Sample records for metalla litykh detalej

  1. Exploiting Natural Products to Build Metalla-Assemblies: The Anticancer Activity of Embelin-Derived Rh(III and Ir(III Metalla-Rectangles

    Gajendra Gupta


    Full Text Available Six new pentamethylcyclopentadienyl Rh(III and Ir(III metalla-rectangles ([3](CF3SO34–[8](CF3SO34 have been prepared by a self-assembly strategy using the embelin-derived metalla-clips (η5-C5Me52M2(μ4-C6HRO4-κOCl2 (M = Rh, 1; M = Ir, 2; R = (CH210CH3 and the linear ditopic ligands, pyrazine, 4,4'-bipyridine and 1,2-bis (4-pyridylethylene. These new metalla-rectangles have been obtained in high yield and isolated as their triflate salts. The complexes have been fully characterized by standard spectroscopic techniques and the antiproliferative activity of these tetranuclear complexes was evaluated in vitro on cancerous (DU-145, A-549, HeLa and noncancerous (HEK-293 cell lines. The biological study has showed a better activity for the rhodium derivatives over the iridium analogs and for all complexes a very good selectivity for cancerous over noncancerous cells. The presence of lipophilic side chains coupled with the positive charge of the tetranuclear complexes suggested a cytotoxic activity involving the mitochondrial machinery, as demonstrated by multiple biological experiments.

  2. Synthesis, Molecular Structure and Cytotoxicity of Molecular Materials Based on Water Soluble Half-Sandwich Rh(III) and Ir(III) Tetranuclear Metalla-Cycles

    Gupta, Gajendra; Murray, Benjamin S.; Dyson, Paul J.; Therrien, Bruno


    The neutral dinuclear complexes [(η5-C5Me5)2Rh2(μ-dhnq)Cl2] (1) and [(η5-C5Me5)2Ir2(μ-dhnq)Cl2] (2) (dhnqH2 = 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) were obtained from the reaction of [(η5-C5Me5)M(μ-Cl)Cl]2 (M = Rh, Ir) with dhnqH2 in the presence of CH3COONa. Treatment of 1 or 2 in methanol with linear ditopic ligands L (L = pyrazine, 4,4′-bipyridine or 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene), in the presence of AgCF3SO3, affords the corresponding tetranuclear metalla-rectangles [(η5-C5Me5)4M4(μ-dhnq)2(μ-L)2]4+ (L = pyrazine, M = Rh, 3; M = Ir, 4; L = 4,4′-bipyridine, M = Rh, 5; M = Ir, 6; L = 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene, M = Rh, 7; M = Ir, 8). All complexes were isolated as their triflate salts and were fully characterized by infrared, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and some representative complexes by single-crystal X-ray structure analysis. The X-ray structures of 3, 5 and 6 confirm the formation of the tetranuclear metalla-cycles, and suggest that complexes 5 and 6 possess a cavity of sufficient size to encapsulate small guest molecules. In addition, the antiproliferative activity of the metalla-cycles 3–8 was evaluated against the human ovarian A2780 (cisplatin sensitive) and A2780cisR (cisplatin resistant) cancer cell lines and on non-tumorigenic human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells. All cationic tetranuclear metalla-rectangles were found to be highly cytotoxic, with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. PMID:28788394

  3. Synthesis, Molecular Structure and Cytotoxicity of Molecular Materials Based on Water Soluble Half-Sandwich Rh(III and Ir(III Tetranuclear Metalla-Cycles

    Gajendra Gupta


    Full Text Available The neutral dinuclear complexes [(η5-C5Me52Rh2(μ-dhnqCl2] (1 and [(η5-C5Me52Ir2(μ-dhnqCl2] (2 (dhnqH2 = 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone were obtained from the reaction of [(η5-C5Me5M(μ-ClCl]2 (M = Rh, Ir with dhnqH2 in the presence of CH3COONa. Treatment of 1 or 2 in methanol with linear ditopic ligands L (L = pyrazine, 4,4′-bipyridine or 1,2-bis(4-pyridylethylene, in the presence of AgCF3SO3, affords the corresponding tetranuclear metalla-rectangles [(η5-C5Me54M4(μ-dhnq2(μ-L2]4+ (L = pyrazine, M = Rh, 3; M = Ir, 4; L = 4,4′-bipyridine, M = Rh, 5; M = Ir, 6; L = 1,2-bis(4-pyridylethylene, M = Rh, 7; M = Ir, 8. All complexes were isolated as their triflate salts and were fully characterized by infrared, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and some representative complexes by single-crystal X-ray structure analysis. The X-ray structures of 3, 5 and 6 confirm the formation of the tetranuclear metalla-cycles, and suggest that complexes 5 and 6 possess a cavity of sufficient size to encapsulate small guest molecules. In addition, the antiproliferative activity of the metalla-cycles 3–8 was evaluated against the human ovarian A2780 (cisplatin sensitive and A2780cisR (cisplatin resistant cancer cell lines and on non-tumorigenic human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells. All cationic tetranuclear metalla-rectangles were found to be highly cytotoxic, with IC50 values in the low micromolar range.

  4. Uranium metalla-allenes with carbene imido R_2C=U"I"V=NR' units (R=Ph_2PNSiMe_3; R'=CPh_3): alkali-metal-mediated push-pull effects with an amido auxiliary

    Lu, Erli; Tuna, Floriana; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Liddle, Stephen T.; Lewis, William


    We report uranium(IV)-carbene-imido-amide metalla-allene complexes [U(BIPM"T"M"S)(NCPh_3)(NHCPh_3)(M)] (BIPM"T"M"S=C(PPh_2NSiMe_3)_2; M=Li or K) that can be described as R_2C=U=NR' push-pull metalla-allene units, as organometallic counterparts of the well-known push-pull organic allenes. The solid-state structures reveal that the R_2C=U=NR' units adopt highly unusual cis-arrangements, which are also reproduced by gas-phase theoretical studies conducted without the alkali metals to remove their potential structure-directing roles. Computational studies confirm the double-bond nature of the U=NR' and U=CR_2 interactions, the latter increasingly attenuated by potassium then lithium when compared to the hypothetical alkali-metal-free anion. Combined experimental and theoretical data show that the push-pull effect induced by the alkali metal cations and amide auxiliary gives a fundamental and tunable structural influence over the C=U"I"V=N units. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Uranium metalla-allenes with carbene imido R{sub 2}C=U{sup IV}=NR' units (R=Ph{sub 2}PNSiMe{sub 3}; R'=CPh{sub 3}): alkali-metal-mediated push-pull effects with an amido auxiliary

    Lu, Erli; Tuna, Floriana; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Liddle, Stephen T. [School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Lewis, William [School of Chemistry, The University of Nottingham (United Kingdom)


    We report uranium(IV)-carbene-imido-amide metalla-allene complexes [U(BIPM{sup TMS})(NCPh{sub 3})(NHCPh{sub 3})(M)] (BIPM{sup TMS}=C(PPh{sub 2}NSiMe{sub 3}){sub 2}; M=Li or K) that can be described as R{sub 2}C=U=NR' push-pull metalla-allene units, as organometallic counterparts of the well-known push-pull organic allenes. The solid-state structures reveal that the R{sub 2}C=U=NR' units adopt highly unusual cis-arrangements, which are also reproduced by gas-phase theoretical studies conducted without the alkali metals to remove their potential structure-directing roles. Computational studies confirm the double-bond nature of the U=NR' and U=CR{sub 2} interactions, the latter increasingly attenuated by potassium then lithium when compared to the hypothetical alkali-metal-free anion. Combined experimental and theoretical data show that the push-pull effect induced by the alkali metal cations and amide auxiliary gives a fundamental and tunable structural influence over the C=U{sup IV}=N units. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. The Biological Side of Water-Soluble Arene Ruthenium Assemblies

    Bruno Therrien


    Full Text Available This review article covers the synthetic strategies, structural aspects, and host-guest properties of ruthenium metalla-assemblies, with a special focus on their use as drug delivery vectors. The two-dimensional metalla-rectangles show interesting host-guest possibilities but seem less appropriate for being used as drug carriers. On the other hand, metalla-prisms allow encapsulation and possible targeted release of bioactive molecules and consequently show some potential as drug delivery vectors. The reactivity of these metalla-prisms can be fine-tuned to allow a fine control of the guest’s release. The larger metalla-cubes can be used to stabilize the formation of G-quadruplex DNA and can be used to encapsulate and release photoactive molecules such as porphins. These metalla-assemblies demonstrate great prospective in photodynamic therapy.

  7. The Biological Side of Water-Soluble Arene Ruthenium Assemblies

    Therrien, Bruno; Furrer, Julien


    This review article covers the synthetic strategies, structural aspects, and host-guest properties of ruthenium metalla-assemblies, with a special focus on their use as drug delivery vectors. The two-dimensional metalla-rectangles show interesting host-guest possibilities but seem less appropriate for being used as drug carriers. On the other hand, metalla-prisms allow encapsulation and possible targeted release of bioactive molecules and consequently show some potential as drug delivery vect...

