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Sample records for metal-palladium catalytic diesel

  1. Novel Base Metal-Palladium Catalytic Diesel Filter Coating with NO2 Reducing Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, K.; Dahl, S.; Mogensen, G.

    2007-01-01

    A novel alternative base metal/palladium coat has been developed that has limited NO2 formation and which even removes NO2 in a wide temperature range.Soot combustion, HC conversion and CO conversion properties are comparable to current platinum based solutions but the coating has a more attracti...

  2. Diesel engine catalytic combustor system. [aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ream, L. W. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A low compression turbocharged diesel engine is provided in which the turbocharger can be operated independently of the engine to power auxiliary equipment. Fuel and air are burned in a catalytic combustor to drive the turbine wheel of turbine section which is initially caused to rotate by starter motor. By opening a flapper value, compressed air from the blower section is directed to catalytic combustor when it is heated and expanded, serving to drive the turbine wheel and also to heat the catalytic element. To start, engine valve is closed, combustion is terminated in catalytic combustor, and the valve is then opened to utilize air from the blower for the air driven motor. When the engine starts, the constituents in its exhaust gas react in the catalytic element and the heat generated provides additional energy for the turbine section.

  3. Diesel Engine Emission Reduction Using Catalytic Nanoparticles: An Experimental Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajin C. Sajeevan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium oxide being a rare earth metal with dual valance state existence has exceptional catalytic activity due to its oxygen buffering capability, especially in the nanosized form. Hence when used as an additive in the diesel fuel it leads to simultaneous reduction and oxidation of nitrogen dioxide and hydrocarbon emissions, respectively, from diesel engine. The present work investigates the effect of cerium oxide nanoparticles on performance and emissions of diesel engine. Cerium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical method and techniques such as TEM, EDS, and XRD have been used for the characterization. Cerium oxide was mixed in diesel by means of standard ultrasonic shaker to obtain stable suspension, in a two-step process. The influence of nanoparticles on various physicochemical properties of diesel fuel has also been investigated through extensive experimentation by means of ASTM standard testing methods. Load test was done in the diesel engine to investigate the effect of nanoparticles on the efficiency and the emissions from the engine. Comparisons of fuel properties with and without additives are also presented.

  4. Diesel Catalytic Converters As Emission Control Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Banna, S.; El Deen, O.N.

    2004-01-01

    Internal combustion engines are devices that generate work from combustion reactions. Combustion products under high pressure produce work by expansion through a turbine or piston. The combustion reactions inside these engines are not necessarily neutralizing or complete and air pollutants are produced. There are three major types of internal combustion engine(l) in use today: I) the spark ignition engine, which is used primarily in automobiles; 2) the diesel engine, which is used in large vehicles and industrial systems where cycle efficiency offers advantages over the more compact and lighter-weight spark ignition engine and; 3) the gas turbine, which is used in aircraft due to its high power/weight ratio and is also used for stationary power generation. Each of these types of engine is an important source of atmospheric pollutants. Automobiles are the one of the major source of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides. Probably more than any other combustion system, the design of automobile engines is now being guided by requirements to reduce emissions of these pollutants. While substantial progress has been made in emission reduction, automobiles remain important sources of air pollutants

  5. The Particle Number Emission Characteristics of the Diesel Engine with a Catalytic Diesel Particle Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jia Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their adverse health effects and their abundance in urban areas, diesel exhaust ultrafine particles caused by the aftertreatment devices have been of great concern in the past years. An experiment of particles number emissions was carried out on a high-pressure, common rail diesel engine with catalytic diesel particle filter (CDPF to investigate the impact of CDPF on the number emission characteristics of particles. The results indicated that the conversion rates of CDPF is over 97%. The size distributions of particles are bimodal lognormal distributions downstream CDPF at 1400 r/min and 2300 r/min. CDPF has a lower conversion rates on the nucleation mode particles. The geometric number mean diameters of particles downstream CDPF is smaller than that upstream CDPF.

  6. Catalytic diesel particulate filters reduce the in vitro estrogenic activity of diesel exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenger, Daniela; Gerecke, Andreas C.; Heeb, Norbert V. [Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Naegeli, Hanspeter [University of Zurich-Vetsuisse, Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Zurich (Switzerland); Zenobi, Renato [ETH Zurich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2008-04-15

    An in vitro reporter gene assay based on human breast cancer T47D cells (ER-CALUX {sup registered}) was applied to examine the ability of diesel exhaust to induce or inhibit estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated gene expression. Exhaust from a heavy-duty diesel engine was either treated by iron- or copper/iron-catalyzed diesel particulate filters (DPFs) or studied as unfiltered exhaust. Collected samples included particle-bound and semivolatile constituents of diesel exhaust. Our findings show that all of the samples contained compounds that were able to induce ER-mediated gene expression as well as compounds that suppressed the activity of the endogenous hormone 17{beta}-estradiol (E2). Estrogenic activity prevailed over antiestrogenic activity. We found an overall ER-mediated activity of 1.63 {+-} 0.31 ng E2 CALUX equivalents (E2-CEQs) per m{sup 3} of unfiltered exhaust. In filtered exhaust, we measured 0.74 {+-} 0.07 (iron-catalyzed DPF) and 0.55 {+-} 0.09 ng E2-CEQ m{sup -3} (copper/iron-catalyzed DPF), corresponding to reductions in estrogenic activity of 55 and 66%, respectively. Our study demonstrates that both catalytic DPFs lowered the ER-mediated endocrine-disrupting potential of diesel exhaust. (orig.)

  7. Catalytic Cracking of Diesel Fuel for Army Field Burners. Part 1. Feasibility of Producing Gaseous Fuel From Diesel Fuel Via Catalytic Cracking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryu, Jae

    1999-01-01

    .... The objective of this report (Part I) was to experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of a catalytic cracking process to produce hydrogen and light hydrogen molecules from diesel with a minimal yield of heavy hydrocarbon residues...

  8. Catalytic synthesis of diesel from syngas: Theoretical and practical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.; Saeed, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    The world energy needs have been increasing tremendously resulting in the depletion of the resources of fossil fuel and increase in the prices of crude oil. To meet the required needs or decrease the dependency at least in parts, the attention of the scientists is being focused on the generation of alternate sources for the diesel fuel and other valued products. The catalytic based Fisher-Tropsch process for the generation of liquid chemicals, specially the diesel fuels from syngas is gaining attention since the products formed are of relatively low cost, high quality and environmental friendly due to low aromaticity and sulphur contents. Two main characteristics of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) are the unavoidable production of a wide range of hydrocarbon products (olefins, paraffins, and oxygenated products) and the liberation of large amount of heat from the highly exothermic synthesis reactions. FT synthesis products are influenced by various factors like temperature and pressure of syngas, nature of the catalyst, and the type of reactors. All these parameters are discussed by focusing special attention to the synthesis of cobalt catalyst for the production of diesel fuel. (author)

  9. Filtres à activité catalytique pour moteur Diesel Catalytic Activity Filters for Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldenberg E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A partir de l'examen des normes actuelles et envisagées dans le futur pour limiter les émissions de particules Diesel, et en considérant les propriétés physico-chimiques de ces particules, cet article expose les problèmes posés par la filtration des suies Diesel et leur élimination par combustion sur les différents types de filtres actuellement retenus. La régénération des filtres par combustion catalytique du dépôt est plus particulièrement discutée. From an examination of present regulations and ones being considered for the future to limit particle emissions by diesel engines, and considering the physicochemical properties of such particles, this article describes the problems raised by filtering soot from diesel engines and eliminating it by various types of filters now used. Filter regeneration by catalytic combustion of the deposit is considered in particular.

  10. Diesel emission control: Catalytic filters for particulate removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Fino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The European diesel engine industry represents a vital sector across the Continent, with more than 2 million direct work positions and a turnover of over 400 billion Euro. Diesel engines provide large paybacks to society since they are extensively used to transport goods, services and people. In recent years increasing attention has been paid to the emissions from diesel engines which, like gasoline engine emissions, include carbon monoxide (CO, hydrocarbons (HC and oxides of nitrogen (NOx. Diesel engines also produce significant levels of particulate matter (PM, which consists mostly of carbonaceous soot and a soluble organic fraction (SOF of hydrocarbons that have condensed on the soot.

  11. Adaptive Model Predictive Control of Diesel Engine Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Selective catalytic reduction or SCR is coming into worldwide use for diesel engine emissions reduction for on- and off-highway vehicles. These applications are characterized by broad operating range as well as rapid and unpredictable changes in operating conditions. Significant nonlinearity, input and output constraints, and stringent performance…

  12. Emission reduction from a diesel engine fueled by pine oil biofuel using SCR and catalytic converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Yang, W. M.; Saravanan, C. G.; Lee, P. S.; Chua, K. J. E.; Chou, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we propose pine oil biofuel, a renewable fuel obtained from the resins of pine tree, as a potential substitute fuel for a diesel engine. Pine oil is endowed with enhanced physical and thermal properties such as lower viscosity and boiling point, which enhances the atomization and fuel/air mixing process. However, the lower cetane number of the pine oil hinders its direct use in diesel engine and hence, it is blended in suitable proportions with diesel so that the ignition assistance could be provided by higher cetane diesel. Since lower cetane fuels are prone to more NOX formation, SCR (selective catalyst reduction), using urea as reducing agent, along with a CC (catalytic converter) has been implemented in the exhaust pipe. From the experimental study, the BTE (brake thermal efficiency) was observed to be increased as the composition of pine oil increases in the blend, with B50 (50% pine oil and 50% diesel) showing 7.5% increase over diesel at full load condition. The major emissions such as smoke, CO, HC and NOX were reduced by 70.1%, 67.5%, 58.6% and 15.2%, respectively, than diesel. Further, the average emissions of B50 with SCR and CC assembly were observed to be reduced, signifying the positive impact of pine oil biofuel on atmospheric environment. In the combustion characteristics front, peak heat release rate and maximum in-cylinder pressure were observed to be higher with longer ignition delay.

  13. Synthesis and utilization of catalytically cracked cashew nut shell liquid in a diesel engine

    KAUST Repository

    Vedharaj, S.

    2015-09-30

    In this study, CNSL (Cashew nut shell liquid), an economically viable feedstock among the other contemporary resources, has been considered as an appropriate source of alternate fuel. Herein, CNSL was extracted from cashew nut outer shell, a waste product, through a unique approach of steam treatment process followed by mechanical crushing technique. In contrast to the past studies that have attempted to use unprocessed CNSL directly as substitute for diesel, this study has resorted to use processed CNSL by cracking it using zeolite catalyst. Thus, both the extraction of CNSL from cashew nut outer shell and processing of it through catalytic cracking process to help synthesize CC-CNSL (catalytically cracked CNSL) are different, which underscores the significance of the current work. In wake of adopting such distinct methodologies with fuel characterization, the properties of CC-CNSL such as viscosity and calorific value were figured out to be improved. Subsequently, CC-CNSL20 (20% CC-CNSL and 80% diesel) was tested at different fuel injection pressure such as 200 bar, 235 bar, 270 bar and 300 bar so as to optimize its use in a single cylinder diesel engine. From the engine experimental study, CC-CNSL20 was found to evince better engine performance than diesel and the composite emissions of CO (carbon monoxide), HC (hydrocarbon), NOX (oxides of nitrogen) and smoke, computed based on ISO 8178 D2 standard test cycle, were found to be better than diesel and incompliance with the legislative norms for genset.

  14. Simultaneous fast pyrolysis and catalytic upgrading of lignin to obtain a marine diesel fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Guofeng

    The topic of this Ph.D. project is to convert lignin, a by-product from a 2nd generation bio-ethanol plant, into a marine diesel fuel by fast pyrolysis followed with catalytic upgrading of the pyrolysis vapor. Lignin, a major component of lignocellulosic biomass, is underutilized in the 2nd...... generation bio-ethanol plants. Shipping industry on the other hand is looking for clean alternative fuels in order to meet stricter fuel quality and emission standards. To convert lignin into a renewable marine diesel fuel will both accelerate the development of modern bio-refinery and transfer the marine...

  15. Production of gaseous fuel from jatropha oil by cerium oxide based catalytic fuel reactor and its utilisation on diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mylswamy Thirunavukkarasu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an attempt is made to produce a hydrocarbon fuel from jatropha vegetable oil for Diesel engine applications. The “catalytic cracking” a process recently introduced by the researchers is chosen as an alternative method to trans-esterification process to match the fuel properties to diesel. Jatropha vegetable oil was cracked into a gas using the cerium oxide catalyst in a fixed bed catalytic reactor. The produced gas is introduced at constant rate into the inlet manifold of the Diesel engine. The experimental work was carried out in single cylinder water cooled direct injection Diesel engine coupled with eddy current dynamometer. The combustion parameters are measured by AVL combustion analyser. From the experimental results, the increase in brake thermal efficiency of the engine for full load was observed to be 10% (relative compared with diesel. Notably, emissions such as HC, CO, and smoke are reduced by 18%, 61%, and 18%, respectively, when compared with diesel.

  16. Filtres à activité catalytique pour moteur Diesel Catalytic Activity Filters for Diesel Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Goldenberg E.; Degobert P.

    2006-01-01

    A partir de l'examen des normes actuelles et envisagées dans le futur pour limiter les émissions de particules Diesel, et en considérant les propriétés physico-chimiques de ces particules, cet article expose les problèmes posés par la filtration des suies Diesel et leur élimination par combustion sur les différents types de filtres actuellement retenus. La régénération des filtres par combustion catalytique du dépôt est plus particulièrement discutée. From an examination of present regulat...

  17. Catalytic ring opening of cyclic hydrocarbons in diesel fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calemma, V.; Ferrari, M. [Eni S.p.A., San Donato Milanese (Italy). R and M Div.; Rabl, S.; Haas, A.; Santi, D.; Weitkamp, J. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Chemical Technology

    2013-11-01

    An approach for high-aromatic streams upgrading, allowing to meet future diesel quality standards, is saturation of the aromatic structures followed by the selective breaking of endocyclic C-C bonds of naphthenic structures so formed to produce alkanes with the same number of carbon atoms as the starting molecule ('selective ring opening, SRO'). Although theoretically, SRO is a promising route for upgrading low-value feeds to high-quality products, in practice, it continues to be a challenge owing to its complex chemistry. Product characteristics, do not only depend on the composition of the feed, but also on the operating conditions and the nature of the catalyst. Very recently, novel catalysts ('HIgh-PErformance Ring Opening Catalysts, HIPEROCs') were developed which allow a very selective ring opening of the model compound decalin to paraffins without degradation of the carbon number. The hydroconversion of dearomatized Light Cycle Oil (DeAr-LCO) over the abovementioned catalysts resulted in a remarkable change of the chemical structure of the feed with a strong decrease of naphthenic structures with two or more condensed rings and a concomitant increase of alkyl-substituted cyclohexanes and open-chain alkanes. The changes occurring in the chemical structures of feedstock during hydroconversion resulted in a remarkable increase of the Cetane Index of the products up to 11 units. In the present contribution, we examine the main factors affecting activity and selectivity of SRO catalysts in the light of the recent literature dealing with the subject and we report on the recent advances in hydroconversion of refinery cuts such as DeAr- LCO over HIPEROCs. (orig.)

  18. High NO2/NOx emissions downstream of the catalytic diesel particulate filter: An influencing factor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chao; Li, Jiaqiang; Ma, Zhilei; Tan, Jianwei; Zhao, Longqing

    2015-09-01

    Diesel vehicles are responsible for most of the traffic-related nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, including nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The use of after-treatment devices increases the risk of high NO2/NOx emissions from diesel engines. In order to investigate the factors influencing NO2/NOx emissions, an emission experiment was carried out on a high pressure common-rail, turbocharged diesel engine with a catalytic diesel particulate filter (CDPF). NO2 was measured by a non-dispersive ultraviolet analyzer with raw exhaust sampling. The experimental results show that the NO2/NOx ratios downstream of the CDPF range around 20%-83%, which are significantly higher than those upstream of the CDPF. The exhaust temperature is a decisive factor influencing the NO2/NOx emissions. The maximum NO2/NOx emission appears at the exhaust temperature of 350°C. The space velocity, engine-out PM/NOx ratio (mass based) and CO conversion ratio are secondary factors. At a constant exhaust temperature, the NO2/NOx emissions decreased with increasing space velocity and engine-out PM/NOx ratio. When the CO conversion ratios range from 80% to 90%, the NO2/NOx emissions remain at a high level. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Promoting effect of vanadium on catalytic activity of Pt/Ce-Zr-O diesel oxidation catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haifeng; Jiang, Bo; Gu, Lei; Qi, Zhonghua; Lu, Hanfeng

    2015-07-01

    A series of Pt-V/Ce-Zr-O diesel oxidation catalysts was prepared using the impregnation method. The catalytic activity and sulfur resistance of Pt-V/Ce-Zr-O were investigated in the presence of simulated diesel exhaust. The effect of vanadium on the structure and redox properties of the catalysts was also investigated using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, X-ray diffraction, H2 temperature-programmed reduction, CO temperature-programmed desorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy. Results showed that the Pt particles were well dispersed on the Ce-Zr-O carrier through the vanadium isolation effect, which significantly improved the oxidation activity toward CO and hydrocarbons. An electron-withdrawing phenomenon occurred from V to Pt, resulting in an increase in the metallic nature of platinum, which was beneficial to hydrocarbon molecular activation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Modelling and Simulation of Packed Bed Catalytic Converter for Oxidation of Soot in Diesel Powered Vehicles Flue Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nasikin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Diesel vehicle is used in Indonesia in very big number. This vehicle exhausts pollutants especially diesel soot that can be reduces by using a catalytic converter to convert the soot to CO2. To obtain the optimal dimension of catalytic converter it is needed a model that can represent the profile of soot weight, temperature and pressure along the catalytic converter. In this study, a model is developed for packed bed catalytic converter in an adiabatic condition based on a kinetic study that has been  reported previously. Calculation of developed equations in this model uses Polymath 5.X solver with Range Kutta Method. The simulation result shows that temperature profile along catalytic converter increases with the decrease of soot weight,  while pressure profile decreases. The increase of soot weight in entering gas increases the needed converter length. On the other hand, the increase of catalyst diameter does not affect to soot weight along converter and temperature profile, but results a less pressure drop. For 2.500 c diesel engine, packed bed catalytic converter with ellipse's cross sectional of 14,5X7,5 cm diagonal and 0,8 cm catalyst particle diameter, needs 4,1 cm length.

  1. Metal Palladium Dispersed Inside Macroporous Ion-Exchange Resins: Textural Characterization and Accessibility to Gaseou Reactants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Biffis, A.; Jeřábek, Karel; D'Archivio, A. A.; Galantini, L.; Corain, B.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 130, - (2000), s. 2327-2332 ISSN 0167-2991. [International Congress on Catalysis /12./. Granada, 09.07.2000-14.07.2000] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : metal palladium * dispersed * ion-exchange resins Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.513, year: 2000

  2. Development of the Mathematical Model of Diesel Fuel Catalytic Dewaxing Process Taking into Account Factors of Nonstationarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantsina Evgeniya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the results of mathematical modelling of diesel fuel catalytic dewaxing process, performed taking into account the factors of process nonstationarity driven by changes in process technological parameters, feedstock composition and catalyst deactivation. The error of hydrocarbon contents calculation via the use of the developed model does not exceed 1.6 wt.%. This makes it possible to apply the model for solution to optimization and forecasting problems occurred in catalytic systems under industrial conditions. It was shown through the model calculation that temperature in the dewaxing reactor without catalyst deactivation is lower by 19 °C than actual and catalyst deactivation degree accounts for 32 %.

  3. Bio-Diesel production and Effect of Catalytic Converter on Emission performance with Bio-Diesel Blends

    OpenAIRE

    R.Murali Manohar; M.Prabhahar; Dr.S.Sendil velan

    2010-01-01

    Bio-Diesel the word itself defines almost all the features of the Bio-Diesel literary. In the Era of this Global Warming where the people are making their living more and more comfortable and they are deteriorating the environment also. The uses of the automobiles with the conventional source of fuel leads to the production of the toxic gaseous substances like carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxide of sulphur, hydro-carbons etc. The limitation comes with the rise in the pr...

  4. Effect of Feed Composition Changing at Naphtha Catalytic Reforming Unit Due to Involvement of Gasoline Fraction Obtained by Diesel Fuels Hydrodewaxing into the Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Belinskaya, Natalia Sergeevna; Ivanchina, Emilia Dmitrievna; Ivashkina, Elena Nikolaevna; Frantsina, Evgeniya Vladimirovna; Silko, Galina Yurievna

    2014-01-01

    One of the primary products of hydrodewaxing process is stable gasoline, which is characterized by low octane number on the one hand. On the other hand, it contains a significant amount of iso-paraffins (on average 45% wt.) and naphthenes (on average 25% wt.), which are reagents in the naphtha catalytic reforming process primary reactions. Feasibility of stable gasoline obtained by means of diesel fuel catalytic hydrodewaxing process involving into the processing at the naphtha catalytic refo...

  5. Optimization on electrochemical synthesis of HKUST-1 as candidate catalytic material for Green diesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, W. W.; Nugraha, R. E.; Winarni, I. D.; Adreane, M.; Rahmawati, F.

    2016-04-01

    In the effort to support the discovery of new renewable energy sources in Indonesia, biofuel is one of promising options. The conversion of vegetable oil into ready-biofuel, especially green diesel, needs several steps, one of which is a hydrogenation or hydro-deoxygenation reaction. In this case, the catalyst plays a very important role regarding to its activity and selectivity, and Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) becoming a new generation of heterogeneous catalyst in this area. In this research, a preliminary study to optimize electrochemical synthesis of the catalytic material based on MOFs, namely HKUST-1 [Cu3(BTC)2], has been conducted. Some electrochemical reaction parameters were tested, for example by modifying the electrochemical synthetic conditions, i.e. by performing variation of voltages (12, 13, 14, and 15 Volt), temperatures (RT, 40, 60, and 80 °C) and solvents (ethanol, water, methanol and dimethyl-formamide (DMF)). Material characterization was carried out by XRD, SEM, FTIR, DTA/TG and SAA. The results showed that the optimum synthetic conditions of HKUST-1 are performed at room temperature in a solvent combination of water: ethanol (1: 1) and a voltage of 15 Volt for 2 hours. The XRD-analysis revealed that the resulted peaks are identical to the simulated powder pattern generated from single crystal data and comparable to the peaks of solvothermal method. However, the porosity of the resulting material through electrochemical method is still in the range of micro-pore according to IUPAC and 50% smaller than the porosity resulted from solvothermal synthesis. The corresponding compounds are thermally stable until 300 °C according to TG/DTA.

  6. Reduction of NOx Emission of a Diesel Engine with a Multiple Injection Pump by SCR Catalytic Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Marek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with reduction of NOx-emission of a diesel engine with multiple injection pump by SCR catalytic converter. Main aim of the measurement was the detection of SCR catalyst converter efficiency. Tests were realized at the Research and Development workplace of Zetor Tractor a.s. Used engine was equipped with a multiple injection pump with electromagnetic regulator of a fuel charge. During the experiment selective catalytic reduction and diesel particulate filter were used as an after treatment of harmful pollutants reduction. Testing cycle of the eight-point test was chosen and Non-Road Steady Cycle (NRSC was maintained according to 97/68/EC directive. Results confirmed the dependencies between temperatures of SCR catalyst and exhaust gases and the volume of exhaust gases on efficiency of SCR catalyst. During the operation load of the engine, selective catalytic reduction reached efficiency over 90 %. Used after treatment system is suitable for reduction of harmful pollutants according to the Tier 4f norm.

  7. Synthesis of Rh/Macro-Porous Alumina Over Micro-Channel Plate and Its Catalytic Activity Tests for Diesel Reforming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Yeon Baek; Kim, Yong Sul; Park, No-Kuk; Lee, Tae Jin

    2015-11-01

    Macro-porous Al2O3 as the catalytic support material was synthesized using colloidal polystyrene spheres over a micro-channel plate. The colloidal polystyrene spheres were used as a template for the production of an ordered macro porous material using an alumina nitrate solution as the precursor for Al2O3. The close-packed colloidal crystal array template method was applied to the formulation of ordered macro-porous Al2O3 used as a catalytic support material over a micro-channel plate. The solvent in the mixture solution, which also contained the colloidal polystyrene solution, aluminum nitrate solution and the precursor of the catalytic active materials (Rh), was evaporated in a vacuum oven at 50 degrees C. The ordered polystyrene spheres and aluminum salt of the solid state were deposited over a micro channel plate, and macro-porous Al2O3 was formed after calcination at 600 degrees C to remove the polystyrene spheres. The catalytic activity of the Rh/macro-porous alumina supported over the micro-channel plate was tested for diesel reforming.

  8. Impact of catalytically cracked jatropha oil using CeO2 and SiO2 as catalysts on DI diesel engine performance and emission characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mylswamy Thirunavukkarasu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The biooil is thermally cracked under catalytic environment in a catalytic cracking process. This process is able to replace the transesterification process to match the biofuel properties with diesel. In this study the silicon dioxide and cerium oxide were chosen as catalyst for cracking the jatropha vegetable oil. The catalytically cracked jatropha biofuel gas is delivered at constant rate to the inlet manifold of the diesel engine. Before and after cracking, the characteristics of the catalysts were analyzed using scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The condensed cracked jatropha biofuel properties were analyzed with the results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis, and it matches with the diesel fuel. From the experimental results, the increase in brake thermal efficiency of the engine with higher oxides of nitrogen emission was observed compared with diesel for both the catalytically cracked jatropha biofuels. Notably, SiO2 as catalyst showed the better mixing towards homogeneity with higher performance and emission results than the CeO2 as catalyst.

  9. Dépollution des gaz d'échappement des moteurs diesel au moyen de pots catalytiques Depolluting Exhaust Gases from Diesel Engines by Catalytic Mufflers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldenberg E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On présente dans cet article les résultats d'une première série de recherches sur la dépollution des gaz d'échappement des moteurs diesel au moyen de pots catalytiques. L'efficacité des catalyseurs à base de platine pour l'oxydation du monoxyde de carbone et des hydrocarbures imbrûlés a pu être établie par des essais sur banc moteur et sur véhicule. L'emploi de certaines phases actives à base de métaux non nobles permet d'autre part d'abaisser la température de début d'oxydation des particules de suie de 380 à 250 °C environ, avec, entre 250 et 350 °C, élimination de 15 à 20 % des produits piégés. L'essai de divers media filtrants a mis en évidence l'importance des phénomènes d'adsorption des revêtements en alumine et a orienté la recherche vers de nouveaux supports pour filtres catalytiques. This article describes the results of a first series of research on the depollution of exhaust gases from diesel engines by catalytic mufflers. The effectiveness of platinum-base catalysts for the oxidation of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons was determined by test on an engine test bed and on vehicles on the road. The use of some active non-noble metal phases reduced on the other hand the starting oxidation temperature of soot particulates from 380°C to about 250°C, eliminating 15 to 20% of the trapped products between 250 and 350° C. Tests of different filtering media revealed the importance of adsorption phenomena on alumina coatings and directed research toward new supports for catalytic filters.

  10. Alumina supported Co-K-Mo based catalytic material for diesel soot oxidation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dhakad, M.; Joshi, A.G.; Rayalu, S.; Tanwar, P.; Bassin, J.K.; Kumar, R.; Lokhande, S.; Šubrt, Jan; Mitsuhashi, T.; Labhsetwar, N.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 52, 13-20 (2009), s. 2070-2075 ISSN 1022-5528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : soot oxidation * diesel particulate filter * catalyst carbon oxidation Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.379, year: 2009

  11. Combined Particle Filter and Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalyst for Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jeanette

    oxidation of the silicon carbide crystals, ideal for catalyst adhesive layer. The silicon carbide filter, produced with trace amounts of copper, still fulfills the requirements for macroporosity and accessible porosity in excess of 50%, and is thus superior for the purpose of combined diesel particulate...

  12. Catalytic autothermal reforming of diesel fuel for hydrogen generation in fuel cells. I. Activity tests and sulfur poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheekatamarla, Praveen K.; Lane, Alan M.

    Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells require hydrogen as the fuel source for generating power. Hydrogen can be produced in a fuel processor by the catalytic reforming of hydrocarbons. The objective of this paper is to present an analysis of the autothermal reforming (ATR) of synthetic diesel fuel in an adiabatic reactor using a Pt/ceria catalyst. ATR combines endothermic steam reforming and exothermic partial oxidation reactions in a single unit. This simple system provides higher efficiency and higher energy density than other conventional processes. The product composition as a function of the operating variables and the temperature and concentration profile inside the reactor were studied. Hydrogen was generated under adiabatic conditions by heating the feed mixture and ATR reactor to only 400 °C in contrast to higher temperatures reported in the literature. The stability of the catalyst and its response to the presence of S poison was also investigated.

  13. Comparative measurement of the efficiency of catalytic after-burning devices on a heavy-duty diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattas, K.N.; Kyriakis, N.A.; Samaras, Z.C.; Aidarinis, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of three oxidation catalysts (Honeycat DEP 290, Engelhard PTX 623, Herapur 20L) and one catalytic trap oxidizer (Johnson Matthey JM 13/II) on the emissions of a RABA (M.A.N. Licensed) heavy-duty diesel engine has been comparatively studied. Tests were conducted according to EPA 13 mode test to measure CO, total HC, NO/sub x/ and total particulate matter emitted by the engine with and without devices. The test results were also correlated to the total emissions of the Athenian buses through new weighing factors of an ''Athenian 13 mode test''. The engine tests for all four devices resulted in: (1) considerable reduction of the engine's CO and total HC emissions - being already low (2) practically no difference in NO/sub x/ emissions and (3) increase of the total particulate emissions at high load modes.

  14. SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF DIESEL ENGINE NOX EMISSIONS USING ETHANOL AS A REDUCTANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    (1)Kass, M; Thomas, J; Lewis, S; Storey, J; Domingo, N; Graves, R (2) Panov, A

    2003-08-24

    NOx emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine were reduced by more than 90% and 80% utilizing a full-scale ethanol-SCR system for space velocities of 21000/h and 57000/h respectively. These results were achieved for catalyst temperatures between 360 and 400 C and for C1:NOx ratios of 4-6. The SCR process appears to rapidly convert ethanol to acetaldehyde, which subsequently slipped past the catalyst at appreciable levels at a space velocity of 57000/h. Ammonia and N2O were produced during conversion; the concentrations of each were higher for the low space velocity condition. However, the concentration of N2O did not exceed 10 ppm. In contrast to other catalyst technologies, NOx reduction appeared to be enhanced by initial catalyst aging, with the presumed mechanism being sulfate accumulation within the catalyst. A concept for utilizing ethanol (distilled from an E-diesel fuel) as the SCR reductant was demonstrated.

  15. A new 3DOM Ce-Fe-Ti material for simultaneously catalytic removal of PM and NOx from diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying; Liu, Jian; Zhao, Zhen; Song, Weiyu; Wei, Yuechang

    2018-01-15

    A new 3DOM material was designed and synthesized for the simultaneous removal of PM (soot particulates) and NOx from diesel engine exhausts. The catalytic purification taking place over the material with double efficacy is cost-efficient. The contact between solid PM and catalyst active site has been process intensified by 3DOM unique structure. 3DOM Ce 0.7 Fe 0.2 Ti 0.1 O 2 catalyst possess a high SCR activity and an excellent selectivity to N 2 , giving a maximum concentration of CO 2 at 385°C for PM combustion and 100% NO conversion in the temperature range of 281-425°C. The dual redox cycles (Fe 3+ +Ce 3+ ↔Fe 2+ +Ce 4+ ,Fe 3+ +Ti 3+ ↔Fe 2+ +Ti 4+ ) and the excellent reducibility and sufficient acid sites of catalysts play key roles for the highly catalytic performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Green diesel production via catalytic hydrogenation/decarboxylation of triglycerides and fatty acids of vegetable oil and brown grease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Elvan

    than activated carbon itself for both decarboxylation of oleic acid and hydrogenation of alkenes. In an additional effort to reduce Pd amount in the catalyst, Pd2Co/C catalysts with various Pd content were prepared and the catalytic activity study showed that 0.5 wt% Pd2Co/C catalyst performs even better than a 5 wt% Pd/C catalyst. Pd and Co alloys were very well dispersed and formed fine clusters, which led to a higher active metal surface area and hence favored the decarboxylation of oleic acid. This study showed that an alloy of Pd on carbon with a significantly low Pd content is much more active and selective to diesel hydrocarbons production from an unsaturated fatty acid in super-critical water and may be regarded as a prospective feasible decarboxylation catalyst for the removal of oxygen from vegetable oil/animal fat without the need of additional hydrogen.

  17. Process simulation and techno economic analysis of renewable diesel production via catalytic decarboxylation of rubber seed oil - A case study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Kin Wai; Yusup, Suzana; Gurdeep Singh, Haswin Kaur; Uemura, Yoshimitsu; Lam, Hon Loong

    2017-12-01

    This work describes the economic feasibility of hydroprocessed diesel fuel production via catalytic decarboxylation of rubber seed oil in Malaysia. A comprehensive techno-economic assessment is developed using Aspen HYSYS V8.0 software for process modelling and economic cost estimates. The profitability profile and minimum fuels selling price of this synthetic fuels production using rubber seed oil as biomass feedstock are assessed under a set of assumptions for what can be plausibly be achieved in 10-years framework. In this study, renewable diesel processing facility is modelled to be capable of processing 65,000 L of inedible oil per day and producing a total of 20 million litre of renewable diesel product per annual with assumed annual operational days of 347. With the forecasted renewable diesel retail price of 3.64 RM per kg, the pioneering renewable diesel project investment offers an assuring return of investment of 12.1% and net return as high as 1.35 million RM. Sensitivity analysis conducted showed that renewable diesel production cost is most sensitive to rubber seed oil price and hydrogen gas price, reflecting on the relative importance of feedstock prices in the overall profitability profile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Particle Filters and Selective Catalytic Reduction on In-Use Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Cados, T.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2016-12-01

    Heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT) are a major source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and black carbon (BC) in urban environments, contributing to persistent ozone and particulate matter air quality problems. Diesel particle filters (DPFs) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems that target PM and NOx emissions, respectively, have recently become standard equipment on new HDDT. DPFs can also be installed on older engines as a retrofit device. Previous work has shown that DPF and SCR systems can reduce NOx and BC emissions by up to 70% and 90%, respectively, compared to modern trucks without these after-treatment controls (Preble et al., ES&T 2015). DPFs can have the undesirable side-effect of increasing ultrafine particle (UFP) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions. While SCR systems can partially mitigate DPF-related NO2 increases, these systems can emit nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. We report new results from a study of HDDT emissions conducted in fall 2015 at the Port of Oakland and Caldecott Tunnel in California's San Francisco Bay Area. We report pollutant emission factors (g kg-1) for emitted NOx, NO2, BC, PM2.5, UFP, and N2O on a truck-by-truck basis. Using a roadside license plate recognition system, we categorize each truck by its engine model year and installed after-treatment controls. From this, we develop emissions profiles for trucks with and without DPF and SCR. We evaluate the effectiveness of these devices as a function of their age to determine whether degradation is an issue. We also compare the emission profiles of trucks traveling at low speeds along a level, arterial road en route to the port and at high speeds up a 4% grade highway approaching the tunnel. Given the climate impacts of BC and N2O, we also examine the global warming potential of emissions from trucks with and without DPF and SCR.

  19. Component Analysis of Deposits in Selective Catalytic Reduction System for Automotive Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Neng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, deposits in exhaust pipes for automotive diesel engines were studied by various chemical analysis methods and a kind of analysis process to determine the compositions of organic matter was proposed. Firstly, the elements of the deposits were determined through the element analysis method. Then using characteristic absorption properties of organic functional groups to the infrared spectrum, the functional groups in the deposits were determined. Finally, by GC-MS (gas chromatography - mass spectrometry test, the content of each main component was determined quantitatively. Element analysis results indicated that the deposits adsorbed metal impurities from fuel oil, lubricating oil, mechanical wear and urea water solution. The result of GC-MS test showed that the area percentage of cyanuric acid was the biggest (about 85%, the second was urea (about 4%, and the content of biuret and biurea was scarce.

  20. Performance and emission analysis of blends of waste plastic oil obtained by catalytic pyrolysis of waste HDPE with diesel in a CI engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sachin; Prakash, R.; Murugan, S.; Singh, R.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Production and characterization of waste pyrolysis oil by catalytic pyrolysis of waste high-density polyethylene. • Use of waste plastic oil and diesel blends in compression ignition engine. • Impact of engine load on engine’s performance and emission characteristics. - Abstract: Compression ignition engines have proved to be the best option in heavy duty applications like transportation and power generation, but rapid depleting sources of conventional fossil fuels, their rising prices and ever increasing environmental issues are the major concerns. The present study deals with performance and emission analysis of blends of waste plastic oil obtained by catalytic pyrolysis of waste high-density polyethylene with diesel in a CI engine with varying loads. The experimental results show that the brake thermal efficiencies at all load conditions are lower as compared to that of diesel fuel, exhaust gas temperature increases with increase in engine load. The BSFC increases with increase in WPO blend ratio and decreases with increase in engine load. Mechanical efficiency increases with increasing brake power for all fuel blends. The NO x emission and CO emission increase with increase in percentage of waste plastic oil in blends, NO x emission decreases while CO emission increases with increase in engine load. The unburnt hydrocarbon emission decreases with increase in the engine load and increases with increase in percentage of waste plastic oil in blends. The carbon dioxide emission for the blends is lower than diesel for almost all loads and all blends

  1. High-throughput approach to the catalytic combustion of diesel soot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iojoiu, Eduard Emil; Bassou, Badr; Guilhaume, Nolven; Farrusseng, David; Desmartin-Chomel, Arnold; Bianchi, Daniel; Mirodatos, Claude [Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l' environnement de Lyon IRCELYON, UMR5256 CNRS Universite Lyon 1, 2 avenue Albert Einstein, F-69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Lombaert, Karine [Renault, Diesel Innovative Catalytic Materials, Direction de l' Ingenierie Materiaux, 1 Allee Cornuel, 91510 Lardy (France)

    2008-08-30

    A methodology for the evaluation of diesel soot oxidation catalysts by high-throughput (HT) screening was developed. The optimal experimental conditions (soot amount, catalyst/soot ratio, type of contact, composition and flow rate of gas reactants) ensuring a reliable and reproducible detection of light-off temperatures in a 16 parallel channels reactor were set up. The temperature profile measured in the catalyst/soot bed under TPO conditions when the exothermic combustion of soot takes place was shown to provide an accurate measurement of the ignition. Its reproducibility and relevance were checked. The results obtained with a reference noble metal free catalyst (La{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.8}Li{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} perovskite) agree very well with literature data. Qualitative mechanistic features could be derived from these experiments, stressing the likely limiting step of oxygen transfer from catalyst surface to soot particulates to ignite the soot combustion. Ceria material was shown to be more appropriate than perovskite one. From an HT screening of a large diverse library (over 100 mixed oxides catalysts) under optimized conditions, about 10 new formulations were found to perform better than selected noble metal free reference materials. (author)

  2. Influence of fuel properties, nitrogen oxides, and exhaust treatment by an oxidation catalytic converter on the mutagenicity of diesel engine emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bünger, Jürgen; Krahl, Jürgen; Weigel, Andreas; Schröder, Olaf; Brüning, Thomas; Müller, Michael; Hallier, Ernst; Westphal, Götz

    2006-08-01

    Particle emissions of diesel engines (DEP) content polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) these compounds cause a strong mutagenicity of solvent extracts of DEP. We investigated the influence of fuel properties, nitrogen oxides (NO( x )), and an oxidation catalytic converter (OCC) on the mutagenic effects of DEP. The engine was fuelled with common diesel fuel (DF), low-sulphur diesel fuel (LSDF), rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME), and soybean oil methyl ester (SME) and run at five different load modes in two series with and without installation of an OCC in the exhaust pipe. Particles from the cooled and diluted exhaust were sampled onto glass fibre filters and extracted with dichloromethane in a soxhlet apparatus. The mutagenicity of the extracts was tested using the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian microsome assay with tester strains TA98 and TA100. Without OCC the number of revertant colonies was lower in extracts of LSDF than in extracts of DF. The lowest numbers of revertant colonies were induced by the plant oil derived fuels. In three load modes, operation with the OCC led to a reduction of the mutagenicity. However, direct mutagenic effects under heavy duty conditions (load mode A) were significantly increased for RME (TA98, TA100) and SME (TA98). A consistent but not significant increase in direct mutagenicity was observed for DF and LSDF at load mode A, and for DF at idling (load mode E) when emissions were treated with the OCC. These results raise concern over the use of oxidation catalytic converters with diesel engines. We hypothesise that the OCC increases formation of direct acting mutagens under certain conditions by the reaction of NO( x ) with PAH resulting in the formation of nitrated-PAH. Most of these compounds are powerful direct acting mutagens.

  3. Catalytic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Hanafi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of dealuminated Y-zeolites impregnated by 0.5 wt% Pt catalysts promoted by different amounts of Ni, Pd or Cr (0.3 and 0.6 wt% were prepared and characterized as hydrocracking catalysts. The physicochemical and structural characterization of the solid catalysts were investigated and reported through N2 physisorption, XRD, TGA-DSC, FT-IR and TEM techniques. Solid catalysts surface acidities were investigated through FT-IR spectroscopy aided by pyridine adsorption. The solid catalytic activities were evaluated through hydroconversion of n-hexane and n-heptane employing micro-catalytic pulse technique directly connected to a gas chromatograph analyzer. The thermal stability of the solids was also investigated up to 800 °C. Crystallinity studies using the XRD technique of all modified samples proved analogous to the parent Y-zeolite, exhibiting nearly an amorphous and microcrystalline character of the second metal oxides. Disclosure of bimetallic catalysts crystalline characterization, through XRD, was not viable. The nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms for all samples concluded type I adsorption isotherms, without any hysteresis loop, indicating that the entire pore system is composed of micropores. TEM micrographs of the solid catalysts demonstrate well-dispersed Pt, Ni and Cr nanoparticles having sizes of 2–4 nm and 7–8 nm, respectively. The catalytic activity results indicate that the bimetallic (0.5Pt–0.3Cr/D18H–Y catalyst is the most active towards n-hexane and n-heptane isomerization while (0.5Pt–0.6Ni/D18H–Y catalyst can be designed as most suitable as a cracking catalyst.

  4. Dépollution des gaz d'échappement des moteurs diesel au moyen de pots catalytiques Depolluting Exhaust Gases from Diesel Engines by Catalytic Mufflers

    OpenAIRE

    Goldenberg E.; Prigent M.; Caillod J.

    2006-01-01

    On présente dans cet article les résultats d'une première série de recherches sur la dépollution des gaz d'échappement des moteurs diesel au moyen de pots catalytiques. L'efficacité des catalyseurs à base de platine pour l'oxydation du monoxyde de carbone et des hydrocarbures imbrûlés a pu être établie par des essais sur banc moteur et sur véhicule. L'emploi de certaines phases actives à base de métaux non nobles permet d'autre part d'abaisser la température de début d'oxydation des particule...

  5. Co3O4-CeO2 mixed oxide-based catalytic materials for diesel soot oxidation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dhakad, M.; Mitshuhashi, T.; Rayalu, S.; Doggali, P.; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Šubrt, Jan; Fino, D.; Haneda, H.; Labhsetwar, N.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 132, 1-4 (2008), s. 188-193 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC523 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : soot oxidation * diesel particulate * Co3O4-CeO2 type mixed oxide Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.004, year: 2008

  6. Catalytic combustion of diesel soot particles. Activity and characterization of Co/MgO and Co,K/MgO catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querini, C.A.; Ulla, M.A.; Sedran, U.A.; Miro, E.E. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catalisis y Petroquimica - INCAPE, Santa Fe (Argentina); Requejo, F. [Departamento de Fisica, Fac. de Ciencias Exactas, UNLP, La Plata (Argentina); Soria, J. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, Madrid (Spain)

    1998-01-15

    The catalytic combustion of diesel soot particles was studied on Co/MgO (12wt% Co) and potassium-promoted Co/MgO (1.5wt% K) that were calcined at different temperatures in the 300 to 700C range. Catalyst samples were characterized by various techniques including nitrogen adsorption (BET), temperature programmed reduction (TPR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electron spin resonance (ESR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature programmed oxidation (TPO). As observed by TPO experiments, the catalyst activity depends strongly on the calcination temperature: calcination at 300 and 400C produced samples that were much more active than those calcined at higher temperatures, on which an inactive Mg-Co mixed oxide is formed, as suggested by TPR, ESR and XRD results. FTIR shows carbonate species on the surface. Unpromoted samples seem to correlate their activity with the amount of reducible Co species present. Potassium not only increased the sample activity, probably due to the improvement in surface mobility, but also enhanced stability at high temperatures. Experiments with different soot to catalyst ratios showed no significant variation in combustion temperature. The K-promoted catalyst burns off soot at a temperature lower than the one needed for calcination, thus proving to be a promising catalyst

  7. Reducing diesel NOx and PM emissions of diesel buses and trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of the present investigation was development of a high efficiency : selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system for reducing diesel nitrogen oxides (NOx) and : particulate matters of diesel trucks. The investigation was divided into two ...

  8. Review of state of the art technologies of selective catalytic reduction of NOx from diesel engine exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Bin; Zhan, Reggie; Lin, He; Huang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly stringent emission legislations, such as US 2010 and Euro VI, for NO x in mobile applications will require the use of intensification of NO x reduction aftertreatment technologies, such as the selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Due to the required higher deNO x efficiency, a lot of efforts have recently been concentrated on the optimization of the SCR systems for broadening the active deNO x temperature window as widely as possible, especially at low temperatures, enhancing the catalysts durability, and reducing the cost of the deNO x system. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art SCR technologies, including the alternative ammonia generation from the solid reductants, Vanadium-based, Cu-zeolite (CuZ) and Fe-zeolite (FeZ) based, and the novel chabazite zeolite with small pore size SCR catalysts. Furthermore, the progresses of the highly optimized hybrid approaches, involving combined CuZ and FeZ SCR, passive SCR, integration of DOC + (DPF, SCR), as well as SCR catalyst coated on DPF (referred as SCRF hereinafter) systems are well discussed. Even though SCR technology is considered as the leading NO x aftertreatment technology, attentions have been paid to the adverse by-products, such as NH 3 and N 2 O. Relevant regulations have been established to address the issues. - Highlights: •The review of state of the art technologies of selective catalytic reduction of NO x . •The mainstream V-based, Cu- and Fe-zeolite, and chabazite catalysts are illustrated. •The development of highly optimized hybrid integration SCR systems are analyzed. •The by-products of SCR systems and the corresponding regulations are discussed. •The future perspectives of the advanced SCR technologies are described

  9. Heterostructured Copper-Ceria and Iron-Ceria Nanorods: Role of Morphology, Redox, and Acid Properties in Catalytic Diesel Soot Combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarsanam, Putla; Hillary, Brendan; Amin, Mohamad Hassan; Rockstroh, Nils; Bentrup, Ursula; Brückner, Angelika; Bhargava, Suresh K

    2018-02-27

    This work reports the synthesis of heterostructured copper-ceria and iron-ceria nanorods and the role of their morphology, redox, and acid properties in catalytic diesel soot combustion. Microscopy images show the presence of nanocrystalline CuO (9.5 ± 0.5 nm) and Fe 2 O 3 (7.3 ± 0.5 nm) particles on the surface of CeO 2 nanorods (diameter is 8.5 ± 2 nm and length within 16-89 nm). In addition to diffraction peaks of CuO and Fe 2 O 3 nanocrystallites, X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies reveal doping of Cu 2+ and Fe 3+ ions into the fluorite lattice of CeO 2 , hence abundant oxygen vacancies in the Cu/CeO 2 and Fe/CeO 2 nanorods, as evidenced by Raman spectroscopy studies. XRD and Raman spectroscopy studies further show substantial perturbations in Cu/CeO 2 rods, resulting in an improved reducibility of bulk cerium oxide and formation of abundant Lewis acid sites, as investigated by H 2 -temperature-programmed reduction and pyridine-adsorbed Fourier transform infrared studies, respectively. The Cu/CeO 2 rods catalyze the soot oxidation reaction at the lowest temperatures under both tight contact (Cu/CeO 2 ; T50 = 358 °C, temperature at which 50% soot conversion is achieved, followed by Fe/CeO 2 ; T50 = 368 °C and CeO 2 ; T50 = 433 °C) and loose contact conditions (Cu/CeO 2 ; T50 = 419 °C and Fe/CeO 2 ; T50 = 435 °C). A possible mechanism based on the synergetic effect of redox and acid properties of Cu/CeO 2 nanorods was proposed: acid sites can activate soot particles to form reactive carbon species, which are oxidized by gaseous oxygen/lattice oxygen activated in the oxygen vacancies (redox sites) of ceria rods.

  10. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  11. Final Technical Report on Investigation of Selective Non-Catalytic Processes for In-Situ Reduction of NOx and CO Emissions from Marine Gas Turbines and Diesel Engines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bowman, Craig

    1997-01-01

    .... These observations suggest the possibility of utilizing SNCR for reducing NO(x) emissions from marine gas turbines and Diesel engines by direct injection of a reductant species into the combustion chamber, possibly as a fuel...

  12. Performance of bio fuels in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez I, Manuel L; Prada V, Laura P

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows the preliminary results of pilot plant tests developed in oil catalytic hydrotreating process, where the crude palm oil or a mixture of crude palm oil and mineral diesel is treated with an injection of 99% pure hydrogen flux, in a fixed bed reactor at high pressures and temperatures, in a presence of Nickel Molybdenum catalyst supported on alumina bed. The main product of this process is a fuel (bio diesel) which has the same or better properties than the diesel obtained by petroleum refining. It has been made some performance fuel tests in diesel engine? with good results in terms of power, torque and fuel consumption, without any changes in engine configuration. Considering the characteristics of the Catalytic hydrotreated bio diesel compare to conventional diesel, both fuels have similar distillation range? however, bio diesel has better flash point, cetane index and thermal stability. Gas fuels (methane, ethane, and propane) CO 2 and water are the secondary products of the process.

  13. Diesel/biodiesel soot oxidation with ceo2 and ceo2-zro2-modified cordierites: a facile way of accounting for their catalytic ability in fuel combustion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo F. Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available CeO2 and mixed CeO2-ZrO2 nanopowders were synthesized and efficiently deposited onto cordierite substrates, with the evaluation of their morphologic and structural properties through XRD, SEM, and FTIR. The modified substrates were employed as outer heterogeneous catalysts for reducing the soot originated from the diesel and diesel/biodiesel blends incomplete combustion. Their activity was evaluated in a diesel stationary motor, and a comparative analysis of the soot emission was carried out through diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The analyses have shown that the catalyst-impregnated cordierite samples are very efficient for soot oxidation, being capable of reducing the soot emission in more than 60%.

