WorldWideScience

Sample records for metal surfaces mediated

  1. Polydopamine-mediated surface-functionalization of graphene oxide for heavy metal ions removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Zhihui; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Dong; Liu, Xia; Jin, Jian

    2015-01-01

    By utilizing polydopamine (PD) nano-thick interlayer as mediator, polyethylenimine (PEI) brushes with abundant amine groups were grafted onto the surface of PD coated graphene oxide (GO) uniformly via a Michael-Addition reaction and produced a PEI–PD/GO composite nanosheets. The PEI–PD/GO composite exhibited an improved performance for adsorption of heavy metal ions as compared to PEI-coated GO and pure GO. The adsorption capacities for Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ , Pb 2+ , Hg 2+ are up to 87, 106, 197, and 110 mg/g, respectively. To further make the GO based composite operable, PEI–PD/RGO aerogel was prepared through hydrothermal and achieved a high surface area up to 373 m 2 /g. Although the adsorption capacity of PEI–PD/RGO aerogel for heavy metal ions decreases a little as compared to PEI–PD/GO composite dispersion (38, 32, 95, 113 mg/g corresponding to Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ , Pb 2+ , and Hg 2+ , respectively), it could be recycled several times in a simple way by releasing adsorbed metal ions, indicating its potential application for cleaning wastewater. - Graphical abstract: Polyethylenimine (PEI) brushes were grafted onto the surface of graphene oxide (GO) uniformly via a Michael-Addition reaction between the PEI and polydopamine interlayer coated on GO surface. The PEI–PD/GO composite exhibited an improved performance for adsorption of heavy metal ions compared to PEI-coated GO and pure GO. - Highlights: • We prepared polyethylenimine grafted polydopamine-mediated graphene oxide composites. • Introduction of PD layer increases metal ions adsorption capacity. • PEI–PD/RGO aerogel exhibited a superior adsorption performance. • PEI–PD/RGO aerogel can be recycled several times in a simple way

  2. Origin of Power Laws for Reactions at Metal Surfaces Mediated by Hot Electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    A wide range of experiments have established that certain chemical reactions at metal surfaces can be driven by multiple hot-electron-mediated excitations of adsorbates. A high transient density of hot electrons is obtained by means of femtosecond laser pulses and a characteristic feature of such...... density functional theory and the delta self-consistent field method. With a simplifying assumption, the power law becomes exact and we obtain a simple physical interpretation of the exponent n, which represents the number of adsorbate vibrational states participating in the reaction....

  3. Study of structural, surface and hydrogen storage properties of boric acid mediated metal (sodium)-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Demet; Köse, Dursun A.; Sahin, Onur; Oztas, Nursen A.

    2018-04-01

    Three boric acid mediated metal organic frameworks were synthesized by solution method with using succinic acid, fumaric acid and acetylene dicarboxylic acid as a ligand source and sodium as a metal source. The complexes were characterized by FT-IR, powder XRD, elemental analyses and single crystal measurements. The complexes with the formula, C4H18B2Na2O14, C4H16B2Na2O14 and C4H14B2Na2O14 were successfully obtained. BET surface area of complexes were calculated and found as 13.474 m2/g for catena-(tetrakis(μ2-hydroxo)-(μ2-trihydrogen borate)-(μ2-succinato)-di-sodium boric acid solvate), 1.692 m2/g for catena-(tetrakis(μ2-hydroxo)-(μ2-trihydrogen borate)-(μ2-fumarato)-di-sodium boric acid solvate) and 5.600 m2/g for catena-(tetrakis(μ2-hydroxo)-(μ2-trihydrogen borate)-(μ2-acetylenedicarboxylato)-di-sodium boric acid solvate). Hydrogen storage capacities of the complexes were also studied at 77 K 1 bar pressure and found as 0.108%, 0.033%, 0.021% by mass. When different ligands were used, the pore volume, pore width and surface area of the obtained complexes were changed. As a consequence, hydrogen storage capacities also changed.

  4. Extracellular Saccharide-Mediated Reduction of Au3+ to Gold Nanoparticles: New Insights for Heavy Metals Biomineralization on Microbial Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Fuxing; Qu, Xiaolei; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2017-03-07

    Biomineralization is a critical process controlling the biogeochemical cycling, fate, and potential environmental impacts of heavy metals. Despite the indispensability of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) to microbial life and their ubiquity in soil and aquatic environments, the role played by EPS in the transformation and biomineralization of heavy metals is not well understood. Here, we used gold ion (Au 3+ ) as a model heavy metal ion to quantitatively assess the role of EPS in biomineralization and discern the responsible functional groups. Integrated spectroscopic analyses showed that Au 3+ was readily reduced to zerovalent gold nanoparticles (AuNPs, 2-15 nm in size) in aqueous suspension of Escherichia coli or dissolved EPS extracted from microbes. The majority of AuNPs (95.2%) was formed outside Escherichia coli cells, and the removal of EPS attached to cells pronouncedly suppressed Au 3+ reduction, reflecting the predominance of the extracellular matrix in Au 3+ reduction. XPS, UV-vis, and FTIR analyses corroborated that Au 3+ reduction was mediated by the hemiacetal groups (aldehyde equivalents) of reducing saccharides of EPS. Consistently, the kinetics of AuNP formation obeyed pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics with respect to the concentrations of Au 3+ and the hemiacetal groups in EPS, with minimal dependency on the source of microbial EPS. Our findings indicate a previously overlooked, universally significant contribution of EPS to the reduction, mineralization, and potential detoxification of metal species with high oxidation state.

  5. Enhanced photochemistry on metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncher, G.M.; Parsons, C.A.; Harris, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    Due to the fast relaxation of molecular excited states in the vicinity of a metal or semiconductor surface, few observations of surface photochemistry have been reported. The following work concerns the surface-enhanced photo-reactions of a variety of physisorbed molecules on roughened Ag surfaces. In summary, photodecomposition leads to a graphitic surface carbon product which is monitored via surface-enhanced Raman scattering. In most cases an initial two-photon molecular absorption step followed by further absorption and fragmentation is thought to occur. Enhancement of the incident fields occurs through roughness-mediated surface plasmon resonances. This mechanism provides the amplified electromagnetic surface fields responsible for the observed photodecomposition. The photodecomposition experiments are performed under ultra-high vacuum. Surface characterization of the roughened surfaces was done by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and electron-stimulated emission. The SEM revealed morphology on the order of 300-400 A. This size of roughness feature, when modelled as isolated spheres should exhibit the well-known Mie resonances for light of the correct wavelengths. For protrusions existing on a surface these Mie resonances can be thought of as a coupling of the light with the surface plasmon. Experimental verification of these resonances was provided by the electron-stimulated light emission results. These showed that a polished Ag surface emitted only the expected transition radiation at the frequency of the Ag bulk plasmon. Upon roughening, however, a broad range of lower frequencies extending well into the visible are seen from electron irradiation of the surface. Large enhancements are expected for those frequencies which are able to couple into the surface modes

  6. Antibacterial Metallic Touch Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Villapún

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is to present a comprehensive review of the development of modern antibacterial metallic materials as touch surfaces in healthcare settings. Initially we compare Japanese, European and US standards for the assessment of antimicrobial activity. The variations in methodologies defined in these standards are highlighted. Our review will also cover the most relevant factors that define the antimicrobial performance of metals, namely, the effect of humidity, material geometry, chemistry, physical properties and oxidation of the material. The state of the art in contact-killing materials will be described. Finally, the effect of cleaning products, including disinfectants, on the antimicrobial performance, either by direct contact or by altering the touch surface chemistry on which the microbes attach, will be discussed. We offer our outlook, identifying research areas that require further development and an overview of potential future directions of this exciting field.

  7. Polydopamine-mediated surface functionalization of electrospun nanofibrous membranes: Preparation, characterization and their adsorption properties towards heavy metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chunlin; Wang, Heyun; Wei, Zhong; Li, Chuan; Luo, Zhidong

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A simple and versatile approach to produce PEI-functionalized nanofibers. • Novel PEI-functionalized PVC nanofibrous membrane was prepared. • Adsorption of PVC@PDA and PVC@PDA-PEI nanofibrous membranes for Cu 2+ was tested. • Isotherms, kinetic model and thermodynamic parameters were investigated. • Adsorption mechanism of Cu 2+ on modified membranes was inferred. - Abstract: In this paper, a simple and versatile approach for the fabrication of a polyethyleneimine (PEI)-functionalized nanofibrous membrane utilizing polydopamine (PDA) as a mediator is proposed. The morphology and structure of the PDA-coated and PEI-grafted nanofibrous membranes were confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Due to a large specific surface area and long fibrous morphology, the synthesized membranes were used as novel adsorbents for copper ion (Cu 2+ ) removal from aqueous solutions. The adsorption of Cu 2+ was investigated on the synthesized membranes regarding the membrane dosages, initial solution pH values, initial solution concentrations, contact times and temperatures. In addition, the adsorption equilibrium data of PEI-grafted membranes were well fitted with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, and a maximum adsorption capacity value of 33.59 mg g −1 was determined (while it was 21.94 mg g −1 for the PDA-coated membranes). The thermodynamic parameters indicated that Cu 2+ absorption was a spontaneous and exothermic adsorption process. In addition, XPS peak differentiation imitating analysis permitted the proposal of a copper-amine coordination adsorption mechanism that can be used to explain changes in the adsorption properties compared to PDA coating nanofibrous membranes

  8. Organometallic chemistry of metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muetterties, E.L.

    1981-06-01

    The organometallic chemistry of metal surfaces is defined as a function of surface crystallography and of surface composition for a set of cyclic hydrocarbons that include benzene, toluene, cyclohexadienes, cyclohexene, cyclohexane, cyclooctatetraene, cyclooctadienes, cyclooctadiene, cycloheptatriene and cyclobutane. 12 figures

  9. Diffusion of two-dimensional epitaxial clusters on metal (100) surfaces: Facile versus nucleation-mediated behavior and their merging for larger sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, King C.; Liu, Da-Jiang; Evans, James W.

    2017-12-01

    For diffusion of two-dimensional homoepitaxial clusters of N atoms on metal (100) surfaces mediated by edge atom hopping, macroscale continuum theory suggests that the diffusion coefficient scales like DN˜ N-β with β =3 /2 . However, we find quite different and diverse behavior in multiple size regimes. These include: (i) facile diffusion for small sizes N mediated diffusion with small β 2 for N =Np+1 and Np+2 also for moderate sizes 9 ≤N ≤O (102) ; (iv) merging of the above distinct branches and subsequent anomalous scaling with 1 ≲β analysis must account for a strong enhancement of diffusivity for short time increments due to back correlation in the cluster motion. Further understanding of this enhancement, of anomalous size scaling behavior, and of the merging of various branches, is facilitated by combinatorial analysis of the number of the ground-state and low-lying excited state cluster configurations, and also of kink populations.

  10. Corrosion-resistant metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi [Wading River, NY

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to metal surfaces having thereon an ultrathin (e.g., less than ten nanometer thickness) corrosion-resistant film, thereby rendering the metal surfaces corrosion-resistant. The corrosion-resistant film includes an at least partially crosslinked amido-functionalized silanol component in combination with rare-earth metal oxide nanoparticles. The invention also relates to methods for producing such corrosion-resistant films.

  11. Are Vicinal Metal Surfaces Stable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenken, J. W. M.; Stoltze, Per

    1999-01-01

    We use effective medium theory to demonstrate that the energies of many metal surfaces are lowered when these surfaces are replaced by facets with lower-index orientations. This implies that the low-temperature equilibrium shapes of many metal crystals should be heavily faceted. The predicted...... instability of vicinal metal surfaces is at variance with the almost generally observed stability of these surfaces. We argue that the unstable orientations undergo a defaceting transition at relatively low temperatures, driven by the high vibrational entropy of steps....

  12. Diffusion of two-dimensional epitaxial clusters on metal (100) surfaces: Facile versus nucleation-mediated behavior and their merging for larger sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, King C.; Liu, Da-Jiang; Evans, James W.

    2017-01-01

    For diffusion of two-dimensional homoepitaxial clusters of N atoms on metal(100) surfaces mediated by edge atom hopping, macroscale continuum theory suggests that the diffusion coefficient scales like DN ~ N -β with β = 3/2. However, we find quite different and diverse behavior in multiple size regimes. These include: (i) facile diffusion for small sizes N < 9; (ii) slow nucleation-mediated diffusion with small β < 1 for “perfect” sizes N = N p = L 2 or L(L+1), for L = 3, 4,… having unique ground state shapes, for moderate sizes 9 ≤ N ≤ O(10 2 ); the same also applies for N = N p +3, N p + 4,… (iii) facile diffusion but with large β > 2 for N = Np + 1 and N p + 2 also for moderate sizes 9 ≤ N ≤ O(10 2 ); (iv) merging of the above distinct branches and subsequent anomalous scaling with 1 ≲ β < 3/2, reflecting the quasi-facetted structure of clusters, for larger N = O(10 2 ) to N = O(10 3 ); and (v) classic scaling with β = 3/2 for very large N = O(103) and above. The specified size ranges apply for typical model parameters. We focus on the moderate size regime where show that diffusivity cycles quasi-periodically from the slowest branch for N p + 3 (not Np) to the fastest branch for Np + 1. Behavior is quantified by Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of an appropriate stochastic lattice-gas model. However, precise analysis must account for a strong enhancement of diffusivity for short time increments due to back-correlation in the cluster motion. Further understanding of this enhancement, of anomalous size scaling behavior, and of the merging of various branches, is facilitated by combinatorial analysis of the number of the ground state and low-lying excited state cluster configurations, and also of kink populations.

  13. The surface energy of metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitos, Levente; Ruban, Andrei; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1998-01-01

    We have used density functional theory to establish a database of surface energies for low index surfaces of 60 metals in the periodic table. The data may be used as a consistent starting point for models of surface science phenomena. The accuracy of the database is established in a comparison...

  14. Plastic Deformation of Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels; Zhang, Xiaodan; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2013-01-01

    of metal components. An optimization of processes and material parameters must be based on a quantification of stress and strain gradients at the surface and in near surface layer where the structural scale can reach few tens of nanometers. For such fine structures it is suggested to quantify structural...... parameters by TEM and EBSD and apply strength-structural relationships established for the bulk metal deformed to high strains. This technique has been applied to steel deformed by high energy shot peening and a calculated stress gradient at or near the surface has been successfully validated by hardness...

  15. Surface Finish after Laser Metal Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombouts, M.; Maes, G.; Hendrix, W.; Delarbre, E.; Motmans, F.

    Laser metal deposition (LMD) is an additive manufacturing technology for the fabrication of metal parts through layerwise deposition and laser induced melting of metal powder. The poor surface finish presents a major limitation in LMD. This study focuses on the effects of surface inclination angle and strategies to improve the surface finish of LMD components. A substantial improvement in surface quality of both the side and top surfaces has been obtained by laser remelting after powder deposition.

  16. Reviewing the Tannic Acid Mediated Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.

    2014-01-01

    Metal nanoparticles harbour numerous exceptional physiochemical properties absolutely different from those of bulk metal as a function of their extremely small size and large superficial area to volume. Naked metal nanoparticles are synthesized by various physical and chemical methods. Chemical methods involving metal salt reduction in solution enjoy an extra edge over other protocols owing to their relative facileness and capability of controlling particle size along with the attribute of surface tailoring. Although chemical methods are the easiest, they are marred by the use of hazardous chemicals such as borohydrides. This has led to inclination of scientific community towards eco-friendly agents for the reduction of metal salts to form nanoparticles. Tannic acid, a plant derived polyphenolic compound, is one such agent which embodies characteristics of being harmless and environmentally friendly combined with being a good reducing and stabilizing agent. In this review, first various methods used to prepare metal nanoparticles are highlighted and further tannic acid mediated synthesis of metal nanoparticles is emphasized. This review brings forth the most recent findings on this issue.

  17. Reviewing the Tannic Acid Mediated Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufail Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal nanoparticles harbour numerous exceptional physiochemical properties absolutely different from those of bulk metal as a function of their extremely small size and large superficial area to volume. Naked metal nanoparticles are synthesized by various physical and chemical methods. Chemical methods involving metal salt reduction in solution enjoy an extra edge over other protocols owing to their relative facileness and capability of controlling particle size along with the attribute of surface tailoring. Although chemical methods are the easiest, they are marred by the use of hazardous chemicals such as borohydrides. This has led to inclination of scientific community towards eco-friendly agents for the reduction of metal salts to form nanoparticles. Tannic acid, a plant derived polyphenolic compound, is one such agent which embodies characteristics of being harmless and environmentally friendly combined with being a good reducing and stabilizing agent. In this review, first various methods used to prepare metal nanoparticles are highlighted and further tannic acid mediated synthesis of metal nanoparticles is emphasized. This review brings forth the most recent findings on this issue.

  18. Bioinspired surface functionalization of metallic biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yingchao; Luo, Cheng; Zhang, Zhihui; Hermawan, Hendra; Zhu, Donghui; Huang, Jubin; Liang, Yunhong; Li, Guangyu; Ren, Luquan

    2018-01-01

    Metallic biomaterials are widely used for clinical applications because of their excellent mechanical properties and good durability. In order to provide essential biofunctionalities, surface functionalization is of particular interest and requirement in the development of high-performance metallic implants. Inspired by the functional surface of natural biological systems, many new designs and conceptions have recently emerged to create multifunctional surfaces with great potential for biomedical applications. This review firstly introduces the metallic biomaterials, important surface properties, and then elaborates some strategies on achieving the bioinspired surface functionalization for metallic biomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Oxidation-Mediated Fingering in Liquid Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaker, Collin B.; Hight, David C.; O'Regan, John D.; Dickey, Michael D.; Daniels, Karen E.

    2017-10-01

    We identify and characterize a new class of fingering instabilities in liquid metals; these instabilities are unexpected due to the large interfacial tension of metals. Electrochemical oxidation lowers the effective interfacial tension of a gallium-based liquid metal alloy to values approaching zero, thereby inducing drastic shape changes, including the formation of fractals. The measured fractal dimension (D =1.3 ±0.05 ) places the instability in a different universality class than other fingering instabilities. By characterizing changes in morphology and dynamics as a function of droplet volume and applied electric potential, we identify the three main forces involved in this process: interfacial tension, gravity, and oxidative stress. Importantly, we find that electrochemical oxidation can generate compressive interfacial forces that oppose the tensile forces at a liquid interface. The surface oxide layer ultimately provides a physical and electrochemical barrier that halts the instabilities at larger positive potentials. Controlling the competition between interfacial tension and oxidative (compressive) stresses at the interface is important for the development of reconfigurable electronic, electromagnetic, and optical devices that take advantage of the metallic properties of liquid metals.

  20. Metal Sorption to Dolomite Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, P.V.; Papenguth, H.W.; Kelly, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    Potential human intrusion into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) might release actinides into the Culebra Dolomite where sorption reactions will affect of radiotoxicity from the repository. Using a limited residence time reactor the authors have measured Ca, Mg, Nd adsorption/exchange as a function of ionic strength, P CO2 , and pH at 25 C. By the same approach, but using as input radioactive tracers, adsorption/exchange of Am, Pu, U, and Np on dolomite were measured as a function of ionic strength, P CO2 , and pH at 25 C. Metal adsorption is typically favored at high pH. Calcium and Mg adsorb in near-stoichiometric proportions except at high pH. Adsorption of Ca and Mg is diminished at high ionic strengths (e.g., 0.5M NaCl) pointing to association of Na + with the dolomite surface, and the possibility that Ca and Mg sorb as hydrated, outer-sphere complexes. Sulfate amplifies sorption of Ca and Mg, and possibly Nd as well. Exchange of Nd for surface Ca is favored at high pH, and when Ca levels are low. Exchange for Ca appears to control attachment of actinides to dolomite as well, and high levels of Ca 2+ in solution will decrease Kds. At the same time, to the extent that high P CO2 increase Ca 2+ levels, JK d s will decrease with CO 2 levels as well, but only if sorbing actinide-carbonate complexes are not observed to form (Am-carbonate complexes appear to sorb; Pu-complexes might sorb as well; U-carbonate complexation leads to desorption). This indirect CO 2 effect is observed primarily at, and above, neutral pH. High NaCl levels do not appear to affect to actinide K d s

  1. An introduction to surface alloying of metals

    CERN Document Server

    Hosmani, Santosh S; Goyal, Rajendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    An Introduction to Surface Alloying of Metals aims to serve as a primer to the basic aspects of surface alloying of metals. The book serves to elucidate fundamentals of surface modification and their engineering applications. The book starts with basics of surface alloying and goes on to cover key surface alloying methods, such as carburizing, nitriding, chromizing, duplex treatment, and the characterization of surface layers. The book will prove useful to students at both the undergraduate and graduate levels, as also to researchers and practitioners looking for a quick introduction to surface alloying.

  2. Novel metal ion surface modification technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Godechot, X.; Yu, K.M.

    1990-10-01

    We describe a method for applying metal ions to the near-surface region of solid materials. The added species can be energetically implanted below the surface or built up as a surface film with an atomically mixed interface with the substrate; the metal ion species can be the same as the substrate species or different from it, and more than one kind of metal species can be applied, either simultaneously or sequentially. Surface structures can be fabricated, including coatings and thin films of single metals, tailored alloys, or metallic multilayers, and they can be implanted or added onto the surface and ion beam mixed. We report two simple demonstrations of the method: implantation of yttrium into a silicon substrate at a mean energy of 70 keV and a dose of 1 x 10 16 atoms/cm 2 , and the formation of a titanium-yttrium multilayer structure with ion beam mixing to the substrate. 17 refs., 3 figs

  3. Process for cleaning radioactively contaminated metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihram, R.G.; Snyder, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for removing radioactive scale from a ferrous metal surface, including the steps of initially preconditioning the surface by contacting it with an oxidizing solution (such as an aqueous solution of an alkali metal permanganate or hydrogen peroxide), then, after removal or decomposition of the oxidizing solution, the metallic surface is contacted with a cleaning solution which is a mixture of a mineral acid and a complexing agent (such as sulfuric acid and oxalic acid), and which preferably contains a corrosion inhibitor. A final step in the process is the treatment of the spent cleaning solution containing radioactive waste materials in solution by adding a reagent selected from the group consisting of calcium hydroxide or potassium permanganate and an alkali metal hydroxide to thereby form easily recovered metallic compounds containing substantially all of the dissolved metals and radioactivity. (auth)

  4. Microbial exopolysaccharide-mediated synthesis and stabilization of metal nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyanarayanan, Ganesan; Dineshkumar, Krishnamoorthy; Yang, Yung-Hun

    2017-11-01

    Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are structurally and functionally valuable biopolymer secreted by different prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms in response to biotic/abiotic stresses and to survive in extreme environments. Microbial EPSs are fascinating in various industrial sectors due to their excellent material properties and less toxic, highly biodegradable, and biocompatible nature. Recently, microbial EPSs have been used as a potential template for the rapid synthesis of metallic nanoparticles and EPS-mediated metal reduction processes are emerging as simple, harmless, and environmentally benign green chemistry approaches. EPS-mediated synthesis of metal nanoparticles is a distinctive metabolism-independent bio-reduction process due to the formation of interfaces between metal cations and the polyanionic functional groups (i.e. hydroxyl, carboxyl and amino groups) of the EPS. In addition, the range of physicochemical features which facilitates the EPS as an efficient stabilizing or capping agents to protect the primary structure of the metal nanoparticles with an encapsulation film in order to separate the nanoparticle core from the mixture of composites. The EPS-capping also enables the further modification of metal nanoparticles with expected material properties for multifarious applications. The present review discusses the microbial EPS-mediated green synthesis/stabilization of metal nanoparticles, possible mechanisms involved in EPS-mediated metal reduction, and application prospects of EPS-based metal nanoparticles.

  5. Excimer laser irradiation of metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman, Grant

    In this work a new method of enhancing CO2 laser processing by modifying the radiative properties of a metal surface is studied. In this procedure, an excimer laser (XeCl) or KrF) exposes the metal surface to overlapping pulses of high intensity, 10(exp 8) - 10(exp 9) W cm(exp -2), and short pulse duration, 30 nsec FWHM (Full Width Half Maximum), to promote structural and chemical change. The major processing effect at these intensities is the production of a surface plasma which can lead to the formation of a laser supported detonation wave (LSD wave). This shock wave can interact with the thin molten layer on the metal surface influencing to a varying degree surface oxidation and roughness features. The possibility of the expulsion, oxidation and redeposition of molten droplets, leading to the formation of micron thick oxide layers, is related to bulk metal properties and the incident laser intensity. A correlation is found between the expulsion of molten droplets and a Reynolds number, showing the interaction is turbulent. The permanent effects of these interactions on metal surfaces are observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transient calorimetric measurements and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Observed surface textures are related to the scanning procedures used to irradiate the metal surface. Fundamental radiative properties of a metal surface, the total hemispherical emissivity, the near-normal spectral absorptivity, and others are examined in this study as they are affected by excimer laser radiation. It is determined that for heavily exposed Al surface, alpha' (10.6 microns) can be increased to values close to unity. Data relating to material removal rates and chemical surface modification for excimer laser radiation is also discussed. The resultant reduction in the near-normal reflectivity solves the fundamental problem of coupling laser radiation into highly reflective and conductive metals such as copper and aluminum. The

  6. Surface modification of metals by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaki, Masaya

    1988-01-01

    Ion implantation in metals has attracted the attention as a useful technology for the formation of new metastable alloys and compounds in metal surface layers without thermal equilibrium. Current studies of metal surface modification by ion implantation with high fluences have expanded from basic research areas and to industrial applications for the improvement of life time of tools. Many results suggest that the high fluence implantation produces the new surface layers with un-expected microscopic characteristics and macroscopic properties due to implant particles, radiation damage, sputtering, and knock-on doping. In this report, the composition, structure and chemical bonding state in surface layers of iron, iron-based alloy and aluminum sheets implanted with high fluences have been investigated by means of secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Tribological properties such as hardness, friction and wear are introduced. (author)

  7. Polarizability of a metallic surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraga, L.A.; Esparza, C.

    1981-01-01

    The surface dielectric operator for a semi-infinite 'Jellium' in the random phase approximation is calculated in a semi-analytical form, utilizing as zero-order approximation the Green's function for the finite height well potential. From this one, the interaction potential is calculated with different additional approximations. (L.C.) [pt

  8. Lysosome-related organelles as mediators of metal homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaby-Haas, Crysten E; Merchant, Sabeeha S

    2014-10-10

    Metal ion assimilation is essential for all forms of life. However, organisms must properly control the availability of these nutrients within the cell to avoid inactivating proteins by mismetallation. To safeguard against an imbalance between supply and demand in eukaryotes, intracellular compartments contain metal transporters that load and unload metals. Although the vacuoles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana are well established locales for the storage of copper, zinc, iron, and manganese, related compartments are emerging as important mediators of metal homeostasis. Here we describe these compartments and review their metal transporter complement. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Transition metal mediated transformations of small molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ayusman [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2017-03-08

    Catalysis at metal centers is of great scientific, as well as practical, importance because of the high efficiency, high specificity, and low energy demands often associated with such systems. The two major themes of our research are (a) the design of metal-based systems for the synthesis of novel classes of polymers and (b) the identification of new metal-catalyzed systems for the conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals, and related “green” chemical processes.

  10. Hydrogen dissociation on metal surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Wijzenbroek, M.

    2016-01-01

    Dissociative chemisorption is an important reaction step in many catalytic reactions. An example of such a reaction is the Haber-Bosch process, which is used commercially to produce ammonia, an important starting material in the production of fertilisers. In theoretical descriptions of such chemical processes often approximations need to be made in order to keep the computational cost feasible, such as fixing the surface atoms in place, rather than allowing them to vibrate. In this work, seve...

  11. Dislocation mediated alignment during metal nanoparticle coalescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, A.P.; Samanta, A.; Majidi, H.; Mahajan, S.; Ging, J.; Olson, T.Y.; Benthem, K. van; Elhadj, S.

    2016-01-01

    Dislocation mediated alignment processes during gold nanoparticle coalescence were studied at low and high temperatures using molecular dynamics simulations and transmission electron microscopy. Particles underwent rigid body rotations immediately following attachment in both low temperature (500 K) simulated coalescence events and low temperature (∼315 K) transmission electron microscopy beam heating experiments. In many low temperature simulations, some degree of misorientation between particles remained after rigid body rotations, which was accommodated by grain boundary dislocation nodes. These dislocations were either sessile and remained at the interface for the duration of the simulation or dissociated and cross-slipped through the adjacent particles, leading to improved co-alignment. Minimal rigid body rotations were observed during or immediately following attachment in high temperature (1100 K) simulations, which is attributed to enhanced diffusion at the particles' interface. However, rotation was eventually induced by {111} slip on planes parallel to the neck groove. These deformation modes led to the formation of single and multi-fold twins whose structures depended on the initial orientation of the particles. The driving force for {111} slip is attributed to high surface stresses near the intersection of low energy {111} facets in the neck region. The details of this twinning process were examined in detail using simulated trajectories, and the results reveal possible mechanisms for the nucleation and propagation of Shockley partials on consecutive planes. Deformation twinning was also observed in-situ using transmission electron microscopy, which resulted in the co-alignment of a set of the particles' {111} planes across their grain boundary and an increase in their dihedral angle. This constitutes the first detailed experimental observation of deformation twinning during nanoparticle coalescence, validating simulation results presented here and

  12. Internal and surface phenomena in metal combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreizin, Edward L.; Molodetsky, Irina E.; Law, Chung K.

    1995-01-01

    Combustion of metals has been widely studied in the past, primarily because of their high oxidation enthalpies. A general understanding of metal combustion has been developed based on the recognition of the existence of both vapor-phase and surface reactions and involvement of the reaction products in the ensuing heterogeneous combustion. However, distinct features often observed in metal particle combustion, such as brightness oscillations and jumps (spearpoints), disruptive burning, and non-symmetric flames are not currently understood. Recent metal combustion experiments using uniform high-temperature metal droplets produced by a novel micro-arc technique have indicated that oxygen dissolves in the interior of burning particles of certain metals and that the subsequent transformations of the metal-oxygen solutions into stoichiometric oxides are accompanied with sufficient heat release to cause observed brightness and temperature jumps. Similar oxygen dissolution has been observed in recent experiments on bulk iron combustion but has not been associated with such dramatic effects. This research addresses heterogeneous metal droplet combustion, specifically focusing on oxygen penetration into the burning metal droplets, and its influence on the metal combustion rate, temperature history, and disruptive burning. A unique feature of the experimental approach is the combination of the microgravity environment with a novel micro-arc Generator of Monodispersed Metal Droplets (GEMMED), ensuring repeatable formation and ignition of uniform metal droplets with controllable initial temperature and velocity. The droplet initial temperatures can be adjusted within a wide range from just above the metal melting point, which provides means to ignite droplets instantly upon entering an oxygen containing environment. Initial droplet velocity will be set equal to zero allowing one to organize metal combustion microgravity experiments in a fashion similar to usual microgravity

  13. Ab initio lattice dynamics of metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heid, R.; Bohnen, K.-P.

    2003-01-01

    Dynamical properties of atoms on surfaces depend sensitively on their bonding environment and thus provide valuable insight into the local geometry and chemical binding at the boundary of a solid. Density-functional theory provides a unified approach to the calculation of structural and dynamical properties from first principles. Its high accuracy and predictive power for lattice dynamical properties of semiconductor surfaces has been demonstrated in a previous article by Fritsch and Schroeder (Phys. Rep. 309 (1999) 209). In this report, we review the state-of-the-art of these ab initio approaches to surface dynamical properties of metal surfaces. We give a brief introduction to the conceptual framework with focus on recent advances in computational procedures for the ab initio linear-response approach, which have been a prerequisite for an efficient treatment of surface dynamics of noble and transition metals. The discussed applications to clean and adsorbate-covered surfaces demonstrate the high accuracy and reliability of this approach in predicting detailed microscopic properties of the phonon dynamics for a wide range of metallic surfaces

  14. Rigid multipodal platforms for metal surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Valášek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this review the recent progress in molecular platforms that form rigid and well-defined contact to a metal surface are discussed. Most of the presented examples have at least three anchoring units in order to control the spatial arrangement of the protruding molecular subunit. Another interesting feature is the lateral orientation of these foot structures which, depending on the particular application, is equally important as the spatial arrangement of the molecules. The numerous approaches towards assembling and organizing functional molecules into specific architectures on metal substrates are reviewed here. Particular attention is paid to variations of both, the core structures and the anchoring groups. Furthermore, the analytical methods enabling the investigation of individual molecules as well as monomolecular layers of ordered platform structures are summarized. The presented multipodal platforms bearing several anchoring groups form considerably more stable molecule–metal contacts than corresponding monopodal analogues and exhibit an enlarged separation of the functional molecules due to the increased footprint, as well as restrict tilting of the functional termini with respect to the metal surface. These platforms are thus ideally suited to tune important properties of the molecule–metal interface. On a single-molecule level, several of these platforms enable the control over the arrangement of the protruding rod-type molecular structures (e.g., molecular wires, switches, rotors, sensors with respect to the surface of the substrate.

  15. Surface energy of metal alloy nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takrori, Fahed M.; Ayyad, Ahmed

    2017-04-01

    The measurement of surface energy of alloy nanoparticles experimentally is still a challenge therefore theoretical work is necessary to estimate its value. In continuation of our previous work on the calculation of the surface energy of pure metallic nanoparticles we have extended our work to calculate the surface energy of different alloy systems, namely, Co-Ni, Au-Cu, Cu-Al, Cu-Mg and Mo-Cs binary alloys. It is shown that the surface energy of metallic binary alloy decreases with decreasing particle size approaching relatively small values at small sizes. When both metals in the alloy obey the Hume-Rothery rules, the difference in the surface energy is small at the macroscopic as well as in the nano-scale. However when the alloy deviated from these rules the difference in surface energy is large in the macroscopic and in the nano scales. Interestingly when solid solution formation is not possible at the macroscopic scale according to the Hume-Rothery rules, it is shown it may form at the nano-scale. To our knowledge these findings here are presented for the first time and is challenging from fundamental as well as technological point of views.

  16. Electrolysis of water on (oxidized) metal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Logadottir, Ashildur; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2005-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations are used as the basis for an analysis of the electrochemical process, where by water is split to form molecular oxygen and hydrogen. We develop a method for obtaining the thermochemistry of the electrochemical water splitting process as a function of the bias...... directly from the electronic structure calculations. We consider electrodes of Pt(111) and Au(111) in detail and then discuss trends for a series of different metals. We show that the difficult step in the water splitting process is the formation of superoxy-type (OOH) species on the surface...... by the splitting of a water molecule on top an adsorbed oxygen atom. One conclusion is that this is only possible on metal surfaces that are (partly) oxidized. We show that the binding energies of the different intermediates are linearly correlated for a number of metals. In a simple analysis, where the linear...

  17. Surface effects in metallic iron nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Franz; Mørup, Steen; Linderoth, Søren

    1994-01-01

    Nanoparticles of metallic iron on carbon supports have been studied in situ by use of Mossbauer spectroscopy. The magnetic anisotropy energy constant increases with decreasing particle size, presumably because of the influence of surface anisotropy. Chemisorption of oxygen results in formation...

  18. Electron-phonon coupling at metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellsing, B.; Eiguren, A.; Chulkov, E.V.

    2002-01-01

    Chemical reactions at metal surfaces are influenced by inherent dissipative processes which involve energy transfer between the conduction electrons and the nuclear motion. We shall discuss how it is possible to model this electron-phonon coupling in order to estimate its importance. A relevant quantity for this investigation is the lifetime of surface-localized electron states. A surface state, quantum well state or surface image state is located in a surface-projected bandgap and becomes relatively sharp in energy. This makes a comparison between calculations and experimental data most attractive, with a possibility of resolving the origin of the lifetime broadening of electron states. To achieve more than an order of magnitude estimate we point out the importance of taking into account the phonon spectrum, electron surface state wavefunctions and screening of the electron-ion potential. (author)

  19. Process of treating surfaces of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, T.; Murao, A.; Kuwahara, T.

    1975-01-01

    Both higher corrosion resistance and paint adherence are given to films formed on the surfaces of metals by treating the surfaces with aqueous solutions of one or more materials selected from the group consisting of water soluble vinyl monomer or water soluble high polymer and then irradiating with ionizing radioactive rays on the nearly dried surface film. When a water soluble inorganic compound is mixed with the above mentioned aqueous solution, the film properties are greatly improved. The inorganic ionic material should contain a cation from the group consisting of Ca, Mg, Zn, Cr, Al, Fe, and Ni. Electron beams may be used. (U.S.)

  20. Modelling the appearance of heritage metallic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. MacDonald

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polished metallic surfaces exhibit a high degree of specularity, which makes them difficult to reproduce accurately. We have applied two different techniques for modelling a heritage object known as the Islamic handbag. Photogrammetric multi-view stereo enabled a dense point cloud to be extracted from a set of photographs with calibration targets, and a geometrically accurate 3D model produced. A new method based on photometric stereo from a set of images taken in an illumination dome enabled surface normals to be generated for each face of the object and its appearance to be rendered, to a high degree of visual realism, when illuminated by one or more light sources from any angles. The specularity of the reflection from the metal surface was modelled by a modified Lorentzian function.

  1. Ambient pressure photoemission spectroscopy of metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baikie, Iain D., E-mail: iain@kptechnology.ltd.uk; Grain, Angela C.; Sutherland, James; Law, Jamie

    2014-12-30

    Highlights: • Ambient pressure photoemission spectroscopy of metals. • Rastered photon energy scan overcomes inelastic scattering. • Relationship between photoemission threshold and contact potential difference. - Abstract: We describe a novel photoemission technique utilizing a traditional Kelvin probe as a detector of electrons/atmospheric ions ejected from metallic surfaces (Au, Ag, Cu, Fe, Ni, Ti, Zn, Al) illuminated by a deep ultra-violet (DUV) source under ambient pressure. To surmount the limitation of electron scattering in air the incident photon energy is rastered rather than applying a variable retarding electric field as is used with UPS. This arrangement can be applied in several operational modes: using the DUV source to determine the photoemission threshold (Φ) with 30–50 meV resolution and also the Kelvin probe, under dark conditions, to measure contact potential difference (CPD) between the Kelvin probe tip and the metallic sample with an accuracy of 1–3 meV. We have studied the relationship between the photoelectric threshold and CPD of metal surfaces cleaned in ambient conditions. Inclusion of a second spectroscopic visible source was used to confirm a semiconducting oxide, possibly Cu{sub 2}O, via surface photovoltage measurements with the KP. This dual detection system can be easily extended to controlled gas conditions, relative humidity control and sample heating/cooling.

  2. Surface modifying method for metal member

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Kazuo; Enomoto, Kunio; Hirano, Akihiko; Hirano, Atsuya; Hattori, Shigeo; Hayashi, Eisaku; Ueyama, Toshiharu; Hayashi, Makoto

    1998-01-01

    A surface of a metal member such as carbon steel to be used in a corrosion circumstance such as in a nuclear power plant and a thermoelectric plant are polished. A printing method is conducted for removing obstacles on the surface of the member. Namely, a photographing printing paper immersed in a diluted sulfuric acid solution is appended tightly to the portion with its surface polished smoothly. Sulfur present in the form of an obstacle of MnS or present alone in the material reacts with the sulfuric acid to form a sulfuric acid gas, and reacts with Ag of the printing paper to discolor the printing paper to brown. When a peeled printing paper is discolored to brown, sulfur printing is repeated. After conforming that the peeled printing paper is white, the surface is washed. Subsequently, surface plasticization is conducted by water jet peening or shot peening. (I.N.)