  8. Measurement of the wear rate of cast grinding balls using radioactive tracers; Evaluation de l'usure des boulets pour concasseurs, au moyen des indicateurs radioactifs; Izmerenie skorosti iznosa litykh drobil'nykh sharov pri pomoshchi mechenykh atomov; Medicion de la velocidad de desgaste de bolas trituradoras de acero colado con ayuda de indicadores radiactivos

    Keys, J D; Eichholz, G G [Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    The wear rate of grinding balls used in ball mills is usually hard to determine under operational conditions and little is known-about the factors determining ball life. Radioactive tracers have been used successfully to mark cast steel balls to obtain information on their life under various operating conditions for comparison with balls of different type or composition. A batch of marked steel balls has been followed through a milling operation over several weeks and statistics on wear and loss of weight have been obtained. In the test runs cobalt-60 was added to the molten metal before casting and the balls were then observed in use at an iron mine. The radioactive batch was added to a ball mill with a normal charge of about 75 tons and the mill charge was sampled at weekly intervals to pick out active balls. These balls were inspected and weighed, and the wear rate has been calculated. This procedure has proved to be a practical way of investigating wear properties under plant operating conditions. (author) [French] Il est en general difficile de determiner le taux d'usure des boulets de broyeurs dans des conditions normales d'utilisation et l'on ne sait pas grand-chose des facteurs qui determinent la longevite des boulets. Les auteurs ont employe avec succes des indicateurs radioactifs pour marquer des boulets d'acier moule, en vue d'obtenir des indications sur leur duree dans diverses conditions de. fonctionnement et de faire une comparaison entre des boulets de type different ou de. composition differente. Ils ont suivi un lot de boulets, d'acier ainsi marques pendant une operation de broyage qui a dirre plusieurs semaines, ce qui a permis de recueillir des donnees statistiques sur leur usure et leur perte de poids. Au cours des essais, du cobalt-60 a ete ajoute au metal fondu avant le moulage des boulets. Ceux-ci ont ete ensuite maintenus en observation pendant leur emploi dans une mine de fer et une mine d'or. Le lot radioactif a ete introduit danfe un broyeur ayant une charge normale d'environ 75 tonnes et des echantillons ont ete preleves a des intervalles d'une semaine pour la recuperation des boulets radioactifs. Ces boulets etaient alors inspectes et peses, apres quoi on a pu calculer leur taux d'usure. Cette methode s'est revelee tres pratique. pour l'etude de la resistance des boulets a l'usure dans les conditions habituelles d'utilisation. (author) [Spanish] La velocidad de desgaste de las bolas trituradoras empleadas en los molinos suele ser dificil de determinar durante el funcionamiento de la maquina, y solo se poseen escasos conocimientos acerca de los factores que determinan su vida util. Los autores utilizaron con exito indicadores radiactivos para marcar bolas de acero colado, con miras a obtener informacion sobre su vida util en diversas condiciones de empleo y compararlas con otras bolas de composicion o tipo distintos. Tomaron un juego de bolas de acero marcadas, y observaron su comportamiento a lo largo de varias semanas de empleo en el molino, obteniendo asi datos estadisticos sobre el desgaste y la perdida de peso sufridos. En las pruebas experimentales anadieron {sup 60}Co al metal fundido antes de colarlas bolas y observaron su comportamiento utilizandolas en una mina de hierro y en otra de oro. Emplearon las bolas marcadas en un molino cuya carga normal es de 75 toneladas aproximadamente, y extrajeron semanalmente muestras del contenido de la maquina para separar bolas activas. Examinaron estas y las pesaron, calculando asi su velocidad de desgaste. Este procedimiento se ha revelado como un metodo practico para el estudio de la resistencia al desgaste de las bolas en condiciones industriales. (author) [Russian] Skorost' iznosa drobil'nykh sharov, ispol'zuemykh v sharovykh drobilkakh, obychno trudno poddaetsya opredeleniyu v rabochikh usloviyakh; k tomu zhe malo chto izvestno otnositel'no faktorov, opredelyayushchikh srok sluzhby drobil'nykh sharov. Dlya polucheniya svedenij o sroke sluzhby drobil'nykh sharov v razlichnykh rabochikh usloviyakh i dlya sopostavleniya rezul'tatov, poluchaemykh s sharami raznykh tipov ili raznogo sostava, byli uspeshno ispol'zovany mechenye atomy. Na protyazhenii neskol'kikh nedel' bylo provedeno nablyudenie za partiej mechenykh stal'nykh sharov v drobil'noj rabote i byli sobrany statisticheskie dannye otnositel'no iznosa i poteri vesa. V khode opytnykh tsiklov do otlivki sharov k rasplavlennomu metallu byl dobavlen kobal't-60 i posle ehtogo bylo provedeno nablyudenie nad litymi sharami v ikh rabote na razrabotkakh zheleznoj rudy. Partiya mechenykh radioizotopami sharov byla dobavlena k drobil'nym sharam drobilki s normal'noj emkost'yu zagruzki priblizitel'no v 75 tonn, H cherez kazhduyu nedelyu iz drobilki vybiralis' obraztsy zagruzki dlya iz{sup y}atiya mechenykh sharov. EHti shary proveryalis' i vzveshivalis' i podschityvalas' skorost' ikh iznosa. EHtot metod okazalsya praktichnym sposobom issledovaniya svojstv iznosa v rabochikh usloviyakh na ustanovke. (author)

  9. Study of inclusions and segregation in metals by autoradiography; Etude autoradiographic des inclusions et de la segregation dans les metaux; Izuchenie primesej i usadki metalla s pomoshch'yu avtoradiografii; Estudio autoradiografico de las inclusiones y de la segregacion en los metales

    Makin, S M [Wantage Research Laboratory, Wantage, Berks (United Kingdom)


    Three applications of radioisotope techniques to metallurgy are described. During the course of this work, new autoradiographic techniques are developed. These include the irradiation and autoradiography of extraction replicas, similar to those used in electron microscopy, and a two-colour dye-transfer process in which colour prints of autoradiographs are shown with the corresponding micrographs superposed. These methods are applied to the study of inclusions in steel and uranium and to an investigation of the segregation of sulphur and phosphorus in welds in stainless steel. (author) [French] Le memoire decrit trois applications des radioisotopes en metallurgie. Au cours de ces travaux, l'auteur a mis au point de nouvelles techniques d'autoradiographie. Celles-ci comportent l'irradiation d'empreintes pour autoradiographie et d'empreintes d'extraction, semblables a celles qui sont employees dans la microscopie electronique, et font appel a un procede de transfert en deux couleurs dans lequel on superpose des autoradiographies en couleur et les microphotographies correspondantes. Ces methodes sont appliquees a l'etude des inclusions dans l'acier et l'uranium ainsi qu'aux recherches sur la segregation du soufre et du phosphore dans les pieces soudees en acier inoxydable. (author) [Spanish] Se describen tres aplicaciones de las tecnicas de los radioisotopes en la metalurgia. En el curso de los experimentos se han perfeccionado nuevas tecnicas autorradiograficas, que comprenden la irradiacion de replicas de autorradiografia y extraccion, analogas a las utilizadas en la microscopia electronica y un procedimiento de impresion a dos colores que permite obtener autorradiografias superpuestas a las correspondientes micrografias. Estos metodos se aplican al estudio de inclusiones en el acero y el uranio y a una investigacion de la segregacion del azufre y del fosforo en soldaduras hechas en acero inoxidable. (author) [Russian] Daetsya opisanie trekh sposobov primeneniya radioizotopov v metallurgii. V khode ehtoj raboty byli sozdany novye avtoradiograficheskie metody. Oni vklyuchayut obluchenie i avtoradiografiyu ehkstraktsionnykh modelej, podobno ispol'zuemym v ehlektronnoj mikroskopii, i protsess dvukhtsvetnogo perekhoda, pri kotorom tsvetnye kopii chertezhej avtoradiografa pokazyvayutsya s sootvetstvuyushchimi nalozhennymi dannymi mikrografov. EHti metody ispol'zuyutsya pri izuchenii primesej v stali i urane i pri issledovanii segregatsii sery i fosfora pri svarke v nerzhaveyushchej stali. (author)