  14. Test/QA plan for the verification testing of selective catalytic reduction control technologies for highway, nonroad use heavy-duty diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    This ETV test/QA plan for heavy-duty diesel engine testing at the Southwest Research Institute’s Department of Emissions Research (DER) describes how the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), as listed in 40 CFR Part 86 for highway engines and 40 CFR Part 89 for nonroad engines, will be ...

  15. Catalytic performance of Ag/Al2O3-C2H5OH-Cu/Al2O3 system for the removal of NOx from diesel engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changbin; He, Hong; Shuai, Shijin; Wang, Jianxin

    2007-05-01

    The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx by C(2)H(5)OH was studied in excess oxygen over Ag/Al(2)O(3) catalysts with different Ag loadings at lab conditions. The 4% Ag/Al(2)O(3) has the highest activity for the C(2)H(5)OH-SCR of NOx with a drawback of simultaneously producing CO and unburned THC in effluent gases. An oxidation catalyst 10% Cu/Al(2)O(3) was directly placed after the Ag/Al(2)O(3) to remove CO and unburned THC. Washcoated honeycomb catalysts were prepared based on the 4% Ag/Al(2)O(3) and 10% Cu/Al(2)O(3) powders and tested for the C(2)H(5)OH-SCR of NOx on a diesel engine at the practical operating conditions. Compared with the Ag/Al(2)O(3) powder, the Ag/Al(2)O(3) washcoated honeycomb catalyst (SCR catalyst) has a similar activity for NOx reduction by C(2)H(5)OH and the drawback of increasing the CO and unburned THC emissions. Using the SCR+Oxi composite catalyst with the optimization of C(2)H(5)OH addition, the diesel engine completely meets EURO III emission standards.

  16. GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL FOR DETERMINATION OF EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS FROM SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTIONS CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGHWAY, NONROAD, AND STATIONARY USE DIESEL ENGINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protocol describes the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program's considerations and requirements for verification of emissions reduction provided by selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technologies. The basis of the ETV will be comparison of the emissions and perf...

  17. Clean Diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Diesel Program offers DERA funding in the form of grants and rebates as well as other support for projects that protect human health and improve air quality by reducing harmful emissions from diesel engines.

  18. Modeling the selective catalytic reduction of NOx by ammonia over a Vanadia-based catalyst from heavy duty diesel exhaust gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Byoung Kyu; Kim, Man Young

    2013-01-01

    A numerical simulation for prediction of NO X conversion over a commercial V 2 O 5 catalyst with NH 3 as a reductant was performed for a heavy duty diesel engine applications. The chemical behaviors of the SCR reactor are described by using the global NO X kinetics including standard, fast, and NH 3 oxidation reactions with the Langmuir–Hinshelwood (LH) mechanism incorporated into the commercial Boost code. After introducing mathematical models for the SCR reaction with specific reaction parameters, the effects of various parameters such as space velocities, the O 2 , H 2 O, NO 2 , and NH 3 concentrations on the NOx conversion are thoroughly studied and validated by comparing with the experimental data available in the literature. It is found that NO X conversion increases with decreasing space velocity, H 2 O concentration, and NH 3 /NO X ratio, and increasing O 2 concentration and NO 2 /NO X ratio. The study shows that not only is the present approach adopted is flexible in treating performance of the commercial V 2 O 5 based SCR catalyst, it is also accurate and efficient for the prediction of NO X conversion in diesel exhaust environments. - Highlights: ► To find the reaction parameters for LH mechanism over a commercial V2O5 catalyst. ► To investigate the effects of various parameters on the SCR NO X conversion. ► To present benchmark solutions on SCR behavior with diesel exhaust environments.

  19. Rudolph Diesel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Rudolph Diesel. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 17 Issue 4 April 2012 pp 406-424 Classics. Diesel's Rational Heat Motor · Rudolph Diesel · More Details Fulltext PDF ...

  20. Ordered micro/macro porous K-OMS-2/SiO2 nanocatalysts: Facile synthesis, low cost and high catalytic activity for diesel soot combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuehua; Zhao, Zhen; Wei, Yuechang; Liu, Jian

    2017-04-01

    A series of novel oxide catalysts, which contain three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) and microporous structure, were firstly designed and successfully synthesized by simple method. In the as-prepared catalysts, 3DOM SiO2 is used as support and microporous K-OMS-2 oxide nanoparticles are supported on the wall of SiO2. 3DOM K-OMS-2/SiO2 oxide catalysts were firstly used in soot particle oxidation reaction and they show very high catalytic activities. The high activities of K-OMS-2/SiO2 oxide catalysts can be assigned to three possible reasons: macroporous effect of 3DOM structure for improving contact between soot and catalyst, microporous effect of K-OMS-2 for adsorption of small gas molecules and interaction of K and Mn for activation of gas molecules. The catalytic activities of catalysts are comparable to or even higher than noble metal catalyst in the medium and high temperature range. For example, the T50 of K-OMS-2/SiO2-50, 328 °C, is much lower than those of Pt/Al2O3 and 3DOM Au/LaFeO3, 464 and 356 °C,respectively. Moreover, catalysts exhibited high catalytic stability. It is attributed to that the K+ ions are introduced into the microporous structure of OMS-2 and stabilized in the catalytic reaction. Meanwhile, the K+ ions play an important role in templating and stabilizing the tunneled framework of OMS-2.

  1. Impacts of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Oil Dilution on Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, M. J.; Alleman, T. L.; Luecke, J.; McCormick, R. L.

    2009-08-01

    Assesses oil dilution impacts on a diesel engine operating with a diesel particle filter, NOx storage, a selective catalytic reduction emission control system, and a soy-based 20% biodiesel fuel blend.

  2. Selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides from industrial gases by hydrogen or methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann Pirez, M.

    2004-12-01

    This work deals with the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), contained in the effluents of industrial plants, by hydrogen or methane. The aim is to replace ammonia, used as reducing agent, in the conventional process. The use of others reducing agents such as hydrogen or methane is interesting for different reasons: practical, economical and ecological. The catalyst has to convert selectively NO into N 2 , in presence of an excess of oxygen, steam and sulfur dioxide. The developed catalyst is constituted by a support such as perovskites, particularly LaCoO 3 , on which are dispersed noble metals (palladium, platinum). The interaction between the noble metal and the support, generated during the activation of the catalyst, allows to minimize the water and sulfur dioxide inhibitor phenomena on the catalytic performances, particularly in the reduction of NO by hydrogen. (O.M.)

  3. Catalytic combustion of diesel soot on Co,K/MgO catalysts. Effect of the potassium loading on activity and stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querini, C.A.; Cornaglia, L.M.; Ulla, M.A.; Miro, E.E. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catalisis y Petroquimica - INCAPE, FIQ, UNL-CONICET, Santiago del Estero 2829, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)

    1999-03-08

    Co,K/MgO catalysts with 12wt% of Co and 1.5, 4.5 and 7.5wt% of K, calcined at 400C are active for the combustion of diesel soot. Among them, the one containing 4.5wt% of K is that which burns soot at the lowest temperature (378C). Coincidentally, this is the catalyst presenting the highest K/Mg and K/O surface ratios in XPS measurements. When the calcination temperature is increased at 500C, both the solid containing 4.5% of K and the one containing 1.5% as well as the unpromoted catalyst (Co/MgO) noticeably lose activity due to the formation of a solid solution (Co, Mg). However, the solid with the highest K content (7.5wt%) presents a similar activity at different calcination temperatures (400C, 500C and 700C). It has been found that the activity of these solids is directly related to the reducibility of cobalt, thus indicating that the reaction is carried out by a redox mechanism. Potassium plays different roles in these catalysts: (1) it increases the catalyst-soot contact by increasing surface mobility, (2) it preserves the reducibility and dispersion of cobalt by improving stability against thermal treatments, and (3) it favors the oxidation of soot by consuming the carbon to form carbonate species during soot combustion. It was also found that soot with a higher content of sulfur (1050ppm) is more efficiently burned than that containing low amounts of sulfur (70ppm). However, the severe sulfation of the catalyst leads to a noticeable loss of activity. In experiments of carbon monoxide oxidation, it was found that conversion is practically total between 400C and 500C under the conditions used in this work. The direct impregnation of the soot with either Co or Co and K, showed lower combustion temperatures if compared with the mechanical mixtures of soot and Co/MgO or Co,K/MgO, suggesting that the soot-catalyst contact poses a physical limitation on the oxidation activity. This important result suggests that the soot-catalyst contacting problem is the main

  4. Rudolf Diesel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 4. Rudolf Diesel - The Rational Inventor of a Heat Engine. Tilottama Shrinivasa. Article-in-a-Box Volume 17 Issue 4 April 2012 pp 319-320. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  5. Diesel/biodiesel soot oxidation with CeO{sub 2} and CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}- modified cordierites: a facile way of accounting for their catalytic ability in fuel combustion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rodrigo F.; Oliveira, Edimar de; Sousa Filho, Paulo C. de; Neri, Claudio R.; Serra, Osvaldo A., E-mail: crneri@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (DQ/FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    CeO{sub 2} and mixed CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} nanopowders were synthesized and efficiently deposited onto cordierite substrates, with the evaluation of their morphologic and structural properties through XRD, SEM, and FTIR. The modified substrates were employed as outer heterogeneous catalysts for reducing the soot originated from the diesel and diesel/biodiesel blends incomplete combustion. Their activity was evaluated in a diesel stationary motor, and a comparative analysis of the soot emission was carried out through diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The analyses have shown that the catalyst-impregnated cordierite samples are very efficient for soot oxidation, being capable of reducing the soot emission in more than 60%. (author)

  6. Effects of diesel/ethanol dual fuel on emission characteristics in a heavy-duty diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junheng; Sun, Ping; Zhang, Buyun

    2017-09-01

    In order to reduce emissions and diesel consumption, the gas emissions characteris-tics of diesel/aqueous ethanol dual fuel combustion (DFC) were carried out on a heavy-duty turbocharged and intercooled automotive diesel engine. The aqueous ethanol is prepared by a blend of anhydrous ethanol and water in certain volume proportion. In DFC mode, aqueous ethanol is injected into intake port to form homogeneous charge, and then ignited by the diesel fuel. Results show that DFC can reduce NOx emissions but increase HC and CO emissions, and this trend becomes more prominent with the increase of water blending ratio. Increased emissions of HC and CO could be efficiently cleaned by diesel oxidation catalytic converter (DOC), even better than those of diesel fuel. It is also found that DFC mode reduces smoke remarkably, while increases some unconventional emissions such as formaldehyde and acetal-dehyde. However, unconventional emissions could be reduced approximately to the level of baseline engine with a DOC.

  7. Will Aerosol Hygroscopicity Change with Biodiesel, Renewable Diesel Fuels and Emission Control Technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Diep; Short, Daniel; Karavalakis, Georgios; Durbin, Thomas D; Asa-Awuku, Akua

    2017-02-07

    The use of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels in compression ignition engines and aftertreatment technologies may affect vehicle exhaust emissions. In this study two 2012 light-duty vehicles equipped with direct injection diesel engines, diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) were tested on a chassis dynamometer. One vehicle was tested over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle on seven biodiesel and renewable diesel fuel blends. Both vehicles were exercised over double Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Highway fuel economy test (HWFET) cycles on ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and a soy-based biodiesel blend to investigate the aerosol hygroscopicity during the regeneration of the DPF. Overall, the apparent hygroscopicity of emissions during nonregeneration events is consistently low (κ diesel vehicles. As such, the contribution of regeneration emissions from a growing fleet of diesel vehicles will be important.

  8. Fluid catalytic cracking : Feedstocks and reaction mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupain, X.

    2006-01-01

    The Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) process is one of the key units in a modern refinery. Traditionally, its design is primarily aimed for the production of gasoline from heavy oil fractions, but as co-products also diesel blends and valuable gasses (e.g. propene and butenes) are formed in

  9. Catalytic Converters Maintain Air Quality in Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    At Langley Research Center, engineers developed a tin-oxide based washcoat to prevent oxygen buildup in carbon dioxide lasers used to detect wind shears. Airflow Catalyst Systems Inc. of Rochester, New York, licensed the technology and then adapted the washcoat for use as a catalytic converter to treat the exhaust from diesel mining equipment.

  10. Urea-SCR technology for deNOx after treatment of diesel exhausts

    CERN Document Server

    Nova, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Of intense interest both to academics and industry professionals, this groundbreaking book-length treatment of selective catalytic reduction of NOx using ammonia/urea includes papers by researchers at the leading edge of diesel exhaust abatement.

  11. Clean Diesel National Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Funding Assistance Program administers competitive grants for clean diesel projects. The Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) appropriates funds for these projects. Publication numbers: EPA-420-B-13-025 and EPA-420-P-11-001.

  12. Clean Diesel Tribal Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The DERA Tribal Program awards clean diesel grants specifically for tribal nations. The Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) appropriates funds for these projects. Publication Numbers: EPA-420-B-13-025 and EPA-420-P-11-001.

  13. Diesel engines: environmental impact and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, A C; Cackette, T A

    2001-06-01

    The diesel engine is the most efficient prime mover commonly available today. Diesel engines move a large portion of the world's goods, power much of the world's equipment, and generate electricity more economically than any other device in their size range. But the diesel is one of the largest contributors to environmental pollution problems worldwide, and will remain so, with large increases expected in vehicle population and vehicle miles traveled (VMT) causing ever-increasing global emissions. Diesel emissions contribute to the development of cancer; cardiovascular and respiratory health effects; pollution of air, water, and soil; soiling; reductions in visibility; and global climate change. Where instituted, control programs have been effective in reducing diesel fleet emissions. Fuel changes, such as reduced sulfur and aromatics content, have resulted in immediate improvements across the entire diesel on- and off-road fleet, and promise more improvements with future control. In the United States, for example, 49-state (non-California) off-road diesel fuel sulfur content is 10 times higher than that of national on-road diesel fuel. Significantly reducing this sulfur content would reduce secondary particulate matter (PM) formation and allow the use of control technologies that have proven effective in the on-road arena. The use of essentially zero-sulfur fuels, such as natural gas, in heavy-duty applications is also expected to continue. Technology changes, such as engine modifications, exhaust gas recirculation, and catalytic aftertreatment, take longer to fully implement, due to slow fleet turnover. However, they eventually result in significant emission reductions and will be continued on an ever-widening basis in the United States and worldwide. New technologies, such as hybrids and fuel cells, show significant promise in reducing emissions from sources currently dominated by diesel use. Lastly, the turnover of trucks and especially off-road equipment is

  14. Diesel Vehicle Maintenance Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braswell, Robert; And Others

    Designed to provide a model set of competencies, this manual presents tasks which were identified by employers, employees, and teachers as important in a postsecondary diesel vehicle maintenance curriculum. The tasks are divided into seven major component areas of instruction: chassis and suspension, diesel engines, diesel fuel, electrical,…

  15. Low temperature hydrogenolysis of waxes to diesel range gasoline and light alkanes: Comparison of catalytic properties of group 4, 5 and 6 metal hydrides supported on silica-alumina

    KAUST Repository

    Norsic, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    A series of metal hydrides (M = Zr, Hf, Ta, W) supported on silica-alumina were studied for the first time in hydrogenolysis of light alkanes in a continuous flow reactor. It was found that there is a difference in the reaction mechanism between d 0 metal hydrides of group 4 and d 0 ↔ d 2 metal hydrides of group 5 and group 6. Furthermore, the potential application of these catalysts has been demonstrated by the transformation of Fischer-Tropsch wax in a reactive distillation set-up into typical gasoline and diesel molecules in high selectivity (up to 86 wt%). Current results show that the group 4 metal hydrides have a promising yield toward liquid fuels.

  16. Dieselization in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kågeson, Per

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden the market share of diesel cars grew from below 10 per cent in 2005 to 62 per cent in 2011 despite a closing gap between pump prices on diesel oil and gasoline, and diesel cars being less favored than ethanol and biogas cars in terms of tax cuts and other subsidies offered to “environment cars”. The most important factor behind the dieselization was probably the market entrance of a number of low-consuming models. Towards the end of the period a growing number of diesel models were able to meet the 120 g CO 2 threshold applicable to “environment cars” that cannot use ethanol or biogas. This helped such models increase their share of the diesel car market from zero to 41 per cent. Dieselization appears to have had only a minor effect on annual distances driven. The higher average annual mileage of diesel cars is probably to a large extent a result of a self-selection bias. However, the Swedish diesel car fleet is young, and the direct rebound effect stemming from a lower variable driving cost may show up more clearly as the fleet gets older based on the assumption that second owners are more fuel price sensitive than first owners. - Highlights: ► This paper tries to explain the fast dieselization of the new Swedish car fleet. ► It identifies changes in supply and the impact of tax benefits. ► Finally it studies the impact on the annual average mileage

  17. Panorama 2016 - Diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnier, Gaetan; Ivanic, Tanja; Alazard-Toux, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Diesel vehicles have been the focus of recent national and world news coverage. This solution, with greater overall efficiency than spark emission engines (gasoline, LPG and natural gas), remains an essential aspect of road freight transport. Diesel has even gained a significant share of the light vehicle market in certain regions of the world. However, diesel is currently the focus of numerous controversies and has been condemned for its negative impact on air quality. (authors)

  18. Design and Optimisation of Electrostatic Precipitator for Diesel Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivaas, A.; Sathian, Samanyu; Ramesh, Arjun

    2018-02-01

    The principle of an industrially used emission reduction technique is employed in automotive diesel exhaust to reduce the diesel particulate emission. As the Emission regulation are becoming more stringent legislations have been formulated, due to the hazardous increase in the air quality index in major cities. Initially electrostatic precipitation principle and working was investigated. The High voltage requirement in an Electrostatic precipitator is obtained by designing an appropriate circuit in MATLAB -SIMULINK. Mechanical structural design of the new model after treatment device for the specific diesel exhaust was done. Fluid flow analysis of the ESP model was carried out using ANSYS CFX for optimized fluid with a reduced back pressure. Design reconsideration was done in accordance with fluid flow analysis. Accordingly, a new design is developed by considering diesel particulate filter and catalytic converter design to ESP model.

  19. Diesel reforming for SOFC auxiliary power units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, R. L. (Rodney L.); Parkinson, W. J. (William Jerry),; Inbody, M. A. (Michael A.); Tafoya, J. I. (Jose I.); Guidry, D. R. (Dennis Ray)

    2004-01-01

    The use of a solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to provide auxiliary power for heavy duty trucks can increase fuel efficiency and reduce emissions by reducing engine idling time. The logical fuel of choice for a truck SOFC APU is diesel fuel, as diesel is the fuel of choice for these vehicles. SOFC's that directly oxidize hydrocarbon fuels have lower power densities than do SOFC's that operate from hydrocarbon reformate, and since the SOFC is a costly component, maximizing the fuel cell power density provides benefits in reducing the overall APU system cost. Thus current SOFC APU systems require the reformation of higher hydrocarbons for the most efficient and cost effect fuel cell system. The objective of this research is to develop the technology to enable diesel reforming for SOFC truck APU applications. Diesel fuel can be reformed into a H{sub 2} and CO-rich fuel feed stream for a SOFC by autothermal reforming (ATR), a combination of catalytic partial oxidation (CPOx), and steam reforming (SR). The typical autothermal reformer is an adiabatic, heterogeneous catalytic reactor and the challenges in its design, operation and durability on diesel fuel are manifold. These challenges begin with the vaporization and mixing of diesel fuel with air and steam where fuel pyrolysis can occur and improper mixing leads to hot and cold spots, which contribute to carbon formation and incomplete fuel conversion. The exotherm of the partial oxidation reaction can generate temperatures in excess of 800 C, a temperature at which catalysts rapidly sinter, thus reducing their lifetime. The temperature rise can be reduced by the steam reforming endotherm, but this requires the addition of water along with proper design to balance the kinetic rates. Carbon formation during operation and startup can lead to catalyst deactivation and fouling of downstream components, thus reducing durability of the fuel processor. Water addition helps to reduce carbon formation, but a key issue is

  20. Investigation of the Flow Characteristics in a Catalytic Muffler with Perforated Inlet Cone

    OpenAIRE

    Gyo Woo Lee; Man Young Kim

    2014-01-01

    Emission regulations for diesel engines are being strengthened and it is impossible to meet the standards without exhaust after-treatment systems. Lack of the space in many diesel vehicles, however, make it difficult to design and install stand-alone catalytic converters such as DOC, DPF, and SCR in the vehicle exhaust systems. Accordingly, those have been installed inside the muffler to save the space, and referred to the catalytic muffler. However, that has complex internal structure with p...

  1. Selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides from industrial gases by hydrogen or methane; Reduction catalytique selective des oxydes d'azote (NO{sub x}) provenant d'effluents gazeux industriels par l'hydrogene ou le methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann Pirez, M

    2004-12-15

    This work deals with the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), contained in the effluents of industrial plants, by hydrogen or methane. The aim is to replace ammonia, used as reducing agent, in the conventional process. The use of others reducing agents such as hydrogen or methane is interesting for different reasons: practical, economical and ecological. The catalyst has to convert selectively NO into N{sub 2}, in presence of an excess of oxygen, steam and sulfur dioxide. The developed catalyst is constituted by a support such as perovskites, particularly LaCoO{sub 3}, on which are dispersed noble metals (palladium, platinum). The interaction between the noble metal and the support, generated during the activation of the catalyst, allows to minimize the water and sulfur dioxide inhibitor phenomena on the catalytic performances, particularly in the reduction of NO by hydrogen. (O.M.)

  2. Evaluation of approaches for improving diesel cold flow properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharafutdinov, Ilshat; Stratiev, Dicho; Dinkov, Rossen [Lukoil Neftochim Bourgas AD, Bourgas (Bulgaria); Bachvarov, Assen [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom); Petkov, Petko [Bourgas Univ. ' ' Assen Zlatarov' ' (Bulgaria)

    2012-06-15

    Four heavy diesel fractions (FBP according to ASTM D-2887 of about 420 C), one lower boilingmiddle distillate fraction (FBP according to ASTM D-2887 of 310 C) and kerosene fraction (FBP according to ASTM D-2887 of 271 C) obtained from the Lukoil Neftochim Burgas (LNB) process units during the processing of Russian Export Crude Blend (REBCO) along with four heavy diesel fractions (FBP according to ASTM D-2887 of about 370 C) obtained by fractionation of four crudes: Oil Blend, REBCO, Siberian Light Crude Oil (SLCO) and CPC (Caspian Consortium Pipeline) were investigated for their cold flow properties. It was found that undercutting diesel improves cloud point (CP) and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) by 4 C/10 C cut point. Blending of kerosene improves CP and CFPP by about 2 C/10% added kerosene. The treatment with CP depressants may improve CP by about 2 C if the proper combination diesel - depressant is selected and the improvement can reach up to 6 C for a definite diesel. The treatment with CFPP depressant is much more efficient achieving an improvement of 18 C. By assuming definite fuel prices (Platts) and by applying the LNB linear programming model using Honeywell's RPMS software it was found that catalytic dewaxing is the most efficient approach for producing diesel with improved cold flowproperties if the diesel yield from the dewaxing process is higher than 90%. (orig.)

  3. The taking into account of the MVO{sub 4} (M= La, Ce) - carbon black contact in the catalytic study of the diesel soots combustion; Prise en compte du contact MVO{sub 4} (M= La, Ce) - noir de carbone dans l'evaluation catalytique de la combustion des suies diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Huu Nhon, Y.; Petit, C. [Laboratoire des Materiaux, Surfaces et Procedes pour la Catalyse (LMSPC), UMR 7515 CNRS ECPM, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    2004-07-01

    Diesel engines require the use of an exhaust post-treatment system: the particles filter. The success of a catalyzed filter requires the development of a catalyst with a high oxidation capacity in the temperature range 250 - 350 C and a sufficient lifetime in the real running conditions. In this framework, the rare earth vanadate oxides (AVO{sub 4}: A=La, Ce) present a great resistance to the different chemical species such as CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and SO{sub 2}. The change of different synthesis parameters (preparation method, kind of raw materials, calcination process) has allowed to obtain catalysts having different chemical and physical characters (morphology, specific surface area, apparent volume mass). At first, the performances of the catalysts are evaluated for a pure heterogeneous reaction: the oxidation of gaseous hydrocarbons (methane and propane) to establish their oxidizing power. Then, the contact load is estimated. This requires the perfecting of a study methodology, transposable from the carbon blacks combustion to the diesel soots. In taking again the mixture methods developed by Neeft et al which give either an intimate mixture or a weak mixture between the catalyst and the carbonaceous phase and in playing on the catalyst/carbonaceous phase stoichiometry, the two aspects are estimated. With an intimate mixture, an appropriate classification of the oxidizing property of the catalysts has been proposed. A weak mixture allows to be near the conditions of the catalyzed filter and the impact of the physical properties of the material in the soot combustion is then measured. (O.M.)

  4. Fundamentals of Diesel Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the fundamentals of diesel engine mechanics. Addressed in the three individual units of the course are the following topics: basic principles of diesel mechanics; principles, mechanics, and…

  5. Insulated Piston Heads for Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricoire, A.; Kjellman, B.; Wigren, J.; Vanvolsem, M.; Aixala, L.

    2009-06-01

    Widely studied in the 1980s, the insulation of pistons in engines aimed at reducing the heat losses and thus increasing the indicated efficiency. However, those studies stopped in the beginning of the 1990s because of NO x emission legislation and also because of lower oil prices. Currently, with the improvement of exhaust after treatment systems (diesel particulate filter, selective catalytic reduction, and diesel oxidation catalyst) and engine technologies (exhaust gas recirculation), there are more trade-offs for NO x reduction. In addition, the fast rise of the oil prices tends to lead back to insulation technologies in order to save fuel. A 1 mm thick plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating with a graded transition between the topcoat and the bondcoat was deposited on top of a serial piston for heavy-duty truck engines. The effects of the insulated pistons on the engine performance are also discussed, and the coating microstructure is analyzed after engine test.

  6. A poluição gerada por máquinas de combustão interna movidas à diesel - a questão dos particulados. Estratégias atuais para a redução e controle das emissões e tendências futuras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braun Silvana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The exhaust emissions of vehicles greatly contribute to environmental pollution. Diesel engines are extremely fuel-efficient. However, the exhaust compounds emitted by diesel engines are both a health hazard and a nuisance to the public. This paper gives an overview of the emission control of particulates from diesel exhaust compounds. The worldwide emission standards are summarized. Possible devices for reducing diesel pollutants are discussed. It is clear that after-treatment devices are necessary. Catalytic converters that collect particulates from diesel exhaust and promote the catalytic burn-off are examined. Finally, recent trends in diesel particulate emission control by novel catalysts are presented.

  7. Bio diesel- the Clean, Green Fuel for Diesel Engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkareish, S.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Natural, renewable resources such as vegetable oils, animal fats and recycled restaurant greases can be chemically transformed into clean burning bio diesel fuels (1). Just like petroleum diesel, bio diesel operates in combustion-ignition engines. Blends of up to 20% bio diesel (mixed with petroleum diesel fuels) can be used in nearly all diesel equipment and are compatible with most storage and distribution equipment. Using bio diesel in a conventional diesel engine substantially reduces emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, sulphates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. The use of bio diesel has grown dramatically during the last few years. Egypt has a promising experiment in promoting forestation by cultivation of Jatropha plant especially in luxor and many other sites of the country. The first production of the Egyptian Jatropha seeds oil is now under evaluation to produce a cost-competitive bio diesel fuel

  8. Catalytic production of biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theilgaard Madsen, A.

    2011-07-01

    The focus of this thesis is the catalytic production of diesel from biomass, especially emphasising catalytic conversion of waste vegetable oils and fats. In chapter 1 an introduction to biofuels and a review on different catalytic methods for diesel production from biomass is given. Two of these methods have been used industrially for a number of years already, namely the transesterification (and esterification) of oils and fats with methanol to form fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), and the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of fats and oils to form straight-chain alkanes. Other possible routes to diesel include upgrading and deoxygenation of pyrolysis oils or aqueous sludge wastes, condensations and reductions of sugars in aqueous phase (aqueous-phase reforming, APR) for monofunctional hydrocarbons, and gasification of any type of biomass followed by Fischer-Tropsch-synthesis for alkane biofuels. These methods have not yet been industrialised, but may be more promising due to the larger abundance of their potential feedstocks, especially waste feedstocks. Chapter 2 deals with formation of FAME from waste fats and oils. A range of acidic catalysts were tested in a model fat mixture of methanol, lauric acid and trioctanoin. Sulphonic acid-functionalised ionic liquids showed extremely fast convertion of lauric acid to methyl laurate, and trioctanoate was converted to methyl octanoate within 24 h. A catalyst based on a sulphonated carbon-matrix made by pyrolysing (or carbonising) carbohydrates, so-called sulphonated pyrolysed sucrose (SPS), was optimised further. No systematic dependency on pyrolysis and sulphonation conditions could be obtained, however, with respect to esterification activity, but high activity was obtained in the model fat mixture. SPS impregnated on opel-cell Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and microporous SiO{sub 2} (ISPS) was much less active in the esterification than the original SPS powder due to low loading and thereby low number of strongly acidic sites on the

  9. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, M.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

  10. Catalytic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Zhang, Xiang

    2018-01-23

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to catalytic devices. In one aspect, a device includes a substrate, an electrically insulating layer disposed on the substrate, a layer of material disposed on the electrically insulating layer, and a catalyst disposed on the layer of material. The substrate comprises an electrically conductive material. The substrate and the layer of material are electrically coupled to one another and configured to have a voltage applied across them.

  11. Diesel and gas engines: evolution facing new regulations; Moteurs diesel et gaz: evolution face aux nouvelles reglementations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daverat, Ph. [Bergetat Monnoyeur (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyzes the influence of new pollution regulations on the new design of diesel and gas engines with the example of Caterpillar`s experience, one of the leaders of diesel and gas engines manufacturers worldwide. The technical problems to solve are introduced first (reduction of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, CO, unburned compounds and dusts), and then the evolution of engines and of exhaust gas treatment systems are described (fuel injection systems, combustion and ignition control, sensors, catalytic conversion and filtering systems). (J.S.)

  12. Diesel autothermal reforming with hydrogen peroxide for low-oxygen environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Gwangwoo; Lee, Sangho; Bae, Joongmyeon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The concept of diesel reforming using hydrogen peroxide was newly proposed. • Characteristics of hydrogen peroxide was experimentally investigated. • Thermodynamically possible operating conditions were analyzed. • Catalytic performance of Ni–Ru/CGO for various diesel compounds was evaluated. • Long-term testing was successfully conducted using Korean commercial diesel. - Abstract: To operate fuel cells effectively in low-oxygen environments, such as in submarines and unmanned underwater vehicles, a hydrogen source with high hydrogen storage density is required. In this paper, diesel autothermal reforming (ATR) with hydrogen peroxide as an alternative oxidant is proposed as a hydrogen production method. Diesel fuel has higher hydrogen density than metal hydrides or other hydrocarbons. In addition, hydrogen peroxide can decompose into steam and oxygen, which are required for diesel ATR. Moreover, both diesel fuel and hydrogen peroxide are liquid states, enabling easy storage for submarine applications. Hydrogen peroxide exhibited the same characteristics as steam and oxygen when used as an oxidant in diesel reforming when pre-decomposition method was used. The thermodynamically calculated operating conditions were a steam-to-carbon ratio (SCR) of 3.0, an oxygen-to-carbon ratio (OCR) of 0.5, and temperatures below 700 °C to account for safety issues associated with hydrogen peroxide use and exothermic reactions. Catalytic activity and stability tests over Ni–Ru (19.5–0.5 wt.%)/Ce 0.9 Gd 0.1 O 2−x were conducted using various diesel compounds. Furthermore, long-term diesel ATR tests were conducted for 200 h using Korean commercial diesel. The degradation rate was 3.67%/100 h without the production of ethylene

  13. Radium in diesel oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulich, J.

    1977-05-01

    In order to determine the addition of radon and radium to the air in mines, originatiny from the combustion of petroleum, measurements of the content of radium in diesel oil have been performed. Knowing the radium content theradon content can easily be calculated. The procedures used for the chemical analysis of radium is desribed. The ash remaining after combustion of the diesel oil is soluted in water and radium is precipiated as sulphate. The radium is detected by a ZnS (Ag) detector. The diesel oils from different petroleum companies contained between o.019-0.5pCi radium - 226. The conclution is that the consumption of diesel oils in motors used in mines does not contribute to the radium - 226 content at the air move than permissible according to norms.(K.K.)

  14. A Broad Spectrum Catalytic System for Removal of Toxic Organics from Water by Deep Oxidation - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ayusman

    2000-12-01

    A most pressing need for the DOE environmental management program is the removal of toxic organic compounds present in groundwater and soil at specific DOE sites. While several remediation procedures have been proposed, they suffer from one or more drawbacks. The objective of the present research was to develop new catalytic procedures for the removal of toxic organic compounds from the environment through their deep oxidation to harmless products. In water, metallic palladium was found to catalyze the deep oxidation of a wide variety of toxic organic compounds by dioxygen at 80-90 C in the presence of carbon monoxide or dihydrogen. Several classes of organic compounds were examined: benzene, phenol and substituted phenols, nitro and halo organics, organophosphorus, and organosulfur compounds. In every case, deep oxidation to carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water occurred in high yields, resulting in up to several hundred turnovers over a 24 hour period. For substrates susceptible to hydrogenation, the conversions were generally high with dihydrogen than with carbon monoxide. It is clear from the results obtained that we have discovered an exceptionally versatile catalytic system for the deep oxidation of toxic organic compounds in water. This system possesses several attractive features not found simultaneously in other reported systems. These are (a) the ability to directly utilize dioxygen as the oxidant, (b) the ability to carry out the deep oxidation of a particularly wide range of functional organics, and (c) the ease of recovery of the catalyst by simple filtration.

  15. In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

  16. Diesel fuel stability; Estabilidade de oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Marcelo V.; Pinto, Ricardo R.C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zotin, Fatima M.Z. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The demand for the reduction of the pollutants emissions by diesel engines has led to the adoption of more advanced injection systems and concern about fuel stability. The degradation of the diesel fuel can happen during storage and distribution, according to the acid-catalysed condensation of aromatic compounds such phenalenones and indolic nitrogenated heterocyclic compounds. These precursors appear in several streams used in diesel fuel formulation. In this study the sediment formation in model and real, aromatic and paraffinic fuels, containing such precursors naturally or by addition was analysed. The fuels were submitted to accelerated (16 hours at 90 deg C) and long term (13 weeks at 43 deg C) storage stability tests. The model fuels responded positively to the storage stability tests with formation of sediments, concluding that these methods can be considered adequate to verify the occurrence of the studied degradation process. The real fuels response was even more due to their chemical complexity, composition and impurities. The formation of sediments showed to be affected by the hydrocarbon distribution of the fuels. (author)

  17. Modelling and Operation of Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åberg, Andreas

    importance due to their effect on urban air quality, and because of new legislation. In modern heavy-duty applications, the exhaust gases are typically treated with four different catalysts: a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) which oxidises HC and CO into H2O and CO2, and NO into NO2, a Diesel Particulate......Diesel engine exhaust gases contain several harmful substances. The main pollutants are carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), particulate matter (PM), and nitrous gases such as nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (together NOx). Reducing the emission of these pollutants is of great...... Filter (DPF) which filters PM, a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst which removes NO and NO2 through reaction with NH3, and an Ammonia Slip Catalyst (ASC) which removes excess ammonia (NH3) before the gases are released to the atmosphere. SCR is a widely used technology to reduce NOx to N2...

  18. ETV-DRAFT TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVICES DONALDSON COMPANY,INC. SERIES 6100 DIESEL OXIDATION CATALYST MUFFLER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report reflects verification testing of a catalytic muffler for diesel trucks. Produced by Donaldson Corp., it was tested on low sulfur and ultra low sulfur fuel, and shown to have reduced emissions.

  19. Diesel and gas engines: evolution following new regulations; Moteurs diesel et gaz: evolution face aux nouvelles reglementations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deverat, Ph. [Bergerat Monnoyeur (France). Direction Industrie

    1997-12-31

    Engine emissions of CO, NMHC and ashes are easily lowered through a low-cost exhaust gas processing, while NOx processing in fumes is rather complex and environmentally hazardous; thus, engine manufacturers have emphasized their researches for NOx decrease on the engine design: lower combustion temperature in diesel engines through water cooling or air/air exchanger, lean mixture with excess air (open chamber or pre-chamber) in spark ignition gas engines. Examples of modifications in Caterpillar engines are given. Exhaust gas processing for CO, NMHC, NOx (3 way catalytic purifier, selective catalytic reduction) and ashes is also discussed

  20. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE. PROGRAM OUTLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    INFORMATIONAL TOPICS COVERED IN THE TEXT MATERIALS AND SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILMS FOR A 2-YEAR, 55 MODULE PROGRAM IN AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE ARE GIVEN. THE 30 MODULES FOR "AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1" ARE AVAILABLE AS VT 005 655 - VT 005 684, AND THE 25 MODULES FOR "AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2" ARE AVAILABLE…

  1. Reducing emissions from diesel combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper contains information dealing with engine design to reduce emissions and improve or maintain fuel economy. Topics include: Observation of High Pressure Fuel Spray with Laser Light Sheet Method; Determination of Engine Cylinder Pressures from Crankshaft Speed Fluctuations; Combustion Similarity for Different Size Diesel Engines: Theoretical Prediction and Experimental Results; Prediction of Diesel Engine Particulate Emission During Transient Cycles; Characteristics and Combustibility of Particulate Matter; Dual-Fuel Diesel Engine Using Butane; Measurement of Flame Temperature Distribution in D.I. Diesel Engine with High Pressure Fuel Injection: and Combustion in a Small DI Diesel Engine at Starting

  2. Diesel Emissions Quantifier (DEQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    .The Diesel Emissions Quantifier (Quantifier) is an interactive tool to estimate emission reductions and cost effectiveness. Publications EPA-420-F-13-008a (420f13008a), EPA-420-B-10-035 (420b10023), EPA-420-B-10-034 (420b10034)

  3. Diesel Engine Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foutes, William A.

    Written in student performance terms, this curriculum guide on diesel engine repair is divided into the following eight sections: an orientation to the occupational field and instructional program; instruction in operating principles; instruction in engine components; instruction in auxiliary systems; instruction in fuel systems; instruction in…

  4. Diesel Engine Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diesel engine technicians maintain and repair the engines that power transportation equipment such as heavy trucks, trains, buses, and locomotives. Some technicians work mainly on farm machines, ships, compressors, and pumps. Others work mostly on construction equipment such as cranes, power shovels, bulldozers, and paving machines. This article…

  5. Diesel sisustab / Jenni Juurinen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurinen, Jenni

    2007-01-01

    Renzo Rosso poolt 1978. a. Itaalias asutatud rõivafirma Diesel sisustas 2007. a. kevadel Stay Inn-projekti raames katusekorteri Helsingi kesklinnas. Diesili kujundaja Vesa Kemppainen. Sisustuses on kasutatud peamiselt soome mööblit ja seintel eksponeeritud soome noorte kunstnike taieseid. Autoreid: Harri Koskinen (voodi), Thomas Pedersen (Stingrey kiiktool), Jenni Hiltunen (maalid)

  6. METHODS FOR ORGANIZATION OF WORKING PROCESS FOR GAS-DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Vershina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades reduction in pollutant emissions has become one of the main directions for further deve- lopment of engine technology. Solution of such problems has led to implementation of catalytic post-treatment systems, new technologies of fuel injection, technology for regulated phases of gas distribution, regulated turbocharger system and, lately, even system for variable compression ratio of engine. Usage of gaseous fuel, in particular gas-diesel process, may be one of the means to reduce air pollution caused by toxic substances and meet growing environmental standards and regulations. In this regard, an analysis of methods for organization of working process for a gas-diesel engine has been conducted in the paper. The paper describes parameters that influence on the nature of gas diesel process, it contains graphics of specific total heat consumption according to ignition portion of diesel fuel and dependence of gas-diesel indices on advance angle for igni-tion portion injection of the diesel fuel. A modern fuel system of gas-diesel engine ГД-243 has been demonstrated in the pa- per. The gas-diesel engine has better environmental characteristics than engines running on diesel fuel or gasoline. According to the European Natural & bio Gas Vehicle Association a significant reduction in emissions is reached at a 50%-substitution level of diesel fuel by gas fuel (methane and in such a case there is a tendency towards even significant emission decrease. In order to ensure widespread application of gaseous fuel as fuel for gas-diesel process it is necessary to develop a new wor- king process, to improve fuel equipment, to enhance injection strategy and fuel supply control. A method for organization of working process for multi-fuel engine has been proposed on the basis of the performed analysis. An application has been submitted for a patent.

  7. Diesel quality improvement through hydrotreatment reactor modifications; Melhorias na qualidade de diesel atraves de modificacoes em reator de hidrotratamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Nelmo F.; Machado, Silvio J. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The distribution of flow for the catalytic bed is directly responsible for the efficiency of the withdrawal of nitrogen- (N-) and sulfur (S-) compounds presented in petroleum feedstocks. With the arrangement of proportionate flow for the original project, occurred bad distribution of gas flow and liquid through the catalytic bed and low efficiency of removal of sulphur and nitrogen. The new distributor tray provides a flow of high dispersion and a total use of the catalytic bed allowing a bigger shipment of catalyst. With the best distribution of flow and greater amount of catalyst, the increase of the proportionate efficiency allows to reach minors concentrations of sulphur and nitrogen in diesel, remaining the same operational conditions of original temperature and pressure of the unit. These conclusions had been corroborated by determination of the flow of liquid in the catalytic bed of the reactor, looking at the distribution pattern of radiotracer through the reactor bed before and after the installation of the new distributor tray. The distribution of radiotracer through the packed bed is the best possible representation of the liquid traffic distribution in a hydrotreater bed. Another important profit with the new distributor tray was the increase of the processing of diesel. (author)

  8. Synthesis of cracked Calophyllum inophyllum oil using fly ash catalyst for diesel engine application

    KAUST Repository

    Muthukumaran, N.

    2015-04-16

    In this study, production of hydrocarbon fuel from Calophyllum inophyllum oil has been characterized for diesel engine application, by appraising essential fuel processing parameters. As opposed to traditional trans-esterification process, the reported oil was cracked using a catalyst, as the latter improves the fuel properties better than the former. In a bid to make the production process economically viable, a waste and cheap catalyst, RFA (raw fly ash), has been capitalized for the cracking process as against the conventional zeolite catalyst. The fuel production process, which is performed in a fixed bed catalytic reactor, was done methodologically after comprehensively studying the characteristics of fly ash catalyst. Significantly, fly ash characterization was realized using SEM and EDS, which demarcated the surface and internal structures of fly ash particles before and after cracking. After the production of hydrocarbon fuel from C. inophyllum oil, the performed compositional analysis in GC-MS revealed the presence of esters, parfins and olefins. Followed by the characterization of catalytically cracked C. inophyllum oil, suitable blends of it with diesel were tested in a single cylinder diesel engine. From the engine experimental results, BTE (brake thermal efficiency) of the engine for B25 (25% cracked C. inophyllum oil and 75% diesel) was observed to be closer to diesel, while it decreased for higher blends. On the other hand, emissions such as HC (hydrocarbon), CO (carbon monoxide) and smoke were found to be comparable for B25 with diesel. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Challenges and perspectives for catalysis in production of diesel from biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Søndergaard, Helle; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    been commercialized. Diesel from biomass may also be produced by catalytic upgrading of bio-oils from flash pyrolysis, by aqueous-phase reforming of carbohydrates into non- or mono-functionalized hydrocarbons via consecutive reduction-condensation reactions, or by gasification of biomass to synthesis...

  10. USE OF WATER-FUEL MIXTURE IN DIESEL ENGINES AT FISHING VESSELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg KLYUS

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the laboratory test results determining physical parameters of fuel mixture made up of petroleum diesel oil, rapeseed oil methyl esters (up to 20% and water (up to 2.5%. The obtained parameters prove that adding bio-components (rapeseed oil methyl esters and water to fuel does not result in deterioration of their physical and chemical properties and are comparable to base fuel parameters, namely petroleum diesel oil. The mixture was a subject of bench testing with the use of a self-ignition engine by means of pre-catalytic fuel treatment. The treatment process consisted in fuel – catalytically active material direct contact on the atomizer body. At the comparable operational parameters for the engine, the obtained exhaust gases opacity was lower up to 60% due to the preliminary fuel mixture treatment in relation to the factory-made fuel injection system using petroleum diesel oil.

  11. Use of Water-Fuel Mixture in Diesel Engines at Fishing Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyus, Oleg; Bezyukov, O.

    2017-06-01

    The paper presents the laboratory test results determining physical parameters of fuel mixture made up of petroleum diesel oil, rapeseed oil methyl esters (up to 20%) and water (up to 2.5%). The obtained parameters prove that adding bio-components (rapeseed oil methyl esters) and water to fuel does not result in deterioration of their physical and chemical properties and are comparable to base fuel parameters, namely petroleum diesel oil. The mixture was a subject of bench testing with the use of a self-ignition engine by means of pre-catalytic fuel treatment. The treatment process consisted in fuel - catalytically active material direct contact on the atomizer body. At the comparable operational parameters for the engine, the obtained exhaust gases opacity was lower up to 60% due to the preliminary fuel mixture treatment in relation to the factory-made fuel injection system using petroleum diesel oil.

  12. A Review on Diesel Soot Emission, its Effect and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The diesel engines are energy efficient, but their particulate (soot emissions are responsible of severe environmental and health problems. This review provides a survey on published information regarding diesel soot emission, its adverse effects on the human health, environment, vegetations, climate, etc. The legislations to limit diesel emissions and ways to minimize soot emission are also summarized. Soot particles are suspected to the development of cancer; cardiovascular and respiratory health effects; pollution of air, water, and soil; impact agriculture productivity, soiling of buildings; reductions in visibility; and global climate change. The review covers important recent developments on technologies for control of particulate matter (PM; diesel particulate filters (DPFs, summarizing new filter and catalyst materials and DPM measurement. DPF technology is in a state of optimization and cost reduction. New DPF regeneration strategies (active, passive and plasma-assisted regenerations as well as the new learning on the fundamentals of soot/catalyst interaction are described. Recent developments in diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC are also summarized showing potential issues with advanced combustion strategies, important interactions on NO2 formation, and new formulations for durability. Finally, systematic compilation of the concerned newer literature on catalytic oxidation of soot in a well conceivable tabular form is given. A total of 156 references are cited. ©2010 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 2nd June 2010, Revised: 17th June 2010; Accepted: 24th June 2010[How to Cite: R. Prasad, V.R. Bella. (2010. Review on Diesel Soot Emission, its Effect and Control. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 5(2: 69-86. doi:10.9767/bcrec.5.2.794.69-86][DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.5.2.794.69-86 || or local:   http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/794 ]Cited by in: ACS 1 |

  13. Development of Ni-based Sulfur Resistant Catalyst for Diesel Reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunther Dieckmann

    2006-06-30

    In order for diesel fuel to be used in a solid oxide fuel cell auxiliary power unit, the diesel fuel must be reformed into hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. One of the major problems facing catalytic reforming is that the level of sulfur found in low sulfur diesel can poison most catalysts. This report shows that a proprietary low cost Ni-based reforming catalyst can be used to reform a 7 and 50 ppm sulfur containing diesel fuel for over 500 hours of operation. Coking, which appears to be route of catalyst deactivation due to metal stripping, can be controlled by catalyst modifications, introduction of turbulence, and/or by application of an electromagnetic field with a frequency from {approx}50 kHz to 13.56 MHz with field strength greater than about 100 V/cm and more preferably greater about 500 V/cm.

  14. Hydrogen assisted catalytic biomass pyrolysis for green fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stummann, Magnus Zingler; Høj, Martin; Gabrielsen, Jostein

    2017-01-01

    due to coking of the catalyst is an inhibitive problem for this technology. The objective of the present work is to produce oxygen free gasoline and diesel from biomass by hydrogen assisted catalytic fast pyrolysis. Fast pyrolysis of beech wood has been performed in high-pressure hydrogen atmosphere......Fast pyrolysis of biomass is a well-known technology for producing bio-oil, however in order to use the oil as transportation fuel the oxygen content must be decreased from approximately 30 wt.% to below 1 wt.%. This can be achieved by catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). Unfortunately, deactivation...

  15. Hydrogen assisted catalytic biomass pyrolysis for green fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stummann, Magnus Zingler; Høj, Martin; Schandel, Christian Bækhøj

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass is a well-known technology for producing bio-oil, however in order to use the oil as transportation fuel the oxygen content must be decreased from approximately 30 wt.% to below 1 wt.%. This can be achieved by catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). Unfortunately, deactivation...... due to coking of the catalyst is an inhibitive problem for this technology. The objective of the present work is to produce oxygen free gasoline and diesel from biomass by hydrogen assisted catalytic fast pyrolysis. Fast pyrolysis of beech wood has been performed in high-pressure hydrogen atmosphere...

  16. Fuel and engine characterization study of catalytically cracked waste transformer oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasanna Raj Yadav, S.; Saravanan, C.G.; Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Roberts, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste resources such as WTO and waste fly ash have been effectively harnessed. • WTO has been catalytically cracked using fly ash catalyst for the first time. • Characteristics of a diesel engine were evaluated for CCWTO-diesel blends. • BTE and PHRR were increased by 7.4% and 13.2%, respectively, for CCWTO 50. • HC and CO emissions were reduced for CCWTO 50 with the increased NO X emission. - Abstract: This research work targets on the effective utilization of WTO (waste transformer oil) in a diesel engine and thereby, reducing the environmental problems caused by its disposal into open land. The novelty of the work lies in adoption of catalytic cracking process to chemically treat WTO, wherein waste fly ash has been considered as a catalyst for the first time. Interestingly, both the oil and catalyst used are waste products, enabling reduction in total fuel cost and providing additional benefit of effective waste management. With the considerable token that use of activated fly ash as catalyst requires lower reaction temperature, catalytic cracking was performed only in the range of 350–400 °C. As a result of this fuel treatment process, the thermal and physical properties of CCWTO (catalytically cracked waste transformer oil), as determined by ASTM standard methods, were found to be agreeable for its use in a diesel engine. Further, FTIR analysis of CCWTO discerned the presence of essential hydrocarbons such as carbon and hydrogen. From the experimental investigation of CCWTO – diesel blends in a diesel engine, performance and combustion characteristics were shown to be improved, with a notable increase in BTE (brake thermal efficiency) and PHRR (peak heat release rate) for CCWTO 50 by 7.4% and 13.2%, respectively, than that of diesel at full load condition. In the same note, emissions such as smoke, HC (hydrocarbon) and CO (carbon monoxide) were noted to be reduced at the expense of increased NO X (nitrogen oxides) emission

  17. Experimental investigation on emission reduction in neem oil biodiesel using selective catalytic reduction and catalytic converter techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Karthickeyan

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, non-edible seed oil namely raw neem oil was converted into biodiesel using transesterification process. In the experimentation, two biodiesel blends were prepared namely B25 (25% neem oil methyl ester with 75% of diesel) and B50 (50% neem oil methyl ester with 50% diesel). Urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technique with catalytic converter (CC) was fixed in the exhaust tail pipe of the engine for the reduction of engine exhaust emissions. Initially, the engine was operated with diesel as a working fluid and followed by refilling of biodiesel blends B25 and B50 to obtain the baseline readings without SCR and CC. Then, the same procedure was repeated with SCR and CC technique for emission reduction measurement in diesel, B25 and B50 sample. The experimental results revealed that the B25 blend showed higher break thermal efficiency (BTE) and exhaust gas temperature (EGT) with lower break-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) than B50 blend at all loads. On comparing with biodiesel blends, diesel experiences increased BTE of 31.9% with reduced BSFC of 0.29 kg/kWh at full load. A notable emission reduction was noticed for all test fuels in SCR and CC setup. At full load, B25 showed lower carbon monoxide (CO) of 0.09% volume, hydrocarbon (HC) of 24 ppm, and smoke of 14 HSU and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) of 735 ppm than diesel and B50 in SCR and CC setup. On the whole, the engine with SCR and CC setup showed better performance and emission characteristics than standard engine operation.