  3. Surface studies of liquid metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastasz, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Liquid metals and alloys have been proposed for use in nuclear fusion reactors to serve as replaceable plasma-facing surfaces that remove particles and heat from reacting plasmas. Several materials are being considered for this purpose including lithium, gallium, and tin as well as some of the alloys made from these elements. In order to better understand the properties of liquid surfaces, the technique of low-energy ion scattering was used to examine the surface composition of several of these materials in vacuum as a function of temperature. Oxygen is found to rapidly segregate to the surface of several metallic liquids. The segregation process can be interpreted using a simple thermodynamic model based on Gibbs theory. In the case of an alloy of Sn and Li, Li also segregates to the liquid surface. This provides a means to produce a surface enriched in Li, which is more plasma compatible than Sn, without the need to handle large quantities of liquid Li. (author)

  4. Protein-mediated surface structuring in biomembranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggio B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipids and proteins of biomembranes exhibit highly dissimilar conformations, geometrical shapes, amphipathicity, and thermodynamic properties which constrain their two-dimensional molecular packing, electrostatics, and interaction preferences. This causes inevitable development of large local tensions that frequently relax into phase or compositional immiscibility along lateral and transverse planes of the membrane. On the other hand, these effects constitute the very codes that mediate molecular and structural changes determining and controlling the possibilities for enzymatic activity, apposition and recombination in biomembranes. The presence of proteins constitutes a major perturbing factor for the membrane sculpturing both in terms of its surface topography and dynamics. We will focus on some results from our group within this context and summarize some recent evidence for the active involvement of extrinsic (myelin basic protein, integral (Folch-Lees proteolipid protein and amphitropic (c-Fos and c-Jun proteins, as well as a membrane-active amphitropic phosphohydrolytic enzyme (neutral sphingomyelinase, in the process of lateral segregation and dynamics of phase domains, sculpturing of the surface topography, and the bi-directional modulation of the membrane biochemical reactivity.

  5. Selective metal-vapor deposition on solvent evaporated polymer surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Koji; Tsujioka, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: tsujioka@cc.osaka-kyoiku.ac.jp

    2015-12-31

    We report a selective metal-vapor deposition phenomenon based on solvent printing and evaporation on polymer surfaces and propose a method to prepare fine metal patterns using maskless vacuum deposition. Evaporation of the solvent molecules from the surface caused large free volumes between surface polymer chains and resulted in high mobility of the chains, enhancing metal-vapor atom desorption from the surface. This phenomenon was applied to prepare metal patterns on the polymer surface using solvent printing and maskless metal vacuum deposition. Metal patterns with high resolution of micron scale were obtained for various metal species and semiconductor polymer substrates including poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl). - Highlights: • Selective metal-vapor deposition using solvent evaporation on polymer was attained. • Metal patterns with high resolution were obtained for various metal species. • This method can be applied to achieve fine metal-electrodes for polymer electronics.

  6. Metallic surface description in a localized representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirtman, B.; Melo, C.P. de

    1981-01-01

    Binding orders for a three-dimensional system (cubium) are obtained. The study of convergence of these values with the progressive interiorization in the solid gives an indication of the perturbation magnitude introduced with the surface creation. Following Goddard's hint in which the nickel reactivity is denominated by the 4s orbitals, such a model is applied to this metal. The base transformation of atomic orbitals for the correspondent Wannier functions is obtained. (L.C.) [pt

  7. Tritiated hydrogen conversion on heated metallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionita, G.; Mihaila, V.; Purghel, L.; Rebigan, F.

    1995-01-01

    This work reports investigations on tritiated hydrogen conversion to tritiated water on heated metallic surfaces. The HT conversion process has been revealed for copper, aluminium and stainless steel W4541 surfaces in the temperature range 150 to 300 o C, in case of the static regime and in the range 250 to 400 o C for the dynamic case. The most significant catalytic activity was shown by the copper sample. Studies on this subject are used as input information for different nuclear accident scenarios implying tritium leakage

  8. COATING OF POLYMERIC SUBSTRATE CATALYSTS ON METALLIC SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. HOSSEINI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results of a study on coating of a polymeric substrate ca-talyst on metallic surface. Stability of coating on metallic surfaces is a proper specification. Sol-gel technology was used to synthesize adhesion promoters of polysilane compounds that act as a mediator. The intermediate layer was coated by synthesized sulfonated polystyrene-divinylbenzene as a catalyst for production of MTBE in catalytic distillation process. Swelling of catalyst and its separation from the metal surface was improved by i increasing the quantity of divinylbenzene in the resin’s production process and ii applying adhesion pro¬moters based on the sol-gel process. The rate of ethyl silicate hydrolysis was intensified by increasing the concentration of utilized acid while the conden¬sation polymerization was enhanced in the presence of OH–. Sol was formed at pH 2, while the pH should be 8 for the formation of gel. By setting the ratio of the initial concentrations of water to ethyl silicate to 8, the gel formation time was minimized.

  9. Ion neutralization at metal surfaces by surface-plasmon excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almulhem, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Electron capture by ions scattered from metal surfaces is usually assumed to occur via resonance tunneling or Auger neutralization. A new mechanism is proposed, wherein a surface plasmon is excited during the electron capture. The Fock-Tani transformation is used to transform the Hamiltonian into a form which explicitly contains a term that corresponds to this process. Using this term, the matrix elements are calculated analytically and used to evaluate the transition rate as a function of distance from the surface. Since this is a rearrangement process, the matrix element contains an orthogonalization term. The theory is applied to the scattering of protons from an aluminum surface in which the proton captures an electron into the 1s state. From the results obtained for the transition rate and neutral fractions, it is concluded that this process is important, at least in the low energy region. When the calculations are done with the orthogonalization term in the matrix element neglected, the transition rate and neutral fraction increased appreciably. This shows the importance of this term, and implies that it cannot be neglected as was done in other theories of neutralization at metal surfaces

  10. Biosurfactant Mediated Biosynthesis of Selected Metallic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaza, Grażyna A.; Chojniak, Joanna; Banat, Ibrahim M.

    2014-01-01

    Developing a reliable experimental protocol for the synthesis of nanomaterials is one of the challenging topics in current nanotechnology particularly in the context of the recent drive to promote green technologies in their synthesis. The increasing need to develop clean, nontoxic and environmentally safe production processes for nanoparticles to reduce environmental impact, minimize waste and increase energy efficiency has become essential in this field. Consequently, recent studies on the use of microorganisms in the synthesis of selected nanoparticles are gaining increased interest as they represent an exciting area of research with considerable development potential. Microorganisms are known to be capable of synthesizing inorganic molecules that are deposited either intra- or extracellularly. This review presents a brief overview of current research on the use of biosurfactants in the biosynthesis of selected metallic nanoparticles and their potential importance. PMID:25110864

  11. Biosurfactant Mediated Biosynthesis of Selected Metallic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna A. Płaza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Developing a reliable experimental protocol for the synthesis of nanomaterials is one of the challenging topics in current nanotechnology particularly in the context of the recent drive to promote green technologies in their synthesis. The increasing need to develop clean, nontoxic and environmentally safe production processes for nanoparticles to reduce environmental impact, minimize waste and increase energy efficiency has become essential in this field. Consequently, recent studies on the use of microorganisms in the synthesis of selected nanoparticles are gaining increased interest as they represent an exciting area of research with considerable development potential. Microorganisms are known to be capable of synthesizing inorganic molecules that are deposited either intra- or extracellularly. This review presents a brief overview of current research on the use of biosurfactants in the biosynthesis of selected metallic nanoparticles and their potential importance.

  12. DFT study on metal-mediated uracil base pair complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Üngördü

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The most stable of metal-mediated uracil base pair complexes were determined. Method was used density functional theory, B3LYP. The calculations of systems containing C, H, N, O were described by 6-311++G(d,p and cc-PVTZ basis sets and LANL2DZ and SDD basis sets was used for transition metals. Then Egap values of complexes were calculated and the electrical conductivity of the complexes for single nanowires was studied by band theory. Metal-mediated uracil base pair complexes which will be used as conductive wires in nanotechnology were predicted. In nanoworld, this study is expected to show a way for practical applications.

  13. Modeling surface roughness scattering in metallic nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moors, Kristof, E-mail: kristof@itf.fys.kuleuven.be [KU Leuven, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Sorée, Bart [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Physics Department, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); KU Leuven, Electrical Engineering (ESAT) Department, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Magnus, Wim [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Physics Department, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2015-09-28

    Ando's model provides a rigorous quantum-mechanical framework for electron-surface roughness scattering, based on the detailed roughness structure. We apply this method to metallic nanowires and improve the model introducing surface roughness distribution functions on a finite domain with analytical expressions for the average surface roughness matrix elements. This approach is valid for any roughness size and extends beyond the commonly used Prange-Nee approximation. The resistivity scaling is obtained from the self-consistent relaxation time solution of the Boltzmann transport equation and is compared to Prange-Nee's approach and other known methods. The results show that a substantial drop in resistivity can be obtained for certain diameters by achieving a large momentum gap between Fermi level states with positive and negative momentum in the transport direction.

  14. Metallic surfaces decontamination by using laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moggia, Fabrice; Lecardonnel, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Metal surface cleaning appears to be one of the major priorities for industries especially for nuclear industries. The research and the development of a new technology that is able to meet the actual requirements (i.e. waste volume minimization, liquid effluents and chemicals free process...) seems to be the main commitment. Currently, a wide panel of technologies already exists (e.g. blasting, disk sander, electro-decontamination...) but for some of them, the efficiency is limited (e.g, Dry Ice blasting) and for others, the wastes production (liquid and/or solid) remains an important issue. One answer could be the use of a LASER light process. Since a couple of years, the Clean- Up Business Unit of the AREVA group investigates this decontamination technology. Many tests have been already performed in inactive (i.e. on simulants such as paints, inks, resins, metallic oxides) or active conditions (i.e. pieces covered with a thick metallic oxide layer and metallic pieces covered with grease). The paper will describe the results obtained in term of decontamination efficiency during all our validation process. Metallographic characterizations (i.e. SEM, X-ray scattering) and radiological analysis will be provided. We will also focus our paper on the future deployment of the LASER technology and its commercial use at La Hague reprocessing facility in 2013. (authors)

  15. Metallization of DNA on silicon surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puchkova, Anastasiya Olegovna; Sokolov, Petr; Petrov, Yuri Vladimirovich; Kasyanenko, Nina Anatolievna

    2011-01-01

    New simple way for silver deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-based nanowires preparation on silicon surface was developed. The electrochemical reduction of silver ions fixed on DNA molecule provides the forming of tightly matched zonate silver clusters. Highly homogeneous metallic clusters have a size about 30 nm. So the thickness of nanowires does not exceed 30–50 nm. The surface of n-type silicon monocrystal is the most convenient substrate for this procedure. The comparative analysis of DNA metallization on of n-type silicon with a similar way for nanowires fabrication on p-type silicon, freshly cleaved mica, and glass surface shows the advantage of n-type silicon, which is not only the substrate for DNA fixation but also the source of electrons for silver reduction. Images of bound DNA molecules and fabricated nanowires have been obtained using an atomic force microscope and a scanning ion helium microscope. DNA interaction with silver ions in a solution was examined by the methods of ultraviolet spectroscopy and circular dichroism.

  16. Metal surface nitriding by laser induced plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomann, A. L.; Boulmer-Leborgne, C.; Andreazza-Vignolle, C.; Andreazza, P.; Hermann, J.; Blondiaux, G.

    1996-10-01

    We study a nitriding technique of metals by means of laser induced plasma. The synthesized layers are composed of a nitrogen concentration gradient over several μm depth, and are expected to be useful for tribological applications with no adhesion problem. The nitriding method is tested on the synthesis of titanium nitride which is a well-known compound, obtained at present by many deposition and diffusion techniques. In the method of interest, a laser beam is focused on a titanium target in a nitrogen atmosphere, leading to the creation of a plasma over the metal surface. In order to understand the layer formation, it is necessary to characterize the plasma as well as the surface that it has been in contact with. Progressive nitrogen incorporation in the titanium lattice and TiN synthesis are studied by characterizing samples prepared with increasing laser shot number (100-4000). The role of the laser wavelength is also inspected by comparing layers obtained with two kinds of pulsed lasers: a transversal-excited-atmospheric-pressure-CO2 laser (λ=10.6 μm) and a XeCl excimer laser (λ=308 nm). Simulations of the target temperature rise under laser irradiation are performed, which evidence differences in the initial laser/material interaction (material heated thickness, heating time duration, etc.) depending on the laser features (wavelength and pulse time duration). Results from plasma characterization also point out that the plasma composition and propagation mode depend on the laser wavelength. Correlation of these results with those obtained from layer analyses shows at first the important role played by the plasma in the nitrogen incorporation. Its presence is necessary and allows N2 dissociation and a better energy coupling with the target. Second, it appears that the nitrogen diffusion governs the nitriding process. The study of the metal nitriding efficiency, depending on the laser used, allows us to explain the differences observed in the layer features

  17. Adsorption on metal surfaces: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einstein, T.L.; Glover, R.E. III; Park, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    This report discusses the progress at the University of Maryland Department of Physics on the adsorption of atoms or molecules on the surfaces of metals. Also discussed are: Phase transformation studies; the use of transfer matrices to study the 2-d, 3-state chiral Potts model; electron-induced ionization of core electrons of atoms; the reflected electron energy loss fine structure above the M/sub 2,3/ core excitation edge of Cu; and other research in atomic and solid state physics

  18. Ultra-fast boriding of metal surfaces for improved properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timur, Servet; Kartal, Guldem; Eryilmaz, Osman L.; Erdemir, Ali

    2015-02-10

    A method of ultra-fast boriding of a metal surface. The method includes the step of providing a metal component, providing a molten electrolyte having boron components therein, providing an electrochemical boriding system including an induction furnace, operating the induction furnace to establish a high temperature for the molten electrolyte, and boriding the metal surface to achieve a boride layer on the metal surface.

  19. Metal-metal interaction mediates the iron induction of Drosophila MtnB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Wenjia; Huang, Yunpeng; Wan, Zhihui; Zhou, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Metallothionein (MT) protein families are a class of small and universal proteins rich in cysteine residues. They are synthesized in response to heavy metal stresses to sequester the toxic ions by metal-thiolate bridges. Five MT family members, namely MtnA, MtnB, MtnC, MtnD and MtnE, have been discovered and identified in Drosophila. These five isoforms of MTs are regulated by metal responsive transcription factor dMTF-1 and play differentiated but overlapping roles in detoxification of metal ions. Previous researches have shown that Drosophila MtnB responds to copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn). Interestingly in this study we found that Drosophila MtnB expression also responds to elevated iron levels in the diet. Further investigations revealed that MtnB plays limited roles in iron detoxification, and the direct binding of MtnB to ferrous iron in vitro is also weak. The induction of MtnB by iron turns out to be mediated by iron interference of other metals, because EDTA at even a partial concentration of that of iron can suppress this induction. Indeed, in the presence of iron, zinc homeostasis is altered, as reflected by expression changes of zinc transporters dZIP1 and dZnT1. Thus, iron-mediated MtnB induction appears resulting from interrupted homeostasis of other metals such as zinc, which in turns induced MtnB expression. Metal-metal interaction may more widely exist than we expected. - Highlights: • Metallothionein B expression is regulated by iron in Drosophila melanogaster. • MtnB has limited physiological roles in iron detoxification. • Binding affinity of MtnB to iron is weak in vitro. • Induction of Drosophila MtnB by iron is mediated indirectly through metal-metal interaction.

  20. The interaction of bacteria and metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfeld, Florian

    2007-01-01

    This review discusses different examples for the interaction of bacteria and metal surfaces based on work reported previously by various authors and work performed by the author with colleagues at other institutions and with his graduate students at CEEL. Traditionally it has been assumed that the interaction of bacteria with metal surfaces always causes increased corrosion rates ('microbiologically influenced corrosion' (MIC)). However, more recently it has been observed that many bacteria can reduce corrosion rates of different metals and alloys in many corrosive environments. For example, it has been found that certain strains of Shewanella can prevent pitting of Al 2024 in artificial seawater, tarnishing of brass and rusting of mild steel. It has been observed that corrosion started again when the biofilm was killed by adding antibiotics. The mechanism of corrosion protection seems to be different for different bacteria since it has been found that the corrosion potential E corr became more negative in the presence of Shewanella ana and algae, but more positive in the presence of Bacillus subtilis. These findings have been used in an initial study of the bacterial battery in which Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 was added to a cell containing Al 2024 and Cu in a growth medium. It was found that the power output of this cell continuously increased with time. In the microbial fuel cell (MFC) bacteria oxidize the fuel and transfer electrons directly to the anode. In initial studies EIS has been used to characterize the anode, cathode and membrane properties for different operating conditions of a MFC that contained Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Cell voltage (V)-current density (i) curves were obtained using potentiodynamic sweeps. The current output of a MFC has been monitored for different experimental conditions

  1. The interaction of bacteria and metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfeld, Florian [Corrosion and Environmental Effects Laboratory (CEEL), The Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0241 (United States)

    2007-10-10

    This review discusses different examples for the interaction of bacteria and metal surfaces based on work reported previously by various authors and work performed by the author with colleagues at other institutions and with his graduate students at CEEL. Traditionally it has been assumed that the interaction of bacteria with metal surfaces always causes increased corrosion rates ('microbiologically influenced corrosion' (MIC)). However, more recently it has been observed that many bacteria can reduce corrosion rates of different metals and alloys in many corrosive environments. For example, it has been found that certain strains of Shewanella can prevent pitting of Al 2024 in artificial seawater, tarnishing of brass and rusting of mild steel. It has been observed that corrosion started again when the biofilm was killed by adding antibiotics. The mechanism of corrosion protection seems to be different for different bacteria since it has been found that the corrosion potential E{sub corr} became more negative in the presence of Shewanella ana and algae, but more positive in the presence of Bacillus subtilis. These findings have been used in an initial study of the bacterial battery in which Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 was added to a cell containing Al 2024 and Cu in a growth medium. It was found that the power output of this cell continuously increased with time. In the microbial fuel cell (MFC) bacteria oxidize the fuel and transfer electrons directly to the anode. In initial studies EIS has been used to characterize the anode, cathode and membrane properties for different operating conditions of a MFC that contained Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Cell voltage (V) - current density (i) curves were obtained using potentiodynamic sweeps. The current output of a MFC has been monitored for different experimental conditions. (author)

  2. Photocatalysis of Modified Transition Metal Oxide Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batzill, Matthias [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2018-02-28

    The goal of this project has been to establish a cause-effect relationship for photocatalytic activity variations of different structures of the same material; and furthermore gain fundamental understanding on modification of photocatalysts by compositional or surface modifications. The reasoning is that gaining atomic scale understanding of how surface and bulk modifications alter the photo reactivity will lead to design principles for next generation photocatalysts. As a prototypical photocatalyst the research focused on TiO2 synthesized in well-defined single crystalline form to enable fundamental characterizations.We have obtained results in the following areas: (a) Preparation of epitaxial anatase TiO2 samples by pulsed laser deposition. (b) Comparison of hydrogen diffusion on different crystallographic surface. (c) Determining the stability of the TiO2(011)-2x1 reconstruction upon interactions with adsorbates. (d) Characterization of adsorption and (thermal and photo) reaction of molecules with nitro-endgroups, (e) Exploring the possibility of modifying planar model photocatalyst surfaces with graphene to enable fundamental studies on reported enhanced photocatalytic activities of graphene modified transition metal oxides, (f) gained fundamental understanding on the role of crystallographic polymorphs of the same material for their photocatalytic activities.

  3. Effect of Strain on the Reactivity of Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mavrikakis, Manos; Hammer, Bjørk; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    1998-01-01

    Self-consistent density functional calculations for the adsorption of O and CO, and the dissociation of CO on strained and unstrained Ru(0001) surfaces are used to show how strained metal surfaces have chemical properties that are significantly different from those of unstrained surfaces. Surface...... reactivity increases with lattice expansion, following a concurrent up-shift of the metal d states. Consequences for the catalytic activity of thin metal overlayers are discussed....

  4. Automatic visual inspection of metallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernkopf, F.

    2002-02-01

    This thesis is concerned with the objectives of automatic visual inspection of metallic surfaces and involves two major parts. The first part covers three different imaging techniques, gray-level intensity imaging, light sectioning, and photometric stereo. These imaging principles more or less strongly rely on the reflection property of the surface. Therefore, a reflection model for machine vision is introduced. The second part concentrates on the analysis of the gathered data in regard to the detection and classification of surface defects. Additionally, the evaluation of genetic algorithms with a novel encoding scheme and a large number of published sequential feature selection algorithms for selection of the subset of features achieving the best classification rate is included. The genetic algorithms and the adaptive sequential forward floating selection method achieve similar results in performance and computational efficiency. Finally, the results of feature selection and classification of 540 flaw images are presented, whereby different classification approaches such as parametric classifiers, the k-nearest-neighbor decision rule, the naive Bayes classifier, and the tree augmented naive Bayes classifier were compared. For learning the structure of the augmented naive Bayes network a new approach similar to the sequential floating algorithm is presented which achieves a higher classification accuracy than hill climbing search. Basically, the introduced techniques are applied to two fundamentally different applications, whereby the experimental results of both, inspection of high-precision surfaces such as bearing rolls and flaw detection on partially scale-covered steel blocks, are presented. For the inspection of bearing rolls, the surface reflectance properties are modeled and verified with optical experiments. The aim is to determine the optical arrangement for illumination and observation, where the contrast between errors and intact surface is maximized

  5. Laser modification of macroscopic properties of metal surface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrubiec, Franciszek

    1995-03-01

    Surface laser treatment of metals comprises a number of diversified technological operations out of which the following can be considered the most common: oxidation and rendering surfaces amorphous, surface hardening of steel, modification of selected physical properties of metal surface layers. In the paper basic results of laser treatment of a group of metals used as base materials for electric contacts have been presented. The aim of the study was to test the usability of laser treatment from the viewpoint of requirements imposed on materials for electric contacts. The results presented in the paper refer to two different surface treatment technologies: (1) modification of infusible metal surface layer: tungsten and molybdenum through laser fusing of their surface layer and its crystallization, and (2) modification of surface layer properties of other metals through laser doping of their surface layer with foreign elements. In the paper a number of results of experimental investigations obtained by the team under the author's supervision are presented.

  6. Measuring the surface inhomogeneity of metals on accreting white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, M H; Hippel, T von; Thompson, S E

    2009-01-01

    Due to the short settling times of metals in DA white dwarf atmospheres, any white dwarfs with photospheric metals must be actively accreting. It is therefore natural to expect that the metals may not be deposited uniformly on the surface of the star. We present calculations showing how the temperature variations associated with white dwarf pulsations lead to an observable diagnostic of the surface metal distribution, and we show what constraints current data sets are able to provide.

  7. Vibrations of alkali metal overlayers on metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusina, G G; Eremeev, S V; Borisova, S D; Echenique, P M; Chulkov, E V; Benedek, G

    2008-01-01

    We review the current progress in the understanding of vibrations of alkalis adsorbed on metal surfaces. The analysis of alkali vibrations was made on the basis of available theoretical and experimental results. We also include in this discussion our recent calculations of vibrations in K/Pt(111) and Li(Na)/Cu(001) systems. The dependence of alkali adlayer localized modes on atomic mass, adsorption position and coverage as well as the dependence of vertical vibration frequency on the substrate orientation is discussed. The square root of atomic mass dependence of the vertical vibration energy has been confirmed by using computational data for alkalis on the Al(111) and Cu(001) substrates. We have confirmed that in a wide range of submonolayer coverages the stretch mode energy remains nearly constant while the energy of in-plane polarized modes increases with the increase of alkali coverage. It was shown that the spectrum of both stretch and in-plane vibrations can be very sensitive to the adsorption position of alkali atoms and substrate orientation

  8. Relationship between metal speciation in soil solution and metal adsorption at the root surface of ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalis, Erwin J J; Temminghoff, Erwin J M; Town, Raewyn M; Unsworth, Emily R; van Riemsdijk, Willem H

    2008-01-01

    The total metal content of the soil or total metal concentration in the soil solution is not always a good indicator for metal availability to plants. Therefore, several speciation techniques have been developed that measure a defined fraction of the total metal concentration in the soil solution. In this study the Donnan Membrane Technique (DMT) was used to measure free metal ion concentrations in CaCl(2) extractions (to mimic the soil solution, and to work under standardized conditions) of 10 different soils, whereas diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) and scanning chronopotentiometry (SCP) were used to measure the sum of free and labile metal concentrations in the CaCl(2) extracts. The DGT device was also exposed directly to the (wetted) soil (soil-DGT). The metal concentrations measured with the speciation techniques are related to the metal adsorption at the root surface of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), to be able to subsequently predict metal uptake. In most cases the metal adsorption related pH-dependently to the metal concentrations measured by DMT, SCP, and DGT in the CaCl(2) extract. However, the relationship between metal adsorption at the root surface and the metal concentrations measured by the soil-DGT was not-or only slightly-pH dependent. The correlations between metal adsorption at the root surface and metal speciation detected by different speciation techniques allow discussion about rate limiting steps in biouptake and the contribution of metal complexes to metal bioavailability.

  9. An alternative picture of alkali-metal-mediated metallation: cleave and capture chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Robert E

    2013-05-21

    This perspective article takes an alternative look at alkali-metal-mediated chemistry (exchange of a relatively inert C-H bond for a more reactive C-metal bond by a multicomponent reagent usually containing an alkali metal and a less electropositive metal such as magnesium or zinc). It pictures that the cleavage of selected C-H bonds can be accompanied by the capturing of the generated anion by the multi (Lewis acid)-(Lewis base) character of the residue of the bimetallic base. In this way small atoms or molecules (hydrides, oxygen-based anions) as well as sensitive organic anions (of substituted aromatic compounds, ethers or alkenes) can be captured. Cleave and capture reactions which occur in special positions on the organic substrate are also included.

  10. Defect-mediated magnetism of transition metal doped zinc oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bradley Kirk

    Magnetism in transition metal doped wide band-gap materials is of interest to further the fundamental science of materials and future spintronics applications. Large inter-dopant separations require mediation of ferromagnetism by some method; carrier-mediated mechanisms are typically applicable to dilute magnetic semiconductors with low Curie temperatures. Dilute magnetic oxides, commonly with poor conductivity and TC above room temperature, cannot be described within this theory. Recent experiment and theory developments suggest that ferromagnetic exchange in these materials can be mediated by defects. This research includes experimental results justifying and developing this approach. Thin films of Cr doped ZnO (band gap ˜3.3 eV) were deposited with several processing variations to enhance the effects of either 0-dimensional (vacancy, hydrogen-related defect) or two-dimensional defects (surface/interface) and thereby affect magnetism and conductivity. We observe surface magnetism in dielectric thin films of oxygen-saturated ZnO:Cr with spontaneous magnetic moment and conductance dropping approximately exponentially with increasing thickness. Uniform defect concentrations would not result in such magnetic ordering behavior indicating that magnetism is mediated either by surface defects or differing concentrations of point defects near the surface. Polarized neutron reflectivity profiling confirms a magnetically active region of ˜8 nm at the film surface. Hydrogen is notoriously present as a defect and carrier dopant in ZnO, and artificial introduction of hydrogen in dielectric ZnO:Cr films results in varying electronic and magnetic behavior. Free carriers introduced with hydrogen doping are not spin-polarized requiring an alternative explanation for ferromagnetism. We find from positron annihilation spectroscopy measurements that hydrogen doping increases the concentration of an altered VZn-related defect (a preliminary interpretation) throughout the film, which

  11. Mechanisms of Surface-Mediated DNA Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Single-molecule total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy was employed in conjunction with resonance energy transfer (RET) to observe the dynamic behavior of donor-labeled ssDNA at the interface between aqueous solution and a solid surface decorated with complementary acceptor-labeled ssDNA. At least 100 000 molecular trajectories were determined for both complementary strands and negative control ssDNA. RET was used to identify trajectory segments corresponding to the hybridized state. The vast majority of molecules from solution adsorbed nonspecifically to the surface, where a brief two-dimensional search was performed with a 7% chance of hybridization. Successful hybridization events occurred with a characteristic search time of ∼0.1 s, and unsuccessful searches resulted in desorption from the surface, ultimately repeating the adsorption and search process. Hybridization was reversible, and two distinct modes of melting (i.e., dehybridization) were observed, corresponding to long-lived (∼15 s) and short-lived (∼1.4 s) hybridized time intervals. A strand that melted back onto the surface could rehybridize after a brief search or desorb from the interface. These mechanistic observations provide guidance for technologies that involve DNA interactions in the near-surface region, suggesting a need to design surfaces that both enhance the complex multidimensional search process and stabilize the hybridized state. PMID:24708278

  12. Photoionization microscopy of hydrogen atom near a metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hai-Feng; Wang Lei; Liu Xiao-Jun; Liu Hong-Ping

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the ionization of Rydberg hydrogen atom near a metal surface with a semiclassical analysis of photoionization microscopy. Interference patterns of the electron radial distribution are calculated at different scaled energies above the classical saddle point and at various atom—surface distances. We find that different types of trajectories contribute predominantly to different manifolds in a certain interference pattern. As the scaled energy increases, the structure of the interference pattern evolves smoothly and more types of trajectories emerge. As the atom approaches the metal surface closer, there are more types of trajectories contributing to the interference pattern as well. When the Rydberg atom comes very close to the metal surface or the scaled energy approaches the zero field ionization energy, the potential induced by the metal surface will make atomic system chaotic. The results also show that atoms near a metal surface exhibit similar properties like the atoms in the parallel electric and magnetic fields. (atomic and molecular physics)

  13. Effect of CO on surface oxidation of uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Fu, Y.; Xie, R.

    1997-01-01

    The surface reactions of uranium metal with carbon monoxide at 25 and 200 deg C have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS);respectively. Adsorption of carbon monoxide on the surface layer of uranium metal leads to partial reduction of surface oxide and results in U4f photoelectron peak shifting to the lower binding energy. The content of oxygen in the surface oxide is decreased and O1s/O4f ratio decreases with increasing the exposure of carbon monoxide. The investigation indicates the surface layer of uranium metal has resistance to further oxidation in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide. (author)

  14. Metal-in-metal localized surface plasmon resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G B; Earp, A A, E-mail: g.smith@uts.edu.au [Department of Physics and Advanced Materials and Institute of Nanoscale Technology, University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2010-01-08

    Anomalous strong resonances in silver and gold nanoporous thin films which conduct are found to arise from isolated metal nano-islands separated from the surrounding percolating metal network by a thin loop of insulator. This observed resonant optical response is modelled. The observed peak position is in agreement with the observed average dimensions of the silver core and insulator shell. As the insulating ring thickness shrinks, the resonance moves to longer wavelengths and strengthens. This structure is the Babinet's principle counterpart of dielectric core-metal shell nanoparticles embedded in dielectric. Like for the latter, tuning of resonant absorption is possible, but here the matrix reflects rather than transmits, and tuning to longer wavelengths is more practical. A new class of metal mirror occurring as a single thin layer is identified using the same resonances in dense metal mirrors. Narrow band deep localized dips in reflectance result.

  15. Metal-in-metal localized surface plasmon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. B.; Earp, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    Anomalous strong resonances in silver and gold nanoporous thin films which conduct are found to arise from isolated metal nano-islands separated from the surrounding percolating metal network by a thin loop of insulator. This observed resonant optical response is modelled. The observed peak position is in agreement with the observed average dimensions of the silver core and insulator shell. As the insulating ring thickness shrinks, the resonance moves to longer wavelengths and strengthens. This structure is the Babinet's principle counterpart of dielectric core-metal shell nanoparticles embedded in dielectric. Like for the latter, tuning of resonant absorption is possible, but here the matrix reflects rather than transmits, and tuning to longer wavelengths is more practical. A new class of metal mirror occurring as a single thin layer is identified using the same resonances in dense metal mirrors. Narrow band deep localized dips in reflectance result.

  16. Cesium ion bombardment of metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tompa, G.S.

    1986-01-01

    The steady state cesium coverage due to cesium ion bombardment of molybdenum and tungsten was studied for the incident energy range below 500 eV. When a sample is exposed to a positive ion beam, the work function decreases until steady state is reached with a total dose of less than ≅10 16 ions/cm 2 , for both tungsten and molybdenum. A steady state minimum work function surface is produced at an incident energy of ≅100 eV for molybdenum and at an incident energy of ≅45 eV for tungsten. Increasing the incident energy results in an increase in the work function corresponding to a decrease in the surface coverage of cesium. At incident energies less than that giving the minimum work function, the work function approaches that of cesium metal. At a given bombarding energy the cesium coverage of tungsten is uniformly less than that of molybdenum. Effects of hydrogen gas coadsorption were also examined. Hydrogen coadsorption does not have a large effect on the steady state work functions. The largest shifts in the work function due to the coadsorption of hydrogen occur on the samples when there is no cesium present. A theory describing the steady-state coverage was developed is used to make predictions for other materials. A simple sticking and sputtering relationship, not including implantation, cannot account for the steady state coverage. At low concentrations, cesium coverage of a target is proportional to the ratio of (1 - β)/γ where β is the reflection coefficient and γ is the sputter yield. High coverages are produced on molybdenum due to implantation and low backscattering, because molybdenum is lighter than cesium. For tungsten the high backscattering and low implantation result in low coverages

  17. Surface Plasmon Waves on Thin Metal Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Alan Ellsworth

    Surface-plasmon polaritons propagating on thin metal films bounded by dielectrics of nearly equal refractive indexes comprise two bound modes. Calculations indicate that, while the modes are degenerate on thick films, both the real and the imaginary components of the propagation constants for the modes split into two branches on successively thinner films. Considering these non-degenerate modes, the mode exhibiting a symmetric (antisymmetric) transverse profile of the longitudinally polarized electric field component, has propagation constant components both of which increase (decrease) with decreasing film thickness. Theoretical propagation constant eigenvalue (PCE) curves have been plotted which delineate this dependence of both propagation constant components on film thickness. By means of a retroreflecting, hemispherical glass coupler in an attenuated total reflection (ATR) configuration, light of wavelength 632.8 nm coupled to the modes of thin silver films deposited on polished glass substrates. Lorentzian lineshape dips in the plots of reflectance vs. angle of incidence indicate the presence of the plasmon modes. The real and imaginary components of the propagation constraints (i.e., the propagation constant and loss coefficient) were calculated from the angular positions and widths of the ATR resonances recorded. Films of several thicknesses were probed. Results which support the theoretically predicted curves were reported.

  18. Dynamic interactions of Leidenfrost droplets on liquid metal surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yujie; Liu, Jing

    2016-09-01

    Leidenfrost dynamic interaction effects of the isopentane droplets on the surface of heated liquid metal were disclosed. Unlike conventional rigid metal, such conductive and deformable liquid metal surface enables the levitating droplets to demonstrate rather abundant and complex dynamics. The Leidenfrost droplets at different diameters present diverse morphologies and behaviors like rotation and oscillation. Depending on the distance between the evaporating droplets, they attract and repulse each other through the curved surfaces beneath them and their vapor flows. With high boiling point up to 2000 °C, liquid metal offers a unique platform for testing the evaporating properties of a wide variety of liquid even solid.

  19. Direct NO decomposition over stepped transition-metal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falsig, Hanne; Bligaard, Thomas; Christensen, Claus H.

    2007-01-01

    We establish the full potential energy diagram for the direct NO decomposition reaction over stepped transition-metal surfaces by combining a database of adsorption energies on stepped metal surfaces with known Bronsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relations for the activation barriers of dissociation...

  20. He atom surface spectroscopy: Surface lattice dynamics of insulators, metals and metal overlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    During the first three years of this grant (1985--1988) the effort was devoted to the construction of a state-of-the-art He atom scattering (HAS) instrument which would be capable of determining the structure and dynamics of metallic, semiconductor or insulator crystal surfaces. The second three year grant period (1988--1991) has been dedicated to measurements. The construction of the instrument went better than proposed; it was within budget, finished in the proposed time and of better sensitivity and resolution than originally planned. The same success has been carried over to the measurement phase where the concentration has been on studies of insulator surfaces, as discussed in this paper. The experiments of the past three years have focused primarily on the alkali halides with a more recent shift to metal oxide crystal surfaces. Both elastic and inelastic scattering experiments were carried out on LiF, NaI, NaCl, RbCl, KBr, RbBr, RbI, CsF, CsI and with some preliminary work on NiO and MgO

  1. Hydrogen absorption-desorption at metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, C.A.; Pataki, L.

    1991-04-01

    On the basis of experimental studies, it has been proposed that when zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 ) is exposed to hydrogen at 300 degrees C or higher, a reaction occurs to produce metallic zirconium and water, thereby increasing the electrical conductivity of the oxide film and its permeability to hydrogen. A series of experiments has been performed in which specimens of zirconium and zirconium-2.5% niobium were either hydrided or deuterided in a furnace at a temperature between 300 degrees C and 800 degrees C and in an atmosphere that consisted primarily of either hydrogen (H 2 ) or deuterium (D 2 ). After cooling a specimen to room temperature, it was placed in a thermogravimetric analyzer that was equipped with a mass spectrometer, TGA-MS. Each specimen was then heated to 1200 degrees C at a controlled rate in a primarily helium atmosphere monitored with the mass spectrometer. Light water (H 2 O) evolved from the hydrided specimens and heavy water (D 2 0) from the deuterided ones and there was a weight loss of the specimens that accompanied the water evolution. The specimens having approximately the same amount of hydride but more oxide also evolved more H 2 O, and that the H 2 O did not come from reactions between impurity H 2 and oxygen (O 2 ) in the TGA-MS. Heating a zirconium or zirconium alloy specimen that contains a hydride or deuteride phase within and an oxide layer on its surface causes the hydrogen to diffuse toward the surface and when it encounters the oxide a reaction follows that produces water. The conventional mechanism for the dissipation of the imperviousness of ZrO 2 to H 2 that results from the oxide being exposed to a reducing atmosphere will not explain the water production observed in these experiments. However, the existence of the proposed reaction can account for the elevated hydrogen concentration in an oxide film that has been observed to accompany the aqueous corrosion of zirconium and the effects on both the electrical conductivity and

  2. ELECTROCATALYSIS ON SURFACES MODIFIED BY METAL MONOLAYERS DEPOSITED AT UNDERPOTENTIALS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADZIC,R.