  10. A computational study of the addition of ReO3L (L = Cl(-), CH3, OCH3 and Cp) to ethenone.

    Aniagyei, Albert; Tia, Richard; Adei, Evans


    The periselectivity and chemoselectivity of the addition of transition metal oxides of the type ReO3L (L = Cl, CH3, OCH3 and Cp) to ethenone have been explored at the MO6 and B3LYP/LACVP* levels of theory. The activation barriers and reaction energies for the stepwise and concerted addition pathways involving multiple spin states have been computed. In the reaction of ReO3L (L = Cl(-), OCH3, CH3 and Cp) with ethenone, the concerted [2 + 2] addition of the metal oxide across the C=C and C=O double bond to form either metalla-2-oxetane-3-one or metalla-2,4-dioxolane is the most kinetically favored over the formation of metalla-2,5-dioxolane-3-one from the direct [3 + 2] addition pathway. The trends in activation and reaction energies for the formation of metalla-2-oxetane-3-one and metalla-2,4-dioxolane are Cp Cp Cp Cp Cp. The direct [2 + 2] addition pathways leading to the formations of metalla-2-oxetane-3-one and metalla-2,4-dioxolane is thermodynamically the most favored for the ligands L = OCH3 and Cl(-). The difference between the calculated [2 + 2] activation barriers for the addition of the metal oxide LReO3 across the C=C and C=O functionalities of ethenone are small except for the case of L = Cl(-) and OCH3. The rearrangement of the metalla-2-oxetane-3-one-metalla-2,5-dioxolane-3-one even though feasible, are unfavorable due to high activation energies of their rate-determining steps. For the rearrangement of the metalla-2-oxetane-3-one to metalla-2,5-dioxolane-3-one, the trends in activation barriers is found to follow the order OCH3 Cp. The trends in the activation energies for the most favorable [2 + 2] addition pathways for the LReO3-ethenone system is CH3 > CH3O(-) > Cl(-) > Cp. For the analogous ethylene-LReO3 system, the trends in activation and reaction energies for the most favorable [3 + 2] addition pathway is CH3 > CH3O(-) > Cl(-) > Cp [10]. Even though the most favored pathway in the ethylene-LReO3 system is

  11. Dichlorido[N-(N,N-dimethylcarbamimidoyl-N′,N′,4-trimethylbenzohydrazonamide]platinum(II nitromethane hemisolvate

    Dmitrii S. Bolotin


    Full Text Available In the title compound, [PtCl2(C13H21N5]·0.5CH3NO2, the PtII atom is coordinated in a slightly distorted square-planar geometry by two Cl atoms and two N atoms of the bidentate ligand. The (1,3,5-triazapentadienePtII metalla ring is slightly bent and does not conjugate with the aromatic ring. In the crystal, N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds link the complex molecules, forming chains along [001]. The nitromethane solvent molecule shows half-occupancy and is disordered over two sets of sites about an inversion centre.

  12. The traces of roman metallurgy in Eastern Serbia

    Petković Sofija


    Full Text Available The archaeological traces of the Roman mining and metallurgy in eastern Serbia are rather frequent but insufficiently studied and published. Three mining-metallurgical regions abounding in gold, silver, copper, iron and lead could be distinguished there: 1. the upper course of the Pek river, metalla Pincensia, 2. the area between Bor, Zlot, Crna Reka and Rgotina and 3. the area in the river basin of Beli Timok, two latter ones had been organized as territoria metallorum. The archeometallurgical sites confirmed by investigations are: Kraku lu Jordan at the confluence of the Brodica river and the Pek river, Rudna Glava, Tilva Roš in Bor, Gamzigrad - Romuliana, Rgotina near Zaječar and Timacum Minus in the village Ravna near Knjaževac. Roman mining-metallurgical activities in eastern Serbia flourished from the end of the 3rd century, were interrupted by the invasion of Huns in AD 441. and restored in the time of emperors Anastasius and Justin I, in the end of the 5th - beginning of the 6th centuries. The Roman mining-metallurgical centers functioned in the 6th century until the Slav invasion in the beginning of the 7th century.

  13. Self-assembled arene-ruthenium-based rectangles for the selective sensing of multi-carboxylate anions.

    Vajpayee, Vaishali; Song, Young Ho; Lee, Min Hyung; Kim, Hyunuk; Wang, Ming; Stang, Peter J; Chi, Ki-Whan


    Novel arene-ruthenium [2+2] metalla-rectangles 4 and 5 have been synthesized by self-assembly using dipyridyl amide ligand 3 and arene-ruthenium acceptors (arene: benzoquinone (1), naphthacenedione (2)) and characterized by NMR spectroscopy and ESI-MS. The solid-state structure of 5 was determined by X-ray diffraction and shows encapsulated diethyl ether molecule in the rectangular cavity of 5. The luminescent 5 was further used for anion sensing with the amidic linkage serving as a hydrogen-bond donor site for anions and the ruthenium moiety serving as a signaling unit. A UV/Vis titration study demonstrated that although 5 interacts very weakly with common monoanions as well as with flexible dicarboxylate anions such as malonate and succinate, it displays significant binding affinity (K>10(3) in MeOH) for rigid multi-carboxylate anions such as oxalate, citrate, and tartrate, exhibiting a 1:1 stoichiometry. It has been suggested that 1:1 bidentate hydrogen bonding assisted by appropriate geometrical complementarity is mainly responsible for the increased affinity of 5 towards such anions. A fluorescence titration study revealed a large fluorescence enhancement of 5 upon binding to multi-carboxylate anions, which can be attributed to the blocking of the photoinduced electron-transfer process from the arene-Ru moiety to the amidic donor in 5 as a result of hydrogen bonding between the donor and the anion. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Double-Sampling Method for Carrying Out Quality Control of a Fabrication Process; Methode du Double Echantillonnage pour le Controle de la Qualite d'un Procede de Fabrication; Metod dvukh obraztsov dlya osushchestvleniya kontrolya za kachestvom v protsesse izgotovleniya; Metodo de Muestreo Doble para el Control de Calidad de un Proceso de Fabricacion

    Cerrolaza, J. A.; Lago, A.; Montojo, Rosa M. [Junta de Energia Nuclear, Madrid (Spain)


    ' malyj procent defektnyh detalej, i ochen' vysokaja stoimost' kazhdogo iz komponentov. Po jetim soobrazhenijam v hode izgotovlenija neobhodimo tshhatel'no priderzhivat'sja krivoj proizvodstvennyh operacij, i pri sobljudenii jetogo uslovija chislo detalej, razrushaemyh pri kazhdoj proverke, dolzhno byt' minimal'nym. Obychnye metody, osnovannye na opredelenii oshibki pervogo roda, ne mogut byt' ispol'zovany, tak kak oni voobshhe nedostatochno jeffektivny. Kave razrabotal metod, pri kotorom razmer obrazcov i predely kontrolja javljajutsja funkciej oshibok pervogo i vtorogo roda. Jetot metod, hotja on i primenim, nevozmozhno ispol'zovat' dlja proverki komponentov reaktora, poskol'ku pri jetom nuzhny slishkom bol'shie obrazcy. Daetsja opisanie metoda, analogichnogo metodu Kave, no osnovannogo na ispol'zovanii dvuh obrazcov, blagodarja chemu znachitel'no umen'shaetsja srednij razmer obrazca. (author)

  15. Diffusion, recrystallization and phase transformations; Diffusion, recristallisation et changements de phase; Diffuziya, rekristallizatsiya i fazovye prevrashcheniya; Difusion, recristalizacion y cambios de fase

    Bokshtejn, S Z; Gubareva, M A; Kishkin, S T; Moroz, L M


    estructura del metal sufre modificaciones importantes despues de la recristalizacion, asi como despues de la transformacion polimorfica {alpha} {r_reversible} {gamma}, los atomos situados en los limites de los granulos iniciales no experimentan desplazamientos considerables. De manera analoga, los atomos de un aditivo (carbono radiactivo) situados en los limites de los granulos iniciales no migran a traves de los limites de los nuevos granulos del metal recristalizado. En cambio, la deformacion plastica va acompanada de migraciones considerables de los atomos situados en los limites de los granulos. Los datos obtenidos demuestran que la migracion de los limites de los granulos durante la recristalizacion y subsiguiente formacion de los granulos esta relacionada con un mecanismo especifico distinto del habitual mecanismo de difusion. Los autores han demostrado que las transformaciones estructurales que ocurren en las aleaciones a temperaturas elevadas pueden modificar la velocidad de los proceseos de autodifusion y heterodifusion. Basandose en el estudio de los procesos de difusion en el titanio y sus aleaciones en relacion con el estado polimorfico, los autores han comprobado que la velocidad de los procesos difiere notablemente en las distintas variedades cristalinas del titanio. Con ello desaparece la contradicion que existia entre el elevado punto de fusion del titanio y la energia de activacion del proceso de difusion en este elemente, que es relativamente baja. (author) [Russian] Razrabotana metodika, pozvolyayushchaya s pomoshch'yu radioaktivnykh izotopov issledovat' povedenie granits zeren v protsesse plasticheskoj deformatsii i posleduyushchej rekristallizatsii. Pokazano, chto rekristallizatsiya zheleza pri sravnitel'no malykh (15%) i bol'shikh (50-70%) stepenyakh deformatsii ne privodit k sushchestvennomu izmeneniyu mestopolozheniya atomov osnovnogo metalla, nakhodyashchikhsya na granitse iskhodnykh zeren. Pri znachitel'nom izmenenii struktury metalla posle

  16. The use of radiotracer techniques to study lubrication and wear in large diesel engines; Emploi des indicateurs radioactifs pour l'etude de la lubrification et de l'usure dans les moteurs diesel de grande puissance; Ispol'zovanie metodov radioaktivnykh indikatorov dlya izucheniya smazki i iznosa bol'shikh dizel'nykh motorov; Aplicacion de los indicadores radiactivos al estudio de la lubricacion y desgaste de los motores diesel de gran potencia