  18. Production of Renewable Diesel Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Vegetable oils have been investigated as a way to provide a renewable source for diesel fuel. A successful approach to using : vegetable oils in diesel engines has been transesterification of the oils with simple alcohols to produce mono-alkyl esters...

  19. The Evolution of Diesel Engines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The origin of diesel engines is intimately related to the history of .... history of technology. Industry applauded by taking to the manu- facture of diesel engines in various sizes. Many of them continue to do so to this day, more than a century later. ... now called computers, could be used to simulate the air-cycle in the cylinder ...

  20. Evaluation of Emissions Bio diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Maroto, J. J.; Dorronsoro Arenal, J. L.; Rojas Garcia, E.; Perez Pastor, R.; Garcia Alonso, S.

    2007-01-01

    The generation of energy from vegetal products is one of the possibilities to our reach in order to reduce the atmospheric pollution. Particularly, the use of bio diesel in internal combustion engines can be one of the best options. The finest particles emitted by the combustion engines are easily breathable and on them different substances can be absorbed presumably toxic, between which it is possible to emphasize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), by its demonstrated carcinogen character. In this work, it is studied on the one hand, the characteristics that can present the aerosol of emission in a diesel engine with a maximum power of 97 kW, working without load to 600 rpm, using as combustible mixtures of bio diesel and diesel in different proportions. On the other hand, the evolution that takes place in the concentration of PAHs in emission particles, according to the percentage of bio diesel used in the combustible mixture. (Author) 9 refs

  1. Alternative Diesel from Waste Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Bezergianni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The long term ambition of energy security and solidarity, coupled with the environmental concerns of problematic waste accumulation, is addressed via the proposed waste-to-fuel technology. Plastic waste is converted into automotive diesel fuel via a two-step thermochemical process based on pyrolysis and hydrotreatment. Plastic waste was pyrolyzed in a South East Asia plant rendering pyrolysis oil, which mostly consisted of middle-distillate (naphtha and diesel hydrocarbons. The diesel fraction (170–370 °C was fractionated, and its further upgrade was assessed in a hydroprocessing pilot plant at the Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH in Greece. The final fuel was evaluated with respect to the diesel fuel quality specifications EN 590, which characterized it as a promising alternative diesel pool component with excellent ignition quality characteristics and low back end volatility.

  2. Evaluation of Emissions Bio diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Maroto, J. J.; Dorronsoro Arenal, J. L.; Rojas Garcia, E.; Perez Pastor, R.; Garcia Alonso, S.

    2007-09-27

    The generation of energy from vegetal products is one of the possibilities to our reach in order to reduce the atmospheric pollution. Particularly, the use of bio diesel in internal combustion engines can be one of the best options. The finest particles emitted by the combustion engines are easily breathable and on them different substances can be absorbed presumably toxic, between which it is possible to emphasize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), by its demonstrated carcinogen character. In this work, it is studied on the one hand, the characteristics that can present the aerosol of emission in a diesel engine with a maximum power of 97 kW, working without load to 600 rpm, using as combustible mixtures of bio diesel and diesel in different proportions. On the other hand, the evolution that takes place in the concentration of PAHs in emission particles, according to the percentage of bio diesel used in the combustible mixture. (Author) 9 refs.

  3. 150 years of Rudolf Diesel; 150 Jahre Rudolf Diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basshuysen, R. van; Siebenpfeiffer, W. (eds.)

    2008-03-15

    'My engine is still making great progress', Rudolf Diesel wrote in a letter to his wife on 3 July 1895. The fact that Diesel's statement still holds true can be seen every day on our roads and at sea. But it is equally true that the idea of this eccentric and doubter who wanted to dedicate himself with an over-inflated self-belief to the welfare of humanity, needed a certain time to take a form that others could recognise in order to continuously refine this life's work. Diesel himself did not live to see most of the milestones that were repeatedly set thanks to his engine. It was not until 23 years after his unexplained death in 1913 that people were able to buy the first passenger car to be equipped with a diesel engine - with a top speed of 90 km/h. Today, diesel cars can easily reach speeds of up to 300 km/h, and even if there is little point in such excessive speeds outside racetracks like Le Mans, they are nevertheless clear evidence of the incredible evolution of the noisy, smoky truck engine to a high-tech racing power unit, from the ear-splitting rattle of the pre-chamber diesel to the highly refined, soot-free, common-rail diesel engine of today. The Publisher hopes you enjoy reading this unique progress report. (orig.)

  4. Sixth international wind-diesel workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    At a workshop on hybrid wind/diesel power generation systems, papers were presented on international research programs, demonstration projects, wind/diesel deployment strategies and requirements, wind/diesel market development and economics, wind turbine design requirements, and wind/diesel models and analytical tools. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 11 papers from this workshop

  5. Sixth international wind-diesel workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    At a workshop on hybrid wind/diesel power generation systems, papers were presented on international research programs, demonstration projects, wind/diesel deployment strategies and requirements, wind/diesel market development and economics, wind turbine design requirements, and wind/diesel models and analytical tools. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 11 papers from this workshop.

  6. Preliminary Biofuel Treatment in Injector Bodies of Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyus, Oleh

    2012-03-01

    The paper discusses possibilities of increasing the performance parameters of a diesel engine and decreasing the emission of toxic compounds contained in exhaust gases by using preliminary catalytic treatment of biofuel, executed directly in the injector body. In order to enhance the impact of the catalyst on the flowing fuel the author proposes to utilize the phenomenon of turbulization in injector passages. The results of tests on a 359 type engine have shown an improvement of operational parameters and a decrease of toxic emission in exhaust gases.

  7. Diesel spray characterization; Dieselmoottorin polttoainesuihkujen ominaisuudet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkaenen, J.; Turunen, R.; Paloposki, T.; Rantanen, P.; Virolainen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Internal Combustion Engine Lab.

    1997-10-01

    Fuel injection of diesel engines will be studied using large-scale models of fuel injectors. The advantage of large-scale models is that the measurement of large-scale diesel sprays will be easier than the measurement of actual sprays. The objective is to study the break-up mechanism of diesel sprays and to measure drop size distributions in the inner part of the spray. The results will be used in the development of diesel engines and diesel fuels. (orig.)

  8. Combustion and Gasification Collection of Diesel Soot by Means of Microwave Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueshi YAO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment of integrated purification of diesel soot was made by means of microwave heating. The experiment includes combustion and gasification collection. The catalytic effect of ceramic carrier was used in the combustion process. In order to improve the purification efficiency of PM2.5 particles, the surfactants were used in gasification collection. The model of computer control was set up so that the purification course could be controlled. The experimental principle was analyzed. Experiment result indicated that the diesel soot purifying efficiency is more than 90 %. The purification efficiency can be improved further by the optimization design of experimental device.

  9. A Framework for Modular Modeling of the Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas Cleaning System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åberg, Andreas; Hansen, Thomas Klint; Linde, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Pollutants from diesel engines have a negative effect on urban air quality. Because of this and new legislation restricting the emission level, it is necessary to develop exhaust gas treatment systems for diesel engines that can reduce the amount of pollutants. A modular model capable of simulating...... the whole catalytic exhaust system would be beneficial towards this goal. A methodology for developing a modular model capable of simulating a system consisting of several sub systems is presented. The methodology describes the steps the user should take to go from problem formulation to the final modular...

  10. Practical testing of diesel generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angle, C.W.; Meyer, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    The testing of diesel generators is a very important facet of the safe operation of nuclear power plants. Improper testing can lead to increased failures and unavailability of the engines resulting in a reduced safety factor for a nuclear plant. For a testing program to be successful it must be well planned and effectively implemented. In addition, inspections and maintenance activities also impact diesel generator availability. This paper describes elements of a suggested diesel generator testing program as well as some of the pitfalls to be avoided

  11. Catalytic thermal cracking of postconsumer waste plastics to fuels. 2. Pilot-scale thermochemical conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthetic gasoline and diesel fuels were prepared via catalytic and noncatalytic pyrolysis of waste polyethylene and polypropylene plastics followed by distillation of plastic crude oils. Reaction conditions optimized using a 2 L batch reactor were applied to pilot-scale production of plastic crude ...

  12. Diesel Engine Tribology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian Kim

    Recent years have seen an increase in the wear rate of engine bearings, subsequently followed by bearing failure, for the large two-stroke diesel engines used for ship propulsion. Here, the engine bearings include main, big end and crosshead bearings, with the bearing type used being the journal...... bearing, belonging to the class of ‘hydrodynamic bearings’. This implies that the load carrying capacity is generated by a relative movement of the involved components, i.e. avelocity-driven operation. For the engine application, the velocity stems from the engine RPM. However, to comply with the latest...... emission requirements as well as attempting to minimise fuel expenses, the engine speed has been lowered together with an increase in the engine mean pressure which in terms lead to larger bearing loads. With worsened operating conditions from two sides, the encountered problems are understandable...

  13. Prospects of pyrolysis oil from plastic waste as fuel for diesel engines: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangesh, V. L.; Padmanabhan, S.; Ganesan, S.; PrabhudevRahul, D.; Reddy, T. Dinesh Kumar

    2017-05-01

    The purpose ofthis study is to review the existing literature about chemical recycling of plastic waste and its potential as fuel for diesel engines. This is a review covering on the field of converting waste plastics into liquid hydrocarbon fuels for diesel engines. Disposal and recycling of waste plastics have become an incremental problem and environmental threat with increasing demand for plastics. One of the effective measures is by converting waste plastic into combustible hydrocarbon liquid as an alternative fuel for running diesel engines. Continued research efforts have been taken by researchers to convert waste plastic in to combustible pyrolysis oil as alternate fuel for diesel engines. An existing literature focuses on the study of chemical structure of the waste plastic pyrolysis compared with diesel oil. Converting waste plastics into fuel oil by different catalysts in catalytic pyrolysis process also reviewed in this paper. The methodology with subsequent hydro treating and hydrocracking of waste plastic pyrolysis oil can reduce unsaturated hydrocarbon bonds which would improve the combustion performance in diesel engines as an alternate fuel.

  14. Particle and gaseous emissions from individual diesel and CNG buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Å. M. Hallquist

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study size-resolved particle and gaseous emissions from 28 individual diesel-fuelled and 7 compressed natural gas (CNG-fuelled buses, selected from an in-use bus fleet, were characterised for real-world dilution scenarios. The method used was based on using CO2 as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. The particles were sampled by using an extractive sampling method and analysed with high time resolution instrumentation EEPS (10 Hz and CO2 with a non-dispersive infrared gas analyser (LI-840, LI-COR Inc. 1 Hz. The gaseous constituents (CO, HC and NO were measured by using a remote sensing device (AccuScan RSD 3000, Environmental System Products Inc.. Nitrogen oxides, NOx, were estimated from NO by using default NO2/NOx ratios from the road vehicle emission model HBEFA3.1. The buses studied were diesel-fuelled Euro III–V and CNG-fuelled Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicles (EEVs with different after-treatment, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR and with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF. The primary driving mode applied in this study was accelerating mode. However, regarding the particle emissions also a constant speed mode was analysed. The investigated CNG buses emitted on average a higher number of particles but less mass compared to the diesel-fuelled buses. Emission factors for number of particles (EFPN were EFPN, DPF = 4.4 ± 3.5 × 1014, EFPN, no DPF = 2.1 ± 1.0 × 1015 and EFPN, CNG = 7.8 ± 5.7 ×1015 kg fuel−1. In the accelerating mode, size-resolved emission factors (EFs showed unimodal number size distributions with peak diameters of 70–90 nm and 10 nm for diesel and CNG buses, respectively. For the constant speed mode, bimodal average number size distributions were obtained for the diesel buses with peak modes of ~10 nm and ~60 nm. Emission factors for NOx expressed as NO2 equivalents for the diesel buses were on average 27 ± 7 g (kg fuel−1 and for the CNG buses 41

  15. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  16. Modeling Diesel Engine Injector Flows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heister, S

    2001-01-01

    Models have been developed to assess flow fields inside diesel injector orifice passages in order to increase our understanding of the spray formation process which governs performance and emissions in these engines...

  17. Experimental demonstration of a new model-based SCR control strategy for cleaner heavy-duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Cloudt, R.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a promising diesel aftertreatment technology that enables low nitrogen oxides (NOx) tailpipe emissions with relatively low fuel consumption. Future emission legislation is pushing the boundaries for SCR control systems to achieve high NOx conversion within a

  18. Catalytic Oligopeptide Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zijian; Noda, Hidetoshi; Shibasaki, Masakatsu; Kumagai, Naoya

    2018-02-02

    Waste-free catalytic assembly of α-amino acids is fueled by a multiboron catalyst that features a characteristic B 3 NO 2 heterocycle, providing a versatile catalytic protocol wherein functionalized natural α-amino acid units are accommodated and commonly used protecting groups are tolerated. The facile dehydrative conditions eliminate the use of engineered peptide coupling reagents, exemplifying a greener catalytic alternative for peptide coupling. The catalysis is sufficiently robust to enable pentapeptide synthesis, constructing all four amide bond linkages in a catalytic fashion.

  19. Noise Optimization in Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Narayan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Euro 6 norms emphasize on reduction of emissions from the engines. New injection methods are being adopted for homogenous mixture formation in diesel engines. During steady state conditions homogenous combustion gave noise levels in lower frequencies. In this work noise produced in a 440 cc diesel engine has been investigated. The engine was run under various operating conditions varying various injection parameters.

  20. Diesel engine management systems and components

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This reference book provides a comprehensive insight into todays diesel injection systems and electronic control. It focusses on minimizing emissions and exhaust-gas treatment. Innovations by Bosch in the field of diesel-injection technology have made a significant contribution to the diesel boom. Calls for lower fuel consumption, reduced exhaust-gas emissions and quiet engines are making greater demands on the engine and fuel-injection systems. Contents History of the diesel engine.- Areas of use for diesel engines.- Basic principles of the diesel engine.- Fuels: Diesel fuel.- Fuels: Alternative fuels.- Cylinder-charge control systems.- Basic principles of diesel fuel-injection.- Overview of diesel fuel-injection systems.- Fuel supply to the low pressure stage.- Overview of discrete cylinder systems.- Unit injector system.- Unit pump system.- Overview of common-rail systems.- High pressure components of the common-rail system.- Injection nozzles.- Nozzle holders.- High pressure lines.- Start assist systems.-...

  1. Hybrid-Electric Vehicle with Natural Gas-Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Guzzella

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate the potential of combining electric hybridization with a dual-fuel natural gas-Diesel engine. We show that carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced to 43 gram per kilometer with a subcompact car on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC. The vehicle is operated in charge-sustaining mode, which means that all energy is provided by the fuel. The result is obtained by hardware-in-the-loop experiments where the engine is operated on a test bench while the rest of the powertrain as well as the vehicle are simulated. By static engine measurements we demonstrate that the natural gas-Diesel engine reaches efficiencies of up to 39.5%. The engine is operated lean at low loads with low engine out nitrogen oxide emissions such that no nitrogen oxide aftertreatment is necessary. At medium to high loads the engine is operated stoichiometrically, which enables the use of a cost-efficient three-way catalytic converter. By vehicle emulation of a non-hybrid vehicle on the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP, we demonstrate that transient operation of the natural gas-Diesel engine is also possible, thus enabling a non-hybridized powertrain as well.

  2. Hydrogenation of diesel aromatic compounds in supercritical solvent environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.P. Martins

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Reactions under supercritical conditions have been employed in many processes. Furthermore, an increasing number of commercial reactions have been conducted under supercritical or near critical conditions. These reaction conditions offer several advantages when compared to conditions in conventional catalytic processes in liquid-phase, gas-liquid interface, or even some gas-phase reactions. Basically, a supercritical solvent can diminish the reactant’s transport resistance from the bulk region to the catalyst surface due to enhancement of liquid diffusivity values and better solubility than those in different phases. Another advantage is that supercritical solvents permit prompt and easy changes in intermolecular properties in order to modify reaction parameters, such as conversion or selectivity, or even proceed with the separation of reaction products. Diesel fractions from petroleum frequently have larger than desirable quantities of aromatic compounds. Diesel hydrogenation is intended to decrease these quantities, i.e., to increase the quantity of paraffin present in this petroleum fraction. In this work, the hydrogenation of tetralin was studied as a model reaction for the aromatic hydrogenation process. A conventional gas-liquid-solid catalytic process was compared with that of supercritical carbon dioxide substrate under similar conditions. Additionally, an equilibrium conversion diagram was calculated for this reaction in a wide range of temperature and reactant ratios, so as to optimize the operational conditions and improve the results of subsequent experiments. An increase in the rate of reaction at 493 K in supercritical fluid, as compared to that in the conventional process, was observed.

  3. Materials for High-Temperature Catalytic Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersson, Anders

    2003-04-01

    Catalytic combustion is an environmentally friendly technique to combust fuels in e.g. gas turbines. Introducing a catalyst into the combustion chamber of a gas turbine allows combustion outside the normal flammability limits. Hence, the adiabatic flame temperature may be lowered below the threshold temperature for thermal NO{sub X} formation while maintaining a stable combustion. However, several challenges are connected to the application of catalytic combustion in gas turbines. The first part of this thesis reviews the use of catalytic combustion in gas turbines. The influence of the fuel has been studied and compared over different catalyst materials. The material section is divided into two parts. The first concerns bimetallic palladium catalysts. These catalysts showed a more stable activity compared to their pure palladium counterparts for methane combustion. This was verified both by using an annular reactor at ambient pressure and a pilot-scale reactor at elevated pressures and flows closely resembling the ones found in a gas turbine combustor. The second part concerns high-temperature materials, which may be used either as active or washcoat materials. A novel group of materials for catalysis, i.e. garnets, has been synthesised and tested in combustion of methane, a low-heating value gas and diesel fuel. The garnets showed some interesting abilities especially for combustion of low-heating value, LHV, gas. Two other materials were also studied, i.e. spinels and hexa aluminates, both showed very promising thermal stability and the substituted hexa aluminates also showed a good catalytic activity. Finally, deactivation of the catalyst materials was studied. In this part the sulphur poisoning of palladium, platinum and the above-mentioned complex metal oxides has been studied for combustion of a LHV gas. Platinum and surprisingly the garnet were least deactivated. Palladium was severely affected for methane combustion while the other washcoat materials were

  4. Application of numerical modeling of selective NOx reduction by hydrocarbon under diesel transient conditions in consideration of hydrocarbon adsorption and desorption process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Y.; Asano, A.; Banno, K.; Yokota, K.; Sugiura, M.

    2001-01-01

    A model of NO x selective reduction by hydrocarbon (HC) was developed, which takes into account the adsorption and desorption of HC. The model was applied for predicting the performance of a De-NO x catalytic reactor, working under transient conditions such as a legislative driving cycle. Diesel fuel was used as a supplemental reductant. The behavior of HC and NO x reactions and HC adsorption and desorption has been simulated successfully by our numerical approach under the transient conditions of the simulated Japanese 10-15 driving cycle. Our model is expected to optimize the design of selective diesel NO x reduction systems using a diesel fuel as a supplemental reductant

  5. In-Use NOx Emissions from Diesel and Liquefied Natural Gas Refuse Trucks Equipped with SCR and TWC, Respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Chandan; Ruehl, Chris; Collins, John; Chernich, Don; Herner, Jorn

    2017-06-20

    The California Air Resources Board (ARB) and the City of Sacramento undertook this study to characterize the in-use emissions from model year (MY) 2010 or newer diesel, liquefied natural gas (LNG), and hydraulic hybrid diesel engines during real-world refuse truck operation. Emissions from five trucks, two diesels equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), two LNG's equipped with three-way catalyst (TWC), and one hydraulic hybrid diesel equipped with SCR, were measured using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) in the Sacramento area. Results showed that the brake-specific NOx emissions for the LNG trucks equipped with the TWC catalyst were lowest of all the technologies tested. Results also showed that the brake specific NOx emissions from the conventional diesel engines were significantly higher despite the exhaust temperature being high enough for proper SCR function. Like diesel engines, the brake specific NOx emissions from the hydraulic hybrid diesel also exceeded certification although this can be explained on the basis of the temperature profile. Future studies are warranted to establish whether the below average SCR performance observed in this study is a systemic issue or is it a problem specifically observed during this work.

  6. The Adlard Coles book of diesel engines

    CERN Document Server

    Bartlett, Tim

    2013-01-01

    In clear, jargon-free English The Adlard Coles Book of Diesel Engines explains how a diesel engine works,and how to look after it, and takes into account developments inengine technology. Includes helpful tables and troubleshooting checklists.

  7. OXIDATIVE DNA DAMAGE IN DIESEL BUS MECHANICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Diesel exposure has been associated with adverse health effects, including susceptibility to asthma, allergy and cancer. Previous epidemiological studies demonstrated increased cancer incidence among workers exposed to diesel. This is likely due to oxid...

  8. Methods for Organization of Working Process for Gas-Diesel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Вершина, Г. А.; Быстренков, О. С.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few decades reduction in pollutant emissions has become one of the main directions for further deve- lopment of engine technology. Solution of such problems has led to implementation of catalytic post-treatment systems, new technologies of fuel injection, technology for regulated phases of gas distribution, regulated turbocharger system and, lately, even system for variable compression ratio of engine. Usage of gaseous fuel, in particular gas-diesel process, may be one of the me...

  9. A broad spectrum catalytic system for removal of toxic organics from water by deep oxidation. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, A.

    1998-01-01

    'Toxic organics and polymers pose a serious threat to the environment, especially when they are present in aquatic systems. The objective of the research is the design of practical procedures for the removal and/or recycling of such pollutants by oxidation. This report summarizes the work performed in the first one and half years of a three year project. The authors had earlier described a catalytic system for the deep oxidation of toxic organics, such as benzene, phenol and substituted phenols, aliphatic and aromatic halogenated compounds, organophosphorus, and organosulfur compounds [1]. In this system, metallic palladium was found to catalyze the oxidation of the substrate by dioxygen in aqueous medium at 80--100 C in the presence of carbon monoxide. For all the substrates examined, deep oxidation to carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water occurred in high yields, resulting in up to several hundred turnovers over a 24 h period. Because of a pressing need for new procedures for the destruction of chemical warfare agents, the authors have examined in detail the deep oxidation of appropriate model compounds containing phosphorus-carbon and sulfur-carbon bonds using the same catalytic system. The result is the first observation of the efficient catalytic oxidative cleavage of phosphorus-carbon and sulfur-carbon bonds under mild conditions, using dioxygen as the oxidant [2]. In addition to the achievements described above, they have unpublished results in several other areas. For example, they have investigated the possibility of using dihydrogen rather than carbon monoxide as a coreductant in the catalytic deep oxidation of substrates. Even more attractive from a practical standpoint is the possibility of using a mixture of carbon monoxide and dihydrogen (synthesis gas). Indeed, experiments indicated that it is possible to substitute carbon monoxide by dihydrogen or synthesis gas. Significantly, in the case of nitro compounds, the deep oxidation in fact proceeded

  10. A probabilistic maintenance model for diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathirana, Shan; Abeygunawardane, Saranga Kumudu

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a probabilistic maintenance model is developed for inspection based preventive maintenance of diesel engines based on the practical model concepts discussed in the literature. Developed model is solved using real data obtained from inspection and maintenance histories of diesel engines and experts' views. Reliability indices and costs were calculated for the present maintenance policy of diesel engines. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to observe the effect of inspection based preventive maintenance on the life cycle cost of diesel engines.

  11. Perovskite-type catalytic materials for environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labhasetwar, Nitin; Saravanan, Govindachetty; Kumar Megarajan, Suresh; Manwar, Nilesh; Khobragade, Rohini; Doggali, Pradeep; Grasset, Fabien

    2015-06-01

    Perovskites are mixed-metal oxides that are attracting much scientific and application interest owing to their low price, adaptability, and thermal stability, which often depend on bulk and surface characteristics. These materials have been extensively explored for their catalytic, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties. They are promising candidates for the photocatalytic splitting of water and have also been extensively studied for environmental catalysis applications. Oxygen and cation non-stoichiometry can be tailored in a large number of perovskite compositions to achieve the desired catalytic activity, including multifunctional catalytic properties. Despite the extensive uses, the commercial success for this class of perovskite-based catalytic materials has not been achieved for vehicle exhaust emission control or for many other environmental applications. With recent advances in synthesis techniques, including the preparation of supported perovskites, and increasing understanding of promoted substitute perovskite-type materials, there is a growing interest in applied studies of perovskite-type catalytic materials. We have studied a number of perovskites based on Co, Mn, Ru, and Fe and their substituted compositions for their catalytic activity in terms of diesel soot oxidation, three-way catalysis, N 2 O decomposition, low-temperature CO oxidation, oxidation of volatile organic compounds, etc. The enhanced catalytic activity of these materials is attributed mainly to their altered redox properties, the promotional effect of co-ions, and the increased exposure of catalytically active transition metals in certain preparations. The recent lowering of sulfur content in fuel and concerns over the cost and availability of precious metals are responsible for renewed interest in perovskite-type catalysts for environmental applications.

  12. Urea-SCR Temperature Investigation for NOx Control of Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available SCR (selective catalytic reduction system is continuously being analyzed by many researchers worldwide on various concerns due to the stringent nitrogen oxides (NOx emissions legislation for heavy-duty diesel engines. Urea-SCR includes AdBlue as urea source, which subsequently decomposes to NH3 (ammonia being the reducing agent. Reaction temperature is a key factor for the performance of urea-SCR system, as urea decomposition rate is sensitive to a specific temperature range. This particular study was directed to investigate the temperature of the SCR system in diesel engine with the objective to confirm that whether the appropriate temperature is attained for occurrence of urea based catalytic reduction or otherwise and how the system performs on the prescribed temperature range. Diesel engine fitted with urea-SCR exhaust system has been operated on European standard cycle for emission testing to monitor the temperature and corresponding nitrogen oxides (NOx values on specified points. Moreover, mathematical expressions for approximation of reaction temperature are also proposed which are derived by applying energy conservation principal and gas laws. Results of the investigation have shown that during the whole testing cycle system temperature has remained in the range where urea-SCR can take place with best optimum rate and the system performance on account of NOx reduction was exemplary as excellent NOx conversion rate is achieved. It has also been confirmed that selective catalytic reduction (SCR is the best suitable technology for automotive engine-out NOx control.

  13. Dependent failures of diesel generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankamo, T.; Pulkkinen, U.

    1982-01-01

    This survey of dependent failures (common-cause failures) is based on the data of diesel generator failures in U. S. nuclear power plants as reported in Licensee Event Reports. Failures were classified into random and potentially dependent failures. All failures due to design errors, manufacturing or installation errors, maintenance errors, or deviations in the operational environment were classified as potentially dependent failures.The statistical dependence between failures was estimated from the relative portion of multiple failures. Results confirm the earlier view of the significance of statistical dependence, a strong dependence on the age of the diesel generator was found in each failure class excluding random failures and maintenance errors, which had a nearly constant frequency independent of diesel generator age

  14. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  15. Resettable regime of diesel lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nechaev E. P.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A new method of engine oil saturation by microelements has been presented in the paper; it has been tested on vessels of the fishing fleet and in conditions of prolonged operation in the coastal diesel-engine power plants. The paper considers the results of performance tests of the most common diesel power plants of 6ЧН 25/34 type with the tribochemical reductant oil (TRO apparatus providing tribochemical lubrication. During comparative trials of two diesels the samples of lubricating oil m-10B2 and m-10 have been periodically collected and subjected to spectral analysis. In the samples the number of the following key microelements has been determined: iron (Fe, aluminum (Al, zinc (Zn, sodium (Na, barium (Ba, calcium (Ca, tin (Sn, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, sulfur (S, chlorine (Cl, silicon (Si. During the operation the processes of microelements' extraction and destruction in diesel motor oils evaluated by the relevant coefficients have been clearly manifested. Analyzing the obtained experimental data it should be noted that in both experiments the total balance of the controlled 15 trace elements has been balanced and approached within 1640.5–1650.3 g/t. And the greater measure refers to conventional oil. Stabilization and improvement of physical and chemical properties of motor oil in operation of a diesel engine is possible from the authors' viewpoint only in the tribochemical lubrication mode using the TRO apparatus and created hydrodynamic module – dispersant. The past performance tests suggest the possibility of use as a lubricant the conventional (pure oil under actual operating conditions. When in the tribochemical mode of diesel engine lubrication it has been established that in conventional (pure oil the oily medium has been formed with a spectrum of microelements equivalent to engine oil filler.

  16. Reeds diesel engine troubleshooting handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Pickthall, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Most diesel engines will develop a problem at some point in their lives, but armed with the right knowledge a skipper needn't worry. The Reeds Diesel Engine Troubleshooting Handbook is a compact, pocket-sized guide to finding solutions to all of the most common engine problems, and many of the less common ones too. The perfect format for quick reference on board, this book will help skippers fix troublesome engines themselves, avoiding costly engineer fees if the problem is simple to sort out, or enabling an emergency patch-up for a more serious problem until they can get back to port. Each to

  17. Effects of FAME biodiesel and HVORD on emissions from an older-technology diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugarski, A D; Hummer, J A; Vanderslice, S E

    2017-12-01

    The results of laboratory evaluations were used to compare the potential of two alternative, biomass-derived fuels as a control strategy to reduce the exposure of underground miners to aerosols and gases emitted by diesel-powered equipment. The effects of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesel and hydrotreated vegetable oil renewable diesel (HVORD) on criteria aerosol and gaseous emissions from an older-technology, naturally aspirated, mechanically controlled engine equipped with a diesel oxidation catalytic converter were compared with those of widely used petroleum-derived, ultralow-sulfur diesels (ULSDs). The emissions were characterized for four selected steady-state conditions. When fueled with FAME biodiesel and HVORD, the engine emitted less aerosols by total particulate mass, total carbon mass, elemental carbon mass and total number than when it was fueled with ULSDs. Compared with ULSDs, FAME biodiesel and HVORD produced aerosols that were characterized by single modal distributions, smaller count median diameters, and lower total and peak concentrations. For the majority of test cases, FAME biodiesel and HVORD favorably affected nitric oxide (NO) and adversely affected nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) generation. Therefore, the use of these alternative fuels appears to be a viable tool for the underground mining industry to address the issues related to emissions from diesel engines, and to transition toward more universal solutions provided by advanced engines with integrated exhaust after treatment technologies.

  18. Catalytic distillation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1982-06-22

    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  19. Catalytic Functions of Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Blind (Knut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe three different areas and the examples have illustrated several catalytic functions of standards for innovation. First, the standardisation process reduces the time to market of inventions, research results and innovative technologies. Second, standards themselves promote the

  20. Development of a high-temperature durable catalyst for use in catalytic combustors for advanced automotive gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, H.; Snow, G. C.; Chu, E. K.; Chang, R. L. S.; Angwin, M. J.; Pessagno, S. L.

    1981-01-01

    Durable catalytic reactors for advanced gas turbine engines were developed. Objectives were: to evaluate furnace aging as a cost effective catalytic reactor screening test, measure reactor degradation as a function of furnace aging, demonstrate 1,000 hours of combustion durability, and define a catalytic reactor system with a high probability of successful integration into an automotive gas turbine engine. Fourteen different catalytic reactor concepts were evaluated, leading to the selection of one for a durability combustion test with diesel fuel for combustion conditions. Eight additional catalytic reactors were evaluated and one of these was successfully combustion tested on propane fuel. This durability reactor used graded cell honeycombs and a combination of noble metal and metal oxide catalysts. The reactor was catalytically active and structurally sound at the end of the durability test.

  1. Catalytic distillation structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-04-17

    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  2. Fischer-Tropsch-synthesis fuels as diesel engine fuel - Fuel of the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Erik [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Thermo and Fluid Dynamics

    2000-04-01

    The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalytic conversion process can be used to synthesize diesel fuels from a variety of feedstocks, including coal, natural gas and biomass. Synthetic diesel fuels can have very low sulfur and aromatic content, and excellent auto ignition characteristics. Moreover, Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuels may also be economically competitive with regular diesel fuel if produced in large volumes. The aim of this investigation is to reveal and analyze the effects of F-T fuels on a research diesel engine performance. Previous engine laboratory tests indicate that F-T fuels are promising alternative fuels because they can be used in unmodified diesel engines, and substantial quantitative exhaust emission reductions can be reached. Also substantial qualitative reductions, e.g. reduction of the number of hazardous chemicals and reduction of the concentration of hazardous chemicals in the exhausts may be realised. Since the engine performance is closely related to in-cylinder processes, a detailed thermodynamic analysis has been performed revealing the real thermochemistry history. The experimental results have shown that F-T fuels have a beneficial effect not only on the emission levels, but also on other energetic parameters of the engine. Heat release analysis have shown that ignition delay, cylinder peak pressure, heat release gradient and indicated efficiency are affected as well. Two different mixtures of FT-fuels with variation in carbon chain branching and, to a certain extent, variation in chain length were tested and their results were compared with those obtained from conventional fuel (MK1). The selected optimized F-T fuels mixture were further tested according to the 13 mode ECE R49 test cycle and were found as good competitive alternative diesel fuels.

  3. Catalytic copyrolysis of particle board and polypropylene over Al-MCM-48

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hannah; Choi, Suek Ju [School of Environmental Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 02504 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Man [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Jong-Ki [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kongju National University, Cheonan 31080 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Hoon; Jung, Sang-Chul [Department of Environmental Engineering, Sunchon National University, Suncheon 57922 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Chai [Department of Environmental Education, Mokpo National University, Muan 58554 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young-Kwon, E-mail: catalica@uos.ac.kr [School of Environmental Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 02504 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Al-MCM-48 was used for catalytic copyrolysis of particle board and polypropylene. • Catalytic produced mainly hydrocarbons. • The hydrocarbons produced were mainly in the diesel range. - Abstract: Particle board and polypropylene (PP) at a mixing ratio of 1:1 were copyrolyzed over two Al-MCM-48 catalysts with Si/Al ratios of 20 and 80. The catalyst characteristics were examined by measuring the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, temperature programmed desorption of ammonia, and X-ray diffraction. The main pyrolysis products of particle board were oxygenates, acids, and phenolics, whereas a large quantity of hydrocarbons within the diesel fuel range was produced from copyrolysis with polypropylene. The catalytic copyrolysis of particle board and PP over the Al-MCM-48 catalysts produced bio-oil with a much larger hydrocarbon content than that from the catalytic pyrolysis of particle board only. The hydrocarbons produced were mainly in the diesel range, highlighting the potential for the production of high-quality fuel.

  4. Emissions of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PAHs from legacy on-road heavy-duty diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroo, Christopher A; Schenk, Charles R; Sanchez, L James; McDonald, Joseph; Smith, Peter L

    2012-11-01

    Exhaust emissions of seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (PCDD/F) congeners, tetra-octa PCDD/F homologues, 12 WHO 2005 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, mono-nona chlorinated biphenyl homologues, and 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from three legacy diesel engines were investigated. The three engines tested were a 1985 model year GM 6.2J-series engine, a 1987 model year Detroit Diesel Corporation 6V92 engine, and a 1993 model year Cummins L10 engine. Results were compared to United States' mobile source inventory for on-road diesel engines, as well as historic and modern diesel engine emission values. The test fuel contained chlorine at 9.8 ppm which is 1.5 orders of magnitude above what is found in current diesel fuel and 3900 ppm sulfur to simulate fuels that would have been available when these engines were produced. Results indicate PCDD/F emissions of 13.1, 7.1, and 13.6 pg International Toxic Equivalency (I-TEQ)L(-1) fuel consumed for the three engines respectively, where non-detects are equal to zero. This compares with a United States' mobile source on-road diesel engine inventory value of 946 pg I-TEQL(-1) fuel consumed and 1.28 pg I-TEQL(-1) fuel consumed for modern engines equipped with a catalyzed diesel particle filter and urea selective catalytic reduction. PCB emissions are 2 orders of magnitude greater than modern diesel engines. PAH results are representative of engines from this era based on historical values and are 3-4 orders of magnitude greater than modern diesel engines. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Dusts, a pollutant from the past and future. Advancements in diesel particulate removal, and remaining issues; Les poussieres un polluant du passe et d`avenir. L`epuration des particules diesel le progres realise et les problemes a resoudre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevrier, M. [Renault S.A. (France)

    1996-12-31

    Major advancements have been realized for the reduction of particulate emissions from diesel engines, with better-designed engines, enhancement of injection and combustion, etc., but due to new European pollution regulations, developments of catalytic post-treatments such as the DeNOx catalysis (followed by an oxidation catalysis for the destruction of hydrocarbons necessitated by DeNOx catalysis), particulate filters with additive-assisted combustion, or even electrically assisted particulate combustion, are required. Optimized diesel fuels, such as the Swedish city fuel, could be an other solution

  6. The Evolution of Diesel Engines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 4. The Evolution of Diesel Engines. U Shrinivasa. General Article Volume 17 Issue 4 April 2012 pp 365-377. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/04/0365-0377. Keywords.

  7. Cleaning the Diesel Engine Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    This paper examines how technologies for cleaning of diesel emission from road vehicles can be supported by facilitating a technology push in the Danish automotive emission control industry. The European commission is at present preparing legislation for the euro 5 emission standard (to be enforc...

  8. Diesel Mechanics: Scope and Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This scope and sequence guide, developed for a diesel mechanics vocational education program, represents an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System. It was developed as a result of needs expressed by teachers, parents, and the…

  9. Coal-fired diesel generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The objective of the proposed project is to test the technical, environmental, and economic viability of a coal-fired diesel generator for producing electric power in small power generating markets. Coal for the diesel generator would be provided from existing supplies transported for use in the University`s power plant. A cleanup system would be installed for limiting gaseous and particulate emissions. Electricity and steam produced by the diesel generator would be used to supply the needs of the University. The proposed diesel generator and supporting facilities would occupy approximately 2 acres of land adjacent to existing coal- and oil-fired power plant and research laboratory buildings at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. The environmental analysis identified that the most notable changes to result from the proposed project would occur in the following areas: power plant configuration at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; air emissions, water use and discharge, and the quantity of solid waste for disposal; noise levels at the power plant site; and transportation of coal to the power plant. No substantive adverse impacts or environmental concerns were identified in analyzing the effects of these changes.

  10. DIESEL ENGINE RETROFIT TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation wil be given at the EPA Science Forum 2005 in Washington, DC. According to recent estimates, there are approximately 7.9 million heavy-duty diesel trucks and buses in use in the United States. Emissions from these vehicles account for substantial portions of t...

  11. The Evolution of Diesel Engines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The origin of diesel engines is intimately related to the history of steam engines. The Greeks and the Romans knew that steam could somehow be harnessed to do useful work. The device aeolipile (Figure 1) known to Hero of Alexandria was a primitive reaction turbine apparently used to open temple doors! However.

  12. ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Caban

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and genesis of the use of alternative fuels in internal combustion ignition engines. Based on the analysis of the literature, this article shows various alternative fuels used in Poland and all over the world. Furthermore, this article describes the research directions for alternative fuels use in road transport powered by diesel engines.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of type silicoaluminophosphates catalytic support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, C.E.T.; Carvalho, M.W.N.C.; Pereira, K.R.O.

    2010-01-01

    The refining processes, the catalytic hydrocracking is the future of diesel oil in Brazil and the first units are already scheduled to be inaugurated. Among the catalysts used in this process, silicoaluminophosphates (SAPO's) have considerable potential for use as they have been effective in the isomerization of n-alkanes, the isomerization of olefins and alkylation of aromatics. Because of this, the objective is to develop catalysts that will be used in hydrocracking reactions. The media like SAPO-5 were synthesized with different ratios silicon/aluminum, which is used as a catalytic support and have the function of crack organic molecules, since it has acidic character. The materials were characterized by techniques: X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis and textural by BET. After summarizing the media found that they had agreements with the crystalline phases presented in the literature.(author)

  14. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc.. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

  15. 40 CFR 79.33 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 79.33... diesel fuel. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby individually designated: (1) Motor vehicle diesel fuel, grade 1-D; (2) Motor vehicle diesel...

  16. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? No person may introduce used motor oil, or used motor oil blended with... later nonroad diesel engines (not including locomotive or marine diesel engines), unless both of the...

  17. 40 CFR 80.590 - What are the product transfer document requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, heating oil, ECA marine fuel, and other... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... the product transfer document requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, heating...

  18. Structure–activity relationships of Pt/Al2O3 catalysts for CO and NO oxidation at diesel exhaust conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boubnov, Alexey; Dahl, Søren; Johnson, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Structure–performance relationships for Pt/Al2O3 catalysts with mean Pt particle sizes of 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10nm are investigated for the catalytic oxidation of CO and NO under lean-burning diesel exhaust conditions. The most active catalysts for CO oxidation exhibit Pt particles of 2–3nm, having a ...

  19. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  20. Effects of a catalytic volatile particle remover (VPR) on the particulate matter emissions from a direct injection spark ignition engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Chen, Longfei; Stone, Richard

    2011-10-15

    Emissions of fine particles have been shown to have a large impact on the atmospheric environment and human health. Researchers have shown that gasoline engines, especially direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines, tend to emit large amounts of small size particles compared to diesel engines fitted with diesel particulate filters (DPFs). As a result, the particle number emissions of DISI engines will be restricted by the forthcoming EU6 legislation. The particulate emission level of DISI engines means that they could face some challenges in meeting the EU6 requirement. This paper is an experimental study on the size-resolved particle number emissions from a spray guided DISI engine and the performance of a catalytic volatile particle remover (VPR), as the EU legislation seeks to exclude volatile particles. The performance of the catalytic VPR was evaluated by varying its temperature and the exhaust residence time. The effect of the catalytic VPR acting as an oxidation catalyst on particle emissions was also tested. The results show that the catalytic VPR led to a marked reduction in the number of particles, especially the smaller size (nucleation mode) particles. The catalytic VPR is essentially an oxidation catalyst, and when post three-way catalyst (TWC) exhaust was introduced to the catalytic VPR, the performance of the catalytic VPR was not affected much by the use of additional air, i.e., no significant oxidation of the PM was observed.

  1. Nano Catalysts for Diesel Engine Emission Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL; Yang, Xiaofan [ORNL; Debusk, Melanie Moses [ORNL; Mullins, David R [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Wu, Zili [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop durable zeolite nanocatalysts with broader operating temperature windows to treat diesel engine emissions to enable diesel engine based equipment and vehicles to meet future regulatory requirements. A second objective was to improve hydrothermal durability of zeolite catalysts to at least 675 C. The results presented in this report show that we have successfully achieved both objectives. Since it is accepted that the first step in NO{sub x} conversion under SCR (selective catalytic reduction) conditions involves NO oxidation to NO{sub 2}, we reasoned that catalyst modification that can enhance NO oxidation at low-temperatures should facilitate NO{sub x} reduction at low temperatures. Considering that Cu-ZSM-5 is a more efficient catalyst than Fe-ZSM-5 at low-temperature, we chose to modify Cu-ZSM-5. It is important to point out that the poor low-temperature efficiency of Fe-ZSM-5 has been shown to be due to selective absorption of NH{sub 3} at low-temperatures rather than poor NO oxidation activity. In view of this, we also reasoned that an increased electron density on copper in Cu-ZSM-5 would inhibit any bonding with NH{sub 3} at low-temperatures. In addition to modified Cu-ZSM-5, we synthesized a series of new heterobimetallic zeolites, by incorporating a secondary metal cation M (Sc{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+}, In{sup 3+}, and La{sup 3+}) in Cu exchanged ZSM-5, zeolite-beta, and SSZ-13 zeolites under carefully controlled experimental conditions. Characterization by diffuse-reflectance ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) does not permit conclusive structural determination but supports the proposal that M{sup 3+} has been incorporated in the vicinity of Cu(II). The protocols for degreening catalysts, testing under various operating conditions, and accelerated aging

  2. Fuel and engine characterization study of catalytically cracked waste transformer oil

    KAUST Repository

    Prasanna Raj Yadav, S.

    2015-05-01

    This research work targets on the effective utilization of WTO (waste transformer oil) in a diesel engine and thereby, reducing the environmental problems caused by its disposal into open land. The novelty of the work lies in adoption of catalytic cracking process to chemically treat WTO, wherein waste fly ash has been considered as a catalyst for the first time. Interestingly, both the oil and catalyst used are waste products, enabling reduction in total fuel cost and providing additional benefit of effective waste management. With the considerable token that use of activated fly ash as catalyst requires lower reaction temperature, catalytic cracking was performed only in the range of 350-400°C. As a result of this fuel treatment process, the thermal and physical properties of CCWTO (catalytically cracked waste transformer oil), as determined by ASTM standard methods, were found to be agreeable for its use in a diesel engine. Further, FTIR analysis of CCWTO discerned the presence of essential hydrocarbons such as carbon and hydrogen. From the experimental investigation of CCWTO - diesel blends in a diesel engine, performance and combustion characteristics were shown to be improved, with a notable increase in BTE (brake thermal efficiency) and PHRR (peak heat release rate) for CCWTO 50 by 7.4% and 13.2%, respectively, than that of diesel at full load condition. In the same note, emissions such as smoke, HC (hydrocarbon) and CO (carbon monoxide) were noted to be reduced at the expense of increased NOx (nitrogen oxides) emission. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis gas production via catalytic partial oxidation reforming of liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheekatamarla, P.K.; Finnerty, C.M. [NanoDynamics Energy Inc., 901 Fuhrmann Boulevard, Buffalo, NY 14203 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    This work deals with the performance of waterless catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX)-based catalytic reformer system fed by different liquid fuels including ethanol, isooctane, hexadecane, synthetic JP8, kerosene and diesel for solid oxide fuel cell applications. The effect of different fuel components on product composition was studied and the operational parameters were optimized to provide a stable reforming performance. The system provided negligible pressure drop combined with the simpler system design due to the lack of water requirement making the POX reformer an attractive choice. (author)

  4. I.C. Engine emission reduction by copper oxide catalytic converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, S. P.; Shubham Uday, Desai; Karan Hemant, Borana; Rajarshi Kushwanth Goud, Kagita; Lakshmana Kumar, G.; Pavan Kumar, K.

    2017-05-01

    The toxic gases emitted from diesel engines are more than petrol engines. Predicting the use of diesel engines, even more in future, this system is developed and can be used to minimize the harmful gases. Toxic gases include NOX, CO, HC and Smoke which are harmful to the atmosphere as well as to the human beings. The main aim of this work is to fabricate system, where the level of intensity of toxic gases is controlled through chemical reaction to more agreeable level. This system acts itself as an exhaust system; hence there is no needs to fit separate the silencer. The whole assembly is fitted in the exhaust pipe from engine. In this work, catalytic converter with copper oxide as a catalyst, by replacing noble catalysts such as platinum, palladium and rhodium is fabricated and fitted in the engine exhaust. With and without catalytic converter, the experimentations are carried out at different loads such as 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of maximum rated load. From the experimental results it is found that the maximum reduction is 32%, 61% and 21% for HC, NOx and CO respectively at 100% of maximum rated load when compared to that of without catalytic converter. This catalytic converter system is cash effective and more economical than the existing catalytic converter.

  5. Diesel-powered Passenger Cars and Light Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Diesel-powered automobiles are in the news following emission concerns raised by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This fact sheet contains background information on diesel-powered motor vehicles and diesel fuel.

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions from heavy-duty natural gas, hybrid, and conventional diesel on-road trucks during freight transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiros, David C.; Smith, Jeremy; Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Huai, Tao; Hu, Shaohua

    2017-11-01

    Heavy-duty on-road vehicles account for 70% of all freight transport and 20% of transportation-sector greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United States. This study measured three prevalent GHG emissions - carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) - from seven heavy-duty vehicles, fueled by diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG), and compliant to the MY 2007 or 2010 U.S. EPA emission standards, while operated over six routes used for freight movement in California. Total combined (tractor, trailer, and payload) weights were 68,000 ± 1000 lbs. for the seven vehicles. Using the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) radiative forcing values for a 100-year time horizon, N2O emissions accounted for 2.6-8.3% of total tailpipe CO2 equivalent emissions (CO2-eq) for diesel vehicles equipped with Diesel Oxidation Catalyst, Diesel Particulate Filter, and Selective Catalytic Reduction system (DOC + DPF + SCR), and CH4 emissions accounted for 1.4-5.9% of CO2-eq emissions from the CNG-powered vehicle with a three-way catalyst (TWC). N2O emissions from diesel vehicles equipped with SCR (0.17-0.30 g/mi) were an order of magnitude higher than diesel vehicles without SCR (0.013-0.023 g/mi) during highway operation. For the vehicles selected in this test program, we measured 11-22% lower CO2-eq emissions from a hybrid compared to conventional diesel vehicles during transport over lower-speed routes of the freight transport system, but 20-27% higher CO2-eq emissions during higher-speed routes. Similarly, a CNG vehicle emitted up to 15% lower CO2-eq compared to conventional diesel vehicles over more neutral-grade highway routes, but emitted up to 12% greater CO2-eq emissions over routes with higher engine loads.

  7. Diesel fuel injection system simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kiijärvi, Jukka

    2003-01-01

    The injection process of a medium-speed diesel engine was studied in detail, using a computer program developed for this purpose. In the program, the injection pump was replaced with the measured pressure at the junction between the pump and high-pressure pipe. The results were calculated with a full and approximately a half load. The calculated and measured results corresponded moderately well with each other. In the calculation, special interest was paid to the flow of the injection valve h...

