one of the geological processes critical for the formation of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits in an area is transport of uranium in groundwaters. Geological features indicative of this process in an area comprise, i) presence of leachable source rocks of uranium; ii) presence of highly permeable sandstone; and iii) suitable hydrogeological gradient driving flow groundwaters. Mineral deposits can also be conceptualised as mineral systems with more emphasis on mineralising processes. This concept has some clear parallels with the petroleum systems approach which has proven to be a useful in oil and gas exploration. Mineral systems are defined as ‘all geological factors that control the generation and preservation of mineral deposits’. Seven important geological factors are outlined to define the characteristics of a hydrothermal mineral system. These factors include: i) source of the mineralising fluids and transporting legends; ii) source of metals and other ore components; iii) migration pathways which may include inflow as well as outflow zones; iv) thermal gradients; v) source of energy to mobilised fluids; vi) mechanical and structural focusing mechanism at the trap site; and vii) chemical and/or physical cause for precipitation of ore minerals at the trap site. This approach, commonly known as the ‘source’, ‘transport’ and ‘trap’ paradigm has been redefined to introduce five questions as a basis to understand spatial and temporal evolution of a mineral system at all scales (regional to

  15. Preliminary report about minerals raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, J.

    1965-01-01

    The group of experts entrusted to construct the bases to study the mineral matters has established priorities for the development of mineral resources during the next ten years: 1) aerial photography, 2) geological map, 3) mechanisms for the exploitation, 4) budget

  16. Demonstration of production of tungsten metal powder and its consolidation into shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.; Kishor, J.; Paul, B.; Kain, V.; Dey, G.K.

    2016-01-01

    Tungsten is a strategically important metal used as plasma facing component in fusion reactors, radiation shields in cancer therapy machines, ammunition in defence applications, high speed cutting tools etc. The primary resources or minerals occurring in India contain a very low value (0.25-0.5 wt. %) of tungsten. Mineral beneficiation processes involving crushing, grinding, primary and secondary gravity separation, floatation are essential to produce the ore-concentrate suitable for further processing up to the preparation of the intermediate ammonium para-tungstate (APT). APT was further converted to tungsten tri-oxide (WO_3). Hydrogen reduction of WO_3 producing high purity W metal powder was demonstrated in large scale batches. Densification of W powder was further studied using vacuum hot pressing at 1950°C, and high density W metal plates of 5 mm thickness and 60 mm diameter were produced. The products obtained at every stage were systematically characterized using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) techniques. (author)

  17. Proceedings of the 39. annual meeting of the Canadian Mineral Processors : 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folinsbee, J. [G and T Metallurgical Services, Kamloops, BC (Canada)] (comp.)

    2007-07-01

    This conference addressed a broad range of issues affecting the minerals and metals sector, including ore processing and human resource issues such as an aging workforce. In addition to a plenary session, the conference featured the following 6 sessions: (1) new projects and operating improvements, (2) comminution, (3) precious metals, (4) process applications 1, (5) process modelling and mineralogy and (6) process applications 2. The papers in the first session addressed topics such as Voisey's Bay Mill; grinding mill design for the Tenke Project; the Paracatu gold mine; ore characterization of the Aqqaluk deposit; and, improvements of circuit performance. The second session focused on grinding circuit modeling and design; SAG mill operations; matching motor to mill torque; interactions between slurry density and grinding media size; replacement of diatomaceous earth filter aid with alpha-cellulose at the Laronde Refinery; and, the Turbo Pulp Lifter. The session on precious metals discussed the reduction of free gold losses at the Kemess Mine; lead nitrate control in cyanidation; effect of operating variables in Knelson concentrators; Kelsey centrifugal jig; Gekko's gold ore treatment plants; and, the gravity recoverable gold test. The two sessions on process applications included papers on underground milling of uranium ores; infrared recognition of high sulphide and carbonaceous rocks after microwave heating; iron control in mineral processing; frother analysis; the use of passive sonar; new applications for biogenic sulphide reagent in hydrometallurgy and mineral processing; analytical surface chemistry; and, improvement of mass and value balance data from the statistical benchmark model. The final session included papers on validation of high fidelity simulation wear; the use of computational fluid dynamics and discrete element, flotation circuit design; mineralogical evaluation of Au-Sb-As mineralization from the AD-MW Zones; principal components

  18. Metal recovery by bioleaching of sulfidic mining wastes — Application to a European case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guézennec, A. G.; Jacob, J.; Joulian, C.; Dupraz, S.; Menard, Y.; d'Hugues, P.

    The non-energy extractive industry (NEEI) of the EU-25 generated a direct turnover of about €40 billion, and provided employment to about 250000 people in 16629 companies in 2004. The use of primary raw materials in the production of other branches of EU industry means they have a central role in guaranteeing industrial and economic sustainability. Nevertheless current demand exceeds production, and so the EU is heavily dependent on minerals and metals imports. In this context of securing access to metals, turning mining wastes into new resources of currently unexploited valuable metals is an important challenge. The mining wastes can contain base and precious metals, but also metalloids and rare earth elements that are nowadays considered as highly critical for the industrial development of the European Union. Nevertheless, the development of alternative routes to conventional processing is still required in order to decrease the cost associated to the treatment of these unconventional resources which are more complex in composition and with lower grades.

  19. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International—Africa and the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  20. Zirconium - an imported mineral commodity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    This report examines Canada's position in regard to the principal zirconium materials: zircon; fusion-cast zirconium-bearing refractory products; zirconium-bearing chemicals; and zirconium metal, master alloys, and alloys. None of these is produced in Canada except fused alumina-zirconia and certain magnesium-zirconium alloys and zirconium-bearing steels. Most of the 3 000-4 000 tonnes of the various forms of zircon believed to be consumed in Canada each year is for foundry applications. Other minerals, notably chromite, olivine and silica sand are also used for these purposes and, if necessary, could be substituted for zircon. Zirconium's key role in Canada is in CANDU nuclear power reactors, where zirconium alloys are essential in the cladding for fuel bundles and in capital equipment such as pressure tubes, calandria tubes and reactivity control mechanisms. If zirconium alloys were to become unavailable, the Canadian nuclear power industry would collapse. As a contingency measure, Ontario Hydro maintains at least nine months' stocks of nuclear fuel bundles. Canada's vulnerability to short-term disruptions to supplies of nuclear fuel is diminished further by the availability of more expensive electricity from non-nuclear sources and, given time, from mothballed thermal plants. Zirconium minerals are present in many countries, notably Australia, the Republic of South Africa and the United States. Australia is Canada's principal source of zircon imports; South Africa is its sole source of baddeleyite. At this time, there are no shortages of either material. Canada has untapped zirconium resources in the Athabasca Oil Sands (zircon) and at Strange Lake along the ill-defined border between Quebec and Newfoundland (gittinsite). Adequate metal and alloy production facilities exist in France, Japan and the United States. No action by the federal government in regard to zirconium supplies is called for at this time

  1. Minerals Planning Policies and Supply Practices in Ireland.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ike, P.; van der Molen, S.D.A.

    Table of Contents: 1 Country background. 2 General description of the mineral industry. 3 National system legislation governing ownership resources. 4 National system governing securing supply of minerals. 5 Land use planning. 6 Evaluation of sustainability of mineral supply. 7 Identification of the

  2. Marine mineral resources of Pacific Islands - a review of the Exclusive Economic Zones of islands of U.S. affiliation, excluding the State of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, James R.; McIntyre, Brandie R.; Piper, David Z.

    2005-01-01

    The United States Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) was established in 1983 and comprises all marine areas within 200 nautical miles (370 kilometers) of the nearest U.S. land. This vast area of 3.38 million square nautical miles (11.6 million square kilometers) is about 20 percent greater than the entire land area of the United States. The resource potential of the vast mineral deposits that occur within the U.S. EEZ is unknown, despite field studies that have taken place during the past 25 years. Since about 1975, information on marine mineral deposits has been obtained by numerous research cruises to the Pacific Ocean by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), equivalent government agencies in Germany, Canada, France, Russia, Japan, China, South Korea, Australia, and New Zealand, and by academic researchers from all of these nations. Although most of the cruises by other nations explored areas outside the U.S. EEZ, information gained from those studies can aid in the evaluation of the mineral potential in the U.S. EEZ. However, the global effort remains inadequate to allow for the quantitative evaluation of mineral resources contained within the EEZ of nations or within international regions of the oceans.

  3. Environmental and health impacts of successive mineral fertilization in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelhafez, Ahmed A. [Soils, Water and Environment Research Institute (SWERI), Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Giza (Egypt); Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Abbas, Hassan H.; Abd-El-Aal, Rafat S. [Faculty of Agriculture, Benha University (Egypt); Kandil, Nabil F. [Soils, Water and Environment Research Institute (SWERI), Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Giza (Egypt); Li, Jianhua [Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Mahmoud, Wahballah [Center of Excellence of Biotechnology Research, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-04-15

    Excessive amounts of mineral fertilizers are unnecessarily applied to agricultural soils in Egypt to increase crop yield. The current study aims at assessing the impacts of fertilization with different mineral fertilizers for different cultivation periods on the accumulation of heavy metals in soils and plants grown thereon. In addition, human risks resulted due to the exposure to these metal ions through ingestion, and dermal routes were evaluated. Soil and plant samples were collected from several locations in El-Behira Governorate, Egypt and their heavy metal contents were measured. The result indicated that there is a continuous accumulation of heavy metals in the soils and the plants grown thereon. Calculation of the hazard index (HI) revealed that humans, especially children, have a potential health risk for both Pb and Cd, which have levels greater than the safe level (1). Finally, the obtained results showed that the continuous application of mineral fertilizers containing high levels of heavy metals pose a potential health threat. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. CERN Library | Michael Dittmar presents "Extracted: How the Quest for Mineral Wealth Is Plundering the Planet" by Ugo Bardi (et al.) | 24 July

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    As we dig, drill and excavate to unearth the planet’s mineral bounty, the resources we exploit from ores, veins, seams and wells are gradually becoming exhausted. Mineral treasures that took millions, or even billions, of years to form are now being squandered in just centuries—or sometimes just decades.   Extracted: How the Quest for Mineral Wealth Is Plundering the Planet, by Ugo Bardi et al., Chelsea Green Publishing, 2014, ISBN 9781603585415. Will there come a time when we actually run out of minerals? Debates already soar over how we are going to obtain energy without oil, coal and gas. But what about the other mineral losses we face? Without metals, and semiconductors, how are we going to keep our industrial system running? Without mineral fertilisers and fuels, how are we going to produce the food we need? Ugo Bardi delivers a sweeping history of the mining industry, starting with its humble beginning when our early ancestors started digging underground to find the st...

  5. Mining and minerals policy: 1976 bicentennial edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    The report is organized into three basic parts. The first part, the Executive Summary, provides a brief description of the major topics and lists the issues and recommendations. The report then is divided into two sections. Section I, Summary, is comprised of three chapters: Increased Energy Security; Metals and Nonmetallic Minerals; and Trends and Events. Section II, Issues in Energy and Minerals Policy, is comprised of seven chapters: Federal Leasing; The Federal Role in Reducing the Fiscal Impacts of Energy Development; Availability of Federal Lands for Mineral Exploration and Development; Environmental Issues and the Mineral Industry; Developments in International Minerals Trade and Investment; Ocean Mining; and The Development of New Tools for Energy and Minerals Policy Analysis. (MCW)

  6. Au-As (lead) vein mineralizations of the Cevennes and Chataigneraie regions (French Massif Central). Isotopic characterization (Pb). Mineralizing role of granites in the setting up of these mineralizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havard, M.L.

    1997-06-01

    This work has been carried out in the Frame of the national program 'Geofrance 3D' jointly organized by the French office for geologic and mining researches (BRGM), and the CNRS-INSU/DSPT3. Its aim is the study of the formation of gold-bearing mineralizations of the Variscan chain in the Cevennes and Chataigneraie regions (French Massif Central). In the Cevennes region, the gold-bearing veins are linked with the intrusion of the late-tectonic granodioritic plutons. The aim of this study is to determine the chronology of the mineralizing episodes and to analyze the relationship between the metal concentrates and the setting up of the granites. In the Chataigneraie region, the granites are intrusive in ortho- and para-gneiss series. The hydrothermal activity associated with the contact metamorphism should be responsible for the deposition of gold-bearing wolfram mineralization. The geochemistry of lead isotopes is used to determine the origin of metals in the sulfide mineralizations. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used for the visualization of the microstructure heterogeneities of the minerals and for the quantitative chemical analysis of their successive para-geneses. The comparison between the results obtained in both regions allows to make a difference between their relative degree of erosion and their gold potentialities. (J.S.)

  7. Rare earth element lithogeochemistry of granitoid mineral deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.P.; Fryer, B.J. (Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences)

    1983-12-01

    As a monitor of the processes involved in the formation of granitoid mineral deposits the coherent group behaviour of the rare earth elements (REE) actively reflects changing fluid characteristics. For example, in the porphyry environment, magmatic-hydrothermal fluids produce potassic alteration with strong enrichment in the light rare earth elements, reflecting their high pH, low fluid/rock ratios, and the dominant role of Cl/sup -/ complexing in metal (i.e. Cu, Au) transport. With increasing fluid/rock ratios and decreasing pH accompanying the progressive involvement of meteoric fluids (and the production of propylitic, argillic, and phyllic alteration) anionic species such as F/sup -/ and CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ become important in metal (e.g. Mo, W) transport through complexing, and their activity in the hydrothermal fluids is illustrated by mobilization of the heavy rare earth elements. The relative involvement of Cl/sup -/ versus F/sup -/ versus CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ in metal transport in other granite-related systems can also be monitored through REE behaviour. Hence granitoid tin-tungsten mineralization and associated greisenization typically exhibit heavy rare earth enrichment and evidence the importance of F/sup -/ and CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ in metal transport. Similarly, heavy rare earth element enrichment in hydrothermal uranium deposits can be related to the transport of uranium as carbonate complexes. REE are widely accepted as powerful tools in the study of rock petrogenesis, but their use has been neglected in the investigation of mineral deposits. The recognition of the systematic variation of REE distributions in granitoid mineral deposits suggests that the application of REE geochemistry, particularly when integrated with fluid inclusion and isotope studies, can provide l) an effective method for identifying the physiochemical controls of metal transport and 2) a useful criterion of elucidating metal distribution.

  8. Rare earth element lithogeochemistry of granitoid mineral deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.P.; Fryer, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    As a monitor of the processes involved in the formation of granitoid mineral deposits the coherent group behaviour of the rare earth elements (REE) actively reflects changing fluid characteristics. For example, in the porphyry environment, magmatic-hydrothermal fluids produce potassic alteration with strong enrichment in the light rare earth elements, reflecting their high pH, low fluid/rock ratios, and the dominant role of Cl - complexing in metal (i.e. Cu, Au) transport. With increasing fluid/rock ratios and decreasing pH accompanying the progressive involvement of meteoric fluids (and the production of propylitic, argillic, and phyllic alteration) anionic species such as F - and CO 3 2- become important in metal (e.g. Mo, W) transport through complexing, and their activity in the hydrothermal fluids is illustrated by mobilization of the heavy rare earth elements. The relative involvement of Cl - versus F - versus CO 3 2- in metal transport in other granite-related systems can also be monitored through REE behaviour. Hence granitoid tin-tungsten mineralization and associated greisenization typically exhibit heavy rare earth enrichment and evidence the importance of F - and CO 3 2- in metal transport. Similarly, heavy rare earth element enrichment in hydrothermal uranium deposits can be related to the transport of uranium as carbonate complexes. REE are widely accepted as powerful tools in the study of rock petrogenesis, but their use has been neglected in the investigation of mineral deposits. The recognition of the systematic variation of REE distributions in granitoid mineral deposits suggests that the application of REE geochemistry, particularly when integrated with fluid inclusion and isotope studies, can provide l) an effective method for identifying the physiochemical controls of metal transport and 2) a useful criterion of elucidating metal distribution

  9. Handbook of natural resource and energy economics. Volume III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneese, A.V.; Sweeney, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The last of a three-volume series of handbooks focuses on the economics of energy, minerals and exhaustible resources, and the forecasting issues. The relationship between energy, the environment and economic growth is also examined. Chapter headings are: economic theory of depletable resources; the optimal use of exhaustible resources; intertemporal consistency issues in depletable resources; buying energy and non-fuel minerals; mineral resource stocks and information; strategies for modelling exhaustible resource supply; natural resources in an age of substitutability; natural resource cartels; the economics of energy security; natural resource use and the environment; and energy, the environment and economic growth

  10. Sociocultural and institutional drivers and constraints to mineral supply; the meaning of scarcity in the 21st century: drivers and constraints to the supply of minerals using regional, national and global perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William M.