    Howes, Jr, J E; Braun, W J; Sunderman, D N [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)


    iznosa bol'shikh dizel'nykh motorov v masshtabe, kotoryj do sikh por schitalsya prakticheski neosushchestvimym. Kak potreblenie smazochnogo masla, tak i iznos rubashki tsilindra opredelyalis' v funktsii ot rabochikh uslovij dizelya moshchnost'yu okolo 1000 tormoznykh loshadinykh sil. Byl vyrabotan metod mecheniya 200 gallonov smazochnogo masla 60 millikyuri tsinka-65 i opredeleniya potrebleniya masla pri pomoshchi vzyatiya obraztsov gazov vykhlopa pri rabote motora v raznoobraznykh usloviyakh. Izmerenie potrebleniya smazochnogo masla moglo byt' proizvedeno za 10 minut vremeni, vmesto 24 ili 48 chasov, trebovavshikhsya ran'she. Byl vyrabotan metod aktivatsii nejtronami nizshej chasti tsilindra dlinoyu v 48 dyujmov i diametrom rubashki v 8 dyujmov. Nadlezhashchee ehkranirovanie teplovykh nej- tronov dalo vozmozhnost' poluchit' marganets-54 s 300-dnevnym periodom poluraspada; issledovanie iznosa privelo k udlineniyu poleznogo sroka sluzhby rubashki v 6-8 raz po sravneniyu s analogichnoj rubashkoj, aktivirovannoj termicheski dlya proizvodstva zheleza-59. To obstoyatel'stvo, chto issledovaniya s takimi bol'shimi kolichestvami radioaktivnogo materiala mogut vypolnyat'sya v oblasti dizelej na normal'noj issledovatel'skoj ustanovke, otkryvaet sovershenno novuyu oblast' primeneniya indikatorov. Izbiratel'naya aktivatsiya i tselesoobraznoe ispol'zovanie ehkranirovaniya teplovykh nejtronov uvelichivayut raznoobrazie vozmozhnostej ispol'zovaniya metodov indikatorov; izmereniya sosredotochivayutsya na interesuyushchem meste, i tem samym sokrashchaetsya obshchee kolichestvo trebuemogo dlya izucheniya iznosa krupnykh detalej radioaktivnogo materiala; vmeste s tem odnovremenno oblegchaetsya izmerenie iznosa detalej motora iz materialov s odinakovym khimicheskim sostavom. (author)

  17. Crucible-Free Synthesis of Silicides and Borides; Synthese de siliciures et de borures sans creuset; Bestigel'nyj sintez silitsidov i boridov; Sintesis de siliciuros y boruros sin crisol

    Ban, Z.; Sikirica, M. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Yugoslavia (Croatia)


    The laboratory method for preparing pure silicides and borides, reducing the corresponding oxides of metals, has been developed. Synthesis of silicides was carried out in the floating zone of molten silicon. The floating zone was obtained by means of electron bombardment. Synthesis of borides is similar but reactions are generally of the solid-solid type. Initial heating of the reaction mixture was also obtained by means of the electron beam but further heating was produced by the ionized gaseous products of the reaction. (author) [French] On a mis au point une methode pour la preparation en laboratoire de siliciures et de borures purs, par reduction des oxydes des metaux correspondants. La synthese des siliciures a pu etre faite dans la ''zone flottante'' du silicium fondu. Cette zone flottante a ete obtenue par bombardement electronique. La synthese des borures est analogue, mais les reactions ont lieu generalement a Tetat solide. Le chauffage initial du melange reactionnel a egalement ete obtenu pai bombardement electronique, mais le chauffage ulterieur etait assure par les electrons diffuses des produits ionises gazeux de la reaction. (author) [Spanish] Los autores idearon un metodo de laboratorio para preparar siliciuros y boruros puros por reduccion de los respectivos oxidos metalicos. La sintesis de los siliciuros se llevo a cabo en la zona flotante del silicio fundido. Esa zona se obtuvo por bombardeo electronico. La sintesis de los boruros se llevo a cabo de manera similar, pero generalmente las reacciones son del tipo solido-solido. El calentamiento inicial de la mezcla se efectuo tambien mediante un haz electronico, pero el calentamiento ulterior es producido por la dispersion electronica en los productos de reaccion ionizados en estado gaseoso. (author) [Russian] Razrabotan laboratornyj metod prigotovleniya chistykh silitsidov i boridov putem vosstanovleniya sootvetstvennykh okislov metalla. Sintez, silitsidov provodili v plavayushchej zone

  18. Some solvent extraction studies of trivalent metal halides; Quelques etudes sur l'extraction par solvant d'halogenures de metaux trivalents; Izuchenie ehkstraktsii nekotorykh rastvoritelej iz trekhvalentnykh metallicheskikh galoidov; Algunos estudios de la extraccion mediante disolventes de haluros de metales trivalentes

    Dietz, Jr, R J; Mendez, J; Irvine, Jr, J W [Department of Chemistry and Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)


    el orden de magnitud del coeficiente varia en un intervalo de 10{sup 5}. Los autores explican los datos obtenidos sobre la base de la ionizacion del acido complejo HMX{sub 4} en estos disolventes, cuyas constantes dielectricas son relativamente elevadas. Empleando un metodo ideado por Poskanzer, han calculado la constante de ionizacion del electrolito soporte, HCl o HBr, en la fase no acuosa a partir de las variaciones que el coeficiente de extraccion experimenta en funcion de las concentraciones del metal. Las variaciones del coeficiente de extraccion con la concentracion de HX han servido para calcular las constantes de estabilidad de las especies complejas MX{sub 3} y MX{sub 4}{sup -}. Como se trata de reacciones en fase acuosa, las constantes son independientes del disolvente organico que se emplee. Para el sistema In (III)-HCl los autores obtuvieron resultados perfectamente concordantes tanto al emplear eter bis (2-cloroetilico) como nitrobenceno. Los autores no consiguieron evaluar las constantes de los complejos de cloruro y bromuro de galio porque dichos compuestos solo se forman en un intervalo de concentraciones de acido muy estrecho. Los valores del cociente (GaCl{sub 4}{sup -})/{Sigma} Ga (III) en funcion de la concentracion de HCl, calculados a partir de los datos de extraccion, concuerdan con los datos que Kraus y Nelson obtuvieron por mediciones del intercambio ionico. (author) [Russian] Metod mechenykh atomov pozvolil provesti izuchenie fiziko-khimicheskogo raspredeleniya Ga (III) i In (III) mezhdu vodnymi rastvorami HCl i HBr i organicheskimi rastvoritelyami, dvojnym ehfirom (2-khloroehtil) i nitrobenzolom. Na osnove izmerenij koehffitsientov ehkstraktsii pri kontsentratsii metalla vyshe 10{sup 10} i pri kolebanii dannogo koehffitsienta v predelakh 10{sup 5} tshchatel'no bylo razrabotano ehmpiricheskoe povedenie dannykh sistem. Rezul'taty vyrazhalis' v stepeni ionizatsii slozhnoj kisloty, HMX{sub 4}, izvestnoj v kachestve rastvoritelya s otnositel

  19. Treatment and Processing of Radioactive Wastes; Traitement des Dechets Radioactifs; 041e 0411 0420 0414 ; Tratamiento de Desechos Radiactivos

    Rodger, Walton A. [Chemical Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL (United States)


    fil'trami. Doklad daet opisanie tipichnyh ustanovok. Provodilos' issledovanie po szhiganiju vosplamenjajushhihsja othodov; v doklade daetsja ego opisanie i operativnye dannye. Metod upakovki takzhe igraet vazhnuju rol' v sisteme sbora tverdyh othodov. Byli izucheny razlichnye vidy obrabotki zhidkih othodov. V doklade privoditsja opisanie tipichnyh sistem i prilagajutsja operativnye dannye. Othody s vysokim urovnem radioaktivnosti - Gazy inogda otvodjatsja neposredstvenno v truboprovody, no chashhe vsego trebuetsja nekotoraja predvaritel'naja obrabotka. Obrabotka sostoit iz himicheskoj ochistki, udalenija ioda s poserebrennyh detalej, udalenija inertnogo gaza i fil'tracii. Tverdym veshhestvam s vysokim urovnem zarazhenija mozhet potrebovat'sja dezaktivacija na meste do ih udalenija. Udalenie zhidkih othodov s vysokim urovnem radioaktivnosti predstavljaet soboj samuju slozhnuju problemu, s kotoroj stalkivaetsja v nastojashhee vremja promyshlennost'. Jeta problema vkljuchaet umen'shenie ob{sup e}ma othoda, poluchaemogo pervonachal'no putem izmenenija processa obrabotki; koncentraciju poluchaemogo othoda; ili vosstanovlenie v tverdye pri pomoshhi neskol'kih metodov, vkljuchaja metod koncentracii, ispol'zovanija portland-cementa, adsorbciju na glinah, ili drugih estestvennyh veshhestvah i kal'cinirovanie. V doklade rassmatrivajutsja tehnicheskie i jekonomicheskie problemy, svjazannye s vremennym hraneniem othodov. Obrabotku othodov neobhodimo proizvodit' lish' v tshhatel'no otobrannyh dlja jetoj celi mestah. V doklade privodjatsja podschety priblizitel'nogo kolichestva othodov, kotorye pridetsja transportirovat', i trebuemogo oborudovanija. Rassmatrivajutsja voprosy, svjazannye s riskom i stoimost'ju. (author)