    2000-12-01

    The remarkable catalytic properties of electrode surfaces modified by monolayer amounts of metal adatoms obtained by underpotential deposition (UPD) have been the subject of a large number of studies during the last couple of decades. This interest stems from the possibility of implementing strictly surface modifications of electrocatalysts in an elegant, well-controlled way, and these bi-metallic surfaces can serve as models for the design of new catalysts. In addition, some of these systems may have potential for practical applications. The UPD of metals, which in general involves the deposition of up to a monolayer of metal on a foreign substrate at potentials positive to the reversible thermodynamic potential, facilitates this type of surface modification, which can be performed repeatedly by potential control. Recent studies of these surfaces and their catalytic properties by new in situ surface structure sensitive techniques have greatly improved the understanding of these systems.

  3. Cell surface engineering of microorganisms towards adsorption of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng-Song; Tao, Hu-Chun

    2015-06-01

    Heavy metal contamination has become a worldwide environmental concern due to its toxicity, non-degradability and food-chain bioaccumulation. Conventional physical and chemical treatment methods for heavy metal removal have disadvantages such as cost-intensiveness, incomplete removal, secondary pollution and the lack of metal specificity. Microbial biomass-based biosorption is one of the approaches gaining increasing attention because it is effective, cheap, and environmental friendly and can work well at low concentrations. To enhance the adsorption properties of microbial cells to heavy metal ions, the cell surface display of various metal-binding proteins/peptides have been performed using a cell surface engineering approach. The surface engineering of Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria and yeast towards the adsorption of heavy metals are reviewed in this article. The problems and future perspectives of this technology are discussed.

  4. Gasification of carbon deposits on catalysts and metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, J L

    1986-10-01

    'Coke' deposited on catalysts and reactor surfaces includes a variety of carbons of different structures and origins, their reactivities being conveniently assessed by Temperature Programmed Reaction (TPR). The gasification of carbon deposits obtained in the laboratory under well controlled conditions, and the regeneration of coked catalysts from petroleum refining processes are reviewed and discussed. Filamentary carbon deposits, containing dispersed metal particles, behave as supported metal catalysts during gasification, and show high reactivities. Pyrolytic and acid catalysis carbons are less reactive on their own, as the gasification is not catalysed; however, metal components of the catalyst or metal impurities deposited on the surface may enhance gasification. 26 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Recent advances in engineering topography mediated antibacterial surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Jafar; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2015-09-01

    The tendency of bacterial cells to adhere and colonize a material surface leading to biofilm formation is a fundamental challenge underlying many different applications including microbial infections associated with biomedical devices and products. Although, bacterial attachment to surfaces has been extensively studied in the past, the effect of surface topography on bacteria-material interactions has received little attention until more recently. We review the recent progress in surface topography based approaches for engineering antibacterial surfaces. Biomimicry of antibacterial surfaces in nature is a popular strategy. Whereas earlier endeavors in the field aimed at minimizing cell attachment, more recent efforts have focused on developing bactericidal surfaces. However, not all such topography mediated bactericidal surfaces are necessarily cytocompatible thus underscoring the need for continued efforts for research in this area for developing antibacterial and yet cytocompatible surfaces for use in implantable biomedical applications. This mini-review provides a brief overview of the current strategies and challenges in the emerging field of topography mediated antibacterial surfaces.

  6. Metal thin film growth on multimetallic surfaces: From quaternary metallic glass to binary crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Dapeng [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis mainly focuses on the nucleation and growth of metal thin films on multimetallic surfaces. First, we have investigated the Ag film growth on a bulk metallic glass surface. Next, we have examined the coarsening and decay of bilayer Ag islands on NiAl(110) surface. Third, we have investigated the Ag film growth on NiAl(110) surface using low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). At last, we have reported our investigation on the epitaxial growth of Ni on NiAl(110) surface. Some general conclusions can be drawn as follows. First, Ag, a bulk-crystalline material, initially forms a disordered wetting layer up to 4-5 monolayers on Zr-Ni-Cu-Al metallic glass. Above this coverage, crystalline 3D clusters grow, in parallel with the flatter regions. The cluster density increases with decreasing temperature, indicating that the conditions of island nucleation are far-from-equilibrium. Within a simple model where clusters nucleate whenever two mobile Ag adatoms meet, the temperature-dependence of cluster density yields a (reasonable) upper limit for the value of the Ag diffusion barrier on top of the Ag wetting layer of 0.32 eV. Overall, this prototypical study suggests that it is possible to grow films of a bulk-crystalline metal that adopt the amorphous character of a glassy metal substrate, if film thickness is sufficiently low. Next, the first study of coarsening and decay of bilayer islands has been presented. The system was Ag on NiAl(110) in the temperature range from 185 K to 250 K. The coarsening behavior, has some similarities to that seen in the Ag(110) homoepitaxial system studied by Morgenstern and co-workers. At 185 K and 205 K, coarsening of Ag islands follows a Smoluchowski ripening pathway. At 205 K and 250 K, the terrace diffusion limited Ostwald ripening dominants. The experimental observed temperature for the transition from SR to OR is 205 K. The SR exhibits anisotropic island diffusion and the OR exhibits 1D decay of island

  7. Surface energy and work function of elemental metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Rosengaard, N. M.

    1992-01-01

    and noble metals, as derived from the surface tension of liquid metals. In addition, they give work functions which agree with the limited experimental data obtained from single crystals to within 15%, and explain the smooth behavior of the experimental work functions of polycrystalline samples......We have performed an ab initio study of the surface energy and the work function for six close-packed surfaces of 40 elemental metals by means of a Green’s-function technique, based on the linear-muffin-tin-orbitals method within the tight-binding and atomic-sphere approximations. The results...... are in excellent agreement with a recent full-potential, all-electron, slab-supercell calculation of surface energies and work functions for the 4d metals. The present calculations explain the trend exhibited by the surface energies of the alkali, alkaline earth, divalent rare-earth, 3d, 4d, and 5d transition...

  8. High Density Periodic Metal Nanopyramids for Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Mingliang

    2012-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis is focused on two areas. First, a new type of nanotextured noble-metal surface has been developed. The new nanotextured surface is demonstrated to enhance inelastic (Raman) scattering, called surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), from molecules adsorbed on the

  9. Electrospun fiber surface nanotopography influences astrocyte-mediated neurite outgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher D; D'Amato, Anthony R; Puhl, Devan L; Wich, Douglas M; Vespermann, Amanda; Gilbert, Ryan J

    2018-05-15

    Aligned, electrospun fiber scaffolds provide topographical guidance for regenerating neurons and glia after central nervous system injury. To date, no study has explored how fiber surface nanotopography affects astrocyte response to fibrous scaffolds. Astrocytes play important roles in the glial scar, the blood brain barrier, and in maintaining homeostasis in the central nervous system. In this study, electrospun poly L-lactic acid fibers were engineered with smooth, pitted, or divoted surface nanotopography. Cortical or spinal cord primary rat astrocytes were cultured on the surfaces for either 1 or 3 days to examine the astrocyte response over time. The results showed that cortical astrocytes were significantly shorter and broader on the pitted and divoted fibers compared to those on smooth fibers. However, spinal cord astrocyte morphology was not significantly altered by the surface features. These findings indicate that astrocytes from unique anatomical locations respond differently to the presence of nanotopography. Western Blot results show that the differences in morphology were not associated with significant changes in GFAP or vinculin in either astrocyte population, suggesting that surface pits and divots do not induce a reactive phenotype in either cortical or spinal cord astrocytes. Finally, astrocytes were co-cultured with dorsal root ganglia to determine how the surfaces affected astrocyte-mediated neurite outgrowth. Astrocytes cultured on the fibers for shorter periods of time (1 day) generally supported longer neurite outgrowth. Pitted and divoted fibers restricted spinal cord astrocyte-mediated neurite outgrowth, while smooth fibers increased 3 day spinal cord astrocyte-mediated neurite outgrowth. In total, fiber surface nanotopography can influence astrocyte elongation and influence the capability of astrocytes to direct neurites. Therefore, fiber surface characteristics should be carefully controlled to optimize astrocyte-mediated axonal

  10. State promotion and neutralization of ions near metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinoviev, A.N.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Multiply charged ion and the charge induced in the metal form a dipole. → Dipole states are promoted into continuum with decreasing ion-surface distance. → These states cross the states formed from metal atom. → Proposed model explains the dominant population of deep bound states. → Observed spectra of emitted Auger electrons prove this promotion model. -- Abstract: When a multiply charged ion with charge Z approaches the metal surface, a dipole is formed by the multiply charged ion and the charge induced in the metal. The states for such a dipole are promoted into continuum with decreasing ion-surface distance and cross the states formed from metal atom. The model proposed explains the dominant population of deep bound states in collisions considered.

  11. Fermi Surface and Antiferromagnetism in Europium Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O. Krogh; Loucks, T. L.

    1968-01-01

    of the nearly cubical part of the hole surface at P, and we also discuss the effects of the electron surface at H. Since it is likely that barium and europium have similar Fermi surfaces, we have presented several extremal areas and the corresponding de Haas-van Alphen frequencies in the hope that experimental...

  12. Quasi-one-dimensional metals on semiconductor surfaces with defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Shuji

    2010-01-01

    Several examples are known in which massive arrays of metal atomic chains are formed on semiconductor surfaces that show quasi-one-dimensional metallic electronic structures. In this review, Au chains on Si(557) and Si(553) surfaces, and In chains on Si(111) surfaces, are introduced and discussed with regard to the physical properties determined by experimental data from scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and electrical conductivity measurements. They show quasi-one-dimensional Fermi surfaces and parabolic band dispersion along the chains. All of them are known from STM and ARPES to exhibit metal-insulator transitions by cooling and charge-density-wave formation due to Peierls instability of the metallic chains. The electrical conductivity, however, reveals the metal-insulator transition only on the less-defective surfaces (Si(553)-Au and Si(111)-In), but not on a more-defective surface (Si(557)-Au). The latter shows an insulating character over the whole temperature range. Compared with the electronic structure (Fermi surfaces and band dispersions), the transport property is more sensitive to the defects. With an increase in defect density, the conductivity only along the metal atomic chains was significantly reduced, showing that atomic-scale point defects decisively interrupt the electrical transport along the atomic chains and hide the intrinsic property of transport in quasi-one-dimensional systems.

  13. Determination of Surface Properties of Liquid Transition Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkmaz, S. D.

    2008-01-01

    Certain surface properties of liquid simple metals are reported. Using the expression derived by Gosh and coworkers we investigated the surface entropy of liquid transition metals namely Fe, Co and Ni. We have also computed surface tensions of the metals concerned. The pair distribution functions are calculated from the solution of Ornstein-Zernike integral equation with Rogers-Young closure using the individual version of the electron-ion potential proposed by Fioalhais and coworkers which was originally developed for solid state. The predicted values of surface tension and surface entropy are in very good agreement with available experimental data. The present study results show that the expression derived by Gosh and coworkers is very useful for the surface entropy by using Fioalhais pseudopotential and Rogers-Young closure

  14. Heavy Metals Pollution on Surface Water Sources in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examine the effects of heavy metal pollutants to aquatic ecosystems and the environment by considering the role of urban, municipal, agricultural, industrial and other anthropogenic processes as sources of heavy metal pollution in surface water sources of Kaduna metropolis. Samples of the polluted water were ...

  15. Local Chemical Reactivity of a Metal Alloy Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Bjørk; Scheffler, Matthias

    1995-01-01

    The chemical reactivity of a metal alloy surface is studied by density functional theory investigating the interaction of H2 with NiAl(110). The energy barrier for H2 dissociation is largely different over the Al and Ni sites without, however, reflecting the barriers over the single component metal...

  16. Analysis of Terminal Metallic Armor Plate Free-Surface Bulging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rapacki, Jr, E. J

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of the bulge formed on the free-surface of the terminal metallic plate of an armor array is shown to lead to reasonable estimates of the armor array's remaining penetration/perforation resistance...

  17. Nanotoxicity: oxidative stress mediated toxicity of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Abhijit; Ghosh, Manoranjan; Sil, Parames Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Metal and metal oxide nanoparticles are often used as industrial catalysts or to improve product's functional properties. Recent advanced nanotechnology have been expected to be used in various fields, ranging from sensors, environmental remediation to biomedicine, medical biology and imaging, etc. However, the growing use of nanoparticles has led to their release into environment and increased levels of these particles at nearby sites or the surroundings of their manufacturing factories become obvious. The toxicity of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles on humans, animals, and certainly to the environment has become a major concern to our community. However, controversies still remain with respect to the toxic effects and the mechanisms of these nanoparticles. The scientific community now feels that an understanding of the toxic effects is necessary to handle these nanoparticles and their use. A new discipline, named nanotoxicology, has therefore been developed that basically refers to the study of the interactions of nanoparticles with biological systems and also measures the toxicity level related to human health. Nanoparticles usually generate reactive oxygen species to a greater extent than micro-sized particles resulting in increased pro-inflammatory reactions and oxidative stress via intracellular signaling pathways. In this review, we mainly focus on the routes of exposure of some metal and metal oxide nanoparticles and how these nanoparticles affect us or broadly the cells of our organs. We would also like to discuss the responsible mechanism(s) of the nanoparticle-induced reactive oxygen species mediated organ pathophysiology. A brief introduction of the characterization and application of these nanoparticles has also been included in the article.

  18. Multilayer Relaxation and Surface Energies of Metallic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Rodriguez, Agustin M.; Ferrante, John

    1994-01-01

    The perpendicular and parallel multilayer relaxations of fcc (210) surfaces are studied using equivalent crystal theory (ECT). A comparison with experimental and theoretical results is made for AI(210). The effect of uncertainties in the input parameters on the magnitudes and ordering of surface relaxations for this semiempirical method is estimated. A new measure of surface roughness is proposed. Predictions for the multilayer relaxations and surface energies of the (210) face of Cu and Ni are also included.

  19. Calculated surface-energy anomaly in the 3d metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldén, M.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Mirbt, S.

    1992-01-01

    Local-spin-density theory and a Green’s-function technique based on the linear muffin-tin orbitals method have been used to calculate the surface energy of the 3d metals. The theory explains the variation of the values derived from measurements of the surface tension of liquid metals including...... the pronounced anomaly occurring between vanadium and nickel in terms of a decrease in the d contribution caused by spin polarization....

  20. Surface energies of metals in both liquid and solid states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqra, Fathi; Ayyad, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Although during the last years one has seen a number of systematic studies of the surface energies of metals, the aim and the scientific meaning of this research is to establish a simple and a straightforward theoretical model to calculate accurately the mechanical and the thermodynamic properties of metal surfaces due to their important application in materials processes and in the understanding of a wide range of surface phenomena. Through extensive theoretical calculations of the surface tension of most of the liquid metals, we found that the fraction of broken bonds in liquid metals (f) is constant which is equal to 0.287. Using our estimated f value, the surface tension (γ m ), surface energy (γ SV ), surface excess entropy (-dγ/dT), surface excess enthalpy (H s ), coefficient of thermal expansion (α m and α b ), sound velocity (c m ) and its temperature coefficient (-dc/dT) have been calculated for more than sixty metals. The results of the calculated quantities agree well with available experimental data.

  1. The law of corresponding states and surface tension of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digilov, R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text: Surface tension of liquid metals is one of fundamental and most important quantities in theory and practice of material processing and its temperature dependence leads to the well-known Marangoni convection. Although currently methods are sufficiently precise to measure the surface tension, there are uncertainties in experimental data and its temperature dependence mainly due to impurity, which even a trace of it strongly affects the results of measurements. The theoretical treatment from the first principles is unwieldy and not always permits one to calculate the surface tension with certainty. Another active research field deals with empirical correlation between the surface tension and bulk thermodynamic properties, which we interpret as a simple consequence of the law of corresponding states. In order to relate the surface tension and to bulk properties of liquid metals the reduced formula is derived by scaling with the melting point T m (0) at p = 0 and atomic volume Ω 0 2/3 at T = 0 K as macroscopic parameters for scaling ε and a characterizing the interatomic potential in metals. The reduced surface tension and the reduced surface entropy obtained in high temperature limit are discussed and compared with the experiment. The reduced temperature coefficient of the surface tension found is a universal constant for the metals of the same structure. It is shown that pressure dependence of the surface tension, so called baric coefficient of the surface tension, can be described by pressure dependence of scaling parameters T m (p) and Ω 0 (p). (author)

  2. Surface-Controlled Metal Oxide Resistive Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Ke, Jr-Jian

    2015-10-28

    To explore the surface effect on resistive random-access memory (ReRAM), the impact of surface roughness on the characteristics of ZnO ReRAM were studied. The thickness-independent resistance and the higher switching probability of ZnO ReRAM with rough surfaces indicate the importance of surface oxygen chemisorption on the switching process. Furthermore, the improvements in switching probability, switching voltage and resistance distribution observed for ReRAM with rough surfaces can be attributed to the stable oxygen adatoms under various ambience conditions. The findings validate the surface-controlled stability and uniformity of ReRAM and can serve as the guideline for developing practical device applications.

  3. Surface free energy of alkali and transition metal nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqra, Fathi; Ayyad, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Size dependent surface free energy of spherical, cubic and disk Au nanoparticles. - Highlights: • A model to account for the surface free energy of metallic nanoparticles is described. • The model requires only the cohesive energy of the nanoparticle. • The surface free energy of a number of metallic nanoparticles has been calculated, and the obtained values agree well with existing data. • Surface energy falls down very fast when the number of atoms is less than hundred. • The model is applicable to any metallic nanoparticle. - Abstract: This paper addresses an interesting issue on the surface free energy of metallic nanoparticles as compared to the bulk material. Starting from a previously reported equation, a theoretical model, that involves a specific term for calculating the cohesive energy of nanoparticle, is established in a view to describe the behavior of surface free energy of metallic nanoparticles (using different shapes of particle: sphere, cube and disc). The results indicate that the behavior of surface energy is very appropriate for spherical nanoparticle, and thus, it is the most realistic shape of a nanoparticle. The surface energy of copper, silver, gold, platinum, tungsten, molybdenum, tantalum, paladium and alkali metallic nanoparticles is only prominent in the nanoscale size, and it decreases with the decrease of nanoparticle size. Thus, the surface free energy plays a more important role in determining the properties of nanoparticles than in bulk materials. It differs from shape to another, and falls down as the number of atoms (nanoparticle size) decreases. In the case of spherical nanoparticles, the onset of the sharp decrease in surface energy is observed at about 110 atom. A decrease of 16% and 45% in surface energy is found by moving from bulk to 110 atom and from bulk to 5 atom, respectively. The predictions are consistent with the reported data

  4. Methanol Oxidation on Model Elemental and Bimetallic Transition Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tritsaris, G. A.; Rossmeisl, J.

    2012-01-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells are a key enabling technology for clean energy conversion. Using density functional theory calculations, we study the methanol oxidation reaction on model electrodes. We discuss trends in reactivity for a set of monometallic and bimetallic transition metal surfaces, flat...... sites on the surface and to screen for novel bimetallic surfaces of enhanced activity. We suggest platinum copper surfaces as promising anode catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells....

  5. Surface segregation energies in transition-metal alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruban, Andrei; Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    1999-01-01

    We present a database of 24 x 24 surface segregation energies of single transition metal impurities in transition-metal hosts obtained by a Green's-function linear-muffin-tin-orbitals method in conjunction with the coherent potential and atomic sphere approximations including a multipole correction...... to the electrostatic potential and energy. We use the database to establish the major factors which govern surface segregation in transition metal alloys. We find that the calculated trends are well described by Friedel's rectangular state density model and that the few but significant deviations from the simple...

  6. Transition Metal Polypyridine Complexes: Studies of Mediation in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells and Charge Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, C. Michael [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Prieto, Amy L. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-02-08

    The Elliott group has long been supported by DOE for studies of cobalt(II/III) trisbypiridine (DTB) mediator complexes in dye sensitized solar cells. Previous work demonstrated that Co(II/III) chemistry is sensitive to the environment, showing unprecedented electrode-surface and electrolyte dependant voltammetry. In electrolytes that have large lipophilic cations, voltammetry of the [Co(DTB)3]2+/3+ couple is nearly Nernstian in appearance on nominally oxide-free metal surfaces. In contrast, on semiconductor electrodes in electrolytes with small, hard cations such as Li+, the electron transfer rates are so slow that it is difficult to measure any Faradaic current even at overpotentials of ±1 V. These studies are of direct relevance to the operation of cobalt-based mediators in solar cells. The research has also shown that these mediators are compatible with copper phenantroline based dyes, in contrast to I- due to the insolubility of CuI.

  7. Plasma immersion surface modification with metal ion plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Yu, K.M.; Godechot, X.

    1991-04-01

    We describe here a novel technique for surface modification in which metal plasma is employed and by which various blends of plasma deposition and ion implantation can be obtained. The new technique is a variation of the plasma immersion technique described by Conrad and co-workers. When a substrate is immersed in a metal plasma, the plasma that condenses on the substrate remains there as a film, and when the substrate is then implanted, qualitatively different processes can follow, including' conventional' high energy ion implantation, recoil implantation, ion beam mixing, ion beam assisted deposition, and metallic thin film and multilayer fabrication with or without species mixing. Multiple metal plasma guns can be used with different metal ion species, films can be bonded to the substrate through ion beam mixing at the interface, and multilayer structures can be tailored with graded or abrupt interfaces. We have fabricated several different kinds of modified surface layers in this way. 22 refs., 4 figs

  8. A comparison of surface properties of metallic thin film photocathodes

    CERN Document Server

    Mistry, Sonal; Valizadeh, Reza; Jones, L.B; Middleman, Keith; Hannah, Adrian; Militsyn, B.L; Noakes, Tim

    2017-01-01

    In this work the preparation of metal photocathodes by physical vapour deposition magnetron sputtering has been employed to deposit metallic thin films onto Cu, Mo and Si substrates. The use of metallic cathodes offers several advantages: (i) metal photocathodes present a fast response time and a relative insensitivity to the vacuum environment (ii) metallic thin films when prepared and transferred in vacuum can offer smoother and cleaner emitting surfaces. The photocathodes developed here will ultimately be used in S-band Normal Conducting RF (NCRF) guns such as that used in VELA (Versatile Electron Linear Accelerator) and the proposed CLARA (Compact Linear Accelerator for Research and Applications) Free Electron Laser test facility. The samples grown on Si substrates were used to investigate the morphology and thickness of the film. The samples grown onto Cu and Mo substrates were analysed and tested as photocathodes in a surface characterisation chamber, where X-Ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was emp...

  9. Surface Embedded Metal Oxide Sensors (SEMOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jesper Lebæk; Talat Ali, Syed; Pleth Nielsen, Lars

    SEMOS is a joint project between Aalborg University, Danish Technological Institute and Danish Technical University in which micro temperature sensors and metal oxide-based gas sensors are developed and tested in a simulated fuel cell environment as well as in actual working fuel cells. Initially......, sensors for measuring the temperatures in an operating HT-PEM (High Temperature-Proton Exchange Membrane) fuel cell are developed for detecting in-plane temperature variations. 5 different tracks for embedded thermal sensors are investigated. The fuel cell MEA (Membrane Electrode Assembly) is quite...... complex and sensors are not easily implemented in the construction. Hence sensor interface and sensor position must therefore be chosen carefully in order to make the sensors as non-intrusive as possible. Metal Oxide Sensors (MOX) for measuring H2, O2 and CO concentration in a fuel cell environment...

  10. Chlorine stress mediates microbial surface attachment in drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Le, Yang; Jin, Juliang; Zhou, Yuliang; Chen, Guowei

    2015-03-01

    Microbial attachment to drinking water pipe surfaces facilitates pathogen survival and deteriorates disinfection performance, directly threatening the safety of drinking water. Notwithstanding that the formation of biofilm has been studied for decades, the underlying mechanisms for the origins of microbial surface attachment in biofilm development in drinking water pipelines remain largely elusive. We combined experimental and mathematical methods to investigate the role of environmental stress-mediated cell motility on microbial surface attachment in chlorination-stressed drinking water distribution systems. Results show that at low levels of disinfectant (0.0-1.0 mg/L), the presence of chlorine promotes initiation of microbial surface attachment, while higher amounts of disinfectant (>1.0 mg/L) inhibit microbial attachment. The proposed mathematical model further demonstrates that chlorination stress (0.0-5.0 mg/L)-mediated microbial cell motility regulates the frequency of cell-wall collision and thereby controls initial microbial surface attachment. The results reveal that transport processes and decay patterns of chlorine in drinking water pipelines regulate microbial cell motility and, thus, control initial surface cell attachment. It provides a mechanistic understanding of microbial attachment shaped by environmental disinfection stress and leads to new insights into microbial safety protocols in water distribution systems.

  11. Molecule scattering from insulator and metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroz, Iryna; Ambaye, Hailemariam; Manson, J R

    2004-01-01

    Calculations are carried out and compared with data for the scattering of CH 4 molecules from a LiF(001) surface and for O 2 scattering from Al(111). The theory is a mixed classical-quantum formalism that includes energy and momentum transfers between the surface and projectile for translational and rotational motions as well as internal mode excitation of the projectile molecule. The translational and rotational degrees of freedom couple most strongly to multiphonon excitations of the surface and are treated with classical dynamics. Internal vibrational excitations of the molecules are treated with a semiclassical formalism with extension to arbitrary numbers of modes and arbitrary quantum numbers. Calculations show good agreement for the dependence on incident translational energy, incident beam angle and surface temperature when compared with data for energy-resolved intensity spectra and angular distributions

  12. Surface-Controlled Metal Oxide Resistive Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Ke, Jr-Jian; Namura, Kyoko; Duran Retamal, Jose Ramon; Ho, Chin-Hsiang; Minamitake, Haruhiko; Wei, Tzu-Chiao; Tsai, Dung-Sheng; Lin, Chun-Ho; Suzuki, Motofumi; He, Jr-Hau

    2015-01-01

    be attributed to the stable oxygen adatoms under various ambience conditions. The findings validate the surface-controlled stability and uniformity of ReRAM and can serve as the guideline for developing practical device applications.

  13. Simulated BRDF based on measured surface topography of metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiyue; Haist, Tobias; Gronle, Marc; Osten, Wolfgang

    2017-06-01

    The radiative reflective properties of a calibration standard rough surface were simulated by ray tracing and the Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The simulation results have been used to compute the reflectance distribution functions (BRDF) of metal surfaces and have been compared with experimental measurements. The experimental and simulated results are in good agreement.

  14. Optical transparency of graphene layers grown on metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rut’kov, E. V.; Lavrovskaya, N. P.; Sheshenya, E. S.; Gall, N. R.

    2017-01-01

    It is shown that, in contradiction with the fundamental results obtained for free graphene, graphene films grown on the Rh(111) surface to thicknesses from one to ~(12–15) single layers do not absorb visible electromagnetic radiation emitted from the surface and influence neither the brightness nor true temperature of the sample. At larger thicknesses, such absorption occurs. This effect is observed for the surfaces of other metals, specifically, Pt(111), Re(1010), and Ni(111) and, thus, can be considered as being universal. It is thought that the effect is due to changes in the electronic properties of thin graphene layers because of electron transfer between graphene and the metal substrate.

  15. Self-excitation of Rydberg atoms at a metal surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    The novel effect of self-excitation of an atomic beam propagating above a metal surface is predicted and a theory is developed. Its underlying mechanism is positive feedback provided by the reflective surface for the atomic polarization. Under certain conditions the atomic beam flying in the near...... field of the metal surface acts as an active device that supports sustained atomic dipole oscillations, which generate, in their turn, an electromagnetic field. This phenomenon does not exploit stimulated emission and therefore does not require population inversion in atoms. An experiment with Rydberg...... atoms in which this effect should be most pronounced is proposed and the necessary estimates are given....

  16. Optical transparency of graphene layers grown on metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rut’kov, E. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Lavrovskaya, N. P. [State University of Aerospace Instrumentation (Russian Federation); Sheshenya, E. S., E-mail: sheshenayket@gmail.ru; Gall, N. R. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    It is shown that, in contradiction with the fundamental results obtained for free graphene, graphene films grown on the Rh(111) surface to thicknesses from one to ~(12–15) single layers do not absorb visible electromagnetic radiation emitted from the surface and influence neither the brightness nor true temperature of the sample. At larger thicknesses, such absorption occurs. This effect is observed for the surfaces of other metals, specifically, Pt(111), Re(1010), and Ni(111) and, thus, can be considered as being universal. It is thought that the effect is due to changes in the electronic properties of thin graphene layers because of electron transfer between graphene and the metal substrate.

  17. In Situ Investigation of Electrochemically Mediated Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization by Electrochemical Surface Plasmon Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daqun; Hu, Weihua

    2017-04-18

    Electrochemically mediated atom transfer radical polymerization (eATRP) initiates/controls the controlled/living ATRP chain propagation process by electrochemically generating (regenerating) the activator (lower-oxidation-state metal complex) from deactivator (higher-oxidation-state metal complex). Despite successful demonstrations in both of the homogeneous polymerization and heterogeneous systems (namely, surface-initiated ATRP, SI-ATRP), the eATRP process itself has never been in situ investigated, and important information regarding this process remains unrevealed. In this work, we report the first investigation of the electrochemically mediated SI-ATRP (eSI-ATRP) by rationally combining the electrochemical technique with real-time surface plasmon resonance (SPR). In the experiment, the potential of a SPR gold chip modified by the self-assembled monolayer of the ATRP initiator was controlled to electrochemically reduce the deactivator to activator to initiate the SI-ATRP, and the whole process was simultaneously monitored by SPR with a high time resolution of 0.1 s. It is found that it is feasible to electrochemically trigger/control the SI-ATRP and the polymerization rate is correlated to the potential applied to the gold chip. This work reveals important kinetic information for eSI-ATRP and offers a powerful platform for in situ investigation of such complicated processes.

  18. Amphiphilic cationic peptides mediate cell adhesion to plastic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, D C; Lambert, M; Kendall, D A; Moe, G R; Osterman, D G; Tao, H P; Weinstein, I B; Kaiser, E T

    1985-09-01

    Four amphiphilic peptides, each with net charges of +2 or more at neutrality and molecular weights under 4 kilodaltons, were found to mediate the adhesion of normal rat kidney fibroblasts to polystyrene surfaces. Two of these peptides, a model for calcitonin (peptide 1, MCT) and melittin (peptide 2, MEL), form amphiphilic alpha-helical structures at aqueous/nonpolar interfaces. The other two, a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone model (peptide 3, LHM) and a platelet factor model (peptide 4, MPF) form beta-strand structures in amphiphilic environments. Although it contains only 10 residues, LHM mediated adhesion to surfaces coated with solutions containing as little as 10 pmoles/ml of peptide. All four of these peptides were capable of forming monolayers at air-buffer interfaces with collapse pressures greater than 20 dynes/cm. None of these four peptides contains the tetrapeptide sequence Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser, which has been associated with fibronectin-mediated cell adhesion. Ten polypeptides that also lacked the sequence Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser but were nonamphiphilic and/or had net charges less than +2 at neutrality were all incapable of mediating cell adhesion (Pierschbacher and Ruoslahti, 1984). The morphologies of NRK cells spread on polystyrene coated with peptide LHM resemble the morphologies on fibronectin-coated surfaces, whereas cells spread on surfaces coated with MCT or MEL exhibit strikingly different morphologies. The adhesiveness of MCT, MEL, LHM, and MPF implies that many amphiphilic cationic peptides could prove useful as well defined adhesive substrata for cell culture and for studies of the mechanism of cell adhesion.

  19. Surface modification and functionalization of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles by organic ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neouze, M.A.; Schubert, U.S.

    2008-01-01

    Metal or metal oxide nanoparticles possess unique features compared to equivalent larger-scale materials. For applications, it is often necessary to stabilize or functionalize such nanoparticles. Thus, modification of the surface of nanoparticles is an important chemical challenge. In this survey,

  20. Bulk-mediated surface diffusion: non-Markovian desorption dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revelli, Jorge A; Budde, Carlos E; Prato, Domingo; Wio, Horacio S

    2005-01-01

    Here we analyse the dynamics of adsorbed molecules within the bulk-mediated surface diffusion framework, when the particle's desorption mechanism is characterized by a non-Markovian process, while the particle's adsorption as well as its motion in the bulk is governed by Markovian dynamics. We study the diffusion of particles in both semi-infinite and finite cubic lattices, analysing the conditional probability to find the system on the reference absorptive plane as well as the surface dispersion as functions of time. The results are compared with known Markovian cases showing the differences that can be exploited to distinguish between Markovian and non-Markovian desorption mechanisms in experimental situations

  1. Corrosion and surface modification on biocompatible metals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asri, R I M; Harun, W S W; Samykano, M; Lah, N A C; Ghani, S A C; Tarlochan, F; Raza, M R

    2017-08-01

    Corrosion prevention in biomaterials has become crucial particularly to overcome inflammation and allergic reactions caused by the biomaterials' implants towards the human body. When these metal implants contacted with fluidic environments such as bloodstream and tissue of the body, most of them became mutually highly antagonistic and subsequently promotes corrosion. Biocompatible implants are typically made up of metallic, ceramic, composite and polymers. The present paper specifically focuses on biocompatible metals which favorably used as implants such as 316L stainless steel, cobalt-chromium-molybdenum, pure titanium and titanium-based alloys. This article also takes a close look at the effect of corrosion towards the implant and human body and the mechanism to improve it. Due to this corrosion delinquent, several surface modification techniques have been used to improve the corrosion behavior of biocompatible metals such as deposition of the coating, development of passivation oxide layer and ion beam surface modification. Apart from that, surface texturing methods such as plasma spraying, chemical etching, blasting, electropolishing, and laser treatment which used to improve corrosion behavior are also discussed in detail. Introduction of surface modifications to biocompatible metals is considered as a "best solution" so far to enhanced corrosion resistance performance; besides achieving superior biocompatibility and promoting osseointegration of biocompatible metals and alloys. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Surface waves on metal-dielectric metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takayama, Osamu; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we analyze surface electromagnetic waves supported at an interface between an isotropic medium and an effective anisotropic material that can be realized by alternating conductive and dielectric layers with deep subwavelength thicknesses. This configuration can host various types...

  3. Correlations between deformations, surface state and leak rate in metal to metal contact; Correlations entre deformations, etat de surface et debit de fuite au contact metal-metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armand, G; Lapujoulade, J; Paigne, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The study of metal to metal contact from the stand-point of the leak rate has been carried on a copper ring located between two hard-steel flanges. The analysis of the results confirms the hysteresis phenomenon already seen. Some curves (leak rate versus force and leak rate versus true deformation) in semi-logarithmic coordinates are straight lines. Likewise some curves (electrical contact resistance versus force) in bi-logarithmic coordinates are straight lines. All these results can be understood by looking at the conductance introduced by the deformations of the micro-geometry of the surfaces in contact. Some tests carried out in rising the temperature confirm these hypothesis. (authors) [French] L'etude du contact metal-metal du point de vue debit de fuite a ete poursuivie en utilisant un anneau de cuivre place entre brides d'acier dur. L'analyse des resultats confirme le phenomene d'hysteresis deja constate, montre l'influence de l'etat de surface des brides et du joint. Certaines courbes (debit de fuite/force et debit de fuite/deformation rationnelle), en coordonnees semi-logarithmiques, sont des droites. De meme, certaines courbes (resistance de contact/force) en coordonnees bi-logarithmiques, sont des droites. Ces resultats s'interpretent en considerant la conductance produite par la deformation des microgeometries des surfaces en contact. Quelques essais d'elevation de temperature confirment ces resultats. (auteurs)

  4. Improvements in or relating to surface treatment of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.; Hartley, N.E.W.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described for surface treating metals so as to reduce their coefficients of friction. The metal is subjected to bombardment by a beam of ions of dry lubricant material, or material that forms a dry lubricant. The ions should have energies sufficient to cause them to be implanted into the surface region of the metal. The metal may be heated to facilitate assimilation of the ions, and implantation may be enhanced by means of irradiation of the article with radiation of energy sufficient to enhance diffusion of the ions into the article. The dry lubricant ions may comprise Mo + , In + , or Sn + . Where the article is of steel suitable ions are Mo + and S + deposited in the ratio of 1:2. Examples of application of the method are given, using a 500 Kv Cockcroft-Walton accelerator for the implantation. (U.K.)

  5. Designing porous metallic glass compact enclosed with surface iron oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jae Young; Park, Hae Jin; Hong, Sung Hwan; Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Young Seok; Park, Jun-Young; Lee, Naesung [Hybrid Materials Center (HMC), Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Yongho [Graphene Research Institute (GRI) & HMC, Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Man, E-mail: jinman_park@hotmail.com [Global Technology Center, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd, 129 Samsung-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Buem, E-mail: kbkim@sejong.ac.kr [Hybrid Materials Center (HMC), Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-25

    Highlights: • Porous metallic glass compact was developed using electro-discharge sintering process. • Uniform PMGC can only be achieved when low electrical input energy was applied. • Functional iron-oxides were formed on the surface of PMGCs by hydrothermal technique. - Abstract: Porous metallic glass compact (PMGC) using electro-discharge sintering (EDS) process of gas atomized Zr{sub 41.2}Ti{sub 13.8}Cu{sub 12.5}Ni{sub 10}Be{sub 22.5} metallic glass powder was developed. The formation of uniform PMGC can only be achieved when low electrical input energy was applied. Functional iron-oxides were formed on the surface of PMGCs by hydrothermal technique. This finding suggests that PMGC can be applied in the new area such as catalyst via hydrothermal technique and offer a promising guideline for using the metallic glasses as a potential functional application.

  6. Metal surface corrosion grade estimation from single image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yijun; Qi, Lin; Sun, Huyuan; Fan, Hao; Dong, Junyu

    2018-04-01

    Metal corrosion can cause many problems, how to quickly and effectively assess the grade of metal corrosion and timely remediation is a very important issue. Typically, this is done by trained surveyors at great cost. Assisting them in the inspection process by computer vision and artificial intelligence would decrease the inspection cost. In this paper, we propose a dataset of metal surface correction used for computer vision detection and present a comparison between standard computer vision techniques by using OpenCV and deep learning method for automatic metal surface corrosion grade estimation from single image on this dataset. The test has been performed by classifying images and calculating the accuracy for the two different approaches.

  7. Resonant Excitation of Terahertz Surface Plasmons in Subwavelength Metal Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of experimental studies of resonant excitation of terahertz surface plasmons in two-dimensional arrays of subwavelength metal holes. Resonant transmission efficiency higher than unity was recently achieved when normalized to the area occupied by the holes. The effects of hole shape, hole dimensions, dielectric function of metals, polarization dependence, and array film thickness on resonant terahertz transmission in metal arrays were investigated by the state-of-the-art terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. In particular, extraordinary terahertz transmission was demonstrated in arrays of subwavelength holes made even from Pb, a generally poor metal, and having thickness of only one-third of skin depth. Terahertz surface plasmons have potential applications in terahertz imaging, biosensing, interconnects, and development of integrated plasmonic components for terahertz generation and detection.

  8. Trends in catalytic NO decomposition over transition metal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falsig, Hanne; Bligaard, Thomas; Rass-Hansen, Jeppe

    2007-01-01

    The formation of NOx from combustion of fossil and renewable fuels continues to be a dominant environmental issue. We take one step towards rationalizing trends in catalytic activity of transition metal catalysts for NO decomposition by combining microkinetic modelling with density functional...... theory calculations. We show specifically why the key problem in using transition metal surfaces to catalyze direct NO decomposition is their significant relative overbinding of atomic oxygen compared to atomic nitrogen....