    2002-01-01

    The sociocultural dimensions of mineral supply at the outset of the 21st century are making the supply process increasingly complex. The dimensions encompass legal, financial, environmental, cultural, and global implications of mining, and are driving unprecedented change in the way minerals supply will be accomplished in the future. Minerals scarcity on a global scale is subordinate to other societal issues about mineral resources and reserves estimated to meet society's demands for decades to centuries in the future. This report reviews historical and present-day sociocultural drivers of change, and reactions of the minerals industry to these drivers. It is reflective primarily of conditions in the United States, but also uses examples from other countries. It expresses viewpoints on sociocultural drivers as seen by constituents of the minerals industry and several other communities of interest including Aboriginal peoples, non-government organizations; labor; mining-dependent communities; mining-affected communities; researchers; and government (federal, state/provincial, and local). It provides overviews of the demand for minerals in the United States, and the status of land available for mining. The report uses a case study of a metals mining project in Wisconsin to illustrate specific sociocultural drivers and constraints to minerals supply, and how these influence the minerals industry. Over the past 150 years, a progression of sociocultural movements under the headings of conservationism, environmentalism, and sustainable development have nurtured societal values that have come to influence the mineral supply process in important ways. These movements reflect a continuing tension between the demand for minerals and other resources, and the simultaneous demand for aesthetic, spiritual, ecological, cultural, and other attributes of the land. The tension is an important element in current international debates about the meaning and future of sustainable

  11. Brazilian minerals annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Statistics of Brazilian mineral resources and production in 1977 are presented. Data included refer also to economic aspects, market, taxes, government incentives, manpower, exportation, importation, etc [pt

  12. Challenge theme 5: Current and future needs of energy and mineral resources in the Borderlands and the effects of their development: Chapter 7 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updike, Randall G.; Ellis, Eugene G.; Page, William R.; Parker, Melanie J.; Hestbeck, Jay B.; Horak, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Exploration and extraction activities related to energy and mineral resources in the Borderlands—such as coal-fired power plants, offshore drilling, and mining—can create issues that have potentially major economic and environmental implications. Resource assessments and development projects, environmental studies, and other related evaluations help to understand some of these issues, such as power plant emissions and the erosion/denudation of abandoned mine lands. Information from predictive modeling, monitoring, and environmental assessments are necessary to understand the full effects of energy and mineral exploration, development, and utilization. The exploitation of these resources can negatively affect human health and the environment, its natural resources, and its ecological services (air, water, soil, recreation, wildlife, etc.). This chapter describes the major energy and mineral issues of the Borderlands and how geologic frameworks, integrated interdisciplinary (geobiologic) investigations, and other related studies can address the anticipated increases in demands on natural resources in the region.

  13. Chemical dissolution of sulfide minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    Chemical dissolution treatments involving the use of aqua regia, 4 N HNO3, H2O2-ascorbic acid, oxalic acid, KClO3+HCl, and KClO3+HCl followed by 4 N HNO3 were applied to specimens of nine common sulfide minerals (galena, chalcopyrite, cinnabar, molybdenite, orpiment, pyrite, stibnite, sphalerite, and tetrahedrite) mixed individually with a clay loam soil. The resultant decrease in the total sulfur content of the mixture, as determined by using the Leco induction furnace, was used to evaluate the effectiveness of each chemical treatment. A combination of KClO3+HCl followed by 4 N HNO3 boiling gently for 20 min has been shown to be very effective in dissolving all the sulfide minerals. This treatment is recommended to dissolve metals residing in sulfide minerals admixed with secondary weathering products, as one step in a fractionation scheme whereby metals in soluble and adsorbed forms, and those associated with organic materials and secondary oxides, are first removed by other chemical extractants.

  14. AbMiner: A bioinformatic resource on available monoclonal antibodies and corresponding gene identifiers for genomic, proteomic, and immunologic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankavaram Uma

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monoclonal antibodies are used extensively throughout the biomedical sciences for detection of antigens, either in vitro or in vivo. We, for example, have used them for quantitation of proteins on "reverse-phase" protein lysate arrays. For those studies, we quality-controlled > 600 available monoclonal antibodies and also needed to develop precise information on the genes that encode their antigens. Translation among the various protein and gene identifier types proved non-trivial because of one-to-many and many-to-one relationships. To organize the antibody, protein, and gene information, we initially developed a relational database in Filemaker for our own use. When it became apparent that the information would be useful to many other researchers faced with the need to choose or characterize antibodies, we developed it further as AbMiner, a fully relational web-based database under MySQL, programmed in Java. Description AbMiner is a user-friendly, web-based relational database of information on > 600 commercially available antibodies that we validated by Western blot for protein microarray studies. It includes many types of information on the antibody, the immunogen, the vendor, the antigen, and the antigen's gene. Multiple gene and protein identifier types provide links to corresponding entries in a variety of other public databases, including resources for phosphorylation-specific antibodies. AbMiner also includes our quality-control data against a pool of 60 diverse cancer cell types (the NCI-60 and also protein expression levels for the NCI-60 cells measured using our high-density "reverse-phase" protein lysate microarrays for a selection of the listed antibodies. Some other available database resources give information on antibody specificity for one or a couple of cell types. In contrast, the data in AbMiner indicate specificity with respect to the antigens in a pool of 60 diverse cell types from nine different

  15. AbMiner: a bioinformatic resource on available monoclonal antibodies and corresponding gene identifiers for genomic, proteomic, and immunologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Sylvia M; Nishizuka, Satoshi; Morita, Daisaku; Rowland, Rick; Sunshine, Margot; Shankavaram, Uma; Washburn, Frank; Asin, Daniel; Kouros-Mehr, Hosein; Kane, David; Weinstein, John N

    2006-04-06

    Monoclonal antibodies are used extensively throughout the biomedical sciences for detection of antigens, either in vitro or in vivo. We, for example, have used them for quantitation of proteins on "reverse-phase" protein lysate arrays. For those studies, we quality-controlled > 600 available monoclonal antibodies and also needed to develop precise information on the genes that encode their antigens. Translation among the various protein and gene identifier types proved non-trivial because of one-to-many and many-to-one relationships. To organize the antibody, protein, and gene information, we initially developed a relational database in Filemaker for our own use. When it became apparent that the information would be useful to many other researchers faced with the need to choose or characterize antibodies, we developed it further as AbMiner, a fully relational web-based database under MySQL, programmed in Java. AbMiner is a user-friendly, web-based relational database of information on > 600 commercially available antibodies that we validated by Western blot for protein microarray studies. It includes many types of information on the antibody, the immunogen, the vendor, the antigen, and the antigen's gene. Multiple gene and protein identifier types provide links to corresponding entries in a variety of other public databases, including resources for phosphorylation-specific antibodies. AbMiner also includes our quality-control data against a pool of 60 diverse cancer cell types (the NCI-60) and also protein expression levels for the NCI-60 cells measured using our high-density "reverse-phase" protein lysate microarrays for a selection of the listed antibodies. Some other available database resources give information on antibody specificity for one or a couple of cell types. In contrast, the data in AbMiner indicate specificity with respect to the antigens in a pool of 60 diverse cell types from nine different tissues of origin. AbMiner is a relational database that

  16. Description of CRIB, the GIPSY retrieval mechanism, and the interface to the General Electric MARK III Service : CRIB, the mineral resources data bank of the U.S. Geological Survey--guide for public users, 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, James Alfred; Keefer, Eleanor K.; Ofsharick, Regina A.; Mason, George T.; Tracy, Patricia; Atkins, Mary

    1978-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Computerized Resources Information Bank (CRIB) is being made available for public use through the computer facilities of the University of Oklahoma and the General Electric Company, U.S.A. The use of General Electric's worldwide information-services network provides access to the CRIB file to a worldwide clientele. This manual, which consists of two chapters, is intended as a guide to users who wish to interrogate the file. Chapter A contains a description of the CRIB file, information on the use of the GIPSY retrieval system, and a description of the General Electric MARK III Service. Chapter B contains a description of the individual data items in the CRIB record as well as code lists. CRIB consists of a set of variable-length records on the metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources of the United States and other countries. At present, 31,645 records in the master file are being made available. The record contains information on mineral deposits and mineral commodities. Some topics covered are: deposit name, location, commodity information, description of deposit, geology, production, reserves, potential resources, and references. The data are processed by the GIPSY program, which maintains the data file and builds, updates, searches, and prints the records using simple yet versatile command statements. Searching and selecting records is accomplished by specifying the presence, absence, or content of any element of information in the record; these specifications can be logically linked to prepare sophisticated search strategies. Output is available in the form of the complete record, a listing of selected parts of the record, or fixed-field tabulations. The General Electric MARK III Service is a computerized information services network operating internationally by land lines, satellites, and undersea cables. The service is available by local telephone to 500 cities in North America, Western Europe, Australia, Southeast Asia, Japan

  17. Sustainability in the UK construction minerals industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability in the UK construction minerals industry Clive Mitchell, Industrial Minerals Specialist, British Geological Survey, Nottingham, UK Email: Sustainability is not just about environmental protection it also concerns biodiversity, community relations, competence, employment, geodiversity, health and safety, resource efficiency, restoration and stakeholder accountability. The UK construction minerals industry aims to supply essential materials in a sustainabl...

  18. Value and depreciation of mineral resources over the very long run: An empirical contrast of different methods

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Varas, M. del Mar

    2005-01-01

    The paper contrasts empirically the results of alternative methods for estimating the value and the depreciation of mineral resources. The historical data of Mexico and Venezuela, covering the period 1920s-1980s, is used to contrast the results of several methods. These are the present value, the net price method, the user cost method and the imputed income method. The paper establishes that the net price and the user cost are not competing methods as such, but alternative adjustments to diff...

  19. Selection of a mineral binder with potentialities for the stabilization/solidification of aluminum metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cau Dit Coumes, C., E-mail: celine.cau-dit-coumes@cea.fr [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA/DEN/MAR/DTCD/SPDE, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France); Lambertin, D.; Lahalle, H.; Antonucci, P. [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA/DEN/MAR/DTCD/SPDE, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France); Cannes, C.; Delpech, S. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud 11, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Binders capable of reducing the pore solution pH compared with Portland cements are reviewed. • The binders are then tested against aluminum corrosion. • Corrosion of aluminum metal is minimal with magnesium phosphate cement. • The H{sub 2} release can be reduced still further by adding LiNO{sub 3} to the mixing solution. • Electrochemical characterizations show that aluminum tends to a passive state. - Abstract: In a strongly alkaline medium, such as that encountered in conventional cementitious materials based on Portland cement, aluminum metal is corroded, with continued production of hydrogen. In order to develop a mineral matrix having enhanced compatibility with aluminum, a literature review was first undertaken to identify binders capable of reducing the pore solution pH compared with Portland cement. An experimental study was then carried out to measure the hydrogen production resulting from corrosion of aluminum metal rods encapsulated in the different selected cement pastes. The best results were achieved with magnesium phosphate cement, which released very little hydrogen over the duration of the study. This production could be reduced still further by adding a corrosion inhibitor (lithium nitrate) to the mixing solution. Open circuit potential measurement and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of aluminum electrode encapsulated in two pastes based on Portland cement and magnesium phosphate cement showed different redox behaviors. In the Portland cement paste, the electrochemical data confirmed the corrosion of aluminum whereas this latter tended to a passive state in the magnesium phosphate binder.

  20. Research cooperation project on environmentally friendly technology for highly efficient mineral resources extraction and treatment. Detail design for pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Photographs and drawings were edited into a book in relation with a joint project for environment preservation technologies in high-efficiency extraction and treatment of mineral resources, and detail design for a pilot plant. The book classified the related devices into fabricated devices, purchased devices and electrical devices, and contains detailed drawings and photographs thereof. (NEDO)

  1. Metal mobilisation in hydrothermal sediments at the TAG Hydrothermal Field (MAR, 26°N)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrieux, A. M.; Lichtschlag, A.; Martins, S.; Barriga, F. J.; Petersen, S.; Murton, B. J.

    2017-12-01

    Metalliferous sediments in the vicinity of hydrothermal systems are enriched in base metals, but few studies have addressed their potential as mineral resources. These metalliferous sediments have been accumulated by different processes and reflect modifications of the primary mineral deposits by: oxidation of the chimney materials, in situ precipitation of low-temperature minerals and mass wasting. To understand the post-formation processes in metalliferous sediments, we investigated sub-seafloor metal mobilisation in different geological environments. This presentation focuses on the TAG Hydrothermal Field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 26°N) and explores sediment and pore water compositions using ICP-MS and ICP-OES. We use reactive transport modelling to interpret the degree of metal remobilisation and to identify the most important geochemical reactions in the different sediments. The pore water concentrations measured in sediments above inactive sulphide mounds present constant major elements composition that indicates this environment is dominated by complete exchange with seawater. The sediments, that are mainly composed of hematite and goethite formed during the oxidation of sulphides, have low Cu concentrations (sediments and capped by more recent sediment slumping. In the depositionary channels, pore waters show metal concentrations affected by diagenesis and redox-sensitive metals are released at depth (e.g. Mn2+ and Cu2+). The leaching of the primary sulphides (e.g. deprecated grains of chalcopyrite), and metal mobilisation lead to an enrichment of Cu and Zn at shallower depth. Here, some stratigraphic horizons scavenge metallic cations back into solid phases and form Mn-oxide crusts between 30 and 60 cm, in which Cu concentrations also increase. Our results demonstrate that metal mobilisation differs depending on the geological environment and their related accumulation processes, causing the absence of Cu on the top of inactive hydrothermal mounds but enriched

  2. International strategic minerals inventory summary report; zirconium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    Zircon, a zirconium silicate, is currently the most important commercial zirconium-bearing mineral. Baddeleyite, a natural form of zirconia, is less important but has some specific end uses. Both zircon and baddeleyite occur in hard-rock and placer deposits, but at present all zircon production is from placer deposits. Most baddeleyite production is from hard-rock deposits, principally as a byproduct of copper and phosphate-rock mining. World zirconium resources in identified, economically exploitable deposits are about 46 times current production rates. Of these resources, some 71 percent are in South Africa, Australia, and the United States. The principal end uses of zirconium minerals are in ceramic applications and as refractories, abrasives, and mold linings in foundries. A minor amount, mainly of zircon, is used for the production of hafnium-free zirconium metal, which is used principally for sheathing fuel elements in nuclear reactors and in the chemical-processing industry, aerospace engineering, and electronics. Australia and South Africa are the largest zircon producers and account for more than 70 percent of world output; the United States and the Soviet Union account for another 20 percent. South Africa accounts for almost all the world's production of baddeleyite, which is about 2 percent of world production of contained zirconia. Australia and South Africa are the largest exporters of zircon. Unless major new deposits are developed in countries that have not traditionally produced zircon, the pattern of world production is unlikely to change by 2020. The proportions, however, of production that come from existing producing countries may change somewhat.