  20. Industrial Sterilization st the Electron Linear-Accelerator Facility at Risoe; Sterilisation industrielle a l'aide de l'accelerateur lineaire d'electrons de Riso; Promyshlennaya sterilizatsiya oblucheniem na linejnom uskoritele ehlektronov v Rizo; Esterilizacion industrial con ayuda del acelerador lineal de electrones de Riso

    Brynjolfsson, A.; Holm, N. W.; Tharup, G.; Sehested, K. [Accelerator Section, Danish Atomic Energy Commission, Research Establishment Risoe (Denmark)


    cherez pryamo pered nim nakhodyashcheesya okoshko ili cherez ustrojstvo dlya izmeneniya napravleniya i razvertyvaniya puchka. Izmenivshij napravlenie i razvernutyj puchok primenyaetsya dlya obrabotki oblucheniem. Podlezhashchie oblucheniyu pakety peremeshchayutsya v pole oblucheniya s pomoshch'yu konvejernoj sistemy s polnym diapazonom skorostej ot 0,2 do 600 mm/sek, chem dostigaetsya poluchenie shirokogo diapazona doz pri fiksirovannoj naladke uskoritelya. Ustanovka ehkspluatiruetsya s oseni 1960 goda, obsluzhivaya nauchnoissledovatel'skie instituty Danii, a s 1961 goda - takzhe i radiatsionnuyu promyshlennuyu sterilizatsiyu meditsinskikh priborov, naprimer shpritsev, kateterov, ustanovok po perelivaniyu i vnutrivennomu vlivaniyu krovi i legochno- serdechnye apparaty. Ob{sup e}m obrabotki postoyanno vozrastaet, kolichestvo paketov, obrabotannykh v techenie pervykh trekh mesyatsev 1963 goda, sostavlyaet priblizitel'no 3000. V odnom pakete mogut pomeshchat'sya, naprimer, 900 shpritsev, kazhdyj ob{sup e}mom 2 cm{sup 3}. Provedena bol'shaya rabota po usovershenstvovaniyu metodov oblucheniya, v tom'chisle po primeneniyu reflektornykh sistem, avtomaticheskogo regulirovaniya dozy, obychnoj dozimetrii i vizual'nym tsvetnym indikatoram. Laetsya kratkij obzor ehtikh vazhnykh v tekhnicheskom otnoshenii detalej, i opisyvaetsya sam protsess sterilizatsii, v tom chisle obrabotka, upravlenie i dozimetriya. Nakonets,daetsya informatsiya otnositel'no stoimosti ehkspluatatsii. (author)

  1. Wear studies in the shearing process by means of irradiated tools; Etudes d'usure dans les operations de cisaillement, au moyen d'outils irradies; Issledovaniya problemy iznosa v protsesse skalyvaniya posredstvom obluchennykh instrumentov; Estudios de desgaste en las operaciones de cizallamiento, realizados con ayuda de herramientas irradiadas

    Sata, Toshio; Abe, Kunio; Nakajima, Kiyoshi [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Komagome, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo (Japan)


    shtampovki primerno 400-500 detalej. 2) Probojnik iznashivaetsya v bol'shej stepeni, primerno na 20% bol'she, chem puanson. 3) Smazochnye materialy s prisadkoj na predel'noe davlenie, takoj, kak khlor, fosfor ili sera, snizhayut iznos instrumenta, v to vremya kak ochishchennye mineral'nye masla dayut neznachitel'nyj ehffekt. 4) Naibol'shij iznos instrumenta obnaruzhen pri shtampovke bolee tverdykh metallicheskikh listov. Iznos instrumenta pri shtampovke nerzhaveyushchej stali vtroe, a pri shtampovke kremnievoj stali primerno v shest' raz prevyshaet iznos pri shtampovke stali s nizkim soderzhaniem ugleroda. (author)

  2. Production of Short-Lived Radionuclides at the Hahn-Meitner Institute in West Berlin; Production de Radionuclides a Courte Periode a l'Institut Hahn-Meitner de Berlin-Ouest; ПРОИЗВОДСТВО КОРОТКОЖИВУЩИХ РАДИОИЗОТОПОВ В ИНСТИТУТЕ ХАНА-МАЙТНЕРА В ЗАПАДНОМ БЕРЛИНЕ; Produccion de Radionuclidos de Periodo Corto en el Instituto Hahn-Meitner de Berlin Occidental

    Felix, F. W.; Pirrwitz, D.; Szabo de Bucs, E. [Hahn - Meitner-Institut fuer Kern Forschung, Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)


    la capadidad de produccion del citado Instituto. (author) [Russian] Nachinaja s I960 goda Institut po jdernym issledovanijam Hana-Majtnera proizvodit korotkozhivushhie radioizotopy dlja medicinskih i nauchnyh celej dlja rajona Zapadnogo Berlina. V nastojashhee vremja proizvodjatsja izotopy, primenjaemye obychno v medicine, takie, kak Na{sup 25}, K{sup 42}, Au{sup 198}, a takzhe nekotorye menee rasprostranennye, kak Cu{sup 64}, Zn{sup 69m} i F{sup 18}. Na{sup 24} i K{sup 42} byli polucheny v rezul'tate nejtronnogo obluchenija hloridov i razoslany posle kalibrovki v vide tverdyh veshhestv. Au1 Registered-Sign 8, obluchennyj v forme metalla, upotrebljaetsja dlja implantacii pri lechenii raka. F{sup 19} poluchaetsja v rezul'tate reakcii O{sup 16} (t, n) i obluchenija LiNO{sub 3} Otdelenie F{sup 16} pri pomoshhi ionnogo obmena dalo luchshie rezul'taty, chem opisyvaemye obychno v literature metody. Dlja proizvodstva Cu{sup 64} i Zn{sup 89m} byl razrabotan special'nyj metod jelektroliza dlja jekstragirovanija izotopov, poluchennyh pri pomoshhi reakcii Scilard-Hal'mersa s ftalocianinami. Oba jeti izotopa nahodjat primenenie v medicinskoj diagnostike. Privodjatsja podrobnye dannye otnositel'no oborudovanija i tehniki obluchenija, sposobov proizvodstva i apparatury, kalibrovki poluchennyh izotopov i proizvoditel'noj sposobnosti. (author)

  3. Separation of Impurities in the Zinc Rectification Process by Radioactive Isotopes; Separation des Impuretes, a l'Aide de Radioisotopes, dans l'Affinage du Zinc par Voie Seche; ОТДЕЛЕНИЕ ПРИМЕСЕЙ В ПРОЦЕССЕ РЕКТИФИКАЦИИ ЦИНКА С ПРИМЕНЕНИЕМ РАДИОАКТИВНЫХ РАДИОИЗОТОПОВ; Estudio Mediante Radioisotopos de la Separacion de Impurezas en el Proceso de Purificacion del Cinc

    Akerman, K.; Brafman, M.; Fik, H.; Kitala, J.; Nowak, M.; Poczynajlo, A. [Institute of Nuclear Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)


    . Privedeny takte prakticheskie vyvody, kotorye javljajutsja rezul'tatom matematicheskogo issledovanija processa rektifikacii s tochki zrenija jetoj teorii. V rabote opisany opyty po issledovaniju processa rektifikacii cinka, v kotoryh byli primeneny radioaktivnye izotopy. Issledovalos' otdelenie primesej, obladajushhih vysokoj i nizkoj temperaturoj kipenija, a takzhe povedenie osnovnoj sostavljajushhej, to-est' cinka, vo vremja normal'noj raboty kolonny. V opytah byli primeneny sledujushhie radioaktivnye izotopy: Cu{sup 64}, Fe{sup 98} (vysokokipjashhie primesi), Cd{sup 115} (primes' s nizkoj temperaturoj kipenija) i Zneem (osnovnaja sostavljajushhaja). Rezul'taty provedennyh issledovanij javljajutsja opytnym podtverzhdeniem teorii A. Krupkovskogo. Poluchennye dannye ukazyvajut na celesoobraznost' izmenenija parametrov kondensacii parov cinka i kadmija v kadmievoj kolonne dlja togo, chtoby uvelichit' izvlechenie kadmija iz ishodnogo metalla i povysit' kachestvo cinka, poluchaemogo v rezul'tate rektifikacii. (author)

  4. Design of the Small Rods Forming the Fuel Element of the First Charge of the EL4 Reactor. Cladding Problems; Etude des crayons constituant l'element combustible du premier jeu d'EL4 - probleme de la gaine; Problema pokrytiya nebol'shikh steeknej, obrazushchikh toplivnyj ehlement pervoj zagruzki reaktora EL.4; Estudio de las barras que constituyen los elementos combustibles de la primera carga del reactor EL4 - el problema de las vainas

    Bailly, H.; Ringot, C.; Weisz, M. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)