  8. Experimental Investigation of Embedded Controlled Diesel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    R.Govindaraju; M.Bharathiraja; Dr. K.Ramani; Dr.K.R.Govindan

    2012-01-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in Automobiles, Agriculture and Power generation sectors in a large scale. The modern techniques have contributed a lot in the saving of fuel in these diesel engines. However, from 1970 onwards the fuel consumption becomes a serious concern because of a manifold increase of automobiles and fast depletion of non renewable sources of energy. Since the fuel injection system plays a major role in the consumption of fuel in diesel engines, various control measures we...

  9. Model of predicting proportion of diesel fuel and engine oil in diesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viscosity of diesel adulterated SAE 40 engine oil at varying proportions of the mixture is presented. Regression, variation of intercept and the power parameters methods are used for developing polynomial and power law functions for predicting proportion of either diesel or engine oil in diesel adulterated SAE 40 engine oil ...

  10. Effect of Magnetic Field on Diesel Engine Power Fuelled with Jatropha-Diesel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukarni Sukarni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha oil has characteristics very close to the diesel fuel, so it has good prospects as a substitute or as a mixture of diesel fuel. Previous research showed that jatropha oil usage in diesel engines caused power to decrease. It was probably owing to the higher viscosity of the Jatropha oil compared to that of diesel oil. Installing the magnetic field in the fuel line of a diesel engine fueled with jatropha-diesel oil is expected to reduce the viscosity of jatropha-diesel oil mixture, hence improve the combustion reaction process. This research aims to know the influence of the magnetic field strength in the fuel lines to the power of diesel engines fueled with a mixture of jatropha-diesel oil. The composition of Jatropha oil-diesel was 20% jatropha oil and 80% diesel oil. Magnetic field variations were 0.122, 0.245 and 0.368 Tesla. The results showed that the higher the strength of the magnetic field was, the higher the average diesel engine’s power would be.

  11. Experimental investigation of the performance and emissions of diesel engines by a novel emulsified diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhenbin; Wang, Xiaochen; Pei, Yiqiang; Zhang, Chengliang; Xiao, Mingwei; He, Jinge

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel bio-fuel, glucose solution emulsified diesel fuel, is evaluated. • Emulsified diesel has comparable brake thermal efficiency. • NO X emissions decrease with emulsified fuel at all loads. • Soot emissions decrease with emulsified fuel except at a few operating points. - Abstract: The subject of this paper was to study the performance and emissions of two typical diesel engines using glucose solution emulsified diesel fuel. Emulsified diesel with a 15% glucose solution by mass fraction was used in diesel engines and compared with pure diesel. For the agricultural diesel engine, performance and emission characteristics were measured under various engine loads. The results showed that the brake thermal efficiencies were improved using emulsified diesel fuel. Emulsified fuel decreased NO x and soot emissions except at a few specific operating conditions. HydroCarbon (HC) and CO emissions were increased. For the automotive diesel engine, performance and emissions were measured using the 13-mode European Stationary Cycle (ESC). It was found that brake thermal efficiencies of emulsified diesel and pure diesel were comparable at 75% and 100% load. Soot emissions decreased significantly while NO x emissions decreased slightly. HC emissions increased while CO emissions decreased at some operating conditions

  12. Pyrolysis oil as diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, S. [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd., Vaasa (Finland). Diesel Technology

    1996-12-31

    Wood waste pyrolysis oil is an attractive fuel alternative for diesel engine operation. The main benefit is the sustainability of the fuel. No fossil reserves are consumed. The fact that wood waste pyrolysis oil does not contribute to CO{sub 2} emissions is of utmost importance. This means that power plants utilising pyrolysis oil do not cause additional global warming. Equally important is the reduced sulphur emissions that this fuel alternative implies. The sulphur content of pyrolysis oil is extremely low. The high water content and low heating value are also expected to result in very low NO{sub x} emissions. Utilisation of wood waste pyrolysis oil in diesel engines, however, involves a lot of challenges and problems to be solved. The low heating value requires a new injection system with high capacity. The corrosive characteristics of the fluid also underline the need for new injection equipment materials. Wood waste pyrolysis oil contains solid particles which can clog filters and cause abrasive wear. Wood waste pyrolysis oil has proven to have extremely bad ignition properties. The development of a reliable injection system which is able to cope with such a fuel involves a lot of optimisation tests, redesign and innovative solutions. Successful single-cylinder tests have already been performed and they have verified that diesel operation on wood pyrolysis oil is technically possible. (orig.)

  13. Diesel Engine Light Truck Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-31

    The Diesel Engine Light Truck Application (DELTA) program consists of two major contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). The first one under DE-FC05-97-OR22606, starting from 1997, was completed in 2001, and consequently, a final report was submitted to DOE in 2003. The second part of the contract was under DE-FC05-02OR22909, covering the program progress from 2002 to 2007. This report is the final report of the second part of the program under contract DE-FC05-02OR22909. During the course of this contract, the program work scope and objectives were significantly changed. From 2002 to 2004, the DELTA program continued working on light-duty engine development with the 4.0L V6 DELTA engine, following the accomplishments made from the first part of the program under DE-FC05-97-OR22606. The program work scope in 2005-2007 was changed to the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment. This final report will cover two major technical tasks. (1) Continuation of the DELTA engine development to demonstrate production-viable diesel engine technologies and to demonstrate emissions compliance with significant fuel economy advantages, covering progress made from 2002 to 2004. (2) DPF soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment from 2005-2007.

  14. Diesel particles - a health hazard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ege, C.

    2004-08-15

    To all appearances, small particles belong to the pollutants presenting the biggest health hazards. Particles come especially from diesel-powered vehicles. According to researchers, particles cause thousands of early deaths each year in the big cities in Denmark alone, and up to 1,250 of these deaths could be prevented by fitting particle filters on diesel-powered vehicles. That is more than deaths caused by traffic accidents. Especially the elderly are affected. In addition, the small particles seem to aggravate asthma incidences, including the many children with asthma. What makes the small particles so very dangerous is that they can enter the smallest of vessels of the lungs. There is a solution within sight to this grave health hazard. The solution is called particle filters, but they will not come automatically. It requires initiatives in the form of legislation, green taxes and subsidies. The EU is introducing stricter regulations regarding particle emission from heavy vehicles from 2006, though only for new vehicles. It will therefore take many years to abate the problem this way. In the present pamphlet, the Danish Ecological Council offers a number of specific proposals on how to further the introduction of filters on diesel vehicles. The Danish government has taken a small step in the right direction by establishing a subsidy scheme for particle filters. Yet the amount allocated is too small and, because it is not followed up by setting taxes on polluting vehicles, it will have little effect. (au)

  15. CATALYTIC KINETIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    acetylchlorophosphonazo(CPApA) by hydrogen peroxide in 0.10 M phosphoric acid. A novel catalytic kinetic-spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of copper based on this principle. Copper(II) can be determined spectrophotometrically ...

  16. CATALYTIC KINETIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the property that in 0.12 M sulfuric acid medium titanium(IV) catalyzes the discoloring reaction of DBS-arsenazo oxidized by potassium bromate, a new catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace titanium (IV) was developed. The linear range of the determination of titanium is

  17. Revalidation program for nuclear standby diesel generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muschick, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the program which Duke Power Company carried out to revalidate the diesel engines used in diesel generators for nuclear standby service at Unit 1 of the Catawba Nuclear Station. The diesels operated satisfactorily during the tests, and only relatively minor conditions were noted during the test and inspections, with one exception. This exception was that cracks were detected in the piston skirts. The piston skirts have been replaced with improved design skirts. The diesels have been fully revalidated for their intended service, and have been declared operable

  18. Influence of particulate trap oxidizers on emission of mutagenic compounds by diesel automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, R E; Devillez, G; Smith, L R

    1989-06-01

    Diesel exhaust particles are known to contain mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals. The aim of this study was to determine whether, and to what extent, catalytic particulate trap oxidizers on light-duty diesel engines may reduce the emission of particle-associated mutagenic chemicals into the environment. Exhaust particles were collected from Mercedes Benz and Volkswagen diesel automobiles, equipped with or without the manufacturer's exhaust traps, while running on a chassis dynamometer under specified load conditions. Exhaust particles were collected from a dilution tunnel onto 20" X 20" Teflon-coated fiberglass filters. Mutagenesis tests of dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of the particles were conducted using the Ames Salmonella bacterial test system. The mutation rate was calculated in terms of histidine revertants per mile of travel during a set of standard test cycles. With both vehicles the traps produced an 87-92% reduction in the total amount of particulate material collected by the filters. There was no significant change in the specific mutagenic activity (revertants per microgram of DCM particle extract) with or without the traps. These studies support the notion that installation of exhaust traps which reduce particulate emission on diesel-powered vehicles will also reduce the emission of particle-associated mutagenic and carcinogenic materials into the environment.

  19. Experimental Assessment of NOx Emissions from 73 Euro 6 Diesel Passenger Cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liuhanzi; Franco, Vicente; Mock, Peter; Kolke, Reinhard; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; German, John

    2015-12-15

    Controlling nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from diesel passenger cars during real-world driving is one of the major technical challenges facing diesel auto manufacturers. Three main technologies are available for this purpose: exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), lean-burn NOx traps (LNT), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Seventy-three Euro 6 diesel passenger cars (8 EGR only, 40 LNT, and 25 SCR) were tested on a chassis dynamometer over both the European type-approval cycle (NEDC, cold engine start) and the more realistic Worldwide harmonized light-duty test cycle (WLTC version 2.0, hot start) between 2012 and 2015. Most vehicles met the legislative limit of 0.08 g/km of NOx over NEDC (average emission factors by technology: EGR-only 0.07 g/km, LNT 0.04 g/km, and SCR 0.05 g/km), but the average emission factors rose dramatically over WLTC (EGR-only 0.17 g/km, LNT 0.21 g/km, and SCR 0.13 g/km). Five LNT-equipped vehicles exhibited very poor performance over the WLTC, emitting 7-15 times the regulated limit. These results illustrate how diesel NOx emissions are not properly controlled under the current, NEDC-based homologation framework. The upcoming real-driving emissions (RDE) regulation, which mandates an additional on-road emissions test for EU type approvals, could be a step in the right direction to address this problem.

  20. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Diesel B3 Mixed with Crude Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5–17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7–33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6–52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10–39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine). PMID:24688402

  1. METHOD OF CONVERSION OF HIGH- AND MIDDLE-SPEED DIESEL ENGINES INTO GAS DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail G. Shatrov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at the development of fuel supply and electronic control systems for boosted high- and middle-speed transport engines. A detailed analysis of different ways of converting diesel engine to operate on natural gas was carried out. The gas diesel process with minimized ignition portion of diesel fuel injected by the Common Rail (CR system was selected. Electronic engine control and modular gas feed systems which can be used both on high- and middle-speed gas diesel engines were developed. Also diesel CR fuel supply systems were developed in cooperation with the industrial partner, namely, those that can be mounted on middle-speed diesel and gas diesel engines. Electronic control and gas feed systems were perfected using modeling and engine tests. The high-speed diesel engine was converted into a gas diesel one. After perfection of the gas feed and electronic control systems, bench tests of the high-speed gas diesel engine were carried out showing a high share of diesel fuel substitution with gas, high fuel efficiency and significant decrease of NOх and СО2 emissions.

  2. Performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5-17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7-33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6-52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10-39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine).

  3. Using of cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends as an alternative diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Ali [Technical Education Faculty, Mersin University, 33500 Mersin (Turkey); Guerue, Metin [Engineering and Architectural Faculty, Gazi University, 06570 Maltepe, Ankara (Turkey); Altiparmak, Duran [Technical Education Faculty, Gazi University, 06500 Ankara (Turkey); Aydin, Kadir [Engineering and Architectural Faculty, Cukurova University, 01330 Adana (Turkey)

    2008-04-15

    In this study, usability of cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends as an alternative fuel for diesel engines were studied. Biodiesel was produced by reacting cotton oil soapstock with methyl alcohol at determined optimum condition. The cotton oil biodiesel-diesel fuel blends were tested in a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Engine performances and smoke value were measured at full load condition. Torque and power output of the engine with cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends decreased by 5.8% and 6.2%, respectively. Specific fuel consumption of engine with cotton oil soapstock-diesel fuel blends increased up to 10.5%. At maximum torque speeds, smoke level of engine with blend fuels decreased up to 46.6%, depending on the amount of biodiesel. These results were compared with diesel fuel values. (author)

  4. Using of cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends as an alternative diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, Ali; Guerue, Metin; Altiparmak, Duran; Aydin, Kadir

    2008-01-01

    In this study, usability of cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends as an alternative fuel for diesel engines were studied. Biodiesel was produced by reacting cotton oil soapstock with methyl alcohol at determined optimum condition. The cotton oil biodiesel-diesel fuel blends were tested in a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Engine performances and smoke value were measured at full load condition. Torque and power output of the engine with cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends decreased by 5.8% and 6.2%, respectively. Specific fuel consumption of engine with cotton oil soapstock-diesel fuel blends increased up to 10.5%. At maximum torque speeds, smoke level of engine with blend fuels decreased up to 46.6%, depending on the amount of biodiesel. These results were compared with diesel fuel values. (author)

  5. Conventional engine technology. Volume 2: Status of diesel engine technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    The engines of diesel cars marketed in the United States were examined. Prominent design features, performance characteristics, fuel economy and emissions data were compared. Specific problems, in particular those of NO and smoke emissions, the effects of increasing dieselization on diesel fuel price and availability, current R&D work and advanced diesel concepts are discussed. Diesel cars currently have a fuel economy advantage over gasoline engine powered cars. Diesel drawbacks (noise and odor) were reduced to a less objectionable level. An equivalent gasoline engine driveability was obtained with turbocharging. Diesel manufacturers see a growth in the diesel market for the next ten years. Uncertainties regarding future emission regulation may inhibit future diesel production investments. With spark ignition engine technology advancing in the direction of high compression ratios, the fuel economy advantages of the diesel car is expected to diminish. To return its fuel economy lead, the diesel's potential for future improvement must be used.

  6. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Campbell, Christian X.; Subramanian, Ramesh

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  7. Diesel engine emission deterioration - a preliminary study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, Cecilia J

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find a parameter in diesel and oil analysis of underground mining vehicles that can be correlated with personal diesel particulate matter (DPM) exposure and used as part of an engine maintenance programme. A number...

  8. Diesel Technology: Engines. [Teacher and Student Editions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Dave; Miller, Roger; Kellum, Mary

    Competency-based teacher and student materials on diesel engines are provided for a diesel technology curriculum. Seventeen units of instruction cover the following topics: introduction to engine principles and procedures; engine systems and components; fuel systems; engine diagnosis and maintenance. The materials are based on the…

  9. Standardized Curriculum for Diesel Engine Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: diesel engine mechanics I and II. The eight units in diesel engine mechanics I are as follows: orientation; shop safety; basic shop tools; fasteners; measurement; engine operating principles; engine components; and basic auxiliary…

  10. One step processing for future diesel specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brierley, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    The trend in diesel fuel specifications is to limit the sulfur level to less than 0.05 wt- per cent. Many regions have also specified that diesel fuels must have lower aromatic levels, higher cetane numbers, and lower distillation end points. These changes will require significant refinery investment to meet the new diesel fuel specifications. The changes may also significantly affect the value of synthetic crude stocks. UOP has developed a new hydroprocessing catalyst which makes it possible to meet the new diesel specifications in one single processing step and at minimal cost. The catalyst saturates aromatics while opening ring structures at the same time. By selectively cracking heavy components into the diesel range with minimal cracking to gas or naphtha, heavier feedstocks can be upgraded to diesel, and refinery diesel yield can be augmented. Synthetic crude distillate is often high in aromatics and low in cetane number. This new UOP hydroprocessing system will allow synthetic crude producers and refiners to produce diesel fuels with higher cetane numbers, high-quality distillate blendstocks and distillate fuels. 26 figs

  11. The Diesel as a Vehicle Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Kurt

    1928-01-01

    The thorough investigation of a Dorner four-cylinder, four-stroke-cycle Diesel engine with mechanical injection led me to investigate more thoroughly the operation of the Diesel as a vehicle engine. Aside from the obvious need of reliability of functioning, a high rotative speed, light weight and economy in heat consumption per horsepower are also indispensable requirements.

  12. Displacing the dinosaurs. [Diesel engine electric generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1992-05-01

    This article describes how giant power stations are being replaced by smaller, cleaner units. These include plants using combined-cycle gas turbines and diesel engines of low, medium and high speeds. The use of these diesel engines in power generation is discussed. (UK).

  13. Use of the fuel obtained from waste plastics as a mixture with diesel and biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiernicki, Z.; Zelazo, P. [Lublin Univ. of Technology (Poland)

    2013-06-01

    The researches concerning the use of fuel derived from waste plastics and biodiesel have been presented in the paper. The biodiesel and the fuel obtained from waste plastics were both used as fuel components. The bio-admixture in the fuel was FAME, STING and rape oil. The catalytic cracking of polyolefin's was the source of second fuel admixture. The physical properties of analyzed components of the fuel have been presented. The operational parameters of direct injection diesel engine fuelled with tested fuel blends have been set out. The principles of fuel mixture preparation has been also described. The concept of the diesel fuel which is made from the components of opposite physical properties could have a positive practical effect and could improve the use of biofuels. (orig.)

  14. Predicting emergency diesel starting performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBey, T.M.

    1989-01-01

    The US Department of Energy effort to extend the operational lives of commercial nuclear power plants has examined methods for predicting the performance of specific equipment. This effort focuses on performance prediction as a means for reducing equipment surveillance, maintenance, and outages. Realizing these goals will result in nuclear plants that are more reliable, have lower maintenance costs, and have longer lives. This paper describes a monitoring system that has been developed to predict starting performance in emergency diesels. A prototype system has been built and tested on an engine at Sandia National Laboratories. 2 refs

  15. Effect of Alcohol on Diesel Engine Combustion Operating with Biodiesel-Diesel Blend at Idling Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudul, H. M.; Hagos, Ftwi. Y.; A, M. Mukhtar N.; Mamat, Rizalman; Abdullah, A. Adam

    2018-03-01

    Biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel to run the automotive engine. However, its blends have not been properly investigated during idling as it is the main problem to run the vehicles in a big city. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of alcohol additives such as butanol and ethanol on combustion parameters under idling conditions when a single cylinder diesel engine operates with diesel, diesel-biodiesel blends, and diesel biodiesel-alcohol blends. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, heat release rate and ignition delay were computed. This investigation has revealed that alcohol blends with diesel and biodiesel, BU20 blend yield higher maximum peak cylinder pressure than diesel. B5 blend was found with the lowest energy release among all. B20 was slightly lower than diesel. BU20 blend was seen with the highest peak energy release where E20 blend was found advance than diesel. Among all, the blends alcohol component revealed shorter ignition delay. B5 and B20 blends were influenced by biodiesel interference and the burning fraction were found slightly slower than conventional diesel where BU20 and E20 blends was found slightly faster than diesel So, based on the result, it can be said that among the alcohol blends butanol and ethanol can be promising alternative at idling conditions and can be used without any engine modifications.

  16. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended must be equipped with...

  17. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines which are continuously...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1905-1 - Diesel fuel piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... discharge point. (d) If diesel fuel lines are not buried in the ground sufficiently to protect them from... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel fuel piping systems. 75.1905-1 Section... Diesel fuel piping systems. (a) Diesel fuel piping systems from the surface must be designed and operated...

  19. 30 CFR 72.520 - Diesel equipment inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel equipment inventory. 72.520 Section 72... Mines § 72.520 Diesel equipment inventory. (a) The operator of each mine that utilizes diesel equipment underground, shall prepare and submit in writing to the District Manager, an inventory of diesel equipment...

  20. Catalytic glycerol steam reforming for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Monica; Mihet, Maria; Lazar, Mihaela D.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming combine two major advantages: (i) using glycerol as raw material add value to this by product of bio-diesel production which is obtained in large quantities around the world and have a very limited utilization now, and (ii) by implication of water molecules in the reaction the efficiency of hydrogen generation is increased as each mol of glycerol produces 7 mol of H 2 . In this work we present the results obtained in the process of steam reforming of glycerol on Ni/Al 2 O 3 . The catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized through different methods: N 2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, TPR. The catalytic study was performed in a stainless steel tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure by varying the reaction conditions: steam/carbon ratio (1-9), gas flow (35 ml/min -133 ml/min), temperature (450-650°C). The gaseous fraction of the reaction products contain: H 2 , CH 4 , CO, CO 2 . The optimum reaction conditions as resulted from this study are: temperature 550°C, Gly:H 2 O ratio 9:1 and Ar flow 133 ml/min. In these conditions the glycerol conversion to gaseous products was 43% and the hydrogen yield was 30%

  1. Zeolite-based SCR catalysts and their use in diesel engine emission treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K; Yang, Xiaofan

    2015-03-24

    A catalyst comprising a zeolite loaded with copper ions and at least one trivalent metal ion other than Al.sup.+3, wherein the catalyst decreases NO.sub.x emissions in diesel exhaust. The trivalent metal ions are selected from, for example, trivalent transition metal ions, trivalent main group metal ions, and/or trivalent lanthanide metal ions. In particular embodiments, the catalysts are selected from Cu--Fe-ZSM5, Cu--La-ZSM-5, Fe--Cu--La-ZSM5, Cu--Sc-ZSM-5, and Cu--In-ZSM5. The catalysts are placed on refractory support materials and incorporated into catalytic converters.

  2. Engine performance and emissions characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with diesel-biodiesel-bioethanol emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Yie Hua; Abdullah, Mohammad Omar; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Zauzi, Nur Syuhada Ahmad; Abdullah, Georgie Wong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Different composition of diesel fuel, biodiesel and bioethanol emulsions were examined. • The fuels were tested in a direct injection diesel engine and parameters were evaluated. • Engine power, torque, exhaust gas temperature & fuel consumptions were compared. • Emulsions fuels emitted lower CO and CO 2 than fossil diesel. • Lower NOx emission was observed at medium engine speeds and loads for emulsion fuels. - Abstract: In this research work, the experimental investigation of the effect of diesel-biodiesel-bioethanol emulsion fuels on combustion, performance and emission of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine are reported. Four kind of emulsion fuels were employed: B (diesel-80%, biodiesel-20% by volume), C (diesel-80%, biodiesel-15%, bioethanol-5%), D (diesel-80%, biodiesel-10%, bioethanol-10%) and E (diesel-80%, biodiesel-5%, bioethanol-15%) to compare its’ performance with the conventional diesel, A. These emulsion fuels were prepared by mechanical homogenizer machine with the help of Tween 80 (1% v/v) and Span 80 (0.5% v/v) as surfactants. The emulsion characteristics were determined by optical electron microscope, emulsification stability test, FTIR, and the physiochemical properties of the emulsion fuels which were all done by following ASTM test methods. The prepared emulsion fuels were then tested in diesel engine test bed to obtain engine performance and exhaust emissions. All the engine experiments were conducted with engine speeds varying from 1600 to 2400 rpm. The results showed the heating value and density of the emulsion fuels decrease as the bioethanol content in the blend increases. The total heating value of the diesel-biodiesel-bioethanol fuels were averagely 21% higher than the total heating value of the pure biodiesel and slightly lower (2%) than diesel fuel. The engine power, torque and exhaust gas temperature were reduced when using emulsion fuels. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) for the emulsion fuels

  3. Catalytic reforming methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

    2013-05-14

    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  4. Mitigation of PAH and nitro-PAH emissions from nonroad diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z Gerald; Wall, John C; Ottinger, Nathan A; McGuffin, Dana

    2015-03-17

    More stringent emission requirements for nonroad diesel engines introduced with U.S. Tier 4 Final and Euro Stage IV and V regulations have spurred the development of exhaust aftertreatment technologies. In this study, several aftertreatment configurations consisting of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC), diesel particulate filters (DPF), Cu zeolite-, and vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts, and ammonia oxidation (AMOX) catalysts are evaluated using both Nonroad Transient (NRTC) and Steady (8-mode NRSC) Cycles in order to understand both component and system-level effects of diesel aftertreatment on emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitrated derivatives (nitro-PAH). Emissions are reported for four configurations including engine-out, DOC+CuZ-SCR+AMOX, V-SCR+AMOX, and DOC+DPF+CuZ-SCR+AMOX. Mechanisms responsible for the reduction, and, in some cases, the formation of PAH and nitro-PAH compounds are discussed in detail, and suggestions are provided to minimize the formation of nitro-PAH compounds through aftertreatment design optimizations. Potency equivalency factors (PEFs) developed by the California Environmental Protection Agency are then applied to determine the impact of aftertreatment on PAH-derived exhaust toxicity. Finally, a comprehensive set of exhaust emissions including criteria pollutants, NO2, total hydrocarbons (THC), n-alkanes, branched alkanes, saturated cycloalkanes, aromatics, aldehydes, hopanes and steranes, and metals is provided, and the overall efficacy of the aftertreatment configurations is described. This detailed summary of emissions from a current nonroad diesel engine equipped with advanced aftertreatment can be used to more accurately model the impact of anthropogenic emissions on the atmosphere.

  5. Investigating Diesel Engines as an Atmospheric Source of Isocyanic Acid in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, D.; Jathar, S.; Heppding, C.; Link, M.; Akherati, A.; Kleeman, M.; De Gouw, J. A.; Veres, P. R.; Roberts, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Isocyanic acid (HNCO), an acidic gas found in tobacco smoke, urban environments and biomass burning-affected regions, has been linked to adverse health outcomes. Gasoline- and diesel-powered engines and biomass burning are known to emit HNCO and hypothesized to emit precursors such as amides that can photochemically react to produce HNCO in the atmosphere. Increasingly, diesel engines in developed countries like the United States are required to use Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems to reduce tailpipe emissions of oxides of nitrogen. SCR chemistry is known to produce HNCO as an intermediate product, and SCR systems have been implicated as an atmospheric source of HNCO. In this work, we measure HNCO emissions from an SCR system-equipped diesel engine and, in combination with earlier data, use a three-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM) to simulate the ambient concentrations and source/pathway contributions to HNCO in an urban environment. Engine tests were conducted at three different engine loads, using two different fuels and at multiple operating points. HNCO was measured using an acetate chemical ionization mass spectrometer. The diesel engine was found to emit primary HNCO (3-90 mg kg-fuel-1) but we did not find any evidence that the SCR system or other aftertreatment devices (i.e., oxidation catalyst and particle filter) produced or enhanced HNCO emissions. The CTM predictions compared well with the only available observational data sets for HNCO in urban areas but under-predicted the contribution from secondary processes. The comparison implied that diesel-powered engines were the largest source of HNCO in urban areas. The CTM also predicted that daily-averaged concentrations of HNCO reached a maximum of 110 pptv but were an order of magnitude lower than the 1 ppbv level that could be associated with physiological effects in humans. Precursor contributions from other combustion sources (gasoline and biomass burning) and wintertime conditions

  6. Investigating diesel engines as an atmospheric source of isocyanic acid in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jathar, Shantanu H.; Heppding, Christopher; Link, Michael F.; Farmer, Delphine K.; Akherati, Ali; Kleeman, Michael J.; de Gouw, Joost A.; Veres, Patrick R.; Roberts, James M.

    2017-07-01

    Isocyanic acid (HNCO), an acidic gas found in tobacco smoke, urban environments, and biomass-burning-affected regions, has been linked to adverse health outcomes. Gasoline- and diesel-powered engines and biomass burning are known to emit HNCO and hypothesized to emit precursors such as amides that can photochemically react to produce HNCO in the atmosphere. Increasingly, diesel engines in developed countries like the United States are required to use selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems to reduce tailpipe emissions of oxides of nitrogen. SCR chemistry is known to produce HNCO as an intermediate product, and SCR systems have been implicated as an atmospheric source of HNCO. In this work, we measure HNCO emissions from an SCR system-equipped diesel engine and, in combination with earlier data, use a three-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM) to simulate the ambient concentrations and source/pathway contributions to HNCO in an urban environment. Engine tests were conducted at three different engine loads, using two different fuels and at multiple operating points. HNCO was measured using an acetate chemical ionization mass spectrometer. The diesel engine was found to emit primary HNCO (3-90 mg kg fuel-1) but we did not find any evidence that the SCR system or other aftertreatment devices (i.e., oxidation catalyst and particle filter) produced or enhanced HNCO emissions. The CTM predictions compared well with the only available observational datasets for HNCO in urban areas but underpredicted the contribution from secondary processes. The comparison implied that diesel-powered engines were the largest source of HNCO in urban areas. The CTM also predicted that daily-averaged concentrations of HNCO reached a maximum of ˜ 110 pptv but were an order of magnitude lower than the 1 ppbv level that could be associated with physiological effects in humans. Precursor contributions from other combustion sources (gasoline and biomass burning) and wintertime

  7. 40 CFR 80.592 - What records must be kept by entities in the motor vehicle diesel fuel and diesel fuel additive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in the motor vehicle diesel fuel and diesel fuel additive distribution systems? 80.592 Section 80.592... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA... the motor vehicle diesel fuel and diesel fuel additive distribution systems? (a) Records that must be...

  8. Energy and Exergy Analysis of a Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel and Simarouba Biodiesel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Nabnit; Mohanty, Mahendra Kumar; Mishra, Sruti Ranjan; Mohanty, Ramesh Chandra

    2018-02-01

    This article intends to determine the available work and various losses of a diesel engine fuelled with diesel and SB20 (20 % Simarouba biodiesel by volume blended with 80 % diesel by volume). The energy and exergy analysis were carried out by using first law and second law of thermodynamics respectively. The experiments were carried out on a 3.5 kW compression ignition engine. The analysis was conducted on per mole of fuel basis. The energy analysis indicates that about 37.23 and 37.79 % of input energy is converted into the capacity to do work for diesel and SB20 respectively. The exergetic efficiency was 34.8 and 35 % for diesel and Simarouba respectively. Comparative study indicates that the energetic and exergetic performance of SB20 resembles with that of diesel fuel.

  9. Performance diagnostic system for emergency diesel generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, K.P.

    1991-01-01

    Diesel generators are commonly used for emergency backup power at nuclear stations. Emergency diesel generators (EDGs) are subject to both start-up and operating failures, due to infrequent and fast-start use. EDG reliability can be critical to plant safety, particularly when station blackout occurs. This paper describes an expert diagnostic system designed to consistently evaluate the operating performance of diesel generators. The prototype system is comprised of a suite of sensor monitoring, cylinder combustion analyzing, and diagnostic workstation computers. On-demand assessments of generator and auxiliary equipment performance are provided along with color trend displays comparing measured performance to reference-normal conditions

  10. Impact of fuels on diesel exhaust emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerholm, R.

    1991-09-01

    This report presents an investigation of the emissions from eight diesel fuels with different sulphur and aromatic content. A bus and a truck were used in the investigation. Chemical analysis and biological testing have been performed. The aim of this project was to find a 'good' diesel fuel which can be used in urban areas. Seven of the fuels were meant to be such fuels. It has been confirmed in this study that there exists a quantifiable relationship between the variables of the diesel fuel blends and the variables of the chemical emissions and their biological effects. 119 figs., 12 tabs., approx. 100 refs

  11. Fuel and Fuel Additive Registration Testing of Ethanol-Diesel Blend for O2Diesel, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanick, E. R.

    2004-02-01

    O2 Diesel Inc. (formerly AAE Technologies Inc.) tested a heavy duty engine with O2Diesel (diesel fuel with 7.7% ethanol and additives) for regulated emissions and speciation of vapor-phase and semi-volatile hydrocarbon compounds. This testing was performed in support of EPA requirements for registering designated fuels and fuel additives as stipulated by sections 211(b) and 211(e) of the Clean Air Act.

  12. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Nemser, PhD

    2010-10-01

    There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

  13. Evaluation of carcinogenic hazard of diesel engine exhaust needs to consider revolutionary changes in diesel technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Roger O; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Wall, John C

    2012-07-01

    Diesel engines, a special type of internal combustion engine, use heat of compression, rather than electric spark, to ignite hydrocarbon fuels injected into the combustion chamber. Diesel engines have high thermal efficiency and thus, high fuel efficiency. They are widely used in commerce prompting continuous improvement in diesel engines and fuels. Concern for health effects from exposure to diesel exhaust arose in the mid-1900s and stimulated development of emissions regulations and research to improve the technology and characterize potential health hazards. This included epidemiological, controlled human exposure, laboratory animal and mechanistic studies to evaluate potential hazards of whole diesel exhaust. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (1989) classified whole diesel exhaust as - "probably carcinogenic to humans". This classification stimulated even more stringent regulations for particulate matter that required further technological developments. These included improved engine control, improved fuel injection system, enhanced exhaust cooling, use of ultra low sulfur fuel, wall-flow high-efficiency exhaust particulate filters, exhaust catalysts, and crankcase ventilation filtration. The composition of New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE) is qualitatively different and the concentrations of particulate constituents are more than 90% lower than for Traditional Diesel Exhaust (TDE). We recommend that future reviews of carcinogenic hazards of diesel exhaust evaluate NTDE separately from TDE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Emission testing of jatropha and pongamia mixed bio diesel fuel in a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Shaikh, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation is based on the emission characteristics of mixed bio diesel fuel in a four stroke single cylinder compression ignition engine at constant speed. Refined oils of jatropha and pongamia are converted into bio diesel by acid catalyzed esterification and base catalyzed transesterification reactions. The jatropha and pongamia bio diesel were mixed in equal proportions with conventional mineral diesel fuel. Four samples of fuel were tested namely, diesel fuel, B10, B20 and B40. The emission analysis showed B20 mixed bio diesel fuel blend having better results as compared to other samples. There is 60% and 35% lower emission of carbon monoxide and in sulphur dioxide observed while consuming B20 blended fuel respectively. The test result showed NOx emissions were 10% higher from bio diesel fuel, as compared to conventional diesel fuel. However, these emissions may be reduced by EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) technology. Present research also revealed that that B20 mixed bio diesel fuel can be used, without any modification in a CI engine. (author)

  15. Development of a robust and compact kerosene–diesel reaction mechanism for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tay, Kun Lin; Yang, Wenming; Mohan, Balaji; An, Hui; Zhou, Dezhi; Yu, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An approach is used to develop a robust kerosene–diesel reaction mechanism. • Ignition delay of the kerosene sub-mechanism is well validated with experiments. • The kerosene sub-mechanism reproduces the flame lift-off lengths of Jet-A reasonably well. • The kerosene sub-mechanism performs reasonably well under engine conditions. - Abstract: The use of kerosene fuels in internal combustion engines is getting more widespread. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization military is pushing for the use of a single fuel on the battlefield in order to reduce logistical issues. Moreover, in some countries, fuel adulteration is a serious matter where kerosene is blended with diesel and used in diesel engines. So far, most investigations done regarding the use of kerosene fuels in diesel engines are experimental and there is negligible simulation work done in this area possibly because of the lack of a robust and compact kerosene reaction mechanism. This work focuses on the development of a small but reliable kerosene–diesel reaction mechanism, suitable to be used for diesel engine simulations. The new kerosene–diesel reaction mechanism consists only of 48 species and 152 reactions. Furthermore, the kerosene sub-mechanism in this new mechanism is well validated for its ignition delay times and has proven to replicate kerosene combustion well in a constant volume combustion chamber and an optical engine. Overall, this new kerosene–diesel reaction mechanism is proven to be robust and practical for diesel engine simulations.

  16. EFFECTS OF ETHANOL BLENDED DIESEL FUEL ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM A DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özer CAN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engine emissions can be improved by adding organic oxygenated compounds to the No. 2 diesel fuel. In this study, effects of 10 % and 15 % (in volume ethanol addition to Diesel No. 2 on exhaust emissions from an indirect injection turbocharged diesel engine running at different engine speeds and loads were investigated. Experimental results showed that the ethanol addition reduced CO, soot and SO2 emissions, although it caused some increase in NOx emission and some power reductions due to lower heating value of ethanol. Improvements on emissions were more significant at full load rather than at partial loads.

  17. Multimodel Control of Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirstoiu, Silviu; Popescu, Dumitru; Dimon, Catalin; Olteanu, Severus

    2017-01-01

    In this article it is proposed and designed a modern control configuration of the type multicontroler-multimodel (MM) that pilots the nonlinear combustion process of the Diesel engine, needed to adjust the pressure in the intake manifold and the airflow circulating through the compressor. The MM simulator developed by the authors allows the implementation of control systems represented by pairs (Mi, Ci) with the Mi candidate closest to the current operating point of the process and the paired controller Ri, for controlling the key parameters of the combustion process. The proposed configuration is built with robust controllers and thus it is able to ensure superior performance, tolerance to nonlinearities and parametric and structural perturbations in the system.

  18. Effect of hydrogen–diesel dual-fuel usage on performance, emissions and diesel combustion in diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Karagöz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engines are inevitable parts of our daily life and will be in the future. Expensive after-treatment technologies to fulfil normative legislations about the harmful tail-pipe emissions and fuel price increase in recent years created expectations from researchers for alternative fuel applications on diesel engines. This study investigates hydrogen as additive fuel in diesel engines. Hydrogen was introduced into intake manifold using gas injectors as additive fuel in gaseous form and also diesel fuel was injected into cylinder by diesel injector and used as igniter. Energy content of introduced hydrogen was set to 0%, 25% and 50% of total fuel energy, where the 0% references neat diesel operation without hydrogen injection. Test conditions were set to full load at 750, 900, 1100, 1400, 1750 and finally 2100 r/min engine speed. Variation in engine performance, emissions and combustion characteristics with hydrogen addition was investigated. Hydrogen introduction into the engine by 25% and 50% of total charge energy reveals significant decrease in smoke emissions while dramatic increase in nitrogen oxides. With increasing hydrogen content, a slight rise is observed in total unburned hydrocarbons although CO2 and CO gaseous emissions reduced considerably. Maximum in-cylinder gas pressure and rate of heat release peak values raised with hydrogen fraction.

  19. Diesel emission reduction in construction equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The state of Rhode Island general law : The Diesel Emission Reduction Act : required a pilot project be undertaken to : gain a better understanding of the : impact of this legislative act. : The Rhode Island Department of : Transportation (RIDO...

  20. Airborne Radar Search for Diesel Submarines (ARSDS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pilnick, Steven E; Landa, Jose

    2005-01-01

    .... In this research, a detection rate model is developed to analyze the effectiveness of an airborne radar search for a diesel submarine assumed to be intermittently operating with periscopes or masts...

  1. Airborne Radar Search for Diesel Submarines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pilnick, Steven E; Landa, Jose

    2005-01-01

    .... In this research, a detection rate model is developed to analyze the effectiveness of airborne radar search for a diesel submarine assumed to be intermittently operating with periscopes or masts...

  2. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, Nevada, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  3. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, Hawaii, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  4. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, California, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  5. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, Arizona, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  6. Catalytic Antibodies: Concept and Promise

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 11. Catalytic Antibodies: Concept and Promise. Desirazu N Rao Bharath Wootla. General Article Volume 12 Issue ... Keywords. Catalytic antibodies; abzymes; hybridome technology; Diels– Alder reaction; Michaelis– Menten kinetics; Factor VIII.

  7. Oxidation Catalyst Studies on a Diesel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Shifei

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, the experimental test facilities consisted of a well instrumented live Ford 2.0 litre turbocharged diesel engine connected to a specially made exhaust can, which contained a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). Experiments were performed on DOCs, which were specially prepared by Johnson Matthey, and had thermocouples mounted in their walls to measure axial temperature profiles. These DOCs consisted of a Pt catalyst dispersed in an alumina washcoat on a cordierite monolith supports...

  8. Should Diesel cars in Europe be discouraged?

    OpenAIRE

    Mayeres, Inge; Proost, Stef

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the rationale for the different tax treatment of gasoline and diesel cars currently observed in Europe. First, we analyse possible justifications for a different tax treatment: pure tax revenue considerations, externality cons0iderations and constraints on the tax instruments used for cars and trucks. Next, an applied general equilibrium model is used to assess the welfare effects of revenue neutral changes in the vehicle and fuel taxes on diesel and gasoline cars. The mod...

  9. Diesel fuel in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensaid, B.; Saint-Antonin, V.

    2003-01-01

    In the 1970's, Diesel technology had a poor image in the United States owing to the inadequate performance and reliability observed in certain models. The 1990's brought increased awareness of greenhouse effect issues. Greater Diesel penetration of the American automobile market could represent a short-term solution for reducing CO 2 emissions, along with the use of hybrid vehicles, but the impact on American refining plant would be substantial. (author)

  10. Analysis of noise emitted from diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, S.

    2015-12-01

    In this work combustion noise produced in diesel engines has been investigated. In order to reduce the exhaust emissions various injection parameters need to be studied and optimized. The noise has been investigated by mean of data obtained from cylinder pressure measurements using piezo electric transducers and microphones on a dual cylinder diesel engine test rig. The engine was run under various operating conditions varying various injection parameters to investigate the effects of noise emissions under various testing conditions.

  11. Dimethyl Ether in Diesel Fuel Injection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, M.; Abata, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    A study of the behaviour of DME in diesel injection systems. A discussion of the effects of compressibility of DME on compression work and wave propagation.DME spray shapes and penetration rates......A study of the behaviour of DME in diesel injection systems. A discussion of the effects of compressibility of DME on compression work and wave propagation.DME spray shapes and penetration rates...

  12. Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-03-08

    A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

  13. Diesel fuel in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensaid, B.; Saint-Antonin, V

    2003-07-01

    In the 1970's, Diesel technology had a poor image in the United States owing to the inadequate performance and reliability observed in certain models. The 1990's brought increased awareness of greenhouse effect issues. Greater Diesel penetration of the American automobile market could represent a short-term solution for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, along with the use of hybrid vehicles, but the impact on American refining plant would be substantial. (author)

  14. Desempenho de motor ciclo Diesel em bancada dinamométrica utilizando misturas diesel/biodiesel Performance of cycle Diesel engine in dynamometer using diesel/biodiesel mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Castellanelli

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Diante da previsão de escassez do petróleo, o éster etílico (biodiesel tem-se apresentado como excelente opção de combustível alternativo para motores ciclo Diesel. As características do biodiesel são semelhantes às do diesel em termos de viscosidade e poder calorífico, podendo ser utilizado sem adaptações nos motores. Para a realização deste trabalho, utilizou-se de motor ciclo Diesel, de injeção direta, com quatro cilindros, sem adaptações. O motor foi acoplado a um dinamômetro e sistemas de aquisição de dados auxiliares. Avaliaram-se os desempenhos de torque, de potência e de consumo específico de combustível para as seguintes misturas diesel/éster etílico de soja: B2, B5, B10, B20, B50, B75 e B100. O melhor desempenho registrado deu-se com a mistura B20.Given the prediction of the scarcity of oil, the ethyl ester (biodiesel has presented as an excellent alternative fuel option for cycle diesel engine. The characteristics of biodiesel are similar of diesel in terms of viscosity and the calorific power, being able to be used without adaptations in the engines. For the accomplishment of this work it was used a cycle diesel engine, of direct injection with four cylinders, without adaptations. The engine was connected to a dynamometer and acquisition systems of auxiliary data. The performances of torque, power and specific fuel consumption for the following mixtures diesel/soy ethyl ester had been evaluated: B2, B5, B10, B20, B50, B75 and B100. The best registered performance was given with the B20 mixture.

  15. Effects of MTBE blended diesel fuel on diesel combustion and emissions; MTBE kongo keiyu ga diesel nensho haiki ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shundo, S.; Yokota, H.; Kakegawa, T. [Hino Motors, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effects of MTBE (Methyl-t-butyl ether) blended diesel fuel on diesel combustion and emissions were studied. In conventional diesel combustion, the testing mode was carried out in conformity with the Japanese 13 mode. Furthermore, this fuel was applied to a new combustion system (Homogeneous Charge Intelligent Multiple Injection). MTBE blended diesel fuel is more effective in the case of new combustion system and very low NOx, PM capability is suggested. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Performance and emission characteristics of double biodiesel blends with diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuthalingam Arun Balasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on biodiesel focused on performance of single biodiesel and its blends with diesel. The present work aims to investigate the possibilities of the application of mixtures of two biodiesel and its blends with diesel as a fuel for diesel engines. The combinations of Pongamia pinnata biodiesel, Mustard oil biodiesel along with diesel (PMD and combinations of Cotton seed biodiesel, Pongamia pinnata biodiesel along with diesel (CPD are taken for the experimental analysis. Experiments are conducted using a single cylinder direct-injection diesel engine with different loads at rated 3000 rpm. The engine characteristics of the two sets of double biodiesel blends are compared. For the maximum load, the value of Specific Fuel consumption and thermal efficiency of CPD-1 blend (10:10:80 is close to the diesel values. CPD blends give better engine characteristics than PMD blends. The blends of CPD are suitable alternative fuel for diesel in stationary/agricultural diesel engines.

  17. Catalytic interface erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, H.; Cohen, E.G.D.

    1995-01-01

    We study interface erosion processes: catalytic erosions. We present two cases. (1) The erosion of a completely occupied lattice by one single moving particle starting from somewhere inside the lattice, considering deterministic as well as probabilistic erosion rules. In the latter case, the eroded regions appear to have interfaces with continuously tunable fractal dimensions. (2) The kinetic roughening of an initially flat surface, where ballistic or diffusion-limited particles, which remain intact themselves, erode the surface coming from the outside, using the same erosion rules as in (1). Many features resembling realistic interfaces, for example, islands and inlets, are generated. The dependence of the surface width on the system size is due to both the erosion mechanism and the way particles move before reaching the surface

  18. Catalytic detritiation of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, M.L.; Lamberger, P.H.; Ellis, R.E.; Mills, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    A pilot-scale system has been used at Mound Laboratory to investigate the catalytic detritiation of water. A hydrophobic, precious metal catalyst is used to promote the exchange of tritium between liquid water and gaseous hydrogen at 60 0 C. Two columns are used, each 7.5 m long by 2.5 cm ID and packed with catalyst. Water flow is 5-10 cm 3 /min and countercurrent hydrogen flow is 9,000-12,000 cm 3 /min. The equipment, except for the columns, is housed in an inert atmosphere glovebox and is computer controlled. The hydrogen is obtained by electrolysis of a portion of the water stream. Enriched gaseous tritium is withdrawn for further enrichment. A description of the system is included along with an outline of its operation. Recent experimental data are discussed

  19. Wind turbine assisted diesel generator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schienbein, L. A.

    1981-12-01

    The need to reduce the cost of energy in remote communities served by diesel generators has led to the investigation of the use of wind energy to replace some or all of the fuel consumed. The development of wind-turbine-assisted diesel generators in Canada has progressed from the design and testing of a 12-kW unit to the design of a prototype 100-kW wind turbine diesel hybrid. This paper presents the results of the 12-kW tests and the implementation of the test results, and the results of further engineering and cost analyses in the design of a prototype 100-kW wind turbine diesel hybrid system. The value of wind energy in a wind turbine diesel hybrid is greatly improved if the diesel generator system itself is designed to operate more efficiently at part load, with or without wind power assistance. Excess wind energy and wind turbine power fluctuations (which result in voltage and frequency fluctuations) can be minimized by selecting the best rotor operating speed.

  20. Detection of Red Dye in Diesel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Varughese

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Developing a sensitive and effective instrument for detecting the presence of red dye in diesel fuel is very advantageous for governments in preventing tax loss by controlling illegal use of the diesel fuel. The objective of this work has been to investigate and develop an instrument to detect red dye in diesel, based on the principle of absorption. The peaks of absorption in red and pure diesel fuel were measured with the help of UV-spectrometer (Lambda 6/ PECSS. Optical interference filters of wavelengths 405 nm and 616 nm were used to modify the spectral transmittance of an optical system with appropriate spectral absorption characteristics. Two simultaneous light beams of two different colors were sent into the diesel fuel and the transmitted light from the fuel censored by a silicon photo detector. The signal from the detector was then amplified with the help of three operational amplifiers (OP-177 and sent to an analog device (AD 538 which can perform division operation. The voltage produced when the violet light passes through the medium was divided when the red light passes through the medium in the one quadrant division unit (AD 538. The output voltage from the analog device was measured with the help of a digital multi-meter. The results show that the output voltages decreases with the increase in percentage of red dye in diesel fuel.

  1. Influence of diesel fuel on seed germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Gillian; Duncan, Harry

    2002-01-01

    The volatile fraction of diesel fuel played a major role in delaying seed emergence and reducing percentage germination. - The use of plant-based systems to remediate contaminated soils has become an area of intense scientific study in recent years and it is apparent that plants which grow well in contaminated soils need to be identified and screened for use in phytoremediation technologies. This study investigated the effect of diesel fuel on germination of selected plant species. Germination response varied greatly with plant species and was species specific, as members of the same plant family showed differential sensitivity to diesel fuel contamination. Differences were also seen within plant subspecies. At relatively low levels of diesel fuel contamination, delayed seed emergence and reduced percentage germination was observed for the majority of plant species investigated. Results suggest the volatile fraction of diesel fuel played an influential role in delaying seed emergence and reducing percentage germination. In addition, the remaining diesel fuel in the soil added to this inhibitory effect on germination by physically impeding water and oxygen transfer between the seed and the surrounding soil environment, thus hindering the germination response

  2. Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, N. B. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Bass, J. C. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Ghamaty, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Krommenhoek, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Kushch, A. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Snowden, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Marchetti, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-03-16

    Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCAR's test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of

  3. Catalytic Combustion of Gasified Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusar, Henrik

    2003-09-01

    This thesis concerns catalytic combustion for gas turbine application using a low heating-value (LHV) gas, derived from gasified waste. The main research in catalytic combustion focuses on methane as fuel, but an increasing interest is directed towards catalytic combustion of LHV fuels. This thesis shows that it is possible to catalytically combust a LHV gas and to oxidize fuel-bound nitrogen (NH{sub 3}) directly into N{sub 2} without forming NO{sub x} The first part of the thesis gives a background to the system. It defines waste, shortly describes gasification and more thoroughly catalytic combustion. The second part of the present thesis, paper I, concerns the development and testing of potential catalysts for catalytic combustion of LHV gases. The objective of this work was to investigate the possibility to use a stable metal oxide instead of noble metals as ignition catalyst and at the same time reduce the formation of NO{sub x} In paper II pilot-scale tests were carried out to prove the potential of catalytic combustion using real gasified waste and to compare with the results obtained in laboratory scale using a synthetic gas simulating gasified waste. In paper III, selective catalytic oxidation for decreasing the NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen was examined using two different approaches: fuel-lean and fuel-rich conditions. Finally, the last part of the thesis deals with deactivation of catalysts. The various deactivation processes which may affect high-temperature catalytic combustion are reviewed in paper IV. In paper V the poisoning effect of low amounts of sulfur was studied; various metal oxides as well as supported palladium and platinum catalysts were used as catalysts for combustion of a synthetic gas. In conclusion, with the results obtained in this thesis it would be possible to compose a working catalytic system for gas turbine application using a LHV gas.