  3. Risk of post-fire metal mobilization into surface water resources: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Joji; Dowling, Kim; Florentine, Singarayer

    2017-12-01

    One of the significant economic benefits to communities around the world of having pristine forest catchments is the supply of substantial quantities of high quality potable water. This supports a saving of around US$ 4.1 trillion per year globally by limiting the cost of expensive drinking water treatments and provision of unnecessary infrastructure. Even low levels of contaminants specifically organics and metals in catchments when in a mobile state can reduce these economic benefits by seriously affecting the water quality. Contamination and contaminant mobility can occur through natural and anthropogenic activities including forest fires. Moderate to high intensity forest fires are able to alter soil properties and release sequestered metals from sediments, soil organic matter and fragments of vegetation. In addition, the increase in post-fire erosion rate by rainfall runoff and strong winds facilitates the rapid transport of these metals downslope and downstream. The subsequent metal deposition in distal soil and water bodies can influence surface water quality with potential impacts to the larger ecosystems inclusive of negative effects on humans. This is of substantial concern as 4 billion hectares of forest catchments provide high quality water to global communities. Redressing this problem requires quantification of the potential effects on water resources and instituting rigorous fire and environmental management plans to mitigate deleterious effects on catchment areas. This paper is a review of the current state of the art literature dealing with the risk of post-fire mobilization of the metals into surface water resources. It is intended to inform discussion on the preparation of suitable management plans and policies during and after fire events in order to maintain potable water quality in a cost-effective manner. In these times of climate fluctuation and increased incidence of fires, the need for development of new policies and management frameworks

  4. Reductive mineralization of cellulose with vanadium, iron and tungsten chlorides and access to MxOy metal oxides and MxOy/C metal oxide/carbon composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Aurélien; Hesemann, Peter; Alauzun, Johan G; Boury, Bruno

    2017-10-15

    M x O y and M x O y /C composites (M=V, Fe and W) were obtained by mineralization of cellulose with several metal chlorides. Cellulose was used both as a templating agent and as an oxygen and a carbon source. Soluble chloride molecules (VOCl 3 and WCl 6 ) and a poorly soluble ionic chloride compound (FeCl 3 ) were chosen as metal oxide precursors. In a first time, primary metal oxide/cellulose composites were obtained via a thermal treatment by reacting urea impregnated filter paper with the corresponding metal chlorides in an autoclave at 150°C after 3days. After either pyrolysis or calcination steps of these intermediate materials, interesting metal oxides with various morphologies were obtained (V 2 O 5, V 2 O 3 , Fe 3 O 4 , WO 3, H 0.23 WO 3 ), composites (V 2 O 3 /C) as well as carbides (hexagonal W 2 C and WC, Fe 3 C) This result highlight the reductive role that can play cellulose during the pyrolysis step that allows to tune the composition of M x O y /C composites. The materials were characterized by FTIR, Raman, TGA, XRD and SEM. This study highlights that cellulose can be used for a convenient preparation of a variety of highly demanded M x O y and M x O y /C composites with original shapes and morphologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Increasing phosphorus concentration in the extraradical hyphae of Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198 leads to a concomitant increase in metal minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Jiang, Caiyun; Zhou, Jiachao; Declerck, Stéphane; Tian, Changyan; Feng, Gu

    2016-11-01

    Plants associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) acquire phosphorus via roots and extraradical hyphae. How soil P level affects P accumulation within hyphae and how P in hyphae influences the accumulation of metal minerals remains little explored. A bi-compartmented in vitro cultivation system separating a root compartment (RC), containing a Ri T-DNA transformed carrot root associated to the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198, from a hyphal compartment (HC), containing only the extraradical hyphae, was used. The HC contained a liquid growth medium (i.e., the modified Strullu-Romand medium containing P in the form of KH 2 PO 4 ) without (0 μM) or adjusted to 35, 100, and 700 μM of KH 2 PO 4 . The accumulation of P and metal minerals (Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Cu, Mn) within extraradical hyphae and AMF-colonized roots, and the expression of the phosphate transporter gene GintPT were assessed. The expression of GintPT in the extraradical hyphae did not differ in absence of KH 2 PO 4 or in presence of 35 and 100 μM KH 2 PO 4 in the HC but was markedly reduced in presence of 700 μM KH 2 PO 4 . Hyphal P concentration was significantly lowest in absence of KH 2 PO 4 , intermediate at 35 and 100 μM KH 2 PO 4 and significantly highest in presence of 700 μM KH 2 PO 4 in the HC. The concentrations of K, Mg, and Na were positively associated with the concentration of P in the extraradical hyphae developing in the HC. Similarly, P concentration in extraradical hyphae in the HC was related to P concentration in the growth medium and influenced the concentration of K, Mg, and Na. The accumulation of the metal mineral K, Mg, and Na in the extraradical hyphae developing in the HC was possibly related to their function in neutralizing the negative charges of PolyP accumulated in the hyphae.

  6. Proceedings of XXIV international mineral processing congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Dianzuo; Sun Chuan Yao; Wang Fu Liang; Zhang Li Cheng; Han Long (eds.)

    2008-07-01

    Topics covered in volume 1 include applied mineralogy, comminution, classification, physical separation, flotation chemistry, sulphide flotation, non-sulphide flotation and reagent in mineral industry. Volume 2 covers processing of complex ores, processing of industrial minerals and coal, solid liquid separation, dispersion and aggregation, process simulation, expert systems and control of mineral processing, biohydrometallurgy, and mineral chemical processing. Volume 3 contains powder technology, mineral materials, treatment and recycling for solid wastes, waste water treatment, secondary resource recovery, soil remediation, concentrator engineering and process design, and application of mineral processing in related industry. It includes a CD-ROM of the proceedings.

  7. Influence of non-clay minerals on the interaction between metallic iron and Callovo-Oxfordian clay fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, C.; Pelletier, M.; Villieras, F.; Michau, N.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the context of the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, it is of prime importance to understand the interaction mechanisms between the geological matrix, Callovo-Oxfordian clay rock (COx) and metallic iron, from the package overpack. In order to evidence the individual role of each clay component entering in the mineralogy of the COx, interactions between metallic iron and pure clays (smectites, illite and kaolinite) were first conducted. To investigate the role of the other minerals, the reactivity of COx, COx clay fraction (COxCF) and mixtures between COxCF and quartz, calcite or pyrite, was studied. Clays and additional minerals were put in contact with powder metallic iron with a weight ratio iron:clay fixed at 1:3 and a clay:solution ratio of 1:20. Proportions of non-clay minerals were deduced from the average COx composition: 50% clays, 24.5% quartz, 24.5% calcite and 1% pyrite. Batch experiments were carried out in anoxic conditions at 90 deg. C in the presence of background electrolyte (NaCl 0.02 M.L -1 , CaCl 2 0.04 M.L -1 ) in Parr reactors for durations of one, three or nine months. After reaction, solid and liquid phases were separated by centrifugation and characterized by classical techniques combining chemical analyses (liquid analyses, transmission electron microscopy combined with Energy Dispersive of X-rays spectroscopy TEM-EDS), mineralogical (X-ray diffraction), spectroscopic ( 57 Fe Moessbauer) and morphometric techniques (TEM, scanning electron microscopy and N 2 adsorption). For COx, COxCF and all the pure clay phases, major evolutions were observed during the first month, which shows that the oxidation of metallic iron is rapid in our experimental conditions. Release of iron cations in solution, pH increase (8-10) and Eh decrease (reductive conditions) are responsible for the partial dissolution of initial clay phases. Released iron is involved in the crystallization of Fe

  8. Heavy Metals Contaminated Soil Project, Resource Recovery Project, and Dynamic Underground Stripping Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Technology Development (EM-50) (OTD) as an element of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in November, 1989. OTD has begun to search out, develop, test and demonstrate technologies that can now or in the future be applied to the enormous remediation problem now facing the DOE and the United States public in general. Technology demonstration projects have been designed to attack a separate problem as defined by DOE. The Heavy Metals Contaminated Soil Project was conceived to test and demonstrate off-the-shelf technologies (dominantly from the mining industry) that can be brought to bear on the problem of radionuclide and heavy metal contamination in soils and sediments. The Resource Recovery Project is tasked with identifying, developing, testing, and evaluating new and innovative technologies for the remediation of metal contaminated surface and groundwater. An innovative twist on this project is the stated goal of recovering the metals, formerly disposed of as a waste, for reuse and resale, thereby transforming them into a usable resource. Finally, the Dynamic Underground Stripping Project was developed to demonstrate and remediate underground spills of hydrocarbons from formations that are (1) too deep for excavation, and/or (2) require in-situ remediation efforts of long duration. This project has already been shown effective in reducing the time for remediation by conventional methods from an estimated 200 years at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to less than one year. The savings in time and dollars from this technology alone can be immeasurable

  9. Increasing strategic role for SA's minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The strategic importance of South Africa's vast mineral resources has been strongly underlined by the Minister of Defence, Mr P.W. Botha. It was pointed out that South Africa ranked among the world's five biggest suppliers of nonfuel minerals and that she has demonstrated her potential as the West's most important source of minerals and strategic raw materials. South Africa therefore exercise a very important stabilising influence on the supply and prices of critical, strategic minerals and raw materials, regarded as of the greatest importance to the Western economy

  10. 30 CFR 779.21 - Soil resources information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Soil resources information. 779.21 Section 779.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS SURFACE MINING PERMIT...

  11. Trace mineral interactions during elevated calcium consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.T.; Luhrsen, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    Elevated calcium consumption is reported to affect trace mineral bioavailability. The authors examined this phenomenon in both single dose radio-label test meals and an eight week feeding trial in rats. In the single dose studies, human milk, cows milk, and various calcium sources were examined in relation to radio-iron and radio-zinc retention. 59 Fe retention was greater from human milk than cows milk. However, when the calcium content of human milk was adjusted (with CaHPO 4 or CaCO 3 ) to equal the level in cows milk, iron retention was depressed. Similarly, when calcium sources (CaCO 3 , CaHPO 4 , hydroxy-apatite, bone meal) were examined at different calcium:metal molar ratios, the degree of inhibition on metal retention varied. In general, phosphate salts were more inhibiting than carbonates. In the feeding trial, calcium was fed in diets at normal (0.5%) or elevated (1.5%) levels. Serum, liver, kidney, and bone trace mineral profiles were obtained. In general, most trace elements showed decreased levels in the tissues. Zinc and iron were most striking, followed by magnesium with minor changes in copper. A high calcium:high mineral supplemented group was also fed. Mixed mineral supplementation prevented all calcium interactions. These data indicate the importance of calcium mineral interactions in bioavailability considerations in both milk sources and in mineral supplementation

  12. Lineament analysis of mineral areas of interest in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Bernard E.; Mack, Thomas J.; Thompson, Allyson L.

    2012-01-01

    During a preliminary mineral resource assessment of Afghanistan (Peters and others, 2007), 24 mineralized areas of interest (AOIs) were highlighted as the focus for future economic development throughout various parts of the country. In addition to located mineral resources of value, development of a viable mining industry in Afghanistan will require the location of suitable groundwater resources for drinking, processing of mineral ores for use or for export, and for agriculture and food production in areas surrounding and supporting future mining enterprises. This report and accompanying GIS datasets describe the results of both automated and manual mapping of lineaments throughout the 24 mineral occurrence AOIs described in detail by Peters and others (2007; 2011). For this study, we define lineaments as "mappable linear or curvilinear features of a surface whose parts align in a straight or slightly curving relationship that may be the expression of a fault or other linear zones of weakness" as derived from remote sensing sources such as optical imagery, radar imagery or digital elevation models (DEMs) (Sabins, 2007).

  13. Biological role in the transformation of platinum-group mineral grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, Frank; Zammit, Carla M.; Shar, Sahar S.; Etschmann, Barbara; Bottrill, Ralph; Southam, Gordon; Ta, Christine; Kilburn, Matthew; Oberthür, Thomas; Ball, Andrew S.; Brugger, Joël

    2016-04-01

    Platinum-group elements are strategically important metals. Finding new deposits is becoming increasingly difficult owing to our limited understanding of the processes that affect their mobility in surface environments. Microorganisms have been shown to promote the mobility of metals around ore deposits. Here we show that microorganisms influence the mobility of platinum-group elements in mineral grains collected from Brazil, Australia and Colombia. Scanning electron microscopy showed biofilms covering the platinum-group mineral grains. The biofilms contained abundant platinum-group element nanoparticles and microcrystalline aggregates, and were dominated by Proteobacteria, many of which were closely related to known metal-resistant species. Some platinum-group mineral grains contained carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, selenium and iodine, suggesting the grains may be biogenic in origin. Molecular analyses show that Brazilian platinum-palladium grains hosted specific bacterial communities, which were different in composition from communities associated with gold grains, or communities in surrounding soils and sediments. Nano-phase metallic platinum accumulated when a metallophillic bacterium was incubated with a percolating platinum-containing medium, suggesting that biofilms can cause the precipitation of mobile platinum complexes. We conclude that biofilms are capable of forming or transforming platinum-group mineral grains, and may play an important role for platinum-group element dispersion and re-concentration in surface environments.

  14. Space Resources Roundtable 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatiev, A.

    2000-01-01

    Economy in CisLunar Space. Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy. Cost-Effective Approaches to Lunar Passenger Transportation. Lunar Mineral Resources: Extraction and Application. Space Resources Development - The Link Between Human Exploration and the Long-term Commercialization of Space. Toward a More Comprehensive Evaluation of Space Information. Development of Metal Casting Molds by Sol-Gel Technology Using Planetary Resources. A New Concept in Planetary Exploration: ISRU with Power Bursts. Bold Space Ventures Require Fervent Public Support. Hot-pressed Iron from Lunar Soil. The Lunar Dust Problem: A Possible Remedy. Considerations on Use of Lunar Regolith in Lunar Constructions. Experimental Study on Water Production by Hydrogen Reduction of Lunar Soil Simulant in a Fixed Bed Reactor.

  15. 30 CFR 783.21 - Soil resources information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Soil resources information. 783.21 Section 783.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS UNDERGROUND MINING PERMIT APPLICATION...

  16. Who owns the Moon? extraterrestrial aspects of land and mineral resources ownership

    CERN Document Server

    Pop, Virgiliu

    2008-01-01

    This work investigates the permissibility and viability of property rights on the celestial bodies, particularly the extraterrestrial aspects of land and mineral resources ownership. In lay terms, it aims to find an answer to the question "Who owns the Moon?" After critically analyzing and dismantling with legal arguments the trivial issue of sale of extraterrestrial real estate, the book addresses the apparent silence of the law in the field of landed property in outer space, scrutinizing whether the factual situation on the extraterrestrial realms calls for legal regulations. The legal status of asteroids and the relationship between appropriation under international law and civil law appropriation are duly examined, as well as different property patterns – such as the commons regime, the Common Heritage of the Mankind, and the Frontier paradigm. Virgiliu Pop is one of world's specialists in the area of space property rights. A member of the International Institute of Space Law, Virgiliu has authored seve...

  17. Minerals Planning Policies and Supply Practices in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ike, P.

    Table of Contents: 1 Country background. 2 General description of the mineral industry. 3 National system legislation governing ownership resources. 4 National system governing securing supply of minerals. 5 Land use planning. 6 Evaluation of sustainability of mineral supply. 7 Identification of the

  18. Minerals Planning Policies and Supply Practices in Great Britain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ike, P.; van der Molen, S.D.A.

    Table of Contents: 1 Country background. 2 General description of the mineral industry. 3 National system legislation governing ownership resources. 4 National system governing securing supply of minerals. 5 Land use planning. 6 Evaluation of sustainability of mineral supply. 7 Identification of the

  19. Platinum-group elements and gold in base metal sulfides, platinum-group minerals, and Re-Os isotope compositions of the Uitkomst complex, South Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trubač, Jakub; Ackerman, Lukáš; Gauert, Ch.; Ďurišová, Jana; Hrstka, Tomáš

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 2 (2018), s. 439-461 ISSN 0361-0128 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15390S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : binary alloys * copper compounds * economic geology * gold * iridium * isotopes * ore deposits * osmium * palladium * platinum * platinum metals * pyrites * Rhenium * rhenium alloys * ruthenium * solid solutions * sulfur compounds * crustal materials * mass-balance calculations * massive sulfides * mineralized zone * monosulfide solid solutions * platinum group elements * platinum group elements (PGEs) * platinum group minerals Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy; AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology (ARUB-Q) OBOR OECD: Geology; Archaeology (ARUB-Q) Impact factor: 2.519, year: 2016

  20. Mineral resource of the month: manganese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corathers, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Manganese is a silver-colored metal resembling iron and often found in conjunction with iron. The earliest-known human use of manganese compounds was in the Stone Age, when early humans used manganese dioxide as pigments in cave paintings. In ancient Rome and Egypt, people started using it to color or remove the color from glass - a practice that continued to modern times. Today, manganese is predominantly used in metallurgical applications as an alloying addition, particularly in steel and cast iron production. Steel and cast iron together provide the largest market for manganese (historically 85 to 90 percent), but it is also alloyed with nonferrous metals such as aluminum and copper. Its importance to steel cannot be overstated, as almost all types of steel contain manganese and could not exist without it.