    ) [Spanish] Las vainas de los elementos combustibles de la primera carga del reactor EL-4 son de acero inoxidable. La eleccion del grado del acero y del espesor de la vaina depende de la resistencia a la corrosion y de la resistencia mecanica que se deseen. Las tensiones y las temperaturas de funcionamiento no permiten concebir una vaina que resista durante toda la vida util del elemento combustible si no se uti liza un grado de acero muy resistente y un espesor,superior a 0,5 mm. Se admite que la vaina se adhiera al combustible por fluencia: la deformacion por juego en sentido diametral puede producir una ovalizacion y un pliegue; el juego longitudinal puede dar lugar a flexiones de la vaina. Se han realizado muchos ensayos con vainas de 0,3 a 0,4 mm de espesor para estudiar el modo de deformacion en funcion de los juegos. Para estar seguros de que no se produciran ovaliza ciones con los espesores previstos, y para mantener lo mas baja posible la temperatura en el interior de la barra es preciso eliminar completamente el juego durante la fabricacion. (author) [Russian] Dlya pervoj nagruzki toplivnogo ehlementa reaktora EL.4 ispol'zuetsya pokrytie iz nerzhaveyushchej stali. Vybor splava i tolshchiny pokrytiya svyazan s korrozionnymi i mekhanicheskimi svojstvami metalla. Rabochie napryakheniya i temperatury ne dast vozmokhnosti sproektirovat' pokrytie, stojkoe v techenie vsego sroka sluzhby toplivnogo ehlementa; dlya dostikheniya takoj tseli neobkhodimo bylo by ispol'zovat' ochen' stojkoe pokrytie tolshchinoj bolee 0,5 mm. Dopuskaetsya, chto pokrytie v protsesse spekaniya soedinyaetsya s toplivom. Diametral'noe izmenenie toplivnykh ehlementov mokhet privesti k obrazovaniyu oval'noj formy i nerovnostej; prodol'noe izmenenie sistemy toplivnykh ehlementov mokhet privesti k prodol'nomu izgibu pokrytiya. Byli provedeny mnogochislennye opyty v otnoshenii tolshchiny pokrytiya v predelakh' 0,3 - 0,4 mm s tem, chtoby vyyasnit' kharakter izmeneniya toplivnykh ehlementov v zavisimosti

  5. Use of the Neutron Die-Away Technique to Test Control Rod Effectiveness Theories; Emploi de la Methode d'Absorption des Neutrons pour Verifier les Theories sur l'Efficacite des Barres de Commande; Ispol'zovanie metoda spada potoka nejtronov dlya proverki teorij ehffektivnosti reguliruyushchikh sterzhnej; Aplicacion de la Tecnica de Extincion Neutronica a la Verificacion de las Teorias sobre la Eficacia de las Barras de Control

    Perez, R. B. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); De Saussure, G.; Silver, E. G. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    actualmente determinaciones con barras de dimensiones intermedias, a fin de averiguar el limite de aplicacion de la teoria de la difusion. (author) [Russian] Raschety jeffektivnosti regulirujushhih sterzhnej uslozhnjajutsja ih zavisimost'ju kak ot raspredelenija jenergij nejtronov, tak m ot geometrii sborki. Pri sravnenii teoreticheskih dannyh s rezul'tatami jeksperimentov, provedennyh na reaktorah ili kriticheskih sistemah, voznikajut trudnosti, svjazannye s vnutrennej slozhnost'ju takih sistem. Metod spada potoka nejtronov pozvoljaet poluchit' model' vseh teplovyh nejtronov, v kotoroj raspredelenie jenergii nejtronov mozhet byt' otdeleno ot prostranstvennyh jeffektov. Pojetomu geometricheskij faktor jeffektivnosti regulirujushhego sterzhnja mozhet byt' izuchen bez ucheta detalej nejtronnogo spektra, a rezul'taty mogut byt' sravneny s rezul'tatami chistoj prostoj jeksperimental'noj ustanovki. Metod osnovan na tom fakte, chto v jeksperimente s zamiraniem nejtronov, kak on zdes' opisan, laplasian sborki svjazan s postojannoj raspada osnovnogo vida po formuljo: B{sup 2} = ({lambda} - {lambda}{sub a})/D {lambda}{sub a} gde Ha-obratnyj poluperiod nejtronov v zamedlitele (sek-1 ); D- postojannaja diffuzii (sm2 'sek-1 ). V zamedljajushhih sborkah, ispol'zuemyh dlja jetih jeksperimentov, imelis' prjamougol'nye berillievye prizmy razlichnyh razmerov, sostavlennye iz nebol'shih (7,3 h 7,3 h 5,24 sm) blokov. Ispol'zovalis' tri vida kadmievyh regulirujushhih sterzhnej: tonkie diametrom 0,476sm, krestoobraznye i polye ''tolstye'' sterzhni secheniem 7,3 X 7,3sm. Byli provereny sledujushhie teoreticheskie shemy: 1) Nordhejma -Skalettara; 2) Hurvitca-Roe; 3) Cifrovoj hod diffuzii. Jeffekt krestoobraznogo poglotitelja byl raschitan s pomoshh'ju metoda konformnogo preobrazovanija Hurvitca-Roe. Dlja laplasiana bylo polucheno znachenie 0,0188sm{sup -2}, chto sravnimo s jeksperimental'nymi rezul'tatami, sostavivshimi 0,0187 {+-} 0,0006 cm{sup -2}. Znachenija, poluchennye dlja tolstyh sterzhnej s

  6. Comparison of Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory Clean Critical and Subcritical Experiments with Calculations; Etude Comparative des Calculs et des Experiences Critiques Non Empoisonnees et Souscritiques, Faits au Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory; Sravnenie chistykh kriticheskikh i podkriticheskikh opytov v nolle s raschetnymi dannymi; Comparacion de los Resultados Experimentales del Knolls Atomic Power Lamra Tory con los Valores Calculados Teoricamente en Conjuntos Criticos Limpios y Subcriticos

    Bach, D. R.; Bistline, J. A.; Bunch, S. I.; Cerbone, R. J.; Feiner, F.; Skolnik, W.; Slovacek, R. E.; Weinstein, S. [Knolls Atomic Tower Laboratory, Schenectady, NY (United States)


    anteriores en todo el intervalo experimental. Los resultados de los calculos de las constantes de desintegracion por medio de la tecnica de extraccion de los venenos que cumplen la ley 1/v, utilizando claves normales de computo de difusion de pocos grupos con condiciones de frontera dependientes del grupo, concuerdan, con un margen de error que no pasa de algunas unidades por ciento de las constantes medidas, en todo el intervalo desde 100 a 45 000 s{sup -1}. Comparando las mediciones del espectro efectuadas con el selector lento con los valores calculados partiendo de los datos mas recientes de los nucleos para el hidrogeno ligado en el caso del agua y el polietileoo, se observa una concordancia satisfactoria excepto en los sistemas de agua con elevado coeficiente de absorcion. En este ultimo caso, los espectros medidos son aun mas blandos que los espectros de atomos libres obtenidos por calculo. (author) [Russian] V Nollskoj atomno-jenergeticheskoj laboratorii osushhestvlja- etsja shirokaja programma opytov i raschetov dlja ocenki adekvatnosti raschetnyh metodov i jadernyh dannyh dlja vodorodosoderzhashhih sistem. V progamme imejutsja tri obshhih aspekta: 1) chistye kriticheskie opyty s tverdym gomogennym toplivom s vysokim sootnosheniem mezhdu ob{sup e}mom metalla i ob{sup e}mom vodoroda; 2) chistye kriticheskie o'pyty s toplivom v vide plastin s ohvatom bol'shogo diapazona razmerov aktivnoj zony, otnoshenijamass metalla i vody, plotnosti topliva i temperatury; 3) izmerenija postojannoj raspada mgnovennyh nejtronov i spektroa stacionarnogo sostojanija v podkriticheskih sistemah s takoj zhe strukturoj. Toplivnye jelementy dlja opytov s tverdym gomogennym toplivom predstavljajut soboj spressovannye uplotnenija iz poroshkov ZrO{sub 2} i vysokoobogashhennogo UO{sub 2}, ravnomerno sme- shannyh s parafinom. Bloki otrazhatelja s takim zhe otnosheniem mass ZrO{sub 2} i parafina, kak i toplivnye bloki, pozvoljajut konstruirovat' otrazhaemye aktivnye zony s ravnomerno pa

  7. The Application of Non-Metallic Core Materials in a High-Temperature Reactor Experiment; Utilisation de materes non metalliques dans le coeur d'un reacteur experimental a haute temperature; Ispol'zovanie nemetallicheskikh materialov dlya aktivnoj zony vysokotemperaturnogo opytnogo reaktora; Empleo de materiales no metalicos en el nucleo de un reactor experimental de alta temperatura