  9. Polishing Metal Mirrors to 0,025 Micron Surface Finish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, P. E.

    1978-01-01

    A research program undertaken by the Danish Atomic Energy Commission required the fabrication of metal mirrors measuring 1 m long by 53 mm wide, which had to be finished to extremely tight tolerances on thickness, plane-parallelism and surface characteristics. Progressively finer diamond compound...... are employed to achieve a high gloss finish on the metal mirrors, which are used in polarized neutron experiments. This article describes the fabrication techniques developed at the Commission's Ris phi Central Workshop....

  10. Diffusion and surface alloying of gradient nanostructured metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenbo Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gradient nanostructures (GNSs have been optimized in recent years for desired performance. The diffusion behavior in GNS metals is crucial for understanding the diffusion mechanism and relative characteristics of different interfaces that provide fundamental understanding for advancing the traditional surface alloying processes. In this paper, atomic diffusion, reactive diffusion, and surface alloying processes are reviewed for various metals with a preformed GNS surface layer. We emphasize the promoted atomic diffusion and reactive diffusion in the GNS surface layer that are related to a higher interfacial energy state with respect to those in relaxed coarse-grained samples. Accordingly, different surface alloying processes, such as nitriding and chromizing, have been modified significantly, and some diffusion-related properties have been enhanced. Finally, the perspectives on current research in this field are discussed.

  11. Plasma cleaning and the removal of carbon from metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    In an investigation of the plasma cleaning of metals and the plasma etching of carbon, a mass spectrometer was used as a sensitive process monitor. CO 2 produced by the plasma oxidation of carbon films or of organic contamination and occluded carbon at the surfaces of metals proved to be the most suitable gas to monitor. A good correlation was obtained between the measured etch rate of carbon and the resulting CO 2 partial pressure monitored continuously with the mass spectrometer. The rate of etching of carbon in an oxygen-argon plasma at 0.1 Torr was high when the carbon was at cathode potential and low when it was electrically isolated in the plasma, thus confirming the findings of previous workers and indicating the importance of ion bombardment in the etching process. Superficial organic contamination on the surfaces of the metals aluminium and copper and of the alloy Inconel 625 was quickly removed by the oxygen-argon plasma when the metal was electrically isolated and also when it was at cathode potential. Occluded carbon (or carbides) at or near the surfaces of the metals was removed slowly and only when the metal was at cathode potential, thus illustrating again the importance of ion bombardment. (Auth.)

  12. The Impact of Road Maintenance Substances on Metals Surface Corrosion

    OpenAIRE

    Jolita Petkuvienė; Dainius Paliulis

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of research is to assess changes in the visual metal surface due to the exposure of road maintenance salts and molasses (‘Safecote’). Chlorides of deicing salts (NaCl, CaCl2) are the main agents affecting soil and water resources as well as causing the corrosion of roadside metallic elements. Molasses (‘Safecote’) is offered as an alternative to deice road pavement by minimizing the corrosion of metal elements near the road. A laboratory experiment was carried out to immerse and s...

  13. RFID Label Tag Design for Metallic Surface Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Hwan Eom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a metal mount RFID tag that works reliably on metallic surfaces. The method proposes the use of commercial label type RFID tags with 2.5 mm thick Styrofoam103.7 with a relative permittivity of 1.03 attached on the back of the tag. In order to verify the performance of the proposed method, we performed experiments on an electric transformer supply chain system. The experimental results showed that the proposed tags can communicate with readers from a distance of 2 m. The recognition rates are comparable to those of commercial metallic mountable tags.

  14. Charge state of ions scattered by metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishinevsky, L.M.; Parilis, E.S.; Verleger, V.K.

    1976-01-01

    A model for description of charge distributions for scattering of heavy ions in the keV region, on metal surfaces developing and improving the method of Van der Weg and Bierman, and taking into account the connection between the ion charge state and scattering kinematics, is proposed. It is shown that multiple charged particles come from ions with a vacancy in the inner shell while the outer shell vacancies give only single charged ions and neutrals. The approximately linear increase of degree of ionization with normal velocity, and the non-monotonic charge dependence of the energy spectrum established by Chicherov and Buck et al is explained by considering irreversible neutralization in the depth of the metal, taking into account the connection of the charge state with the shape of trajectory and its location relative to the metal surface. The dependence of charge state on surface structure is discussed. Some new experiments are proposed. (author)

  15. Facile preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces based on metal oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xue-Mei; Cui, Jin-Feng; Sun, Han-Xue; Liang, Wei-Dong; Zhu, Zhao-Qi; An, Jin; Yang, Bao-Ping; La, Pei-Qing; Li, An

    2014-06-01

    A novel method for fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces was developed by facile coating various metal oxide nanoparticles, including ZnO, Al2O3 and Fe3O4, on various substrates followed by treatment with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Using ZnO nanoparticles as a model, the changes in the surface chemical composition and crystalline structures of the metal oxide nanoparticles by PDMS treatment were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The results show that the combination of the improved surface roughness generated from of the nanoparticles aggregation with the low surface-energy of silicon-coating originated from the thermal pyrolysis of PDMS would be responsible for the surface superhydrophobicity. By a simple dip-coating method, we show that the metal oxide nanoparticles can be easily coated onto the surfaces of various textural and dimensional substrates, including glass slide, paper, fabric or sponge, for preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces for different purpose. The present strategy may provide an inexpensive and new route to surperhydrophobic surfaces, which would be of technological significance for various practical applications especially for separation of oils or organic contaminates from water.

  16. Facile preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces based on metal oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Xue-Mei; Cui, Jin-Feng; Sun, Han-Xue; Liang, Wei-Dong; Zhu, Zhao-Qi; An, Jin; Yang, Bao-Ping; La, Pei-Qing; Li, An

    2014-01-01

    A novel method for fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces was developed by facile coating various metal oxide nanoparticles, including ZnO, Al 2 O 3 and Fe 3 O 4 , on various substrates followed by treatment with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Using ZnO nanoparticles as a model, the changes in the surface chemical composition and crystalline structures of the metal oxide nanoparticles by PDMS treatment were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The results show that the combination of the improved surface roughness generated from of the nanoparticles aggregation with the low surface-energy of silicon-coating originated from the thermal pyrolysis of PDMS would be responsible for the surface superhydrophobicity. By a simple dip-coating method, we show that the metal oxide nanoparticles can be easily coated onto the surfaces of various textural and dimensional substrates, including glass slide, paper, fabric or sponge, for preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces for different purpose. The present strategy may provide an inexpensive and new route to surperhydrophobic surfaces, which would be of technological significance for various practical applications especially for separation of oils or organic contaminates from water.

  17. Facile preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces based on metal oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Xue-Mei; Cui, Jin-Feng; Sun, Han-Xue; Liang, Wei-Dong; Zhu, Zhao-Qi; An, Jin; Yang, Bao-Ping; La, Pei-Qing; Li, An, E-mail: lian2010@lut.cn

    2014-06-01

    A novel method for fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces was developed by facile coating various metal oxide nanoparticles, including ZnO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, on various substrates followed by treatment with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Using ZnO nanoparticles as a model, the changes in the surface chemical composition and crystalline structures of the metal oxide nanoparticles by PDMS treatment were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The results show that the combination of the improved surface roughness generated from of the nanoparticles aggregation with the low surface-energy of silicon-coating originated from the thermal pyrolysis of PDMS would be responsible for the surface superhydrophobicity. By a simple dip-coating method, we show that the metal oxide nanoparticles can be easily coated onto the surfaces of various textural and dimensional substrates, including glass slide, paper, fabric or sponge, for preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces for different purpose. The present strategy may provide an inexpensive and new route to surperhydrophobic surfaces, which would be of technological significance for various practical applications especially for separation of oils or organic contaminates from water.

  18. Surface flow in severe plastic deformation of metals by sliding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahato, A; Yeung, H; Chandrasekar, S; Guo, Y

    2014-01-01

    An in situ study of flow in severe plastic deformation (SPD) of surfaces by sliding is described. The model system – a hard wedge sliding against a metal surface – is representative of surface conditioning processes typical of manufacturing, and sliding wear. By combining high speed imaging and image analysis, important characteristics of unconstrained plastic flow inherent to this system are highlighted. These characteristics include development of large plastic strains on the surface and in the subsurface by laminar type flow, unusual fluid-like flow with vortex formation and surface folding, and defect and particle generation. Preferred conditions, as well as undesirable regimes, for surface SPD are demarcated. Implications for surface conditioning in manufacturing, modeling of surface deformation and wear are discussed

  19. Surface passivation of high purity granular metals: zinc, cadmium, lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirozhenko L. A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For the high purity metals (99.9999%, such as zinc, cadmium, and lead, which are widely used as initial components in growing semiconductor and scintillation crystals (CdTe, CdZnTe, ZnSe, (Cd, Zn, Pb WO4, (Cd, Zn, Pb MoO4 et al., it is very important to ensure reliable protection of the surface from oxidation and adsorption of impurities from the atmosphere. The specific features of surface passivation of high purity cadmium, lead and zinc are not sufficiently studied and require specific methodologies for further studies. The use of organic solutions in the schemes of chemical passivation of the investigated metals avoids hydrolysis of the obtained protective films. The use of organic solvents with pure cation and anion composition as the washing liquid prevents chemisorption of ions present in the conventionally used distilled water. This keeps the original purity of the granular metals. Novel compositions of etchants and etching scheme providing simultaneous polishing and passivation of high purity granular Zn, Cd and Pb are developed. Chemical passivation allows storing metals in the normal atmospheric conditions for more than half a year for Zn and Cd and up to 30 days for Pb without changing the state of the surface. The use of the glycerol-DMF solution in the processes for obtaining Pb granules provides self-passivation of metal surfaces and eliminates the additional chemical processing while maintaining the quality of corrosion protection.

  20. Metal oxide nanoparticle mediated enhanced Raman scattering and its use in direct monitoring of interfacial chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Hutter, Tanya; Finnemore, Alexander S; Huang, Fu Min; Baumberg, Jeremy J; Elliott, Stephen R; Steiner, Ullrich; Mahajan, Sumeet

    2012-08-08

    Metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) have widespread usage across many disciplines, but monitoring molecular processes at their surfaces in situ has not been possible. Here we demonstrate that MONPs give highly enhanced (×10(4)) Raman scattering signals from molecules at the interface permitting direct monitoring of their reactions, when placed on top of flat metallic surfaces. Experiments with different metal oxide materials and molecules indicate that the enhancement is generic and operates at the single nanoparticle level. Simulations confirm that the amplification is principally electromagnetic and is a result of optical modulation of the underlying plasmonic metallic surface by MONPs, which act as scattering antennae and couple light into the confined region sandwiched by the underlying surface. Because of additional functionalities of metal oxides as magnetic, photoelectrochemical and catalytic materials, enhanced Raman scattering mediated by MONPs opens up significant opportunities in fundamental science, allowing direct tracking and understanding of application-specific transformations at such interfaces. We show a first example by monitoring the MONP-assisted photocatalytic decomposition reaction of an organic dye by individual nanoparticles.

  1. Vacuum-based surface modification of organic and metallic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jessica

    Surface physico-chemical properties play an important role in the development and performance of materials in different applications. Consequently, understanding the chemical and physical processes involved during surface modification strategies is of great scientific and technological importance. This dissertation presents results from the surface modification of polymers, organic films and metallic substrates with reactive species, with the intent of simulating important modification processes and elucidating surface property changes of materials under different environments. The reactions of thermally evaporated copper and titanium with halogenated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) are used to contrast the interaction of metals with polymers. Results indicate that reactive metallization is thermodynamically favored when the metal-halogen bond strength is greater than the carbon-halogen bond strength. X-ray post-metallization treatment results in an increase in metal-halide bond formation due to the production of volatile halogen species in the polymer that react with the metallic overlayer. The reactions of atomic oxygen (AO) and atomic chlorine with polyethylene (PE) and self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) films were followed to ascertain the role of radical species during plasma-induced polymer surface modification. The reactions of AO with X-ray modified SAMs are initially the dominated by the incorporation of new oxygen containing functionality at the vacuum/film interface, leading to the production of volatile carbon containing species such as CO2 that erodes the hydrocarbon film. The reaction of atomic chlorine species with hydrocarbon SAMs, reveals that chlorination introduces C-Cl and C-Cl2 functionalities without erosion. A comparison of the reactions of AO and atomic chlorine with PE reveal a maximum incorporation of the corresponding C-O and C-Cl functionalities at the polymer surface. A novel method to prepare phosphorous

  2. Surface Modification of Metals using Plasma Torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.

    2009-01-01

    Low temperature plasma nitriding of 304L stainless steel is performed using a home made low power direct-current plasma torch. Plasma nitriding is carried out in temperature range of 300-550 degree C for 1 to 4 hours, in various N 2 H 2 gas mixture ratios at about 5 Torr pressure and torch power 300 Watts. The effect of treatment time, temperature and working gas composition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of plasma nitrided surface layers is investigated. The microstructure, phase composition and micro hardness profile of the nitrided surface layers are characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Vickers micro hardness tester. The results show that plasma treatment for 14 h over a temperature range of 300 - 550 degree C yields nitride case depth of 20 - 50 μm and the hardness of the nitrided layer is in the range of 700-1250 HV. Plasma nitriding of stainless steel samples at about 475 degree C in 70 % of nitrogen admixed with hydrogen at 5 torr shows the maximum increase of hardness 1220 HV which is about four times that of untreated layers. The XRD pattern confirmed the formation of an expanded austenite .N phase, due to the nitrogen incorporation into original lattice and forms supersaturated face center cubic phase. In addition preliminary results for aluminum nitriding is also shown

  3. Factors influencing graphene growth on metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loginova, E; Bartelt, N C; McCarty, K F [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Feibelman, P J [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)], E-mail: mccarty@sandia.gov

    2009-06-15

    Graphene forms from a relatively dense, tightly bound C-adatom gas when elemental C is deposited on or segregates to the Ru(0001) surface. Nonlinearity of the graphene growth rate with C-adatom density suggests that growth proceeds by addition of C atom clusters to the graphene edge. The generality of this picture has now been studied by use of low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) to observe graphene formation when Ru(0001) and Ir(111) surfaces are exposed to ethylene. The finding that graphene growth velocities and nucleation rates on Ru have precisely the same dependence on adatom concentration as for elemental C deposition implies that hydrocarbon decomposition only affects graphene growth through the rate of adatom formation. For ethylene, that rate decreases with increasing adatom concentration and graphene coverage. Initially, graphene growth on Ir(111) is like that on Ru: the growth velocity is the same nonlinear function of adatom concentration (albeit with much smaller equilibrium adatom concentrations, as we explain with DFT calculations of adatom formation energies). In the later stages of growth, graphene crystals that are rotated relative to the initial nuclei nucleate and grow. The rotated nuclei grow much faster. This difference suggests firstly, that the edge-orientation of the graphene sheets relative to the substrate plays an important role in the growth mechanism, and secondly, that attachment of the clusters to the graphene is the slowest step in cluster addition, rather than formation of clusters on the terraces.

  4. Geometrically induced surface polaritons in planar nanostructured metallic cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davids, P. S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Intravia, F [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalvit, Diego A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-14

    We examine the modal structure and dispersion of periodically nanostructured planar metallic cavities within the scattering matrix formulation. By nanostructuring a metallic grating in a planar cavity, artificial surface excitations or spoof plasmon modes are induced with dispersion determined by the periodicity and geometric characteristics of the grating. These spoof surface plasmon modes are shown to give rise to new cavity polaritonic modes at short mirror separations that modify the density of modes in nanostructured cavities. The increased modal density of states form cavity polarirons have a large impact on the fluctuation induced electromagnetic forces and enhanced hear transfer at short separations.

  5. Surface-state mediated three-adsorbate interaction: exact and numerical results and simple asymptotic expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyldgaard, Per; Einstein, T.L.

    2003-01-01

    The interaction energy of three adsorbates on a surface consists of the sum of the three-pair interactions plus a trio contribution produced primarily by interference of electrons which traverse the entire perimeter, d 123 , of the three-adsorbate cluster. Here, we investigate this three-adatom interaction when mediated by the isotropic Shockley surface-state band found on noble-metal (1 1 1) surfaces, extending work on pair interactions. Our experimentally testable result depends on the s-wave phase-shift, characterizing the standing-wave patterns seen in scanning-tunneling microscopy (STM) images. Compared with the adsorbate-pair interactions, and in contrast to bulk-mediated interactions, the trio contribution exhibits a slightly weaker amplitude and a slightly faster asymptotic envelope decay, d 123 -5/2 . It also has a different but well-defined oscillation period dependent on d 123 and little dependence on the shape of the cluster. We finally compare the asymptotic description with exact model calculations assuming short-range interactions, which are viable even in the non-asymptotic range (when not outweighed by bulk-mediated interactions)

  6. Applied surface analysis of metal materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Z.

    1987-01-01

    The applications of surface analytical techniques in the solution of technological problems in metalurgy and engineering are reviewed. Some important application areas such as corrosion, grain boundary segregation and metallurgical coatings are presented together with specific requirements for the type of information which is necessary for solving particular problems. The techniques discussed include: electron spectroscopies (Auger Electron Spectroscopy, Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis), ion spectroscopies (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, Ion Scattering Spectroscopy), Rutherford Back-Scattering, nuclear reaction analysis, optical methods (Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectrometry), ellipsometry, infrared and Raman spectroscopy, the Moessbauer spectroscopy and methods of consumptive depth profile analysis. Principles and analytical features of these methods are demonstrated and examples of their applications to metallurgy are taken from recent literature. (author). 4 figs., 2 tabs., 112 refs

  7. Distance of the image plane from metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, N.V.; Chen, C.T.; Weinert, M.

    1989-01-01

    The data base of surface-state energies on the metals Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, and Pt is assembled and, with the aid of a simple model, is used to estimate the distance of the image plane and its trends from surface to surface and metal to metal. The model combines a nearly-free-electron representation of the crystal with a Jones-Jennings-Jepsen ansatz for the saturated image barrier. The projected bulk-band gaps are taken from published determinations. Constraints are placed on the surface barrier parameters by appeal to the results of self-consistent first-principles slab calculations. The general experimental trend observed is for the image-plane distance z 0 to decrease in the sequence (111) to (001) to (110), in the same sense but not as rapidly as z J , the distance of the effective jellium edge. This trend is rationalized using a simple model of the tail of the surface charge density. Typical values for z 0 -z J fall in the range -0.2 to +0.5 a.u., with the larger values occurring for the 3d metals Cu and Ni

  8. Evaluation of Metal-Fueled Surface Reactor Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, David I.; Marcille, Thomas F.; Kapernick, Richard J.; Hiatt, Matthew T.; Amiri, Benjamin W.

    2007-01-01

    Surface fission power systems for use on the Moon and Mars may provide the first use of near-term reactor technology in space. Most near-term surface reactor concepts specify reactor temperatures <1000 K to allow the use of established material and power conversion technology and minimize the impact of the in-situ environment. Metal alloy fuels (e.g. U-10Zr and U-10Mo) have not traditionally been considered for space reactors because of high-temperature requirements, but they might be an attractive option for these lower temperature surface power missions. In addition to temperature limitations, metal fuels are also known to swell significantly at rather low fuel burnups (∼1 a/o), but near-term surface missions can mitigate this concern as well, because power and lifetime requirements generally keep fuel burnups <1 a/o. If temperature and swelling issues are not a concern, then a surface reactor concept may be able to benefit from the high uranium density and relative ease of manufacture of metal fuels. This paper investigates two reactor concepts that utilize metal fuels. It is found that these concepts compare very well to concepts that utilize other fuels (UN, UO2, UZrH) on a mass basis, while also providing the potential to simplify material safeguards issues

  9. Cohesion and coordination effects on transition metal surface energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruvireta, Judit; Vega, Lorena; Viñes, Francesc

    2017-10-01

    Here we explore the accuracy of Stefan equation and broken-bond model semiempirical approaches to obtain surface energies on transition metals. Cohesive factors are accounted for either via the vaporization enthalpies, as proposed in Stefan equation, or via cohesive energies, as employed in the broken-bond model. Coordination effects are considered including the saturation degree, as suggested in Stefan equation, employing Coordination Numbers (CN), or as the ratio of broken bonds, according to the bond-cutting model, considering as well the square root dependency of the bond strength on CN. Further, generalized coordination numbers CN bar are contemplated as well, exploring a total number of 12 semiempirical formulations on the three most densely packed surfaces of 3d, 4d, and 5d Transition Metals (TMs) displaying face-centered cubic (fcc), body-centered cubic (bcc), or hexagonal close-packed (hcp) crystallographic structures. Estimates are compared to available experimental surface energies obtained extrapolated to zero temperature. Results reveal that Stefan formula cohesive and coordination dependencies are only qualitative suited, but unadvised for quantitative discussion, as surface energies are highly overestimated, favoring in addition the stability of under-coordinated surfaces. Broken-bond cohesion and coordination dependencies are a suited basis for quantitative comparison, where square-root dependencies on CN to account for bond weakening are sensibly worse. An analysis using Wulff shaped averaged surface energies suggests the employment of broken-bond model using CN to gain surface energies for TMs, likely applicable to other metals.

  10. Helium atmospheric pressure plasma jets touching dielectric and metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Seth A.; Johnsen, Eric; Kushner, Mark J.

    2015-07-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) are being investigated in the context plasma medicine and biotechnology applications, and surface functionalization. The composition of the surface being treated ranges from plastics, liquids, and biological tissue, to metals. The dielectric constant of these materials ranges from as low as 1.5 for plastics to near 80 for liquids, and essentially infinite for metals. The electrical properties of the surface are not independent variables as the permittivity of the material being treated has an effect on the dynamics of the incident APPJ. In this paper, results are discussed from a computational investigation of the interaction of an APPJ incident onto materials of varying permittivity, and their impact on the discharge dynamics of the plasma jet. The computer model used in this investigation solves Poisson's equation, transport equations for charged and neutral species, the electron energy equation, and the Navier-Stokes equations for the neutral gas flow. The APPJ is sustained in He/O2 = 99.8/0.2 flowing into humid air, and is directed onto dielectric surfaces in contact with ground with dielectric constants ranging from 2 to 80, and a grounded metal surface. Low values of relative permittivity encourage propagation of the electric field into the treated material and formation and propagation of a surface ionization wave. High values of relative permittivity promote the restrike of the ionization wave and the formation of a conduction channel between the plasma discharge and the treated surface. The distribution of space charge surrounding the APPJ is discussed.

  11. Surface Intermediates on Metal Electrodes at High Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; Jacobsen, Torben; Bay, Lasse

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms widely suggested for the O2-reduc-tion or H2-oxidation SOFC reactions involve inter-mediate O/H species adsorbed on the electrode surface. The presence of these intermediates is investigated by linear sweep voltammetry. In airat moderate temperatures (500øC) Pt in contact with YSZ...

  12. Fractal modeling of fluidic leakage through metal sealing surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Xiaoqian; Huang, Yiyong; Chen, Yong

    2018-04-01

    This paper investigates the fluidic leak rate through metal sealing surfaces by developing fractal models for the contact process and leakage process. An improved model is established to describe the seal-contact interface of two metal rough surface. The contact model divides the deformed regions by classifying the asperities of different characteristic lengths into the elastic, elastic-plastic and plastic regimes. Using the improved contact model, the leakage channel under the contact surface is mathematically modeled based on the fractal theory. The leakage model obtains the leak rate using the fluid transport theory in porous media, considering that the pores-forming percolation channels can be treated as a combination of filled tortuous capillaries. The effects of fractal structure, surface material and gasket size on the contact process and leakage process are analyzed through numerical simulations for sealed ring gaskets.

  13. Surface plasmon—polaritons on ultrathin metal films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan Jun; Zhang Jun; Shao Le-Xi; Tian Ying

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the surface plasmon—polaritons used for ultrathin metal films with the aid of linear response theory and make comparisons with the known result given by Economou E N. In this paper we consider transverse electromagnetic fields and assume that the electromagnetic field in the linear response formula is the induced field due to the current of the electrons. It satisfies the Maxwell equation and thus we replace the current (charge) term in the Maxwell equation with the linear response expectation value. Finally, taking the external field to be zero, we obtain the dispersion relation of the surface plasmons from the eigenvalue equation. In addition, the charge-density and current-density in the z direction on the surface of ultrathin metal films are also calculated. The results may be helpful to the fundamental understanding of the complex phenomenon of surface plasmon-polaritons. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  14. Surface Modification of α-Fe Metal Particles by Chemical Surface Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The structure of α-Fe metal magnetic recording particles coated with silane coupling agents have been studied by TEM, FT-IR, EXAFS, Mossbauer. The results show that a close, uniform, firm and ultra thin layer, which is beneficial to the magnetic and chemical stability, has been formed by the cross-linked chemical bond Si-O-Si. And the organic molecule has chemically bonded to the particle surface, which has greatly affected the surface Fe atom electronic structure. Furthermore, the covalent bond between metal particle surface and organic molecule has obvious effect on the near edge structure of the surface Fe atoms.

  15. Heavy metal concentration of settled surface dust in residential building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Aimi abdul Wahab; Fairus Muhamad Darus; Norain Isa; Siti Mariam Sumari; Nur Fatihah Muhamad Hanafi

    2012-01-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in settled surface dust were collected from nine residential buildings in different areas in Seberang Prai Tengah District, Pulau Pinang. The samples of settled surface dust were collected in 1 m 2 area by using a polyethylene brush and placed in the dust pan by sweeping the living room floor most accessible to the occupants. Heavy metals concentrations were determined by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) after digestion with nitric acid and sulphuric acid. The results show that the range of heavy metals observed in residential buildings at Seberang Prai Tengah were in the range of 2.20-14.00 mg/ kg, 1.50-32.70 mg/ kg, 1.50-76.80 mg/ kg and 14.60-54.40 mg/ kg for Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn respectively. The heavy metal concentration in the investigated areas followed the order: Pb > Zn > Ni > Cu. Statistical analysis indicates significant correlation between all the possible pairs of heavy metal. The results suggest a likely common source for the heavy metal contamination, which could be traced most probably to vehicular emissions, street dust and other related activities. (author)

  16. The Impact of Road Maintenance Substances on Metals Surface Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolita Petkuvienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to assess changes in the visual metal surface due to the exposure of road maintenance salts and molasses (‘Safecote’. Chlorides of deicing salts (NaCl, CaCl2 are the main agents affecting soil and water resources as well as causing the corrosion of roadside metallic elements. Molasses (‘Safecote’ is offered as an alternative to deice road pavement by minimizing the corrosion of metal elements near the road. A laboratory experiment was carried out to immerse and spray metals with NaCl, CaCl2, NaCl:CaCl2 and NaCl:Safecote solutions. The obtained results showed that NaCl:Safecote solution had the lowest coating with corrosion products (the average 17±4 % of the surface. The solutions of NaCl, CaCl2 and NaCl:CaCl2 had the highest percentage rate of the corrosion product on the metal surface reaching an average of 33±5 %. Article in English

  17. Application of Volta potential mapping to determine metal surface defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarov, A.; Thierry, D.

    2007-01-01

    As a rule, stress or fatigue cracks originate from various surface imperfections, such as pits, inclusions or locations showing a residual stress. It would be very helpful for material selection to be able to predict the likelihood of environment-assisted cracking or pitting corrosion. By using Scanning Kelvin Probe (the vibrating capacitor with a spatial resolution of 80 μm) the profiling of metal electron work function (Volta potential) in air is applied to the metal surfaces showing residual stress, MnS inclusions and wearing. The Volta potential is influenced by the energy of electrons at the Fermi level and drops generally across the metal/oxide/air interfaces. Inclusions (e.g. MnS) impair continuity of the passive film that locally decreases Volta potential. The stress applied gives rise to dislocations, microcracks and vacancies in the metal and the surface oxide. The defects decrease Volta and corrosion potentials; reduce the overvoltage for processes of passivity breakdown and anodic metal dissolution. These 'anodic' defects can be visualized in potential mapping that can help us to predict locations with higher risk of pitting corrosion or cracking

  18. A highly efficient surface plasmon polaritons excitation achieved with a metal-coupled metal-insulator-metal waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel metal-coupled metal-insulator-metal (MC-MIM waveguide which can achieve a highly efficient surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs excitation. The MC-MIM waveguide is formed by inserting a thin metal film in the insulator of an MIM. The introduction of the metal film, functioning as an SPPs coupler, provides a space for the interaction between SPPs and a confined electromagnetic field of the intermediate metal surface, which makes energy change and phase transfer in the metal-dielectric interface, due to the joint action of incomplete electrostatic shielding effect and SPPs coupling. Impacts of the metal film with different materials and various thickness on SPPs excitation are investigated. It is shown that the highest efficient SPPs excitation is obtained when the gold film thickness is 60 nm. The effect of refractive index of upper and lower symmetric dielectric layer on SPPs excitation is also discussed. The result shows that the decay value of refractive index is 0.3. Our results indicate that this proposed MC-MIM waveguide may offer great potential in designing a new SPPs source.

  19. Adhesion of streptococcus rattus and streptococcus mutans to metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branting, C.; Linder, L.E.; Sund, M.-L.; Oden, A.; Wiatr-Adamczak, E.

    1988-01-01

    The adhesion of Streptococcus rattus BHT and Streptococcus mutans IB to metal specimens of amalgam, silver, tin and copper was studied using (6- 3 H) thymidine labeled cells. In the standard assay the metal specimens were suspended by a nylon thread in an adhesion solution containing a chemically defined bacterial growth medium (FMC), sucrose, and radiolabeled bacteria. Maximum amounts of adhering bacteria were obtained after about 100 min of incubation. Saturation of the metal specimens with bacteria was not observed. Both strains also adhered in the absence of sucrose, indicating that glucan formation was not necessary for adhesion. However, in the presence of glucose, adhesion was only 26-45% of that observed in the presence of equimolar sucrose. Sucrose-dependent stimulation of adhesion seemed to be due to increased cell-to-cell adhesion capacity. Isolated radiolabeled water-insoluble and water-soluble polysaccharides produced from sucrose by S. rattus BHT were not adsorbed to the metal surfaces. (author)

  20. Adhesion of streptococcus rattus and streptococcus mutans to metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branting, C.; Linder, L.E.; Sund, M.-L.; Oden, A.; Wiatr-Adamczak, E.

    1988-01-01

    The adhesion of Streptococcus rattus BHT and Streptococcus mutans IB to metal specimens of amalgam, silver, tin and copper was studied using (6-/sup 3/H) thymidine labeled cells. In the standard assay the metal specimens were suspended by a nylon thread in an adhesion solution containing a chemically defined bacterial growth medium (FMC), sucrose, and radiolabeled bacteria. Maximum amounts of adhering bacteria were obtained after about 100 min of incubation. Saturation of the metal specimens with bacteria was not observed. Both strains also adhered in the absence of sucrose, indicating that glucan formation was not necessary for adhesion. However, in the presence of glucose, adhesion was only 26-45% of that observed in the presence of equimolar sucrose. Sucrose-dependent stimulation of adhesion seemed to be due to increased cell-to-cell adhesion capacity. Isolated radiolabeled water-insoluble and water-soluble polysaccharides produced from sucrose by S. rattus BHT were not adsorbed to the metal surfaces.

  1. Hydrobiological constraints of trace metals in surface water, coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... of Calabar River are presented in Tables 1, 2 and 3. Table 4, 5 and 6 present the correlation matrices for sediment, surface water and N. lotus samples respec- tively, showing values of Pearson's correlation coefficient. (p<0.05, n=4) for pairs of heavy metals at the four locations. The concentrations of As, Cd, ...

  2. Fracture Surface Morphology Under Ductile Tearing of Metal Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacar, Muhammet F.; Tekoglu, Cihan; Nielsen, Kim Lau

    2017-01-01

    The present work takes as offset the hypothesis that microstructural parameters, related to particle size and distribution, govern the transition between crack surface morphologies observed in experiments. The key question is; why does tearing of a given metal plate leave a specific morphology...

  3. Origin of metallic surface core-level shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldén, Magnus; Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Abrikosov, I. A.

    1995-01-01

    The unique property of the open 4f energy shell in the lanthanide metals is used to show that the initial-state energy shift gives an insufficient description of surface core-level shifts. Instead a treatment, which fully includes the final-state screening, account for the experimentally observed...

  4. Modification of metallic surfaces by positive ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickards C, J.

    1989-01-01

    Reported are the fundamentals and recent advances in the use of ion implantation techniques and gaseous emissions to modify metal surfaces. The physical phenomena involved, the necessary equipment and some applications which have been successful on an industrial scale are described. (Author). 13 refs, 1 fig

  5. Renormalization of Optical Excitations in Molecules near a Metal Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Lastra, Juan Maria; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2011-01-01

    consequence we find that close to the metal surface the optical gap of benzene can exceed its quasiparticle gap. A classical image charge model for the screened Coulomb interaction can account for all these effects which, on the other hand, are completely missed by standard time-dependent density functional...

  6. Coordination to transition metal surfaces : a theoretical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santen, van R.A.

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical framework is developed that describes the chemisorption of CO to transition metal surfaces analogous to the HOMO-LUMO concept of MO theory. An explanation is given for the exptl. observation that CO adsorbs on top at the (111), face of Pt, but bridge at the (111) face of Ni. One is due

  7. Ductile fracture surface morphology of amorphous metallic alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miskuf, J; Csach, K; Ocelik, [No Value; Bengus, VZ; Tabachnikova, ED; Duhaj, P; Ocelik, Vaclav

    1999-01-01

    Fracture surfaces of ductile failure of two types bulk amorphous metallic alloys were studied using quantitative and qualitative fractographic analysis. The observed fractographic behaviour of ductile failure in comparison with the ductile failure of amorphous alloy ribbons shows signs of the same

  8. Metal concentration at surface water using multivariate analysis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metal concentration at surface water using multivariate analysis and human health risk assessment. F Azaman, H Juahir, K Yunus, A Azid, S.I. Khalit, A.D. Mustafa, M.A. Amran, C.N.C. Hasnam, M.Z.A.Z. Abidin, M.A.M. Yusri ...

  9. Theoretical study of n-alkane adsorption on metal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morikawa, Yoshitada; Ishii, Hisao; Seki, Kazuhiko

    2004-01-01

    The interaction between n-alkane and metal surfaces has been studied by means of density-functional theoretical calculations within a generalized gradient approximation (GGA). We demonstrate that although the GGA cannot reproduce the physisorption energy well, our calculations can reproduce the e...

  10. Cooperativity in Surface Bonding and Hydrogen Bonding of Water and Hydroxyl at Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiros, T.; Ogasawara, H.; Naslund, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    of the mixed phase at metal surfaces. The surface bonding can be considered to be similar to accepting a hydrogen bond, and we can thereby apply general cooperativity rules developed for hydrogen-bonded systems. This provides a simple understanding of why water molecules become more strongly bonded...... to the surface upon hydrogen bonding to OH and why the OH surface bonding is instead weakened through hydrogen bonding to water. We extend the application of this simple model to other observed cooperativity effects for pure water adsorption systems and H3O+ on metal surfaces.......We examine the balance of surface bonding and hydrogen bonding in the mixed OH + H2O overlayer on Pt(111), Cu(111), and Cu(110) via density functional theory calculations. We find that there is a cooperativity effect between surface bonding and hydrogen bonding that underlies the stability...

  11. Study on surface wave characteristics of free surface flow of liquid metal lithium for IFMIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoashi, Eiji; Sugiura, Hirokazu; Yoshihashi-Suzuki, Sachiko; Yamaoka, Nobuo; Horiike, Hiroshi; Kanemura, Takuji; Kondo, Hiroo

    2011-01-01

    The international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) presents an intense neutron source to develop fusion reactor materials. The free surface flow of a liquid metal Lithium (Li) is planned as a target irradiated by two deuteron beams to generate intense neutrons and it is thus important to obtain knowledge of the surface wave characteristic for the safety and the efficiency of system in the IFMIF. We have been studying on surface wave characteristics experimentally using the liquid metal Li circulation facility at Osaka University and numerically using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, FLUENT. This paper reports the results of the surface fluctuation, the wave height and the surface velocity in the free surface flow of the liquid metal Li examined experimentally and numerically. In the experiment, an electro-contact probe apparatus was used to obtain the surface fluctuation and the wave height, and a high speed video was used to measure the surface velocity. We resulted in knowledge of the surface wave growth mechanism. On the other hand, a CFD simulation was also conducted to obtain information on the relation of the free surface with the inner flow. In the simulation, the model included from a two-staged contraction nozzle to a flow channel with a free surface flow region and simulation results were compared with the experimental data. (author)

  12. Voltammetric determination of metal impurities on semiconductor surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knyazeva, E.P.; Mokrousov, G.M.; Volkova, V.N.

    1995-01-01

    A modification of voltamperometric method used for analysis of semiconductor surfaces which make it possible to exclude a contact between surface and background solution. This technique is based on solubility of elemental metal forms in low melting electroconductor systems (e.g., in mercury. The voltampere characteristics of amalgams formed are then studied. The suggested method is simple, rapid, and makes it possible to perform a nondestructive qualitative analysis of the sample surface area measuring about 10 -3 cm -2 and more. 4 refs.; 2 figs

  13. Surface core-level shifts for simple metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldén, Magnus; Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Johansson, Börje

    1994-01-01

    screening, whereby a SCLS becomes equivalent to the surface segregation energy of a core-ionized atom, a quantity we obtain by separate bulk and surface impurity calculations. The results are in good agreement with experiment in most of those cases where the data originates from single-crystal measurements....... We discuss the surface shifts of the electrostatic potentials and the band centers in order to trace the microscopic origin of the SCLS in the simple metals and find that the anomalous subsurface core-level shifts in beryllium are caused by charge dipoles, which persist several layers into the bulk...

  14. Radionuclides and trace metals in surface air. Appendix C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feely, H.W.; Toonkel, L.E.; Larsen, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Since January 1963, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), formerly the Health and Safety Laboratory (HASL), has been conducting the Surface Air Sampling Program. This study is a direct outgrowth of a program initiated by the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in 1957 and continued through 1962. The primary objective of this program is to study the spatial and temporal distribution of specific natural and man-made radioisotopes, and of trace metals in the surface air. Other special studies of surface air contamination have been performed during the course of the program

  15. Asperity interaction in adhesive contact of metallic rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Prasanta; Banerjee, Atanu

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of adhesive contact of metallic rough surfaces considering the effect of asperity interaction is the subject of this investigation. The micro-contact model of asperity interactions developed by Zhao and Chang (2001 Trans. ASME: J. Tribol. 123 857-64) is combined with the elastic plastic adhesive contact model developed by Chang et al (1988 Trans. ASME: J. Tribol. 110 50-6) to consider the asperity interaction and elastic-plastic deformation in the presence of surface forces simultaneously. The well-established elastic adhesion index and plasticity index are used to consider the different contact conditions. Results show that asperity interaction influences the load-separation behaviour in elastic-plastic adhesive contact of metallic rough surfaces significantly and, in general, adhesion is reduced due to asperity interactions

  16. Recommended values of clean metal surface work functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derry, Gregory N.; Kern, Megan E.; Worth, Eli H.