  4. In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline, diesel, and jet range blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

  5. Solar Reforming of Carbon Dioxide to Produce Diesel Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Schuetzle; Robert Schuetzle

    2010-12-31

    This project focused on the demonstration of an innovative technology, referred to as the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer, which utilizes waste CO2 as a feedstock for the efficient and economical production of synthetic diesel fuel using solar thermal energy as the primary energy input. The Sunexus technology employs a two stage process for the conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel. A solar reforming system, including a specially designed reactor and proprietary CO2 reforming catalyst, was developed and used to convert captured CO2 rich gas streams into syngas (primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide) using concentrated solar energy at high conversion efficiencies. The second stage of the system (which has been demonstrated under other funding) involves the direct conversion of the syngas into synthetic diesel fuel using a proprietary catalyst (Terra) previously developed and validated by Pacific Renewable Fuels and Chemicals (PRFC). The overall system energy efficiency for conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel is 74%, due to the use of solar energy. The results herein describe modeling, design, construction, and testing of the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer. Extensive parametric testing of the solar reformer and candidate catalysts was conducted and chemical kinetic models were developed. Laboratory testing of the Solar Reformer was successfully completed using various gas mixtures, temperatures, and gas flow rates/space velocities to establish performance metrics which can be employed for the design of commercial plants. A variety of laboratory tests were conducted including dry reforming (CO2 and CH{sub 4}), combination dry/steam reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4} & H{sub 2}O), and tri-reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}O & O{sub 2}). CH{sub 4} and CO2 conversions averaged 95-100% and 50-90% per reformer cycle, respectively, depending upon the temperatures and gas space velocities. No formation of carbon deposits (coking) on the catalyst was observed in any of these tests. A 16 ft. diameter

  6. Analysis of Engine Parameters at Using Diesel-LPG and Diesel-CNG Mixture in Compression-ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Jukl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed on influence of diesel engine parameters that is used with mixture of gas and diesel fuel. The first part of the article describes diesel fuel systems where small part of diesel fuel is replaced by LPG or CNG fuel. These systems are often called as Diesel-Gas systems. Next part of the article focuses on tested car and measurement equipment. Measurement was performed by common-rail diesel engine in Fiat Doblň. Tests were carried out in laboratories of the Department of Engineering and Automobile Transport at the Mendel University in Brno. They were observed changes between emissions of used fuels – diesel without addition of gas, diesel + LPG and diesel + CNG mixture. It was found that that the addition of gas had positive effect on the performance parameters and emissions.

  7. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XX, CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, MAINTENANCE SUMMARY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE A SUMMARY OF THE REASONS AND PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE. TOPICS ARE WHAT ENGINE BREAK-IN MEANS, ENGINE BREAK-IN, TORQUING BEARINGS (TEMPLATE METHOD), AND THE NEED FOR MAINTENANCE. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE…

  8. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT VII, ENGINE TUNE-UP--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF TUNE-UP PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINES. TOPICS ARE SCHEDULING TUNE-UPS, AND TUNE-UP PROCEDURES. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "ENGINE TUNE-UP--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE" AND OTHER MATERIALS. SEE VT 005 655 FOR FURTHER INFORMATION.…

  9. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT I, GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO DIESEL ENGINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    ONE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE DESIGNED TO UPGRADE THE JOB SKILLS AND TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE OF DIESEL MAINTENANCE MECHANICS, THIS MATERIAL WAS DEVELOPED BY INDUSTRIAL TRAINING AND SUBJECT-MATTER SPECIALISTS AND TESTED IN INDUSTRIAL TRAINING SITUATIONS. THE PURPOSE OF THIS FIRST UNIT IS TO PROVIDE AN INTRODUCTION TO DIESEL ENGINES BY DEVELOPING AN…

  10. Influence of using emulsified diesel fuel on the performance and pollutants emitted from diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alahmer, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Emulsified diesel fuels with water content of range 0–30% by volume were prepared. • Effect emulsified diesel fuel on diesel engine performance and pollutant emissions. • Using emulsified fuel improves the diesel engine performance and reduces emissions. - Abstract: This manuscript investigates the effect of emulsified diesel fuel on the engine performance and on the main pollutant emissions for a water-cooled, four stroke, four cylinders, and direct injection diesel engine. Emulsified diesel fuels with water content of range 0–30% by volume were used. The experiments were conducted in the speed range from 1000 to 3000 rpm. It was found that, in general, the using emulsified fuel improves the engine performance and reduces emissions. While the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) has a minimum value at 5% water content and 2000 rpm. The torque (T), the break mean effective pressure (BMEP) and thermal efficiency (η th ) are found to have maximum values under these conditions. The emission CO 2 was found to increase with engine speed and to decrease with water content. NO x produced from emulsified fuel is significantly less than that produced from pure diesel under the same conditions. And as the percentage of water content in the emulsion increases, the emitted amount of oxygen also increases

  11. Emission analysis on the effect of nanoparticles on neat biodiesel in unmodified diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, Amith Kishore; Ramakrishnan, Ramesh Bapu Bathey; Devarajan, Yuvarajan

    2017-10-01

    Biodiesels derived from the mahua seeds are established as a promising alternative for the diesel fuel owing to its non-edible nature and improved properties. TiO 2 nanoparticle in powder form is added to neat mahua oil biodiesel (BD100) to examine its effect on emission characteristics. TiO 2 nanoparticle is chosen as an additive owing to its catalytic effect, higher surface energy, and larger surface to volume ratio. TiO 2 nanoparticle with an average size of 60 nm was synthesized by sol-gel route. TiO 2 nanoparticles are added with mahua biodiesel (BD100) at 100 and 200 ppm. Mahua oil biodiesel doped with 100 and 200 ppm of TiO 2 nanoparticles are referred as BD100T100 and BD100T200. A constant speed diesel engine is employed for the experimental trail. Engine is fueled with diesel, BD100, BD100T100, and BD100T200, respectively. Experimental result confirmed that the modified fuels (BD100T200 and BD100T100) showed a significant reduction in all the emissions. Further, the addition of TiO 2 nanoparticle (200 ppm) to mahua biodiesel gave respective reduction of 9.3, 5.8, 6.6, and 2.7% in carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, nitrogen oxide, and smoke emissions when compared to neat mahua biodiesel.

  12. Innovative Catalyst Development for Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether (DME): A Renewable Diesel Substitute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveras, Elizabeth

    As a way to manage increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, advanced research has focused on efficient and sustainable biofuel production from catalytic carbon dioxide conversion. Furthermore, atmospheric levels of methane remain the second largest greenhouse gas emitted globally. Methane can be used as a feedstock to produce dimethyl ether (DME), a clean fuel that is a substitute for fossil diesel. Production of DME as an alternative diesel fuel is a two-step process: methanol synthesis followed by methanol dehydration. Research has shown that supported Cu-ZnO with gamma alumina is a promising catalyst for DME production. The focus of this research is catalytic dehydration of methanol over catalysts based on nano-sized Ni, Co and Cu. The catalysts were prepared by depositing nano-sized metal particles onto a mesoporous alumina support using sonolysis in a hexadecane solvent. The catalysts were separated from solution by centrifuge, dried and then evaluated for methanol dehydration reaction in a 300-mL Parr batch reactor. Initial reaction conditions were 260 ?C and 150 psig under nitrogen. The data demonstrated that Cu achieved the highest methanol conversion for DME production. DME was identified using FT-IR.

  13. Effects of After-Treatment Control Technologies on Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Dallmann, T. R.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel engines are major emitters of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and the black carbon (BC) fraction of particulate matter (PM). Diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have recently become standard on new heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT). There is concern that DPFs may increase ultrafine particle (UFP) and total particle number (PN) emissions while reducing PM mass emissions. Also, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out NO to NO2 in continuously regenerating DPFs may lead to increased tailpipe emission of NO2 and near-roadway concentrations that exceed the 1-hr national ambient air quality standard. Increased NO2 emissions can also promote formation of ozone and secondary PM. We report results from ongoing on-road studies of HDDT emissions at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in California's San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to each truck's engine model year and installed emission controls. At both sites, DPF use significantly increased the NO2/NOx emission ratio. DPFs also significantly increased NO2 emissions when installed as retrofits on older trucks with higher baseline NOx emissions. While SCR systems on new trucks effectively reduce total NOx emissions and mitigate these undesirable DPF-related NO2 emissions, they also lead to significant emission of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas. When expressed on a CO2-equivalent basis, the N2O emissions increase offsets the fuel economy gain (i.e., the CO2 emission reduction) associated with SCR use. At the Port, average NOx, BC and PN emission factors from new trucks equipped with DPF and SCR were 69 ± 15%, 92 ± 32% and 66 ± 35% lower, respectively, than modern trucks without these emission controls. In contrast, at the Tunnel, PN emissions from older trucks retrofit with DPFs were ~2 times greater than modern trucks without DPFs. The difference

  14. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Catalytic Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tao, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scarlata, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, E. C. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ross, J. [Harris Group Inc., New York, NY (United States); Lukas, J. [Harris Group Inc., New York, NY (United States); Sexton, D. [Harris Group Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report describes one potential conversion process to hydrocarbon products by way of catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic-derived hydrolysate. This model leverages expertise established over time in biomass deconstruction and process integration research at NREL, while adding in new technology areas for sugar purification and catalysis. The overarching process design converts biomass to die die diesel- and naphtha-range fuels using dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, purifications, and catalytic conversion focused on deoxygenating and oligomerizing biomass hydrolysates.

  15. Experimental investigation of a diesel engine with methyl ester of mango seed oil and diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vijayaraj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum based fuels worldwide have not only resulted in the rapid depletion of conventional energy sources, but have also caused severe air pollution. The search for an alternate fuel has led to many findings due to which a wide variety of alternative fuels are available at our disposal now. The existing studies have revealed the use of vegetable oils for engines as an alternative for diesel fuel. However, there is a limitation in using straight vegetable oils in diesel engines due to their high viscosity and low volatility. In the present work, neat mango seed oil is converted into their respective methyl ester through transesterification process. Experiments are conducted using various blends of methyl ester of mango seed oil with diesel in a single cylinder, four stroke vertical and air cooled Kirloskar diesel engine. The experimental results of this study showed that the MEMSO biodiesel has similar characteristics to those of diesel. The brake thermal efficiency, unburned hydrocarbon and smoke density are observed to be lower in case of MEMSO biodiesel blends than diesel. The CO emission for B25, B50 and B75 is observed to be lower than diesel at full load, whereas for B100 it is higher at all loads. On the other hand, BSFC and NOx of MEMSO biodiesel blends are found to be higher than diesel. It is found that the combustion characteristics of all blends of methyl ester of mango seed oil showed similar trends with those of the baseline diesel. From this study, it is concluded that optimized blend is B25 and could be used as a viable alternative fuel in a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine without any modifications.

  16. Stationary engine test of diesel cycle using diesel oil and biodiesel (B100); Ensaio de motores estacionarios do ciclo diesel utilizando oleo diesel e biodiesel (B100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Ednildo Andrade [Universidade Federal da Bahia (DEQ/DEM/EP/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], Email: ednildo@ufba.br; Santos, Danilo Cardoso [Universidade Federal da Bahia (PPEQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica; Souza, Daniel Vidigal D.; Peixoto, Leonardo Barbosa; Franca, Tiago [Universidade Federal da Bahia (DEM/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2006-07-01

    This work objectified to test an engine stationary of the cycle diesel, having as combustible diesel fossil and bio diesel. The characteristic curves of power, torque and emissions versus rotation of the engine was elaborated. The survey of these curves was carried through in the Laboratorio de Energia e Gas da Escola Politecnica da UFBA, which makes use of two stationary dynamometers and the one of chassis and necessary instrumentation for you analyze of the exhaustion gases. The tested engine was of the mark AGRALE, M-85 model stationary type, mono cylinder, with power NF (NBRISO 1585) Cv/kw/rpm 10/7,4/2500. The assays had been carried through in a hydraulically dynamometer mark Schenck, D-210 model. The fuel consumption was measured in a scale marks Filizola model BP-6, and too much ground handling equipment such as: water reservoir, tubings, valves controllers of volumetric outflow, sensors and measurers of rotation, torque, mass, connected to a system of acquisition of data on line. The emissions of the gases (CO, CO{sub 2}, and NOx), were measured by the analytical Tempest mark, model 100. The engine operated with oil diesel and bio diesel of oils and residual fats (OGR). In the tests, the use of the fuel derived from oil and the gotten ones from OGR was not detected significant differences how much. In this phase already it can show to the immediate possibility of the substitution of the oil diesel for bio diesel as combustible in the stationary engines of low power (author)

  17. Catalytic cracking with deasphalted oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaton, W.I.; Taylor, J.L.; Peck, L.B.; Mosby, J.F.

    1990-07-10

    This patent describes a catalytic cracking process. It comprises: hydrotreating resid; thereafter deasphalting the hydrotreated resid to produce substantially deasphalted oil; catalytically cracking the hydrotreated oil in a catalytic cracking unit in the presence of a cracking catalyst to produce upgraded oil leaving coked catalyst; and regenerating the coked catalyst in the presence of a combustion-supporting gas comprising excess molecular oxygen in an amount greater than the stoichiometric amount required for substantially completely combusting the coke on the catalyst to carbon dioxide.

  18. DeNOx study in diesel engine exhaust using barrier discharge corona assisted by V2O5/TiO2 catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajanikanth, B.S.; Ravi, V.

    2004-01-01

    A plasma-assisted catalytic reactor was used to remove nitrogen oxides (NOx) from diesel engine exhaust operated under different load conditions. Initial studies were focused on plasma reactor (a dielectric barrier discharge reactor) treatment of diesel exhaust at various temperatures. The nitric oxide (NO) removal efficiency was lowered when high temperature exhaust was treated using plasma reactor. Also, NO removal efficiency decreased when 45% load exhaust was treated. Studies were then made with plasma reactor combined with a catalytic reactor consisting of a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst, V 2 O 5 /TiO 2 . Ammonia was used as a reducing agent for SCR process in a ratio of 1:1 to NOx. The studies were focused on temperatures of the SCR catalytic reactor below 200 degree C. The plasma-assisted catalytic reactor was operated well to remove NOx under no-load and load conditions. For an energy input of 96 J/1, the NOx removal efficiencies obtained under no-load and load conditions were 90% and 72% respectively at an exhaust temperature of 100 degree C. (authors)

  19. Life cycle assessment of hydrogenated biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using the catalytic cracking and hydrogenation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Junya; Aoki, Tatsuki; Nakamura, Kazuo; Yamada, Kazuo; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2015-04-01

    There is a worldwide trend towards stricter control of diesel exhaust emissions, however presently, there are technical impediments to the use of FAME (fatty acid methyl esters)-type biodiesel fuel (BDF). Although hydrogenated biodiesel (HBD) is anticipated as a new diesel fuel, the environmental performance of HBD and its utilization system have not been adequately clarified. Especially when waste cooking oil is used as feedstock, not only biofuel production but also the treatment of waste cooking oil is an important function for society. A life cycle assessment (LCA), including uncertainty analysis, was conducted to determine the environmental benefits (global warming, fossil fuel consumption, urban air pollution, and acidification) of HBD produced from waste cooking oil via catalytic cracking and hydrogenation, compared with fossil-derived diesel fuel or FAME-type BDF. Combined functional unit including "treatment of waste cooking oil" and "running diesel vehicle for household waste collection" was established in the context of Kyoto city, Japan. The calculation utilized characterization, damage, and integration factors identified by LIME2, which was based on an endpoint modeling method. The results show that if diesel vehicles that comply with the new Japanese long-term emissions gas standard are commonly used in the future, the benefit of FAME-type BDF will be relatively limited. Furthermore, the scenario that introduced HBD was most effective in reducing total environmental impact, meaning that a shift from FAME-type BDF to HBD would be more beneficial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The comparison of engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics of sesame oil-diesel fuel mixture with diesel fuel in a direct injection diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altun, Sehmus [Technical Education Faculty, Automotive Division, Batman University, Batman (Turkey); Bulut, Huesamettin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osmanbey Campus, Harran University, 63100 Sanliurfa (Turkey); Oener, Cengiz [Technical Education Faculty, Automotive Division, Firat University, Elazig (Turkey)

    2008-08-15

    The use of vegetable oils as a fuel in diesel engines causes some problems due to their high viscosity compared with conventional diesel fuel. Various techniques and methods are used to solve the problems resulting from high viscosity. One of these techniques is fuel blending. In this study, a blend of 50% sesame oil and 50% diesel fuel was used as an alternative fuel in a direct injection diesel engine. Engine performance and exhaust emissions were investigated and compared with the ordinary diesel fuel in a diesel engine. The experimental results show that the engine power and torque of the mixture of sesame oil-diesel fuel are close to the values obtained from diesel fuel and the amounts of exhaust emissions are lower than those of diesel fuel. Hence, it is seen that blend of sesame oil and diesel fuel can be used as an alternative fuel successfully in a diesel engine without any modification and also it is an environmental friendly fuel in terms of emission parameters. (author)

  1. Catalytic Membrane Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, T.J.; Brinker, C.J.; Gardner, T.J.; Hughes, R.C.; Sault, A.G.

    1998-12-01

    The proposed "catalytic membrane sensor" (CMS) was developed to generate a device which would selectively identify a specific reagent in a complex mixture of gases. This was to be accomplished by modifying an existing Hz sensor with a series of thin films. Through selectively sieving the desired component from a complex mixture and identifying it by decomposing it into Hz (and other by-products), a Hz sensor could then be used to detect the presence of the select component. The proposed "sandwich-type" modifications involved the deposition of a catalyst layered between two size selective sol-gel layers on a Pd/Ni resistive Hz sensor. The role of the catalyst was to convert organic materials to Hz and organic by-products. The role of the membraneo was to impart both chemical specificity by molecukir sieving of the analyte and converted product streams, as well as controlling access to the underlying Pd/Ni sensor. Ultimately, an array of these CMS elements encompassing different catalysts and membranes were to be developed which would enable improved selectivity and specificity from a compiex mixture of organic gases via pattern recognition methodologies. We have successfully generated a CMS device by a series of spin-coat deposited methods; however, it was determined that the high temperature required to activate the catalyst, destroys the sensor.

  2. Catalytic cracking of lignites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M.; Nowak, S.; Naegler, T.; Zimmermann, J. [Hochschule Merseburg (Germany); Welscher, J.; Schwieger, W. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany); Hahn, T. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    A most important factor for the chemical industry is the availability of cheap raw materials. As the oil price of crude oil is rising alternative feedstocks like coal are coming into focus. This work, the catalytic cracking of lignite is part of the alliance ibi (innovative Braunkohlenintegration) to use lignite as a raw material to produce chemicals. With this new one step process without an input of external hydrogen, mostly propylene, butenes and aromatics and char are formed. The product yield depends on manifold process parameters. The use of acid catalysts (zeolites like MFI) shows the highest amount of the desired products. Hydrogen rich lignites with a molar H/C ratio of > 1 are to be favoured. Due to primary cracking and secondary reactions the ratio between catalyst and lignite, temperature and residence time are the most important parameter to control the product distribution. Experiments at 500 C in a discontinuous rotary kiln reactor show yields up to 32 wt-% of hydrocarbons per lignite (maf - moisture and ash free) and 43 wt-% char, which can be gasified. Particularly, the yields of propylene and butenes as main products can be enhanced four times to about 8 wt-% by the use of catalysts while the tar yield decreases. In order to develop this innovative process catalyst systems fixed on beads were developed for an easy separation and regeneration of the used catalyst from the formed char. (orig.)

  3. Adams natural gas/diesel demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    The results of a ore-year program to demonstrate the viability of fuelling and operating diesel road vehicles on dual fuel natural gas/diesel under commercial operating conditions is presented. During this project a natural gas fuelling station designed to accomodate the specific needs of heavy trucks was constructed, and a Canada Safeway Ltd. tractor was converted to dual fuel natural gas/diesel operation. The truck accumulated more than 64,000 km during the one-year monitoring period, providing useful data in terms of comparative fuel efficiency, natural gas/diesel proportions of fuel use, operating range, and refuelling times, along with assessments of its performance by drivers and fleet management. In the dual fuel mode the truck experienced a 15% loss in thermal efficiency relative to straight diesel fuel during highway operation, and a 20% loss during local operation. Fuel cost savings resulting from the use of natural gas were not large given the increased level of fuel consumption and the purchase of natural gas at higher prices. If the fleet were to have its own natural gas fuelling station fuel cost savings would be substantially increased. Areas in which further development is needed for natural gas to emerge as a significant fuel for heavy trucks are mentioned. 3 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. Catalytic pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Sa, Jacinto

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reports on the latest developments of biomass catalytic pyrolysis for the production of fuels. The primary focus is on the role of catalysts in the process, namely, their influence in the liquefaction of lignocellulosic biomass.

  5. The market for gasoline cars and diesel cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verboven, F.

    1999-01-01

    In Europe the tax tariff is much lower for diesel fuel than for gasoline. This benefit is used by manufacturers to increase the price of diesel-fueled cars, which limits the possibility to control the use of diesel cars by means of a fiscal policy (tax incidence). Attention is paid to the impact of fiscal advantages for diesel cars on the purchasing behavior of the consumer and the pricing policy (price discrimination) of the car manufacturers. 1 ref

  6. energy characteristics of ethanol-diesel mix for automotive use

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work investigates the power output obtained from ethanol- diesel mix from a diesel engine. A 1% to 5% by volume of 99.6% ethanol was mixed with diesel fuel. A 500ml of each mix was used to power a 9.545kW diesel engine and the engine speed, torque, power and specific fuel consumption (sfc) were ...

  7. 40 CFR 80.550 - What is the definition of a motor vehicle diesel fuel small refiner or a NRLM diesel fuel small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel... vehicle diesel fuel small refiner or a NRLM diesel fuel small refiner under this subpart? (a) A motor...-operational between January 1, 1999, and January 1, 2000, may apply for motor vehicle diesel fuel small...

  8. Development of production technology for bio diesel fuel and feasibility test of bio diesel engine (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Y.J.; Ju, U.S.; Park, Y.C. [National Kyung Sang University (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-01

    At the beginning of the 21 st century two urgent tasks which our global countries would face with could be the security of the alternative energy source as a preparation against the fossil energy exhaustion and the development of the clean energy source to protect the environment from pollution. The above two problems should be solved together. The bio diesel oil which is made by methylesterfication of bio oil has very low sulfur content than does the diesel oil. Therefore, there is a great possibility to solve the pollution problem caused by the exhaust gas from diesel engine vehicles. So, bio oil has been attracted with attentions as an alternative and clean energy source. Advanced countries began early to develop the bio diesel oil suitable to their respective conditions. Recently their production stage have reached to the commercial level partially. The sudden increase of energy demand followed by a rapid growth of industry and the serious situation about the environmental pollution caused by the exhaust has from diesel engine vehicles occupying 42% of distribution among all vehicles have called attention of our government to consider the importance of alternative and clean energy sources for the future on the national scale. This study is consisted of three main parts; - The development of production technology for bio diesel oil. - The development of the atomization improvement method and nozzle for high viscous vegetable oils. - Feasibility test of bio diesel engine. (author) 119 refs., 52 tabs., 88 figs.

  9. Diesel biodegradation capacities of indigenous bacterial species isolated from diesel contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, Nandhini; Ramya, Jayaprakash; Kumar, Srilakshman; Vasanthi, Ns; Chandran, Preethy; Khan, Sudheer

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum based products are the major source of energy for industries and daily life. Leaks and accidental spills occur regularly during the exploration, production, refining, transport, and storage of petroleum and petroleum products. In the present study we isolated the bacteria from diesel contaminated soil and screened them for diesel biodegradation capacity. One monoculture isolate identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to be Acinetobacter baumannii was further studied for diesel oil biodegradation. The effects of various culture parameters (pH, temperature, NaCl concentrations, initial hydrocarbon concentration, initial inoculum size, role of chemical surfactant, and role of carbon and nitrogen sources) on biodegradation of diesel oil were evaluated. Optimal diesel oil biodegradation by A. baumanii occurred at initial pH 7, 35°C and initial hydrocarbon concentration at 4%. The biodegradation products under optimal cultural conditions were analyzed by GC-MS. The present study suggests that A. baumannii can be used for effective degradation of diesel oil from industrial effluents contaminated with diesel oil.

  10. Experimental investigations on mixing of two biodiesels blended with diesel as alternative fuel for diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Srithar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The world faces the crises of energy demand, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel resources. Biodiesel has obtained from vegetable oils that have been considered as a promising alternate fuel. The researches regarding blend of diesel and single biodiesel have been done already. Very few works have been done with the combination of two different biodiesel blends with diesel and left a lot of scope in this area. The present study brings out an experiment of two biodiesels from pongamia pinnata oil and mustard oil and they are blended with diesel at various mixing ratios. The effects of dual biodiesel works in engine and exhaust emissions were examined in a single cylinder, direct injection, air cooled and high speed diesel engine at various engine loads with constant engine speed of 3000 rpm. The influences of blends on CO, CO2, HC, NOx and smoke opacity were investigated by emission tests. The brake thermal efficiency of blend A was found higher than diesel. The emissions of smoke, hydro carbon and nitrogen oxides of dual biodiesel blends were higher than that of diesel. But the exhaust gas temperature for dual biodiesel blends was lower than diesel.

  11. The characteristic of spray using diesel water emulsified fuel in a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sangki; Woo, Seungchul; Kim, Hyungik; Lee, Kihyung

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Water in oil emulsion is produced using ceramic membrane. • Surfactant type affect stability performance and droplet size distribution. • Evaporation characteristic of DE is poor compared with neat diesel. • Coefficient of variation maintains below 2.0% both DE and neat diesel. - Abstract: In this study, it was applied to the diesel–water emulsified (DE) fuel that carried out the experiment for the characteristic of sprat using diesel water emulsified fuel in a diesel engine, and the possibility of its application to conventional diesel engines was evaluated from the fundamental characteristics of diesel–water emulsified fuel. According to the results of the spray characteristics such as spray penetration and spray distribution were measured in the experiment, and then analyzed through digital image processing. The DEs were applied to actual diesel engines and their combustion, emission, and fuel consumption characteristics were compared with those of diesel. The results showed that the experiments were confirmed as the spray atomization characteristics at the various emulsified fuels.

  12. Particulate morphology of waste cooking oil biodiesel and diesel in a heavy duty diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Joonsik; Jung, Yongjin; Bae, Choongsik

    2014-08-01

    The effect of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil (WCO) on the particulate matters (PM) of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine was experimentally investigated and compared with commercial diesel fuel. Soot agglomerates were collected with a thermophoretic sampling device installed in the exhaust pipe of the engine. The morphology of soot particles was analyzed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The elemental and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also conducted to study chemical composition of soot particles. Based on the TEM images, it was revealed that the soot derived from WCO biodiesel has a highly graphitic shell-core arrangement compared to diesel soot. The mean size was measured from averaging 400 primary particles for WCO biodiesel and diesel respectively. The values for WCO biodiesel indicated 19.9 nm which was smaller than diesel's 23.7 nm. From the TGA results, WCO biodiesel showed faster oxidation process. While the oxidation of soot particles from diesel continued until 660°C, WCO biodiesel soot oxidation terminated at 560°C. Elemental analysis results showed that the diesel soot was mainly composed of carbon and hydrogen. On the other hand, WCO biodiesel soot contained high amount of oxygen species.

  13. MEA and DEE as additives on diesel engine using waste plastic oil diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pappula Bridjesh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Waste plastic oil (WPO is a standout amongst the most promising alternative fuels for diesel in view of most of its properties similar to diesel. The challenges of waste management and increasing fuel crisis can be addressed while with the production of fuel from plastic wastes. This experimental investigation is an endeavour to supplant diesel at least by 50% with waste plastic oil alongside 2-methoxy ethyl acetate (MEA and diethyl ether (DEE as additives. Test fuels considered in this study are WPO, 50D50W (50%Diesel + 50%WPO, 50D40W10MEA (50%Diesel + 40%WPO + 10%MEA and 50D40W10DEE (50%Diesel + 40%WPO + 10%DEE. The test results are compared with diesel. An increase in brake thermal efficiency and abatement in brake specific fuel consumption are seen with 50D40W10MEA, as well as reduction in hydro carbon, carbon monoxide and smoke emissions. 50D40W10DEE showed reduced NOx emission whereas 50D40W10MEA has almost no impact. Engine performance and emission characteristics under different loads for different test fuels are discussed. Keywords: 2-Methoxy ethyl acetate, Diethyl ether, Waste plastic oil, Pyrolysis

  14. Ni Catalysts Supported on Modified Alumina for Diesel Steam Reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Tribalis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel catalysts are the most popular for steam reforming, however, they have a number of drawbacks, such as high propensity toward coke formation and intolerance to sulfur. In an effort to improve their behavior, a series of Ni-catalysts supported on pure and La-, Ba-, (La+Ba- and Ce-doped γ-alumina has been prepared. The doped supports and the catalysts have been extensively characterized. The catalysts performance was evaluated for steam reforming of n-hexadecane pure or doped with dibenzothiophene as surrogate for sulphur-free or commercial diesel, respectively. The undoped catalyst lost its activity after 1.5 h on stream. Doping of the support with La improved the initial catalyst activity. However, this catalyst was completely deactivated after 2 h on stream. Doping with Ba or La+Ba improved the stability of the catalysts. This improvement is attributed to the increase of the dispersion of the nickel phase, the decrease of the support acidity and the increase of Ni-phase reducibility. The best catalyst of the series doped with La+Ba proved to be sulphur tolerant and stable for more than 160 h on stream. Doping of the support with Ce also improved the catalytic performance of the corresponding catalyst, but more work is needed to explain this behavior.

  15. Mixture preparation by cool flames for diesel-reforming technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, L.; Lucka, K.; Köhne, H.

    The separation of the evaporation from the high-temperature reaction zone is crucial for the reforming process. Unfavorable mixtures of liquid fuels, water and air lead to degradation by local hot spots in the sensitive catalysts and formation of unwanted by-products in the reformer. Furthermore, the evaporator has to work with dynamic changes in the heat transfer, residence times and educt compositions. By using exothermal pre-reactions in the form of cool flames it is possible to realize a complete and residue-free evaporation of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures. The conditions whether cool flames can be stabilised or not is related to the heat release of the pre-reactions in comparison to the heat losses of the system. Examinations were conducted in a flow reactor at atmospheric pressure and changing residence times to investigate the conditions under which stable cool flame operation is possible and auto-ignition or quenching occurs. An energy balance of the evaporator should deliver the values of heat release by cool flames in comparison to the heat losses of the system. The cool flame evaporation is applied in the design of several diesel-reforming processes (thermal and catalytic partial oxidation, autothermal reforming) with different demands in the heat management and operation range (air ratio λ, steam-to-carbon ratio, SCR). The results are discussed at the end of this paper.

  16. Effects of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties and emissions in a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Cuenca, F.; Gomez-Marin, M. [Compania Logistica de Hidrocarburos (CLH), Central Laboratory, Mendez Alvaro 44, 28045 Madrid (Spain); Folgueras-Diaz, M.B., E-mail: belenfd@uniovi.es [Department of Energy, University of Oviedo, Independencia 13, 33004 Oviedo (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties. {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel engine specific consumption and emissions. {yields} Blends with {<=}4 wt.% of oxygen do not change substantially diesel fuel quality. {yields} Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% of oxygen reduce CO and HC emissions, but not smoke. - Abstract: The effect of ethylene glycol ethers on both the diesel fuel characteristics and the exhaust emissions (CO, NO{sub x}, smoke and hydrocarbons) from a diesel engine was studied. The ethers used were monoethylene glycol ethyl ether (EGEE), monoethylene glycol butyl ether (EGBE), diethylene glycol ethyl ether (DEGEE). The above effect was studied in two forms: first by determining the modification of base diesel fuel properties by using blends with oxygen concentration around 4 wt.%, and second by determining the emission reductions for blends with low oxygen content (1 wt.%) and with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen content. The addition of DEGEE enhances base diesel fuel cetane number, but EGEE and EGBE decrease it. For concentrations of {>=}4 wt.% of oxygen, EGEE and diesel fuel can show immiscibility problems at low temperatures ({<=}0 {sup o}C). Also, every oxygenated compound, according to its boiling point, modifies the distillation curve at low temperatures and the distillate percentage increases. These compounds have a positive effect on diesel fuel lubricity, and slightly decrease its viscosity. Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% oxygen concentrations were used in order to determine their influence on emissions at both full and medium loads and different engine speeds. Generally, all compounds help to reduce CO, and hydrocarbon emissions, but not smoke. The best results were obtained for blends with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen. At this concentration, the additive efficiency in decreasing order was EGEE > DEGEE > EGBE for CO emissions and DGEE > EGEE > EGBE for hydrocarbon emissions. For NO{sub x}, both its behaviour and the

  17. Desempenho comparativo de um motor de ciclo diesel utilizando diesel e misturas de biodiesel Comparative performance of a cycle diesel engine using diesel and biodiesel mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Leite Barbosa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Os atuais elevados preços do barril de petróleo no mercado internacional, a possibilidade de geração de postos de trabalho e renda com a conseqüente fixação do homem no campo, as excelentes e variadas condições climáticas e os tipos de relevo fazem com que o Brasil, com suas extensas áreas agricultáveis, destaque-se no cenário mundial em relação à sua grande potencialidade de geração de combustíveis alternativos. A situação ambiental faz com que o ser humano trabalhe no desenvolvimento de alternativas energéticas, destacando-se aquelas oriundas de fontes renováveis e biodegradáveis de caráter eminentemente sustentável. Assim, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o desempenho de um motor ciclo diesel, funcionando em momentos distintos com diesel mineral e misturas deste com biodiesel nas proporções equivalentes a B2 (98% de diesel mineral e 2% de biodiesel, B5 (95% de diesel mineral e 5% de biodiesel, B20 (80% de diesel mineral e 20% de biodiesel e B100 (100% de biodiesel. Para a realização dos ensaios, foi utilizado um motor ciclo diesel de um trator VALMET 85 id, de 58,2kW (78 cv, de acordo com metodologia estabelecida pela norma NBR 5484 da ABNT (1985 que se refere ao ensaio dinamométrico de motores de ciclo Otto e Diesel. Concluiu-se que a potência do motor ao se utilizar biodiesel foi inferior àquela quando se utilizou diesel mineral. Observou-se que, em algumas rotações, as misturas B5 e B20 apresentaram potência igual ou até superior, em algumas situações, àquela quando se utilizou diesel mineral. A melhor eficiência térmica do motor foi verificada na rotação de 540 rpm da TDP equivalente a 1720 rpm do motor.It is considered that, in a close future, the petroleum reservations economically viable will tend to the shortage. Besides it, the exacerbated current price levels of the petroleum barrel in the international market, the possibility of employment generation and income with the consequent

  18. Rudolf Diesel – The Rational Inventor of a Heat Engine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By the time he was 14, Diesel decided he wanted to be an engineer so in his last year of schooling, ... developing refrigeration and gas separation technologies. Diesel worked in Linde's lab and by ... recovered from the illness that year, Diesel spent six months working in the factory of the Sulzer. Brothers Ltd. in Winterthur, ...

  19. Bio-diesel: A candidate for a Nigeria energy mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eze, T.; Dim, L. A.; Funtua, I. I.; Oladipo, M. O. A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a review of bio-diesel development and economic potentials. The basics of biodiesel and its production technology are described. Attention is given to development potential, challenges and prospests of bio-diesel in Nigeria with ground facts on bio-diesel production feasibility in Nigeria highlighted.

  20. Potential of Sagittaria trifolia for Phytoremediation of Diesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinying; Wang, Jun; Liu, Xiaoyan; Gu, Lingfeng; Hou, Yunyun; He, Chiquan; Chen, Xueping; Liang, Xia

    2015-01-01

    The phytoremediation potential and responses of Sagittaria trifolia to diesel were investigated. In order to elucidate the biochemical and physiological responses of S. trifolia to diesel, the chlorophyll content, root vitality, soluble protein content and antioxidant enzymes activity (peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were determined in the plant tissues after 50 d of diesel treatment. The results showed the presence of S. trifolia significantly improved the removal ratios of diesel, from 21∼36% in the control soils to 54∼85% in the planted soils. The chlorophyll content, root vitality and soluble protein content all increased at low diesel concentration, then decreased at high diesel concentration. The activities of CAT and POD exhibited peak values at 5 g·kg(-1) diesel treatment and declined at higher diesel concentrations. However, the activity of SOD kept stable at lower diesel concentration (1 and 5 g·kg(-1)), and also declined at higher diesel concentration. Collectively, S. trifolia had the ability to tolerate certain amount of diesel, but when the concentration was up to 10 g·kg(-1), the growth of S. trifolia would be restrained. The results also showed that variation of antioxidant enzyme activity was an important response in plants to diesel pollution.

  1. 40 CFR 86.336-79 - Diesel engine test cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine test cycle. 86.336-79... New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.336-79 Diesel engine test cycle. (a) The following 13-mode cycle shall be followed in dynamometer operation...

  2. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section 58.10-10... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations...

  3. 40 CFR 69.51 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 69.51... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL EXEMPTIONS FROM REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLEAN AIR ACT Alaska § 69.51 Motor vehicle diesel... motor vehicle diesel fuel standards and dye provisions under 40 CFR 80.520 and associated requirements...

  4. 7 CFR 2902.13 - Diesel fuel additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Items § 2902.13 Diesel fuel additives. (a) Definition. (1) Any substance, other than one composed solely of carbon and/or hydrogen, that is intentionally added to diesel fuel (including any added to a motor... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Diesel fuel additives. 2902.13 Section 2902.13...

  5. Emission characteristics of a diesel engine using waste cooking oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the use of waste cooking oil (WCO) methyl ester as an alternative fuel in a four-stroke turbo diesel engine with four cylinders, direct injection and 85 HP was analyzed. A test was applied in which an engine was fueled with diesel and three different blends of diesel/biodiesel (B25, B50 and B75) made from WCO.

  6. Emission characterization of diesel engine run on coconut oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of biodiesel in running diesel has been called for, with a view to mitigating the environmental pollution, depletion, cost and scarcity associated with the use diesel in running diesel engine. So the need to characterize the emissions from these biodiesel, cannot be overemphasized, hence this paper presents the ...

  7. Diesel degradation and biosurfactant production by Gram-positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... This study clearly demonstrates that Gram-positive biosurfactant producing bacteria are effective in diesel degradation. Key words: Diesel, biodegradation, Paenibacillus sp., Stenotrophomonas sp., Gram-positive bacteria, biosurfactant. INTRODUCTION. Hydrocarbons such as diesel fuel, crude oil and.

  8. Investigation and Modelling of Diesel Hydrotreating Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Rasmus Risum

    This project consists of a series of studies, that are related to hydrotreating of diesel. Hy- drotreating is an important refinery process, in which the oil stream is upgraded to meet the required environmental specifications and physical properties. Although hydrotreating is a ma- ture technology...... it has received increased attention within the last decade due to tightened legislations regarding the sulfur content, e.g. the demand for Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) with a maximum sulfur content of as low as 10 ppm S has increased. The process is complex, as the performance of a hydrotreating...... due to a stronger adsorption on hydrogenation sites. Since feeds used in the hydrotreating process, usually gas-oils, are complex mixtures with a large number of compounds, analysis of the reactions of individual compounds can be difficult. In this work a model-diesel feed consisting of 13 different...

  9. Thermal barrier coatings - Technology for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.H.; Lutz, J.

    1988-01-01

    Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) are a development of the aerospace industry primarily aimed at hot gas flow paths in turbine engines. TBC consists of zirconia ceramic coatings applied over (M)CrAlY. These coatings can provide three benefits: (1) a reduction of metal surface operating temperatures, (2) a deterrent to hot gas corrosion, and (3) improved thermal efficiencies. TBC brings these same benefits to reciprocal diesel engines but coating longevity must be demonstrated. Diesels require thicker deposits and have challenging geometries for the arc-plasma spray (APS) deposition process. Different approaches to plasma spraying TBC are required for diesels, especially where peripheral edge effects play a major role. Bondcoats and ceramic top coats are modified to provide extended life as determined by burner rig tests, using ferrous and aluminum substrates

  10. New perspectives for advanced automobile diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, L.; Sekar, R.; Kamo, R.; Wood, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Computer simulation results are presented for advanced automobile diesel engine performance. Four critical factors for performance enhancement were identified: (1) part load preheating and exhaust gas energy recovery, (2) fast heat release combustion process, (3) reduction in friction, and (4) air handling system efficiency. Four different technology levels were considered in the analysis. Simulation results are compared in terms of brake specific fuel consumption and vehicle fuel economy in km/liter (miles per gallon). Major critical performance sensitivity areas are: (1) combustion process, (2) expander and compressor efficiency, and (3) part load preheating and compound system. When compared to the state of the art direct injection, cooled, automobile diesel engine, the advanced adiabatic compound engine concept showed the unique potential of doubling the fuel economy. Other important performance criteria such as acceleration, emissions, reliability, durability and multifuel capability are comparable to or better than current passenger car diesel engines.

  11. Restoring diesel engine camshafts by laser treatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astashkevich, B. M.; Zinov'ev, G. S.; Voronin, I. N.

    1996-12-01

    The reliability of parts of the gas-distributing mechanism and drives of fuel pumps determines to a great degree the operating conditions of cylinder-piston parts and the economic characteristics of diesel engines. Intense wear of the camshaft pair disturbs the distribution phases and the lead angle of fuel supply to the diesel cylinders and increases the rigidity of the operation of the connecting rod-piston group. This causes incomplete combustion of fuel and fuming, a rise in the temperature of exhaust gases, sticking of the rings in the piston grooves and their premature failure, wear cracks, and chips and failure of the parts of the cylinder-piston unit, decreasing the efficiency of the diesel. Laser surface treatment is used to restore cams. It makes it possible to increase substantially the wear resistance of cams and restore their worn surfaces. This paper concerns the characteristics of the cams after such a treatment.

  12. The influence of propylene glycol ethers on base diesel properties and emissions from a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Cuenca, F.; Gómez-Marín, M.; Folgueras-Díaz, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of propylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties. • Effect of these compounds on diesel engine performance and emissions. • Blends with ⩽4 wt.% of oxygen do not change substantially diesel fuel quality. • Blends with ⩽2.5 wt.% of oxygen reduce CO, HC and NOx emissions, but not smoke. • These compounds are helpful to reach a cleaner combustion in a diesel engine. - Abstract: The oxygenated additives propylene glycol methyl ether (PGME), propylene glycol ethyl ether (PGEE), dipropylene glycol methyl ether (DPGME) were studied to determine their influence on both the base diesel fuel properties and the exhaust emissions from a diesel engine (CO, NOx, unburnt hydrocarbons and smoke). For diesel blends with low oxygen content (⩽4.0 wt.%), the addition of these compounds to base diesel fuel decreases aromatic content, kinematic viscosity, cold filter plugging point and Conradson carbon residue. Also, each compound modifies the distillation curve at temperatures below the corresponding oxygenated compound boiling point, the distillate percentage being increased. The blend cetane number depends on the type of propylene glycol ether added, its molecular weight, and the oxygen content of the fuel. The addition of PGME decreased slightly diesel fuel cetane number, while PGEE and DPGME increased it. Base diesel fuel-propylene glycol ether blends with 1.0 and 2.5 wt.% oxygen contents were used in order to determine the performance of the diesel engine and its emissions at both full and medium loads and different engine speeds (1000, 2500 and 4000 rpm). In general, at full load and in comparison with base diesel fuel, the blends show a slight reduction of oxygen-free specific fuel consumption. CO emissions are reduced appreciably for 2.5 wt.% of oxygen blends, mainly for PGEE and DPGME. NOx emissions are reduced slightly, but not the smoke. Unburnt hydrocarbon emissions decrease at 1000 and 2500 rpm, but not at 4000 rpm. At medium load

  13. Soft start technique for diesel generator sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredlund, Lars

    1986-01-01

    A diesel motor in a nuclear power plant should be of a well-proven design. It is designed for long periods of trouble-free duty, but not for the frequent and rapid test starts called for by the technical specifications. In order to decrease the dynamic forces and thermal stresses, a soft-start scheme has been implemented. By limiting the fuel injection the diesel generator will reach full speed in appr. 30 seconds. The fuel limiter is a pneumatic cylinder which mechanically limits the travel of the terminal shaft of the governor. (author)

  14. Neutron Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strzelec, Andrea; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Finney, Charles E.A.; Daw, C. Stuart; Foster, Dave; Rutland, Christopher J.; Schillinger, Burkhard; Schulz, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article presents nondestructive neutron computed tomography (nCT) measurements of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) as a method to measure ash and soot loading in the filters. Uncatalyzed and unwashcoated 200cpsi cordierite DPFs exposed to 100% biodiesel (B100) exhaust and conventional ultra low sulfur 2007 certification diesel (ULSD) exhaust at one speed-load point (1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP) are compared to a brand new (never exposed) filter. Precise structural information about the substrate as well as an attempt to quantify soot and ash loading in the channel of the DPF illustrates the potential strength of the neutron imaging technique

  15. Performance of ceramic coatings on diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacAdam, S.; Levy, A.

    1986-01-01

    Partially stabilized zirconia ceramic thermal barrier coatings were plasma sprayed on the valve faces and tulips and the piston crowns and cylinder heads of a locomotive size diesel engine at a designated thickness of 375μm (0.015''). They were tested over a range of throttle settings for 500 hours using No. 2 diesel oil fuel. Properly applied coatings performed with no change in composition, morphology or thickness. Improperly applied coatings underwent spalling durability was dependent on quality control of the plasma spray process

  16. An evaluation of fuels and retrofit diesel particulate filters to reduce diesel particulate matter emissions in an underground mine

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wattrus, MC

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available level compliant) and a diesel containing 500ppm sulphur. Comprehensive engine exhaust emissions tests were carried out in a test cell on seven diesel fuels and two retrofitted diesel particulate filters. For each evaluation, the engine was operated over...

  17. Experimental investigation on cyclic variability, engine performance and exhaust emissions in a diesel engine using alcohol-diesel fuel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurgen Samet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impacts of using n-butanol-diesel fuel and ethanol-diesel fuel blends on engine performance, exhaust emission, and cycle-by-cycle variation in a Diesel engine. The engine was operated at two different engine speed and full load condition with pure diesel fuel, 5% and 10% (by vol. ethanol and n-butanol fuel blends. The coefficient of variation of indicated mean effective pressure was used to evaluate the cyclic variability of n-butanol-diesel fuel and ethanol-diesel fuel blends. The results obtained in this study showed that effective efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption generally increased with the use of the n-butanol-diesel fuel or ethanol-diesel fuel blends with respect to that of the neat diesel fuel. The addition of ethanol or n-butanol to diesel fuel caused a decrement in CO and NOx emissions. Also, the results indicated that cycle-by-cycle variation has an increasing trend with the increase of alcohol-diesel blending ratio for all engine speed. An increase in cyclic variability of alcohol-diesel fuel blends at low engine speed is higher than that of high engine speed.

  18. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXX, I--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE SUMMARY, II--REIEWING FACTS ABOUT ALTERNATORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE A SUMMARY OF DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE FACTORS AND A REVIEW OF DIESEL ENGINE ALTERNATOR OPERATION. THE SEVEN SECTIONS COVER DIESEL ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING AND THE OPERATION, TESTING, AND ADJUSTING OF ALTERNATORS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM…

  19. Experimental evaluation of the performance and emissions of diesel engines using blends of crude castor oil and diesel; Avaliacao experimental do desempenho e emissoes de motores diesel usando misturas de oleo de mamona e oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Valeria Said de Barros; Pereira, Pedro Paulo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Belchior, Carlos Rodrigues Pereira [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Oceanica

    2004-07-01

    This work refers to the experimental evaluation of diesel generators operating with blend of crude castor oil and diesel. Performance and emissions tests were accomplished in a diesel engine of direct injection. Because of the high viscosity of the blend a device was installed on the engine in order to lower the blend viscosity. A comprehensive analysis of the results obtained in these tests indicates the possibility of use of the blend of castor oil and diesel as fuel for diesel-generators, with modifications introduced in the engines. (author)

  20. Experience with emergency diesels at the Swiss NPP Goesgen (KKG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, W.

    1986-01-01

    The Goesgen nuclear power plant, a 970 MWe KWU pressurized water reactor, is fitted with 4 x 50 X emergency diesels and 2 x 100 % special emergency (Notstand) diesel units. Since the start-up tests of the diesels in 1977 several severe incidents occurred. As a consequence, different back-fitting actions were taken on the diesels and the emergency electrical System. The presentation will treat the following subjects: - lay-out of the onsite electrical power sources, - experiences and problems, - back-fitting measures, - periodic testing of the diesels. (author)

  1. System for exposing animals to radiolabeled diesel exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, J.A.; Wolf, I.; Wolff, R.K.; Sun, J.D.; Mokler, B.V.

    1981-01-01

    One approach to determining the deposition and fate of inhaled diesel particles is the conduct of inhalation exposure studies with radiolabeled diesel fuel. A system was designed, constructed and tested for the simultaneous exposure of animals to radiolabeled diesel exhaust and collection of large quantities of radiolabeled diesel exhaust particles from a single cylinder diesel engine. The system performance was characterized and evaluated over a range of operating conditions: 0 to 1800 watts of engine load, 1000 to 2500 rpm and dilution air rates of 1:2 and 1:10. The exposure system met required design and operating criteria for safety, portability, space and flexibility

  2. Diesel engine emissions and performance from blends of karanja methyl ester and diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raheman, H.; Phadatare, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of investigations carried out in studying the fuel properties of karanja methyl ester (KME) and its blend with diesel from 20% to 80% by volume and in running a diesel engine with these fuels. Engine tests have been carried out with the aim of obtaining comparative measures of torque, power, specific fuel consumption and emissions such as CO, smoke density and NO x to evaluate and compute the behaviour of the diesel engine running on the above-mentioned fuels. The reduction in exhaust emissions together with increase in torque, brake power, brake thermal efficiency and reduction in brake-specific fuel consumption made the blends of karanja esterified oil (B20 and B40) a suitable alternative fuel for diesel and could help in controlling air pollution. (author)

  3. Diesel-Minimal Combustion Control of a Natural Gas-Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Zurbriggen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the combustion phasing control of natural gas-diesel engines. In this study, the combustion phasing is influenced by manipulating the start and the duration of the diesel injection. Instead of using both degrees of freedom to control the center of combustion only, we propose a method that simultaneously controls the combustion phasing and minimizes the amount of diesel used. Minimizing the amount of diesel while keeping the center of combustion at a constant value is formulated as an optimization problem with an equality constraint. A combination of feedback control and extremum seeking is used to solve this optimization problem online. The necessity to separate the different time scales is discussed and a structure is proposed that facilitates this separation for this specific example. The proposed method is validated by experiments on a test bench.