    Huddle, R. A.U.; Shepherd, L. R. [Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Dragon Project, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorset (United Kingdom)


    comportamiento de estos materiales en condiciones de funcionamiento normales. Se comunican los resultados de las investigaciones sobre irradiacion, asi como de los trabajos efectuados en los circuitos del reactor. El objetivo principal de este programa es el perfeccionamiento de los reactores de elevada temperatura refrigerados por gas para aplicarlos a la generacion de electricidad en condiciones rentables. (author) [Russian] Proekt vysokotemperaturnogo reaktora (DRAGON)sozdan dlya razrabotki tekhnologii vysokotemperaturnykh reaktorov s gazovym okhladitelem; v nem predusmatrivalos' sooruzhenie i ehkspluatatsiya opytnogo reaktora na 20 mgvt (tepl.). Reaktor, sooruzhenie kotorogo budet vskore zakoncheno, predstavlyaet soboj sistemu, okhlazhdaemuyu geliem; temperatura na vykhode iz aktivnoj zony budet dostigat' 750{sup o}C. V nem budet ispol'zovat'sya U-235 v kachestve goryuchego i torij v kachestve vosproizvodyashchego materiala. Kharakternoj osobennost'yu sistemy yavlyaetsya otsutstvie kakogo-libo metalla v aktivnoj zone. Vvidu togo, chto v reaktore dolzhny razvivat'sya ves'ma vysokie temperatury,' a imenno, 1050{sup o}C na poverkhnosti teplovydelyayushchego ehlementa i do 1500{sup o}C v naibolee sil'no nagrevaemykh tochkakh topliva, dlya ego sooruzheniya ispol'zovany ogneupornye nemetallicheskie materialy. Vse veshchestvo aktivnoj zony sosredotocheno v teplovydelyayushchem ehlemente, blagodarya chemu sootnoshenie mezhdu poverkhnost'yu teploperedachi i ob{sup e}mom aktivnoj zony dostigaet bol'shogo znacheniya, i, sledovatel'no, pozvolyaet dostigat' vysokoj srednej plotnosti ehnergii v sravnitel'no kompaktnoj sisteme. Kazhdyj teplovydelyayushchij ehlement sostoit ieh gruppy grafitovykh trubok, zapolnennykh grafitovymi tabletkami, soderzhashchimi rasshcheplyayushcheesya i vosproizvodyashchee veshchestva v vide karbidov. Gelievyj okhladitel' prokhodit po osi. kazhdogo teplovydelyayushchego sterzhnya i vyvoditsya u ego osnovaniya, okhladitel' zatem napravlyaetsya v ochistitel

  8. Production and Use of the Isotopes Sodium-24, Potassium-42, Copper-64 and Molybdenum-99; Production et Utilisation des Isotopes Sodium-24, Potassium-42, Cuivre-64 et Molybdene-99; ПРОИЗВОДСТВО И ПРИМЕНЕНИЕ ИЗОТОПОВ НАТРИЯ-24, КАЛИЯ-42, МЕДИ-64 И МОЛИБДЕНА-99; Produccion y Empleo los Isotopos Sodio-24, Potasio-42, Cobre-64 Y Molibdeno-99

    Loos, R. [Departement de Physique, Universite Lovanium, Leopoldville (Congo, The Democratic Republic of the)


    zaderhannym raspadom proverjaetsja s pomoshh'ju gamma-spektrometrii (400-kanal'nyj analizator). Otschety proizvodjatsja, kak pravilo, s pomoshh'ju odnokanal'nyh analizatorov. V sluchae s med'ju-64 nekotorye izmerenija byli prokontrolirovany s pomoshh'ju pribora iz dvuh schetchikov na sovpadenijah. V opytah s ispol'zovaniem dvuh indikatorov predusmotreno primenenie mnogokanal'nogo analizatora. Neobhodimo otmetit' primenenie mnogokanal'nogo analizatora v sledujushhih punktah: 1) v laboratorii fiziologii: krivye krovoobrashhenija, raspredelenie i kinetika raspredelenija razlichnyh izotopov (natrija-24, kalija-42, medi-64); 2) v laboratorii farmakologii: vlijanie razlichnyh farmakologicheskih uslovij na dvihenie ionov (kaliJ-42); fiksacija medi-64 gladkoj muskulaturoj i svjaz' s farmakologicheskim dejstviem jetogo metalla; 3) v laboratorii mikrobiologii agronomicheskogo fakul'teta: issledovanie fiziologicheskoj roli i raspredelenija molibdena v rastenijah (molibdena-99); kontrol' za razrabotkoj mikrobiologicheskih metodov opredelenija molibdena. (author)

  9. Solubility of metallic mercury in organic solvents; Solubilite du mercure metallique dans les solvants organiques; Rastvorimost' metallicheskoj rtuti v organicheskikh rastvoritelyakh; Solubilidad del mercurio metalico en solventes organicos

    Klehr, E H; Voigt, A F [Institute for Atomic Research and Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States)


    siguientes solventes: tetracloruro de carbono; 2,2,4-trimetilpentano; n-decano; benceno; tolueno; nitrobenceno, clorobenceno y bromobenceno. Las mediciones se efectuaron sea agitando mercurio metalico de actividad especifica conocida con el solvente, sea determinando el coeficiente de distribucion del metal entre el solvente y el agua y combinando esta determinacion con la de la solubilidad del mercurio en agua, sea aplicando los dos metodos sucesivamente. La radiactividad se determino recontando las muestras del precipitado con un contador Geiger-Mueller, o recontando partes alicuotas del liquido con un contador de centelleo del tipo de pozo. Los valores de la solubilidad resultaron del orden de 4,6 a 16 x 10-6 atomos g/l. En el caso del n-decano, del tolueno y del clorobenceno, se determino la relacion de dependencia entre la solubilidad y la temperatura desde 0 hasta 45 {sup o}C. Para comparar los resultados se aplico a estos sistemas la teoria de la solubilidad de Hildebrand-Scott. En el caso de los hidrocarburos alifaticos, los valores de la solubilidad calculados teoricamente no se alejan mas de un 35% de los observados, pero para los otros solventes los valores teoricos son de 4 a 18 veces mayores que los observados. Modificando la teoria se obtiene una concordancia mayor para unos solventes y menor para otros. (author) [Russian] Opredelyalas' rastvorimost' metallicheskoj rtuti pri temperature 25{sup o}C s pomoshch'yu indikatora Hg{sup 203} v rastvoritelyakh chetyrekhkhloristogo ugleroda, 2,2,4-trimetilpentana, i-dekana, benzola, toluola, nitrobenzola, khlorbenzola i brombenzola. Izmereniya osushchestvlyalis' libo putem vzbaltyvaniya metallicheskoj rtuti izvestnoj udel'noj aktivnosti s rastvoritelem, libo izmereniem koehffitsienta raspredeleniya metalla mezhdu rastvoritelem i vodoj i ob{sup e}dineniem ehtogo izmereniya s rastvorimost'yu rtuti v vode ili i tem i drugim metodom. Radioaktivnost' izmeryalas' podschetom osazhdennykh obraztsov schetchikom Gejgera

  10. Post-Construction Testing of the Elk River, Hallam and Piqua Power Reactor Plants; Essais apres construction des centrales nucleaires d'Elk River, de Hallam et de Piqua; Predehkspluatatsionnoe ispytanie Ehlk-riverskoj, Khehlpemskoj i Pikuaskoj ehnergeticheskikh reaktornykh ustanovok; Ensayos posteriores a la construccion de las centrales nucleoelectricas de Elk River, Hallam y Piqua

    Pursel, C. A. [United States Atomic Energy Commission, Argonne, IL (United States)


    byli: Ehlk-riverskij reaktor. V nekotorykh chastyakh baka reaktora obnaruzheny treshchiny, chto potrebovalo obshirnykh issledovanij i analizov, a takzhe nekotorogo remonta i modifikatsii baka. Nedostatochnaya proizvoditel'nost' parootdelitelya potrebovala zameny k modifikatsii nekotorykh metallicheskikh detalej baka reaktora. Khehldemskaya yadernaya ehnergeticheskaya ustanovka. Uvlechenie zashchitnogo gaza geliya privelo k neobkhodimosti modifitsirovat' vtorichnye natrievye kontury. Povrezhdenie truboprovoda v promezhutochnom natrievo-natrievom; teploobmennike potrebovalo provedeniya analizov dlya opredeleniya prichiny povrezhdeniya, vsled za chem posledovalo izvlechenie i remont teploobmennika. Pikuaskaya yadernaya ehnergeticheskaya ustanovka. Pri khimicheskoj ochistke sistemy truboprovodov povrezhdeno neskol'ko ventilej, chto potrebovalo ikh remonta ili zameny. Utechki v sisteme organicheskogo teplonositelya i v sisteme indikatsii para priveli k povtornym zaderzhkam. Posle okonchaniya neobkhodimogo remonta i vneseniya izmenenij fakticheskie rabochie kharakteristiki kazhdogo iz trekh reaktorov priblizilis' vplotnuyu k proektnym raschetam. (author)

  11. Magnesium Cermets and Magnesium-Beryllium Alloys; Cermets au magnesium et au magnesium-beryllium; Metallokeramicheskie magnievye i magnievo-berillievye splavy; Cermets de magnesio y aleaciones de magnesio y berillio

    Ivanov, V. E.; Zelenskij, V. F.; Fajfer, S. I.; Zhdanov, S. M.; Maksimenko, V. I.; Savchenko, V. I. [Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Institut an USSR, Khar' kov, SSSR (Russian Federation)