    2015-01-01

    A critical review of the experimental literature for measurements of the work functions of clean metal surfaces of single-crystals is presented. The tables presented include all results found for low-index crystal faces except cases that were known to be contaminated surfaces. These results are used to construct a recommended value of the work function for each surface examined, along with an uncertainty estimate for that value. The uncertainties are based in part on the error distribution for all measured work functions in the literature, which is included here. The metals included in this review are silver (Ag), aluminum (Al), gold (Au), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), iridium (Ir), molybdenum (Mo), niobium (Nb), nickel (Ni), palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt), rhodium (Rh), ruthenium (Ru), tantalum (Ta), and tungsten (W)

  17. Recommended values of clean metal surface work functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derry, Gregory N., E-mail: gderry@loyola.edu; Kern, Megan E.; Worth, Eli H. [Department of Physics, Loyola University Maryland, 4501 N. Charles St., Baltimore, Maryland 21210 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    A critical review of the experimental literature for measurements of the work functions of clean metal surfaces of single-crystals is presented. The tables presented include all results found for low-index crystal faces except cases that were known to be contaminated surfaces. These results are used to construct a recommended value of the work function for each surface examined, along with an uncertainty estimate for that value. The uncertainties are based in part on the error distribution for all measured work functions in the literature, which is included here. The metals included in this review are silver (Ag), aluminum (Al), gold (Au), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), iridium (Ir), molybdenum (Mo), niobium (Nb), nickel (Ni), palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt), rhodium (Rh), ruthenium (Ru), tantalum (Ta), and tungsten (W)

  18. Surface cleaning of metal wire by atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.; Buttapeng, C.; Furuya, S.; Harada, N.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the possible application of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma for the annealing of metallic wire is examined and presented. The main purpose of the current study is to examine the surface cleaning effect for a cylindrical object by atmospheric pressure plasma. The experimental setup consists of a gas tank, plasma reactor, and power supply with control panel. The gas assists in the generation of plasma. Copper wire was used as an experimental cylindrical object. This copper wire was irradiated with the plasma, and the cleaning effect was confirmed. The result showed that it is possible to remove the tarnish which exists on the copper wire surface. The experiment reveals that atmospheric pressure plasma is usable for the surface cleaning of metal wire. However, it is necessary to examine the method for preventing oxidization of the copper wire.

  19. Time-dependent image potential at a metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alducin, M.; Diez Muino, R.; Juaristi, J.I.

    2003-01-01

    Transient effects in the image potential induced by a point charge suddenly created in front of a metal surface are studied. The time evolution of the image potential is calculated using linear response theory. Two different time scales are defined: (i) the time required for the creation of the image potential and (ii) the time it takes to converge to its stationary value. Their dependence on the distance of the charge to the surface is discussed. The effect of the electron gas damping is also analyzed. For a typical metallic density, the order of magnitude of the creation time is 0.1 fs, whereas for a charge created close to the surface the convergence time is around 1-2 fs

  20. Understanding the biological responses of nanostructured metals and surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Terry C.; Reiss, Rebecca A.

    2014-08-01

    Metals produced by Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD) offer distinct advantages for medical applications such as orthopedic devices, in part because of their nanostructured surfaces. We examine the current theoretical foundations and state of knowledge for nanostructured biomaterials surface optimization within the contexts that apply to bulk nanostructured metals, differentiating how their microstructures impact osteogenesis, in particular, for Ultrafine Grained (UFG) titanium. Then we identify key gaps in the research to date, pointing out areas which merit additional focus within the scientific community. For example, we highlight the potential of next-generation DNA sequencing techniques (NGS) to reveal gene and non-coding RNA (ncRNA) expression changes induced by nanostructured metals. While our understanding of bio-nano interactions is in its infancy, nanostructured metals are already being marketed or developed for medical devices such as dental implants, spinal devices, and coronary stents. Our ability to characterize and optimize the biological response of cells to SPD metals will have synergistic effects on advances in materials, biological, and medical science.

  1. Understanding the biological responses of nanostructured metals and surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, Terry C; A Reiss, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Metals produced by Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD) offer distinct advantages for medical applications such as orthopedic devices, in part because of their nanostructured surfaces. We examine the current theoretical foundations and state of knowledge for nanostructured biomaterials surface optimization within the contexts that apply to bulk nanostructured metals, differentiating how their microstructures impact osteogenesis, in particular, for Ultrafine Grained (UFG) titanium. Then we identify key gaps in the research to date, pointing out areas which merit additional focus within the scientific community. For example, we highlight the potential of next-generation DNA sequencing techniques (NGS) to reveal gene and non-coding RNA (ncRNA) expression changes induced by nanostructured metals. While our understanding of bio-nano interactions is in its infancy, nanostructured metals are already being marketed or developed for medical devices such as dental implants, spinal devices, and coronary stents. Our ability to characterize and optimize the biological response of cells to SPD metals will have synergistic effects on advances in materials, biological, and medical science

  2. Nanotubular surface modification of metallic implants via electrochemical anodization technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu-Ning; Jin, Ming; Zheng, Yudong; Guan, Yueping; Lu, Xin; Luo, Jing-Li

    2014-01-01

    Due to increased awareness and interest in the biomedical implant field as a result of an aging population, research in the field of implantable devices has grown rapidly in the last few decades. Among the biomedical implants, metallic implant materials have been widely used to replace disordered bony tissues in orthopedic and orthodontic surgeries. The clinical success of implants is closely related to their early osseointegration (ie, the direct structural and functional connection between living bone and the surface of a load-bearing artificial implant), which relies heavily on the surface condition of the implant. Electrochemical techniques for modifying biomedical implants are relatively simple, cost-effective, and appropriate for implants with complex shapes. Recently, metal oxide nanotubular arrays via electrochemical anodization have become an attractive technique to build up on metallic implants to enhance the biocompatibility and bioactivity. This article will thoroughly review the relevance of electrochemical anodization techniques for the modification of metallic implant surfaces in nanoscale, and cover the electrochemical anodization techniques used in the development of the types of nanotubular/nanoporous modification achievable via electrochemical approaches, which hold tremendous potential for bio-implant applications. In vitro and in vivo studies using metallic oxide nanotubes are also presented, revealing the potential of nanotubes in biomedical applications. Finally, an outlook of future growth of research in metallic oxide nanotubular arrays is provided. This article will therefore provide researchers with an in-depth understanding of electrochemical anodization modification and provide guidance regarding the design and tuning of new materials to achieve a desired performance and reliable biocompatibility.

  3. Graphene on metal surfaces and its hydrogen adsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mie; Hornekær, L.; Hammer, B.

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of graphene with various metal surfaces is investigated using density functional theory and the meta-generalized gradient approximation (MGGA) M06-L functional. We demonstrate that this method is of comparable accuracy to the random-phase approximation (RPA). With M06-L we study...... large systems inaccessible to RPA with H adsorbed on graphene on a selected strongly (Ni) and a selected weakly (Pt) interacting substrate. Very stable graphane-like clusters, where every other C atom binds to a H atom above and every other to a metal atom below, are found on both substrates...

  4. Development of surface relief on polycrystalline metals due to sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voitsenya, V.S. [IPP NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Balden, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Bardamid, A.F. [Taras Shevchenko National University, 01033 Kiev (Ukraine); Bondarenko, V.N. [IPP NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Davis, J.W., E-mail: jwdavis@starfire.utias.utoronto.ca [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, 4925 Dufferin St., Toronto, ON, Canada M3H5T6 (Canada); Konovalov, V.G.; Ryzhkov, I.V.; Skoryk, O.O.; Solodovchenko, S.I. [IPP NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Zhang-jian, Zhou [University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100 083 (China)

    2013-05-01

    The characteristics of surface microrelief that appear in sputtering experiments with polycrystalline metals of various grain sizes have been studied. Specimens with grain sizes varying from 30–70 nm in the case of crystallized amorphous alloys, to 1–3 μm for technical tungsten grade and 10–100 μm for recrystallized tungsten were investigated. A model is proposed for the development of roughness on polycrystalline metals which is based on the dependence of sputtering rate on crystal orientation. The results of the modeling are in good agreement with experiments showing that the length scale of roughness is much larger than the grain size.

  5. Electromagnetic Detection of Stress Gradients at the Surfaces of Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, William F.; Zinke, Otto H.

    2004-01-01

    A general, integral expression is developed which relates measurements of the variations of the imaginary component of complex- reluctance with frequency to stress profiles near the surfaces of metals. The technique should yield either applied or residual stress profiles produced, for example, by heat-treating, metal-working, fatigue, or peening. It may even be applicable to carburizing. The technique of measurement cancels out the effects of any pre-treatment residual-stress profile (subject to the assumption of superposition). The general, integral expression is induced from the results of measurements on a steel bar which is subjected to both tensile tests and bending tests

  6. Hydrogen collisions with transition metal surfaces: Universal electronically nonadiabatic adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorenkamp, Yvonne; Jiang, Hongyan; Köckert, Hansjochen; Hertl, Nils; Kammler, Marvin; Janke, Svenja M.; Kandratsenka, Alexander; Wodtke, Alec M.; Bünermann, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    Inelastic scattering of H and D atoms from the (111) surfaces of six fcc transition metals (Au, Pt, Ag, Pd, Cu, and Ni) was investigated, and in each case, excitation of electron-hole pairs dominates the inelasticity. The results are very similar for all six metals. Differences in the average kinetic energy losses between metals can mainly be attributed to different efficiencies in the coupling to phonons due to the different masses of the metal atoms. The experimental observations can be reproduced by molecular dynamics simulations based on full-dimensional potential energy surfaces and including electronic excitations by using electronic friction in the local density friction approximation. The determining factors for the energy loss are the electron density at the surface, which is similar for all six metals, and the mass ratio between the impinging atoms and the surface atoms. Details of the electronic structure of the metal do not play a significant role. The experimentally validated simulations are used to explore sticking over a wide range of incidence conditions. We find that the sticking probability increases for H and D collisions near normal incidence—consistent with a previously reported penetration-resurfacing mechanism. The sticking probability for H or D on any of these metals may be represented as a simple function of the incidence energy, Ein, metal atom mass, M, and incidence angle, 𝜗i n. S =(S0+a ṡEi n+b ṡM ) *(1 -h (𝜗i n-c ) (1 -cos(𝜗 i n-c ) d ṡh (Ei n-e ) (Ei n-e ) ) ) , where h is the Heaviside step function and for H, S0 = 1.081, a = -0.125 eV-1, b =-8.40 ṡ1 0-4 u-1, c = 28.88°, d = 1.166 eV-1, and e = 0.442 eV; whereas for D, S0 = 1.120, a = -0.124 eV-1, b =-1.20 ṡ1 0-3 u-1, c = 28.62°, d = 1.196 eV-1, and e = 0.474 eV.

  7. Surface plasmons in metallic nanoparticles: fundamentals and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M A

    2011-01-01

    The excitation of surface plasmons (SPs) in metallic nanoparticles (NPs) induces optical properties hardly achievable in other optical materials, yielding a wide range of applications in many fields. This review presents an overview of SPs in metallic NPs. The concept of SPs in NPs is qualitatively described using a comparison with simple linear oscillators. The mathematical models to carry on calculations on SPs are presented as well as the most common approximations. The different parameters governing the features of SPs and their effect on the optical properties of the materials are reviewed. Finally, applications of SPs in different fields such as biomedicine, energy, environment protection and information technology are revised. (topical review)

  8. Surface plasmons in metallic nanoparticles: fundamentals and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M A, E-mail: magarcia@icv.csic.es [Department of Electroceramics, Institute for Ceramic and Glass, CSIC, C/Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain) and IMDEA Nanociencia, Madrid 28049 (Spain)

    2011-07-20

    The excitation of surface plasmons (SPs) in metallic nanoparticles (NPs) induces optical properties hardly achievable in other optical materials, yielding a wide range of applications in many fields. This review presents an overview of SPs in metallic NPs. The concept of SPs in NPs is qualitatively described using a comparison with simple linear oscillators. The mathematical models to carry on calculations on SPs are presented as well as the most common approximations. The different parameters governing the features of SPs and their effect on the optical properties of the materials are reviewed. Finally, applications of SPs in different fields such as biomedicine, energy, environment protection and information technology are revised. (topical review)

  9. Surface modes at metallic an photonic crystal interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Weitao [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A surface mode is an electromagnetic field distribution bounded at a surface. It decays exponentially with the distance from the surface on both sides of the surface and propagates at the surface. The surface mode exists at a metal-dielectric interface as surface plasmon (1) or at a photonic crystal surface terminated properly (34; 35; 36). Besides its prominent near-filed properties, it can connect structures at its propagation surface and results in far-field effects. Extraordinary transmission (EOT) and beaming are two examples and they are the subjects I am studying in this thesis. EOT means the transmission through holes in an opaque screen can be much larger than the geometrical optics limitation. Based on our everyday experience about shadows, the transmission equals the filling ratio of the holes in geometrical optics. The conventional diffraction theory also proved that the transmission through a subwavelength circular hole in an infinitely thin perfect electric conductor (PEC) film converges to zero when the hole's dimension is much smaller than the wavelength (40). Recently it is discovered that the transmission can be much larger than the the filling ratio of the holes at some special wavelengths (41). This cannot be explained by conventional theories, so it is called extraordinary transmission. It is generally believed that surface plasmons play an important role (43; 44) in the EOT through a periodic subwavelength hole array in a metallic film. The common theories in literatures are based on these arguments. The surface plasmons cannot be excited by incident plane waves directly because of momentum mismatch. The periodicity of the hole arrays will provide addition momentum. When the momentum-matching condition of surface plasmons is satisfied, the surface plasmons will be excited. Then these surface plasmons will collect the energy along the input surface and carry them to the holes. So the transmission can be bigger than the filling ratio. Based

  10. Photoelectron emission from metal surfaces by ultrashort laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraggi, M. N.; Gravielle, M. S.; Silkin, V. M.

    2006-01-01

    Electron emission from metal surfaces produced by short laser pulses is studied within the framework of the distorted-wave formulation. The proposed approach, named surface-Volkov (SV) approximation, makes use of the band-structure based (BSB) model and the Volkov phase to describe the interaction of the emitted electron with the surface and the external electric field, respectively. The BSB model provides a realistic representation of the surface, based on a model potential that includes the main features of the surface band structure. The SV method is applied to evaluate the photoelectron emission from the valence band of Al(111). Angular and energy distributions are investigated for different parameters of the laser pulse, keeping in all cases the carrier frequency larger than the plasmon one

  11. HEAVY METALS IN SURFACE MUD SEDIMENT IN EKATERINBURG (RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Seleznev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement. Now the most part of the world’s population lives in cities, thus, it is relevant the search for universal, low-cost and express methods for environmental geochemical investigations of an urban environment. The objective of the study is the assessment of content and properties of surface mud sediment at the urban territory (on the example of Ekaterinburg, Russia. Methods of the study. The 30 samples of surface mud sediment, soils and ground were collected in the residential area of the city. Particle size composition, measurements of heavy metals content, correlation analysis was conducted for the samples. Results. Surface mud sediment at the residential territories can be classified as surface facie of the recent anthropogenic sediment. Samples of the environmental compartments were collected at the territories of six blocks of houses of various years of construction, located in various parts of the city and at the various geological units. Five samples were collected in each block: 3 samples within the block and 2 samples – outside. The content of Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, and Mn was measured in particle size fractions of the samples. Particle size composition of the surface mud sediment in Ekaterinburg is similar to the particle size composition of the grounds formed on the sediments of Holocene age in Urals region. The positive statistically significant correlation was found between the couples of metals: Zn and Pb, Zn and Cu, Co and Ni. The distribution of concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cu over particle size fractions of surface mud sediment is heterogeneous. Pollution of the ground and soil in urban areas is due to the transition of heavy metals with particles of dust and fine sand. Typical geochemical association of metals for particle size fraction of surface mud sediment 0.002–0.01 mm – Mn-Zn-Ni-Cu-Pb-Co, that is similar to the association for sediments of surface puddles in local zones of relief, soils and bottom

  12. Formation of nanocrystalline surface layers in various metallic materials by near surface severe plastic deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahide Sato, Nobuhiro Tsuji, Yoritoshi Minamino and Yuichiro Koizumi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface of the various kinds of metallic materials sheets were severely deformed by wire-brushing at ambient temperature to achieve nanocrystalline surface layer. The surface layers of the metallic materials developed by the near surface severe plastic deformation (NS-SPD were characterized by means of TEM. Nearly equiaxed nanocrystals with grain sizes ranging from 30 to 200 nm were observed in the near surface regions of all the severely scratched metallic materials, which are Ti-added ultra-low carbon interstitial free steel, austenitic stainless steel (SUS304, 99.99 wt.%Al, commercial purity aluminum (A1050 and A1100, Al–Mg alloy (A5083, Al-4 wt.%Cu alloy, OFHC-Cu (C1020, Cu–Zn alloy (C2600 and Pb-1.5%Sn alloy. In case of the 1050-H24 aluminum, the depth of the surface nanocrystalline layer was about 15 μm. It was clarified that wire-brushing is an effective way of NS-SPD, and surface nanocrystallization can be easily achieved in most of metallic materials.

  13. Wireless Metal Detection and Surface Coverage Sensing for All-Surface Induction Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli Tayfun Kilic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available All-surface induction heating systems, typically comprising small-area coils, face a major challenge in detecting the presence of a metallic vessel and identifying its partial surface coverage over the coils to determine which of the coils to power up. The difficulty arises due to the fact that the user can heat vessels made of a wide variety of metals (and their alloys. To address this problem, we propose and demonstrate a new wireless detection methodology that allows for detecting the presence of metallic vessels together with uniquely sensing their surface coverages while also identifying their effective material type in all-surface induction heating systems. The proposed method is based on telemetrically measuring simultaneously inductance and resistance of the induction coil coupled with the vessel in the heating system. Here, variations in the inductance and resistance values for an all-surface heating coil loaded by vessels (made of stainless steel and aluminum at different positions were systematically investigated at different frequencies. Results show that, independent of the metal material type, unique identification of the surface coverage is possible at all freqeuncies. Additionally, using the magnitude and phase information extracted from the coupled coil impedance, unique identification of the vessel effective material is also achievable, this time independent of its surface coverage.

  14. Encapsulant Adhesion to Surface Metallization on Photovoltaic Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tracy, Jared; Bosco, Nick; Dauskardt, Reinhold

    2017-11-01

    Delamination of encapsulant materials from PV cell surfaces often appears to originate at regions with metallization. Using a fracture mechanics based metrology, the adhesion of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulant to screen-printed silver metallization was evaluated. At room temperature, the fracture energy Gc [J/m2] of the EVA/silver interface (952 J/m2) was ~70% lower than that of the EVA/antireflective (AR) coating (>2900 J/m2) and ~60% lower than that of the EVA to the surface of cell (2265 J/m2). After only 300 h of damp heat aging, the adhesion energy of the silver interface dropped to and plateaued at ~50-60 J/m2 while that of the EVA/AR coating and EVA/cell remained mostly unchanged. Elemental surface analysis showed that the EVA separates from the silver in a purely adhesive manner, indicating that bonds at the interface were likely displaced in the presence of humidity and chemical byproducts at elevated temperature, which in part accounts for the propensity of metalized surfaces to delaminate in the field.

  15. Structural and vibrational studies of clean and chemisorbed metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Qing-Tang.

    1992-01-01

    Using Medium Energy Ion Scattering, we have studied the structural and vibrational properties of a number of clean and chemisorbed metal surfaces. The work presented in this thesis is mainly of a fundamental nature. However, it is believed that an atomistic understanding of the forces that affect surface structural and vibrational properties can have a beneficial impact on a large number of areas of applied nature. We find that the surface structure of Cu(001) follows the common trend for metal surfaces, where a small oscillatory relaxation exists beginning with a slight contraction in the top layer. In addition, the surface vibrational amplitude is enhanced (as s usually the case) by ∼80%. A detailed analysis of our data shows an unexpected anisotropy of the vibrational amplitude, such that the out-of-plane vibrational amplitude is 30% smaller than the in-plane vibrational amplitude. The unexpected results may imply a large tensile stress on Cu(001). Upon adsorption of 1/4 of a monolayer of S, a p(2 x 2)-S/Cu(001) surface is created. This submonolayer amount of S atoms makes the surface bulk-like, in which the anisotropy of the surface vibrations is removed and the first interlayer contraction is lifted. By comparing our model to earlier contradictory results on this controversial system. We find excellent agreement with a recent LEED study. The presence of 0.1 monolayer of Ca atoms on the Au(113) surface induces a drastic atomic rearrangements, in which half of the top layer Au atoms are missing and a (1 x 2) symmetry results. In addition, the first interlayer spacing of Au(113) is significantly reduced. Our results are discussed in terms of the energy balance between competing surface electronic charge densities

  16. A review on transition-metal mediated synthesis of quinolines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rashmi Sharma

    2018-06-14

    Jun 14, 2018 ... Special Section on Transition Metal Catalyzed Synthesis of Medicinally Relevant Molecules. A review on ...... iron(III) chloride and TEMPO oxoammonium salt as an .... propyl-3-ethylquinoline (209) in presence of platinum.

  17. Slurry erosion induced surface nanocrystallization of bulk metallic glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiulin; Wu, Jili; Pi, Jinghong; Cheng, Jiangbo; Shan, Yiping; Zhang, Yingtao

    2018-05-01

    Microstructure evolution and phase transformation of metallic glasses (MGs) could occur under heating condition or mechanical deformation. The cross-section of as-cast Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 MG rod was impacted by the solid particles when subjected to erosion in slurry flow. The surface microstructure was observed by XRD before and after slurry erosion. And the stress-driven de-vitrification increases with the increase of erosion time. A microstructure evolution layer with 1-2 μm thickness was formed on the topmost eroded surface. And a short range atomic ordering prevails in the microstructure evolution layer with crystalline size around 2-3 nm embedded in the amorphous matrix. The XPS analysis reveals that most of the metal elements in the MG surface, except for Cu, were oxidized. And a composite layer with ZrO2 and Al2O3 phases were formed in the topmost surface after slurry erosion. The cooling rate during solidification of MG has a strong influence on the slurry erosion induced nanocrystallization. And a lower cooling rate favors the surface nanocrystallization because of lower activation energy and thermo-stability. Finally, the slurry erosion induced surface nanocrystallization and microstructure evolution result in surface hardening and strengthening. Moreover, the microstructure evolution mechanisms were discussed and it is related to the cooling rate of solidification and the impact-induced temperature rise, as well as the combined effects of the impact-induced plastic flow, inter-diffusion and oxidation of the metal elements.

  18. Multifunctional methacrylate-based coatings for glass and metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pospiech, Doris, E-mail: pospiech@ipfdd.de [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Jehnichen, Dieter [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Starke, Sandra; Müller, Felix [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Organic Chemistry of Polymers, Dresden (Germany); Bünker, Tobias [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Wollenberg, Anne [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Organic Chemistry of Polymers, Dresden (Germany); Häußler, Liane; Simon, Frank; Grundke, Karina; Oertel, Ulrich [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Opitz, Michael; Kruspe, Rainer [IDUS Biologisch Analytisches Umweltlabor GmbH, Ottendorf-Okrilla (Germany)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • New methacrylate-based copolymers synthesized by free radical polymerization. • Comonomer AAMA was able to complex Cu (II) ions in solvent annealing procedure. • Coatings had efficient anti-biofouling efficacy. - Abstract: In order to prevent freshwater biofouling glass and metal surfaces were coated with novel transparent methacrylate-based copolymers. The multifunctionality of the copolymers, such as adhesion to the substrate, surface polarity, mechanical long-term stability in water, and ability to form metal complexes was inserted by the choice of suitable comonomers. The monomer 2-acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate (AAMA) was used as complexing unit to produce copper(II) complexes in the coating’s upper surface layer. The semifluorinated monomer 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl methacrylate was employed to adjust the surface polarity and wettability. Comprehensive surface characterization techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements showed that surface compositions and properties can be easily adjusted by varying the concentrations of the comonomers. The formation of copper(II) complexes along the copolymer chains and their stability against washing out with plenty of water was proven by XPS. Copolymers containing semifluorinated comonomers significantly inhibited the growth of Achnanthidium species. Copolymers with copper-loaded AAMA-sequences were able to reduce both the growth of Achnanthidium spec. and Staphylococcus aureus.

  19. Multifunctional methacrylate-based coatings for glass and metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospiech, Doris; Jehnichen, Dieter; Starke, Sandra; Müller, Felix; Bünker, Tobias; Wollenberg, Anne; Häußler, Liane; Simon, Frank; Grundke, Karina; Oertel, Ulrich; Opitz, Michael; Kruspe, Rainer

    2017-03-01

    In order to prevent freshwater biofouling glass and metal surfaces were coated with novel transparent methacrylate-based copolymers. The multifunctionality of the copolymers, such as adhesion to the substrate, surface polarity, mechanical long-term stability in water, and ability to form metal complexes was inserted by the choice of suitable comonomers. The monomer 2-acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate (AAMA) was used as complexing unit to produce copper(II) complexes in the coating's upper surface layer. The semifluorinated monomer 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl methacrylate was employed to adjust the surface polarity and wettability. Comprehensive surface characterization techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements showed that surface compositions and properties can be easily adjusted by varying the concentrations of the comonomers. The formation of copper(II) complexes along the copolymer chains and their stability against washing out with plenty of water was proven by XPS. Copolymers containing semifluorinated comonomers significantly inhibited the growth of Achnanthidium species. Copolymers with copper-loaded AAMA-sequences were able to reduce both the growth of Achnanthidium spec. and Staphylococcus aureus.

  20. Multifunctional methacrylate-based coatings for glass and metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospiech, Doris; Jehnichen, Dieter; Starke, Sandra; Müller, Felix; Bünker, Tobias; Wollenberg, Anne; Häußler, Liane; Simon, Frank; Grundke, Karina; Oertel, Ulrich; Opitz, Michael; Kruspe, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • New methacrylate-based copolymers synthesized by free radical polymerization. • Comonomer AAMA was able to complex Cu (II) ions in solvent annealing procedure. • Coatings had efficient anti-biofouling efficacy. - Abstract: In order to prevent freshwater biofouling glass and metal surfaces were coated with novel transparent methacrylate-based copolymers. The multifunctionality of the copolymers, such as adhesion to the substrate, surface polarity, mechanical long-term stability in water, and ability to form metal complexes was inserted by the choice of suitable comonomers. The monomer 2-acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate (AAMA) was used as complexing unit to produce copper(II) complexes in the coating’s upper surface layer. The semifluorinated monomer 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl methacrylate was employed to adjust the surface polarity and wettability. Comprehensive surface characterization techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements showed that surface compositions and properties can be easily adjusted by varying the concentrations of the comonomers. The formation of copper(II) complexes along the copolymer chains and their stability against washing out with plenty of water was proven by XPS. Copolymers containing semifluorinated comonomers significantly inhibited the growth of Achnanthidium species. Copolymers with copper-loaded AAMA-sequences were able to reduce both the growth of Achnanthidium spec. and Staphylococcus aureus.

  1. Nanostructure formation on refractory metal surfaces irradiated by helium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, Shuichi; Kajita, Shin; Ohno, Noriyasu

    2013-01-01

    Helium defects on plasma-facing refractory metals like tungsten have been studied in fusion sciences from the view point of the effects on metal surface properties, concentrating on the bubble formation. However, the surface morphology over the lower surface temperature range was found recently to be changed drastically, something like cotton down or arborescence, sometimes called as “fuzz”. The formation process, although still open problem, would be discussed in terms of viscoelastic model with the effect of surface tension, taking account of its thermal properties and nano-bubbles inside the thin fibers. Some physical surface characteristics like electron emission, radiation emissivity and sputtering are quite influenced by its forest-like structure. Unipolar arcing has been newly studied by using such a surface structure which makes its initiation controllable. In the present report, other examples of nanostructure formation in a variety of particle incident conditions have been introduced as well as the possibility of its industrial applications to enhance interdisciplinary interests. (author)

  2. Surface mediated assembly of small, metastable gold nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettibone, John M.; Osborn, William A.; Rykaczewski, Konrad; Talin, A. Alec; Bonevich, John E.; Hudgens, Jeffrey W.; Allendorf, Mark D.

    2013-06-01

    The unique properties of metallic nanoclusters are attractive for numerous commercial and industrial applications but are generally less stable than nanocrystals. Thus, developing methodologies for stabilizing nanoclusters and retaining their enhanced functionality is of great interest. We report the assembly of PPh3-protected Au9 clusters from a heterogeneous mixture into films consisting of sub 3 nm nanocluster assemblies. The depositing nanoclusters are metastable in solution, but the resulting nanocluster assemblies are stabilized indefinitely in air or fresh solvent. The films exhibit distinct structure from Au nanoparticles observed by X-ray diffraction, and film dissolution data support the preservation of small nanoclusters. UV-Vis spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron microscopy are used to elucidate information regarding the nanocluster formation and assembly mechanism. Preferential deposition of nanocluster assemblies can be achieved on multiple substrates, including polymer, Cr, Si, SiO2, SiNx, and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Unlike other vapor phase coating processes, nanocluster assembly on the MIL-68(In) MOF crystal is capable of preferentially coating the external surface and stabilizing the crystal structure in hydrothermal conditions, which should enhance their storage, separation and delivery capabilities.The unique properties of metallic nanoclusters are attractive for numerous commercial and industrial applications but are generally less stable than nanocrystals. Thus, developing methodologies for stabilizing nanoclusters and retaining their enhanced functionality is of great interest. We report the assembly of PPh3-protected Au9 clusters from a heterogeneous mixture into films consisting of sub 3 nm nanocluster assemblies. The depositing nanoclusters are metastable in solution, but the resulting nanocluster assemblies are stabilized indefinitely in air or fresh solvent. The

  3. Digitally Milled Metal Framework for Fixed Complete Denture with Metal Occlusal Surfaces: A Design Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlBader, Bader; AlHelal, Abdulaziz; Proussaefs, Periklis; Garbacea, Antonela; Kattadiyil, Mathew T; Lozada, Jaime

    Implant-supported fixed complete dentures, often referred to as hybrid prostheses, have been associated with high implant survival rates but also with a high incidence of mechanical prosthetic complications. The most frequent of these complications have been fracture and wear of the veneering material. The proposed design concept incorporates the occlusal surfaces of the posterior teeth as part of a digital milled metal framework by designing the posterior first molars in full contour as part of the framework. The framework can be designed, scanned, and milled from a titanium blank using a milling machine. Acrylic resin teeth can then be placed on the framework by conventional protocol. The metal occlusal surfaces of the titanium-countered molars will be at centric occlusion. It is hypothesized that metal occlusal surfaces in the posterior region may reduce occlusal wear in these types of prostheses. When the proposed design protocol is followed, the connection between the metal frame and the cantilever part of the prosthesis is reinforced, which may lead to fewer fractures of the metal framework.

  4. Surface Mediated Self-Assembly of Amyloid Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhraai, Zahra

    2015-03-01

    Amyloid fibrils have been considered as causative agents in many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, type II diabetes and amyloidosis. Amyloid fibrils form when proteins or peptides misfold into one dimensional crystals of stacked beta-sheets. In solution, amyloid fibrils form through a nucleation and growth mechanism. The rate limiting nucleation step requires a critical concentration much larger than those measured in physiological conditions. As such the exact origins of the seeds or oligomers that result in the formation of fully mature fibrils in the body remain topic intense studies. It has been suggested that surfaces and interfaces can enhance the fibrillization rate. However, studies of the mechanism and kinetics of the surface-mediated fibrillization are technologically challenging due to the small size of the oligomer and protofibril species. Using smart sample preparation technique to dry the samples after various incubation times we are able to study the kinetics of fibril formation both in solution and in the vicinity of various surfaces using high-resolution atomic force microscopy. These studies elucidate the role of surfaces in catalyzing amyloid peptide formation through a nucleation-free process. The nucleation free self-assembly is rapid and requires much smaller concentrations of peptides or proteins. We show that this process resembles diffusion limited aggregation and is governed by the peptide adhesion rate, two -dimensional diffusion of the peptides on the surface, and preferential interactions between the peptides. These studies suggest an alternative pathway for amyloid formation may exist, which could lead to new criteria for disease prevention and alternative therapies. Research was partially supported by a seed grant from the National Institute of Aging of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) under Award Number P30AG010124 (PI: John Trojanowski) and the University of Pennsylvania.

  5. Worker exposures from recycling surface contaminated radioactive scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluk, A.; Phillips, J.W.; Culp, J.

    1996-01-01

    Current DOE policy permits release from DOE control of real property with residual levels of surficial radioactive contamination if the contamination is below approved guidelines. If the material contains contamination that is evenly distributed throughout its volume (referred to as volumetric contamination), then Departmental approval for release must be obtained in advance. Several DOE sites presently recycle surface contaminated metal, although the quantities are small relative to the quantities of metal processed by typical mini-mills, hence the potential radiation exposures to mill workers from processing DOE metals and the public from the processed metal are at present also a very small fraction of their potential value. The exposures calculated in this analysis are based on 100% of the scrap metal being processed at the maximum contamination levels and are therefore assumed to be maximum values and not likely to occur in actual practice. This paper examines the relationship between the surface contamination limits established under DOE Order 5400.5, open-quotes Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment,close quotes and radiation exposures to workers involved in the scrap metal recycling process. The analysis is limited to surficial contamination at or below the guideline levels established in DOE Order 5400.5 at the time of release. Workers involved in the melting and subsequent fabrication of products are not considered radiation workers (no requirements for monitoring) and must be considered members of the public. The majority of the exposures calculated in this analysis range from tenths of a millirem per year (mrem/yr) to less than 5 mrem/yr. The incremental risk of cancer associated with these exposures ranges from 10 -8 cancers per year to 10 -6 cancers per year

  6. Surface plasmons based terahertz modulator consisting of silicon-air-metal-dielectric-metal layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yang, Dongxiao; Qian, Zhenhai

    2018-05-01

    An optically controlled modulator of the terahertz wave, which is composed of a metal-dielectric-metal structure etched with circular loop arrays on both the metal layers and a photoexcited silicon wafer separated by an air layer, is proposed. Simulation results based on experimentally measured complex permittivities predict that modification of complex permittivity of the silicon wafer through excitation laser leads to a significant tuning of transmission characteristics of the modulator, forming the modulation depths of 59.62% and 96.64% based on localized surface plasmon peak and propagating surface plasmon peak, respectively. The influences of the complex permittivity of the silicon wafer and the thicknesses of both the air layer and the silicon wafer are numerically studied for better understanding the modulation mechanism. This study proposes a feasible methodology to design an optically controlled terahertz modulator with large modulation depth, high speed and suitable insertion loss, which is useful for terahertz applications in the future.

  7. Making metals transparency for white light by surface plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ru-Wen; Huang, Xian-Rong; Fan, Ren-Hao; Li, Jia; Hu, Qing; Wang, Mu

    2012-02-01

    We demonstrate both experimentally and theoretically that metallic gratings consisting of narrow slits become transparent for extremely broad bandwidths under oblique incidence. This phenomenon can be explained by a concrete picture in which the incident wave drives free electrons on the conducting surfaces and part of the slit walls to form surface plasmons (SPs). The SPs then propagate on the slit walls but are abruptly discontinued by the bottom edges to form oscillating charges that emit the transmitted wave. This picture explicitly demonstrates the conversion between light and SPs and indicates clear guidelines for enhancing SP excitation and propagation. Making structured metals transparent may lead to a variety of applications. References: Xian-Rong Huang, Ru-Wen Peng, and Ren-Hao Fan, Phys. Rev. Lett. (2010)105, 243901; and Ren-Hao Fan, Ru-Wen Peng, Xian-Rong Huang, Jia Li, Qing Hu, and Mu Wang, manuscript prepared(2011).

  8. Adventitious Carbon on Primary Sample Containment Metal Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, M. J.; Fries, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Future missions that return astromaterials with trace carbonaceous signatures will require strict protocols for reducing and controlling terrestrial carbon contamination. Adventitious carbon (AC) on primary sample containers and related hardware is an important source of that contamination. AC is a thin film layer or heterogeneously dispersed carbonaceous material that naturally accrues from the environment on the surface of atmospheric exposed metal parts. To test basic cleaning techniques for AC control, metal surfaces commonly used for flight hardware and curating astromaterials at JSC were cleaned using a basic cleaning protocol and characterized for AC residue. Two electropolished stainless steel 316L (SS- 316L) and two Al 6061 (Al-6061) test coupons (2.5 cm diameter by 0.3 cm thick) were subjected to precision cleaning in the JSC Genesis ISO class 4 cleanroom Precision Cleaning Laboratory. Afterwards, the samples were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy.

  9. Direct electrodeposition of metal nanowires on electrode surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambirasi, Arianna; Cattarin, Sandro; Musiani, Marco; Vazquez-Gomez, Lourdes; Verlato, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    A method for decorating the surface of disk electrodes with metal nanowires is presented. Cu and Ni nanowires with diameters from 1.0 μm to 0.2 μm are directly deposited on the electrode surface using a polycarbonate membrane filter template maintained in contact with the metal substrate by the soft homogeneous pressure of a sponge soaked with electrolyte. The morphologic and structural properties of the deposit are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The latter shows that the head of nanowires with diameter of 0.4 μm is ordinarily polycrystalline, and that of nanowires with diameter of 0.2 μm is almost always monocrystalline for Cu and frequently also for Ni. Cyclic voltammetries and impedance investigations recorded in alkaline solutions at representative Ni electrodes decorated with nanowires provide consistent values of roughness factor, in the range 20-25.

  10. A Liquid Metal Flume for Free Surface Magnetohydrodynamic Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nornberg, M.D.; Ji, H.; Peterson, J.L.; Rhoads, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    We present an experiment designed to study magnetohydrodynamic effects in free-surface channel flow. The wide aspect ratio channel (the width to height ratio is about 15) is completely enclosed in an inert atmosphere to prevent oxidization of the liquid metal. A custom-designed pump reduces entrainment of oxygen, which was found to be a problem with standard centrifugal and gear pumps. Laser Doppler Velocimetry experiments characterize velocity profiles of the flow. Various flow constraints mitigate secondary circulation and end effects on the flow. Measurements of the wave propagation characteristics in the liquid metal demonstrate the surfactant effect of surface oxides and the damping of fluctuations by a cross-channel magnetic field

  11. Molecular metal catalysts on supports: organometallic chemistry meets surface science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, Pedro; Gates, Bruce C

    2014-08-19

    Recent advances in the synthesis and characterization of small, essentially molecular metal complexes and metal clusters on support surfaces have brought new insights to catalysis and point the way to systematic catalyst design. We summarize recent work unraveling effects of key design variables of site-isolated catalysts: the metal, metal nuclearity, support, and other ligands on the metals, also considering catalysts with separate, complementary functions on supports. The catalysts were synthesized with the goal of structural simplicity and uniformity to facilitate incisive characterization. Thus, they are essentially molecular species bonded to porous supports chosen for their high degree of uniformity; the supports are crystalline aluminosilicates (zeolites) and MgO. The catalytic species are synthesized in reactions of organometallic precursors with the support surfaces; the precursors include M(L)2(acetylacetonate)1-2, with M = Ru, Rh, Ir, or Au and the ligands L = C2H4, CO, or CH3. Os3(CO)12 and Ir4(CO)12 are used as precursors of supported metal clusters, and some such catalysts are made by ship-in-a-bottle syntheses to trap the clusters in zeolite cages. The simplicity and uniformity of the supported catalysts facilitate precise structure determinations, even in reactive atmospheres and during catalysis. The methods of characterizing catalysts in reactive atmospheres include infrared (IR), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, and complementary methods include density functional theory and atomic-resolution aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy for imaging of individual metal atoms. IR, NMR, XANES, and microscopy data demonstrate the high degrees of uniformity of well-prepared supported species. The characterizations determine the compositions of surface metal complexes and clusters, including the ligands and the metal

  12. Preserving half-metallic surface states in Cr O2 : Insights into surface reconstruction rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bei; Shi, X. Q.; Chen, L.; Tong, S. Y.