  1. Knowledge and Natural Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Justinussen, Jens Christian Svabo

    2016-01-01

    Arctic economies are generally natural resource based economies, whether they are indigenous economies largely dependent on living on the land or industrialized economies depending on marine resources, mineral resources or fossil or renewable energy resources. However, the central role of knowledge...

  2. Proceedings of the 41. annual meeting of the Canadian Mineral Processors : 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orford, I. [AMEC, Oakville, ON (Canada); Henderson, R. [Kinross Gold Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada); Zinck, J. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories] (comps.)

    2009-07-01

    This conference provided a forum for the exchange of mineral processing information. It addressed a broad range of issues affecting the minerals and metals sector, with particular reference to advances in technology that continue to improve mineral processing. New, highly efficient mineral extraction processes were presented along with process analysis methods and advanced control systems. In addition to a plenary session, the conference featured the following 6 sessions: (1) flotation, (2) operations, (3) laboratory and pilot plants, (4) precious metals, (5) new ideas and technologies, and (6) comminution. The conference featured 38 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  3. From Oxygen Generation to Metals Production: In Situ Resource Utilization by Molten Oxide Electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetpal, Deepak; Ducret, Andrew C.; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2003-01-01

    For the exploration of other bodies in the solar system, electrochemical processing is arguably the most versatile technology for conversion of local resources into usable commodities: by electrolysis one can, in principle, produce (1) breathable oxygen, (2) silicon for the fabrication of solar cells, (3) various reactive metals for use as electrodes in advanced storage batteries, and (4) structural metals such as steel and aluminum. Even so, to date there has been no sustained effort to develop such processes, in part due to the inadequacy of the database. The objective here is to identify chemistries capable of sustaining molten oxide electrolysis in the cited applications and to examine the behavior of laboratory-scale cells designed to generate oxygen and to produce metal. The basic research includes the study of the underlying high-temperature physical chemistry of oxide melts representative of lunar regolith and of Martian soil. To move beyond empirical approaches to process development, the thermodynamic and transport properties of oxide melts are being studied to help set the limits of composition and temperature for the processing trials conducted in laboratory-scale electrolysis cells. The goal of this investigation is to deliver a working prototype cell that can use lunar regolith and Martian soil to produce breathable oxygen along with metal by-product. Additionally, the process can be generalized to permit adaptation to accommodate different feedstock chemistries, such as those that will be encountered on other bodies in the solar system. The expected results of this research include: (1) the identification of appropriate electrolyte chemistries; (2) the selection of candidate anode and cathode materials compatible with electrolytes named above; and (3) performance data from a laboratory-scale cell producing oxygen and metal. On the strength of these results it should be possible to assess the technical viability of molten oxide electrolysis for in

  4. An exploration in mineral supply chain mapping using tantalum as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Viruet, Yadira; Menzie, W. David; Papp, John F.; Yager, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    This report uses the supply chain of tantalum (Ta) to investigate the complexity of mineral and metal supply chains in general and show how they can be mapped. A supply chain is made up of all the manufacturers, suppliers, information networks, and so forth, that provide the materials and parts that go into making up a final product. The mineral portion of the supply chain begins with mineral material in the ground (the ore deposit); extends through a series of processes that include mining, beneficiation, processing (smelting and refining), semimanufacture, and manufacture; and continues through transformation of the mineral ore into concentrates, refined mineral commodities, intermediate forms (such as metals and alloys), component parts, and, finally, complex products. This study analyses the supply chain of tantalum beginning with minerals in the ground to many of the final goods that contain tantalum.

  5. Stratigraphy of the Kapalga Formation north of Pine Creek and its relationship to base metal mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulevitch, J.

    1980-01-01

    The lithology, stratigraphy and mineralization of the Kapalga Formation (South Alligator Group) is described from the Margaret Syncline in the Pine Creek area of the Northern Territory of Australia. An interdigitation of carbonaceous siltstones and mudstones, chert, ashstones and tuffaceous chert, greywacke, siltstone, mudstone and minor banded iron formation (b.i.f.) characterises the Formation. These rocks define a vertical facies transition between low energy sediments of the underlying Koolpin Formation, and high energy sediments of the overlying Burrell Creek Formation. This transition is interlayered with numerous ashstone-tuffaceous chert horizons which were deposited during the waning stage of Gerowie Tuff sedimentation. The boundary between the Kapalga Formation of the South Alligator Group and the Burrell Creek Formation of the Finniss River Group is strictly conformable in this part of the Pine Creek 'Geosyncline'. Relict devitrified shards have been recognised in the Gerowie Tuff in the Margaret Syncline and these observations along with whole-rock chemical analyses conclusively support claims by previous investigators that these rocks are volcanic derivatives. Base metal mineralization at Iron Blow and Mt. Bonnie occurs as massive, stratiform, sulphide-silicate-carbonate lodes. The deposits are at the same stratigraphic level towards the base of the Kapalga Formation and minor stratification parallel with bedding has been observed. These features, and the association of the lodes with mud-flow breccias, lead to the conclusion that the lodes are syngenetic in origin. Thermochemical consideration of the sulphide assemblages together with the temporal relationship between the mineralization and Gerowie Tuff point to diagenetic devitrification of the underlying tuffaceous rocks as the source of the mineralization. Recent publications of experimental data from reaction of seawater and volcanic glass provide information which supports this thesis, and

  6. Minerals industry survey 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This is the eleventh Minerals Industry Survey produced by the Australian Mining Industry Council. It represents an invaluable time series on the minerals industry's financial performance, as well as an up to date description of the industry for the latest financial year. The survey has been conceived as a supplement to and expansion of the various Australian Bureau of Statistics and Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics publications which describe the exploration, mining and smelting and refining industries in Australia. The tables in this survey have been prepared by Coopers and Lybrand, Chartered Accountants, based on information supplied to them in confidence by the respondent companies.

  7. Mineral legislations applicable to beach sand industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Cruz, Eric

    2016-01-01

    India has got a wealth of natural resources in different geological environs and shoreline placers form an important constituent of the natural resources. Large reserves of beach sand minerals, viz. imenite, rutile, leucoxene, zircon, sillimanite, garnet and monazite are the economic minerals in the coastal and inland placer sands. In the federal structure of India, the State Governments are the owners of minerals located within their respective boundaries. The State Governments grant the mineral concessions for all the minerals located within the boundary of the State, under the provisions of the Acts and Rules framed for the purpose. Though the mineral wealth is under the control of the State, the power for framing the rules for the grant of mineral concessions vastly rest with the Central Government. Since mineral concessions are often granted for a longer duration of thirty to fifty years or more, a historical perspective of these rules are imperative in understanding the issues involved with BSM mining industry. Under the Govt. of India Act, 1935, Regulation of Mines and Oilfields and Mineral Development was kept under Federal control, declared by Federal Law. The word 'Federal' was substituted by the word 'Dominion' by the India (Provincial Constitution) Order, 1947. No legislation was, however, enacted in pursuance of above power until after Independence. However, the Govt. on India made the Mining Concession (Central) Rules, 1939 for regulating grants of prospecting license

  8. Characterization of iron and manganese minerals and their associated microbiota in different mine sites to reveal the potential interactions of microbiota with mineral formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hee; Kim, Bong-Soo; Chon, Chul-Min

    2018-01-01

    Different environmental conditions such as pH and dissolved elements of mine stream induce precipitation of different minerals and their associated microbial community may vary. Therefore, mine precipitates from various environmental conditions were collected and their associated microbiota were analyzed through metagenomic DNA sequencing. Various Fe and Mn minerals including ferrihydrite, schwertmannite, goethite, birnessite, and Mn-substituted δ-FeOOH (δ-(Fe 1-x , Mn x )OOH) were found in the different environmental conditions. The Fe and Mn minerals were enriched with toxic metal(loid)s including As, Cd, Ni and Zn, indicating they can act as scavengers of toxic metal(loid)s in mine streams. Under acidic conditions, Acidobacteria was dominant phylum and Gallionella (Fe oxidizing bacteria) was the predominant genus in these Fe rich environments. Manganese oxidizing bacteria, Hyphomicrobium, was found in birnessite forming environments. Leptolyngbya within Cyanobacteria was found in Fe and Mn oxidizing environments, and might contribute to Fe and Mn oxidation through the production of molecular oxygen. The potential interaction of microbial community with minerals in mine sites can be traced by analysis of microbial community in different Fe and Mn mineral forming environments. Iron and Mn minerals contribute to the removal of toxic metal(loid)s from mine water. Therefore, the understanding characteristics of mine precipitates and their associated microbes helps to develop strategies for the management of contaminated mine water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Heavy Metal Water Pollution in Transitional China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixuan Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available China’s socioeconomic transitions have dramatically accelerated its economic growth in last three decades, but also companioned with continuous environmental degradation. This study will advance the knowledge of heavy metal water pollution in China from a spatial–temporal perspective. Specifically, this study addressed the following: (1 spatial patterns of heavy metal water pollution levels were analyzed using data of prefecture-level cities from 2004 to 2011; and (2 spatial statistical methods were used to examine the underlying socioeconomic and physical factors behind water pollution including socioeconomic transitions (industrialization, urbanization, globalization and economic development, and environmental characteristic (natural resources, hydrology and vegetation coverage. The results show that only Cr pollution levels increased over the years. The individual pollution levels of the other four heavy metals, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb, declined. High heavy metal water pollution levels are closely associated with both anthropogenic activities and physical environments, in particular abundant mineral resources and industrialization prosperity. On the other hand, economic development and urbanization play important roles in controlling water pollution problems. The analytical findings will provide valuable information for policy-makers to initiate and adjust protocols and strategies for protecting water sources and controlling water pollution; thus improving the quality of living environments.

  10. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  11. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  12. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  13. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  14. 30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  15. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  16. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of the chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  17. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  18. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  19. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  20. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  1. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  2. Trends in the development of industrially assimilated renewable energy: the problem of resource restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizhegorodtsev, R. M.; Ratner, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    An analysis of the dynamics of the development of wind and solar energy and potential resource restrictions of the dissemination of these technologies of energy generation associated with intensive use of rare earth metals and some other mineral resources are presented. The technological prospects of various directions of decisions of the problem of resource restrictions, including escalating of volumes of extraction and production of necessary mineral components, creating substitutes of scarce materials and development of recycling are considered. The bottlenecks of each of the above-mentioned decisions were founded. Conclusions are drawn on the prospects of development of the Russian high-tech sectors of the economy in the context of the most probable decisions of the problem of resource restrictions of wind and solar energy. An increase in extraction and production of rare earth metals and some other materials, stimulation of domestic research and development (R&D) to create the permanent magnets of new types and new technologies of wind-powered generation, and reduction of the resource-demand and technology development of recycling the components of power equipment are the most prospective directions of progress. The innovations in these directions will be in demand on the European, Chinese, and North American markets in the near decades due to the end of the life cycle (approximately 30 years) of wind and solar energy projects started at the turn of the 20th-21st centuries (the beginning of exponential growth in plants). The private investors and relevant regional and federal government agencies can use the qualitative characteristics of the dynamics of industrially assimilated renewable energy to choose the most promising investment orientations in energy projects and selection of the most economically sound development methods of energy and related industries.

  3. Is there a metric for mineral deposit occurrence probabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, L.J.; Menzie, W.D.

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally, mineral resource assessments have been used to estimate the physical inventory of critical and strategic mineral commodities that occur in pieces of land and to assess the consequences of supply disruptions of these commodities. More recently, these assessments have been used to estimate the undiscovered mineral wealth in such pieces of land to assess the opportunity cost of using the land for purposes other than mineral production. The field of mineral resource assessment is an interdisciplinary field that draws elements from the disciplines of geology, economic geology (descriptive models), statistics and management science (grade and tonnage models), mineral economics, and operations research (computer simulation models). The purpose of this study is to assert that an occurrenceprobability metric exists that is useful in "filling out" an assessment both for areas in which only a trivial probability exists that a new mining district could be present and for areas where nontrivial probabilities exist for such districts. ?? 1993 Oxford University Press.

  4. Surface analytical techniques applied to minerals processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, R.St.C.

    1991-01-01

    An understanding of the chemical and physical forms of the chemically altered layers on the surfaces of base metal sulphides, particularly in the form of hydroxides, oxyhydroxides and oxides, and the changes that occur in them during minerals processing lies at the core of a complete description of flotation chemistry. This paper reviews the application of a variety of surface-sensitive techniques and methodologies applied to the study of surface layers on single minerals, mixed minerals, synthetic ores and real ores. Evidence from combined XPS/SAM/SEM studies have provided images and analyses of three forms of oxide, oxyhydroxide and hydroxide products on the surfaces of single sulphide minerals, mineral mixtures and complex sulphide ores. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  5. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Clark, Roger N.

    2016-02-08

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  6. Nonregenerative natural resources in a sustainable system of energy supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Alex M; Hamacher, Thomas

    2012-03-12

    Following the lead of the European Union in introducing binding measures to promote the use of regenerative energy forms, it is not unreasonable to assume that the global demand for combustible raw materials for energy generation will be reduced considerably in the second half of this century. This will not only have a favourable effect on the CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere, but will also help preserve fossil fuels-important as raw materials in the chemical industry-for future generations. Nevertheless, associated with the concomitant massive shift to regenerative energy forms, there will be a strong demand for other exhaustible raw materials, in particular metals, some of which are already regarded as scarce. After reviewing the debate on mineral depletion between "cornucopians" and "pessimists", we discuss the meaning of mineral "scarcity", particularly in the geochemical sense, and mineral "exhaustion". The expected drastic increase in demand for mineral resources caused by demographic and societal pressures, that is, due to the increase in in-use stock, is emphasised. Whilst not discussing the issue of "strong" versus "weak" sustainability in detail, we conclude that regenerative energy systems-like nearly all resource-consuming systems in our society-do not necessarily satisfy generally accepted sustainability criteria. In this regard, we discuss some current examples, namely, lithium and cobalt for batteries, rare earth-based permanent magnets for wind turbines, cadmium and tellurium for solar cells and copper for electrical power distribution. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. 30 CFR 210.201 - How do I submit Form MMS-4430, Solid Minerals Production and Royalty Report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Colorado 80217-5810; or (ii) For courier service or overnight mail (excluding Express Mail): Minerals... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I submit Form MMS-4430, Solid Minerals Production and Royalty Report? 210.201 Section 210.201 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE...

  8. Mineral exploration in Austria, possibilities and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    The author reviews the present situation in Austria for mineral exploration. He considers the geological chances of finding new resources, presents a short description of commodities and finally gives proposals for a natural resources inventory. (Auth.)

  9. The Global Resource Nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, M. de; Duijne, F. van; Jong, S. de; Jones, J.; Luit, E. van; Bekkers, F.F.; Auping, W.

    2014-01-01

    Supply and demand of resources are connected in a complex way. This interconnectivity has been framed as the global resource nexus and can conceivebly include all types of resources. This study focus on the nexus of five essential natural resources: land, food, energy, water and minerals. Together

  10. Mesozoic Magmatism and Base-Metal Mineralization in the Fortymile Mining District, Eastern Alaska - Initial Results of Petrographic, Geochemical, and Isotopic Studies in the Mount Veta Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Slack, John F.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Mortensen, James K.