  4. [Particulate distribution characteristics of Chinese phrase V diesel engine based on butanol-diesel blends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Di-Ming; Xu, Ning; Fan, Wen-Jia; Zhang, Tao

    2014-02-01

    With a common rail diesel engine without any modification and the engine exhaust particle number and particle size analyzer EEPS, this study used the air-fuel ratio to investigate the particulate number concentration, mass concentration and number distribution characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with butanol-diesel blends (Bu10, Bu15, Bu20, Bu30 and Bu40) and petroleum diesel. The results show: for all test fuels, the particle number distributions turn to be unimodal. With the increasing of butanol, numbers of nucleation mode particles and small accumulation mode particle decrease. At low speed and low load conditions, the number of large accumulation mode particle increases slightly, but under higher speed and load conditions, the number does not increase. When the fuels contain butanol, the total particle number concentration and mass concentration in all conditions decrease and that is more obvious at high speed load.

  5. Catalytic activity of molybdenum carbide for hydrogen generation via diesel reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheekatamarla, Praveen K.; Thomson, William J.

    The activity of a bulk molybdenum carbide catalyst for the steam (SR) and oxidative-steam reforming (OSR) of hexadecane has been studied with and without the presence of aromatic coke precursors and sulfur compounds. It is shown that this catalyst can be stable under very low steam:carbon ratios at temperatures as low as 885 °C under OSR conditions, and 965 °C under SR conditions. Using benzo-thiophene as a model sulfur compound at concentrations as high as 500 ppmw, the degree of deactivation was found to be dependent on the sulfur concentration but was minimal at concentrations below 100 ppmw. Experiments confirmed that the sulfur poisoning is reversible and characterization studies suggested the formation of sulfur entities, which lead to carbide oxidation and subsequent coking. There was minimal effect of the aromatic species on the catalyst stability.

  6. Green energy: Water-containing acetone–butanol–ethanol diesel blends fueled in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Wang, Lin-Chi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Water-containing ABE solution (W-ABE) in the diesel is a stable fuel blends. • W-ABE can enhance the energy efficiency of diesel engine and act as a green energy. • W-ABE can reduce the PM, NOx, and PAH emissions very significantly. • The W-ABE can be manufactured from waste bio-mass without competition with food. • The W-ABE can be produced without dehydration process and no surfactant addition. - Abstract: Acetone–Butanol–Ethanol (ABE) is considered a “green” energy resource because it emits less carbon than many other fuels and is produced from biomass that is non-edible. To simulate the use of ABE fermentation products without dehydration and no addition of surfactants, a series of water-containing ABE-diesel blends were investigated. By integrating the diesel engine generator (DEG) and diesel engine dynamometer (DED) results, it was found that a diesel emulsion with 20 vol.% ABE-solution and 0.5 vol.% water (ABE20W0.5) enhanced the brake thermal efficiencies (BTE) by 3.26–8.56%. In addition, the emissions of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the toxicity equivalency of PAHs (BaP eq ) were reduced by 5.82–61.6%, 3.69–16.4%, 0.699–31.1%, and 2.58–40.2%, respectively, when compared to regular diesel. These benefits resulted from micro-explosion mechanisms, which were caused by water-in-oil droplets, the greater ABE oxygen content, and the cooling effect that is caused by the high vaporization heat of water-containing ABE. Consequently, ABE20W0.5, which is produced by environmentally benign processes (without dehydration and no addition of surfactants), can be a good alternative to diesel because it can improve energy efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions

  7. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Blended Crude Jatropha Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Azhar; Mohd Sazali, Nor Shahida Akma; Mohd Ali, Mas Fauzi; Alimin, Ahmad Jais; Khir, Saffiah Abdullah

    2010-06-01

    Vegetable oil presents a very promising alternative to diesel oil since it is renewable and has similar properties to the diesel. In view of this, crude jatropha oil is selected and its viscosity is reduced by blending it with diesel. Since jatropha oil has properties which are similar to mineral diesel, it can be used in compression ignition engines without any engine modification. This paper presents the results of investigation carried out on a four-cylinder, four strokes and indirect-injection diesel engine. The engine, operated using composition blends of crude jatropha oil and diesel, were compared with mineral diesel. An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the performance characteristics of a compression ignition engine from the blended fuel (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%). A naturally aspirated four-stroke indirect injection diesel engine was tested at full load conditions, speeds between 1000 and 3500 rpm with intervals of 500 rpm. Results obtained from the measures of torque, power, specific fuel consumptions, thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure are nearly the same between blended and diesel fuel. An overall graph shows that the performance of relevant parameters from blended fuel is most likely similar to the performance produced from diesel. The experimental results proved that the use of crude jatropha oil in compression ignition engines is a viable alternative to diesel.

  8. Enhanced microbubbles assisted cleaning of diesel contaminated sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashutosh; Liu, Yu

    2017-11-15

    In this article, we investigated the effect of low intensity pulsed ultrasound (US), temperature and salinity on cleaning efficacy of fine bubbles with diameter diesel contaminated sands. About 47% and 76% diesel removal was achieved from 10% (w/w) diesel contaminated fine and medium sands respectively, after 30min treatment with 40kHz low intensity intermittent pulsed US together with MBs in contrast to 41% and 68% diesel removal while treatment with MBs alone. The effect of high temperature was found to be prominent during the initial stages of cleaning. In addition, MBs generated in 599mM saline water efficiently removed 85% diesel from fine sand within 30min in contrast to only 41% diesel removal with MBs in fresh water. This study provides evidence for developing highly efficient MBs based chemical free technology for diesel contaminated sediments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Phytoremediation of subarctic soil contaminated with diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmroth, M.R.T.; Puhakka, J.A. [Tampere University of Technology (Finland). Institute of Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology; Pichtel, J. [Ball State University, Muncie, IN (United States). Natural Resources and Environmental Management

    2002-09-01

    The effects of several plant species, native to northern latitudes, and different soil amendments, on diesel fuel removal from soil were studied. Plant treatments included Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris), Poplar (Populus deltoides x Wettsteinii), a grass mixture (Red fescue, Festuca rubra; Smooth meadowgrass, Poa pratensis and Perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne) and a legume mixture (White clover, Trifolium repens and Pea, Pisum sativum). Soil amendments included NPK fertiliser, a compost extract and a microbial enrichment culture. Diesel fuel disappeared more rapidly in the legume treatment than in other plant treatments. The presence of poplar and pine enhanced removal of diesel fuel, but removal under grass was similar to that with no vegetation. Soil amendments did not enhance diesel fuel removal significantly. Grass roots accumulated diesel-range compounds. This study showed that utilisation of selected plants accelerates removal of diesel fuel in soil and may serve as a viable, low-cost remedial technology for diesel-contaminated soils in subarctic regions. (author)

  10. Emergency diesel dynamic diagnosis system of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, S. M.; Jung, H. S.; Kim, T. W.; Kim, K. J.; Choi, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    An emergency diesel generator of nuclear power plant should supply the rated power to safety class load within a limited time, if a station black out occurs. The emergency diesel generator must have higher reliability than any other industrial diesel generator due to nuclear safety. Most of the problems of the emergency diesel generator were trade off between stability and performance in control system. From the viewpoint of nuclear safety, the performance such as start time and load sequence time was more focused than stability. From the viewpoint of overall reliability, however, performance and stability of control system were equally important. The emergency diesel dynamic diagnosis system was developed in order to tune a dynamic control parameter optimally, verify a static engine parameter, and assist a human decision making. The emergency diesel dynamic diagnosis system really improved the reliability of the emergency diesel generator of the nuclear power plant

  11. Catalytic bioreactors and methods of using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Robert Mark; Liu, Yangmu Chloe

    2017-07-25

    Various embodiments provide a bioreactor for producing a bioproduct comprising one or more catalytically active zones located in a housing and adapted to keep two incompatible gaseous reactants separated when in a gas phase, wherein each of the one or more catalytically active zones may comprise a catalytic component retainer and a catalytic component retained within and/or thereon. Each of the catalytically active zones may additionally or alternatively comprise a liquid medium located on either side of the catalytic component retainer. Catalytic component may include a microbial cell culture located within and/or on the catalytic component retainer, a suspended catalytic component suspended in the liquid medium, or a combination thereof. Methods of using various embodiments of the bioreactor to produce a bioproduct, such as isobutanol, are also provided.

  12. Evaluation of the Use of Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Oil for an Emergency Diesel Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Young-Chul; Chung, Woo-Geun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the compatibility and effect on driving an emergency diesel generator using ULSD examining the specific gravity and lubricity of the oil. Because generators at NPPs use ULSD which is not mostly used for medium-large diesel generator engines, this study seeks to provide effective precautions for the driving stability of emergency diesel generators. One of the major fuel oils used in medium-large diesel engines for the normal driving of vessels and the generation of emergency power at power plants is heavy fuel oil. There are no vessels and power generation engines known to use high-quality diesel oil which is widely used in cars. The findings of this study suggest that when driving a diesel generator, there will be increased fuel consumption by 3.6% [m 3 /hr.]. Furthermore, the mechanical fuel limiter on the engine needs an upward adjustment because the system is set for 110% load operations for the former LSD fuel. Both LSD and ULSD retain lubricity with a WSD around 330~350μm. These results clearly show that bad lubricity problems are not expected to occur. We had presumed an increased amount of foreign particulates because of the increased additives for high lubricity and oxidative stability

  13. Evaluation of the Use of Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Oil for an Emergency Diesel Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Young-Chul; Chung, Woo-Geun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this study is to assess the compatibility and effect on driving an emergency diesel generator using ULSD examining the specific gravity and lubricity of the oil. Because generators at NPPs use ULSD which is not mostly used for medium-large diesel generator engines, this study seeks to provide effective precautions for the driving stability of emergency diesel generators. One of the major fuel oils used in medium-large diesel engines for the normal driving of vessels and the generation of emergency power at power plants is heavy fuel oil. There are no vessels and power generation engines known to use high-quality diesel oil which is widely used in cars. The findings of this study suggest that when driving a diesel generator, there will be increased fuel consumption by 3.6% [m{sup 3}/hr.]. Furthermore, the mechanical fuel limiter on the engine needs an upward adjustment because the system is set for 110% load operations for the former LSD fuel. Both LSD and ULSD retain lubricity with a WSD around 330~350μm. These results clearly show that bad lubricity problems are not expected to occur. We had presumed an increased amount of foreign particulates because of the increased additives for high lubricity and oxidative stability.

  14. An Experimental Investigation of Ethanol-Diesel Blends on Performance and Exhaust Emissions of Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarkan Sandalcı

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is a promising alternative fuel, due to its renewable biobased origin. Also, it has lower carbon content than diesel fuel and it is oxygenated. For this reason, ethanol is providing remarkable potential to reduce particulate emulsions in compression-ignition engines. In this study, performance of ethanol-diesel blends has been investigated experimentally. Tested fuels were mineral diesel fuel (E0D100, 15% (v/v ethanol/diesel fuel blend (E15D85, and 30% (v/v ethanol/diesel fuel blend (E30D70. Firstly, the solubility of ethanol and diesel was experienced. Engine tests were carried out to reveal the performance and emissions of the engine fuelled with the blends. Full load operating conditions at various engine speeds were investigated. Engine brake torque, brake power, brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature, and finally exhaust emissions were measured. Performance of the tested engine decreased substantially while improvement on smoke and gaseous emissions makes ethanol blend favorable.

  15. Engineering Clostridium acetobutylicum for production of kerosene and diesel blendstock precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, Sebastian; Baer, Zachary C; Sreekumar, Sanil; Kuchenreuther, Jon M; Dean Toste, F; Blanch, Harvey W; Clark, Douglas S

    2014-09-01

    Processes for the biotechnological production of kerosene and diesel blendstocks are often economically unattractive due to low yields and product titers. Recently, Clostridium acetobutylicum fermentation products acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) were shown to serve as precursors for catalytic upgrading to higher chain-length molecules that can be used as fuel substitutes. To produce suitable kerosene and diesel blendstocks, the butanol:acetone ratio of fermentation products needs to be increased to 2-2.5:1, while ethanol production is minimized. Here we show that the overexpression of selected proteins changes the ratio of ABE products relative to the wild type ATCC 824 strain. Overexpression of the native alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenase (AAD) has been reported to primarily increase ethanol formation in C. acetobutylicum. We found that overexpression of the AAD(D485G) variant increased ethanol titers by 294%. Catalytic upgrading of the 824(aad(D485G)) ABE products resulted in a blend with nearly 50wt%≤C9 products, which are unsuitable for diesel. To selectively increase butanol production, C. beijerinckii aldehyde dehydrogenase and C. ljungdhalii butanol dehydrogenase were co-expressed (strain designate 824(Cb ald-Cl bdh)), which increased butanol titers by 27% to 16.9gL(-1) while acetone and ethanol titers remained essentially unaffected. The solvent ratio from 824(Cb ald-Cl bdh) resulted in more than 80wt% of catalysis products having a carbon chain length≥C11 which amounts to 9.8gL(-1) of products suitable as kerosene or diesel blendstock based on fermentation volume. To further increase solvent production, we investigated expression of both native and heterologous chaperones in C. acetobutylicum. Expression of a heat shock protein (HSP33) from Bacillus psychrosaccharolyticus increased the total solvent titer by 22%. Co-expression of HSP33 and aldehyde/butanol dehydrogenases further increased ABE formation as well as acetone and butanol yields. HSP33 was

  16. Characteristics of Waste Plastics Pyrolytic Oil and Its Applications as Alternative Fuel on Four Cylinder Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosal Nugroho Pratama

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Waste plastics recycling using pyrolysis method is not only able to decrease a number of environment pollutant but also able to produce economical and high quality hydrocarbon products. Two experiments were conducted to completely study Waste Plastic Pyrolytic Oil (WPPO characteristics and its applications.  First experiment investigated oil characteristics derived from pyrolysis process in two stages batch reactors: pyrolysis and catalytic reforming reactor, at maximum temperature 500oC and 450oC respectively. Waste Polyethylene (PE, Polypropylene (PP, Polystyrene (PS, Polyethylene Terepthalate (PET and others were used as raw material. Nitrogen flow rate at 0.8 l/minutes was used to increase oil weight percentage. Indonesian natural zeolite was used as catalyst. Then, second experiment was carried out on Diesel Engine Test Bed (DETB used blending of WPPO and Biodiesel fuel with a volume ratio of 1:9. This experiment was specifically conducted to study how much potency of blending of WPPO and biodiesel in diesel engine. The result of first experiment showed that the highest weight percentage of WPPO derived from mixture of PE waste (50%wt, PP waste (40%wt and PS waste (10%wt is 45.13%wt. The more weight percentage of PE in feedstock effected on the less weight percentage of WPPO, the more percentage of C12-C20 content in WPPO and the higher calorific value of WPPO. Characteristics of WPPO such as, Specific Gravity, Flash point, Pour Point, Kinematic Viscosity, Calorific value and percentage of C12-C20 showed interesting result that WPPO could be developed as alternative fuel on diesel fuel blending due to the proximity of their characteristics. Performance of diesel engine using blending of WPPO and biodiesel on second experiment gave good result so the WPPO will have great potency to be valuable alternative liquid fuel in future, especially on stationary diesel engine and transportation engine application.

  17. Jatropha bio-diesel production and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achten, W.M.J.; Verchot, L.; Franken, Y.J.; Mathijs, E.; Singh, V.P.; Aerts, R.; Muys, B.

    2008-01-01

    The interest in using Jatropha curcas L. (JCL) as a feedstock for the production of bio-diesel is rapidly growing. The properties of the crop and its oil have persuaded investors, policy makers and clean development mechanism (CDM) project developers to consider JCL as a substitute for fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, JCL is still a wild plant of which basic agronomic properties are not thoroughly understood and the environmental effects have not been investigated yet. Gray literature reports are very optimistic on simultaneous wasteland reclamation capability and oil yields, further fueling the Jatropha bio-diesel hype. In this paper, we give an overview of the currently available information on the different process steps of the production process of bio-diesel from JCL, being cultivation and production of seeds, extraction of the oil, conversion to and the use of the bio-diesel and the by-products. Based on this collection of data and information the best available practice, the shortcomings and the potential environmental risks and benefits are discussed for each production step. The review concludes with a call for general precaution and for science to be applied

  18. Autonomous photovoltaic-diesel power system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calloway, T. M.

    A methodology for designing an autonomous photovoltaic power system in conjunction with a diesel-fueled electric generator and a battery has been developed. Any photovoltaic array energy not utilized immediately by the load is stored in the battery bank. The diesel generator set is operated periodically at 14-day intervals to ensure its availability and occasionally as needed during winter to supplement combined output from the array and battery. It is hypothesized that logistical support is infrequent, so the hybrid photovoltaic-diesel power system is designed to consume only 10% as much fuel as would a diesel-only system. This constraint is used to generate a set of possible combinations of array area and battery energy storage capacity. For each combination, a battery-life model predicts the time interval between battery replacements by deducting the fraction of total life consumed each day. An economic model then produces life-cycle system cost. Repeating this process for different combinations of array area and battery capacity identifies the minimum-cost system design.

  19. Safety implications of diesel generator aging management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoopingarner, K.R.

    1989-01-01

    Significant safety improvements can be achieved in diesel-generator management related to aging, testing, and other important regulatory concerns. This paper reports on the progress of aging research related to nuclear service diesel generators, which developed data and information supporting the recommended safety improvements. The key to diesel-generator safety improvements is the development of a new balanced approach where testing, inspections, monitoring and trending, training, and maintenance all have appropriate importance. Safety improvement is projected in a management program that concurrently achieves three goals: first, the reduction of the fast-start stressor by regulatory and utility actions; second, the establishment of more appropriate testing and trending procedures; third, the adoption and use of reliability-centered maintenance activities. This paper describes the recommended safety improvements and the positive role of utility management in the process and outlines a new recommended regulatory approach. Diesel generator aging and wear is the subject of research sponsored by the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The research was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which is operated for the US Department of Energy by Battelle Memorial Institute. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  20. Biodegradability of diesel and biodiesel blends

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-02

    May 2, 2008 ... The biodegradability of pure diesel and biodiesel and blends with different proportions of biodiesel (2%. (commercial); 5% and 20%) was evaluated employing the respirometric method and the redox indicator. 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP) test. In the former, experiments simulating the ...

  1. Exploring Low Emission Lubricants for Diesel Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, J. M.

    2000-07-06

    A workshop to explore the technological issues involved with the removal of sulfur from lubricants and the development of low emission diesel engine oils was held in Scottsdale, Arizona, January 30 through February 1, 2000. It presented an overview of the current technology by means of panel discussions and technical presentations from industry, government, and academia.

  2. Diesel Electrical Systems. Teacher Edition (Revised).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, Tom; Huston, Jane, Ed.

    This module is one of a series of teaching guides that cover diesel mechanics. The module contains eight instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to electrical systems; (2) electrical circuits; (3) electrical indicator circuits; (4) storage batteries; (5) starting systems and circuits; (6) ignition circuits; (7)…

  3. Bioremediation of diesel fuel contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troy, M.A.; Jerger, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    Bioremediation techniques were successfully employed in the cost-effective cleanup of approximately 8400 gallons of diesel fuel which had been accidentally discharged at a warehouse in New Jersey. Surrounding soils were contaminated with the diesel fuel at concentrations exceeding 1,470 mg/kg total petroleum hydrocarbons as measured by infrared spectroscopy (TPH-IR, EPA method 418.1, modified for soils). This paper reports on treatment of the contaminated soils through enhanced biological land treatment which was chosen for the soil remediation pursuant to a New Jersey Pollutant Discharge Elimination System - Discharge to Ground Water (NJPDES-DGW) permit. Biological land treatment of diesel fuel focuses on the breakdown of the hydrocarbon fractions by indigenous aerobic microorganisms in the layers of soil where oxygen is made available. Metabolism by these microorganisms can ultimately reduce the hydrocarbons to innocuous end products. The purpose of biological land treatment was to reduce the concentration of the petroleum hydrocarbon constituents of the diesel fuel in the soil to 100 ppm total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)

  4. DIESEL ENGINE RETROFIT TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (POSTER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ETV is presenting a poster at the EPA's 2005 Science Forum from May 16-18, 2005 in Washington, DC. This poster will contain a summary of the performance results realized by the six verified diesel retrofit technologies, as well as potential impacts that could be realized if sigi...

  5. Diesel Fuel Systems. Teacher Edition (Revised).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Elton; Huston, Jane, Ed.

    This module is one of a series of teaching guides that cover diesel mechanics. The module contains six instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to fuel injection systems and components; (2) injection nozzles; (3) distributor type injection pumps; (4) unit injectors; (5) in-line injection pumps; and (6) pressure timed…

  6. Kinetic Study on Catalytic Cracking of Rubber Seed (Hevea brasiliensis Oil to Liquid Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wara Dyah Pita Rengga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Reaction kinetics of catalytic cracking of rubber seed oil to liquid fuels has been investigated. The reac-tion was performed with sulfuric acid as catalyst at temperatures of 350-450 oC and the ratio of oil-catalyst of 0-2 wt.% for 30-90 minutes. Kinetics was studied using the model of 6-lump parameters. The parameters were rubber seed oil, gasoline, kerosene, diesel, gas, and coke. Analysis of experimen-tal data using regression models to obtain reaction rate constants. Activation energies and pre-exponential factors were then calculated based on the Arrhenius equation. The simulation result illus-trated that the six-lump kinetic model can well predict the product yields of rubber seed oil catalytic cracking. The product has high selectivity for gasoline fraction as liquid fuel and the smallest amount of coke. The constant indicates that secondary reactions occurred in diesel products compared to gaso-line and kerosene. The predicted results indicate that catalytic cracking of rubber seed oil had better be conducted at 450 oC for 90 minutes using 0.5 wt.% catalyst. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 3rd December 2013; Revised: 5th December 2014; Accepted: 7th December 2014How to Cite: Rengga, W.D.P., Handayani, P.A., Kadarwati, S., Feinnudin, A.(2015. Kinetic Study on Catalytic Cracking of Rubber Seed (Hevea brasiliensis Oil  to Liquid Fuels. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (1: 50-60. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.1.5852.50-60Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.1.5852.50-60

  7. An experimental study of the combusition and emission performances of 2,5-dimethylfuran diesel blends on a diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Helin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out in a direct injection compression ignition engine fueled with diesel-dimethylfuran blends. The combustion and emission performances of diesel-dimethylfuran blends were investigated under various loads ranging from 0.13 to 1.13 MPa brake mean effective pressure, and a constant speed of 1800 rpm. Results indicate that diesel-dimethylfuran blends have different combustion performance and produce longer ignition delay and shorter combustion duration compared with pure diesel. Moreover, a slight increase of brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency occurs when a Diesel engine operates with blended fuels, rather than diesel fuel. Diesel-dimethylfuran blends could lead to higher NOx emissions at medium and high engine loads. However, there is a significant reduction in soot emission when engines are fueled with diesel-dimethylfuran blends. Soot emissions under each operating conditions are similar and close to zero except for D40 at 0.13 MPa brake mean effective pressure. The total number and mean geometric diameter of emitted particles from diesel-dimethylfuran blends are lower than pure diesel. The tested fuels exhibit no significant difference in either CO or HC emissions at medium and high engine loads. Nevertheless, diesel fuel produces the lowest CO emission and higher HC emission at low loads of 0.13 to 0.38 MPa brake mean effective pressure.

  8. Diesel yield improvement and FCC energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloley, Andrew W. [CH2M HILL, Englewood, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Heat recovery modifications affect FCC LCO yields both directly and indirectly. Direct changes improve LCO recovery by improved fractionation of LCO from both slurry and naphtha. Indirect changes increase LCO yields by increasing FCC reactor feed temperature. Improved diesel yields by direct changes (or higher recovery of the existing diesel) impose changes in internal liquid rates and column temperature profiles. Mechanical and reliability limits must be respected to maintain unit reliability. High diesel recovery from slurry oil increase the slurry oil temperatures. Reliable operation requires keeping the slurry oil operating temperature below roughly 382 deg C (720 deg F). Higher slurry temperatures create a high probability of coke formation in the main fractionators. Close attention to mechanical details is required for reliable operation at 382 deg C (720 deg F). High diesel recovery from naphtha product reduces tower top temperatures. This reduces the available driving force for heat integration. Reduced top temperatures also create the potential for chloride-related and water related corrosion problems. Proper design of equipment can circumvent both these problems. Improved diesel yields by indirect changes creates more shifts heat to feed preheat. This reduces the available heat to other services. The changing yield structure also modifies the required internal liquid rates inside the main fractionators. Again, careful attention to design for heat recovery at low temperature differences is required to maintain the duty to the FCC gas plant. A series of modifications to improve control, increase heat recovery at low temperatures, and circumvent some of the more serious maintenance problems is required. (author)

  9. A cycle simulation model for predicting the performance of a diesel engine fuelled by diesel and biodiesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogoi, T.K.; Baruah, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    Among the alternative fuels, biodiesel and its blends are considered suitable and the most promising fuel for diesel engine. The properties of biodiesel are found similar to that of diesel. Many researchers have experimentally evaluated the performance characteristics of conventional diesel engines fuelled by biodiesel and its blends. However, experiments require enormous effort, money and time. Hence, a cycle simulation model incorporating a thermodynamic based single zone combustion model is developed to predict the performance of diesel engine. The effect of engine speed and compression ratio on brake power and brake thermal efficiency is analysed through the model. The fuel considered for the analysis are diesel, 20%, 40%, 60% blending of diesel and biodiesel derived from Karanja oil (Pongamia Glabra). The model predicts similar performance with diesel, 20% and 40% blending. However, with 60% blending, it reveals better performance in terms of brake power and brake thermal efficiency.

  10. Carbonyl compounds emitted by a diesel engine fuelled with diesel and biodiesel-diesel blends: Sampling optimization and emissions profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarieiro, Lílian Lefol Nani; Pereira, Pedro Afonso de Paula; Torres, Ednildo Andrade; da Rocha, Gisele Olimpio; de Andrade, Jailson B.

    Biodiesel is emerging as a renewable fuel, hence becoming a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Biodiesel can form blends with diesel in any ratio, and thus could replace partially, or even totally, diesel fuel in diesel engines what would bring a number of environmental, economical and social advantages. Although a number of studies are available on regulated substances, there is a gap of studies on unregulated substances, such as carbonyl compounds, emitted during the combustion of biodiesel, biodiesel-diesel and/or ethanol-biodiesel-diesel blends. CC is a class of hazardous pollutants known to be participating in photochemical smog formation. In this work a comparison was carried out between the two most widely used CC collection methods: C18 cartridges coated with an acid solution of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH) and impinger bottles filled in 2,4-DNPH solution. Sampling optimization was performed using a 2 2 factorial design tool. Samples were collected from the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine with biodiesel and operated by a steady-state dynamometer. In the central body of factorial design, the average of the sum of CC concentrations collected using impingers was 33.2 ppmV but it was only 6.5 ppmV for C18 cartridges. In addition, the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 4% for impingers and 37% for C18 cartridges. Clearly, the impinger system is able to collect CC more efficiently, with lower error than the C18 cartridge system. Furthermore, propionaldehyde was nearly not sampled by C18 system at all. For these reasons, the impinger system was chosen in our study. The optimized sampling conditions applied throughout this study were: two serially connected impingers each containing 10 mL of 2,4-DNPH solution at a flow rate of 0.2 L min -1 during 5 min. A profile study of the C1-C4 vapor-phase carbonyl compound emissions was obtained from exhaust of pure diesel (B0), pure biodiesel (B100) and biodiesel-diesel mixtures (B2, B5, B10, B20, B50, B

  11. Molecular hydrogen (H2) emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, S W; Alvarez, R; Vollmer, M K; Steinbacher, M; Weilenmann, M; Reimann, S

    2010-08-01

    This study assesses individual-vehicle molecular hydrogen (H2) emissions in exhaust gas from current gasoline and diesel vehicles measured on a chassis dynamometer. Absolute H2 emissions were found to be highest for motorcycles and scooters (141+/-38.6 mg km(-1)), approximately 5 times higher than for gasoline-powered automobiles (26.5+/-12.1 mg km(-1)). All diesel-powered vehicles emitted marginal amounts of H2 ( approximately 0.1 mg km(-1)). For automobiles, the highest emission factors were observed for sub-cycles subject to a cold-start (mean of 53.1+/-17.0 mg km(-1)). High speeds also caused elevated H2 emission factors for sub-cycles reaching at least 150 km h(-1) (mean of 40.4+/-7.1 mg km(-1)). We show that H2/CO ratios (mol mol(-1)) from gasoline-powered vehicles are variable (sub-cycle means of 0.44-5.69) and are typically higher (mean for automobiles 1.02, for 2-wheelers 0.59) than previous atmospheric ratios characteristic of traffic-influenced measurements. The lowest mean individual sub-cycle ratios, which correspond to high absolute emissions of both H2 and CO, were observed during cold starts (for automobiles 0.48, for 2-wheelers 0.44) and at high vehicle speeds (for automobiles 0.73, for 2-wheelers 0.45). This finding illustrates the importance of these conditions to observed H2/CO ratios in ambient air. Overall, 2-wheelers displayed lower H2/CO ratios (0.48-0.69) than those from gasoline-powered automobiles (0.75-3.18). This observation, along with the lower H2/CO ratios observed through studies without catalytic converters, suggests that less developed (e.g. 2-wheelers) and older vehicle technologies are largely responsible for the atmospheric H2/CO ratios reported in past literature. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Catalytic Decoupling of Quantum Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majenz, Christian; Berta, Mario; Dupuis, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    The decoupling technique is a fundamental tool in quantum information theory with applications ranging from quantum thermodynamics to quantum many body physics to the study of black hole radiation. In this work we introduce the notion of catalytic decoupling, that is, decoupling in the presence...... of an uncorrelated ancilla system. This removes a restriction on the standard notion of decoupling, which becomes important for structureless resources, and yields a tight characterization in terms of the max-mutual information. Catalytic decoupling naturally unifies various tasks like the erasure of correlations...

  13. Catalytic activity of Au nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Janssens, Ton V.W.; Clausen, Bjerne

    2007-01-01

    Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change with par......Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change...

  14. Pneumatic hybridization of a diesel engine using compressed air storage for wind-diesel energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basbous, Tammam; Younes, Rafic; Ilinca, Adrian; Perron, Jean

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we are studying an innovative solution to reduce fuel consumption and production cost for electricity production by Diesel generators. The solution is particularly suitable for remote areas where the cost of energy is very high not only because of inherent cost of technology but also due to transportation costs. It has significant environmental benefits as the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation is a significant source of GHG (Greenhouse Gas) emissions. The use of hybrid systems that combine renewable sources, especially wind, and Diesel generators, reduces fuel consumption and operation cost and has environmental benefits. Adding a storage element to the hybrid system increases the penetration level of the renewable sources, that is the percentage of renewable energy in the overall production, and further improves fuel savings. In a previous work, we demonstrated that CAES (Compressed Air Energy Storage) has numerous advantages for hybrid wind-diesel systems due to its low cost, high power density and reliability. The pneumatic hybridization of the Diesel engine consists to introduce the CAES through the admission valve. We have proven that we can improve the combustion efficiency and therefore the fuel consumption by optimizing Air/Fuel ratio thanks to the CAES assistance. As a continuation of these previous analyses, we studied the effect of the intake pressure and temperature and the exhaust pressure on the thermodynamic cycle of the diesel engine and determined the values of these parameters that will optimize fuel consumption. -- Highlights: ► Fuel economy analysis of a simple pneumatic hybridization of the Diesel engine using stored compressed air. ► Thermodynamic analysis of the pneumatic hybridization of diesel engines for hybrid wind-diesel energy systems. ► Analysis of intake pressure and temperature of compressed air and exhaust pressure on pressure/temperature during Diesel thermodynamic cycle. ► Direct admission of

  15. Support vector machine to predict diesel engine performance and emission parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For SVM modelling, different values for radial basis function (RBF) kernel width and penalty parameters (C) were considered and the optimum values were then found. The results demonstrate that SVM is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  16. 40 CFR 80.521 - What are the standards and identification requirements for diesel fuel additives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor... consumer in diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines. [69 FR 39171, June 29, 2004] ... identification requirements for diesel fuel additives? 80.521 Section 80.521 Protection of Environment...

  17. Investigating diesel engines as an atmospheric source of isocyanic acid in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Jathar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Isocyanic acid (HNCO, an acidic gas found in tobacco smoke, urban environments, and biomass-burning-affected regions, has been linked to adverse health outcomes. Gasoline- and diesel-powered engines and biomass burning are known to emit HNCO and hypothesized to emit precursors such as amides that can photochemically react to produce HNCO in the atmosphere. Increasingly, diesel engines in developed countries like the United States are required to use selective catalytic reduction (SCR systems to reduce tailpipe emissions of oxides of nitrogen. SCR chemistry is known to produce HNCO as an intermediate product, and SCR systems have been implicated as an atmospheric source of HNCO. In this work, we measure HNCO emissions from an SCR system-equipped diesel engine and, in combination with earlier data, use a three-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM to simulate the ambient concentrations and source/pathway contributions to HNCO in an urban environment. Engine tests were conducted at three different engine loads, using two different fuels and at multiple operating points. HNCO was measured using an acetate chemical ionization mass spectrometer. The diesel engine was found to emit primary HNCO (3–90 mg kg fuel−1 but we did not find any evidence that the SCR system or other aftertreatment devices (i.e., oxidation catalyst and particle filter produced or enhanced HNCO emissions. The CTM predictions compared well with the only available observational datasets for HNCO in urban areas but underpredicted the contribution from secondary processes. The comparison implied that diesel-powered engines were the largest source of HNCO in urban areas. The CTM also predicted that daily-averaged concentrations of HNCO reached a maximum of ∼ 110 pptv but were an order of magnitude lower than the 1 ppbv level that could be associated with physiological effects in humans. Precursor contributions from other combustion sources (gasoline and biomass

  18. Diesel Engine Exhaust: Basis for Occupational Exposure Limit Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxell, Piia; Santonen, Tiina

    2017-08-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in transport and power supply, making occupational exposure to diesel exhaust common. Both human and animal studies associate exposure to diesel exhaust with inflammatory lung effects, cardiovascular effects, and an increased risk of lung cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated diesel exhaust as carcinogenic to humans. Yet national or regional limit values for controlling occupational exposure to diesel exhaust are rare. In recent decades, stricter emission regulations have led to diesel technologies evolving significantly, resulting in changes in exhaust emissions and composition. These changes are also expected to influence the health effects of diesel exhaust. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the health effects of diesel exhaust and the influence of new diesel technologies on the health risk. It discusses the relevant exposure indicators and perspectives for setting occupational exposure limit values for diesel exhaust, and outlines directions for future research. The review is based on a collaborative evaluation report by the Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals and the Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Safety. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Caracterización de un motor diesel trabajando con mezclas de aceite de Jatropha y combustible diesel Characterization of a diesel engine fueled with Jatropha oil and diesel fuel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Errasti Cabrera

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo caracterizar el desempeño de un motor diesel en cuanto a sus prestaciones y al retardo de la ignición, al operar bajo diferentes regímenes de carga, empleando mezclas de aceite de Jatropha y combustible diesel. Para esto se determinó la característica exterior de velocidad al emplear las mezclas, y se compararon estos resultados con los obtenidos durante los ensayos con combustible diesel patrón; estableciendo el grado de afectación del motor al sustituir parte del combustible diesel por aceite de Jatropha. Se observó una disminución del torque y la potencia efectiva, y un aumento del consumo específico de combustible al emplear un mayor porciento de aceite de Jatropha en las mezclas. Por otra parte, en comparación con el combustible diesel, el retardo de la ignición no mostró una variación significativa al emplear las mezclas de aceite de Jatropha y combustible diesel.  The present study aims to characterize the benefits of a diesel engine in terms of performance and ignition delay, operating under different loading regimes, using Jatropha oil and diesel fuel blends. We determined the speed exterior feature when using mixtures, and compared these results with those obtained during tests with standard diesel fuel, establishing the degree of involvement of the engine to replace some diesel fuel for Jatropha oil. There was a decrease in the torque and effective power, and increased specific fuel consumption by using a higher percentage of Jatropha oil in blends. Moreover, compared to diesel fuel, the ignition delay showed no significant variation by employing Jatropha oil and diesel fuel blends.Key words: Jatropha curcas oil, outer velocity characteristic, diesel engine, ignition delay.

  20. Study of turbocharged diesel engine operation, pollutant emissions and combustion noise radiation during starting with bio-diesel or n-butanol diesel fuel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, C.D.; Dimaratos, A.M.; Giakoumis, E.G.; Rakopoulos, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Turbocharged diesel engine emissions during starting with bio-diesel or n-butanol diesel blends. → Peak pollutant emissions due to turbo-lag. → Significant bio-diesel effects on combustion behavior and stability. → Negative effects on NO emissions for both blends. → Positive effects on smoke emissions only for n-butanol blend. -- Abstract: The control of transient emissions from turbocharged diesel engines is an important objective for automotive manufacturers, as stringent criteria for exhaust emissions must be met. Starting, in particular, is a process of significant importance owing to its major contribution to the overall emissions during a transient test cycle. On the other hand, bio-fuels are getting impetus today as renewable substitutes for conventional fuels, especially in the transport sector. In the present work, experimental tests were conducted at the authors' laboratory on a bus/truck, turbocharged diesel engine in order to investigate the formation mechanisms of nitric oxide (NO), smoke, and combustion noise radiation during hot starting for various alternative fuel blends. To this aim, a fully instrumented test bed was set up, using ultra-fast response analyzers capable of capturing the instantaneous development of emissions as well as various other key engine and turbocharger parameters. The experimental test matrix included three different fuels, namely neat diesel fuel and two blends of diesel fuel with either bio-diesel (30% by vol.) or n-butanol (25% by vol.). With reference to the neat diesel fuel case during the starting event, the bio-diesel blend resulted in deterioration of both pollutant emissions as well as increased combustion instability, while the n-butanol (normal butanol) blend decreased significantly exhaust gas opacity but increased notably NO emission.

  1. Engineering reactors for catalytic reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... improvements in reactor performance. In this article, application of recent (and not so recent) developments in engineering reactors for catalytic reactions is discussed. Some examples where performance enhancement was realized by catalyst design, appropriate choice of reactor, better injection and dispersion strategies ...

  2. Catalytic properties of niobium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, K.; Iizuka, T.

    1983-04-01

    The catalytic activity and selectivity of niobium compounds including oxides, salts, organometallic compounds and others are outlined. The application of these compounds as catalysts to diversified reactions is reported. The nature and action of niobium catalysts are characteristic and sometimes anomalous, suggesting the necessity of basic research and the potential use as catalysts for important processes in the chemical industry. (Author) [pt

  3. Catalytic carboxyester hydrolysis by diaminodiphenols

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Two diaminodiphenols, 1 and 2, have been examined as catalysts for the hydrolysis of 4- nitrophenyl acetate (NA) and 4-nitrophenylphosphate (NP) in aqueous-acetonitrile (25% acetonitrile v/v) media at 35ºC, I = 1·0 mol dm–3. The compound 1 enhances the hydrolysis rate of NA more than 105 times. Its catalytic efficiency ...

  4. Engineering reactors for catalytic reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    on selectivity can make substantial impact on process viability and economics. Extensive studies have been conducted to establish sound basis for design and engineering of reactors for practising such catalytic reactions and for realizing improvements in reactor performance. In this article, application of recent (and not so ...

  5. A fuzzy logic urea dosage controller design for two-cell selective catalytic reduction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Kun; Wei, Lijiang; Jiang, Kai

    2017-12-22

    Diesel engines have dominated in the heavy-duty vehicular and marine power source. However, the induced air pollution is a big problem. As people's awareness of environmental protection increasing, the emission regulations of diesel-engine are becoming more stringent. In order to achieve the emission regulations, the after-treatment system is a necessary choice. Specifically, the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system has been widely applied to reduce the NO X emissions of diesel engine. Different from single-cell SCR systems, the two-cell systems have various benefits from the modeling and control perspective. In this paper, the urea dosage controller design for two-cell SCR systems was investigated. Firstly, the two-cell SCR modeling was introduced. Based on the developed model, the design procedure for the fuzzy logic urea dosage controller was well addressed. Secondly, simulations and comparisons were employed via an experimental verification of the whole vehicle simulator. And the results showed that the designed controller simultaneously achieved high NO X reduction rate and low tail-pipe ammonia slip. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Catalytic oxidative desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbon fuels using air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaman, Ramanathan

    Conventional approaches to oxidative desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons involve use of high-purity, expensive water soluble peroxide for oxidation of sulfur compounds followed by post-treatment for removal of oxidized sulfones by extraction. Both are associated with higher cost due to handling, storage of oxidants and yield loss with extraction and water separation, making the whole process more expensive. This thesis explores an oxidative desulfurization process using air as an oxidant followed by catalytic decomposition of sulfones thereby eliminating the aforementioned issues. Oxidation of sulfur compounds was realized by a two step process in which peroxides were first generated in-situ by catalytic air oxidation, followed by catalytic oxidation of S compounds using the peroxides generated in-situ completing the two step approach. By this technique it was feasible to oxidize over 90% of sulfur compounds present in real jet (520 ppmw S) and diesel (41 ppmw S) fuels. Screening of bulk and supported CuO based catalysts for peroxide generation using model aromatic compound representing diesel fuel showed that bulk CuO catalyst was more effective in producing peroxides with high yield and selectivity. Testing of three real diesel fuels obtained from different sources for air oxidation over bulk CuO catalyst showed different level of effectiveness for generating peroxides in-situ which was consistent with air oxidation of representative model aromatic compounds. Peroxides generated in-situ was then used as an oxidant to oxidize sulfur compounds present in the fuel over MoO3/SiO2 catalyst. 81% selectivity of peroxides for oxidation of sulfur compounds was observed on MoO3/SiO2 catalyst at 40 °C and under similar conditions MoO3/Al2O3 gave only 41% selectivity. This difference in selectivity might be related to the difference in the nature of active sites of MoO3 on SiO2 and Al2O 3 supports as suggested by H2-TPR and XRD analyses. Testing of supported and bulk Mg

  7. Multi-zone modeling of Diesel engine fuel spray development with vegetable oil, bio-diesel or Diesel fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, C.D.; Antonopoulos, K.A.; Rakopoulos, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    This work presents a model of fuel sprays development in the cylinders of Diesel engines that is two-dimensional, multi-zone, with the issuing jet (from the nozzle) divided into several discrete volumes, called 'zones', formed along the direction of the fuel injection as well as across it. The model follows each zone, with its own time history, as the spray penetrates into the swirling air environment of the combustion chamber before and after wall impingement. After the jet break up time, a group of droplets is generated in each zone, with the model following their motion during heating, evaporation and mixing with the in-cylinder air. The model is applied for the interesting case of using vegetable oils or their derived bio-diesels as fuels, which recently are considered as promising alternatives to petroleum distillates since they are derived from biological sources. Although there are numerous experimental studies that show curtailment of the emitted smoke with possible increase of the emitted NO x against the use of Diesel fuel, there is an apparent scarcity of theoretical models scrutinizing the formation mechanisms of combustion generated emissions when using these biologically derived fuels. Thus, in the present work, a theoretical detailed model of spray formation is developed that is limited to the related investigation of the physical processes by decoupling it from the chemical effects after combustion initiation. The analysis results show how the widely differing physical properties of these fuels, against the normal Diesel fuel, affect greatly the spray formation and consequently the combustion mechanism and the related emissions

  8. Carbonyl compound emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with diesel fuel and ethanol-diesel blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chonglin; Zhao, Zhuang; Lv, Gang; Song, Jinou; Liu, Lidong; Zhao, Ruifen

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the carbonyl emissions from a direct injection heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with pure diesel fuel (DF) and blended fuel containing 15% by volume of ethanol (E/DF). The tests have been conducted under steady-state operating conditions at 1200, 1800, 2600 rpm and idle speed. The experimental results show that acetaldehyde is the most predominant carbonyl, followed by formaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde and crotonaldehyde, produced from both fuels. The emission factors of total carbonyls vary in the range 13.8-295.9 mg(kWh)(-1) for DF and 17.8-380.2mg(kWh)(-1) for E/DF, respectively. The introduction of ethanol into diesel fuel results in a decrease in acrolein emissions, while the other carbonyls show general increases: at low engine speed (1200 rpm), 0-55% for formaldehyde, 4-44% for acetaldehyde, 38-224% for acetone, and 5-52% for crotonaldehyde; at medium engine speed (1800 rpm), 106-413% for formaldehyde, 4-143% for acetaldehyde, 74-113% for acetone, 114-1216% for propionaldehyde, and 15-163% for crotonaldehyde; at high engine speed (2600 rpm), 36-431% for formaldehyde, 18-61% for acetaldehyde, 22-241% for acetone, and 6-61% for propionaldehyde. A gradual reduction in the brake specific emissions of each carbonyl compound from both fuels is observed with increase in engine load. Among three levels of engine speed employed, both DF and E/DF emit most CBC emissions at high engine speed. On the whole, the presence of ethanol in diesel fuel leads to an increase in aldehyde emissions. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine fueled with diesel-like fuel from waste lubrication oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiangli; Ni, Peiyong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • 100% diesel-like fuel from waste lubricating oil was conducted in a diesel engine. • Good combustion and fuel economy are achieved without engine modifications. • Combustion duration of DLF is shorter than diesel. • NOx and smoke emissions with the DLF are slightly higher than pure diesel. - Abstract: Waste lubricant oil (WLO) is one of the most important types of the energy sources. WLO cannot be burned directly in diesel engines, but can be processed to be used as diesel-like fuel (DLF) to minimize its harmful effect and maximize its useful values. Moreover, there are some differences in physicochemical properties between WLO and diesel fuel. In order to identify the differences in combustion and emission performance of diesel engine fueled with the two fuels, a bench test of a single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine without any engine modification was investigated at four engine speeds and five engine loads. The effects of the fuels on fuel economic performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and smoke were discussed. The DLF exhibits longer ignition delay period and shorter combustion duration than diesel fuel. The test results indicate that the higher distillation temperatures of the DLF attribute to the increase of combustion pressure, temperature and heat release rate. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of the DLF compared to diesel is reduced by about 3% at 3000 rpm under light and medium loads. The DLF produces slightly higher NOx emissions at middle and heavy loads, somewhat more smoke emissions at middle loads, and notably higher HC and CO emissions at most measured points than diesel fuel. It is concluded that the DLF can be used as potential available fuel in high-speed diesel engines without any problems.

  10. Effect of Bio Ethanol and Diesel Blend on Small Diesel Engine Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H Hashemi Fard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of Bio-ethanol as an alternative diesel engine fuel is rapidly increasing. Bio-ethanol is mixed with diesel fuel at different ratios and used in CI and SI engines. Since vibrations have direct effects on users and engine components, for this reason analysis of vibration resulting from combustion in CI engines is very important. In this study, evaluation of vibration was performed for both diesel and ethanol blends. Commercial diesel fuel (D100, E2 (2% ethanol and 98% diesel fuel, E5, E10, E15 and E20 were used in a two-wheel MITSUBISHI tractor. The engine was tested in 1200, 1600, 2000 and 2400 rpm for all fuel blends, and also the effect of load was investigated for D100 and E10. Results showed that vibration is significantly affected by fuel blend. It was observed that E10 had the lowest vibration while E20 had the highest value. It was also observed that vibration increased as engine speed increased for all fuel blends. It was found that both axial and lateral vibrations affected significantly by load. The lateral vibrations decreased continuously with load rise , but the axial vibrations increased initially but started to follow a reverse trend.

  11. Comparison of carbonyl compounds emissions from diesel engine fueled with biodiesel and diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chao; Ge, Yunshan; Tan, Jianwei; You, Kewei; Han, Xunkun; Wang, Junfang; You, Qiuwen; Shah, Asad Naeem

    The characteristics of carbonyl compounds emissions were investigated on a direct injection, turbocharged diesel engine fueled with pure biodiesel derived from soybean oil. The gas-phase carbonyls were collected by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-coated silica cartridges from diluted exhaust and analyzed by HPLC with UV detector. A commercial standard mixture including 14 carbonyl compounds was used for quantitative analysis. The experimental results indicate that biodiesel-fueled engine almost has triple carbonyls emissions of diesel-fueled engine. The weighted carbonyls emission of 8-mode test cycle of biodiesel is 90.8 mg (kW h) -1 and that of diesel is 30.7 mg (kW h) -1. The formaldehyde is the most abundant compound of carbonyls for both biodiesel and diesel, taking part for 46.2% and 62.7% respectively. The next most significant compounds are acetaldehyde, acrolein and acetone for both fuels. The engine fueled with biodiesel emits a comparatively high content of propionaldehyde and methacrolein. Biodiesel, as an alternative fuel, has lower specific reactivity (SR) caused by carbonyls compared with diesel. When fueled with biodiesel, carbonyl compounds make more contribution to total hydrocarbon emission.

  12. Eucalyptus Biodiesel as an Alternative to Diesel Fuel: Preparation and Tests on DI Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyes Tarabet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v% at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend.

  13. Eucalyptus biodiesel as an alternative to diesel fuel: preparation and tests on DI diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabet, Lyes; Loubar, Khaled; Lounici, Mohand Said; Hanchi, Samir; Tazerout, Mohand

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v%) at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend.

  14. Comparative performance and emissions study of a direct injection Diesel engine using blends of Diesel fuel with vegetable oils or bio-diesels of various origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, C.D.; Antonopoulos, K.A.; Rakopoulos, D.C.; Hountalas, D.T.; Giakoumis, E.G.