    'nost' prochnostnykh svojstv, chto svyazano prezhde vsego s termodinamicheskoj ustojchivost'yu uprochnyayushchej okisnoj fazy v matritse metalla. Ispol'zovanie metodov poroshkovoj metallurgii pozvolilo poluchit' osobo zharostojkie magnievo- berillievye splavy, soderzhashchie povyshennye kontsentratsii berilliya (splavy PMB). Po prochnostnym kharakteristikam splavy PMB blizki k metallokeramicheskim splavam Mg - MgO, odnako magnievo-berillievye splavy otlichayutsya ustojchivym i dlitel'nym soprotivleniem vysokotemperaturnomu okisleniyu, prevyshayushchem analogichnye svojstva izvestnykh v nastoyashchee vremya magnievykh splavov. Tak v vozdukhe pri 580{sup o}C splavy PMB s 2 + 5% berilliya sokhranyayut vysokoe soprotivlenie okisleniyu v techenie bolee 12 + 14 tysyach chasov. Resurs dlitel'noj zharostojkosti splavov opredelyaetsya, prezhde vsego, kolichestvom berilliya v splave i s uvelicheniem soderzhaniya berilliya vozrastaet. Splavy PMB otlichayutsya takzhe vysokoj ustojchivost'yu k kratkovremennym peregrevam. Metallokeramicheskie magnievye i magnievo-berillievye splavy, kharakternoj osobennost'yu kotorykh yavlyaetsya povyshennaya zharoprochnost' i zharostojkost', mogut najti shirokoe primenenie v razlichnykh oblastyakh tekhniki. (author)

  12. Investigations on the structure of complex compounds by radioisotope exchange. The structure of cyanonitrosyl complexes; Recherches sur la structure des complexes par echange de radioisotopes - Structure des complexes cyanonitrosyliques; Issledovanie struktury slozhnykh soedinenij pri pomoshchi radioizotopnogo obmena - struktura slozhnykh tsianonitrozilovykh soedinenij; Estudio de la estructura de complejos por intercambio radioisotopico - Estructura de los complejos cianonitrosilicos

    Jezowska-Trzeblatowska, B; Ziolkowski, J [University of Wroclaw (Poland)


    central y la capa p del atomo de nitrogeno. (author) [Russian] V kachestve slozhnogo svyazuyushchego zvena nitrozilovaya gruppa predstavlyaet osobyj interes kak po svoej strukture, tak i blagodarya svoemu svojstvu obrazovyvat' gruppy NO{sup -} i NO{sup +}. Dlya issledovaniya ehlektronnoj struktury K{sub 3}Mn(CN){sub 6} i K{sub 3}Mn(CN){sub 6}NO, valentnosti metalla i kharaktera soedinenij byli proizvedeny issledovaniya pri pomoshchi metoda radioizotopnogo obmena, a takzhe i drugikh fiziko-khimicheskikh metodov. Bylo obnaruzheno, chto dobavlenie nitrozilovoj gruppy k ionam geksatsionata znachitel'no uvelichivaet ustojchivost' soedineniya kak v tverdom sostoyanii, tak i v rastvore. EHto nablyudenie bylo podtverzhdeno issledovaniem kinetiki obmena v sistemakh: (I) K{sub 3}Mn(CN){sub 6} + KC{sup 14}N; (II) K{sub 3}Mn(CN){sub 5}NO + KC{sup 14}N. V oboikh sluchayakh reaktsii obmena v funktsii vremeni yavlyayutsya reaktsiyami pervogo poryadka, no oni znachitel'no otlichayutsya drug ot druga po skorosti. EHnergii aktivatsii ehtikh reaktsij ravny E{sub 1}=8,5 kilokalorij na molekulu i E{sub 11}=22,8 kilokalorij na molekulu. Anion Mn(CN){sub 5}NO{sub 3} svetochuvstvitelen, tak chto reaktsiya obmena nosit fotokhimicheskij kharakter. Sootnoshenie postoyannykh skorostej obmena v temnote i pri standartizirovannom osveshchenii ravno 1:100. Pervaya reaktsiya obmena (I) proiskhodit po tipu assotsiatsii, togda kak vtoraya reaktsiya (II) sleduet slozhnomu mekhanizmu assotsiatsii i dissotsiatsii. Analiz raspredeleniya aktivnosti mezhdu tsianistymi gruppami, podvergayushchimisya obmenu v sostoyanii izotopnogo ravnovesiya, obnaruzhil identichnost' po men'shej mere chetyrekh tsianistykh grupp. Bol'shaya ustojchivost' nitrozilovykh soedinenij po sravneniyu s geksatsianatami, a takzhe otsutstvie vtorichnykh dissotsiatsij byli podtverzhdeny razlichnymi metodami. Vse ehto ukazyvaet na strukturu NO{sup -} kompleksa. Predydushchie issledovaniya pokazali, chto nitrozilovaya gruppa koordiniruetsya v

  13. The Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant; La centrais nucleaire Enrico Fermi; Atomnaya ehlektrostantsiya im Ehnriko Fermi.; La central nucleoelectrica Enrico Fermi

    Hartwell, R. W. [Power Reactor Development Company, Detroit, MI (United States)


    napryazheniya metalla. Uzel No. 2 byl snabzhen novymi trubkami, vse sektsii byli osvobozhdeny ot napryazheniya, i byla ustanovlena vodorodnaya detektornaya sistema. V dekabre 1962 goda v parogeneratore No. 1 proizoshla reaktsiya natrij - voda. Disk razryva, kotoryj byl ustanovlen na takoj sluchaj, rabotal pravil'no. V nastoyashchee vremya issleduyutsya prichiny i vliyanie ehtogo povrezhdeniya. Zavershenie predpuskovykh ispytanij. Planiruetsya zakonchit' v marte programmu okonchatel'noj sborki i ispytanij v ozhidanii vydachi litsenzii na ehkspluatatsiyu reaktora na maloj moshchnosti. (author)

  14. Use of Short-Lived Radioisotopes to Determine Impurities in Aluminium, Iron and Zirconium of Very High Purity; Dosages d'Elements par leurs Radioisotopes de Periodes Courtes Dans l'Analyse de Valuminium, du Fer et du Zirconium de Tres Hautes Puretes; ДОЗИРОВКА ЭЛЕМЕНТОВ С ПОМОЩЬЮ КОРОТКОЖИВУЩИХ РАДИОИЗОТОПОВ ПРИ АНАЛИЗЕ АЛХМИНИЯ, ЖЕЛЕЗА И ЦИРКОНИЯ ОЧЕНЬ ВЫСОКОЙ ЧИСТОТЫ; Determinacion Cuantitativa de Radioisotopos de Periodo Corto en los Analisis de Aluminio, Hierro y Circonio de Alta Pureza

    Albert, Ph.; Deyris, M.; Deschamps, N.; Fournet, L. [Centre d' Etudes de Chimie Metallurgique, Vitry (France)


    sechenie zahvata i tol'ko {beta}-ijeluchenie). Odnako znanie koncentracii jetih jelementov v nashih metallah neobhodimo, tak kak v opredelennyh sluchajah oni predstavljajut soboj osnovnye primesi v metalle promyshlennogo naznachenija, kotoryj napravlen dlja ochishhenija. V inyh sluchajah mozhno stolknut'sja s bolee vysokim soderzhaniem primesej otdel'nyh iz jetih jelementov v ochishhennom metalle, nezheli v ishodnom. My otmetim, naprimer, znachenie dozirovki vanadija v aljuminii. Soderzhanie metalla v oblasti 'rasplavlennoj zony' byvaet poroj bolee vysokim, chem v metalle promyshlennogo naznachenija, i mozhet dostigat' do 30% obshej koncentracii dozirovannyh primesej. My opishem metody, issledovannye dlja provedenija kolichestvennyh analizov v razlichnyh sluchajah, s kotorymi my stolknulis'. Nashe izlozhenie kosnetsja v osnovnom opisanija analiza kremnija, hlora, broma i joda, provedennogo po obychnomu metodu radiohimicheskogo vydelenija posle obluchenija nejtronami. Kremnij byl podvergnut distilljacii v Si F{sub e}H{sub 2}. Hlor, brom i jod byli dozirovany na odnu probu dlja analiza. Pri obrabotke smesi galoidnyh solej azotnoj kislotoj jod i brom zameshhajutsja, i oba jelementa propuskajutsja s pomoshh'ju sil'noj vozdushnoj strui cherez neskol'ko poglotitelej: brom fiksiruetsja v rastvore sul'fita natrija, a jod poglashhaetsja v rastvore natrija. Hlor, kotoryj ne vytesnjaetsja iz azotnokislogo rastvora, vypadaet v sostave hloristogo serebra. Takim putem nami byla provedena dozimetrija hlora v jelektrolitnom zheleze i joda - v cirkonii 'Van Arkel'. S drugoj storony, my opishem takzhe metody, kotorye my izuchili dlja provedenija kolichestvennyh analizov na prisutstvie aljuminija, vanadija, magnija i titana v aljuminii, zheleze i cirkonii. jetih analizah sledy izyskivaemogo jelementa vydelilis' do obluchenija 'na neizotopnom nositele'; v nekotoryh sluchajah bystroe radiohimicheskoe ochishhenie proizvodilos' posle obluchenija. Predstavljaetsja vozmozhnym dozirovat' vanadij