    2018-04-01

    The issue of whether the half-metallic (HM) nature of Cr O2 could be retained at its surface has been a standing problem under debate for a few decades, but until now is still controversial. Here, based on the density functional theory calculations we show, in startling contrast to the previous theoretical understandings, that the surfaces of Cr O2 favorably exhibit a half-metallic-semiconducting (SmC) transition driven by means of a surface electronic reconstruction largely attributed to the participation of the unexpected local charge carriers (LCCs), which convert the HM double exchange surface state into a SmC superexchange state and in turn, stabilize the surface as well. On the basis of the LCCs model, a new insight into the surface reconstruction rules is attained. Our novel finding not only provided an evident interpretation for the widely observed SmC character of Cr O2 surface, but also offered a novel means to improve the HM surface states for a variety of applications in spintronics and superconductors, and promote the experimental realization of the quantum anomalous Hall effect in half-metal based systems.

  13. Electron emission during multicharged ion-metal surface interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A.; Havener, C.C.; Hughes, I.G.; Overbury, S.H.; Robinson, M.T.; Zehner, D.M.; Meyer, F.W.

    1992-01-01

    The electron emission during multicharged ion-metal surface interactions will be discussed. The interactions lead to the emission of a significant number of electrons. Most of these electrons have energies below 30 eV. For incident ions with innershell vacancies the emission of Auger electrons that fill these vacancies has been found to occur mainly below the surface. We will present recently measured electron energy distributions which will be used to discuss the mechanisms that lead to the emission of Auger and of low-energy electrons

  14. Exchange energy of inhomogenous electron gas near a metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miglio, L.; Tosi, M.P.; March, N.H.

    1980-12-01

    Using the first-order density matrix of an infinite-barrier model of a metal surface, the exchange energy density can be evaluated exactly as a function of distance z from the barrier. This result is compared with the local approximation -3/4e 2 (3/π)sup(1/3) rhosup(4/3)(z) where rho is the electron density in the model. The local approximation is demonstrated to be quantitatively accurate at all z. The integrated surface exchange energy is given to within 3% by the local theory. (author)

  15. Ion beam analysis of metal ion implanted surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, P.J.; Chu, J.W.; Johnson, E.P.; Noorman, J.T.; Sood, D.K.

    1993-01-01

    Ion implantation is an established method for altering the surface properties of many materials. While a variety of analytical techniques are available for the characterisation of implanted surfaces, those based on particle accelerators such as Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) provide some of the most useful and powerful for this purpose. Application of the latter techniques to metal ion implantation research at ANSTO will be described with particular reference to specific examples from recent studies. Where possible, the information obtained from ion beam analysis will be compared with that derived from other techniques such as Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Auger spectroscopies. 4 refs., 5 figs

  16. Ion beam analysis of metal ion implanted surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, P J; Chu, J W; Johnson, E P; Noorman, J T [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Sood, D K [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Ion implantation is an established method for altering the surface properties of many materials. While a variety of analytical techniques are available for the characterisation of implanted surfaces, those based on particle accelerators such as Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) provide some of the most useful and powerful for this purpose. Application of the latter techniques to metal ion implantation research at ANSTO will be described with particular reference to specific examples from recent studies. Where possible, the information obtained from ion beam analysis will be compared with that derived from other techniques such as Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Auger spectroscopies. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Ion beam analysis of metal ion implanted surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, P.J.; Chu, J.W.; Johnson, E.P.; Noorman, J.T. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Sood, D.K. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Ion implantation is an established method for altering the surface properties of many materials. While a variety of analytical techniques are available for the characterisation of implanted surfaces, those based on particle accelerators such as Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) provide some of the most useful and powerful for this purpose. Application of the latter techniques to metal ion implantation research at ANSTO will be described with particular reference to specific examples from recent studies. Where possible, the information obtained from ion beam analysis will be compared with that derived from other techniques such as Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Auger spectroscopies. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Mathematical model of the metal mould surface temperature optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mlynek, Jaroslav, E-mail: jaroslav.mlynek@tul.cz; Knobloch, Roman, E-mail: roman.knobloch@tul.cz [Department of Mathematics, FP Technical University of Liberec, Studentska 2, 461 17 Liberec, The Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Srb, Radek, E-mail: radek.srb@tul.cz [Institute of Mechatronics and Computer Engineering Technical University of Liberec, Studentska 2, 461 17 Liberec, The Czech Republic (Czech Republic)

    2015-11-30

    The article is focused on the problem of generating a uniform temperature field on the inner surface of shell metal moulds. Such moulds are used e.g. in the automotive industry for artificial leather production. To produce artificial leather with uniform surface structure and colour shade the temperature on the inner surface of the mould has to be as homogeneous as possible. The heating of the mould is realized by infrared heaters located above the outer mould surface. The conceived mathematical model allows us to optimize the locations of infrared heaters over the mould, so that approximately uniform heat radiation intensity is generated. A version of differential evolution algorithm programmed in Matlab development environment was created by the authors for the optimization process. For temperate calculations software system ANSYS was used. A practical example of optimization of heaters locations and calculation of the temperature of the mould is included at the end of the article.

  19. The powerful pulsed electron beam effect on the metallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neklyudov, I.M.; Yuferov, V.B.; Kosik, N.A.; Druj, O.S.; Skibenko, E.I.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental results of the influence of powerful pulsed electron beams on the surface structure,hardness and corrosion resistance of the Cr18ni10ti steel are presented. The experiments were carried out in the powerful electron accelerators of directional effect VGIK-1 and DIN-2K with an energy up to approx 300 KeV and a power density of 10 9 - 10 11 W/cm 2 for micro- and nanosecond range. The essential influence of the irradiation power density on the material structure was established. Pulsed powerful beam action on metallic surface leads to surface melting,modification of the structure and structure-dependent material properties. The gas emission and mass-spectrometer analysis of the beam-surface interaction were defined

  20. Mathematical model of the metal mould surface temperature optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlynek, Jaroslav; Knobloch, Roman; Srb, Radek

    2015-01-01

    The article is focused on the problem of generating a uniform temperature field on the inner surface of shell metal moulds. Such moulds are used e.g. in the automotive industry for artificial leather production. To produce artificial leather with uniform surface structure and colour shade the temperature on the inner surface of the mould has to be as homogeneous as possible. The heating of the mould is realized by infrared heaters located above the outer mould surface. The conceived mathematical model allows us to optimize the locations of infrared heaters over the mould, so that approximately uniform heat radiation intensity is generated. A version of differential evolution algorithm programmed in Matlab development environment was created by the authors for the optimization process. For temperate calculations software system ANSYS was used. A practical example of optimization of heaters locations and calculation of the temperature of the mould is included at the end of the article

  1. Nonhazardous solvent composition and method for cleaning metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Googin, J.M.; Simandl, R.F.; Thompson, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    A solvent composition for displacing greasy and oily contaminants as well as water and/or aqueous residue from metallic surfaces, especially surfaces of radioactive materials so that such surfaces can be wiped clean of the displaced contaminants, water and/or aqueous residue. The solvent composition consists essentially of a blend of nonpolar aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent having a minimum flash point of about 140 F and 2 to 25 volume percent of a polar solvent having a flash point sufficiently high so as to provide the solvent composition with a minimum flash point of at least 140 F. The solvent composition is nonhazardous so that when it is used to clean the surfaces of radioactive materials the waste in the form of paper or cloth wipes, lab coats and the like used in the cleaning operation is not considered to be mixed waste composed of a hazardous solvent and a radioactive material

  2. Liquid metal actuator driven by electrochemical manipulation of surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Loren; Wissman, James; Majidi, Carmel

    2017-12-01

    We examine the electrocapillary properties of a fluidic actuator composed of a liquid metal droplet that is submerged in electrolytic solution and attached to an elastic beam. The beam deflection is controlled by electrochemically driven changes in the surface energy of the droplet. The metal is a eutectic gallium-indium alloy that is liquid at room temperature and forms an nm-thin Ga2O3 skin when oxidized. The effective surface tension of the droplet changes dramatically with oxidation and reduction, which are reversibly controlled by applying low voltage to the electrolytic bath. Wetting the droplet to two copper pads allows for a controllable tensile force to be developed between the opposing surfaces. We demonstrate the ability to reliably control force by changing the applied oxidizing voltage. Actuator forces and droplet geometries are also examined by performing a computational fluid mechanics simulation using Surface Evolver. The theoretical predictions are in qualitative agreement with the experimental measurements and provide additional confirmation that actuation is driven by surface tension.

  3. Structure vs chemistry: friction and wear of Pt-based metallic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, A; Louzguine-Luzguin, D V; Bennewitz, R

    2013-11-13

    In comparison of a Pt57.5Cu14.7Ni5.3P22.5 metallic glass with a Pt(111) single crystal we find that wearless friction is determined by chemistry through bond formation alloying, while wear is determined by structure through plasticity mechanisms. In the wearless regime, friction is affected by the chemical composition of the counter body and involves the formation of a liquid-like neck and interfacial alloying. The wear behavior of Pt-based metallic surfaces is determined by their structural properties and corresponding mechanisms for plastic deformation. In the case of Pt(111) wear occurs by dislocation-mediated homogeneous plastic deformation. In contrast the wear of Pt57.5Cu14.7Ni5.3P22.5 metallic glass occurs through localized plastic deformation in shear bands that merge together in a single shear zone above a critical load and corresponds to the shear softening of metallic glasses. These results open a new route in the control of friction and wear of metals and are relevant for the development of self-lubricated and wear-resistant mechanical devices.

  4. Quantum State-Resolved Collision Dynamics of Nitric Oxide at Ionic Liquid and Molten Metal Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zutz, Amelia Marie

    Detailed molecular scale interactions at the gas-liquid interface are explored with quantum state-to-state resolved scattering of a jet-cooled beam of NO(2pi1/2; N = 0) from ionic liquid and molten metal surfaces. The scattered distributions are probed via laser-induced fluorescence methods, which yield rotational and spin-orbit state populations that elucidate the dynamics of energy transfer at the gas-liquid interface. These collision dynamics are explored as a function of incident collision energy, surface temperature, scattering angle, and liquid identity, all of which are found to substantially affect the degree of rotational, electronic and vibrational excitation of NO via collisions at the liquid surface. Rotational distributions observed reveal two distinct scattering pathways, (i) molecules that trap, thermalize and eventually desorb from the surface (trapping-desorption, TD), and (ii) those that undergo prompt recoil (impulsive scattering, IS) prior to complete equilibration with the liquid surface. Thermally desorbing NO molecules are found to have rotational temperatures close to, but slightly cooler than the surface temperature, indicative of rotational dependent sticking probabilities on liquid surfaces. Nitric oxide is a radical with multiple low-lying electronic states that serves as an ideal candidate for exploring nonadiabatic state-changing collision dynamics at the gas-liquid interface, which induce significant excitation from ground (2pi1/2) to excited (2pi 3/2) spin-orbit states. Molecular beam scattering of supersonically cooled NO from hot molten metals (Ga and Au, Ts = 300 - 1400 K) is also explored, which provide preliminary evidence for vibrational excitation of NO mediated by thermally populated electron-hole pairs in the hot, conducting liquid metals. The results highlight the presence of electronically nonadiabatic effects and build toward a more complete characterization of energy transfer dynamics at gas-liquid interfaces.

  5. A strain-mediated corrosion model for bioabsorbable metallic stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, E; O'Brien, D; Cummins, C; Mac Donald, B J; Lally, C

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a strain-mediated phenomenological corrosion model, based on the discrete finite element modelling method which was developed for use with the ANSYS Implicit finite element code. The corrosion model was calibrated from experimental data and used to simulate the corrosion performance of a WE43 magnesium alloy stent. The model was found to be capable of predicting the experimentally observed plastic strain-mediated mass loss profile. The non-linear plastic strain model, extrapolated from the experimental data, was also found to adequately capture the corrosion-induced reduction in the radial stiffness of the stent over time. The model developed will help direct future design efforts towards the minimisation of plastic strain during device manufacture, deployment and in-service, in order to reduce corrosion rates and prolong the mechanical integrity of magnesium devices. The need for corrosion models that explore the interaction of strain with corrosion damage has been recognised as one of the current challenges in degradable material modelling (Gastaldi et al., 2011). A finite element based plastic strain-mediated phenomenological corrosion model was developed in this work and was calibrated based on the results of the corrosion experiments. It was found to be capable of predicting the experimentally observed plastic strain-mediated mass loss profile and the corrosion-induced reduction in the radial stiffness of the stent over time. To the author's knowledge, the results presented here represent the first experimental calibration of a plastic strain-mediated corrosion model of a corroding magnesium stent. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Metal/metal-oxide interfaces: A surface science approach to the study of adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peden, C.H.F.; Kidd, K.B.; Shinn, N.D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-5800 (USA))

    1991-05-01

    Metal-oxide/metal interfaces play an important role, for example, in the joining of an oxide ceramic to a metal for sealing applications. In order to probe the chemical and physical properties of such an interface, we have performed Auger electron spectroscopic (AES) and temperature programed desorption (TPD) experiments on a model system composed of very thin films of Cr, Fe, Ni, or Cu evaporated onto a very thin thermally grown oxide on a W single crystal. Monolayer films of Fe and Cr were found (by AES) to completely wet the oxide surface upon deposition, and were stable up to temperatures at which the films desorbed ({approx}1300 K). In contrast, monolayer Ni and Cu films formed three-dimensional islands exposing the oxidized W surface either upon annealing (Ni) or even upon room-temperature deposition (Cu). The relative interfacial interaction between the overlayer metal and the oxide, as assessed by TPD, increases in the series Cu{lt}Ni{lt}Fe{lt}Cr. This trend follows the heats of formation of the various oxides of these metals.

  7. Coupling Plant-Derived Cyclotides to Metal Surfaces: An Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Cao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Modification of metal surfaces with antimicrobial peptides is a promising approach to reduce bacterial adhesion. Here, cyclic peptides or cycloids, possessing remarkable stability and antimicrobial activities, were extracted and purified from Viola philippica Cav., and identified using mass spectrometry. Cyclotides were subsequently utilized to modify stainless steel surfaces via polydopamine-mediated coupling. The resulting cyclotide-modified surfaces were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and contact angle analysis. The antibacterial capacity of these cyclotides against Staphylococcus aureus was assessed by Alamar blue assay. The antibiofilm capacity of the modified surfaces was assessed by crystal violet assay, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. A composite of Kalata b1, Varv A, Viba 15 and Viba 17 (P1; Varv E (P2; and Viphi G (P3 were isolated and identified. FTIR analysis of the modified surfaces demonstrated that cyclotides bound to the surfaces and induced reduction of contact angles. Antimicrobial effects showed an order P3 > P1 and P2, with P3-treated surfaces demonstrating the strongest antibiofilm capacity. SEM confirmed reduced biofilm formation for P3-treated surfaces. This study provides novel evidence for cyclotides as a new class for development of antibacterial and antibiofilm agents.

  8. Surface modification by metal ion implantation forming metallic nanoparticles in an insulating matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvadori, M.C.; Teixeira, F.S.; Sgubin, L.G.; Cattani, M.; Brown, I.G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Metal nanoparticles can be produced through metallic ion implantation in insulating substrate, where the implanted metal self-assembles into nanoparticles. • The nanoparticles nucleate near the maximum of the implantation depth profile, that can be estimated by computer simulation using the TRIDYN. • Nanocomposites, obtained by this way, can be produced in different insulator materials. More specifically we have studied Au/PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate), Pt/PMMA, Ti/alumina and Au/alumina systems. • The nanocomposites were characterized by measuring the resistivity of the composite layer as function of the dose implanted, reaching the percolation threshold. • Excellent agreement was found between the experimental results and the predictions of the theory. - Abstract: There is special interest in the incorporation of metallic nanoparticles in a surrounding dielectric matrix for obtaining composites with desirable characteristics such as for surface plasmon resonance, which can be used in photonics and sensing, and controlled surface electrical conductivity. We have investigated nanocomposites produced by metal ion implantation into insulating substrates, where the implanted metal self-assembles into nanoparticles. The nanoparticles nucleate near the maximum of the implantation depth profile (projected range), which can be estimated by computer simulation using the TRIDYN code. TRIDYN is a Monte Carlo simulation program based on the TRIM (Transport and Range of Ions in Matter) code that takes into account compositional changes in the substrate due to two factors: previously implanted dopant atoms, and sputtering of the substrate surface. Our study show that the nanoparticles form a bidimentional array buried a few nanometers below the substrate surface. We have studied Au/PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate), Pt/PMMA, Ti/alumina and Au/alumina systems. Transmission electron microscopy of the implanted samples show that metallic nanoparticles form in

  9. Electron acceleration by surface plasma waves in double metal surface structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. S.; Kumar, Gagan; Singh, D. B.; Tripathi, V. K.

    2007-12-01

    Two parallel metal sheets, separated by a vacuum region, support a surface plasma wave whose amplitude is maximum on the two parallel interfaces and minimum in the middle. This mode can be excited by a laser using a glass prism. An electron beam launched into the middle region experiences a longitudinal ponderomotive force due to the surface plasma wave and gets accelerated to velocities of the order of phase velocity of the surface wave. The scheme is viable to achieve beams of tens of keV energy. In the case of a surface plasma wave excited on a single metal-vacuum interface, the field gradient normal to the interface pushes the electrons away from the high field region, limiting the acceleration process. The acceleration energy thus achieved is in agreement with the experimental observations.

  10. Laser surface alloying of aluminium-transition metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, A.; Vilar, R.

    1998-01-01

    Laser surface alloying has been used as a tool to produce hard and corrosion resistant Al-transition metal (TM) alloys. Cr and Mo are particularly interesting alloying elements to produce stable high-strength alloys because they present low diffusion coefficients and solid solubility in Al. To produce Al-TM surface alloys a two-step laser process was developed: firstly, the material is alloyed using low scanning speed and secondly, the microstructure is modified by a refinement step. This process was used in the production of Al-Cr, Al-Mo and Al-Mo and Al-Nb surface alloys by alloying Cr, Mo or Nb powder into an Al and 7175 Al alloy substrate using a CO 2 laser . This paper presents a review of the work that has been developed at Instituto Superior Tecnico on laser alloying of Al-TM alloy, over the last years. (Author) 16 refs

  11. Work functions and surface charges at metallic facet edges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fall, C.J.; Binggeli, N.; Baldereschi, A.

    2002-04-01

    The electronic charge densities and work functions at sharp metallic facet edges are determined from ab initio calculations, combined with macroscopic averaging techniques. In particular, we examine how two different work functions coexist at close range near edges between inequivalent facets. The surface ionic relaxation at facet edges is shown to influence appreciably the local electrostatic potential in the vacuum. Various edges between Al(100) and Al(111) facets are studied, as well as between Na(110) facets. We also develop a model of electronic surface dipoles, which accounts for the surface charge transfer between inequivalent facets, and which allows us to predict the influence of the shape and size of a macroscopic crystal on its work functions. (author)

  12. Decontamination of radioactive metal surfaces by plasma arc gouging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osamu, K.; Makoto, K.; Takao, K.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out to develop a new decontamination method that applies plasma arc gouging for removal of a thin surface layer from radioactively contaminated metallic wastes. Plasma arc gouging has been carried out on stainless steel and carbon steel pipes. The torch nozzle and gouging angle have been optimized to increase the decontamination rate. A water film is formed on the pipe surface to reduce both dust concentration in the off-gas and prevent slag particles, which are splashed up by the plasma gas, from adhering to the gouged surface. Using chromium-electroplated carbon steel pipes as samples, a decontamination factor of >10 3 is obtained after gouging to a depth of about0.5 mm in combination with ultrasonic cleaning

  13. Surface treatments of metal supports for photocatalysis applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montecchio, Francesco, E-mail: fmon@kth.se [KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Chinungi, Don [KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Lanza, Roberto [Verdant Chemical Technologies AB, 114 28 Stockholm (Sweden); Engvall, Klas [KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Treated metals can be used as photocatalyst support in full-scale applications. • Various electrochemical treatments were performed, checking the surface corrugation. • Stainless steel etched in DC and aqua regia shows the highest surface modification. • P25 coated on the DC etched sample has a high stability, with constant activity. • The support modification increases the UV irradiated area and the activity of P25. - Abstract: One of the most important challenges, for scaling up a photocatalytic system for VOCs abatement to full-scale, is the design of a suitable photocatalyst support. The support has to firmly immobilize the photocatalyst, without using an organic adhesive, and should also withstand relatively high mechanical stresses. Metals may be effectively implemented as a support material, after a corrugation of the surface with electrochemical treatments. In the present work, we treated stainless steel and aluminum supports, evaluating the surface modifications due to the electrochemical treatments, with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal microscopy. Five samples showing the highest degree of restructuring were selected and spray coated with P25, a TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst, evaluating the mechanical stability of the coating with a standard tape test method. One particular stainless steel sample presented a superior surface restructuring and coating stability. The photocatalytic activity of this sample, evaluated measuring the complete oxidation of acetaldehyde, was tested for 15 h, and compared with sample of TiO{sub 2}-P25 on a ceramic support. The stainless steel exhibited a constant performance after an initial stabilization period. The stainless steel sample showed a slightly higher activity, due to the surface restructuring, increasing the irradiated area available for the coated photocatalyst.

  14. Adsorption of metals on metal surfaces and the possibilities of its application in nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesch, F.; Eichler, B.

    1986-01-01

    Starting with values of differential enthalpies of adsorption ΔH-bar/sub a/ the desorption temperatures of 65 adsorptive metals as to 40 adsorbens metals have been obtained according to a model calculation. With regard to their potential separation by means of selective desorption from solid metal surfaces the desorption behaviour of combinations of radionuclides Me 1 (proton number Z)/Me 2 (proton number Z+1) and Me 1 (proton number Z)/Me 2 (proton number Z+2) was calculated. Basing on the parameters of the model assumptions, the results of the calculations allow estimations about the desorption temperatures of the adsorptive Me 1 as well as the temperature differences to the desorption of the adsorptive Me 2 and about the efficiency of the potential separation process. (author)

  15. Metal-insulator-metal diodes with sub-nanometre surface roughness for energy-harvesting applications

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, A.A.; Jayaswal, Gaurav; Gahaffar, F.A.; Shamim, Atif

    2017-01-01

    For ambient radio-frequency (RF) energy harvesting, the available power levels are quite low, and it is highly desirable that the rectifying diodes do not consume any power at all. Contrary to semiconducting diodes, a tunnelling diode – also known as a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diode – can provide zero-bias rectification, provided the two metals have different work functions. This could result in a complete passive rectenna system. Despite great potential, MIM diodes have not been investigated much in the GHz-frequency regime due to challenging nano-fabrication requirements. In this work, we investigate zero-bias MIM diodes for RF energy-harvesting applications. We studied the surface roughness issue for the bottom metal of the MIM diode for various deposition techniques such as sputtering, atomic layer deposition (ALD) and electron-beam (e-beam) evaporation for crystalline metals as well as for an amorphous alloy, namely ZrCuAlNi. A surface roughness of sub-1nm has been achieved for both the crystalline metals as well as the amorphous alloy, which is vital for the reliable operation of the MIM diode. An MIM diode comprising of a Ti-ZnO-Pt combination yields a zero-bias responsivity of 0.25V−1 and a dynamic resistance of 1200Ω. Complete RF characterisation has been performed by integrating the MIM diode with a coplanar waveguide transmission line. The input impedance varies from 100Ω to 50Ω in the frequency range of between 2GHz and 10GHz, which can be easily matched to typical antenna impedances in this frequency range. Finally, a rectified DC voltage of 4.7mV is obtained for an incoming RF power of 0.4W at zero bias. These preliminary results of zero-bias rectification indicate that complete, passive rectennas (a rectifier and antenna combination) are feasible with further optimisation of MIM devices.

  16. Metal-insulator-metal diodes with sub-nanometre surface roughness for energy-harvesting applications

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, A.A.

    2017-07-27

    For ambient radio-frequency (RF) energy harvesting, the available power levels are quite low, and it is highly desirable that the rectifying diodes do not consume any power at all. Contrary to semiconducting diodes, a tunnelling diode – also known as a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diode – can provide zero-bias rectification, provided the two metals have different work functions. This could result in a complete passive rectenna system. Despite great potential, MIM diodes have not been investigated much in the GHz-frequency regime due to challenging nano-fabrication requirements. In this work, we investigate zero-bias MIM diodes for RF energy-harvesting applications. We studied the surface roughness issue for the bottom metal of the MIM diode for various deposition techniques such as sputtering, atomic layer deposition (ALD) and electron-beam (e-beam) evaporation for crystalline metals as well as for an amorphous alloy, namely ZrCuAlNi. A surface roughness of sub-1nm has been achieved for both the crystalline metals as well as the amorphous alloy, which is vital for the reliable operation of the MIM diode. An MIM diode comprising of a Ti-ZnO-Pt combination yields a zero-bias responsivity of 0.25V−1 and a dynamic resistance of 1200Ω. Complete RF characterisation has been performed by integrating the MIM diode with a coplanar waveguide transmission line. The input impedance varies from 100Ω to 50Ω in the frequency range of between 2GHz and 10GHz, which can be easily matched to typical antenna impedances in this frequency range. Finally, a rectified DC voltage of 4.7mV is obtained for an incoming RF power of 0.4W at zero bias. These preliminary results of zero-bias rectification indicate that complete, passive rectennas (a rectifier and antenna combination) are feasible with further optimisation of MIM devices.

  17. Surface Plasmon Resonance Evaluation of Colloidal Metal Aerogel Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David D.; Sibille, Laurent; Cronise, Raymond J.; Noever, David A.

    1997-01-01

    We have fabricated aerogels containing gold, silver, and platinum nanoparticles for gas catalysis applications. By applying the concept of an average or effective dielectric constant to the heterogeneous interlayer surrounding each particle, we extend the technique of immersion spectroscopy to porous or heterogeneous media. Specifically, we apply the predominant effective medium theories for the determination of the average fractional composition of each component in this inhomogeneous layer. Hence, the surface area of metal available for catalytic gas reaction is determined. The technique is satisfactory for statistically random metal particle distributions but needs further modification for aggregated or surfactant modified systems. Additionally, the kinetics suggest that collective particle interactions in coagulated clusters are perturbed during silica gelation resulting in a change in the aggregate geometry.

  18. INTERACTION OF IMPULSE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS WITH SURFACES OF METAL SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Pavliouchenko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of maximum tangential component of magnetic intensity Hτm have been carried out in the paper. The measurements have been taken on the surface of metal samples according to time of single current pulse rise in the form of semi-sinusoid of a linear current wire. Measurements have been made with the purpose to determine a value of the component according to thickness of samples made of aluminium.Temporary resolution ranges of electric and magnetic properties and defects of sample continuity along the depth have been found.Empirical formulae of dependence Hτm on sample thickness have been derived and their relation with efficient depth penetration of magnetic field into metal has been found.

  19. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from metal and transition metal nano-caped arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huanhuan; Gao, Renxian; Zhu, Aonan; Hua, Zhong; Chen, Lei; Wang, Yaxin; Zhang, Yongjun

    2018-03-01

    The metal and transition metal cap-shaped arrays on polystyrene colloidal particle (PSCP) templates were fabricated to study the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect. We obtained the Ag and Fe complex film by a co-sputtering deposition method. The size of the deposited Fe particle was changed by the sputtering power. We also study the SERS enhancement mechanism by decorating the PATP probe molecule on the different films. The SERS signals increased firstly, and then decreased as the size of Fe particles grows gradually. The finite-difference time domain (FDTD) simulation and experimental Raman results manifest that SERS enhancement was mainly attributed to surface plasma resonance (SPR) between Ag and Ag nanoparticles. The SERS signals of PATP molecule were enhanced to reach a lowest detectable concentration of 10-8 mol/L. The research demonstrates that the SERS substrates with Ag-Fe cap-shaped arrays have a high sensitivity.

  20. An AES Study of the Room Temperature Surface Conditioning of Technological Metal Surfaces by Electron Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Scheuerlein, C; Hilleret, Noël; Taborelli, M; Brown, A; Baker, M A

    2002-01-01

    The modifications to technological copper and niobium surfaces induced by 2.5 keV electron irradiation have been investigated in the context of the conditioning process occurring in particle accelerator ultra high vacuum systems. Changes in the elemental surface composition have been found using Scanning Auger Microscopy (SAM) by monitoring the carbon, oxygen and metal Auger peak intensities as a function of electron irradiation in the dose range 10-6 to 10-2 C mm-2. The surface analysis resu...

  1. Electrostatic energy and screened charge interaction near the surface of metals with different Fermi surface shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabovich, A. M.; Il'chenko, L. G.; Pashitskii, E. A.; Romanov, Yu. A.

    1980-04-01

    Using the Poisson equation Green function for a self-consistent field in a spatially inhomogeneous system, expressions for the electrostatic energy and screened charge interaction near the surface of a semi-infinite metal and a thin quantizing film are derived. It is shown that the decrease law and Friedel oscillation amplitude of adsorbed atom indirect interaction are determined by the electron spectrum character and the Fermi surface shape. The results obtained enable us to explain, in particular, the submonolayer adsorbed film structure on the W and Mo surfaces.

  2. Electroluminescence of a polythiophene molecular wire suspended between a metallic surface and the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reecht, Gaël; Scheurer, Fabrice; Speisser, Virginie; Dappe, Yannick J; Mathevet, Fabrice; Schull, Guillaume

    2014-01-31

    The electroluminescence of a polythiophene wire suspended between a metallic surface and the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope is reported. Under positive sample voltage, the spectral and voltage dependencies of the emitted light are consistent with the fluorescence of the wire junction mediated by localized plasmons. This emission is strongly attenuated for the opposite polarity. Both emission mechanism and polarity dependence are similar to what occurs in organic light emitting diodes (OLED) but at the level of a single molecular wire.

  3. Formation of negative ions on a metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amersfoort, P.W. van.

    1987-01-01

    In this thesis a fundamental study of the charge exchange process of positive ions on the converter surface is presented. Beams of hydrogen ad cesium ions are scattered from a thoroughly cleaned W(110) surface, under ultra-high vacuum conditions. The cesium coverage of the surface is a controlled parameter. Ch. 2 deals with the negative-ion formation probability for hydrogen atoms. The influence of coabsorption of hydrogen is studied in Ch. 3. These measurements are important for understanding the formation process in plasma sources, because the converter surface is expected to be strongly contaminated with hydrogen. The charge state of scattered cesium particles is investigated in Ch. 4. Knowledge of this parameter is essential for Ch. 5, in which a model study of adsorption of cesium on a metal surface in contact with a plasma is presented. Finally, the negative-ion formation process in a plasma environment is studied in Ch. 6. Measurements done on a hollow-cathode discharge equipped with a novel type of converter, a porous tungsten button, are discussed. Liquid cesium diffuses through this button towards the side in contact with the plasma. (Auth.)

  4. Analysis of surface bond lengths reported for chemisorption on metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, K. A. R.

    1985-01-01

    A review is given of bond length information available from the techniques of surface crystallography (particularly with LEED, SEXAFS and photoelectron diffraction) for chemisorption on well-defined surfaces of metals (M). For adsorbed main-group atoms (X), measured X-M interatomic distances for 38 combinations of X and M have been assessed with a bond order-bond length relation in combination with the Schomaker-Stevenson approach for determining single-bond lengths. When the surface bond orders are fixed primarily by the valency of X, this approach appears to provide a simple framework for predicing X-M surface bond lengths. Further, in cases where agreement has been reached from different surface crystallographic techniques, this framework has the potential for assessing refinements to the surface bonding model (e.g. in determining the roles of the effective surface valency of M, and of coordinate bonding and supplementary π bonding between X and M). Preliminary comparisons of structural data are also given for molecular adsorption (CO and ethylidyne) and for the chemisorption of other metal atoms.

  5. Surface structure determinations of crystalline ionic thin films grown on transition metal single crystal surfaces by low energy electron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Joel Glenn [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-05-01

    The surface structures of NaCl(100), LiF(100) and alpha-MgCl2(0001) adsorbed on various metal single crystals have been determined by low energy electron diffraction (LEED). Thin films of these salts were grown on metal substrates by exposing the heated metal surface to a molecular flux of salt emitted from a Knudsen cell. This method of investigating thin films of insulators (ionic salts) on a conducting substrate (metal) circumvents surface charging problems that plagued bulk studies, thereby allowing the use of electron-based techniques to characterize the surface.

  6. Energetic Surface Smoothing of Complex Metal-Oxide Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willmott, P.R.; Herger, R.; Schlepuetz, C.M.; Martoccia, D.; Patterson, B.D.

    2006-01-01

    A novel energetic smoothing mechanism in the growth of complex metal-oxide thin films is reported from in situ kinetic studies of pulsed laser deposition of La 1-x Sr x MnO 3 on SrTiO 3 , using x-ray reflectivity. Below 50% monolayer coverage, prompt insertion of energetic impinging species into small-diameter islands causes them to break up to form daughter islands. This smoothing mechanism therefore inhibits the formation of large-diameter 2D islands and the seeding of 3D growth. Above 50% coverage, islands begin to coalesce and their breakup is thereby suppressed. The energy of the incident flux is instead rechanneled into enhanced surface diffusion, which leads to an increase in the effective surface temperature of ΔT≅500 K. These results have important implications on optimal conditions for nanoscale device fabrication using these materials

  7. Benzyl Alcohol-Mediated Versatile Method to Fabricate Nonstoichiometric Metal Oxide Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Mohammad; Adam, Alaaldin; Azad, Abdul-Majeed; Kim, Yong-Wah

    2017-11-22

    Nanostructured metal oxides with cationic or anionic deficiency find applications in a wide range of technological areas including the energy sector and environment. However, a facile route to prepare such materials in bulk with acceptable reproducibility is still lacking; many synthesis techniques are still only bench-top and cannot be easily scaled-up. Here, we report that the benzyl alcohol (BA)-mediated method is capable of producing a host of nanostructured metal oxides (MO x , where M = Ti, Zn, Ce, Sn, In, Ga, or Fe) with inherent nonstoichiometry. It employs multifunctional BA as a solvent, a reducing agent, and a structure-directing agent. Depending on the oxidation states of metal, elemental or nonstoichiometric oxide forms are obtained. Augmented photoelectrochemical oxidation of water under visible light by some of these nonstoichiometric oxides highlights the versatility of the BA-mediated synthesis protocol.

  8. Metal-mediated aminocatalysis provides mild conditions: Enantioselective Michael addition mediated by primary amino catalysts and alkali-metal ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Leven

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four catalysts based on new amides of chiral 1,2-diamines and 2-sulfobenzoic acid have been developed. The alkali-metal salts of these betaine-like amides are able to form imines with enones, which are activated by Lewis acid interaction for nucleophilic attack by 4-hydroxycoumarin. The addition of 4-hydroxycoumarin to enones gives ee’s up to 83% and almost quantitative yields in many cases. This novel type of catalysis provides an effective alternative to conventional primary amino catalysis were strong acid additives are essential components.

  9. Anisotropic surface-state-mediated RKKY interaction between adatoms on a hexagonal lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrone, Paul N.; Einstein, T. L.

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by recent numerical studies of Ag on Pt(111), we derive an expression for the RKKY interaction mediated by surface states, considering the effect of anisotropy in the Fermi edge. Our analysis is based on a stationary phase approximation. The main contribution to the interaction comes from electrons whose Fermi velocity vF is parallel to the vector R connecting the interacting adatoms; we show that, in general, the corresponding Fermi wave vector kF is not parallel to R. The interaction is oscillatory; the amplitude and wavelength of oscillations have angular dependence arising from the anisotropy of the surface-state band structure. The wavelength, in particular, is determined by the projection of this kF (corresponding to vF) onto the direction of R. Our analysis is easily generalized to other systems. For Ag on Pt(111), our results indicate that the RKKY interaction between pairs of adatoms should be nearly isotropic and so cannot account for the anisotropy found in the studies motivating our work. However, for metals with surface-state dispersions similar to Be(101¯0), we show that the RKKY interaction should have considerable anisotropy.

  10. Surface nano-architecture of a metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiura, Rie; Motoyama, Soichiro; Umemura, Yasushi; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Sakata, Osami; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    The rational assembly of ultrathin films of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)--highly ordered microporous materials--with well-controlled growth direction and film thickness is a critical and as yet unrealized issue for enabling the use of MOFs in nanotechnological devices, such as sensors, catalysts and electrodes for fuel cells. Here we report the facile bottom-up fabrication at ambient temperature of such a perfect preferentially oriented MOF nanofilm on a solid surface (NAFS-1), consisting of metalloporphyrin building units. The construction of NAFS-1 was achieved by the unconventional integration in a modular fashion of a layer-by-layer growth technique coupled with the Langmuir-Blodgett method. NAFS-1 is endowed with highly crystalline order both in the out-of-plane and in-plane orientations to the substrate, as demonstrated by synchrotron X-ray surface crystallography. The proposed structural model incorporates metal-coordinated pyridine molecules projected from the two-dimensional sheets that allow each further layer to dock in a highly ordered interdigitated manner in the growth of NAFS-1. We expect that the versatility of the solution-based growth strategy presented here will allow the fabrication of various well-ordered MOF nanofilms, opening the way for their use in a range of important applications.

  11. The secondary electron yield of noble metal surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Gonzalez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Secondary electron yield (SEY curves in the 0-1000 eV range were measured on polycrystalline Ag, Au and Cu samples. The metals were examined as introduced in the ultra-high vacuum chamber and after having been cleaned by Ar+ ion sputtering. The comparison between the curves measured on the clean samples and in the presence of contaminants, due to the permanence in atmosphere, confirmed that the SEY behavior is strongly influenced by the chemical state of the metal surface. We show that when using very slow primary electrons the sample work function can be determined with high accuracy from the SEY curves. Moreover we prove that SEY is highly sensitive to the presence of adsorbates even at submonolayer coverage. Results showing the effect of small quantities of CO adsorbed on copper are presented. Our findings demonstrate that SEY, besides being an indispensable mean to qualify technical materials in many technological fields, can be also used as a flexible and advantageous diagnostics to probe surfaces and interfaces.

  12. Drawing of metals inclined to sticking to tools surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatrushin, L.S.; Osintsev, V.G.