    2009-01-01

    We present here the initial results of a petrographic, geochemical, and isotopic study of Mesozoic intrusive rocks and spatially associated Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu-Au prospects in the Fortymile mining district in the southern Eagle quadrangle, Alaska. Analyzed samples include mineralized and unmineralized drill core from 2006 and 2007 exploration by Full Metal Minerals, USA, Inc., at the Little Whiteman (LWM) and Fish prospects, and other mineralized and plutonic samples collected within the mining district is part of the USGS study. Three new ion microprobe U-Pb zircon ages are: 210 +- 3 Ma for quartz diorite from LWM, 187 +- 3 Ma for quartz monzonite from Fish, and 70.5 +- 1.1 Ma for altered rhyolite porphyry from Fish. We also present 11 published and unpublished Mesozoic thermal ionization mass spectrometric U-Pb zircon and titanite ages and whole-rock geochemical data for the Mesozoic plutonic rocks. Late Triassic and Early Jurassic plutons generally have intermediate compositions and are slightly foliated, consistent with synkinematic intrusion. Several Early Jurassic plutons contain magmatic epidote, indicating emplacement of the host plutons at mesozonal crustal depths of greater than 15 km. Trace-element geochemical data indicate an arc origin for the granitoids, with an increase in the crustal component with time. Preliminary study of drill core from the LWM Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag prospect supports a carbonate-replacement model of mineralization. LWM massive sulfides consist of sphalerite, galena, and minor pyrite and chalcopyrite, in a gangue of calcite and lesser quartz; silver resides in Sb-As-Ag sulfosalts and pyrargyrite, and probably in submicroscopic inclusions within galena. Whole-rock analyses of LWM drill cores also show elevated In, an important metal in high-technology products. Hypogene mineralized rocks at Fish, below the secondary Zn-rich zone, are associated with a carbonate host and also may be of replacement origin, or alternatively, may be a magnetite

  11. Calderas and mineralization: volcanic geology and mineralization in the Chianti caldera complex, Trans-Pecos Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duex, T.W.; Henry, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes preliminary results of an ongoing study of the volcanic stratigraphy, caldera activity, and known and potential mineralization of the Chinati Mountains area of Trans-Pecos Texas. Many ore deposits are spatially associated with calderas and other volcanic centers. A genetic relationship between calderas and base and precious metal mineralization has been proposed by some and denied by others. Steven and others have demonstrated that calderas provide an important setting for mineralization in the San Juan volcanic field of Colorado. Mineralization is not found in all calderas but is apparently restricted to calderas that had complex, postsubsidence igneous activity. A comparison of volcanic setting, volcanic history, caldera evolution, and evidence of mineralization in Trans-Pecos to those of the San Juan volcanic field, a major mineral producer, indicates that Trans-Pecos Texas also could be an important mineralized region. The Chianti caldera complex in Trans-Pecos Texas contains at least two calderas that have had considerable postsubsidence activity and that display large areas of hydrothermal alteration and mineralization. Abundant prospects in Trans-Pecos and numerous producing mines immediately south of the Trans-Pecos volcanic field in Mexico are additional evidence that ore-grade deposits could occur in Texas.

  12. Study of heavy metal concentration (As, Ba, Cd, Hg, Pb, Crin water resources and river of Borujerd city in 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    bahram kamarehei

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available with industrial and economic growth and different material production that humans gained from natural resources for their comfort and walfare, inwardly introduced toxic material and heavy metal entered environment that there created serious problems for themselves and environment. This study accomplished to determine heavy metal concentration (As, Ba, Cd, Hg, Pb, Crin water resources and river of Borujerd city in 2008-2009. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to determine heavy metal concentration (As, Ba, Cd, Hg, Pb, Cr in water resources and river of Borujerd city. 54 samples of water were taken from 18 drinking water wells, and also in two times 8 samples of Borujerd river were taken from before and after the city. Then samples carried into the lab and were concentrated ten times using expressed methods and standard methods. Then heavy metal concentration determined by AAP (WFX 130 and results analyzed by SPSS and EXCEL software. Results: Heavy metal concentration average (As, Ba, Cd, Hg, Pb, Cr in drinking water wells were 0. 0, 0. 3222, 0. 0014, 0. 0002, 0. 0077 mg/l respectively. and heavy metal concentration in river water after the city has been increased than before the city. Conclusion: Results indicated that heavy metal concentration average in Borujerd drinking water wells were lower than standard amounts and drinking water wells didn’t pollute with heavy metal. But heavy metal concentration in river water after the city has been increased than the before of it because city waste water enters the city river.

  13. ASEAN Mineral Database and Information System (AMDIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Y.; Ohno, T.; Bandibas, J. C.; Wakita, K.; Oki, Y.; Takahashi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    AMDIS has lunched officially since the Fourth ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Minerals on 28 November 2013. In cooperation with Geological Survey of Japan, the web-based GIS was developed using Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) and the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. The system is composed of the local databases and the centralized GIS. The local databases created and updated using the centralized GIS are accessible from the portal site. The system introduces distinct advantages over traditional GIS. Those are a global reach, a large number of users, better cross-platform capability, charge free for users, charge free for provider, easy to use, and unified updates. Raising transparency of mineral information to mining companies and to the public, AMDIS shows that mineral resources are abundant throughout the ASEAN region; however, there are many datum vacancies. We understand that such problems occur because of insufficient governance of mineral resources. Mineral governance we refer to is a concept that enforces and maximizes the capacity and systems of government institutions that manages minerals sector. The elements of mineral governance include a) strengthening of information infrastructure facility, b) technological and legal capacities of state-owned mining companies to fully-engage with mining sponsors, c) government-led management of mining projects by supporting the project implementation units, d) government capacity in mineral management such as the control and monitoring of mining operations, and e) facilitation of regional and local development plans and its implementation with the private sector.

  14. New Opportunities to Expand Information on Intense-Strained State of the Earth's Crust in the Areas of Development Mineral Resources During Monitoring Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pershin Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is established that new safe and pollution-free technologies of development of Kuzbass coal deposits should be based on new knowledge of development geodynamic and technogenic processes in exploration of mineral resources. Such information is impossible without formation of new models of deformations of the earth crust blocks. Now in traditional technologies of geomechanical ensuring development of mineral resources the main characteristic is the information about the kinematics of these processes. A comprehensive approach which beginning is development of the theory for justification of scale of the explored territory and establishment of uniform integral parameters of a strained state of blocks of crust. Justification of scale of the explored territory defines effectiveness of expenses. Establishment of uniform integral parameters of a strained state of crustal blocks characterizes the new level of information exchange between sciences about Earth and geomechanics. Practical use of the specified theory consists of assessment of geodynamic danger at development of coal fields.

  15. Recovery and recycling of aluminum, copper, and precious metals from dismantled weapon components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundiler, I.H.; Lutz, J.D.; Wheelis, W.T.

    1994-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is tasked to support The Department of Energy in the dismantlement and disposal of SNL designed weapon components. These components are sealed in a potting compound, and contain heavy metals, explosive, radioactive, and toxic materials. SNL developed a process to identify and remove the hazardous sub-components utilizing real-time radiography and abrasive water-jet cutting. The components were then crushed, granulated, screened, and separated into an aluminum and a precious-and-base-metals fraction using air-tables. Plastics were further cleaned for disposal as non-hazardous waste. New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources assisted SNL in investigation of size-reduction and separation technologies

  16. Extracellular electron transfer mechanisms between microorganisms and minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Liang; Dong, Hailiang; Reguera, Gemma; Beyenal, Haluk; Lu, Anhuai; Liu, Juan; Yu, Han-Qing; Fredrickson, James K.

    2016-08-30

    Electrons can be transferred from microorganisms to multivalent metal ions that are associated with minerals and vice versa. As the microbial cell envelope is neither physically permeable to minerals nor electrically conductive, microorganisms have evolved strategies to exchange electrons with extracellular minerals. In this Review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that underlie the ability of microorganisms to exchange electrons, such as c-type cytochromes and microbial nanowires, with extracellular minerals and with microorganisms of the same or different species. Microorganisms that have extracellular electron transfer capability can be used for biotechnological applications, including bioremediation, biomining and the production of biofuels and nanomaterials.

  17. Marine minerals: The Indian perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Nath, B.N.; Banerjee, R.

    the Konkan Coast, Maharashtra. The future demand for economic minerals and metals for the year 2000 vis-a-vis the production of material in the last twelve years has been calculated, and in light of the above, the importance and chances of offshore...

  18. The cellulose resource matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, E.R.P.; Yilmaz, G.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2013-01-01

    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where

  19. Australian mineral industry annual review 1977 (including information to June 1978)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, J

    1979-01-01

    This article records growth of the Australian mineral industry and reports production, consumption, treatment, trade, prices, new developments, exploration, and resources for all mineral commodities including fuels. Equivalent development abroad is summarized. Appendices include principal mineral producers, associations, etc. and royalties. Black coal is described under the headings: production, ex-mine value of output, employment, wages and salaries, production per manshift, interstate trade, port facilities, consumption, stock, prices, new developments, exploration, resources, world review, and coke. There are numerous tables of data and a flow chart of the Australian black coal industry, 1977. Brown coal includes production, consumption, new developments, exploration, resources, and world review.

  20. Uncertainty in the availability of natural resources: Fossil fuels, critical metals and biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speirs, Jamie; McGlade, Christophe; Slade, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    Energy policies are strongly influenced by resource availability and recoverability estimates. Yet these estimates are often highly uncertain, frequently incommensurable, and regularly contested. This paper explores how the uncertainties surrounding estimates of the availability of fossil fuels, biomass and critical metals are conceptualised and communicated. The contention is that a better understanding of the uncertainties surrounding resource estimates for both conventional and renewable energy resources can contribute to more effective policy decision making in the long term. Two complementary approaches for framing uncertainty are considered in detail: a descriptive typology of uncertainties and a framework that conceptualises uncertainty as alternative states of incomplete knowledge. Both have the potential to be useful analytical and communication tools. For the three resource types considered here we find that data limitations, inconsistent definitions and the use of incommensurable methodologies present a pervasive problem that impedes comparison. Many aspects of resource uncertainty are also not commonly captured in the conventional resource classification schemes. This highlights the need for considerable care when developing and comparing aggregate resource estimates and when using these to inform strategic energy policy decisions. - Highlights: • Resource estimates are highly uncertain, frequently incommensurable, and regularly contested. • Data limitations need to be overcome, and methodologies harmonised and improved. • Sustainability and socio-political uncertainties are frequently neglected. • Uncertainties are dynamic, but reducing uncertainties inevitably involves trade-offs.

  1. Attaining Sustainable Growth in Nigeria: Any Role for Solid Mineral Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Kojo Edeme

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Using time series such as GDP per capita, solid minerals output, foreign trade balance, domestic interest rate, inflation, and gross domestic savings, for the period 1960-2015. the Linear Growth Regression model adopted for this study indicates that solid minerals positively impact on sustainable growth and is statistically significant. The study also found that solid mineral is highly significant but negatively related with foreign exchange due largely to illegal migration of mineral commodities across the borders of the country. In view of this, there is need for conscious inter-agency collaboration to track the volume of mineral resources illegally escaping the shores of the country without being accounted for. Besides, there should be more attention on developing the solid mineral sector to help insulate the economy from the vagaries of the present economic woes given the rising demand in solid mineral resources globally.

  2. Potential for Sulfide Mineral Deposits in Australian Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConachy, Timothy F.

    The world is witnessing a paradigm shift in relation to marine mineral resources. High-value seafloor massive sulfides at active convergent plate boundaries are attracting serious commercial attention. Under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, maritime jurisdictional zones will increase by extending over continental margins and ocean basins. For Australia, this means a possible additional 3.37 million km2 of seabed. Australia's sovereign responsibility includes, amongst other roles, the management of the exploitation of nonliving resources and sea-bed mining. What, therefore, is the potential in Australia's marine jurisdiction for similar deposits to those currently attracting commercial attention in neighboring nations and for other types/styles of sulfide deposits? A preliminary review of opportunities suggests the following: (i) volcanogenic copper—lead—zinc—silver—gold mineralization in fossil arcs and back arcs in eastern waters Norfolk Ridge and the Three Kings Ridge; (ii) Mississippi Valley-type lead—zinc—silver mineralization in the NW Shelf area; (iii) ophiolite-hosted copper mineralization in the Macquarie Ridge Complex in the Southern Ocean; and (iv) submerged extensions of prospective land-based terranes, one example being offshore Gawler Craton for iron oxide—copper—gold deposits. These areas would benefit from pre-competitive surveys of detailed swath bathymetry mapping, geophysical surveys, and sampling to help build a strategic inventory of future seafloor mineral resources for Australia.

  3. Australian mineral industry annual review for 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    This volume of the Australian Mineral Industry Annual Review records the development and performance of the industry during the calendar year 1986. It reports production, consumption, treatment, trade, prices, new developments, exploration, and resources for mineral commodities including fuels, and summarises equivalent developments abroad. Part 1, 'General Review', after briefly surveying the world mineral industry, summarises developments in the Australian mineral industry as a whole. Part 2, 'Commodity Review', covers individual mineral commodities and commodity groups including brown coal, black coal and peat. Part 3, 'Mining Census', tabulates statistics extracted from the Mining Census, together with some mineral processing statistics from the Manufacturing Census. Part 4, tabulates quantity and value data on mineral output provided by the State departments of mines and their equivalents. The commodity review of black coal has been abstracted separately.

  4. Pilot test of pollution control and metal resource recovery for acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bo; Mai, Ge; Chen, Tao; Lei, Chang; Xiao, Xianming

    2015-01-01

    The study was undertaken in order to recover the metal resources from acid mine drainage (AMD). A 300 m(3)/d continuous system was designed and fractional precipitation technology employed for the main metals Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn recovery. The system was operated for six months using actual AMD in situ. The chemicals' input and also the retention time was optimized. Furthermore, the material balance was investigated. With the system, the heavy metals of the effluent after the Mn neutralization precipitation were below the threshold value of the Chinese integrated wastewater discharge limit. The precipitates generated contained 42%, 12%, 31%, and 18% for Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn, respectively, and the recovery rates of Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn were 82%, 79%, 83%, and 83%, respectively. The yield range of the precipitate had significant correlation with the influent metal content. Using the X-ray diffraction analysis, the refinement for Fe, Cu, and Zn could be achieved through the processes of roasting and floatation. Cost-benefit was also discussed; the benefit from the recycled metal was able to pay for the cost of chemical reagents used. Most important of all, through the use of this technology, the frustrating sludge problems were solved.

  5. Neo-Industrial and Sustainable Development of Russia as Mineral Resources Exploiting Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokudina, Marina; Zhironkina, Olga; Kalinina, Oksana; Gasanov, Magerram; Agafonov, Felix

    2017-11-01

    In the Russian economy, the world leadership in the extraction of different mineral resources is combined with the potential for their processing and a significant scientific sector. Innovative development of raw materials extraction is impossible without the parallel technological modernization of the high-tech sector. In general, the complex of these processes is a neo-industrialization of the economy. Neo-industrially oriented transformation of the economy reflects complex changes in its structure, the transformation of established stable relationships between various elements of the system of social production that determine macroeconomic proportions. Neo-industrial transformations come along with the modification of economic relations associated with investments, innovations, labor and income distribution, with the process of locating productive forces and regulating the economy by the government. Neo-industrialization of economy is not only significant changes in its technological and reproductive structure (the development of high-tech industries, the integration of science and industry), but, above all, the implementation of a system structural policy of innovative development of raw material industry and the recovery of manufacturing industries on a new technological basis.

  6. Implications of metal accumulation mechanisms to phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Abdul R; Schröder, Peter

    2009-03-01

    Trace elements (heavy metals and metalloids) are important environmental pollutants, and many of them are toxic even at very low concentrations. Pollution of the biosphere with trace elements has accelerated dramatically since the Industrial Revolution. Primary sources are the burning of fossil fuels, mining and smelting of metalliferous ores, municipal wastes, agrochemicals, and sewage. In addition, natural mineral deposits containing particularly large quantities of heavy metals are found in many regions. These areas often support characteristic plant species thriving in metal-enriched environments. Whereas many species avoid the uptake of heavy metals from these soils, some of them can accumulate significantly high concentrations of toxic metals, to levels which by far exceed the soil levels. The natural phenomenon of heavy metal tolerance has enhanced the interest of plant ecologists, plant physiologists, and plant biologists to investigate the physiology and genetics of metal tolerance in specialized hyperaccumulator plants such as Arabidopsis halleri and Thlaspi caerulescens. In this review, we describe recent advances in understanding the genetic and molecular basis of metal tolerance in plants with special reference to transcriptomics of heavy metal accumulator plants and the identification of functional genes implied in tolerance and detoxification. Plants are susceptible to heavy metal toxicity and respond to avoid detrimental effects in a variety of different ways. The toxic dose depends on the type of ion, ion concentration, plant species, and stage of plant growth. Tolerance to metals is based on multiple mechanisms such as cell wall binding, active transport of ions into the vacuole, and formation of complexes with organic acids or peptides. One of the most important mechanisms for metal detoxification in plants appears to be chelation of metals by low-molecular-weight proteins such as metallothioneins and peptide ligands, the phytochelatins. For

  7. Mineral resource of the month: antimony

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The article describes the characteristics and industrial uses of antimony. Antimony, which is produced as a byproduct of mining other metals such as gold, lead or silver, is used in everything from flame retardants, batteries, ceramics and glass. It is also used in glass for television picture tubes, computer monitors, pigments and catalysts.