    2006-01-01

    An extended experimental study is conducted to evaluate and compare the use of various Diesel fuel supplements at blend ratios of 10/90 and 20/80, in a standard, fully instrumented, four stroke, direct injection (DI), Ricardo/Cussons 'Hydra' Diesel engine located at the authors' laboratory. More specifically, a high variety of vegetable oils or bio-diesels of various origins are tested as supplements, i.e. cottonseed oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil and their corresponding methyl esters, as well as rapeseed oil methyl ester, palm oil methyl ester, corn oil and olive kernel oil. The series of tests are conducted using each of the above fuel blends, with the engine working at a speed of 2000 rpm and at a medium and high load. In each test, volumetric fuel consumption, exhaust smokiness and exhaust regulated gas emissions such as nitrogen oxides (NO x ), carbon monoxide (CO) and total unburned hydrocarbons (HC) are measured. From the first measurement, specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency are computed. The differences in the measured performance and exhaust emission parameters from the baseline operation of the engine, i.e. when working with neat Diesel fuel, are determined and compared. This comparison is extended between the use of the vegetable oil blends and the bio-diesel blends. Theoretical aspects of Diesel engine combustion, combined with the widely differing physical and chemical properties of these Diesel fuel supplements against the normal Diesel fuel, are used to aid the correct interpretation of the observed engine behavior

  15. Cobalt and KNO{sub 3} supported on alumina catalysts for diesel soot combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzona, Claudia B. [25 de mayo 284, INTEQUI-CONICET-UNSL, Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias Economico-Sociales, Villa Mercedes, 5730 (Argentina); Lick, Ileana D. [Calle 47 No 257, CINDECA (CCT-LaPlata-CONICET-UNLP), Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, La Plata, 1900 (Argentina); Castellon, Enrique Rodriguez [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, Malaga, 29071 (Spain); Ponzi, Marta I. [25 de mayo 284, INTEQUI-CONICET-UNSL, Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias Economico-Sociales, Villa Mercedes, 5730 (Argentina); Ponzi, Esther N., E-mail: eponzi@quimica.unlp.edu.ar [Calle 47 No 257, CINDECA (CCT-LaPlata-CONICET-UNLP), Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, La Plata, 1900 (Argentina)

    2010-10-01

    The catalytic combustion of diesel soot was studied in the presence of fresh and aged catalysts: Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, KNO{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Co/KNO{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The catalysts were prepared by impregnation using nitrate solutions. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal programmed reduction, vibrational spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Fresh and aged catalysts present high activity in presence of O{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/NO. The values of the combustion temperature decrease more than 200 deg. C with respect to that observed in the process without catalysis. The activity is associated with the presence of KNO{sub 3} and the role of this salt can be attributed to the contribution of NO{sub 3}{sup -}/NO{sub 2}{sup -} redox cycle.

  16. Non-conventional plasma assisted catalysts for diesel exhaust treatment. A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajanikanth, B.S.; Srinivas Kumar, P.K.; Ravi, V.

    2002-01-01

    The author reports the application of pulse discharges along with catalysts in treating the exhaust gas at higher temperatures. In the present work, a plasma reactor, filled with catalysts, called as plasma catalytic reactor, is studied for removal of oxides of nitrogen, total hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. The experiments are conducted on an actual diesel engine exhaust at no-load and at different temperatures starting from room temperature to 300 degree C. The removal efficiencies of these pollutants are studied. The experiments are carried out with both conventional and non-conventional catalysts. The idea is to explore the pollutant removal efficiency characteristics by non-conventional catalysts. The efficiency results are compared with that of conventional catalysts. The experiments are carried out at a constant pulse repetition rate of 120 pps. Both pellet and honeycomb type catalysts are used in the study

  17. Support acidity influence in NiMoS (Nickel and Molybdenum) catalyst for Marlim diesel; Influencia da acidez do suport de catalisadores NiMoS (Niquel e Molibidenio) no hidrotratamento de diesel Marlim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraz, Sheila Guimaraes de Almeida; Zotin, Jose Luiz; Jesus, Anderson Gomes de; Santos, Bruno Martins; Medeiros, Marcus Vinicius Costa [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    The specification of diesel points to the reduction of the sulfur content, of the final boiling point, of the density range and increase of the cetane number. These two last properties are directly related with the ability of the hydrotreating catalytic system in promoting the hydrogenation of aromatic structures and ring opening of the naphthenic compounds, which are both associated to low cetane number. In such way, more acidic catalysts, able to promote the cracking of naphthenic structures, should be evaluated for the diesel HDT. Three bifunctional NiMo catalysts with the same metal content, different acidity and similar active phase dispersion were prepared using alumina, silica-alumina and alumina-Y zeolite as supports. These catalysts were evaluated in a micro-reactor unit for diesel HDT aiming to correlate their activity with the support acidity. The alumina and alumina-zeolite supported catalysts presented better performance than the one supported on silica-alumina. NiMo/alumina-zeolite showed higher cetane and density improvement, associated with a slight decrease in the initial boiling point. (author)

  18. Biodiesel as a lubricity additive for ultra low sulfur diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subongkoj Topaiboul1 and 2,*

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available With the worldwide trend to reduce emission from diesel engines, ultra low sulfur diesel has been introduced with thesulfur concentration of less than 10 ppm. Unfortunately, the desulfurization process inevitably reduces the lubricity of dieselfuel significantly. Alternatively, biodiesel, with almost zero sulfur content, has been added to enhance lubricity in an ultralow sulfur diesel. This work has evaluated the effectiveness of the biodiesel amount, sourced from palm and jatropha oil,and origin in ultra low sulfur diesel locally available in the market. Wear scar from a high-frequency reciprocating rig isbenchmarked to the standard value (460 m of diesel fuel lubricity. It was found that very small amount (less than 1% ofbiodiesel from either source significantly improves the lubricity in ultra low sulfur diesel, and the biodiesel from jatropha oilis a superior lubricity enhancer.

  19. Petroleum Diesel Fuel and Linseed Oil Mixtures as Engine Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, V. A.; Kamaltdinov, V. G.; Savastenko, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The actual problem is the use of alternative biofuels in automotive diesel engines. Insufficiently studied are the indicators of toxicity of exhaust gases of these engines operating on biofuel. The aim of the study is to identify indicators of the toxicity of exhaust gases when using of petroleum diesel fuel and linseed oil mixtures as a fuel for automotive diesel engines. Physical and chemical properties of linseed oil and its mixtures with petroleum diesel fuel are considered. Experimental researches of D-245.12C diesel are carried out on mixtures of diesel fuel and corn oil with a different composition. An opportunity of exhaust toxicity indexes improvement using these mixtures as a fuel for automobiles engine is shown.

  20. Emergency diesel generator reliability analysis high flux isotope reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merryman, L.; Christie, B.

    1993-01-01

    A program to apply some of the techniques of reliability engineering to the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) was started on August 8, 1992. Part of the program was to track the conditional probabilities of the emergency diesel generators responding to a valid demand. This was done to determine if the performance of the emergency diesel generators (which are more than 25 years old) has deteriorated. The conditional probabilities of the diesel generators were computed and trended for the period from May 1990 to December 1992. The calculations indicate that the performance of the emergency diesel generators has not deteriorated in recent years, i.e., the conditional probabilities of the emergency diesel generators have been fairly stable over the last few years. This information will be one factor than may be considered in the decision to replace the emergency diesel generators

  1. Application of a Biodegradable Lubricant in a Diesel Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    The IEA Advanced Motor Fuels Agreement has initiated this project concerning the application of biodegradable lubricants to diesel and gasoline type vehicles. Emission measurements on a chassis dynamometer were carried out. The purpose of these measurements was to compare the emissions of CO, CO2......, NOx, THC, PM, lubricant-SOF and PAH from one diesel and one gasoline type vehicle using biodegradable lubricants and conventional lubricants. This paper describes the results of the experiments with the diesel type vehicle only. Lubricant consumption and fuel consumption are other important parameters...... that have been evaluated during the experiments. Both vehicle types were operated on conventional crude oil based fuels and alternative fuels. The diesel vehicle was operated on conventional diesel fuel from a Danish fuel station, low sulfur diesel from Sweden and biodiesel, which was bought at a fuel...

  2. Formation and emission of organic pollutants from diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoli, C.; Ciajolo, A.; D'Anna, A.; Barbella, R.

    1993-01-01

    The emission of soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from diesel engines results from the competition between oxidative and pyrolytic routes which the fuel takes in the unsteady, heterogeneous conditions of the diesel combustion process. In-cylinder sampling and analysis of particulate (soot and condensed hydrocarbon species), light hydrocarbons and gaseous inorganic species were carried out in two locations of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine by means of a fast sampling valve in order to follow the behaviour of a diesel fuel during the engine cycle. The effect of fuel quality (volatility, aromatic content, cetane number) and air/fuel mass feed ratio on soot, PAH, and light and heavy hydrocarbons was also investigated by direct sampling and chemical analysis of the exhausts emitted from a direct injection diesel engine (D.I.) and an indirect injection diesel engine (I.D.I.)

  3. An expert system for diesel generator diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bley, D.C.; Read, J.W.; Kaplan, S.; Liming, J.K.; Brosee, N.M.; Hanley, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    The idea of developing artificial intelligence (AI) systems to capture the knowledge of human experts is receiving much attention these days. The idea is even more attractive when important expertise resides within a single individual, especially one who is nearing retirement and who has not otherwise recorded or passed along his important knowledge and thought processes. The diesel generators at Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station have performed exceptionally well, primarily due to the care and attention of one man. Therefore, the authors are constructing an expert system for the diagnosis of diesel generator problems at Pilgrim. This paper includes a description of the expert system design and operation, examples from the knowledge base, and sample diagnoses, so the reader can observe the process in action

  4. Life cycle assessment of gasoline and diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuholt, Edgar

    1995-01-01

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) has been carried out to compare production and use of three different fuel products: regular gasoline, gasoline with MTBE and diesel. The study quantifies energy consumption and emissions through the production chain and assesses the potential impacts to the environment. Some of the methodological problems performing the LCA are discussed. The study indicates that production of gasoline with MTBE has potentially larger environmental impacts than production of regular gasoline, caused by the extra facilities for production of MTBE. The study also shows that the results are highly sensitive to the actual product specifications and assumptions that are made. Different product specifications can therefore lead to other conclusions. The results also indicate that production of diesel leads to significantly lower potential impacts than the gasolines

  5. The diesel engine and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    For more than 15 years, the development of engines has been oriented towards reducing the emissions of exhaust substances that are harmful to the environment. In the case of diesel engines, emission control is mainly concentrated to nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and particulates. Exhaust emission control has already advanced so far that the results achieved would have been regarded unrealistic a mere ten years ago. Diesel exhaust gases also include hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO), although technology is approaching the stage at which these substances will have been eliminated. This report summarizes problem areas of exhaust emission control, exhaust emission theory, exhaust gas substances and environmental chemistry, emission regulations, risks of automotive exhaust gases, among others. 33 refs

  6. Investigation of the effects of renewable diesel fuels on engine performance, combustion, and emissions

    KAUST Repository

    Ogunkoya, Dolanimi

    2015-01-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate renewable fuels in a compression-ignition internal combustion engine. The focus of this study was the effect of newly developed renewable fuels on engine performance, combustion, and emissions. Eight fuels were investigated, and they include diesel, jet fuel, a traditional biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester: FAME), and five next generation biofuels. These five fuels were derived using a two-step process: hydrolysis of the oil into fatty acids (if necessary) and then a thermo-catalytic process to remove the oxygen via a decarboxylation reaction. The fuels included a fed batch deoxygenation of canola derived fatty acids (DCFA), a fed batch deoxygenation of canola derived fatty acids with varying amounts of H2 used during the deoxygenation process (DCFAH), a continuous deoxygenation of canola derived fatty acids (CDCFA), fed batch deoxygenation of lauric acid (DLA), and a third reaction to isomerize the products of the deoxygenated canola derived fatty acid alkanes (IPCF). Diesel, jet fuel, and biodiesel (FAME) have been used as benchmarks for comparing with the newer renewable fuels. The results of the experiments show slightly lower mechanical efficiency but better brake specific fuel consumption for the new renewable fuels. Results from combustion show shorter ignition delays for most of the renewable (deoxygenated) fuels with the exception of fed batch deoxygenation of lauric acid. Combustion results also show lower peak in-cylinder pressures, reduced rate of increase in cylinder pressure, and lower heat release rates for the renewable fuels. Emission results show an increase in hydrocarbon emissions for renewable deoxygenated fuels, but a general decrease in all other emissions including NOx, greenhouse gases, and soot. Results also demonstrate that isomers of the alkanes resulting from the deoxygenation of the canola derived fatty acids could be a potential replacement to conventional fossil diesel and biodiesel based on the

  7. Hygroscopic properties of Diesel engine soot particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Burtscher, H. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    The hygroscopic properties of combustion particles, freshly emitted from a Diesel engine were investigated. It was found that these particles start to grow by water condensation at a relative humidity (RH)>80%. The hygroscopicity of these particles was enhanced when the sulfur content of the fuel was increased or when the particles were artificially aged (i.e. particles were subjected to an ozone or UV pre-treatment). (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  8. Electrical diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

    2013-12-31

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust. An electrical heater is disposed upstream of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates within the exhaust as it passes therethrough. Heat generated by combustion of the particulates induces combustion of particulates within the DPF.

  9. Exposure Assessment of Diesel Bus Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Hofmann

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to measure ultrafine particle concentrations with diameters less than 1 μm emitted by diesel buses and to assess resulting human exposure levels. The study was conducted at the Woolloongabba Busway station in Brisbane, Australia in the winter months of 2002 during which temperature inversions frequently occurred. Most buses that utilize the station are fuelled by diesel, the exhaust of which contains a significant quantity of particle matter. Passengers waiting at the station are exposed to these particles emitted from the buses. During the course of this study, passenger census was conducted, based on video surveillance, yielding person-by-person waiting time data. Furthermore, a bus census revealed accurate information about the total number of diesel versus Compressed Natural Gas (CNG powered buses. Background (outside of the bus station and platform measurements of ultrafine particulate number size distributions were made to determine ambient aerosol concentrations. Particle number exposure concentration ranges from 10 and 40 to 60% of bus related exhaust fumes. This changes dramatically when considering the particle mass exposure concentration, where most passengers are exposed to about 50 to 80% of exhaust fumes. The obtained data can be very significant for comparison with similar work of this type because it is shown in previous studies that exhaust emissions causes cancer in laboratory animals. It was assumed that significant differences between platform and background distributions were due to bus emissions which, combined with passenger waiting times, yielded an estimate of passenger exposure to ultrafine particles from diesel buses. From an exposure point of view, the Busway station analyzed resembles a street canyon. Although the detected exhaust particle concentration at the outbound platform is found to be in the picogram range, exposure increases with the time passengers spend on the platform

  10. Dezentrale Wasserstofferzeugung aus Diesel und Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Stefan; Ascher, Torsten; Kraaij, Gerard; Dietrich, Ralph-Uwe; Wörner, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Der Energieträger Wasserstoff wird im Verkehrssektor in den kommenden Jahren zunehmend an Bedeutung gewinnen. Eine mögliche Alternative zur zentralen H2-Erzeugung aus Erdgas ist die dezentrale Bereitstellung von Wasserstoff durch Reformierung von Flüssigbrennstoffen. Im Rahmen des EU-Projektes NEMESIS2+ (www.nemesis-project.eu) wird ein Wasserstoffgenerator (50 Nm3/h) auf Basis von Diesel und Biodiesel entwickelt. Am DLR Stuttgart werden im Rahmen des Projektes grundlegende experimentelle Unt...

  11. Diesel Effect Problem Solving During Injection Moulding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Košík Miroslav

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Study describes principles of diesel effect creation during thermoplastic injection moulding as a consequence of wrong injection conditions and poor venting system design. On real example, study shows sequence of all steps to eliminate this sort of material degradation with minimal costs in phase when mould is already made. As a first, process parameters were optimized by CAE simulation to minimize cavity internal gasses creation. Finally the specific mould modifications were suggested to improve the effectiveness of venting system.

  12. Bio diesel synthesis from pongamia pinnata oil over modified CeO2 catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh; Sathgatta Z, M. S.; Manjunatha, S.; Thammannigowda V, V.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the use of CeO 2 , ZrO 2 , Mg O and CeO 2 -ZrO 2 , CeO 2 -Mg O, CeO 2 -ZrO 2 -Mg O mixed oxides as solid base catalysts for the transesterification of Pongamia pinnata oil with methanol to produce bio diesel. SO 4 2- /CeO 2 and SO 4 2- /CeO 2 -ZrO 2 were also prepared and used as solid acid catalysts for esterification of Pongamia pinnata oil (P-oil) to reduce the % of free fatty acid (FFA) in P-oil. The oxide catalysts were prepared by an incipient wetness impregnation method and characterized by techniques such as NH 3 -Tpd for surface acidity, CO 2 -Tpd for surface basicity and powder X-ray diffraction for crystallinity. The effect of nature of the catalyst, methanol to P-oil molar ratio and reaction time in esterification as well as in transesterification was investigated. The catalytic materials were reactive d and reused for five reaction cycles and the results showed that the ceria based catalysts have reasonably good reusability both in esterification and transesterification reaction. The test results also revealed that the CeO 2 -ZrO 2 modified with Mg O could have potential for use in the large scale bio diesel production. (Author)

  13. Analysis of operation events for HFETR emergency diesel generator set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhiqiang; Ji Xifang; Deng Hong

    2015-01-01

    By the statistic analysis of the historical failure data of the emergency diesel generator set, the specific mode, the attribute, and the direct and root origin for each failure are reviewed and summarized. Considering the current status of the emergency diesel generator set, the preventive measures and solutions in terms of operation, handling and maintenance are proposed, and the potential events for the emergency diesel generator set are analyzed. (authors)

  14. Experimental investigation review of biodiesel usage in bus diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Kegl, Breda; Kegl, Marko

    2017-01-01

    This paper assembles and analyses extensive experimental research work conducted for several years in relation to biodiesel usage in a MAN bus Diesel engine with M injection system. At first the most important properties of the actually used neat rapeseed biodiesel fuel and its blends with mineral diesel are discussed and compared to that of mineral diesel. Then the injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics for various considered fuel blends are compared at various ambient conditions,...

  15. Caracterización de un motor diesel trabajando con mezclas de aceite de Jatropha y combustible diesel ; Characterization of a diesel engine fueled with Jatropha oil and diesel fuel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Errasti Cabrera

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo caracterizar el desempeño de un motor diesel en cuanto a sus prestaciones y al retardo de la ignición, al operar bajo diferentes regímenes de carga, empleando mezclas de aceite de Jatropha y combustible diesel. Para esto se determinó la característica exterior de velocidad al emplear las mezclas, y se compararon estos resultados con los obtenidos durante los ensayos con combustible diesel patrón; estableciendo el grado de afectación del motor al sustituir parte del combustible diesel por aceite de Jatropha. Se observó una disminución del torque y la potencia efectiva, y un aumento del consumo específico de combustible al emplear un mayor porciento de aceite de Jatropha en las mezclas. Por otra parte, en comparación con el combustible diesel, el retardo de la ignición no mostró una variación significativa al emplear las mezclas de aceite de Jatropha y combustible diesel.The present study aims to characterize the benefits of a diesel engine in terms of performance and ignition delay, operating under different loading regimes, using Jatropha oil and diesel fuel blends. We determined the speed exterior feature when using mixtures, and compared these results with those obtained during tests with standard diesel fuel, establishing the degree of involvement of the engine to replace some diesel fuel for Jatropha oil. There was a decrease in the torque and effective power, and increased specific fuel consumption by using a higher percentage of Jatropha oil in blends. Moreover, compared to diesel fuel, the ignition delay showed no significant variation by employing Jatropha oil and diesel fuel blends.

  16. The economics of a variable speed wind-diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moll, W.

    1992-01-01

    A remote community power supply system generating over 1,000 kWH/d will have at least one diesel generator running all the time. If one or more wind turbine generators are added to such a system, the diesel generator will produce less power when wind speeds are adequate, but its fuel efficiency will gradually decrease as load decreases. In the variable speed wind/diesel concept, the diesel rpm is reduced with decreasing load and a high fuel efficiency is maintained over virtually the full power range. The outputs of the diesel and wind turbine generators are fed into an inverter which synthesizes a desired voltage wave-shape with controlled magnitude and frequency. The variable speed wind/diesel concept may make vertical axis wind turbines suitable for remote community power supply because the inverter effectively isolates the power ripple of the wind turbine. A possible wind/diesel system configuration using the variable speed concept is illustrated. The economics of a 50-kW variable speed diesel and a 80-kW variable speed wind turbine generator was analyzed. Going from a constant speed diesel generator to a variable speed generator operating at 55% capacity factor, a 6% fuel saving was achieved. Adding one 80-kW wind turbine increased fuel savings to 32% at 5 m/s wind speed, but the unit energy cost rose 8.5%. At 7 m/s wind speed, fuel savings were 59% and energy savings were 7.8%. Economics are better for a peaking variable speed 50-kW wind/diesel system added to an existing diesel system to extend the installed capacity. At 7 m/s wind speed the fuel savings translate into ca $40,000 over 10 y and purchase of a $150,000 diesel generator is postponed. 7 figs., 1 tab

  17. External brand extensions impact on Diesel's brand image

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Miguel Pinto Valente

    2010-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics Diesel is a global urban brand that privileges individuality and irreverence. This project measures Diesel brand image within the different types of Portuguese consumers; the objective is to understand the main buying drivers and analyze the impact of brand licensing. It was concluded that Diesel global brand image is consensual amo...

  18. Fuel system for diesel engine with multi-stage heated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhov, Yu N.; Kuznetsov, Yu A.; Kolomeichenko, A. V.; Kuznetsov, I. S.; Solovyev, R. Yu; Sharifullin, S. N.

    2017-09-01

    The article describes a fuel system of a diesel engine with a construction tractor multistage heating, allowing the use of pure rapeseed oil as a diesel engine fuel. The paper identified the kinematic viscosity depending on the temperature and composition of the mixed fuel, supplemented by the existing recommendations on the use of mixed fuels based on vegetable oils and developed the device allowing use as fuel for diesel engines of biofuels based on vegetable oils.

  19. 40 CFR 80.602 - What records must be kept by entities in the NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel, and diesel fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements... in the NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel, and diesel fuel additive production, importation, and...

  20. Total Particle Number Emissions from Modern Diesel, Natural Gas, and Hybrid Heavy-Duty Vehicles During On-Road Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianyang; Quiros, David C; Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Pradhan, Saroj; Hu, Shaohua; Huai, Tao; Lee, Eon S; Zhu, Yifang

    2017-06-20

    Particle emissions from heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) have significant environmental and public health impacts. This study measured total particle number emission factors (PNEFs) from six newly certified HDVs powered by diesel and compressed natural gas totaling over 6800 miles of on-road operation in California. Distance-, fuel- and work-based PNEFs were calculated for each vehicle. Distance-based PNEFs of vehicles equipped with original equipment manufacturer (OEM) diesel particulate filters (DPFs) in this study have decreased by 355-3200 times compared to a previous retrofit DPF dynamometer study. Fuel-based PNEFs were consistent with previous studies measuring plume exhaust in the ambient air. Meanwhile, on-road PNEF shows route and technology dependence. For vehicles with OEM DPFs and Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems, PNEFs under highway driving (i.e., 3.34 × 10 12 to 2.29 × 10 13 particles/mile) were larger than those measured on urban and drayage routes (i.e., 5.06 × 10 11 to 1.31 × 10 13 particles/mile). This is likely because a significant amount of nucleation mode volatile particles were formed when the DPF outlet temperature reached a critical value, usually over 310 °C, which was commonly achieved when vehicle speed sustained over 45 mph. A model year 2013 diesel HDV produced approximately 10 times higher PNEFs during DPF active regeneration events than nonactive regeneration.

  1. Piezoelectric valve actuator for flexible diesel operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLachlan, Brian J.; Elvin, Niell; Blaurock, Carl; Keegan, N. J.

    2004-07-01

    Mide Technology Corporation, under the supervision of the U.S. Army, is developing fast hydraulic valve technologies for fuel injection systems. Mide aims to address the Army's 21st Century Vehicle programs by providing the flexibility to achieve economic, environmentally friendly, and power dense diesel operation from a single platform. The technology couples a highly efficient gained piezoelectric actuator to a diesel unit injector's control valve spool. Piezoelectric actuation enables proportional authority over the injector's control valve, as opposed to traditional digital (on/off) operation. This authority allows the integrated device to provide electronically controlled fuel injection rate shaping capability. Each injection event profile may be independently shaped to govern diesel engine operation in one of three selectable modes: Lean, for fuel efficiency; Clean, for reduced emissions; Mean, for improved battlefield performance. To date, Mide has shown injection rate shaping capability in the laboratory using the industry standard "rate tube test" to measure injection profiles. Future development will focus on an engine demonstration of Lean, Clean, and Mean operating mode flexibility using rate shaping technology.

  2. TRNSYS HYBRID wind diesel PV simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, P.J.A.; Mitchell, J.W.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A.; Blair, N.J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Solar Energy Laboratory (SEL) has developed a wind diesel PV hybrid systems simulator, UW-HYBRID 1.0, an application of the TRNSYS 14.2 time-series simulation environment. An AC/DC bus links up to five diesels and wind turbine models, along with PV modules, a battery bank, and an AC/DC converter. Multiple units can be selected. PV system simulations include solar angle and peak power tracking options. Weather data are Typical Meteorological Year data, parametrically generated synthesized data, or external data files. PV performance simulations rely on long-standing SEL-developed algorithms. Loads data are read as scalable time series. Diesel simulations include estimated fuel-use and waste heat output, and are dispatched using a least-cost of fuel strategy. Wind system simulations include varying air density, wind shear and wake effects. Time step duration is user-selectable. UW-HYBRID 1.0 runs in Windows{reg_sign}, with TRNSED providing a customizable user interface. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Bio-diesel fuels production: Feasibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabasso, L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the efforts being made by Italy's national government and private industry to develop diesel engine fuels derived from vegetable oils, in particular, sunflower seed oil. These fuels are being promoted in Italy from the environmental protection stand-point in that they don't contain any sulfur, the main cause of acid rain, and from the agricultural stand-point in that they provide Italian farmers, whose food crop production capacity is limited due to European Communities agreements, with the opportunity to use their set-aside land for the production of energy crops. This paper provides brief notes on the key performance characteristics of bio-diesel fuels, whose application doesn't require any modifications to diesel engines, apart from minor adjustments to the air/fuel mix regulating system, and assesses commercialization prospects. Brief mention is made of the problems being encountered by the Government in the establishing fair bio-fuel production tax rebates which are compatible with the marketing practices of the petroleum industry. One of the strategies being considered is to use the bio-fuels as additives to be mixed with conventional fuel oils so as to derive a fuel which meets the new European air pollution standards

  4. Metal/nonmetal diesel particulate matter rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomko, D.M. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Safety and Health Technology Center; Stackpole, R.P. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Triadelphia, WV (United States). Approval and Certification Center; Findlay, C.D. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Arlington, VA (United States). Metal/Nonmetal Safety and Health; Pomroy, W.H. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Duluth, MN (United States). Metal/Nonmetal North Central District

    2010-07-01

    The American Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) issued a health standard in January 2001 designed to reduce exposure to diesel particulate matter (DPM) in underground metal and nonmetal mines. The rule established an interim concentration limit for DPM of 400 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of total carbon, to be followed in 2004 by a final limit of 160 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of total carbon. The 2001 rule was challenged in federal court by various mining trade associations and mining companies. The rule was subsequently amended. This paper highlighted the major provisions of the 2006 final rule and summarized MSHAs current compliance sampling procedures. The concentration limit was changed to a permissible exposure limit and the sampling surrogate was changed from total carbon to elemental carbon. The MSHA published a new rule in 2006 which based the final limit on a miner's personal exposure rather than a concentration limit. The final limit was phased in using 3 steps over 2 years. This paper also discussed engineering controls and a recent MSHA report on organic carbon, elemental carbon and total carbon emissions from a diesel engine fueled with various blends of standard diesel and biodiesel. In May 2008, about two-thirds of all underground metal/nonmetal mines achieved and maintained compliance with the rule. 20 refs.

  5. Power Balancing of Inline Multicylinder Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Gawande

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a simplified methodology is presented for power balancing by reducing the amplitude of engine speed variation, which result in excessive torsional vibrations of the crankshaft of inline six-cylinder diesel engine. In modern fuel injection systems for reciprocating engines, nonuniform cylinder-wise torque contribution is a common problem due to nonuniform fuel supply due to a defect in fuel injection system, causing increased torsional vibration levels of the crankshaft and stress of mechanical parts. In this paper, a mathematical model for the required fuel adjustment by using amplitude of engine speed variation applied on the flywheel based on engine dynamics is suggested. From the found empirical relations and FFT analysis, the amplitude of engine speed variation (i.e., torsional vibration levels of the crankshaft of inline six-cylinder diesel engine genset can be reduced up to 55%. This proposed methodology is simulated by developing MATALB code for uniform and nonuniform working of direct injection diesel engine of SL90 type manufactured by Kirloskar Oil Engine Ltd., Pune, India.

  6. PCR+ In Diesel Fuels and Emissions Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAdams, H.T.

    2002-04-15

    In past work for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), PCR+ was developed as an alternative methodology for building statistical models. PCR+ is an extension of Principal Components Regression (PCR), in which the eigenvectors resulting from Principal Components Analysis (PCA) are used as predictor variables in regression analysis. The work was motivated by the observation that most heavy-duty diesel (HDD) engine research was conducted with test fuels that had been ''concocted'' in the laboratory to vary selected fuel properties in isolation from each other. This approach departs markedly from the real world, where the reformulation of diesel fuels for almost any purpose leads to changes in a number of interrelated properties. In this work, we present new information regarding the problems encountered in the conventional approach to model-building and how the PCR+ method can be used to improve research on the relationship between fuel characteristics and engine emissions. We also discuss how PCR+ can be applied to a variety of other research problems related to diesel fuels.

  7. Simulation of diesel engine energy conversion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. С. Афанасьев

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to keep diesel engines in good working order the troubleshooting methods shall be improved. For their further improvement by parameters of associated processes a need has arisen to develop a diesel engine troubleshooting method based on time parameters of operating cycle. For such method to be developed a computational experiment involving simulation of diesel engine energy conversion processes has been carried out. The simulation was based on the basic mathematical model of reciprocating internal combustion engines, representing a closed system of equations and relationships. The said model has been supplemented with the engine torque dynamics taking into account the current values of in-cylinder processes with different amounts of fuel injected, including zero feed.The torque values obtained by the in-cylinder pressure conversion does not account for mechanical losses, which is why the base simulation program has been supplemented with calculations for the friction and pumping forces. In order to determine the indicator diagram of idle cylinder a transition to zero fuel feed mode and exclusion of the combustion process from calculation have been provisioned.

  8. Two-Color Pyrometry with Diesel Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, Katharine; Bittle, Joshua

    2017-11-01

    Diesel combustion lasts only milliseconds and takes place inside a closed engine cylinder. Because of this, the mixing and subsequent combustion processes are still not completely understood. Using optically accessible experimental apparatuses and various highspeed optical diagnostic techniques can give insight into the effects of different types of fuels on their subsequent combustion. Two-color pyrometry is an example of such techniques, and has been proven to give accurate temperature measurements of a flame while requiring no physical contact with the surface of interest. A two-color pyrometer has been designed, built, and tested with a Bunsen burner, with the intent of applying the pyrometer to a combustion spray chamber in the future. Initial testing has been made at various fuel rates using a controlled Bunsen burner flame. Temperature maps have been generated from the pyrometer images showing trends that flames with higher fuel flow rates burned at lower mean temperatures. A preliminary video of diesel spray has been captured, showing that future application to diesel combustion is possible with the pyrometer setup.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in exhaust emissions from diesel engines powered by rapeseed oil methylester and heated non-esterified rapeseed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Czerwinski, Jan; Leníček, Jan; Sekyra, Milan; Topinka, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of exhaust emissions were studied in four direct-injection turbocharged four-cylinder diesel engines, with power ratings of 90-136 kW. The engines were operated on biodiesel (B-100), a blend of 30% biodiesel in diesel fuel (B-30), and heated rapeseed oil (RO) in two independent laboratories. Diesel particle filters (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were used with B-30 and B-100. Concentrations of individual PAHs sampled in different substrates (quartz, borosilicate fiber and fluorocarbon membrane filters, polyurethane foam) were analyzed using different methods. Benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (BaP TEQ) were calculated using different sets of toxic equivalency factors (TEF). Operation on B-100 without aftertreatment devices, compared to diesel fuel, yielded a mean reduction in PAHs of 73%, consistent across engines and among TEF used. A lower PAH reduction was obtained using B-30. The BaP TEQ reductions on DPF were 91-99% using B-100, for one non-catalyzed DPF, and over 99% in all other cases. The BaP TEQ for heated RO were higher than those for B-100 and one half lower to over twice as high as that of diesel fuel. B-100 and RO samples featured, compared to diesel fuel, a relatively high share of higher molecular weight PAH and a relatively low share of lighter PAHs. Using different sets of TEF or different detection methods did not consistently affect the observed effect of fuels on BaP TEQ. The compilation of multiple tests was helpful for discerning emerging patterns. The collection of milligrams of particulate matter per sample was generally needed for quantification of all individual PAHs.

  10. Performance and Emission Assessment of Multi Cylinder Diesel Engine using Surfactant Enhanced Water in Diesel Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Mohammed Yahaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A four stroke, four cylinder, In-direct injection diesel engine was used to study the effect of emulsified diesel fuel with 5% water by volume on the engine performance and on the main pollutant emissions. The experiments were conducted in the speed range from 1000 to 4500 rpm at full load conditions. It was found that, in general, using emulsified fuel improves the engine performance with slight increase in emissions. While the BSFC has a minimum value for 5% water and at all rpm, the torque, the power and the BMEP are found to have maximum values under these conditions when compared conve ntional disel. CO2 was found to increase with engine speed whereas increase in CO and NOX were minimum. In this work water in diesel emulsion was prepared by a mechanical homogenizer and their physical and chemical properties were examined.

  11. Diesel exhaust exposure, its multi-system effects, and the effect of new technology diesel exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Haley; Reis, Cesar; Sharip, Akbar; Reis, Wenes; Zhao, Yong; Sinclair, Ryan; Beeson, Lawrence

    2018-05-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) from vehicles and industry is hazardous and affects proper function of organ systems. DE can interfere with normal physiology after acute and chronic exposure to particulate matter (PM). Exposure leads to potential systemic disease processes in the central nervous, visual, hematopoietic, respiratory, cardiovascular, and renal systems. In this review, we give an overview of the epidemiological evidence supporting the harmful effects of diesel exhaust, and the numerous animal studies conducted to investigate the specific pathophysiological mechanisms behind DE exposure. Additionally, this review includes a summary of studies that used biomarkers as an indication of biological plausibility, and also studies evaluating new technology diesel exhaust (NTDE) and its systemic effects. Lastly, this review includes new approaches to improving DE emissions, and emphasizes the importance of ongoing study in this field of environmental health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biodegradability of commercial and weathered diesel oils Biodegradabilidade de óleos diesel comercial e intemperizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Pinto Mariano

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the capability of different microorganisms to degrade commercial diesel oil in comparison to a weathered diesel oil collected from the groundwater at a petrol station. Two microbiological methods were used for the biodegradability assessment: the technique based on the redox indicator 2,6 - dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP and soil respirometric experiments using biometer flasks. In the former we tested the bacterial cultures Staphylococcus hominis, Kocuria palustris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI, Ochrobactrum anthropi and Bacillus cereus, a commercial inoculum, consortia obtained from soil and groundwater contaminated with hydrocarbons and a consortium from an uncontaminated area. In the respirometric experiments it was evaluated the capability of the native microorganisms present in the soil from a petrol station to biodegrade the diesel oils. The redox indicator experiments showed that only the consortia, even that from an uncontaminated area, were able to biodegrade the weathered diesel. In 48 days, the removal of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH in the respirometric experiments was approximately 2.5 times greater when the commercial diesel oil was used. This difference was caused by the consumption of labile hydrocarbons, present in greater quantities in the commercial diesel oil, as demonstrated by gas chromatographic analyses. Thus, results indicate that biodegradability studies that do not consider the weathering effect of the pollutants may over estimate biodegradation rates and when the bioaugmentation is necessary, the best strategy would be that one based on injection of consortia, because even cultures with recognised capability of biodegrading hydrocarbons may fail when applied isolated.Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a capacidade de diferentes microrganismos em degradar óleo diesel comercial em comparação com um óleo diesel intemperizado coletado da água subterrânea em um posto de combust

  13. The taxation of diesel cars in Belgium – revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayeres, Inge; Proost, Stef

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares the current taxation of diesel and gasoline cars in Belgium with the guidelines for optimal taxation. We find that diesel cars are still taxed much less than gasoline cars, resulting in a dominant market share for diesel cars in the car stock. If the fuel tax is the main instrument to control for externalities and generate revenues, the diesel excise should be much higher than the excise on gasoline for two reasons: diesel is more polluting than gasoline and more importantly, through the better fuel efficiency, diesel cars contribute less fiscal revenues per mile. - Highlights: ► With a correct tax system the diesel excise should be higher than that on gasoline. ► When this is difficult, the fixed annual charge should be higher for diesel cars. ► The current tax structure for gasoline and diesel cars in Belgium is suboptimal. ► It implies that CO 2 emissions are reduced, but in a very cost-inefficient way

  14. Improvement of ecological characteristics of the hydrogen diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natriashvili, T.; Kavtaradze, R.; Glonti, M.

    2018-02-01

    In the article are considered the questions of influence of a swirl intensity of the shot and injector design on the ecological indices of the hydrogen diesel, little-investigated till now. The necessity of solution of these problems arises at conversion of the serial diesel engine into the hydrogen diesel. The mathematical model consists of the three-dimensional non-stationary equations of transfer and also models of turbulence and combustion. The numerical experiments have been carried out with the use of program code FIRE. The optimal values of parameters of the working process, ensuring improvement of the effective and ecological indices of the hydrogen diesel are determined.

  15. Performance evaluation of diesel engine using rice bran biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Chhabra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of fuels in the world is increasing rapidly and it affects the global economy of all the countries so this factor forced all the countries to find the alternative fuel to reduce and even replace the usage of petroleum. Thus use of biodiesel from non-edible oil sources serves as an alternative to this problem. The present study focuses on impact assessment of rice bran and crude rice bran biodiesel and its blends with diesel on diesel engine performance. The experimental investigation provides in depth detail of the biodiesel production process, evaluation of fuel properties and impact on engine performance. The study also investigates the optimization of the Compression ratio (CR of a compression ignition engine fueled with blends of biodiesel. In order to find out the optimum CR of the engine, experiments were conducted at different CRs ranging from 12 to 18. Then the experiments were conducted using B10, B20 and B40 blends of crude rice bran bio-diesel and diesel at CR of 12 and 14 and these results were compared with the results obtained when the same engine was tested on conventional diesel fuel. Similarly the experimental results of B10, B20 and B40 blends of rice bran bio-diesel at CR 14 were investigated and analyzed. Based on the experimental investigation the blends of crude rice bran bio-diesel can be used as fuel in diesel engine without making any modification to the diesel engine.

  16. Uniaxial compression tests on diesel contaminated frozen silty soil specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenaf, D.; Stampli, N.; Bathurst, R.; Chapuis, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    Results of a uniaxial, unconfined compression test on artificial diesel-contaminated and uncontaminated frozen silty soils are discussed. The testing program involved 59 specimens. The results show that for the same fluid content, diesel contamination reduced the strength of the frozen specimens by increasing the unfrozen water content. For example, in specimens containing 50 per cent diesel oil of the fluid content by weight the maximum strength was reduced by 95 per cent compared to the strength of an uncontaminated specimen. Diesel contamination was also shown to contribute to the slippage between soil particles by acting as a lubricant, thus accelerating the loss of compressive strength.13 refs., 18 figs

  17. Current and future developments in diesel powered hovercraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, J. C.; Stevens, M. J.; Buttigieg, J. A.

    After evaluating the development status of the application of diesel power to air-cushion vehicles (ACVs) and surface-effect ships (SESs), attention is given to the AP1-88 ACV, which is both the first and largest operational diesel-powered amphibious craft of this type. An account is given of the ACV and SES features that are dictated by the need to accommodate diesel power sources; the major advantages and disadvantages of diesel (vs gas turbine) engines are discussed. Although cost reductions are achievable against gas turbine powerplant use, lower payload fractions and slightly lower performance capabilities appear to be inescapable.

  18. Long term reliability analysis of standby diesel generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The long term reliability of 11 diesel generators of 125 to 250 kV A size has been analysed from 26 years of data base information on individual diesel service as standby power supplies for the Chalk River research reactor facilities. Failure to start on demand and failure to run data is presented and failure by diesel subsystem and multiple failures are also analysed. A brief comparison is made with reliability studies of larger diesel generator units used for standby power service in nuclear power plants. (author)

  19. Exhaust emissions of DI diesel engine using unconventional fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudrajad, Agung; Ali, Ismail; Hamdan, Hazmie; Hamzah, Mohd. Herzwan

    2012-06-01

    Optimization of using waste plastic and tire disposal fuel on diesel engine were observed. The experimental project was comparison between using both of unconventional fuel and base diesel fuel. The engine experiment was conducted with YANMAR TF120 single cylinder four stroke diesel engine set-up at variable engine speed at 2100, 1900, 1700, 1500 and 1300 rpm. The data have been taken at each point of engine speed during the stabilized engine-operating regime. Measurement of emissions parameters at different engine speed conditions have generally indicated lower in emission COfor waste plastic fuel, lower NOx for tire disposal fuel and lower SOx for diesel fuel.

  20. Modification of Diesel Engine to Producer Gas Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Aung, Nay Zar

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes considerations and procedure of conversion from diesel engine to producer gas engine. In this paper, the performance of producer gas engine is compared to the original diesel engine and the factors affecting on performance of the producer gas engine are mentioned. After converting the 26.5 kW diesel engines to producer gas engine, the power output of producer gas engine is 40% less than that of original diesel engine. However producer gas engines are used for saving fuel ...

  1. Proceedings of the 1998 diesel engine emissions reduction workshop [DEER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This workshop was held July 6--9, 1998 in Castine, Maine. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on reduction of diesel engine emissions. Attention was focused on the following: agency/organization concerns on engine emissions; diesel engine issues and challenges; health risks from diesel engines emissions; fuels and lubrication technologies; non-thermal plasma and urea after-treatment technologies; and diesel engine technologies for emission reduction 1 and 2.

  2. Investigation of PCDD/F emissions from mobile source diesel engines: impact of copper zeolite SCR catalysts and exhaust aftertreatment configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z Gerald; Wall, John C; Barge, Patrick; Dettmann, Melissa E; Ottinger, Nathan A

    2011-04-01

    This study investigated the impact of copper zeolite selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts and exhaust aftertreatment configurations on the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from mobile source diesel engines. Emissions of PCDD/Fs, reported as the weighted sum of 17 congeners called the toxic equivalency quotient (TEQ), were measured using a modified EPA Method 0023A in the absence and presence of exhaust aftertreatment. Engine-out emissions were measured as a reference, while aftertreatment configurations included various combinations of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), Cu-zeolite SCR, Fe-zeolite SCR, ammonia oxidation catalyst (AMOX), and aqueous urea dosing. In addition, different chlorine concentrations were evaluated. Results showed that all aftertreatment configurations reduced PCDD/F emissions in comparison to the engine-out reference, consistent with reduction mechanisms such as thermal decomposition or combined trapping and hydrogenolysis reported in the literature. Similarly low PCDD/F emissions from the DOC-DPF and the DOC-DPF-SCR configurations indicated that PCDD/F reduction primarily occurred in the DOC-DPF with no noticeable contribution from either the Cu- or Fe-zeolite SCR systems. Furthermore, experiments performed with high chlorine concentration provided no evidence that chlorine content has an impact on the catalytic synthesis of PCDD/Fs for the chlorine levels investigated in this study.

  3. Isolation and Screening of Diesel-Degrading Bacteria from the Diesel Contaminated Seawater at Kenjeran Beach, Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratiwi Putri Pranowo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Samples of contaminated seawater by diesel were taken at Kenjeran Beach Surabaya using aseptic technique. Isolation was conducted using serial dilution and spread method on nutrient agar (NA media. The all bacteria colony were devided in to group based on with morphological characterization and gram staining. After that, those bacterial colonies were tested individually in NA media containing different concentration of diesel (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10% for up to 7 days at 30°C. The results showed that eight bacterial strains were isolated from diesel contaminated seawater in Kenjeran Beach Surabaya. Screening on diesel showed that all the isolation bacteria were capable of degrading diesel and bacteria with code of B and E haves highly percentage growth in compared to other bacterial isolation. In conclusion, bacteria with code of B and E have potential to be used in diesel bioremediation in contaminated seawater.

  4. Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael T.; Harper, Lynn D. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Reduction (VPCAR) teststand and the results of an experimental program designed to evaluate the potential of the technology as a water purification process. In the experimental program the technology is evaluated based upon product water purity, water recovery rate, and power consumption. The experimental work demonstrates that the technology produces high purity product water and attains high water recovery rates at a relatively high specific power consumption. The experimental program was conducted in 3 phases. In phase I an Igepon(TM) soap and water mixture was used to evaluate the performance of an innovative Wiped-Film Rotating-Disk evaporator and associated demister. In phase II a phenol-water solution was used to evaluate the performance of the high temperature catalytic oxidation reactor. In phase III a urine analog was used to evaluate the performance of the combined distillation/oxidation functions of the processor.

  5. 40 CFR 80.581 - What are the batch testing and sample retention requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... retention requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, and ECA marine fuel? 80.581 Section...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel... requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, and ECA marine fuel? (a) Beginning on June 1...

  6. 40 CFR 80.617 - How may California diesel fuel be distributed or sold outside of the State of California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Violation... California diesel fuel redesignates it as motor vehicle diesel meeting the 15 ppm sulfur standard; and (vi) The terminal includes the volumes of California diesel fuel redesignated as motor vehicle diesel fuel...

  7. Combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with rice bran oil methyl ester and its diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gattamaneni Rao Narayana Lakshmi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a worldwide interest in searching for alternatives to petroleum-derived fuels due to their depletion as well as due to the concern for the environment. Vegetable oils have capability to solve this problem because they are renewable and lead to reduction in environmental pollution. The direct use of vegetable oils as a diesel engine fuel is possible but not preferable because of their extremely higher viscosity, strong tendency to polymerize and bad cold start properties. On the other hand, Biodiesels, which are derived from vegetable oils, have been recently recognized as a potential alternative to diesel oil. This study deals with the analysis of rice bran oil methyl ester (RBME as a diesel fuel. RBME is derived through the transesterification process, in which the rice bran oil reacts with methanol in the presence of KOH. The properties of RBME thus obtained are comparable with ASTM biodiesel standards. Tests are conducted on a 4.4 kW, single-cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct-injection air-cooled stationary diesel engine to evaluate the feasibility of RBME and its diesel blends as alternate fuels. The ignition delay and peak heat release for RBME and its diesel blends are found to be lower than that of diesel and the ignition delay decreases with increase in RBME in the blend. Maximum heat release is found to occur earlier for RBME and its diesel blends than diesel. As the amount of RBME in the blend increases the HC, CO, and soot concentrations in the exhaust decreased when compared to mineral diesel. The NOx emissions of the RBME and its diesel blends are noted to be slightly higher than that of diesel.

  8. Tomorrows diesel engines: towards a new equilibrium; Moteurs diesel de demain: vers un nouvel equilibre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastenhof, D. [SEMT Pielstick, 93 - Saint Denis (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyzes the different ways of reducing the pollutants emissions from diesel engines in order to follow the future French environmental regulations. The combustion in diesel engines is analyzed first: principle and consequences, calculated combustion, pollution units, influences of ambient air conditions on NO{sub x} production, maximum legal pollutant concentration limits (French regulation for fixed installations, NO{sub x}, CO, HC and dust limit values), influence of fuel composition. Then the existing methods for the reduction of pollutants emissions are analyzed and compared with respect to their cost: mechanical adjustment of engines, water injection, exhaust gases recirculation, treatment of fumes. (J.S.) 4 refs.

  9. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2004-04-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. Our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. The first two of these areas have resulted in valuable information about the limitations of lubricity and viscosity additives that are presently available in terms of their impact on the viscosity of DME and on wear rates on injector hardware. The third area, that of development of an injector durability test stand, has not resulted in a functioning experiment. Some information is provided in this report to identify the remaining tasks that need to be performed to make the injector stand operational. The key observations from the work are that when blended at 25 wt.% in either diesel fuel or Biodiesel fuel, DME requires more than 5 wt

  10. Inorganic membranes and catalytic reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Rangel, Maria do Carmo

    1997-01-01

    Membrane reactors are reviewed with emphasis in their applications in catalysis field. The basic principles of these systems are presented as well as a historical development. The several kinds of catalytic membranes and their preparations are discussed including the problems, needs and challenges to be solved in order to use these reactors in commercial processes. Some applications of inorganic membrane reactors are also shown. It was concluded that these systems have a great potential for i...

  11. An Assessment of Performance and Condition Monitoring Requirements of Foreign Marine Diesel Propulsion Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a synopsis of the requirements and recommended practices for diesel engine diagnostic, performance and condition monitoring systems for medium and slow speed diesel propulsion systems...

  12. Dazzled by diesel? The impact on carbon dioxide emissions of the shift to diesels in Europe through 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schipper, Lee; Fulton, Lew

    2013-01-01

    This paper identifies trends in new gasoline and diesel passenger car characteristics in the European Union between 1995 and 2009. By 2009 diesels had captured over 55% of the new vehicle market. While the diesel version of a given car model may have as much as 35% lower fuel use/km and 25% lower CO 2 emissions than its gasoline equivalent, diesel buyers have chosen increasingly large and more powerful cars than the gasoline market. As a result, new diesels bought in 2009 had only 2% lower average CO 2 emissions than new gasoline cars, a smaller advantage than in 1995. A Laspeyres decomposition investigates which factors were important contributors to the observed emission reductions and which factors offset savings in other areas. More than 95% of the reduction in CO 2 emissions per km from new vehicles arose because both diesel and gasoline new vehicle emissions/km fell, and only 5% arose because of the shift from gasoline to diesel technology. Increases in vehicle mass and power for both gasoline and diesel absorbed much of the technological efficiency improvements offered by both technologies. We also observe changes in the gasoline and diesel fleets in eight EU countries and find changes in fuel and emissions intensities consistent with the changes in new vehicles reported. While diesel cars continue to be driven far farther than gasoline cars, we attribute only some of this difference to a “rebound effect”. We conclude that while diesel technology has permitted significant fuel savings, the switch from gasoline to diesel in the new vehicle market contributed little itself to the observed reductions in CO 2 emissions from new vehicles. - Highlights: ► By 2009 diesels had captured over 55% of the new car market in the EU. ► New diesels in 2009 emitted only 2% lower average CO 2 than new gasoline cars. ► Diesel cars continue to be driven farther than gasoline cars. ► Overall there has been little net CO 2 reduction from the switch to diesels in

  13. Experimental investigation on performance characteristics of a diesel engine using diesel-water emulsion with oxygen enriched air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Baskar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engines occupy a crucial position in automobile industry due to their high thermal efficiency and high power to weight ratio. However, they lag behind in controlling air polluting components coming out of the engine exhaust. Therefore, diesel consumption should be analyzed for future energy consumption and this can be primarily controlled by the petroleum fuel substitution techniques for existing diesel engines, which include biodiesel, alcohol-diesel emulsions and diesel water emulsions. Among them the diesel water emulsion is found to be most suitable fuel due to reduction in particulate matter and NOx emission, besides that it also improves the brake thermal efficiency. But the major problem associated with emulsions is the ignition delay, since this is responsible for the power and torque loss. A reduction in NOx emission was observed due to reduction in combustion chamber temperature as the water concentration increases. However the side effect of emulsified diesel is a reduction in power which can be compensated by oxygen enrichment. The present study investigates the effects of oxygen concentration on the performance characteristics of a diesel engine when the intake air is enriched to 27% of oxygen and fueled by 10% of water diesel emulsion. It was found that the brake thermal efficiency was enhanced, combustion characteristics improved and there is also a reduction in HC emissions.