    1975-01-01

    A technological process is described of coating metals and alloys which have a tendency to stick to tools during rolling and drawing of wires and pipes. For electrodeposition it is the best to use chlorides of tin, bismuth, zinc, copper and indium bromide or a combination of metal salts with nonmetallic salts. Such coatings are applied to such stock materials as stainless steel, Kh18N10T and titanium alloys, VT1-0, OT4, VT16, VT20. The speeds employed during wire drawing reach 8-15 m/min and during rolling- 1-3.6 m/min. When applying a mixture of zinc chloride and nonmetallic salt the surface of titanium and zirconium alloys is first coated with a metallic sublayer. In drawing and rolling pipes of T10 alloys, the degree of elongation between the intermediate annealings reach 6.34%, and for alloys 100, VT1-0 and VT22- 23, 10 and 2.3% respectively. The coating has a strong adhesion to base metal and good plasticity characteristics. Industrial-scale tests show that a preliminary zinc coating on zirconium semi-finished stock makes it possible to shorten the technological process 1.5 times and achieve a twofold decrease in labor intensiveness and the cost of the treatment, to obtain a 7% increase in the output of non-detective product and to exclude sandblasting and hand scouring. Preliminary estimates indicate that about 4.4 thousand rubles per ton of wire can be saved by using the coating procedure

  13. Influence of surface effects on subsecond processes in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachenko, S.I.; Vorob'ev, V.S.; Khishchenko, K.V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text: We discuss a problem of experimental-data interpretation during subsecond measurements of thermophysical properties of matter at high temperatures and pressures. Peculiarity of these measurements is optical opaqueness of matter under interesting conditions (T∼1 eV, ρ∼10 4 kg m -3 ), so only at assuming of bulk specimen uniformity one can obtain a temperature dependencies of the specific properties of matter. Changing circuit current and changing sample geometry we can avoid a development of hydromagnetic instability and decrease a nonuniform heating due to skin effect. As temperature of wire surface reaches the boiling temperature under normal pressure so part of internal energy is lost because of evaporation and surface radiation at high temperature. So one can register a surface temperature and ascribe it to the whole sample bulk. Computer simulation of wire explosion taking into account surface radiation losses was carried out. Typical phase tracks for matter were obtained in both case as in consideration of radiation losses as without it. Comparison of the results with data concerning to isobaric-expansion experiments and semi-empirical multi-phase equation of state were carried out. It was proposed uniformity criterion for investigation of thermophysical properties of liquid metal by subsecond wire explosion. (author)

  14. Controllable synthesis of metal selenide heterostructures mediated by Ag2Se nanocrystals acting as catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiangcong; Huang, Feng; Xu, Ju; Wang, Yuansheng

    2013-09-01

    Ag2Se nanocrystals were demonstrated to be novel semiconductor mediators, or in other word catalysts, for the growth of semiconductor heterostructures in solution. This is a result of the unique feature of Ag2Se as a fast ion conductor, allowing foreign cations to dissolve and then to heterogrow the second phase. Using Ag2Se nanocrystals as catalysts, dimeric metal selenide heterostructures such as Ag2Se-CdSe and Ag2Se-ZnSe, and even multi-segment heterostructures such as Ag2Se-CdSe-ZnSe and Ag2Se-ZnSe-CdSe, were successfully synthesized. Several interesting features were found in the Ag2Se based heterogrowth. At the initial stage of heterogrowth, a layer of the second phase forms on the surface of an Ag2Se nanosphere, with a curved junction interface between the two phases. With further growth of the second phase, the Ag2Se nanosphere tends to flatten the junction surface by modifying its shape from sphere to hemisphere in order to minimize the conjunct area and thus the interfacial energy. Notably, the crystallographic relationship of the two phases in the heterostructure varies with the lattice parameters of the second phase, in order to reduce the lattice mismatch at the interface. Furthermore, a small lattice mismatch at the interface results in a straight rod-like second phase, while a large lattice mismatch would induce a tortuous product. The reported results may provide a new route for developing novel selenide semiconductor heterostructures which are potentially applicable in optoelectronic, biomedical, photovoltaic and catalytic fields.Ag2Se nanocrystals were demonstrated to be novel semiconductor mediators, or in other word catalysts, for the growth of semiconductor heterostructures in solution. This is a result of the unique feature of Ag2Se as a fast ion conductor, allowing foreign cations to dissolve and then to heterogrow the second phase. Using Ag2Se nanocrystals as catalysts, dimeric metal selenide heterostructures such as Ag2Se-CdSe and Ag2Se

  15. Electronic properties of semiconductor surfaces and metal/semiconductor interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallarida, M.

    2005-05-15

    This thesis reports investigations of the electronic properties of a semiconductor surface (silicon carbide), a reactive metal/semiconductor interface (manganese/silicon) and a non-reactive metal/semiconductor interface (aluminum-magnesium alloy/silicon). The (2 x 1) reconstruction of the 6H-SiC(0001) surface has been obtained by cleaving the sample along the (0001) direction. This reconstruction has not been observed up to now for this compound, and has been compared with those of similar elemental semiconductors of the fourth group of the periodic table. This comparison has been carried out by making use of photoemission spectroscopy, analyzing the core level shifts of both Si 2p and C 1s core levels in terms of charge transfer between atoms of both elements and in different chemical environments. From this comparison, a difference between the reconstruction on the Si-terminated and the C-terminated surface was established, due to the ionic nature of the Si-C bond. The growth of manganese films on Si(111) in the 1-5 ML thickness range has been studied by means of LEED, STM and photoemission spectroscopy. By the complementary use of these surface science techniques, two different phases have been observed for two thickness regimes (<1 ML and >1 ML), which exhibit a different electronic character. The two reconstructions, the (1 x 1)-phase and the ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30 -phase, are due to silicide formation, as observed in core level spectroscopy. The growth proceeds via island formation in the monolayer regime, while the thicker films show flat layers interrupted by deep holes. On the basis of STM investigations, this growth mode has been attributed to strain due to lattice mismatch between the substrate and the silicide. Co-deposition of Al and Mg onto a Si(111) substrate at low temperature (100K) resulted in the formation of thin alloy films. By varying the relative content of both elements, the thin films exhibited different electronic properties

  16. Proceedings of the symposium on chemistry and physics of surface of metals and their oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Topics covered include: structure of crystalline surfaces; thermodynamic, electrostatic, and physicochemical considerations on defect structure and metal to metal interfaces; physical properties of metal surfaces; stress corrosion cracking; corrosion; passivation; mass transfer across interfaces; electrodeposition; Auger electron spectroscopy; electron microscopy; and catalysis. (GHT)

  17. Fungal inoculation and elevated CO2 mediate growth of Lolium mutiforum and Phytolacca americana, metal uptake, and metal bioavailability in metal-contaminated soil: evidence from DGT measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ningning; Wang, Fangli; Zhang, Changbo; Tang, Shirong; Guo, Junkang; Ju, Xuehai; Smith, Donald L

    2013-01-01

    Fungal inoculation and elevated CO2 may mediate plant growth and uptake of heavy metals, but little evidence from Diffusive Gradients in Thin-films (DGT) measurement has been obtained to characterize the process. Lolium mutiforum and Phytolacca americana were grown at ambient and elevated CO2 on naturally Cd and Pb contaminated soils inoculated with and without Trichoderma asperellum strain C3 or Penicillium chrysogenum strain D4, to investigate plant growth, metal uptake, and metal bioavailability responses. Fungal inoculation increased plant biomass and shoot/root Cd and Pb concentrations. Elevated CO2 significantly increased plants biomass, but decreased Cd and Pb concentrations in shoot/root to various extents, leading to a metal dilution phenomenon. Total Cd and Pb uptake by plants, and DGT-measured Cd and Pb concentrations in rhizosphere soils, were higher in all fungal inoculation and elevated CO2 treatments than control treatments, with the combined treatments having more influence than either treatment alone. Metal dilution phenomenon occurred because the increase in DGT-measured bioavailable metal pools in plant rhizosphere due to elevated CO2 was unable to match the increase in requirement for plant uptake of metals due to plant biomass increase.

  18. An AES Study of the Room Temperature Surface Conditioning of Technological Metal Surfaces by Electron Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C; Taborelli, M; Brown, A; Baker, M A

    2002-01-01

    The modifications to technological copper and niobium surfaces induced by 2.5 keV electron irradiation have been investigated in the context of the conditioning process occurring in particle accelerator ultra high vacuum systems. Changes in the elemental surface composition have been found using Scanning Auger Microscopy (SAM) by monitoring the carbon, oxygen and metal Auger peak intensities as a function of electron irradiation in the dose range 10-6 to 10-2 C mm-2. The surface analysis results are compared with electron dose dependent secondary electron and electron stimulated desorption yield measurements. Initially the electron irradiation causes a surface cleaning through electron stimulated desorption, in particular of hydrogen. During this period both the electron stimulated desorption and secondary electron yield decrease as a function of electron dose. When the electron dose exceeds 10-4 C mm-2 electron stimulated desorption yields are reduced by several orders of magnitude and the electron beam indu...

  19. Metal-mediated DNA base pairing: alternatives to hydrogen-bonded Watson-Crick base pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takezawa, Yusuke; Shionoya, Mitsuhiko

    2012-12-18

    With its capacity to store and transfer the genetic information within a sequence of monomers, DNA forms its central role in chemical evolution through replication and amplification. This elegant behavior is largely based on highly specific molecular recognition between nucleobases through the specific hydrogen bonds in the Watson-Crick base pairing system. While the native base pairs have been amazingly sophisticated through the long history of evolution, synthetic chemists have devoted considerable efforts to create alternative base pairing systems in recent decades. Most of these new systems were designed based on the shape complementarity of the pairs or the rearrangement of hydrogen-bonding patterns. We wondered whether metal coordination could serve as an alternative driving force for DNA base pairing and why hydrogen bonding was selected on Earth in the course of molecular evolution. Therefore, we envisioned an alternative design strategy: we replaced hydrogen bonding with another important scheme in biological systems, metal-coordination bonding. In this Account, we provide an overview of the chemistry of metal-mediated base pairing including basic concepts, molecular design, characteristic structures and properties, and possible applications of DNA-based molecular systems. We describe several examples of artificial metal-mediated base pairs, such as Cu(2+)-mediated hydroxypyridone base pair, H-Cu(2+)-H (where H denotes a hydroxypyridone-bearing nucleoside), developed by us and other researchers. To design the metallo-base pairs we carefully chose appropriate combinations of ligand-bearing nucleosides and metal ions. As expected from their stronger bonding through metal coordination, DNA duplexes possessing metallo-base pairs exhibited higher thermal stability than natural hydrogen-bonded DNAs. Furthermore, we could also use metal-mediated base pairs to construct or induce other high-order structures. These features could lead to metal-responsive functional

  20. Corrugated metal surface with pillars for terahertz surface plasmon polariton waveguide components

    KAUST Repository

    Yuehong, Xu

    2018-01-12

    In the terahertz regime, due to perfect conductivity of most metals, it is hard to realize a strong confinement of Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) although a propagation loss could be sufficiently low. We experimentally demonstrated a structure with periodic pillars arranged on a thin metal surface that supports bound modes of spoof SPPs at terahertz (THz) frequencies. By using scanning near-field THz microscopy, the electric field distribution above the metal surface within a distance of 130 μm was mapped. The results proved that this structure could guide spoof SPPs propagating along subwavelength waveguides, and at the same time reduce field expansion into free space. Further, for the development of integrated optical circuits, several components including straight waveguide, S-bend, Y-splitter and directional couplers were designed and characterized by the same method. We believe that the waveguide components proposed here will pave a new way for the development of flexible, wideband and compact photonic circuits operating at THz frequencies.

  1. Corrugated metal surface with pillars for terahertz surface plasmon polariton waveguide components

    KAUST Repository

    Yuehong, Xu; Yanfeng, Li; Chunxiu, Tian; Jiaguang, Han; Quan, Xu; Xueqian, Zhang; Xixiang, Zhang; Ying, Zhang; Weili, Zhang

    2018-01-01

    In the terahertz regime, due to perfect conductivity of most metals, it is hard to realize a strong confinement of Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) although a propagation loss could be sufficiently low. We experimentally demonstrated a structure with periodic pillars arranged on a thin metal surface that supports bound modes of spoof SPPs at terahertz (THz) frequencies. By using scanning near-field THz microscopy, the electric field distribution above the metal surface within a distance of 130 μm was mapped. The results proved that this structure could guide spoof SPPs propagating along subwavelength waveguides, and at the same time reduce field expansion into free space. Further, for the development of integrated optical circuits, several components including straight waveguide, S-bend, Y-splitter and directional couplers were designed and characterized by the same method. We believe that the waveguide components proposed here will pave a new way for the development of flexible, wideband and compact photonic circuits operating at THz frequencies.

  2. Surface Characterization and Electrochemical Oxidation of Metal Doped Uranium Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeongmook; Kim, Jandee; Youn, Young-Sang; Kim, Jong-Goo; Ha, Yeong-Keong; Kim, Jong-Yun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Trivalent element in UO{sub 2} matrix makes the oxygen vacancy from loss of oxygen for charge compensation. Tetravalent element alters lattice parameter of UO{sub 2} due to diameter difference between the tetravalent element and replaced U. These structural changes have significant effect on not only relevant fuel performance but also the kinetics of fuel oxidation. Park and Olander explained the stabilization of Ln (III)-doped UO{sub 2} against oxidation based on oxygen potential calculations. In this work, we have been investigated the effect of Gd{sup 3+} and Th{sup 4+} doping on the UO{sub 2} structure with Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction to characterize the surface structure of nuclear fuel material. For Gd doped UO{sub 2}, its electrochemical oxidation behaviors are also investigated. The Gd and Th doped uranium dioxide solid solution pellets with various doping level were investigated by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, SEM, electrochemical experiments to investigate surface structure and electro chemical oxidation behaviors. The lattice parameter evaluated from XRD spectra indicated the formation of solid solutions. Raman spectra showed the existence of the oxygen vacancy. SEM images showed the grain structure on the surface of Gd doped uranium dioxide depending on doping level and oxygen-to-metal ratio.

  3. The assessment of metal surface cleanliness by XPS

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C

    2006-01-01

    The most commonly used quantity to characterize surface cleanliness through X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) measurements is the so-called relative atomic surface concentration of carbon (at.% C). We have investigated the relationship between at.% C values and the C 1s peak area on Cu and we find a nearly linear behaviour in the range 15–80 at.% C. Correction factors for the measured at.% C values that enable a comparison of the cleanliness level of different materials, notably Cu, Al and stainless steel, have been determined experimentally. The influence of the storage time and method on the degree of re-contamination of initially clean Cu has been examined. The carbon contamination on clean metallic Cu increases abruptly to some 20 at.% C upon air exposure and continues to increase with storage time in air. Storage in polymer bags can lead to up to 70 at.% C after 1 month, whereas storage in aluminium foil can preserve an acceptable surface cleanliness for a similar storage time.

  4. Enhanced Electron-Phonon Coupling at Metal Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plummer, Ward E.

    2010-08-04

    The Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA) decouples electronic from nuclear motion, providing a focal point for most quantum mechanics textbooks. However, a multitude of important chemical, physical and biological phenomena are driven by violations of this approximation. Vibronic interactions are a necessary ingredient in any process that makes or breaks a covalent bond, for example, conventional catalysis or enzymatically delivered biological reactions. Metastable phenomena associated with defects and dopants in semiconductors, oxides, and glasses entail violation of the BOA. Charge exchange in inorganic polymers, organic slats and biological systems involves charge- induced distortions of the local structure. A classic example is conventional superconductivity, which is driven by the electron-lattice interaction. High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission experiments are yielding new insight into the microscopic origin of electron-phonon coupling (EPC) in anisotropic two-dimensional systems. Our recent surface phonon measurement on the surface of a high-Tc material clearly indicates an important momentum dependent EPC in these materials. In the last few years we have shifted our research focus from solely looking at electron phonon coupling to examining the structure/functionality relationship at the surface of complex transition metal compounds. The investigation on electron phonon coupling has allowed us to move to systems where there is coupling between the lattice, the electrons and the spin.

  5. Functionalization of silicon nanowire surfaces with metal-organic frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Nian

    2011-12-28

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been extensively studied due to their unique properties; MOFs have high porosity and specific surface area with well-defined nanoporous structure, while SiNWs have valuable one-dimensional electronic properties. Integration of the two materials into one composite could synergistically combine the advantages of both materials and lead to new applications. We report the first example of a MOF synthesized on surface-modified SiNWs. The synthesis of polycrystalline MOF-199 (also known as HKUST-1) on SiNWs was performed at room temperature using a step-by-step (SBS) approach, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy elemental mapping were used to characterize the material. Matching of the SiNW surface functional groups with the MOF organic linker coordinating groups was found to be critical for the growth. Additionally, the MOF morphology can by tuned by changing the soaking time, synthesis temperature and precursor solution concentration. This SiNW/MOF hybrid structure opens new avenues for rational design of materials with novel functionalities. © 2011 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  6. Spectral and physical properties of metal in meteorite assemblages - implications of asteroid surface materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffey, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    One of the objectives of the present paper is related to a definition of the spectral contribution of the nickel-iron metal component in meteoritic assemblages. Another objective is the elucidation of the chemical, physical, and petrographic properties of the metal grains which affect the spectral signature in asteroid surface materials. It is pointed out that an improved understanding of the spectral and physical properties of metal in asteroid regoliths should permit an improved characterization of these objects, and, in particular, a better evaluation of the differentiated or undifferentiated nature of the S-type and M-type asteroids. Attention is given to the spectra of iron and nickel-iron metals, the spectral effects of metal in chondritic assemblages, the spectral reflectance of metal grains in ordinary chondrites, the nature of the surfaces of chondritic metal grains, the origin of coats on chondritic metal grains, and the fragmentation of metal on asteroid surfaces. 57 references

  7. Urbanization increased metal levels in lake surface sediment and catchment topsoil of waterscape parks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hong-Bo [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yu, Shen, E-mail: syu@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Li, Gui-Lin [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Liu, Yi; Yu, Guang-Bin [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Deng, Hong [Department of Environmental Sciences, Tiantong National Station of Forest Ecosystem, Key Laboratory of Urbanization and Ecological Restoration, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Wu, Sheng-Chun [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Biology and Chemistry Department, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Wong, Ming-Hung [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2012-08-15

    Lake surface sediment is mainly derived from topsoil in its catchment. We hypothesized that distribution of anthropogenic metals would be homogenous in lake surface sediment and the lake's catchment topsoil. Anthropogenic metal distributions (cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn)) in fourteen waterscape parks were investigated in surface sediments and catchment topsoils and possible source homogeneity was tested using stable Pb isotopic ratio analysis. The parks were located along an urbanization gradient consisting of suburban (SU), developing urban (DIU), developed urban (DDU), and central urban core (CUC) areas in Shanghai, China. Results indicated that surface lake sediments and catchment topsoils in the CUC parks were highly contaminated by the investigated anthropogenic metals. Total metal contents in surface sediment and topsoil gradually increased along the urbanization gradient from the SU to CUC areas. Generally, the surface sediments had greater total metal contents than their catchment topsoils. These results suggest that urbanization drives the anthropogenic metal enrichment in both surface sediment and its catchment topsoil in the waterscape parks. Soil fine particles (< 63 {mu}m) and surface sediments had similar enrichment ratios of metals, suggesting that surface runoff might act as a carrier for metals transporting from catchment to lake. Stable Pb isotope ratio analysis revealed that the major anthropogenic Pb source in surface sediment was coal combustion as in the catchment topsoil. Urbanization also correlated with chemical fractionation of metals in both surface sediment and catchment topsoil. From the SU to the CUC parks, amounts of labile metal fractions increased while the residual fraction of those metals remained rather constant. In short, urbanization in Shanghai drives anthropogenic metal distribution in environmental matrices and the sources were homogenous. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Obvious

  8. Urbanization increased metal levels in lake surface sediment and catchment topsoil of waterscape parks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hong-Bo; Yu, Shen; Li, Gui-Lin; Liu, Yi; Yu, Guang-Bin; Deng, Hong; Wu, Sheng-Chun; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Lake surface sediment is mainly derived from topsoil in its catchment. We hypothesized that distribution of anthropogenic metals would be homogenous in lake surface sediment and the lake's catchment topsoil. Anthropogenic metal distributions (cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn)) in fourteen waterscape parks were investigated in surface sediments and catchment topsoils and possible source homogeneity was tested using stable Pb isotopic ratio analysis. The parks were located along an urbanization gradient consisting of suburban (SU), developing urban (DIU), developed urban (DDU), and central urban core (CUC) areas in Shanghai, China. Results indicated that surface lake sediments and catchment topsoils in the CUC parks were highly contaminated by the investigated anthropogenic metals. Total metal contents in surface sediment and topsoil gradually increased along the urbanization gradient from the SU to CUC areas. Generally, the surface sediments had greater total metal contents than their catchment topsoils. These results suggest that urbanization drives the anthropogenic metal enrichment in both surface sediment and its catchment topsoil in the waterscape parks. Soil fine particles (< 63 μm) and surface sediments had similar enrichment ratios of metals, suggesting that surface runoff might act as a carrier for metals transporting from catchment to lake. Stable Pb isotope ratio analysis revealed that the major anthropogenic Pb source in surface sediment was coal combustion as in the catchment topsoil. Urbanization also correlated with chemical fractionation of metals in both surface sediment and catchment topsoil. From the SU to the CUC parks, amounts of labile metal fractions increased while the residual fraction of those metals remained rather constant. In short, urbanization in Shanghai drives anthropogenic metal distribution in environmental matrices and the sources were homogenous. -- Highlights: ► Obvious urbanization effect on metal

  9. Memory effects in nonadiabatic molecular dynamics at metal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We study the effect of temporal correlation in a Langevin equation describing nonadiabatic dynamics at metal surfaces. For a harmonic oscillator, the Langevin equation preserves the quantum dynamics exactly and it is demonstrated that memory effects are needed in order to conserve the ground state...... energy of the oscillator. We then compare the result of Langevin dynamics in a harmonic potential with a perturbative master equation approach and show that the Langevin equation gives a better description in the nonperturbative range of high temperatures and large friction. Unlike the master equation......, this approach is readily extended to anharmonic potentials. Using density functional theory, we calculate representative Langevin trajectories for associative desorption of N-2 from Ru(0001) and find that memory effects lower the dissipation of energy. Finally, we propose an ab initio scheme to calculate...

  10. Ozone Decomposition on the Surface of Metal Oxide Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batakliev Todor Todorov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic decomposition of ozone to molecular oxygen over catalytic mixture containing manganese, copper and nickel oxides was investigated in the present work. The catalytic activity was evaluated on the basis of the decomposition coefficient which is proportional to ozone decomposition rate, and it has been already used in other studies for catalytic activity estimation. The reaction was studied in the presence of thermally modified catalytic samples operating at different temperatures and ozone flow rates. The catalyst changes were followed by kinetic methods, surface measurements, temperature programmed reduction and IR-spectroscopy. The phase composition of the metal oxide catalyst was determined by X-ray diffraction. The catalyst mixture has shown high activity in ozone decomposition at wet and dry O3/O2 gas mixtures. The mechanism of catalytic ozone degradation was suggested.

  11. Theory of magnetic transition metal nanoclusters on surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lounis, S.

    2007-04-17

    This thesis is motivated by the quest for the understanding and the exploration of complex magnetism provided by atomic scale magnetic clusters deposited on surfaces or embedded in the bulk. Use is made of the density functional theory (DFT). Acting within this framework, we have developed and implemented the treatment of non-collinear magnetism into the Juelich version of the full-potential Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green Function (KKR-GF) method. Firstly, the method was applied to 3d transition-metal clusters on different ferromagnetic surfaces. Different types of magnetic clusters where selected. In order to investigate magnetic frustration due to competing interactions within the ad-cluster we considered a (001) oriented surface of fcc metals, a topology which usually does not lead to non-collinear magnetism. We tuned the strength of the magnetic coupling between the ad-clusters and the ferromagnetic surface by varying the substrate from the case of Ni(001) with a rather weak hybridization of the Ni d-states with the adatom d-states to the case of Fe{sub 3ML}/Cu(001) with a much stronger hybridization due to the larger extend of the Fe wavefunctions. On Ni(001), the interaction between the Cr- as well as the Mn-dimer adatoms is of antiferromagnetic nature, which is in competition with the interaction with the substrate atoms. After performing total energy calculations we find that for Cr-dimer the ground state is collinear whereas the Mn-dimer prefers the non-collinear configuration as ground state. Bigger clusters are found to be magnetically collinear. These calculations were extended to 3d multimers on Fe{sub 3ML}/Cu(001). All neighboring Cr(Mn) moments in the compact tetramer are antiferromagnetically aligned in-plane, with the directions slightly tilted towards (outwards from) the substrate to gain some exchange interaction energy. The second type of frustration was investigated employing a Ni(111) surface, a surface with a triangular lattice of atoms, were

  12. Surface-Emitting Distributed Feedback Terahertz Quantum-Cascade Lasers in Metal-Metal Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sushil; Williams, Benjamin S.; Qin, Qi; Lee, Alan W. M.; Hu, Qing; Reno, John L.

    2007-01-01

    Single-mode surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantumcascade lasers operating around 2.9 THz are developed in metal-metal waveguides. A combination of techniques including precise control of phase of reflection at the facets, and u e of metal on the sidewalls to eliminate higher-order lateral modes allow robust single-mode operation over a range of approximately 0.35 THz. Single-lobed far-field radiation pattern is obtained using a pi phase-shift in center of the second-order Bragg grating. A grating device operating at 2.93 THz lased up to 149 K in pulsed mode and a temperature tuning of 19 .7 GHz was observed from 5 K to 147 K. The same device lased up to 78 K in continuous-wave (cw) mode emitting more than 6 m W of cw power at 5 K. ln general, maximum temperature of pulsed operation for grating devices was within a few Kelvin of that of multi-mode Fabry-Perot ridge lasers

  13. Spoof surface plasmon modes on doubly corrugated metal surfaces at terahertz frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yong-Qiang; Kong, Ling-Bao; Du, Chao-Hai; Liu, Pu-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Spoof surface plasmons (SSPs) have many potential applications such as imaging and sensing, communications, innovative leaky wave antenna and many other passive devices in the microwave and terahertz (THz) spectrum. The extraordinary properties of SSPs (e.g. extremely strong near field, enhanced beam–wave interaction) make them especially attractive for developing novel THz electronic sources. SSP modes on doubly corrugated metal surfaces are investigated and analyzed both theoretically and numerically in this paper. The analytical SSP dispersion expressions of symmetric and anti-symmetric modes are obtained with a simplified modal field expansion method; the results are also verified by the finite integration method. Additionally, the propagation losses are also considered for real copper surfaces with a limited constant conductivity in a THz regime. It is shown that the asymptotical frequency of the symmetric mode at the Brillouin boundary decreases along with the decreased gap size between these two corrugated metal surfaces while the asymptotical frequency increases for the anti-symmetric mode. The anti-symmetric mode demonstrates larger propagation losses than the symmetric mode. Further, the losses for both symmetric and anti-symmetric modes decrease when this gap size enlarges. By decreasing groove depth, the asymptotical frequency increases for both the symmetric and the anti-symmetric mode, but the variation of propagation losses is more complicated. Propagation losses increase along with the increased period. Our studies on the dispersion characteristics and propagation losses of SSP modes on this doubly corrugated metallic structure with various parameters is instructive for numerous applications such as waveguides, circuitry systems with high integration, filters and powerful electronic sources in the THz regime. (paper)

  14. Optical response of a flat metallic surface coated with a monolayer array of latex spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Lei; Liu Xiaohan; Yin Haiwei; Zi Jian

    2010-01-01

    We report on the fabrication, characterization and simulation of a structure consisting of a flat metallic surface coated with a monolayer array of latex spheres. This structure shows interesting optical response: over flat metallic surfaces a series of reflection minima appear in reflection spectra. Numerical simulations revealed that the structure can support two types of surface modes: surface plasmon-polaritons bound at the metallic surface and guided modes confined to the array of latex spheres, or their hybrids. Both experimental and theoretical results indicated that these surface modes show well-defined band structures due to the introduced periodicity by the monolayer array of latex spheres.

  15. Characterization of metallic surfaces in phosphorous-bronze ordered packings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandru, Claudia; Titescu, Gh.

    1997-01-01

    Copper and its alloys, particularly the phosphorous bronze, are characterized by a high water wettability as compared with other materials. This feature led to utilization of phosphorous bronze in fabrication of contact elements, a packing type equipping the distillation columns. For heavy water separation by isotopic distillation under vacuum, ordered packings of phosphorous bronze networks were fabricated. The superior performances of these packings are determined by the material and also by the geometrical form and the state of the metallic surface. Thus, a procedure of evaluating the wettability has been developed, based on tests of the network material. The results of the tests constitute a criterion of rating the functional performances of packings, particularly of their efficiencies. Also, investigation techniques of the chemical composition and of the thickness of superficial layer on the packing were developed. It was found that the packing surface presents a layer of about 5-20 μm formed mainly by oxides of copper, tin, and, depending on the packing treatment, of oxides of other elements coming from the treatment agent. The paper presents characterization of phosphorous bronze treated with potassium permanganate, a specific treatment for improving the functional performances of the packings used in the heavy water concentration and re-concentration installations

  16. Surface coating for prevention of metallic seed migration in tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyunseok; Park, Jong In [Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won Seok; Park, Min [Interdisciplinary Program in Bioengineering, Seoul National University College of Engineering, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Kwang-Jae [Hanaro Applications Research, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Young-bong [Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Choy, Young Bin, E-mail: ybchoy@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: sye@snu.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary Program in Bioengineering, Seoul National University College of Engineering, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Ye, Sung-Joon, E-mail: ybchoy@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: sye@snu.ac.kr [Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In radiotherapy, metallic implants often detach from their deposited sites and migrate to other locations. This undesirable migration could cause inadequate dose coverage for permanent brachytherapy and difficulties in image-guided radiation delivery for patients. To prevent migration of implanted seeds, the authors propose a potential strategy to use a biocompatible and tissue-adhesive material called polydopamine. Methods: In this study, nonradioactive dummy seeds that have the same geometry and composition as commercial I-125 seeds were coated in polydopamine. Using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the surface of the polydopamine-coated and noncoated seeds was characterized. The detachment stress between the two types of seeds and the tissue was measured. The efficacy of polydopamine-coated seed was investigated through in vitro migration tests by tracing the seed location after tissue implantation and shaking for given times. The cytotoxicity of the polydopamine coating was also evaluated. Results: The results of the coating characterization have shown that polydopamine was successfully coated on the surface of the seeds. In the adhesion test, the polydopamine-coated seeds had 2.1-fold greater detachment stress than noncoated seeds. From the in vitro test, it was determined that the polydopamine-coated seed migrated shorter distances than the noncoated seed. This difference was increased with a greater length of time after implantation. Conclusions: The authors suggest that polydopamine coating is an effective technique to prevent migration of implanted seeds, especially for permanent prostate brachytherapy.

  17. Cellular automaton model for hydrogen transport dynamics through metallic surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimura, K.; Yamaguchi, K.; Terai, T.; Yamawaki, M.

    2002-01-01

    Hydrogen re-emission and re-combination at the surface of first wall materials are a crucial issue for the understanding of the fuel recycling and for the tritium inventory in plasma facing materials. It is know to be difficult to model the transient behaviour of those processes due to their complex time-transient nature. However, cellular automata (CA) are powerful tools to model such complex systems because of their nature of discreteness in both dependent and independent variables. Then the system can be represented by the fully local interactions between cells. For that reason, complex physical and chemical systems can be described by fairly simple manner. In this study, the kinetics of desorption of adsorbed hydrogen from an ideal metallic surface is modelled in CA. Thermal desorption is simulated with this model and the comparison with the theory of rate processes is performed to identify the validity of this model. The overall results show that this model is reasonable to express the desorption kinetics

  18. Laser surface alloying of aluminium-transition metal alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida, A.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser surface alloying has been used as a tool to produce hard and corrosion resistant Al-transition metal (TM alloys. Cr and Mo are particularly interesting alloying elements to produce stable highstrength alloys because they present low diffusion coefficients and solid solubility in Al. To produce Al-TM surface alloys a two-step laser process was developed: firstly, the material is alloyed using low scanning speed and secondly, the microstructure is modified by a refinement step. This process was used in the production of Al-Cr, Al-Mo and Al-Nb surface alloys by alloying Cr, Mo or Nb powder into an Al and 7175 Al alloy substrate using a CO2 laser. This paper presents a review of the work that has been developed at Instituto Superior Tecnico on laser alloying of Al-TM alloys, over the last years.

    En el presente trabajo se estudia la aleación superficial mediante láser de aluminio con metales de transición. El cromo y el molibdeno son particularmente interesantes porque producen aleaciones de alta resistencia y por el bajo coeficiente de difusión y solución sólida en aluminio. Para producir estas aleaciones se ha seguido un procedimiento desarrollado en dos partes. En primer lugar, el material se alea usando una baja velocidad de procesado y en segundo lugar la estructura se modifica mediante un refinamiento posterior. Este procedimiento se ha empleado en la producción de aleaciones Al-Cr, Al-Mo y Al-Nb mediante aleación con láser de CO2 de polvos de Cr, Mo o Nb en aluminio y la aleación 7175. Este trabajo es una revisión del desarrollado en el Instituto Superior Técnico de Lisboa en los últimos años.

  19. Electron work function of metallic surfaces, covered with by metal adatoms, and two-dimensional structure of adlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnitskij, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    Change in electron work function during metal adatom (Ti, W, Ag, Au) adsorption on different tungsten surfaces in ''polycrystalline'' and epitaxial types of adsorpted layers is studied. Calculational and experimental dependences of work function change on coating thickness are built

  20. Metals on graphene and carbon nanotube surfaces: From mobile atoms to atomtronics to bulk metals to clusters and catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Sarkar, Santanu C.; Moser, Matthew L.; Tian, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Xixiang; Al-Hadeethi, Yas Fadel; Haddon, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    , and the next generation energy devices. We touch on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene grown on metals, the reactivity of its surface, and its use as a template for asymmetric graphene functionalization chemistry (ultrathin Janus discs). We highlight some

  1. Electronic structure and dynamics of metal and metal-covered surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shu.

    1992-01-01

    The unoccupied electronic states of;Ni(111) and Al(111) have been studied using angle-resolved inverse-photoemission (IPE) spectroscopy. We have characterized the n = 1 image potential state on Ni(111) measuring an effective mass of m * /m = 1, consistent with recent two-photon photoemission results as well as theoretical calculations using a phase-analysis model, but differing considerably from the earlier angle-resolved IPE measurements. The bulk related features on Ni(111) observed in our experiment agree very well with an empirical Ni band structure calculation. On Al(111), we have conducted an extensive study of the image potential resonance using both angle-resolved IPE spectroscopy and tunneling spectroscopy with the scanning tunneling microscope. We have used Al as a testing case for both nearly-free-electron model and first-principles calculations were needed to obtain a semi-quantitative account of the bulk features of Al, a simple metal. Improved quantitative agreement occurred when excitation effects were considered. In addition, several surface resonance features have been identified and characterized on Al(111). We have also conducted a geometric structural investigation of a metal overlayer system, Ni/Cu(111), using high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy with CO as a probe molecule. The results indicate island formation and two-dimensional mixing at the initial stage of bimetallic interface formation. A new adsorption site with CO bonded to both Ni and Cu has been discovered on the Ni-Cu intermixed surface. IPE results for the Cu-covered Ni(111) surface show an enhanced angular range for the Cu image state. Finally, the unique ability of Auger-photoelectron coincidence spectroscopy to probing local valence electronic structure has been tested in a case study of TaC(111). A novel Auger decay channel has also been observed

  2. Optimized Hypernetted-Chain Solutions for Helium -4 Surfaces and Metal Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Guo-Xin

    This thesis is a study of inhomogeneous Bose systems such as liquid ('4)He slabs and inhomogeneous Fermi systems such as the electron gas in metal films, at zero temperature. Using a Jastrow-type many-body wavefunction, the ground state energy is expressed by means of Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood -Yvon and Hypernetted-Chain techniques. For Bose systems, Euler-Lagrange equations are derived for the one- and two -body functions and systematic approximation methods are physically motivated. It is shown that the optimized variational method includes a self-consistent summation of ladder- and ring-diagrams of conventional many-body theory. For Fermi systems, a linear potential model is adopted to generate the optimized Hartree-Fock basis. Euler-Lagrange equations are derived for the two-body correlations which serve to screen the strong bare Coulomb interaction. The optimization of the pair correlation leads to an expression of correlation energy in which the state averaged RPA part is separated. Numerical applications are presented for the density profile and pair distribution function for both ('4)He surfaces and metal surfaces. Both the bulk and surface energies are calculated in good agreement with experiments.

  3. Strippable gel for decontamination of contaminated metallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, D.; Sandhya, U.; Khot, S.A.; Srinivas, C.; Wattal, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    Periodic decontamination of radioactive laboratories including fume hoods, glove boxes and all surfaces used for handling, processing and transporting radioactive materials is mandatory in all nuclear installations as this reduces spread of contamination and decreases total man rem exposure. Conventionally, chemical decontaminating agents or surfactant solutions are used for this purpose. However, this approach leads to generation of large volume of secondary radioactive waste. The use of strippable gel is an attractive alternative with low secondary waste generation particularly where removal of loose or weakly fixed contamination is necessary and also when the decontaminated material are to be reused, for e.g. decontamination of fume hoods, glove boxes, transport casks, spent fuel storage racks, control rod drive transport containers etc. Literature on gel formulations is scarce and mostly in the patent form. The sustained effort on gel formulation development has resulted in a basic gel formulation. The gel is a highly viscous water-based organic polymer, particularly suitable for application on vertical surfaces including difficult to reach metallic surfaces of complex geometry and not just limited to horizontal surfaces. The gel can be easily applied on contaminated surfaces by brushing or spraying. Curing of the gel is complete within 16-24 hours under ambient conditions and can then be removed by peeling as a dry sheet. While curing, the contaminants are trapped in gel either physically or chemically depending upon the nature of the contaminant. Salient features of cured gel include that it is water soluble and can be disposed off after immobilization in cement. Decontamination performance of the gel was initially evaluated by applying it on SS planchettes contaminated with known amount of radionuclides such as Cs(I), Co(II) and Ce(III). The measured decontamination factor was found to be in the range of 50-500, lowest for Ce(III) and highest for Co

  4. DFT studies of hydrocarbon combustion on metal surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Mina; Mirzaei, Ali Akbar; Davarpanah, Abdol Mahmood; Barakati, Seyed Masoud; Atashi, Hossein; Mohsenzadeh, Abas; Bolton, Kim

    2018-02-02

    Catalytic combustion of hydrocarbons is an important technology to produce energy. Compared to conventional flame combustion, the catalyst enables this process to operate at lower temperatures; hence, reducing the energy required for efficient combustion. The reaction and activation energies of direct combustion of hydrocarbons (CH → C + H) on a series of metal surfaces were investigated using density functional theory (DFT). The data obtained for the Ag, Au, Al, Cu, Rh, Pt, and Pd surfaces were used to investigate the validity of the Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) and transition state scaling (TSS) relations for this reaction on these surfaces. These relations were found to be valid (R 2  = 0.94 for the BEP correlation and R 2  = 1.0 for the TSS correlation) and were therefore used to estimate the energetics of the combustion reaction on Ni, Co, and Fe surfaces. It was found that the estimated transition state and activation energies (E TS  = -69.70 eV and E a  = 1.20 eV for Ni, E TS  = -87.93 eV and E a  = 1.08 eV for Co and E TS  = -92.45 eV and E a  = 0.83 eV for Fe) are in agreement with those obtained by DFT calculations (E TS  = -69.98 eV and E a  = 1.23 eV for Ni, E TS  = -87.88 eV and E a  = 1.08 eV for Co and E TS  = -92.57 eV and E a  = 0.79 eV for Fe). Therefore, these relations can be used to predict energetics of this reaction on these surfaces without doing the time consuming transition state calculations. Also, the calculations show that the activation barrier for CH dissociation decreases in the order Ag ˃ Au ˃ Al ˃ Cu ˃ Pt ˃ Pd ˃ Ni > Co > Rh > Fe.