  8. Mineral raw materials for power production in legislation of the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matisa, Z.

    1999-01-01

    According to the Constitution of the Republic of Croatia, mineral wealth is a public good of legal interest to the Republic of Croatia and enjoys its special protection. The Mining Law establishes that mineral wealth (including mineral resources that are used for power production) is the property of the Republic of Croatia. Among other mineral raw materials, this refers to mineral raw materials that are used for power production: coal, oil, natural gas, radioactive mineral raw materials and geothermal waters. These mineral resources are as almost all other mineral raw materials with the exception of geothermal waters, an unrecoverable natural resource. The right to use that natural resource may be granted only by a concession. The mining legislation provides for exploration and exploitation of mineral raw materials. Exploration of oil and gas is considered to comprise operations and testing with the aim to establish the existence, position and form of oil and natural gas deposits, their quality and quantity, as well as exploitation conditions. Exploitation of oil and natural gas is considered to comprise extraction from deposits, refining and transport, as well as disposal in geological structures. Mineral raw materials used in power production amount to 63% of national total primary energy production, and they cover 33% of total power consumption in the country. Legislation in the Republic of Croatia, which refers to exploration and exploitation of oil and natural gas, allows economic utilization of that unrecoverable natural wealth to run smoothly and in compliance with practices in our European environment. (author)

  9. Molecular orbital (SCF-Xα-SW) theory of metal-metal charge transfer processes in minerals - II. Application to Fe2+ --> Ti4+ charge transfer transitions in oxides and silicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, David M.

    1987-01-01

    A molecular orbital description, based on Xα-Scattered wave calculations on a (FeTiO10)14− cluster, is given for Fe2+ → Ti4+ charge transfer transitions in minerals. The calculated energy for the lowest Fe2+ → Ti4+ metal-metal charge transfer transition is 18040 cm−1 in reasonable agreement with energies observed in the optical spectra of Fe-Ti oxides and silicates. As in the case of Fe2+ → Fe3+ charge transfer in mixed-valence iron oxides and silicates, Fe2+ → Ti4+ charge transfer is associated with Fe-Ti bonding across shared polyhedral edges. Such bonding results from the overlap of the Fe(t 2g ) and Ti(t 2g ) 3d orbitals.

  10. Investigation of the potential for concealed base-metal mineralization at the Drenchwater Creek Zn-Pb-Ag occurrence, northern Alaska, using geology, reconnaissance geochemistry, and airborne electromagnetic geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Garth E.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria; Abraham, Jared E.; Kelley, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey, Bureau of Land Management, and State of Alaska cooperated on an investigation of the mineral potential of a southern part of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska, Howard Pass quadrangle, to provide background information for future land-use decisions. The investigation incorporated an airborne electromagnetic (EM) survey covering 1,500 mi2 (~3,900 km2), including flight lines directly over the Drenchwater Creek sediment-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag occurrence, the largest known base-metal occurrence in the survey area. Samples from the mineralized outcrop and rubblecrop contain metal concentrations that can exceed 11 percent Zn+Pb, with appreciable amounts of Ag. Soil samples with anomalous Pb concentrations are distributed near the sulfide-bearing outcrops and along a >2.5 km zone comprising mudstone, shale, and volcanic rocks of the Kuna Formation.

  11. Analysis on environmental impact of radiation from metallurgical project for rare metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Zitong; Zhang Baozeng

    2012-01-01

    Rare metals are the composition of many high-property metal materials, which has a wide range of uses in the field of national defense advanced science technology. Since Ta-Nb material is associated radioactive mineral resources, and it contains high radionuclide, resulting in some radioactive indicators in process and workplace of the Ta-Nb smelting projects were significantly higher than that of the surrounding environmental radiation background. Based on the analysis of Ta-Nb smelting projects, the major sources of pollution were identified. and the possible radiation impact of the project was analyzed and evaluated, corrective measures on the process layout were also proposed, and reasonable suggestions of how to optimize the radiation protection were made. (authors)

  12. Problems of mineral tax computation in the oil and gas sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. Г. Привалов

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates the role of mineral tax in the overall sum of tax revenues in the budget. Problems of tax computation and payment have been reviewed; taxpayers and taxation basis of the amount of extracted minerals have been clearly defined. Issues of rental content of natural resource taxes are reviewed, as well as problems of right definition of the rental component in the process of mineral tax calculation for liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons.One of important problems in mineral tax calculation is a conflict between two laws – the Subsoil Law and the Tax Code of Russian Federation (26th chapter. There is an ambiguity in the mechanism of calculating amounts of extracted mineral resources – from the positions of the Tax Code and the Subsoil Law. The second problem is in the necessity to amend the mineral tax for oil extraction the same way as it has been done for gas extraction, when characteristics of each field are taken into account.This will provide a basis for correct computation of the natural resource rent for liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. The paper offers recommendations for Russian authorities on this issue.

  13. Maximising the developmental impacts of South Africa's mineral endowment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jourdan, P

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available , Ta content) 927.0 77% 1,210 Tin (kt metal content) 7.5 3% 294 Zinc (kt Zn content) 274 0 3% 13 400 Africa: Production of Selected Metals in 2013 Commodity Africa Share of world World total Cement (Mt) 165 4% 4,090 Diamond (kcarats) 72,500 55...% 131,000 Graphite (kt) 11 1% 1,100 Phosphate rock (Mt) 41 17% 243 Coal (Mt) 270 4% 6,860 Crude oil (Mbbl) 3,160 11% 28,500 Uranium (kt, U3O8) 12 17% 74 Africa Production of Selected Industrial Minerals and Mineral Fuels in 2013 African exports...

  14. PERSPECTIVE SOURCES OF METALS RESOURCES (CU, NI FOR CAST IRON ALLOYING, ARISING ON THE TERRITORY OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Tribushevski

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the practical foundation of combined resources-economy technologies of the alloyed cast iron melting using wastes of galvanic productions, containing sulfates and hydroxides of these metals, instead of metallic nickel and copper.

  15. Nutritional composition, vitamins, minerals and toxic heavy metals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , than retinol (0.81 mg/g). Among the macro minerals, potassium was present in high concentration (51.6 mg/g) than sodium (44.0 mg/g). The trace elements were assessed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) and their ...

  16. Analytical methods manual for the Mineral Resource Surveys Program, U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Belinda F.

    1996-01-01

    The analytical methods validated by the Mineral Resource Surveys Program, Geologic Division, is the subject of this manual. This edition replaces the methods portion of Open-File Report 90-668 published in 1990. Newer methods may be used which have been approved by the quality assurance (QA) project and are on file with the QA coordinator.This manual is intended primarily for use by laboratory scientists; this manual can also assist laboratory users to evaluate the data they receive. The analytical methods are written in a step by step approach so that they may be used as a training tool and provide detailed documentation of the procedures for quality assurance. A "Catalog of Services" is available for customer (submitter) use with brief listings of:the element(s)/species determined,method of determination,reference to cite,contact person,summary of the technique,and analyte concentration range.For a copy please contact the Branch office at (303) 236-1800 or fax (303) 236-3200.

  17. Rare earth element and rare metal inventory of central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Tucker, Robert D.; Renaud, Karine; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2018-03-06

    Rare earth elements (REE), with their unique physical and chemical properties, are an essential part of modern living. REE have enabled development and manufacture of high-performance materials, processes, and electronic technologies commonly used today in computing and communications, clean energy and transportation, medical treatment and health care, glass and ceramics, aerospace and defense, and metallurgy and chemical refining. Central Asia is an emerging REE and rare metals (RM) producing region. A newly compiled inventory of REE-RM-bearing mineral occurrences and delineation of areas-of-interest indicate this region may have considerable undiscovered resources.

  18. Important facts on Canada's natural resources (as of November 2004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This brochure presents a statistical account of Canada's natural resources sector, including the forest sector, mineral and mining sector, and energy producing sector. Canada's natural resources sectors and allied industries have contributed significantly to the country's economic growth and job creation for several decades. This brochure includes facts for 2003 and information on gross domestic products, direct employment, new capital investment, trade, imports, and balance of trade for each of the 3 sectors. The national economic importance of each sector was also outlined. In 2003, the forest sector contributed $33.7 billion to the Canadian economy (3 per cent of the national gross domestic product). Forest products were a major contributor to Canada's surplus balance of trade in 2003, with major commodities being softwood lumber, newsprint and wood pulp. Canada is also among the largest mining nations in the world, producing more than 60 minerals and metals. In 2003, the value of production from Canadian mining, mineral-processing and metal producing industries was about $50 billion (4 per cent of the national gross domestic product). The brochure includes a table that ranks 2003 world production and exports of uranium, nickel, zinc, gold, copper, potash, asbestos, gypsum and salt. Approximately 80 per cent of Canada's mineral production is exported. The brochure also presents data on the remaining established reserves in 2002 for natural gas (59.8 trillion cubic feet), crude oil (179.1 billion barrels), and primary energy production by commodity. These were 41.5 per cent gas, 32.9 per cent petroleum, 9.5 per cent electricity, 9.0 per cent coal, and 4.0 per cent wood waste. Alberta accounted for 63 per cent of total energy production, followed by British Columbia at 13 per cent, Saskatchewan at 9 per cent, Quebec at 4 per cent, and Ontario at 2 per cent. The international importance of geomatics and geoscience in Canada was also highlighted. This sector

  19. Enzyme leaching of surficial geochemical samples for detecting hydromorphic trace-element anomalies associated with precious-metal mineralized bedrock buried beneath glacial overburden in northern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert J.; Meier, A.L.; Riddle, G.; ,

    1990-01-01

    One objective of the International Falls and Roseau, Minnesota, CUSMAP projects was to develop a means of conducting regional-scale geochemical surveys in areas where bedrock is buried beneath complex glacially derived overburden. Partial analysis of B-horizon soils offered hope for detecting subtle hydromorphic trace-element dispersion patterns. An enzyme-based partial leach selectively removes metals from oxide coatings on the surfaces of soil materials without attacking their matrix. Most trace-element concentrations in the resulting solutions are in the part-per-trillion to low part-per-billion range, necessitating determinations by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry. The resulting data show greater contrasts for many trace elements than with other techniques tested. Spatially, many trace metal anomalies are locally discontinuous, but anomalous trends within larger areas are apparent. In many instances, the source for an anomaly seems to be either basal till or bedrock. Ground water flow is probably the most important mechanism for transporting metals toward the surface, although ionic diffusion, electrochemical gradients, and capillary action may play a role in anomaly dispersal. Sample sites near the Rainy Lake-Seine River fault zone, a regional shear zone, often have anomalous concentrations of a variety of metals, commonly including Zn and/or one or more metals which substitute for Zn in sphalerite (Cd, Ge, Ga, and Sn). Shifts in background concentrations of Bi, Sb, and As show a trend across the area indicating a possible regional zoning of lode-Au mineralization. Soil anomalies of Ag, Co, and Tl parallel basement structures, suggesting areas that may have potential for Cobalt/Thunder Baytype silver viens. An area around Baudette, Minnesota, which is underlain by quartz-chlorite-carbonate-altered shear zones, is anomalous in Ag, As, Bi, Co, Mo, Te, Tl, and W. Anomalies of Ag, As, Bi, Te, and W tend to follow the fault zones, suggesting potential

  20. Electrochemical Applications in Metal Bioleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanne, Christoph Kurt; Schippers, Axel

    2017-12-10

    Biohydrometallurgy comprises the recovery of metals by biologically catalyzed metal dissolution from solids in an aqueous solution. The application of this kind of bioprocessing is described as "biomining," referring to either bioleaching or biooxidation of sulfide metal ores. Acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms are the key to successful biomining. However, minerals such as primary copper sulfides are recalcitrant to dissolution, which is probably due to their semiconductivity or passivation effects, resulting in low reaction rates. Thus, further improvements of the bioleaching process are recommendable. Mineral sulfide dissolution is based on redox reactions and can be accomplished by electrochemical technologies. The impact of electrochemistry on biohydrometallurgy affects processing as well as analytics. Electroanalysis is still the most widely used electrochemical application in mineralogical research. Electrochemical processing can contribute to bioleaching in two ways. The first approach is the coupling of a mineral sulfide to a galvanic partner or electrocatalyst (spontaneous electron transfer). This approach requires only low energy consumption and takes place without technical installations by the addition of higher redox potential minerals (mostly pyrite), carbonic material, or electrocatalytic ions (mostly silver ions). Consequently, the processed mineral (often chalcopyrite) is preferentially dissolved. The second approach is the application of electrolytic bioreactors (controlled electron transfer). The electrochemical regulation of electrolyte properties by such reactors has found most consideration. It implies the regulation of ferrous and ferric ion ratios, which further results in optimized solution redox potential, less passivation effects, and promotion of microbial activity. However, many questions remain open and it is recommended that reactor and electrode designs are improved, with the aim of finding options for simplified

  1. Survey of heavy metal pollution (copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, iron and manganese in drinking water resources of Nurabad city, Lorestan, Iran 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHodratolah Shams Khorramabadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthy water passes through the pipelines from supply resources to consuming places in which passing from these stages may cause some cases of contamination like heavy metal contamination. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the contamination of heavy metals (copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, iron, and manganese in water resources of Nurabad city of Lorestan in 2013. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, samples were collected from 7 wells of drinking water and 2 water storage tanks during 6 months in Nurabad. So that, heavy metal parameters such as copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, iron, and manganese were measured using an atomic absorption device and also electrical conductivity, sulfate, chloride and total dissolved solids were also measured in accordance with standard methods. Results: Results indicated that the concentration of studied metals in water sources was lower than the national standards and World Health Organization standard, and in the water supply system the concentration of some metals was more than standard level. Moreover, the results showed that the concentration of studied heavy metals were more in winter than in autumn. Conclusion: Generally, in the water resources of Nurabad city the concentration of studied heavy metals was lower than the national standards and World Health Organization standard and there are not problems for water consumers. However, due to public health and the presence of a high concentration of these metals in the distribution supply, the heavy metal concentration in drinking water of this region should be monitored regularly by responsible organizations.

  2. Quantitative Measures of Mineral Supply Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K. R.

    2009-12-01

    Almost all metals and many non-metallic minerals are traded internationally. An advantage of global mineral markets is that minerals can be obtained from the globally lowest-cost source. For example, one rare-earth element (REE) mine in China, Bayan Obo, is able to supply most of world demand for rare earth elements at a cost significantly less than its main competitors. Concentration of global supplies at a single mine raises significant political risks, illustrated by China’s recent decision to prohibit the export of some REEs and severely limit the export of others. The expected loss of REE supplies will have a significant impact on the cost and production of important national defense technologies and on alternative energy programs. Hybrid vehicles and wind-turbine generators, for example, require REEs for magnets and batteries. Compact fluorescent light bulbs use REE-based phosphors. These recent events raise the general issue of how to measure the degree of supply risk for internationally sourced minerals. Two factors, concentration of supply and political risk, must first be addressed. Concentration of supply can be measured with standard economic tools for measuring industry concentration, using countries rather than firms as the unit of analysis. There are many measures of political risk available. That of the OECD is a measure of a country’s commitment to rule-of-law and enforcement of contracts, as well as political stability. Combining these measures provides a comparative view of mineral supply risk across commodities and identifies several minerals other than REEs that could suddenly become less available. Combined with an assessment of the impact of a reduction in supply, decision makers can use these measures to prioritize risk reduction efforts.