  14. Multi-response optimization of diesel engine operating parameters running with water-in-diesel emulsion fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vellaiyan Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-in-diesel emulsion fuel is a promising alternative diesel fuel, which has the potential to promote better performance and emission characteristics in an existing Diesel engine without engine modification and added cost. The key factor that has to be focused with the introduction of such fuel in existing Diesel engine is desired engine-operating conditions. The present study attempts to address the previous issue with two-phases of experiments. In the first phase, stable water-in-diesel emulsion fuels (5, 10, 15, and 20 water-in-diesel are prepared and their stability period and physico-chemical properties are measured. In the second phase, experiments are conducted in a single cylinder, 4-stroke Diesel engine with pre-pared water-in-diesel emulsion fuel blends based on L16 orthogonal array suggested in Taguchi’s quality control concept to record the output responses (perormance and emission levels. Based on signal-to-noise ratio and grey relational analysis, optimal level of operating factors are determined to obtain better response and verified through confirmation experiments. A statistical analysis of variance is applied to measure the significance of individual operating parameters on overall engine performance. Results indicate that the emulsion fuel prepared by Sorbitan monolaurate surfactant at high stirrer speed endows with better emulsion stability and acceptable variation in physicochemical properties. Results of this study also reveal that the optimal parametric setting effectively improves the combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of Diesel engine.

  15. Comparison of the effect of biodiesel-diesel and ethanol-diesel on the gaseous emission of a direct-injection diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Yage; Cheung, C. S.; Huang, Zuohua

    Experiments were conducted on a 4-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using ultralow sulfur diesel blended with biodiesel and ethanol to investigate the gaseous emissions of the engine under five engine loads at the maximum torque engine speed of 1800 rev min -1. Four biodiesel blended fuels and four ethanol blended fuels with oxygen concentrations of 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% were used. With the increase of oxygen content in the blended fuels, the brake thermal efficiency improves slightly. For the diesel-biodiesel fuels, the brake specific HC and CO emissions decrease while the brake specific NO x and NO 2 emissions increase. The emissions of formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, toluene, xylene and overall BTX (benzene, toluene, xylene) in general decrease, however, acetaldehyde and benzene emissions increase. For the diesel-ethanol fuels, the brake specific HC and CO emissions increase significantly at low engine load, NO x emission decreases at low engine load but increases at high engine load. The emissions of benzene and BTX vary with engine load and ethanol content. Similar to the biodiesel-diesel fuels, the formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, toluene and xylene emissions decrease while the acetaldehyde and NO 2 emissions increase. Despite having the same oxygen contents in the blended fuels, there are significant differences in the gaseous emissions between the biodiesel-diesel blends and the ethanol-diesel blends.

  16. Regulated and unregulated emissions from modern 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty on-highway diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalek, Imad A; Blanks, Matthew G; Merritt, Patrick M; Zielinska, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established strict regulations for highway diesel engine exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to aid in meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The emission standards were phased in with stringent standards for 2007 model year (MY) heavy-duty engines (HDEs), and even more stringent NOX standards for 2010 and later model years. The Health Effects Institute, in cooperation with the Coordinating Research Council, funded by government and the private sector, designed and conducted a research program, the Advanced Collaborative Emission Study (ACES), with multiple objectives, including detailed characterization of the emissions from both 2007- and 2010-compliant engines. The results from emission testing of 2007-compliant engines have already been reported in a previous publication. This paper reports the emissions testing results for three heavy-duty 2010-compliant engines intended for on-highway use. These engines were equipped with an exhaust diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), high-efficiency catalyzed diesel particle filter (DPF), urea-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst (SCR), and ammonia slip catalyst (AMOX), and were fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel (~6.5 ppm sulfur). Average regulated and unregulated emissions of more than 780 chemical species were characterized in engine exhaust under transient engine operation using the Federal Test Procedure cycle and a 16-hr duty cycle representing a wide dynamic range of real-world engine operation. The 2010 engines' regulated emissions of PM, NOX, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were all well below the EPA 2010 emission standards. Moreover, the unregulated emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitroPAHs, hopanes and steranes, alcohols and organic acids, alkanes, carbonyls, dioxins and furans, inorganic ions, metals and elements, elemental carbon, and particle number were substantially (90

  17. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT X, USE OF MEASURING TOOLS IN DIESEL MAINTENANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE PRECISION MEASURING TOOLS USED IN DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE. TOPICS ARE (1) LINEAR MEASURE, (2) MEASURING WITH RULES AND TAPES, (3) GETTING PRECISION WITH MICROMETERS, (4) DIAL INDICATORS, (5) TACHOMETERS, (6) TORQUE WRENCH, (7) THICKNESS (TECHER) GAGE, AND (8) VALVE…

  18. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT IV, MAINTAINING THE COOLING SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE PURPOSE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, CARE MAINTENANCE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS, AND TROUBLESHOOTING TIPS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING…

  19. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT VI, MAINTAINING MECHANICAL GOVERNORS--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF MECHANICAL GOVERNORS USED ON DIESEL ENGINES. TOPICS ARE (1) TYPES OF GOVERNORS AND ENGINE LOCATION, (2) GOVERNOR APPLICATIONS, (3) LIMITING SPEED MECHANICAL GOVERNOR, (4) VARIABLE SPEED MECHANICAL GOVERNOR, AND (5) CONSTANT SPEED…

  20. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT II, MAINTAINING THE AIR SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE AIR SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) OPERATION AND FUNCTION, (2) AIR CLEANER, (3) AIR SHUT-DOWN HOUSING, (4) EXHAUST SYSTEM, (5) BLOWER, (6) TURBOCHARGER, AND (7) TROUBLE-SHOOTING TIPS ON THE AIR SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A…

  1. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE, UNIT V, MAINTAINING THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE LUBE OILS USED, MAINTENANCE OF THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM, AND CRANKCASE VENTILATION COMPONENTS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "BASIC ENGINE…

  2. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT III, MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) PURPOSE OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (2) TRACING THE FUEL FLOW, (3) MINOR COMPONENTS OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (4) MAINTENANCE TIPS, (5) CONSTRUCTION AND FUNCTION OF THE FUEL INJECTORS, AND (6)…

  3. Differences in rheological profile of regular diesel and bio-diesel fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Čupera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel represents a promising alternative to regular fossil diesel. Fuel viscosity markedly influences injection, spraying and combustion, viscosity is thus critical factor to be evaluated and monitored. This work is focused on quantifying the differences in temperature dependent kinematic viscosity regular diesel fuel and B30 biodiesel fuel. The samples were assumed to be Newtonian fluids. Vis­co­si­ty was measured on a digital rotary viscometer in a range of 0 to 80 °C. More significant difference between minimum and maximum values was found in case of diesel fuel in comparison with biodiesel fuel. Temperature dependence of both fuels was modeled using several mathematical models – polynomial, power and Gaussian equation. The Gaussian fit offers the best match between experimental and computed data. Description of viscosity behavior of fuels is critically important, e.g. when considering or calculating running efficiency and performance of combustion engines. The models proposed in this work may be used as a tool for precise prediction of rheological behavior of diesel-type fuels.

  4. Effects of ultra-low sulphur diesel fuel and diesel oxidation catalysts on nitrogen dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachulak, J.S.; Zarling, D.

    2010-01-01

    Diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) are used on diesel equipment in underground mines to reduce exhaust emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (C) and odour that are associated with gaseous HCs. New catalysts have also been formulated to minimize sulphate production, but little is know about their effects on nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) emissions. DOCs are known to oxidize nitric oxide (NO) to NO 2 , which is more toxic than NO at low levels. Vale Inco uses ultra-low sulphur diesel (ULSD) fuel for its underground diesel equipment. Although ULSD is a cleaner burning fuel, its impact on the emissions performance of DOCs is not fully known. Technical material gathered during a literature review suggested that ULSD fuel may increase NO 2 production if DOCs are used, but that the increase would be small. This paper presented the results of a laboratory evaluation of DOCs with varying amounts of time-in service in Vale Inco mines. The 4 Vale Inco DOCs were found to produce excess NO 2 during some test conditions. In both steady-state and transient testing, there were no obvious trends in NO 2 increases with increasing DOC age. Two possibilities for these observations are that the DOCs may have been well within their useful life or their initial compositions differed. Future studies will make use of improved instrumentation, notably NO 2 analyzers, to definitely determine the influence of DOCs on NO 2 formation. 13 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  5. Application of Canola Oil Biodiesel/Diesel Blends in a Common Rail Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cong Ge

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the application effects of canola oil biodiesel/diesel blends in a common rail diesel engine was experimentally investigated. The test fuels were denoted as ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel, BD20 (20% canola oil blended with 80% ULSD by volume, and PCO (pure canola oil, respectively. These three fuels were tested under an engine speed of 1500 rpm with various brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs. The results indicated that PCO can be used well in the diesel engine without engine modification, and that BD20 can be used as a good alternative fuel to reduce the exhaust pollution. In addition, at low engine loads (0.13 MPa and 0.26 MPa, the combustion pressure of PCO is the smallest, compared with BD20 and ULSD, because the lower calorific value of PCO is lower than that of ULSD. However, at high engine loads (0.39 MPa and 0.52 MPa, the rate of heat release (ROHR of BD20 is the highest because the canola oil biodiesel is an oxygenated fuel that promotes combustion, shortening the ignition delay period. For exhaust emissions, by using canola oil biodiesel, the particulate matter (PM and carbon monoxide (CO emissions were considerably reduced with increased BMEP. The nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions increased only slightly due to the inherent presence of oxygen in biodiesel.

  6. Regulated and unregulated emissions from a diesel engine fueled with diesel fuel blended with diethyl adipate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ruijun; Cheung, C. S.; Huang, Zuohua; Wang, Xibin

    2011-04-01

    Experiments were carried out on a four-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine operating on Euro V diesel fuel blended with diethyl adipate (DEA). The blended fuels contain 8.1%, 16.4%, 25% and 33.8% by volume fraction of DEA, corresponding to 3%, 6%, 9% and 12% by mass of oxygen in the blends. The engine performance and exhaust gas emissions of the different fuels were investigated at five engine loads at a steady speed of 1800 rev/min. The results indicated an increase of brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency when the engine was fueled with the blended fuels. In comparison with diesel fuel, the blended fuels resulted in an increase in hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO), but a decrease in particulate mass concentrations. The nitrogen oxides (NO x) emission experienced a slight variation among the test fuels. In regard to the unregulated gaseous emissions, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde increased, while 1,3-butadiene, ethene, ethyne, propylene and BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene) in general decreased. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) was found to reduce significantly most of the investigated unregulated pollutants when the exhaust gas temperature was sufficiently high.

  7. Development of a portable remote sensing system for measurement of diesel emissions from passing diesel trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    A wireless remote-sensing system has been developed for measurement of NOx and particulate matters (PM) emissions from passing diesel trucks. The NOx measurement system has a UV light source with quartz fiber optics that focused the light source into...

  8. Dual-fuelling of a direct-injection automotive diesel engine by diesel and compressed natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirouzpanah, V.; Mohammadi Kosha, A.; Mosseibi, A.; Moshirabadi, J.; Gangi, A.; Moghadaspour, M.

    2000-01-01

    Application of Compressed Natural Gas in diesel engines has always been important, especially in the field of automotive engineering. This is due to easy accessibility, better mixing quality and good combustion characteristics of the Compressed Natural Gas fuel. In this study the application of Compressed Natural Gas fuel along with diesel oil in a heavy duty direct-injection automotive diesel engine is experimentally investigated. In order to convert a diesel engine into a diesel-gas one, the so called m ixed diesel-gas a pproach has been used and for this purpose a carbureted Compressed Natural Gas fuel system has been designed and manufactured. For controlling quantity of Compressed Natural Gas, the gas valve is linked to the diesel fuel injection system by means of a set of rods. Then, the dual-fuel system is adjusted so that, at full load conditions, the quantity of diesel fuel is reduced to 20% and 80% of its equivalent energy is substituted by Compressed Natural Gas fuel. Also injection pressure of pilot jet is increased by 11.4%. Performance and emission tests are conducted under variation of load and speed on both diesel and diesel-gas engines. Results show that, with equal power and torque, the diesel-gas engine has the potential to improve overall engine performance and emission. For example, at rated power and speed, fuel economy increases by 5.48%, the amount of smoke decreases by 78%, amount of CO decreases by 64.3% and mean exhaust gas temperature decreases by 6.4%

  9. Characterization of particle bound organic carbon from diesel vehicles equipped with advanced emission control technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakbin, Payam; Ning, Zhi; Schauer, James J; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2009-07-01

    A chassis dynamometer study was carried out by the University of Southern California in collaboration with the Air Resources Board (CARB) to investigate the physical, chemical, and toxicological characteristics of diesel emissions of particulate matter (PM) from heavy-duty vehicles. These heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDV) were equipped with advanced emission control technologies, designed to meet CARB retrofit regulations. A HDDV without any emission control devices was used as the baseline vehicle. Three advanced emission control technologies; continuously regenerating technology (CRT), zeolite- and vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction technologies (Z-SCRT and V-SCRT), were tested under transient (UDDS) (1) and cruise (80 kmph) driving cycles to simulate real-world driving conditions. This paper focuses on the characterization of the particle bound organic species from the vehicle exhaust. Physical and chemical properties of PM emissions have been reported by Biswas et al. Atmos. Environ. 2008, 42, 5622-5634) and Hu et al. (Atmos. Environ. 2008, submitted) Significant reductions in the emission factors (microg/mile) of particle bound organic compounds were observed in HDDV equipped with advanced emission control technologies. V-SCRT and Z-SCRT effectively reduced PAHs, hopanes and steranes, n-alkanes and acids by more than 99%, and often to levels below detection limits for both cruise and UDDS cycles. The CRT technology also showed similar reductions with SCRT for medium and high molecular weight PAHs, acids, but with slightly lower removal efficiencies for other organic compounds. Ratios of particle bound organics-to-OC mass (microg/g) from the baseline exhaust were compared with their respective ratios in diesel fuel and lubricating oil, which revealed that hopanes and steranes originate from lubricating oil, whereas PAHs can either form during the combustion process or originate from diesel fuel itself. With the introduction of emission control

  10. Fractal-like dimension of nanometer Diesel soot particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skillas, G.; Baltensperger, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Siegmann, K. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    Measurements with a low-pressure impactor and a differential mobility analyser were conducted for Diesel soot at various engine loads. By means of these measurements a fractal-like dimension of Diesel soot particles, with diameters ranging from 55 up to 260 nm, was established. (author) 2 figs., 7 refs.

  11. Experimental investigation of fouling characteristics of diesel oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the fouling characteristics of diesel oil using hot-wire test equipment. The diesel oil was electrically preheated to a desired fluid temperature using a heating coil. The fluid entered the test section and swept through a nichrome wire which was supplied with the electrical current corresponding to the ...

  12. Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: Q&A

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study was designed to evaluate the risk of death associated with diesel exhaust exposure, particularly as it may relate to lung cancer. The researchers observed increased risk for lung cancer death with increasing levels of ex

  13. Application of a Biodegradable Lubricant in a Diesel Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    , NOx, THC, PM, lubricant-SOF and PAH from one diesel and one gasoline type vehicle using biodegradable lubricants and conventional lubricants. This paper describes the results of the experiments with the diesel type vehicle only. Lubricant consumption and fuel consumption are other important parameters...

  14. Diesel Technology: Engines. Second Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Dave; Miller, Roger; Kellum, Mary

    This diesel technology series offers secondary and postsecondary students an opportunity for learning required skills in the diesel industry. It aligns with the medium/heavy duty truck task list developed by the National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation and used by the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence in…

  15. Embarked diagnosis applied to a mechanical system "diesel engine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The implementation of OBD (on-board diagnostic) systems for diesel engines has become an unavoidable necessity. From the models described in the literature, the latest generation diesel engine models as well as defects affecting it were established. A board diagnostic system based on the use of fuzzy pattern ...

  16. Knock characteristics of dual-fuel combustion in diesel engines ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper investigates the combustion knock characteristics of diesel engines running on natural gas using pilot injection as means of initiating combustion. The diesel engines knock under normal operating conditions but the knock referred to in this paper is an objectionable one. In the dual-fuel combustion process we ...

  17. Comparison of performance and emission characteristics of diesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oke

    of engine emissions and operation parameters. Keywords: Diesel engine, combustion modeling, diesel-water blends, NO, CO and soot emission, efficiency and power. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ijest.v7i4.6. 1. Introduction. Emission control is of paramount concern to most of the researchers and scientists around the ...

  18. Biomass energy from wood chips: Diesel fuel dependence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmons, Dave; Mejia, Cesar Viteri

    2010-01-01

    Most renewable energy sources depend to some extent on use of other, non-renewable sources. In this study we explore use of diesel fuel in producing and transporting woody biomass in the state of New Hampshire, USA. We use two methods to estimate the diesel fuel used in woody biomass production: 1) a calculation based on case studies of diesel consumption in different parts of the wood chip supply chain, and 2) to support extrapolating those results to a regional system, an econometric study of the variation of wood-chip prices with respect to diesel fuel prices. The econometric study relies on an assumption of fixed demand, then assesses variables impacting supply, with a focus on how the price of diesel fuel affects price of biomass supplied. The two methods yield similar results. The econometric study, representing overall regional practices, suggests that a $1.00 per liter increase in diesel fuel price is associated with a $5.59 per Mg increase in the price of wood chips. On an energy basis, the diesel fuel used directly in wood chip production and transportation appears to account for less than 2% of the potential energy in the wood chips. Thus, the dependence of woody biomass energy production on diesel fuel does not appear to be extreme. (author)

  19. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625 Section 169.625 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery. (a) Spaces containing machinery must be...

  20. Effect of Inorganic Fertilizer on the Microbial degradation of Diesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Inorganic Fertilizer (IF) on the microbial degradation of diesel polluted soil in Abeokuta was assessed by collecting Top soil (0 – 15 cm depth) from diesel polluted site of Information and Communication Centre, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Inorganic fertilizer was added to the polluted soil ...

  1. Diesel engine performance and emission analysis using soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodiesel presents a large potential for replacing other fossil-based fuels. Thus, the present work aimed to assess the specific fuel consumption (SFC), thermal efficiency and emissions of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), in a cycle diesel engine-generator set, using soybean biodiesel and diesel as fuels.

  2. Diesel and Truck Certification Needs Assessment: Two Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, William A.

    Recommendations for the improvement of the diesel engine and truck components of the Hawaii state certification examination for automobile and truck mechanics were solicited from 14 major private businesses repairing heavy tractor rigs and/or diesel engines on Oahu and a statewide sample of 21 trucking firms and other companies making extensive…

  3. Rudolf Diesel – The Rational Inventor of a Heat Engine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    had been in French. By the time he was 14, Diesel decided he wanted to be an engineer so in his last year of schooling, he specialised as a “Mechaniker”. After this, he went to an industrial school (Industrieschule) for his vocational training and finished in 1875 at the top of his class. Later that year Diesel joined the technical ...

  4. Laser-based diagnostics on NO in a diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, Theodorus Maria

    1999-01-01

    Of all internal combustion engines diesel engines tend to be the most efficient. However, this high efficiency is coupled with specific emissions of nitric oxides (NOx = NO and NO2) and soot. Such emissions are best fought against at their very source: the diesel combustion process itself. The

  5. Lubricity Additives and Wear with DME in Diesel Injection Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kasper; Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1999-01-01

    wear of standard diesel jerk pump plungers elements were made with weight measurements, diameter measurements, 2-D and 3-D surface roughness measurements, and photography by a Michelson interferometer. Several lubricity additives were tested, but none reduced wear levels to those for diesel fuel...

  6. Uso de etanol carburado en motores Diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Luis Arnoby

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se ejecutó en el Taller de Maquinaria Agrícola de la Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Seccional Palmira. Un motor diesel de 2 cilindros, 1260 cm3 y relación de comprensión 23:1, fue alimentado mediante un sistema dual formado por el sistema de inyección para ACPM y un sistema de carburación para etanol y mezclas etanol-agua. En primer término se varió el avance de la inyección entre 18 y 26° APMS(Antes de Punto Muerto Superior con el fin de determinar el avance óptimo de inyección en el motor original y el motor alimentado con el sistema dual. Con base en el punto de máxima potencia, se seleccionaron 20 y 22" como avances óptimos. En la segunda prueba, al operar el motor con carga y velocidad variables y alimentarlo con cuatro combustibles (ACPM, etanol y mezclas etanol- agua con 20 y 40 % agua, se incrementaron la velocidad en 10% la potencia máxima en 6.5% ; y el torque máximo en 3.73%, desde el motor original al sistema dual alimentado con la mezcla carburada de 40% agua. La mayor sustitución de combustible se presentó a alta velocidad donde se reemplazó hasta el 32 % de ACPM por etanol. Solo a alta velocidad se justifica la sobrealimentación con etanol carburado. En este rango se presentaron aumentos de potencia, velocidad, par torsor y sustitución de combustible.This work was performed in the Agricultural Mechanics Shop of the Universidad Nacional of Colombia in Palmira. A two-cylinder, 1260 cm3 diesel engine with a compression ratio of 23:1 was fueled by a dual system formed by its injection system for diesel oil and a carburation system for ethanol and ethanol-water blends. In a first test, m e injection advance was varied between 18 and 26 o BTDC (Before Top Dead Center to determine the optimum injection advance in the original engine and the engine fueled with the dual system. According to the maximum power point, 20 and 22° BTDC were selected as the optimum

  7. Visualisation of diesel injector with neutron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, E.; Grünzweig, C.; Jollet, S.; Kaiser, M.; Hansen, H.; Dinkelacker, F.

    2015-12-01

    The injection process of diesel engines influences the pollutant emissions. The spray formation is significantly influenced by the internal flow of the injector. One of the key parameters here is the generation of cavitation caused by the geometry and the needle lift. In modern diesel engines the injection pressure is established up to 3000 bar. The details of the flow and phase change processes inside the injector are of increasing importance for such injectors. With these experimental measurements the validation of multiphase and cavitation models is possible for the high pressure range. Here, for instance, cavitation effects can occur. Cavitation effects in the injection port area destabilize the emergent fuel jet and improve the jet break-up. The design of the injection system in direct-injection diesel engines is an important challenge, as the jet breakup, the atomization and the mixture formation in the combustion chamber are closely linked. These factors have a direct impact on emissions, fuel consumption and performance of an engine. The shape of the spray at the outlet is determined by the internal flow of the nozzle. Here, geometrical parameters, the injection pressure, the injection duration and the cavitation phenomena play a major role. In this work, the flow dependency in the nozzles are analysed with the Neutron-Imaging. The great advantage of this method is the penetrability of the steel structure while a high contrast to the fuel is given due to the interaction of the neutrons with the hydrogen amount. Compared to other methods (optical with glass structures) we can apply real components under highest pressure conditions. During the steady state phase of the injection various cavitation phenomena are visible in the injector, being influenced by the nozzle geometry and the fuel pressure. Different characteristics of cavitation in the sac and spray hole can be detected, and the spray formation in the primary breakup zone is influenced.

  8. Application of instantaneous angular acceleration to diesel engine fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yunpeng; Hu, Tianyou; Liu, Xin

    2005-12-01

    Diesel engine is a kind of important power generating machine, of which the running state monitoring and fault diagnosis attracts increasing attention. The theory and the method of diesel engine fault diagnosis based on angular acceleration measurement were studied, since angular acceleration contains a lot of information for diesel engine fault diagnosing and its power balance evaluating. USB data acquisition system was designed for the angular acceleration measurement, and it was composed with AVRAT09S8515 micro-processor and PDIUSBD12 USB interface IC. At the same time, the high speed micro-processor AVRAT09S8515 with unique function of automatically capturing the rising or falling edge of square wave was studied, and it was utilized in the diesel engine's crankshaft angular acceleration measuring system. The software and hardware of the whole system was designed, which supplied a whole solution to diesel engine fault diagnosis and power balance evaluation between each cylinder.

  9. Fuel oil systems for standby diesel-generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    This Standard provides the design requirements for fuel oil system for diesel-generators that provide standby power for a nuclear power generating station. The system includes all essential equipment from and including fuel oil storage tanks up to the terminal connection on the diesel-engine. It does not include that portion of the fuel oil system supplied by the diesel-generator manufacturer which is in accordance with Trial-Use Criteria for Diesel-Generator Units Applied as Standby Power Supplies for Nuclear Power Generating Stations, IEEE-387-1972. This definition of scope is intended to exclude only those factory-assembled, engine-mounted appurtances supplied with a diesel-generator unit. Integral tanks are, however, within the scope of this Standard. It also excludes motors, motor control centers, switchgear, cables, and other electrical equipment which is used in operation of the fuel oil system, except to define interface requirements

  10. Utilization of diesel fuel, anhydrous ethanol and additives blend of a stationary diesel engine with rotatory pump; Utilizacao de mistura ternaria alcool, diesel e aditivo em motores do ciclo diesel com bomba de injecao rotativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Cruz, Yordanka; Cavado Osorio, Alberto [Centro de Pesquisas de Petroleo (CEINPET), Havana (Cuba); Belchior, Carlos Rodrigues Pereira; Pereira, Pedro P.; Pinto, Nauberto Rodrigues [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia Naval e Mecanica; Aranda, Donato A. Gomes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    In this paper is analyzed the performance and fuel consumption of a stationary Diesel engine, with rotary diesel fuel injection pump, using (diesel fuel + anhydrous ethanol + 0.5% additive) blend. The engine performance parameters and fuel consumption tests were performed at the Termic Machine Laboratory, located in Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, and evaluated using a MWM Series 10 model 4.10 TCA. Two test cycles were used for this test program: the tests were carried out starting from the base diesel S-500, used as a reference; the engine operated with (diesel fuel S-500 - 8% anhydrous ethanol - DIOLEFECT additive (0,5% SPAN80 + 0,1% Biomix-D)) blend. The results indicate that: the reduction levels in power and torque of engine are approximately the same which is (2,55{+-}2%), the brake specific fuel consumption increased in 1,8%. (author)

  11. Black carbon emissions from diesel sources in Russia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kholod, Nazar [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Evans, Meredydd [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-31

    This report presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this report analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60% of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5% (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder). Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the report also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC in 2014.

  12. Comparison investigation for biological diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundulis, A.; Galins, A.; Grundulis, A.; Zihmane, K.

    2003-01-01

    The application of vegetable oils as diesel-engine fuels is being discussed and investigated as a means of exploiting agricultural potential in the production of regenerative energy sources. Traditional vegetable oils transesterification using methanol or ethanol technology for biofuel production is complicate and expensive. We investigate different kind of oils and fuel additives mixtures and offer simplified technology for biofuel production. The work presents compare of energetic and physical parameters of rape-seed-oil methyl and ethyl ester and oil mixture (authors)

  13. Carbonyl emissions in diesel and biodiesel exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado Corrêa, Sérgio; Arbilla, Graciela

    With the use of biodiesel in clear growth, it is important to quantify any potential emission benefits or liabilities of this fuel. Several researches are available concerning the regulated emissions of biodiesel/diesel blends, but there is a lack of information about non-regulated emissions. In a previous paper [Corrêa, S.M., Arbilla, G., 2006. Emissões de formaldeído e acetaldeído de misturas biodiesel/diesel. Periódico Tchê Química, 3, 54-68], the emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons were reported. In this work, seven carbonyl emissions (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, and benzaldehyde) were evaluated by a heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with pure diesel (D) and biodiesel blends (v/v) of 2% (B2), 5% (B5), 10% (B10), and 20% (B20). The tests were conducted using a six cylinder heavy-duty engine, typical of the Brazilian fleet of urban buses, in a steady-state condition under 1000, 1500, and 2000 rpm. The exhaust gases were diluted nearly 20 times and the carbonyls were sampled with SiO 2-C18 cartridges, impregnated with acid solution of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. The chemical analyses were performed by high performance liquid chromatography using UV detection. Using average values for the three modes of operation (1000, 1500, and 2000 rpm) benzaldehyde showed a reduction on the emission (-3.4% for B2, -5.3% for B5, -5.7% for B10, and -6.9% for B20) and all other carbonyls showed a significative increase: 2.6, 7.3, 17.6, and 35.5% for formaldehyde; 1.4, 2.5, 5.4, and 15.8% for acetaldehyde; 2.1, 5.4, 11.1, and 22.0% for acrolein+acetone; 0.8, 2.7, 4.6, and 10.0% for propionaldehyde; 3.3, 7.8, 16.0, and 26.0% for butyraldehyde.

  14. Diesel IPP is first for Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Sian

    1997-10-01

    In December this year, the first of eight diesel powered generating sets will be delivered to the site of Sri Lanka`s first major independent power project (IPP). Sapugaskanda plant is being developed and constructed by a European joint venture new to the IPP market and has won the support of major international investors. The 51 MW installation will provide a much needed injection of power into the hydropower-dominated system, and will serve as an example for further private investment in the country. (Author)

  15. Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel, a renewable fuel produced from animal fats or vegetable oils, is popular among many vehicle owners and fleet managers seeking to reduce emissions and support U.S. energy security. Questions sometimes arise about the viability of fueling vehicles with straight vegetable oil (SVO), or waste oils from cooking and other processes, without intermediate processing. But SVO and waste oils differ from biodiesel (and conventional diesel) in some important ways and are generally not considered acceptable vehicle fuels for large-scale or long-term use.

  16. Experimental investigations of a four-stroke single cylinder direct injection diesel engine operated on dual fuel mode with producer gas as inducted fuel and Honge oil and its methyl ester (HOME) as injected fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banapurmath, N.R.; Tewari, P.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.V.B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli 580031, Karnataka (India); Hosmath, R.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, K.L.E Society' s College of Engineering and Technology, Belgaum, Karnataka (India)

    2008-09-15

    In order to meet the energy requirements, there has been growing interest in alternative fuels like biodiesels, methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, biogas, hydrogen and producer gas to provide a suitable diesel oil substitute for internal combustion engines. Vegetable oils present a very promising alternative to diesel oil since they are renewable and have similar properties. Vegetable oils offer almost the same power output with slightly lower thermal efficiency when used in diesel engine [Srivastava A, Prasad R. Triglycerides-based diesel fuels. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2000;4:111-33.; Vellguth G. Performance of vegetable oils and their monoesters as fuels for diesel engines. SAE 831358, 1983.; Demirbas A. Biodiesel production from vegetable oils via catalytic and non-catalytic supercritical methanol transesterification methods. Int J Prog Energy Combust Sci 2005;31:466-87.; Jajoo BN, Keoti RS. Evaluation of vegetable oils as supplementary fuels for diesel engines. In: Proceedings of the XV national conference on IC engines and combustion, Anna University Chennai, 1997.; Altin R, Cetinkaya S, Yucesu HS. The potential of using vegetable oil fuels as fuel for diesel engines. Int J Energy Convers Manage 2000;42:529-38, 248.; Gajendra Babu MK, Chandan Kumar Das LM. Experimental investigations on a Karanja oil methyl ester fuelled DI diesel engine. SAE 2006-01-0238, 2006.; Agarwal D, Kumar Agarwal A. Performance and emission characteristics of a Jatropha oil (preheated and blends) in a direct injection compression ignition engine. Int J Appl Therm Eng 2007;27:2314-23. ]. Research in this direction with edible oils have yielded encouraging results, but their use as fuel for diesel engine has limited applications due to higher domestic requirement [Scholl Kyle W, Sorenson Spencer C. Combustion Analysis of soyabean oil methyl ester in a direct injection diesel engine. SAE 930934, 1993.; Nwafor OMI. Effect of advanced injection timing on the performance of rapeseed oil in

  17. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, L.M.; Yang, Shiyong [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This research, which is relevant to the development of new catalytic systems for the improvement of the quality of coal liquids by the addition of dihydrogen, is divided into two tasks. Task 1 centers on the activation of dihydrogen by molecular basic reagents such as hydroxide ion to convert it into a reactive adduct (OH{center_dot}H{sub 2}){sup {minus}} that can reduce organic molecules. Such species should be robust withstanding severe conditions and chemical poisons. Task 2 is focused on an entirely different approach that exploits molecular catalysts, derived from organometallic compounds that are capable of reducing monocyclic aromatic compounds under very mild conditions. Accomplishments and conclusions are discussed.

  18. Catalytic Organometallic Reactions of Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkenberg, Jessica L.

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, ammonia had rarely succumbed to catalytic transformations with homogeneous catalysts, and the development of such reactions that are selective for the formation of single products under mild conditions has encountered numerous challenges. However, recently developed catalysts have allowed several classes of reactions to create products with nitrogen-containing functional groups from ammonia. These reactions include hydroaminomethylation, reductive amination, alkylation, allylic substitution, hydroamination, and cross-coupling. This Minireview describes examples of these processes and the factors that control catalyst activity and selectivity. PMID:20857466

  19. Studies of Catalytic Model Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holse, Christian

    of the Cu/ZnO nanoparticles is highly relevant to industrial methanol synthesis for which the direct interaction of Cu and ZnO nanocrystals synergistically boost the catalytic activity. The dynamical behavior of the nanoparticles under reducing and oxidizing environments were studied by means of ex situ X...... as the nanoparticles are reduced. The Cu/ZnO nanoparticles are tested on a  µ-reactor platform and prove to be active towards methanol synthesis, making it an excellent model system for further investigations into activity depended morphology changes....

  20. Catalytic Combustion of Ethyl Acetate

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZÇELİK, Tuğba GÜRMEN; ATALAY, Süheyda; ALPAY, Erden

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic combustion of ethyl acetate over prepared metal oxide catalysts was investigated. CeO, Co2O3, Mn2O3, Cr2O3, and CeO-Co2O3 catalysts were prepared on monolith supports and they were tested. Before conducting the catalyst experiments, we searched for the homogeneous gas phase combustion reaction of ethyl acetate. According to the homogeneous phase experimental results, 45% of ethyl acetate was converted at the maximum reactor temperature tested (350 °C). All the prepare...

  1. Kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Boudart, Michel

    2014-01-01

    This book is a critical account of the principles of the kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions in the light of recent developments in surface science and catalysis science. Originally published in 1984. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase acc

  2. Car dieselization: A solution to China's energy security?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yanjun; Shen, Wei; Yang, Shuhong; Han, Weijian; Chai, Qinhu

    2013-01-01

    Recently, there is a renewed interest in car dieselization in China to address the challenge of oil security. We developed an econometric model to estimate the vehicle fuels and crude oil demands. The results indicate that if the average travel distance of cars is maintained at the level of 2010–16,000 km/yr, and if the distillation products mix of the refineries remains unchanged, China's crude oil demand in 2020 will reach 1060 million tonnes (Mt), which also results in an excess supply of 107 Mt of diesel. A new balance of diesel supply and demand can be reached and crude oil demand can be significantly reduced to 840 Mt by improving the production ratio between diesel and gasoline on the supply side and promoting passenger vehicle dieselization on the demand side. The crude oil demand will be reduced to 810 Mt in 2020, if the vehicle travel distance gradually drops to 12,000 km/yr. If so, dieselization will provide a rather limited added value—only 6% further oil saving by 2020. Dieselization is not a silver bullet but it depends on a series of key factors: growth rate of gross domestic products (GDP), vehicle sales, and vehicle annual travel distance. -- Highlights: •Econometric approach is employed to forecast fuel and oil demand. •Dieselization is a potential policy option to improve China's oil security. •In favorable conditions, dieselization will cut more than 200 Mt oil import in 2020. •In some cases; however, dieselization may have limited effect on oil saving

  3. Diesel vehicles and sustainable mobility in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallington, T.J.; Lambert, C.K.; Ruona, W.C.

    2013-01-01

    Concerns regarding global warming and energy security have increased the importance of decreasing emissions of CO 2 from vehicles. Diesel vehicles have higher fuel economy and lower CO 2 emissions than their gasoline counterparts. On a well-to-wheels per vehicle per km basis it has been estimated that diesel light-duty vehicles in 2015 will emit 14–27% less CO 2 than their gasoline counterparts. We estimate here that on a gCO 2 /kWh at peak torque, diesel medium-duty vehicles currently have an approximately 10% CO 2 advantage over their gasoline counterparts. At light and moderate loads the CO 2 advantage for medium-duty diesels with SCR after-treatment will be greater than 10% (reflecting pumping losses when gasoline engines are operated at low and moderate loads). Emission of NO x , HCs, and PM from diesel (and gasoline) vehicles has decreased substantially over the past decade and further reductions are anticipated in the future. In addition to the heavy-duty segment, which diesels currently dominate, modern diesel engines are likely to continue to play an important role in the medium-duty segment, and perhaps also in the light-duty segment in a transition to more sustainable mobility. - Highlights: ► This paper is part of a special issue on diesels organized by Lee Schipper. ► The paper provides an overview of advanced diesel technology from a U.S. perspective. ► Modern diesel engines are likely to contribute to a transition to more sustainable mobility

  4. Performance of jatropha oil blends in a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forson, F.K.; Oduro, E.K.; Hammond-Donkoh, E. [Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-06-01

    Results are presented on tests on a single-cylinder direct-injection engine operating on diesel fuel, jatropha oil, and blends of diesel and jatropha oil in proportions of 97.4%/2.6%; 80%120%; and 50%150% by volume. The results covered a range of operating loads on the engine. Values are given for the chemical and physical properties of the fuels, brake specific fuel consumption, brake power, brake thermal efficiency, engine torque, and the concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and oxygen in the exhaust gases. Carbon dioxide emissions were similar for all fuels, the 97.4% diesel/2.6% jatropha fuel blend was observed to be the lower net contributor to the atmospheric level. The trend of carbon monoxide emissions was similar for the fuels but diesel fuel showed slightly lower emissions to the atmosphere. The test showed that jatropha oil could be conveniently used as a diesel substitute in a diesel engine. The test further showed increases in brake thermal efficiency, brake power and reduction of specific fuel consumption for jatropha oil and its blends with diesel generally, but the most significant conclusion from the study is that the 97.4% diesel/2.6% jatropha fuel blend produced maximum values of the brake power and brake thermal efficiency as well as minimum values of the specific fuel consumption. The 97.4%12.6% fuel blend yielded the highest cetane number and even better engine performance than the diesel fuel suggesting that jatropha oil can be used as an ignition- accelerator additive for diesel fuel. (author)

  5. Short-term break in the French love for diesel?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hivert, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    From 1980 to 1995, France was the first European country in which diesel cars became more popular than petrol cars. In addition to offering improved performance, this preference was notably due to a much cheaper cost of use, in line with the taxation on both fuel types. But the advantage of diesel technology does not clearly seem to extend to energy and CO2 savings. In this paper, French trends over the last 15 years and latest annual available statistics about both diesel car ownership and use are analysed, on the basis of the “ParcAuto” panel data source. The results notably show that, from the moment the gap between fuel prices was reduced, the annual mileage amounts of diesel cars have fallen faster than those of petrol cars. A specific section summarizes the results of our work on the behaviour of French households who chose to replace their petrol car with a diesel. Detailed examination of these switching behaviours, involving a complex set of variables, confirms that there are increases in driving associated with “new diesel motorists”. The final section of this paper briefly discusses recent evolutions of fuel expenditures. - Highlights: ► Latest figures/long-term trends about French diesel cars analysed using panel data. ► French preference for diesel was notably due to a much cheaper cost of use. ► Switching from petrol to diesel car commonly induced an increase in driving. ► Diesel sales and mileages have fallen faster when the gap between fuel prices reduced. ► Recent fuel prices sharp increase involved major changes in car use behaviours

  6. The diesel exhaust in miners study: IV. Estimating historical exposures to diesel exhaust in underground non-metal mining facilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, R.; Coble, J.B.; Lubin, J.H.; Portengen, L.; Blair, A.; Attfield, M.D.; Silverman, D.T.; Stewart, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    We developed quantitative estimates of historical exposures to respirable elemental carbon (REC) for an epidemiologic study of mortality, including lung cancer, among diesel-exposed miners at eight non-metal mining facilities [the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS)]. Because there were no

  7. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners study: a nested case-control study of lung cancer and diesel exhaust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silverman, D.T.; Samanic, C.; Lubin, J.H.; Blair, A.; Stewart, P.A.; Vermeulen, R.; Schleiff, P.L.; Travis, W.D.; Ziegler, R.; Wacholder, S.; Attfield, M.D.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Most studies of the association between diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer suggest a modest, but consistent, increased risk. However, to our knowledge, no study to date has had quantitative data on historical diesel exposure coupled with adequate sample size to evaluate the

  8. Note on the sanitary impact of diesel particulates; Note sur l'impact sanitaire des particules diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-15

    In the actual situation of scientific works, the epidemiology studies on environment do not allow to say the carcinogen contribution of diesel particulates at the concentration levels measured in the urban air. But according to the experimental data for the rat and the data observed for the personnel exposed to diesel particulates these particulates are classified as probably carcinogen. (N.C.)

  9. Diesel hybrid powertrain for passenger and light commercial vehicles; Diesel-Hybrid-Antriebsstrang fuer PKW und leichte Nutzfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliardi, David [Ricardo Deutschland GmbH, Schwaebisch Gmuend (Germany). Productgruppe Hybrid and Electric Vehicles; Wren, Corin [Ricardo Midlands Technical Centre, Leamington Spa (United Kingdom). Hi-CEPS Project for Hybrid and Electrical Vehicles

    2011-03-15

    As part of the European funded FP6 project Hi-CEPS, Ricardo, Ford and Eldor have collaborated to develop an efficient diesel powertrain concept suitable for a family of vehicles on a C-segment platform, including a light commercial vehicle variant. The powertrain architecture incorporates a downsized diesel engine mated to an electromechanically actuated dual clutch transmission developed by Ricardo. (orig.)

  10. Experimental studies on natural aspirated diesel engine fuelled with corn seed oil methyl ester as a bio-diesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama Krishna Reddy, E.; Dhana Raju, V.

    2018-03-01

    This paper evaluates the possibilities of using corn seed oil methyl ester as a fuel for compression ignition engines. The biodiesels are contained high oxygen content, and high Cetane number, due to this properties efficiency of biodiesel is higher than diesel fuel. The experiments were conducted with different biodiesel blends of (B10, B15, B20 and B25) corn seed oil on single cylinder four stroke natural aspirated diesel engines. Performance parameters and exhaust emissions are investigated in this experimental with the blends of the corn seed oil methyl ester and diesel fuel. The test results showed that the bio-diesel blends gives improved results for brake thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption when compared with the diesel fuel. The emissions of corn seed methyl esters follow the same trend of diesel but the smoke opacity was reduces for all blends. From the investigation, corn seed methyl ester is also having the properties similar to diesel fuel; it is biodegradable and renewable fuel, so it will be used as an alternative for diesel fuel.

  11. Oxidative destruction of biomolecules by gasoline engine exhaust products and detoxifying effects of the three-way catalytic converter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaurock, B; Hippeli, S; Metz, N; Elstner, E F

    1992-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of engine exhaust condensation products were derived from cars powered by diesel or four-stroke gasoline engines (with and without three-way catalytic converter). The cars were operated on a static test platform. Samples of the different exhaust solutions accumulated in a Grimmer-type distillation trap (VDI 3872) during standard test programs (Federal Test Procedure) were incubated with important biomolecules. As indicators of reactive oxygen species or oxidative destruction, ascorbic acid, cysteine, glutathione, serum albumin, the enzymes glycerinaldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase, and the oxygen free-radical indicator keto-methylthiobutyrate were used. During and after the incubations, oxygen activation (consumption) and oxidative destruction were determined. Comparison of the oxidative activities of the different types of exhaust condensates clearly showed that the exhaust condensate derived from the four-stroke car equipped with a three-way catalytic converter exhibited by far the lowest oxidative and destructive power.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of type silicoaluminophosphates catalytic support; Sintese e caracterizacao de suportes cataliticos do tipo silicoaluminofosfatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, C.E.T.; Carvalho, M.W.N.C.; Pereira, K.R.O., E-mail: carlosedisio@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Quimica. Lab. de Catalise, Adsorcao e Biocombustiveis

    2010-07-01

    The refining processes, the catalytic hydrocracking is the future of diesel oil in Brazil and the first units are already scheduled to be inaugurated. Among the catalysts used in this process, silicoaluminophosphates (SAPO's) have considerable potential for use as they have been effective in the isomerization of n-alkanes, the isomerization of olefins and alkylation of aromatics. Because of this, the objective is to develop catalysts that will be used in hydrocracking reactions. The media like SAPO-5 were synthesized with different ratios silicon/aluminum, which is used as a catalytic support and have the function of crack organic molecules, since it has acidic character. The materials were characterized by techniques: X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis and textural by BET. After summarizing the media found that they had agreements with the crystalline phases presented in the literature.(author)

  13. Catalytic enantioselective Reformatsky reaction with ketones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Ibanez, M. Angeles; Macia, Beatriz; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2008-01-01

    Chiral tertiary alcohols were obtained with good yields and enantioselectivities via a catalytic Reformatsky reaction with ketones, including the challenging diaryl ketones, using chiral BINOL derivatives.

  14. Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel, and Emissions Control Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Chernich, D.; Burnitzki, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Miyasato, M.; Lucht, E.; van der Merwe, D.; Schaberg, P.

    2010-05-01

    A novel in situ method was used to measure emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. Test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. Exhaust configurations were a stock muffler and a Thermo King pDPF diesel particulate filter. The TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, controlled by the TRU user interface. Results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine speeds. Application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, sometimes almost entirely. The application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine speed, but showed an increase in oxides of nitrogen at low engine speed.

  15. Application of the Advanced Distillation Curve Method to the Comparison of Diesel Fuel Oxygenates: 2,5,7,10-Tetraoxaundecane (TOU), 2,4,7,9-Tetraoxadecane (TOD), and Ethanol/Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Jessica L; Lovestead, Tara M; LaFollette, Mark; Bruno, Thomas J

    2017-08-17

    Although they are amongst the most efficient engine types, compression-ignition engines have difficulties achieving acceptable particulate emission and NO x formation. Indeed, catalytic after-treatment of diesel exhaust has become common and current efforts to reformulate diesel fuels have concentrated on the incorporation of oxygenates into the fuel. One of the best ways to characterize changes to a fuel upon the addition of oxygenates is to examine the volatility of the fuel mixture. In this paper, we present the volatility, as measured by the advanced distillation curve method, of a prototype diesel fuel with novel diesel fuel oxygenates: 2,5,7,10-tetraoxaundecane (TOU), 2,4,7,9-tetraoxadecane (TOD), and ethanol/fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) mixtures. We present the results for the initial boiling behavior, the distillation curve temperatures, and track the oxygenates throughout the distillations. These diesel fuel blends have several interesting thermodynamic properties that have not been seen in our previous oxygenate studies. Ethanol reduces the temperatures observed early in the distillation (near ethanol's boiling temperature). After these early distillation points (once the ethanol has distilled out), B100 has the greatest impact on the remaining distillation curve and shifts the curve to higher temperatures than what is seen for diesel fuel/ethanol blends. In fact, for the 15% B100 mixture most of the distillation curve reaches temperatures higher than those seen diesel fuel alone. In addition, blends with TOU and TOD also exhibited uncommon characteristics. These additives are unusual because they distill over most the distillation curve (up to 70%). The effects of this can be seen both in histograms of oxygenate concentration in the distillate cuts and in the distillation curves. Our purpose for studying these oxygenate blends is consistent with our vision for replacing fit-for-purpose properties with fundamental properties to enable the development of

  16. Computer aided engineering in exhaust aftertreatment sytems design. Part 2: Diesel engines; Computergestuetzter Entwurf von Abgas-Nachbehandlungskonzepten. Teil 2: Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamatelos, A.M.; Koltsakis, G.C.; Kandylas, I.P. [Aristoteles Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece)

    1999-03-01

    In the field of diesel engines, there is growing interest in CAE methods for low-emission concepts, as newly developed mathematical models become more and more efficient. The design of diesel exhaust systems must take three general concepts into account: the oxidation catalyst, the particulate filter and the DeNO{sub x} catalyst. A CAE methodology developed at the Aristotle University in Thessaloniki, Greece, to aid engineers in designing exhaust systems is presented in this paper. The methodology is based on the following computational tools: a transient exhaust system heat transfer code, a transient oxidation and DeNO{sub x} catalytic converter code, a catalyst kinetics database for the various types of oxidation and DeNO{sub x} catalytic converters and a computational tool for calculating the loading and regeneration of diesel filters with and without catalytic support. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Bereich der Dieselmotoren nimmt das Interesse an computergestuetzten CAE-Methoden fuer Niedrigemissionskonzepte zu, da neu entwickelte mathematische Modelle immer leistungsfaehiger werden. Der Entwurf von Dieselabgassystemen muss drei allgemeine Konzepte beruecksichtigen: Oxidationskatalysator, Partikelfilter und DeNO{sub x}-Katalysator. Eine an der Aristoteles Universitaet Thessaloniki, Griechenland, entwickelte computergestuetzte Methode, die den Entwurf von Abgassystemen unterstuetzten kann, wird im Folgenden dargestellt. Die Methode basiert auf folgenden Rechenmodellen: ein Modell zur Berechnung des Waermeuebergangs im Abgassystem, ein Rechenmodell zur Bestimmung des Instationaerverhaltens des Oxidations- und des DeNO{sub x}-Katalysators, eine Datenbank mit den chemischen Kinetikdaten fuer die verschiedenen Typen von Oxidations- und DeNO{sub x}-Katalysatoren sowie ein Rechenmodell zur Berechnung der Beladung und Regenerierung von Dieselfiltern mit oder ohne katalytische Unterstuetzung. (orig.)

  17. 40 CFR 86.341-79 - Diesel engine dynamometer test run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine dynamometer test run. 86... Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.341-79 Diesel engine dynamometer test run. (a) This section applies to Diesel engines only. Gasoline...

  18. 40 CFR 86.347-79 - Alternative calculations for diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.347-79 Alternative calculations for diesel engines. (a) This section applies to Diesel engines only. Gasoline-fueled engines must use the calculations in § 86.345. (b) For Diesel engines, the...

  19. 40 CFR 80.610 - What acts are prohibited under the diesel fuel sulfur program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel... supply, store or transport motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel or heating oil... transport any diesel fuel for use in motor vehicle or nonroad engines that contains greater than 0.10...

  20. 76 FR 45705 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Diesel-Powered Motor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Diesel-Powered Motor Vehicle Idling Act AGENCY... Commonwealth's Diesel-Powered Motor Vehicle Idling Act (hereafter referred to as the Diesel-Powered Motor..., Pennsylvania submitted a SIP revision to incorporate its Diesel-Powered Motor Vehicle Idling Act. Act 124, as...