  3. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope studies of gold mineralization in the southern Apuseni Mountains, Romania: interpretation and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderton, David H.M.

    1998-01-01

    Precious and base metal mineralization in the southern Apuseni Mountains of western Romania occurs in several steeply-dipping veins which are hosted by Miocene andesitic rocks. Fluid inclusion evidence suggests that the majority of the mineralization was caused by low salinity fluids at temperatures between 200 and 300 o C. Although subject to several uncertainties, the oxygen and hydrogen isotope data support a model in which main stage mineralization was formed when a metal-bearing magmatic fluid was exsolved from the crystallizing melt. In contrast to many other 'epithermal' precious metal deposits, the incorporation into the hydrothermal system of local meteoric groundwaters was minor, and mostly restricted to the latest, barren, low temperature stage of mineralization. (Author)

  4. Niger Republic Mineral Planning : Part IV - first volume : Main mineral substances specific study and their geological context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franconi, Antoine; Joo', Julien; Zibo, Idde

    1981-01-01

    This volume contains the detailed study of mineral substances industrially exploited to date : uranium, coal, non metallic building materials and public activities, and non conventionally exploited substances, that are : tin, columbite-tantalite, tungsten, gold, phosphates and evaporates [fr

  5. Mineral Facilities of Latin America and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Rachel; Eros, Mike; Quintana-Velazquez, Meliany

    2006-01-01

    This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. Records include attributes such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity if applicable, and generalized coordinates. The data were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2003 and 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbooks (Latin America and Candada volume), data to be published in the 2005 Minerals Yearbook Latin America and Canada Volume, minerals statistics and information from the USGS minerals information Web site (minerals.usgs.gov/minerals), and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies,and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists.

  6. Ice nucleation by surrogates for atmospheric mineral dust and mineral dust/sulfate particles at cirrus temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Archuleta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the potential role of some types of mineral dust and mineral dust with sulfuric acid coatings as heterogeneous ice nuclei at cirrus temperatures. Commercially-available nanoscale powder samples of aluminum oxide, alumina-silicate and iron oxide were used as surrogates for atmospheric mineral dust particles, with and without multilayer coverage of sulfuric acid. A sample of Asian dust aerosol particles was also studied. Measurements of ice nucleation were made using a continuous-flow ice-thermal diffusion chamber (CFDC operated to expose size-selected aerosol particles to temperatures between -45 and -60°C and a range of relative humidity above ice-saturated conditions. Pure metal oxide particles supported heterogeneous ice nucleation at lower relative humidities than those required to homogeneously freeze sulfuric acid solution particles at sizes larger than about 50 nm. The ice nucleation behavior of the same metal oxides coated with sulfuric acid indicate heterogeneous freezing at lower relative humidities than those calculated for homogeneous freezing of the diluted particle coatings. The effect of soluble coatings on the ice activation relative humidity varied with the respective uncoated core particle types, but for all types the heterogeneous freezing rates increased with particle size for the same thermodynamic conditions. For a selected size of 200 nm, the natural mineral dust particles were the most effective ice nuclei tested, supporting heterogeneous ice formation at an ice relative humidity of approximately 135%, irrespective of temperature. Modified homogeneous freezing parameterizations and theoretical formulations are shown to have application to the description of heterogeneous freezing of mineral dust-like particles with soluble coatings.

  7. 36 CFR 292.66 - Operating plan requirements-outstanding mineral rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... products, insecticides, pesticides, and herbicides that will be used during the mineral operation and the...-site and off-site damage to natural resources resulting from mineral operations. The plan must: (i...

  8. The problem of the involvement of the off-balance reserves of the metallic ores into the production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Golik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The underground mining of the ore deposits by means of the intensive methods of the traditional technologies is characterized by the loss of the reserves, which are off-balance for the technologies applied. The experience, which was accumulated by the state-of-the-art enterprises before the economic reforms and the crisis indicates, that it is possible to decrease the loss of metals. This can be assumed by means of involving the off-balance reserves into the production process with the metal lixiviation during closed work. The purpose of the present-day research is the substantiation of the technical possibility and economic reasonability of the lixiviation of metals from the off-balance reserves and poorly balance ores. The correct estimation of the perspectives of those combined technology is still one of the purposes. It is a matter of fact that combining traditional technologies of the underground mining with new ones concerned with the creation of the effective lixiviation of metals from ores can be carried out with the two-stage processing. It happens when the excavation of some amount of the balance reserves creates the compensational space for crushing off-balance reserves. Involving off-balance ores into the production process solves a set of the mining production problems. For example, the fullness of mineral resources usage, the strengthening of the resource base, the reduction of load of the environment and the security of works. The involvement of the off-balance reserves into the development in the course of the revaluation of the resources and in the technological facilities of the development in the context of the growth of the scale of production reduces the production price to the competitive level. The field of application of these results is in the mining enterprises which extract solid metal-containing ores by means of the underground mining. These ores are mostly of the nonferrous, rare and precious metals, which are easily

  9. Chalcopyrite—bearer of a precious, non-precious metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Bryn E.

    2013-01-01

    The mineral chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) is the world's most abundant source of copper, a metal component in virtually every piece of electrical equipment. It is the main copper mineral in several different ore deposit types, the most important of which are porphyry deposits. Chalcopyrite is unstable at the Earth's surface, so it weathers from sulphide outcrops and mine waste piles, contributing acid and dissolved copper to what is known as acid rock drainage. If not prevented, dissolved copper from chalcopyrite weathering will be transported downstream, potentially harming ecosystems along the way. Pristine areas are becoming targets for future copper supply as we strive to meet ever-increasing demands for copper by developed and developing nations. Additionally, our uses for copper are expanding to include technology such as solar energy production. This has lead to the processing of increasingly lower grade ores, which is possible, in part, due to advances in bio-leaching (i.e. metal extraction catalysed by micro-organisms). Although copper is plentiful, it is still a nonrenewable resource. Future copper supply promises to fall short of demand and the volatility of the copper market may continue if we do not prioritize copper use and improve copper recycling and ore extraction efficiency.

  10. Characterization of potential mineralization in Afghanistan: four permissive areas identified using imaging spectroscopy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Berger, Byron R.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey and Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations natural resources revitalization activities in Afghanistan, four permissive areas for mineralization, Bamyan 1, Farah 1, Ghazni 1, and Ghazni 2, have been identified using imaging spectroscopy data. To support economic development, the areas of potential mineralization were selected on the occurrence of selected mineral assemblages mapped using the HyMap™ data (kaolinite, jarosite, hydrated silica, chlorite, epidote, iron-bearing carbonate, buddingtonite, dickite, and alunite) that may be indicative of past mineralization processes in areas with limited or no previous mineral resource studies. Approximately 30 sites were initially determined to be candidates for areas of potential mineralization. Additional criteria and material used to refine the selection and prioritization process included existing geologic maps, Landsat Thematic Mapper data, and published literature. The HyMapTM data were interpreted in the context of the regional geologic and tectonic setting and used the presence of alteration mineral assemblages to identify areas with the potential for undiscovered mineral resources. Further field-sampling, mapping, and supporting geochemical analyses are necessary to fully substantiate and verify the specific deposit types in the four areas of potential mineralization.

  11. Preface: Terrestrial Fieldwork to Support in situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) and Robotic Resource Prospecting for Future Activities in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2015-05-01

    Finding, extracting, and using resources at the site of robotic and human exploration activities holds the promise of enabling sustainable and affordable exploration of the Moon, Mars, and asteroids, and eventually allow humans to expand their economy and habitation beyond the surface of the Earth. Commonly referred to as in situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), mineral and volatile resources found in space can be converted into oxygen, water, metals, fuels, and manufacturing and construction materials (such as plastics and concrete) for transportation, power, life support, habitation construction, and part/logistics manufacturing applications. For every kilogram of payload landed on the surface of the Moon or Mars, 7.5-11 kg of payload (mostly propellant) needs to be launched into low Earth orbit. Therefore, besides promising long-term self-sufficiency and infrastructure growth, ISRU can provide significant reductions in launch costs and the number of launches required. Key to being able to use space resources is knowing where they are located, how much is there, and how the resources are distributed. While ISRU holds great promise, it has also never been demonstrated in an actual space mission. Therefore, operations and hardware associated with each ISRU prospecting, excavation, transportation, and processing step must be examined, tested, and finally integrated to enable the end goal of using space resources in future human space missions.

  12. Resource Demand Scenarios for the Major Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshkaki, Ayman; Graedel, T E; Ciacci, Luca; Reck, Barbara K

    2018-03-06

    The growth in metal use in the past few decades raises concern that supplies may be insufficient to meet demands in the future. From the perspective of historical and current use data for seven major metals-iron, manganese, aluminum, copper, nickel, zinc, and lead-we have generated several scenarios of potential metal demand from 2010 to 2050 under alternative patterns of global development. We have also compared those demands with various assessments of potential supply to midcentury. Five conclusions emerge: (1) The calculated demand for each of the seven metals doubles or triples relative to 2010 levels by midcentury; (2) The largest demand increases relate to a scenario in which increasingly equitable values and institutions prevail throughout the world; (3) The metal recycling flows in the scenarios meet only a modest fraction of future metals demand for the next few decades; (4) In the case of copper, zinc, and perhaps lead, supply may be unlikely to meet demand by about midcentury under the current use patterns of the respective metals; (5) Increased rates of demand for metals imply substantial new energy provisioning, leading to increases in overall global energy demand of 21-37%. These results imply that extensive technological transformations and governmental initiatives could be needed over the next several decades in order that regional and global development and associated metal demand are not to be constrained by limited metal supply.

  13. Volcanic Metal Emissions and Implications for Geochemical Cycling and Mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, M.; Mather, T. A.

    2016-12-01

    Volcanoes emit substantial fluxes of metals to the atmosphere in volcanic gas plumes in the form of aerosol, adsorbed onto silicate particles and even in some cases as gases.. A huge database of metal emissions has been built over the preceding decades, which shows that volcanoes emit highly volatile metals into the atmosphere, such as As, Bi, Cd, Hg, Re, Se, Tl, among others. Understanding the cycling of metals through the Solid Earth system has importance for tackling a wide range of Earth Science problems, e.g. (1) the environmental impacts of metal emissions; (2) the sulfur and metal emissions of volcanic eruptions; (3) the behavior of metals during subduction and slab devolatilization; (4) the influence of redox on metal behavior in subduction zones; (5) the partitioning of metals between magmatic vapor, brines and melts; and (6) the relationships between volcanism and ore deposit formation. It is clear, when comparing the metal composition and flux in the gases and aerosols emitted from volcanoes, that they vary with tectonic setting. These differences allow insights into how the magmatic vapor was generated and how it interacted with melts and sulfides during magma differentiation and decompression. Hotspot volcanoes (e.g. Kilauea, Hawaii; volcanoes in Iceland) outgas a metal suite that mirrors the sulfide liquid-silicate melt partitioning behaviors reconstructed from experiments (as far as they are known), suggesting that the aqueous fluids (that will later be outgassed from the volcano) receive metals directly from oxidation of sulfide liquids during degassing and ascent of magmas towards the surface. At arc volcanoes, the gaseous fluxes of metals are typically much higher; and there are greater enrichments in elements that partition strongly into vapor or brine from silicate melts such as Cu, Au, Zn, Pb, W. We collate and present data on volcanic metal emissions from volcanoes worldwide and review the implications of the data array for metal cycling

  14. A review of silver-rich mineral deposits and their metallogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybeal, Frederick T.; Vikre, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Mineral deposits with large inventories or high grades of silver are found in four genetic groups: (1) volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS), (2) sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX), (3) lithogene, and, (4) magmatichydrothermal. Principal differences between the four groups relate to source rocks and regions, metal associations, process and timing of mineralization, and tectonic setting. These four groups may be subdivided into specific metal associations on ternary diagrams based on relative metal contents. The VMS deposits rarely contain more than 15,600 t Ag (500 Moz). Grades average 33 g/t Ag. Variable Ag- Pb-Zn-Cu-Au ± Sn concentrations are interpreted as having been derived both from shallow plutons and by leaching of the volcanic rock pile in regions of thin or no continental crust and the mineralization is syngenetic. Higher silver grades are associated with areas of abundant felsic volcanic rocks. The SEDEX deposits rarely contain more than 15,600 t Ag (500 Moz). Grades average 46 g/t Ag. Silver, lead, and zinc in relatively consistent proportions are leached from sedimentary rocks filling rift-related basins, where the continental crust is thin, and deposited as syngenetic to diagenetic massive sulfides. Pre-mineral volcanic rocks and their detritus may occur deep within the basin and gold is typically absent. Lithogene silver-rich deposits are epigenetic products of varying combinations of compaction, dewatering, meteoric water recharge, and metamorphism of rift basin-related clastic sedimentary and interbedded volcanic rocks. Individual deposits may contain more than 15,600 t Ag (500 Moz) at high grades. Ores are characterized by four well-defined metal associations, including Ag, Ag-Pb-Zn, Ag-Cu, and Ag-Co-Ni-U. Leaching, transport, and deposition of metals may occur both in specific sedimentary strata and other rock types adjacent to the rift. Multiple mineralizing events lasting 10 to 15 m.y., separated by as much as 1 b.y., may occur in a single basin

  15. Trends in the forecast of the world prices for selected metals and their influence on the exploitation of the Slovak raw mineral base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavkovský Jozef

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is given a basic information about the situation in the ore raw material base of the Slovak republic, after its transition to the market economy in the years 1990 – 1994. By dumping the ore mining, a decrease in the ore production, especially their sortiment, also started. Therefore only two ore mines – Nižná Slaná (Fe ores and Banská Hodruša (Au ores are in operation in Slovakia at present time. The rest of Slovak ores are economically not viable after present criteria. Besides the evaluation of balanced and unbalanced ore deposits, and the deposit´s parameters, the knowledge about trends of world ores and metal prices are very important. From this point of view, ores and metals which have a great importance (Fe, Al, Cu, Sb, Ag, Au for Slovakia are discussed. The obtained results have a prognostic character and they should be considered at the utilisation of own mineral base, as well as when buying mineral raw materials from abroad. In both cases the information about trends of world prices of raw materials play an important role.

  16. Metal oxides, clay minerals and charcoal determine the composition of microbial communities in matured artificial soils and their response to phenanthrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, Doreen; Ding, Guo-Chun; Pronk, Geertje Johanna; Heister, Katja; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Smalla, Kornelia

    2013-10-01

    Microbial communities in soil reside in a highly heterogeneous habitat where diverse mineral surfaces, complex organic matter and microorganisms interact with each other. This study aimed to elucidate the long-term effect of the soil mineral composition and charcoal on the microbial community composition established in matured artificial soils and their response to phenanthrene. One year after adding sterile manure to different artificial soils and inoculating microorganisms from a Cambisol, the matured soils were spiked with phenanthrene or not and incubated for another 70 days. 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer fragments amplified from total community DNA were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Metal oxides and clay minerals and to a lesser extent charcoal influenced the microbial community composition. Changes in the bacterial community composition in response to phenanthrene differed depending on the mineral composition and presence of charcoal, while no shifts in the fungal community composition were observed. The abundance of ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase genes was increased in phenanthrene-spiked soils except for charcoal-containing soils. Here we show that the formation of biogeochemical interfaces in soil is an ongoing process and that different properties present in artificial soils influenced the bacterial response to the phenanthrene spike. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Australian mineral industry annual review for 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The Australian mineral industry annual review records the activities and development of the Australian mineral industry and reports production, consumption, treatment, trade, prices, new developments, exploration and resources for mineral commodities including fuels, and summarises equivalent developments abroad. The present volume reviews activities and developments in 1982. Part 1 (General Review) - after briefly surveying the world mineral industry, summarises developments in the Australian mineral industry as a whole, under the headings: the industry in the national economy; important recent developments; production; overseas trade; prices; exploration expenditure; investment; income tax; royalties; structural data; wages and salaries; industrial disputes; and government assistance, legislation and controls. Part 2 (Commodity Review) - covers industrial mineral commodities, from abrasives to zirconium. Part 3 (Mining Census) - tabulates statistics extracted from the mining census, together with some mineral processing statistics from the manufacturing census. Part 4 (Miscellaneous) - tabulates quantum and value data on mineral output provided by State departments of mines and their equivalents.

  18. Titanium mineral resources in heavy-mineral sands in the Atlantic coastal plain of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2018-04-16

    This study examined titanium distribution in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States; the titanium is found in heavy-mineral sands that include the minerals ilmenite (Fe2+TiO3), rutile (TiO2), or leucoxene (an alteration product of ilmenite). Deposits of heavy-mineral sands in ancient and modern coastal plains are a significant feedstock source for the titanium dioxide pigments industry. Currently, two heavy-mineral sands mining and processing operations are active in the southeast United States producing concentrates of ilmenite-leucoxene, rutile, and zircon. The results of this study indicate the potential for similar deposits in many areas of the Atlantic Coastal Plain.This study used the titanium analyses of 3,457 stream sediment samples that were analyzed as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Geochemical Survey program. This data set was analyzed by an integrated spatial modeling technique known as Bayesian hierarchical modeling to map the regional-scale, spatial distribution of titanium concentrations. In particular, clusters of anomalous concentrations of titanium occur: (1) along the Fall Zone, from Virginia to Alabama, where metamorphic and igneous rocks of the Piedmont region contact younger sediments of the Coastal Plain; (2) a paleovalley near the South Carolina and North Carolina border; (3) the upper and middle Atlantic Coastal Plain of North Carolina; (4) the majority of the Atlantic Coastal Plain of Virginia; and (5) barrier islands and stretches of the modern shoreline from South Carolina to northeast Florida. The areas mapped by this study could help mining companies delimit areas for exploration.

  19. Mineral formation on metallic copper in a `future repository site environment`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amcoff, Oe; Holenyi, K

    1996-04-01

    Since reducing conditions are expected much effort has been concentrated on Cu-sulfides and CuFe-sulfides. However, oxidizing conditions are also discussed. A list of copper minerals are included. It is concluded that mineral formation and mineral transitions on the copper canister surface will be governed by kinetics and metastabilities rather than by stability relations. The sulfides formed are less likely to form a passivating layer, and the rate of sulfide growth will probably be governed by the rate of transport of reacting species to the canister surface. A series of tests are recommended, in an environment resembling the initial repository site conditions. 82 refs, 8 figs.

  20. Mineral formation on metallic copper in a 'future repository site environment'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amcoff, Oe.; Holenyi, K.

    1996-04-01

    Since reducing conditions are expected much effort has been concentrated on Cu-sulfides and CuFe-sulfides. However, oxidizing conditions are also discussed. A list of copper minerals are included. It is concluded that mineral formation and mineral transitions on the copper canister surface will be governed by kinetics and metastabilities rather than by stability relations. The sulfides formed are less likely to form a passivating layer, and the rate of sulfide growth will probably be governed by the rate of transport of reacting species to the canister surface. A series of tests are recommended, in an environment resembling the initial repository site conditions. 82 refs, 8 figs

  1. Metal sorption on kaolinite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westrich, H.R.; Brady, P.V.; Cygan, R.T.; Nagy, K.L.; Anderson, H.L.

    1997-01-01

    A key issue in performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste sites is predicting the transport and retardation of radionuclides through local soils under a variety of hydrologic and geochemical conditions. Improved transport codes should include a mechanistic model of radionuclide retardation. The authors have been investigating metal sorption (Cs + , Sr 2+ , and Ba 2+ ) on a simple clay mineral (kaolinite) to better understand the geochemical interactions of common soil minerals with contaminated groundwaters. These studies include detailed characterizations of kaolinite surfaces, experimental adsorption measurements, surface complexation modeling, and theoretical simulations of cation sorption. The aluminol edge (010) site has been identified as the most likely site for metal sorption on kaolinite in natural solutions. Relative metal binding strengths decrease from Ba 2+ to Sr 2+ to Cs + , with some portion sorbed on both kaolinite edges and basal surfaces. Some Cs + also appears to be irreversibly sorbed on both sites. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that Cs + is sorbed at aluminol (010) edge sites as an inner-sphere complex and weakly sorbed as an outer-sphere complex on (001) basal surfaces. These results provide the basis to understand and predict metal sorption onto kaolinite, and a framework to characterize sorption processes on more complex clay minerals

  2. Technology advancement: a factor in increasing resource use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.; Goonan, Thomas G.; Bleiwas, Donald I.

    2001-01-01

    The specter of mineral resource scarcity has been repeatedly raised as a concern because ever-growing populations with seemingly insatiable appetites for minerals place claims against a finite resource endowment. This report analyzes how technology has helped to ease resource constraints, and uses case studies of aluminum, copper, potash, and sulfur minerals to identify the effects of technology on resource supply. In spite of heightened demand for and increased loss of resources to environmental policy and urbanization, mineral producers historically have been able to continually expand production and lower costs. Specific production increases for the years 1900-98 were: aluminum (3,250 percent), copper (2,465 percent), potash (3,770 percent), and sulfur (6,000 percent). For the same period, constant-dollar (1998) prices decreased: aluminum (90 percent), copper (75 percent), potash (94 percent), and sulfur (89 percent). The application of technology has made available mineral deposits that were previously overlooked or considered non-viable. Using technology, producers can meet the demand for stronger, energy-efficient, more environmentally safe products with less physical material. Technologies have been developed to increase the amount of materials recycled and remanufactured. Technology development can occur in breakthroughs, but most often advances incrementally. Technological development is driven by the profit motive.

  3. Glycine Polymerization on Oxide Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Norio; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Koichiro; Usui, Tomohiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nakashima, Satoru

    2017-06-01

    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures. Results showed that a rutile surface is the most effective site for Gly polymerization in terms of both amounts and lengths of Gly polymers synthesized. The catalytic efficiency decreased as rutile > anatase > γ-alumina > forsterite > α- alumina > magnetite > hematite > quartz > amorphous silica. Based on reported molecular-level information for adsorption of Gly on these minerals, polymerization activation was inferred to have arisen from deprotonation of the NH3 + group of adsorbed Gly to the nucleophilic NH2 group, and from withdrawal of electron density from the carboxyl carbon to the surface metal ions. The orientation of adsorbed Gly on minerals is also a factor influencing the Gly reactivity. The examination of Gly-mineral interactions under identical experimental conditions has enabled the direct comparison of various minerals' catalytic efficiencies and has made discussion of polymerization mechanisms and their relative influences possible Further systematic investigations using the approach reported herein (which are expected to be fruitful) combined with future microscopic surface analyses will elucidate the role of minerals in the process of abiotic peptide bond formation.

  4. Glycine Polymerization on Oxide Minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Norio; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Koichiro; Usui, Tomohiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nakashima, Satoru

    2017-06-01

    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures. Results showed that a rutile surface is the most effective site for Gly polymerization in terms of both amounts and lengths of Gly polymers synthesized. The catalytic efficiency decreased as rutile > anatase > γ-alumina > forsterite > α- alumina > magnetite > hematite > quartz > amorphous silica. Based on reported molecular-level information for adsorption of Gly on these minerals, polymerization activation was inferred to have arisen from deprotonation of the NH 3 + group of adsorbed Gly to the nucleophilic NH 2 group, and from withdrawal of electron density from the carboxyl carbon to the surface metal ions. The orientation of adsorbed Gly on minerals is also a factor influencing the Gly reactivity. The examination of Gly-mineral interactions under identical experimental conditions has enabled the direct comparison of various minerals' catalytic efficiencies and has made discussion of polymerization mechanisms and their relative influences possible Further systematic investigations using the approach reported herein (which are expected to be fruitful) combined with future microscopic surface analyses will elucidate the role of minerals in the process of abiotic peptide bond formation.

  5. Scientific and Engineering Progress in CO2 Mineralization Using Industrial Waste and Natural Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heping Xie

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The issues of reducing CO2 levels in the atmosphere, sustainably utilizing natural mineral resources, and dealing with industrial waste offer challenging opportunities for sustainable development in energy and the environment. The latest advances in CO2 mineralization technology involving natural minerals and industrial waste are summarized in this paper, with great emphasis on the advancement of fundamental science, economic evaluation, and engineering applications. We discuss several leading large-scale CO2 mineralization methodologies from a technical and engineering-science perspective. For each technology option, we give an overview of the technical parameters, reaction pathway, reactivity, procedural scheme, and laboratorial and pilot devices. Furthermore, we present a discussion of each technology based on experimental results and the literature. Finally, current gaps in knowledge are identified in the conclusion, and an overview of the challenges and opportunities for future research in this field is provided.

  6. Metallogeny of Mesoproterozoic Sedimentary Rocks in Idaho and Montana - Studies by the Mineral Resources Program, U.S. Geological Survey, 2004-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, J. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Preface By J.Michael O'Neill The major emphasis of this project was to extend and refine the known Mesoproterozoic geologic and metallogenic framework of the region along and adjacent to the Idaho-Montana boundary north of the Snake River Plain. The Mesoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks in this part of east-central Idaho host important Cu-Co-Au stratabound mineral resources as well as younger, epigenetic hydrothermal, sulfide base-metal mineral deposits. Two tasks of this study were to more accurately understand and portray the character and origin of cobalt-copper-gold deposits that compose the Idaho cobalt belt and specifically to analyze ore mineralogy and metallogenesis within the Blackbird mining district in the central part of the belt. Inasmuch as the cobalt belt is confined to the Mesoproterozoic Lemhi Group strata of east-central Idaho, geologic investigations were also undertaken to determine the relationship between strata of the Lemhi Group and the more extensive, noncobalt-bearing, Belt-Purcell Supergroup strata to the north and northwest. Abrupt lateral differences in the character and thickness of stratigraphic units in the Mesoproterozoic Lemhi Basin may indicate differential sedimentation in contemporaneous fault-bounded subbasins. It is suggested that northeast-trending basement faults of the Great Falls tectonic zone controlled development of the subbasins. O'Neill and others (chapter A, this volume) document a second major basement fault in this area, the newly recognized northwest-striking Great Divide megashear, a zone 1-2 km wide of left-lateral strike-slip faults active during Mesoproterozoic sedimentation and bounding the Cu-Co belt on the northwest. The megashear is a crustal-scale tectonic feature that separates Lemhi Group strata from roughly coeval Belt-Purcell strata to the north and northwest in Montana and northern Idaho. The results of numerous geologic investigations of the Cu- and Co-bearing Mesoproterozoic rocks of east

  7. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001 Section 57.20001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  8. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001 Section 56.20001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Miscellaneous...

  9. 30 CFR 57.12005 - Protection of power conductors from mobile equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of power conductors from mobile equipment. 57.12005 Section 57.12005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND...

  10. 30 CFR 57.12027 - Grounding mobile equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding mobile equipment. 57.12027 Section 57.12027 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity...

  11. Occurrence model for volcanogenic beryllium deposits: Chapter F in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Nora K.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Lindsey, David A.; Seal, Robert R.; Jaskula, Brian W.; Piatak, Nadine M.

    2012-01-01

    Current global and domestic mineral resources of beryllium (Be) for industrial uses are dominated by ores produced from deposits of the volcanogenic Be type. Beryllium deposits of this type can form where hydrothermal fluids interact with fluorine and lithophile-element (uranium, thorium, rubidium, lithium, beryllium, cesium, tantalum, rare earth elements, and tin) enriched volcanic rocks that contain a highly reactive lithic component, such as carbonate clasts. Volcanic and hypabyssal high-silica biotite-bearing topaz rhyolite constitutes the most well-recognized igneous suite associated with such Be deposits. The exemplar setting is an extensional tectonic environment, such as that characterized by the Basin and Range Province, where younger topaz-bearing igneous rock sequences overlie older dolomite, quartzite, shale, and limestone sequences. Mined deposits and related mineralized rocks at Spor Mountain, Utah, make up a unique economic deposit of volcanogenic Be having extensive production and proven and probable reserves. Proven reserves in Utah, as reported by the U.S. Geological Survey National Mineral Information Center, total about 15,900 tons of Be that are present in the mineral bertrandite (Be4Si2O7(OH)2). At the type locality for volcanogenic Be, Spor Mountain, the tuffaceous breccias and stratified tuffs that host the Be ore formed as a result of explosive volcanism that brought carbonate and other lithic fragments to the surface through vent structures that cut the underlying dolomitic Paleozoic sedimentary rock sequences. The tuffaceous sediments and lithic clasts are thought to make up phreatomagmatic base surge deposits. Hydrothermal fluids leached Be from volcanic glass in the tuff and redeposited the Be as bertrandite upon reaction of the hydrothermal fluid with carbonate clasts in lithic-rich sections of tuff. The localization of the deposits in tuff above fluorite-mineralized faults in carbonate rocks, together with isotopic evidence for the

  12. Niger Republic Mineral Planning : Part IV - first volume : Main mineral substances specific study and their geological context; Plan Mineral de la Republique du Niger : Tome IV - 1er volume : Etude specifique des principales substances minerals et leur contexte geologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franconi, Antoine; Joo' , Julien; Zibo, Idde

    1981-07-01

    This volume contains the detailed study of mineral substances industrially exploited to date : uranium, coal, non metallic building materials and public activities, and non conventionally exploited substances, that are : tin, columbite-tantalite, tungsten, gold, phosphates and evaporates. [French] Ce volume contient l'etude detaillee des substances minerals exploitees industriellement a ce jour : l'uranium, le charbon, les materiaux non metalliques de construction et de travaux publics et les substances exploitees artisanalement qui sont : l'etain, la Colombo-tantalite, le tungstene, l'or, les phosphates et les evaporates.

  13. Qualitative assessment of selected areas of the world for undiscovered sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits: Chapter Y in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Parks, Heather L.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Causey, J. Douglas; Hatch, Shyla A.; Jenkins, M. Christopher; Williams, David J.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Kathleen M.

    2015-12-14

    A qualitative mineral resource assessment of sediment-hosted stratabound copper mineralized areas for undiscovered copper deposits was performed for 10 selected areas of the world. The areas, in alphabetical order, are (1) Belt-Purcell Basin, United States and Canada; (2) Benguela and Cuanza Basins, Angola; (3) Chuxiong Basin, China; (4) Dongchuan Group rocks, China; (5) Egypt–Israel–Jordan Rift, Egypt, Israel, and Jordan; (6) Maritimes Basin, Canada; (7) Neuquén Basin, Argentina; (8) Northwest Botswana Rift, Botswana and Namibia; (9) Redstone Copperbelt, Canada; and (10) Salta Rift System, Argentina. This assessment (1) outlines the main characteristics of the areas, (2) classifies known deposits by deposit model subtypes, and (3) ranks the areas according to their potential to contain undiscovered copper deposits.

  14. Antimony(V) Adsorption by Variable-Charge Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    6‒] and inner-sphere [≡SOSb(OH)5‒] adsorption mechanisms. In general, however, the models generated for single ligand systems required reoptimization...HCO3 and CO3 ) effectively desorbed Sb(V) from hydrous metal (Al and Fe) oxides, clay minerals, and Sb(V)-contaminated sediments, relative to the...temperatures (20- 22°C). 7 A well- crystallized Georgia kaolinite (KGa-1b) from the Source Clays Repository of The Clay Minerals Society (West Lafayette

  15. Deciphering Mineral Homeostasis in Barley Seed Transfer Cells at Transcriptional Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Darbani

    Full Text Available In addition to the micronutrient inadequacy of staple crops for optimal human nutrition, a global downtrend in crop-quality has emerged from intensive breeding for yield. This trend will be aggravated by elevated levels of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. Therefore, crop biofortification is inevitable to ensure a sustainable supply of minerals to the large part of human population who is dietary dependent on staple crops. This requires a thorough understanding of plant-mineral interactions due to the complexity of mineral homeostasis. Employing RNA sequencing, we here communicate transfer cell specific effects of excess iron and zinc during grain filling in our model crop plant barley. Responding to alterations in mineral contents, we found a long range of different genes and transcripts. Among them, it is worth to highlight the auxin and ethylene signaling factors Arfs, Abcbs, Cand1, Hps4, Hac1, Ecr1, and Ctr1, diurnal fluctuation components Sdg2, Imb1, Li