  5. Crystal Structure of Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase from Taenia Solium Reveals Metal-mediated Self-assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A Hernandez-Santoyo; A Landa; E Gonzalez-Mondragon; M Pedraza-Escalona; R Parra-Unda; A Rodriguez-Romero

    2011-12-31

    Taenia solium is the cestode responsible for porcine and human cysticercosis. The ability of this parasite to establish itself in the host is related to its evasion of the immune response and its antioxidant defence system. The latter includes enzymes such as cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. In this article, we describe the crystal structure of a recombinant T. solium Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, representing the first structure of a protein from this organism. This enzyme shows a different charge distribution at the entrance of the active channel when compared with human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, giving it interesting properties that may allow the design of specific inhibitors against this cestode. The overall topology is similar to other superoxide dismutase structures; however, there are several His and Glu residues on the surface of the protein that coordinate metal ions both intra- and intermolecularly. Interestingly, one of these ions, located on the {beta}2 strand, establishes a metal-mediated intermolecular {beta}-{beta} interaction, including a symmetry-related molecule. The factors responsible for the abnormal protein-protein interactions that lead to oligomerization are still unknown; however, high metal levels have been implicated in these phenomena, but exactly how they are involved remains unclear. The present results suggest that this structure could be useful as a model to explain an alternative mechanism of protein aggregation commonly observed in insoluble fibrillar deposits.

  6. NON-POLLUTING METAL SURFACE FINISHING PRETREATMENT AND PRETREATMENT/CONVERSION COATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picklex, a proprietary formulation, is an alterantive to conventional metal surface pretreatments and is claimed not to produce waste or lower production or lower performance. A laboratory program was designed to evaluate Picklex in common, large scale, polluting surface finishin...

  7. Tuning apparent friction coefficient by controlled patterning bulk metallic glasses surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Xu, Erjiang; Liu, Ze; Wang, Xinyun; Liu, Lin

    2016-12-01

    Micro-honeycomb structures with various pitches between adjacent cells were hot-embossed on Zr35Ti30Cu8.25Be26.75 bulk metallic glass surface. The effect of pitch geometry on the frictional behavior of metallic glass surface was systematically investigated. The results revealed that all textured metallic glass surfaces show a reduction in friction coefficient compared to smooth surface. More intriguingly, the friction coefficient first decreased and then increased gradually with increasing pitches. Such unique behavior can be understood fundamentally from the perspective of competing effects between contact area and local stress level with increasing pitches. This finding not only enhance the in-depth understanding of the mechanism of the significant role of surface topography on the frictional behavior of metallic glass surface, but also opens a new route towards other functional applications for bulk metallic glasses.

  8. Study on the surface oxidation resistance of uranium metal in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaolin; Fu Yibei; Xie Renshou

    1999-01-01

    The surface reactions of different layers on uranium metal with carbon monoxide at 25, 80 and 200 degree C are studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The experimental results show that the carbon monoxide is adsorbed on the surface oxide layer of uranium and interacted each other. The content of oxygen in the surface oxide and O/U ratio are decreased with increasing the exposure of carbon monoxide to the surface layer. The effect of reduction on the metal surface is more obviously with a higher temperature and increasing of layer thickness. The investigation indicates the uranium metal has resistance to further oxidation in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide

  9. Insights into the superhydrophobicity of metallic surfaces prepared by electrodeposition involving spontaneous adsorption of airborne hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Peng; Cao, Ling; Zhao, Wei; Xia, Yue; Huang, Wei; Li, Zelin

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Several superhydrophobic metallic surfaces were fabricated by fast electrodeposition. • Both micro/nanostructures and adsorption of airborne hydrocarbons make contributions. • XPS analyses confirm presence of airborne hydrocarbons on these metallic surfaces. • The adsorption of airborne hydrocarbons on the clean metal Au surface was very quick. • UV-O 3 treatment oxidized the hydrocarbons to hydrophilic oxygen-containing organics. - Abstract: Electrochemical fabrication of micro/nanostructured metallic surfaces with superhydrophobicity has recently aroused great attention. However, the origin still remains unclear why smooth hydrophilic metal surfaces become superhydrophobic by making micro/nanostructures without additional surface modifications. In this work, several superhydrophobic micro/nanostructured metal surfaces were prepared by a facile one-step electrodeposition process, including non-noble and noble metals such as copper, nickel, cadmium, zinc, gold, and palladium with (e.g. Cu) or without (e.g. Au) surface oxide films. We demonstrated by SEM and XPS that both hierarchical micro/nanostructures and spontaneous adsorption of airborne hydrocarbons endowed these surfaces with excellent superhydrophobicity. We revealed by XPS that the adsorption of airborne hydrocarbons at the Ar + -etched clean Au surface was rather quick, such that organic contamination can hardly be prevented in practical operation of surface wetting investigation. We also confirmed by XPS that ultraviolet-O 3 treatment of the superhydrophobic metal surfaces did not remove the adsorbed hydrocarbons completely, but mainly oxidized them into hydrophilic oxygen-containing organic substances. We hope our findings here shed new light on deeper understanding of superhydrophobicity for micro/nanostructured metal surfaces with and without surface oxide films

  10. Effect of metallic and hyperbolic metamaterial surface on electric and magnetic dipole emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, Xingjie; Naik, Gururaj V.; Kildishev, Alexander V.

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous emission patterns of electric and magnetic dipoles on different material surfaces were studied numerically and experimentally. The results show the modified behavior of electric and magnetic dipoles on metallic and HMM surfaces.......Spontaneous emission patterns of electric and magnetic dipoles on different material surfaces were studied numerically and experimentally. The results show the modified behavior of electric and magnetic dipoles on metallic and HMM surfaces....

  11. Spontaneous grafting of diazonium salts: chemical mechanism on metallic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesnage, Alice; Lefèvre, Xavier; Jégou, Pascale; Deniau, Guy; Palacin, Serge

    2012-08-14

    The spontaneous reaction of diazonium salts on various substrates has been widely employed since it consists of a simple immersion of the substrate in the diazonium salt solution. As electrochemical processes involving the same diazonium salts, the spontaneous grafting is assumed to give covalently poly(phenylene)-like bonded films. Resistance to solvents and to ultrasonication is commonly accepted as indirect proof of the existence of a covalent bond. However, the most relevant attempts to demonstrate a metal-C interface bond have been obtained by an XPS investigation of spontaneously grafted films on copper. Similarly, our experiments give evidence of such a bond in spontaneously grafted films on nickel substrates in acetonitrile. In the case of gold substrates, the formation of a spontaneous film was unexpected but reported in the literature in parallel to our observations. Even if no interfacial bond was observed, formation of the films was explained by grafting of aryl cations or radicals on the surface arising from dediazoniation, the film growing later by azo coupling, radical addition, or cationic addition on the grafted phenyl layer. Nevertheless, none of these mechanisms fits our experimental results showing the presence of an Au-N bond. In this work, we present a fine spectroscopic analysis of the coatings obtained on gold and nickel substrates that allow us to propose a chemical structure of such films, in particular, their interface with the substrates. After testing the most probable mechanisms, we have concluded in favor of the involvement of two complementary mechanisms which are the direct reaction of diazonium salts with the gold surface that accounts for the observed Au-N interfacial bonds as well as the formation of aryl cations able to graft on the substrate through Au-C linkages.

  12. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, D.; Sur, P.; Mandal, S. K.; Saha, T.; Kole, R. K.

    2008-01-01

    A total of 96 surface water samples collected from river Ganga in West Bengal during 2004-05 was analyzed for p H, EC, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni. The p H was found in the alkaline range (7.21-8.32), while conductance was obtained in the range of 0.225-0.615 mmhos/cm. Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cr and Pb were detected in more than 92% of the samples in the range of 0.025-5.49, 0.025-2.72, 0.012-0.370, 0.012-0.375, 0.001-0.044 and 0.001- 0.250 mg/L,respectively, whereas Cd and Cu were detected only in 20 and 36 samples (0.001-0.003 and 0.0034.032 mg/L). Overall seasonal variation was significant for Fe, Mn, Cd and Cr. The maximum mean concentration of Fe (1.520 m a ) was observed in summer, Mn (0.423 mg/L) in monsoon but Cd (0.003 mg/L) and Cr (0.020 m a ) exhibited their maximum during the winter season. Fe, Mn and Cd concentration also varied with the change of sampling locations. The highest mean concentrations (mg/L) of Fe (1.485), Zn (0.085) and Cu (0.006) were observed at Palta, those for Mn (0.420) and Ni (0.054) at Berhampore, whereas the maximum of Pb (0.024 mg/L) and Cr (0.018 mg/L) was obtained at the downstream station, Uluberia. All in all, the dominance of various heavy metals in the surface water of the river Ganga followed the sequence: Fe > Mn Ni > Cr > Pb > Zn > Cu > Cd. A significant positive correlation was exhibited for conductivity with Cd and Cr of water but Mn exhibited a negative correlation with conductivity

  13. Noncollinear magnetism in surfaces and interfaces of transition metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Huahai

    2009-09-15

    Noncollinear (NC) magnetism is common in nature, especially when there exist geometrical frustration and chemical imparity in the system. In this work we studied the NC magnetism and the response to external magnetic fields in surfaces and interfaces of transition metals by using an semi-empirical tight-binding (TB) method that parameterized to the ab initio TB-LMTO calculations. We implemented this method to study two systems. The first one is the system of 6 Mn monolayers on Fe(001) substrate. Due to the complex structure and magnetic properties of Mn, we found 23 collinear magnetic configurations but only one NC configuration. The collinear ground state has a layered antiferromagnetic (AFM) coupling which agrees with previous experiments and calculations. In the NC configuration the local AFM coupling in the Mn layers is preserved, but the surface is 90 degree coupled to the substrate. Similar to the experiment in CdCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}, we obtained a collinear plateau in the NC evolution of the average magnetic moment in Mn slab under external magnetic fields. Another is the system of a Cr monolayer on a stepped Fe(001) substrate. As expected, the local AFM coupling in the interface of Cr and Fe are preserved. However, the edge Cr atoms is about 90 coupled to their nearest Fe neighbors. We also simulated the procedure of adding more Cr coverages gradually to a Cr bilayer coverage. As coverages increase, the magnetic moments in the Cr interface reduce, and the collinear plateau becomes wider as coverages increase. However, the saturation fields in both the two systems are extremely high, around 10 kT.We expect that when the effect of temperature is taken into account, and in some proper systems, the saturation fields could be largely reduced to the scale that can be implemented in experiment, and our study may shed light on information storage devices with ultrahigh storage density. (orig.)

  14. Decontamination of U-metal surface by an oxidation etching system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, R.B.; Kansa, E.J.; Shaffer, R.J.; Weed, H.C. [California Univ., Livermore, CA (United States). Lawrence Livermore National Lab

    2001-07-01

    A surface treatment to remove surface contamination from uranium (U) metal and/or hydrides of uranium and heavy metals (HM) from U-metal parts is described. In the case of heavy metal atomic contamination on a surface, and potentially several atomic layers beneath, the surface oxidation treatment combines both chemical and chemically driven mechanical processes. The chemical process is a controlled temperature-time oxidation process to create a thin film of uranium oxide (UO{sub 2} and higher oxides) on the U-metal surface. The chemically driven mechanical process is strain induced by the volume increase as the U-metal surface transforms to a UO{sub 2} surface film. These volume strains are significantly large to cause surface failure spalling/scale formation and thus, removal of a U-oxide film that contains the HM-contaminated surface. The case of a HM-hydride surface contamination layer can be treated similarly by using inert hot gas to decompose the U-hydrides and/or HM-hydrides that are contiguous with the surface. A preliminary analysis to design and to plan for a sequence of tests is developed. The tests will provide necessary and sufficient data to evaluate the effective implementation and operational characteristics of a safe and reliable system. The following description is limited to only a surface oxidation process for HM-decontamination. (authors)

  15. Selective metallization of polymers using laser induced surface activation (LISA)—characterization and optimization of porous surface topography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Grave, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Laser induced selective activation (LISA) is a molded interconnected devices technique for selective metallization of polymers. On the working piece, only the laser-machined area can be metalized in the subsequent plating. The principle of the technology is introduced. Surface analysis was perfor...

  16. Colonization by Cladosporium spp. of painted metal surfaces associated with heating and air conditioning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, D. G.; Simmons, R. B.; Switzer, K. F.; Ajello, L.; Pierson, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. hebarum colonized painted metal surfaces of covering panels and register vents of heating, air conditioning and ventilation systems. Hyphae penetrated the paint film and developed characteristic conidiophores and conidia. The colonies were tightly appressed to the metal surface and conidia were not readily detectable via standard air sampling procedures.

  17. 21 CFR 178.3910 - Surface lubricants used in the manufacture of metallic articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Surface lubricants used in the manufacture of... lubricants used in the manufacture of metallic articles. The substances listed in this section may be safely used in surface lubricants employed in the manufacture of metallic articles that contact food, subject...

  18. Extracellular Electron Uptake: Among Autotrophs and Mediated by Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Angenent, Largus T.; Zhang, Tian

    2017-01-01

    Autotrophic microbes can acquire electrons from solid donors such as steel, other microbial cells, or electrodes. Based on this feature, bioprocesses are being developed for the microbial electrosynthesis (MES) of useful products from the greenhouse gas CO2. Extracellular electron-transfer mechan......Autotrophic microbes can acquire electrons from solid donors such as steel, other microbial cells, or electrodes. Based on this feature, bioprocesses are being developed for the microbial electrosynthesis (MES) of useful products from the greenhouse gas CO2. Extracellular electron......; or (iii) mediator-generating enzymes detached from cells. This review explores the interactions of autotrophs with solid electron donors and their importance in nature and for biosustainable technologies....

  19. Some characteristics of metal migration in or on the surface of insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, R.B.

    1978-03-01

    This report reviews the migration of metals, principally silver, in or on the surface of insulating materials, by electrolytic processes. These processes are described for various metals, insulating materials and physical conditions, with numerous examples from the literature. While it is concluded that the only sure way to prevent degradation of insulation due to metal migration is to avoid the use of migration-prone metals, some other measures are mentioned which have been reported to reduce the extent of the growth. (author)

  20. A comparative Study of C2-Symmetric Bis(aziridine) Ligands in Some Transition Metal-Mediated Asymmetric Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Johansson, Fredrik; Harden, Adrian

    1998-01-01

    A comparative study has been made of the performance of differently substituted Ca-symmetric bis(aziridine) ligands in a variety of metal-mediated asymmetric reactions. The metals studied were osmium (dihydroxylation), palladium (allylic alkylation) and copper (cyclopropanation and aziridination...

  1. A QM/MM refinement of an experimental DNA structure with metal-mediated base pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhar, Sadhana; Johannsen, Silke; Sigel, Roland K O; Waller, Mark P; Müller, Jens

    2013-10-01

    A series of hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations was performed on models of a DNA duplex with artificial silver(I)-mediated imidazole base pairs. The optimized structures were compared to the original experimental NMR structure (Nat. Chem. 2 (2010) 229-234). The metal⋯metal distances are significantly shorter (~0.5Å) in the QM/MM model than in the original NMR structure. As a result, argentophilic interactions are feasible between the silver(I) ions of neighboring metal-mediated base pairs. Using the computationally determined metal⋯metal distances, a re-refined NMR solution structure of the DNA duplex was obtained. In this new NMR structure, all experimental constraints remain fulfilled. The new NMR structure shows less deviation from the regular B-type conformation than the original one. This investigation shows that the application of QM/MM models to generate additional constraints to be used during NMR structural refinements represents an elegant approach to obtaining high-resolution NMR structures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Decomposition of SnH{sub 4} molecules on metal and metal–oxide surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugur, D. [TNO, Stieltjesweg 1, 2628 CK Delft (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Storm, A.J.; Verberk, R. [TNO, Stieltjesweg 1, 2628 CK Delft (Netherlands); Brouwer, J.C. [Delft University of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Sloof, W.G., E-mail: w.g.sloof@tudelft.nl [Delft University of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    Atomic hydrogen cleaning is a promising method for EUV lithography systems, to recover from surface oxidation and to remove carbon and tin contaminants. Earlier studies showed, however, that tin may redeposit on nearby surfaces due to SnH{sub 4} decomposition. This phenomenon of SnH{sub 4} decomposition during tin cleaning has been quantified for various metallic and metal-oxide surfaces using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was observed that the metal oxide surfaces (TiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}) were significantly less contaminated than metallic surfaces. Tin contamination due to SnH{sub 4} decomposition can thus be reduced or even mitigated by application of a suitable metal-oxide coating.

  3. Surface Plasmon-Mediated Nanoscale Localization of Laser-Driven sub-Terahertz Spin Dynamics in Magnetic Dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekhov, Alexander L.; Stognij, Alexander I.; Satoh, Takuya; Murzina, Tatiana V.; Razdolski, Ilya; Stupakiewicz, Andrzej

    2018-05-01

    Ultrafast all-optical control of spins with femtosecond laser pulses is one of the hot topics at the crossroads of photonics and magnetism with a direct impact on future magnetic recording. Unveiling light-assisted recording mechanisms for an increase of the bit density beyond the diffraction limit without excessive heating of the recording medium is an open challenge. Here we show that surface plasmon-polaritons in hybrid metal-dielectric structures can provide spatial confinement of the inverse Faraday effect, mediating the excitation of localized coherent spin precession with 0.41 THz frequency. We demonstrate a two orders of magnitude enhancement of the excitation efficiency at the surface plasmon resonance within the 100 nm layer in dielectric garnet. Our findings broaden the horizons of ultrafast spin-plasmonics and open pathways towards non-thermal opto-magnetic recording at the nano-scale.

  4. Internal and Surface Phenomena in Heterogenous Metal Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreizin, Edward L.

    1997-01-01

    The phenomenon of gas dissolution in burning metals was observed in recent metal combustion studies, but it could not be adequately explained by the traditional metal combustion models. The research reported here addresses heterogeneous metal combustion with emphasis on the processes of oxygen penetration inside burning metal and its influence on the metal combustion rate, temperature history, and disruptive burning. The unique feature of this work is the combination of the microgravity environment with a novel micro-arc generator of monodispersed metal droplets, ensuring repeatable formation and ignition of uniform metal droplets with a controllable initial temperature and velocity. Burning droplet temperature is measured in real time with a three wavelength pyrometer. In addition, particles are rapidly quenched at different combustion times, cross-sectioned, and examined using SEM-based techniques to retrieve the internal composition history of burning metal particles. When the initial velocity of a spherical particle is nearly zero, the microgravity environment makes it possible to study the flame structure, the development of flame nonsymmetry, and correlation of the flame shape with the heterogeneous combustion processes.

  5. Interaction of hydrogen and oxygen with bulk defects and surfaces of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besenbacher, F.

    1994-05-01

    The thesis deals with the interaction of hydrogen with defects in metals and the interaction of hydrogen and oxygen with metal surfaces studied by ion-beam techniques and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), respectively. The first part of the thesis discusses the interaction of hydrogen with simple defects in transition metals. The trap-binding enthalpies and the lattice location of hydrogen trapped to vacancies have been determined, and an extremely simple and versatile picture of the hydrogen-metal interaction has evolved, in which the trap strength is mainly determined by the local electron density. Any dilution of the lattice will lead to a trap, vacancies and voids being the strongest trap. It is found that hydrogen trapped to vacancies in fcc metals is quantum-mechanically delocalized, and the excitation energies for the hydrogen in the vacancy potential are a few MeV only. The interaction of hydrogen with metal surfaces is studied by the transmission channeling (TC) technique. It is found that hydrogen chemisorbs in the highest-coordinated sites on the surfaces, and that there is a direct relationship between the hydrogen-metal bond length and the coordination number for the hydrogen. In the final part of the thesis the dynamics of the chemisorption process for oxygen and hydrogen on metal surfaces is studied by STM, a fascinating and powerful technique for exploring the atomic-scale realm of surfaces. It is found that there is a strong coupling between the chemisorption process and the distortion of the metal surface. The adsorbates induce a surface reconstruction, i.e. metal-metal bond breaks and metal-adsorbate bounds form. Whereas hydrogen interacts weakly with the metals and induces reconstructions where only nnn metals bonds are broken, oxygen interacts strongly with the metal, and the driving force for the O-induced reconstructions appears to be the formation of low-coordinated metal-O rows, formed by breaking of nn metal bonds. Finally it is shown

  6. Surface tension mediated conversion of light to work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, David; Pastine, Stefan J; Zettl, Alexander K; Frechet, Jean M. J

    2014-12-02

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for converting light energy to mechanical energy by modification of surface tension on a supporting fluid. The apparatus comprises an object which may be formed as a composite object comprising a support matrix and a highly light absorptive material. The support matrix may comprise a silicon polymer. The highly light absorptive material may comprise vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VANTs) embedded in the support matrix. The composite object is supported on a fluid. By exposing the highly light absorptive material to light, heat is generated, which changes the surface tension of the composite object, causing it to move physically within the fluid.

  7. Influence of carbon monoxide to the surface layer of uranium metal and its oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoling; Fu Yibei; Xie Renshou; Huang Ruiliang

    1996-09-01

    The surface structures of uranium metal and triuranium octaoxide (U 3 O 8 ) and the influence of carbon monoxide to the surface layers have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). After exposure to carbon monoxide, contents of oxygen in the surface oxides of uranium metal and U 3 O 8 are decreased and O/U ratios decrease 7.2%, 8.0% respectively. The investigation indicated the surface layers of uranium metal and its oxides were forbidden to further oxidation in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide. (11 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.)

  8. Study of highly functionalized metal surface treated by plasma ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeyama, Masami; Miyagawa, Soji; Miyagawa, Yoshiko; Nakao, Setsuo; Masuda, Haruho; Saito, Kazuo; Ono, Taizou; Hayashi, Eiji

    2004-01-01

    Technology for processing metal surfaces with hardness, low friction and free from foreign substances was developed with plasma ion implantation. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating is a most promising method for realization of hard and smooth metal surface. DLC coating was tested in a metal pipe with 10 mm diameter and 10 cm length by a newly developed plasma ion implantation instrument. The surface coated by DLC was proved to have characteristics equivalent to those prepared with other methods. A computer program simulating a formation process of DLC coating was developed. Experiments for fluorinating the DLC coating surface was performed. (Y. Kazumata)

  9. Intravascular local gene transfer mediated by protein-coated metallic stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, J; Gao, R; Shi, R; Song, L; Tang, J; Li, Y; Tang, C; Meng, L; Yuan, W; Chen, Z

    2001-10-01

    To assess the feasibility, efficiency and selectivity of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to local arterial wall by protein-coated metallic stent. A replication-defective recombinant adenovirus carrying the Lac Z reporter gene for nuclear-specific beta-galactosidase (Ad-beta gal) was used in this study. The coating for metallic stent was made by immersing it in a gelatin solution containing crosslinker. The coated stents were mounted on a 4.0 or 3.0 mm percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) balloon and submersed into a high-titer Ad-beta gal viral stock (2 x 10(10) pfu/ml) for 3 min, and then implanted into the carotid arteries in 4 mini-swines and into the left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery in 2 mini-swines via 8F large lumen guiding catheters. The animals were sacrificed 7 (n = 4), 14 (n = 1) and 21 (n = 1) days after implantation, respectively. The beta-galactosidase expression was assessed by X-gal staining. The results showed that the expression of transgene was detected in all animal. In 1 of carotid artery with an intact intima, the beta-gal expression was limited to endothelial cells. In vessels with denuded endothelium, gene expression was found in the sub-intima, media and adventitia. The transfection efficiency of medial smooth muscle cells was 38.6%. In 2 animals sacrificed 7 days after transfection, a microscopic examination of X-gal-stained samples did not show evidence of transfection in remote organs and arterial segments adjacent to the treated arterial site. Adenovirus-mediated arterial gene transfer to endothelial, smooth muscle cells and adventitia by protein-coated metallic stent is feasible. The transfection efficiency is higher. The coated stent may act as a good carrier of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer and have a potential to prevent restenosis following PTCA.

  10. Application of the B.F.S. Method to Metallic Surfaces: Surface Alloys and Alloy Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozzolo, Gullermo

    1997-01-01

    These notes introduce the BFS (Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith) method for alloys, in the framework of what is available today in terms of computationally efficient and physically sound techniques for modeling of atomic systems. The BFS method belongs to the family of semi-empirical methods, which aim to balance scientific rigour with practical applications. The goal is to provide a tool that aids in the process of material analysis and development, supplementing the experimental work which by itself has limitations in terms of time, money, technology and human resources. One of the main advantages of the BFS method, basically tailored to assist in the problem of alloy design, is that it is easily applicable to the analysis of surface structure, with a satisfactory degree of accuracy. In these notes, first the role of semiempirical methods among the available tools for atomistic simulations is reviewed, followed by a description of the BFS method and a simple application in order to understand the operational procedure, and conclude reviewing some of the topics of current interest where techniques such as the BFS method play an important role in furthering the understanding os fundamental issues

  11. Ion bombardment effect on surface state of metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaulin, E.P.; Georgieva, N.E.; Martynenko, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of slow argon ion bombardment on the surface microstructure of polycrystalline copper as well as the effect of surface state on sputtering of D-16 polycrystalline alloy are experimentally studied. Reduction of copper surface roughness is observed. It is shown that the D-16 alloy sputtering coefficient is sensitive to the surface state within the limits of the destructed surface layer

  12. Mechanism of deposit formation on fuel-wetted metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stavinoha, L.L.; Westbrook, S.R.; McInnis, L.A. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Experiments were performed in a Single-Tube Heat Exchanger (STHE) apparatus and a Hot Liquid Process Simulator (HLPS) configured and operated to meet Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester (JFTOT) ASTM D 3241 requirements. The HLPS-JFTOT heater tubes used were 1018 mild steel, 316 stainless steel (SS), 304 stainless steel (SS), and 304 SS tubes coated with aluminum, magnesium, gold, and copper. A low-sulfur Jet A fuel with a breakpoint temperature of 254{degrees}C was used to create deposits on the heater tubes at temperatures of 300{degrees}C, 340{degrees}C, and 380{degrees}C. Deposit thickness was measured by dielectric breakdown voltage and Auger ion milling. Pronounced differences between the deposit thickness measuring techniques suggested that both the Auger milling rate and the dielectric strength of the deposit may be affected by deposit morphology/composition (such as metal ions that may have become included in the bulk of the deposit). Carbon burnoff data were obtained as a means of judging the validity of DMD-derived deposit evaluations. ESCA data suggest that the thinnest deposit was on the magnesium-coated test tube. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) photographs showed marked variations in the deposit morphology and the results suggested that surface composition has a significant effect on the mechanism of deposition. The most dramatic effect observed was that the bulk of deposits moved to tube locations of lower temperature as the maximum temperature of the tube was increased from 300{degrees} to 380{degrees}C, also verified in a single-tube heat exchanger. The results indicate that the deposition rate and quantity at elevated temperatures is not completely temperature dependent, but is limited by the concentration of dissolved oxygen and/or reactive components in the fuel over a temperature range.

  13. Replication of surface features from a master model to an amorphous metallic article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William L.; Bakke, Eric; Peker, Atakan

    1999-01-01

    The surface features of an article are replicated by preparing a master model having a preselected surface feature thereon which is to be replicated, and replicating the preselected surface feature of the master model. The replication is accomplished by providing a piece of a bulk-solidifying amorphous metallic alloy, contacting the piece of the bulk-solidifying amorphous metallic alloy to the surface of the master model at an elevated replication temperature to transfer a negative copy of the preselected surface feature of the master model to the piece, and separating the piece having the negative copy of the preselected surface feature from the master model.

  14. Surface analysis of transition metal oxalates: Damage aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenakin, S.P., E-mail: chenakin@imp.kiev.ua [Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Chimie-Physique des Matériaux, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Institute of Metal Physics, Nat. Acad. Sci. of Ukraine, Akad. Vernadsky Blvd. 36, 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Szukiewicz, R. [Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Chimie-Physique des Matériaux, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Barbosa, R.; Kruse, N. [Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Chimie-Physique des Matériaux, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Washington State University, 155 Wegner Hall, Pullman, WA 99164-6515 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Gas evolution from the Mn, Co, Ni and Cu oxalate hydrates in vacuum, during exposure to X-rays and after termination of X-ray irradiation is studied. • A comparative study of the damage caused by X-rays in NiC{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CuC{sub 2}O{sub 4} is carried out. • Effect of Ar{sup +} bombardment on the structure and composition of CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4} is studied. - Abstract: The behavior of transition metal oxalates in vacuum, under X-ray irradiation and low-energy Ar{sup +} ion bombardment was studied. A comparative mass-spectrometric analysis was carried out of gas evolution from the surface of Mn, Co, Ni and Cu oxalate hydrates in vacuum, during exposure to X-rays and after termination of X-ray irradiation. The rates of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} liberation from the oxalates were found to be in an inverse correlation with the temperatures of dehydration and decomposition, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to study the X-ray induced damage in NiC{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CuC{sub 2}O{sub 4} by measuring the various XP spectral characteristics and surface composition of the oxalates as a function of time of exposure to X-rays. It was shown that Cu oxalate underwent a significantly faster degradation than Ni oxalate and demonstrated a high degree of X-ray induced reduction from the Cu{sup 2+} to the Cu{sup 1+} chemical state. 500 eV Ar{sup +} sputter cleaning of CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4} for 10 min was found to cause a strong transformation of the oxalate structure which manifested itself in an appreciable alteration of the XP core-level and valence band spectra. The analysis of changes in stoichiometry and comparison of XP spectra of bombarded oxalate with respective spectra of a reference carbonate CoCO{sub 3} implied that the bombardment-induced decomposition of CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4} gave rise to the formation of CoO-like and disordered CoCO{sub 3}-like phases.

  15. Protein mediated synthesis of fluorescent Au-nanoclusters for metal sensory coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Manja; Raff, Johannes [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biogeochemistry

    2017-06-01

    Fluorescent Au-nanocluster were successfully synthesized and used for the selective detection of Cu{sup 2} {sup +}. The synthesized Au-BSA-nanoclusters remain functional also after immobilization and show high thermal stability. Additionally, the transfer of the protein mediated Au-nanocluster synthesis route to S-layer proteins was achieved. (The presented work is part of the project BIONEWS dealing with long-term stable cells for the set-up and regeneration of sensor and actor materials for strategic relevant metals, in particular rare earth elements).

  16. Metal concentrations in intertidal water and surface sediment along ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-01-01

    Jan 1, 2017 ... The higher metal concentrations reported in sediment suggested that both ... the condition of the water column and health of benthic marine ... and fish processing facilities are situated on the western side of ... ated approximately 20 km north of Cape Town. .... caused such levels of metal input to the system.

  17. Metal Hydride assited contamination on Ru/Si surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pachecka, Malgorzata; Lee, Christopher James; Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    In extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) residual tin, in the form of particles, ions, and atoms, can be deposited on nearby EUV optics. During the EUV pulse, a reactive hydrogen plasma is formed, which may be able to react with metal contaminants, creating volatile and unstable metal hydrides that

  18. Observation of the adsorption and desorption of vibrationally excited molecules on a metal surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirhatti, Pranav R.; Rahinov, Igor; Golibrzuch, Kai; Werdecker, Jörn; Geweke, Jan; Altschäffel, Jan; Kumar, Sumit; Auerbach, Daniel J.; Bartels, Christof; Wodtke, Alec M.

    2018-06-01

    The most common mechanism of catalytic surface chemistry is that of Langmuir and Hinshelwood (LH). In the LH mechanism, reactants adsorb, become thermalized with the surface, and subsequently react. The measured vibrational (relaxation) lifetimes of molecules adsorbed at metal surfaces are in the range of a few picoseconds. As a consequence, vibrational promotion of LH chemistry is rarely observed, with the exception of LH reactions occurring via a molecular physisorbed intermediate. Here, we directly detect adsorption and subsequent desorption of vibrationally excited CO molecules from a Au(111) surface. Our results show that CO (v = 1) survives on a Au(111) surface for 1 × 10-10 s. Such long vibrational lifetimes for adsorbates on metal surfaces are unexpected and pose an interesting challenge to the current understanding of vibrational energy dissipation on metal surfaces. They also suggest that vibrational promotion of surface chemistry might be more common than is generally believed.

  19. Effect of metallic and hyperbolic metamaterial surfaces on electric and magnetic dipole emission transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, X.; Naik, G. V.; Kildishev, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous emission patterns of electric and magnetic dipoles on different metallic surfaces and a hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) surface were simulated using the dyadic Green’s function technique. The theoretical approach was verified by experimental results obtained by measuring angular......-dependent emission spectra of europium ions on top of different films. The results show the modified behavior of electric and magnetic dipoles on metallic and HMM surfaces. The results of numerical calculations agree well with experimental data....

  20. An attemp to use a pulsed CO2 laser for decontamination of radioactive metal surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    MILAN S. TRTICA; SCEPAN S. MILJANIC; NATASA N. STJEPANOVIC

    2000-01-01

    There is a growing interest in laser radioactive decontamination of metal surfaces. It offers advantages over conventional methods: improved safety, reduction of secondary waste, reduced waste volume, acceptable cost. The main mechanism of cleaning by lasers is ablation. A pulsed TEA CO2 laser was used in this work for surface cleaning in order to show that ablation of metal surfaces is possible even at relatively low pulse energies, and to suggest that it could be competitive with other lase...

  1. Sortase A-mediated functionalization of nanobodies toward surface coupling

    OpenAIRE

    TA, Duy Tien; STEEN REDEKER, Erik; GUEDENS, Wanda; ADRIAENSENS, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The conserved LPETG motif, at which sortase A-catalyzed transpeptidation occurs, is engineered at the C-terminal region of the variable domain of single-domain heavy chain antibody (or nanobody) against Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (VCAM1). The recombinant nanobody can then subsequently be ligated, under sortase A catalysis, to a variety of oligoglycine containing targets, including material surfaces, contrast labeling molecules and molecules functionalized for specific chemical coupling...

  2. Relationship between metal speciation in soil solution and metal adsorption at the root surface of ryegrass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalis, E.J.J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Town, R.M.; Unsworth, E.R.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2008-01-01

    Received for publication October 12, 2007. The total metal content of the soil or total metal concentration in the soil solution is not always a good indicator for metal availability to plants. Therefore, several speciation techniques have been developed that measure a defined fraction of the total

  3. Adsorption and migration of single metal atoms on the calcite (10.4) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, H; Haapasilta, V; Lokhandwala, M; Foster, Adam S; Öberg, S

    2017-01-01

    Transition metal atoms are one of the key ingredients in the formation of functional 2D metal organic coordination networks. Additionally, the co-deposition of metal atoms can play an important role in anchoring the molecular structures to the surface at room temperature. To gain control of such processes requires the understanding of adsorption and diffusion properties of the different transition metals on the target surface. Here, we used density functional theory to investigate the adsorption of 3 d (Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu), 4 d (Zr, Nb, Mo, Pd, Ag) and 5 d (Hf, W, Ir, Pt, Au) transition metal adatoms on the insulating calcite (10.4) surface. We identified the most stable adsorption sites and calculated binding energies and corresponding ground state structures. We find that the preferential adsorption sites are the Ca–Ca bridge sites. Apart from the Cr, Mo, Cu, Ag and Au all the studied metals bind strongly to the calcite surface. The calculated migration barriers for the representative Ag and Fe atoms indicates that the metal adatoms are mobile on the calcite surface at room temperature. Bader analysis suggests that there is no significant charge transfer between the metal adatoms and the calcite surface. (paper)

  4. Metals on graphene and carbon nanotube surfaces: From mobile atoms to atomtronics to bulk metals to clusters and catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Sarkar, Santanu C.

    2014-01-14

    In this Perspective, we present an overview of recent fundamental studies on the nature of the interaction between individual metal atoms and metal clusters and the conjugated surfaces of graphene and carbon nanotube with a particular focus on the electronic structure and chemical bonding at the metal-graphene interface. We discuss the relevance of organometallic complexes of graphitic materials to the development of a fundamental understanding of these interactions and their application in atomtronics as atomic interconnects, high mobility organometallic transistor devices, high-frequency electronic devices, organometallic catalysis (hydrogen fuel generation by photocatalytic water splitting, fuel cells, hydrogenation), spintronics, memory devices, and the next generation energy devices. We touch on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene grown on metals, the reactivity of its surface, and its use as a template for asymmetric graphene functionalization chemistry (ultrathin Janus discs). We highlight some of the latest advances in understanding the nature of interactions between metals and graphene surfaces from the standpoint of metal overlayers deposited on graphene and SWNT thin films. Finally, we comment on the major challenges facing the field and the opportunities for technological applications. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  5. Surface metal standards produced by ion implantation through a removable layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueler, B.W.; Granger, C.N.; McCaig, L.; McKinley, J.M.; Metz, J.; Mowat, I.; Reich, D.F.; Smith, S.; Stevie, F.A.; Yang, M.H.

    2003-01-01

    Surface metal concentration standards were produced by ion implantation and investigated for their suitability to calibrate surface metal measurements by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Single isotope implants were made through a 100 nm oxide layer on silicon. The implant energies were chosen to place the peak of the implanted species at a depth of 100 nm. Subsequent removal of the oxide layer was used to expose the implant peak and to produce controlled surface metal concentrations. Surface metal concentration measurements by time-of-flight SIMS (TOF-SIMS) with an analysis depth of 1 nm agreed with the expected surface concentrations of the implant standards with a relative mean standard deviation of 20%. Since the TOF-SIMS relative sensitivity factors (RSFs) were originally derived from surface metal measurements of surface contaminated silicon wafers, the agreement implies that the implant standards can be used to measure RSF values. The homogeneity of the surface metal concentration was typically <10%. The dopant dose remaining in silicon after oxide removal was measured using the surface-SIMS protocol. The measured implant dose agreed with the expected dose with a mean relative standard deviation of 25%

  6. Influence of various surface-conditioning methods on the bond strength of metal brackets to ceramic surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmage, P; Nergiz, [No Value; Herrmann, W; Ozcan, M; Nergiz, Ibrahim; �zcan, Mutlu

    With the increase in adult orthodontic treatment comes the need to find a reliable method for bonding orthodontic brackets onto metal or ceramic crowns and fixed partial dentures. In this study, shear bond strength and surface roughness tests were used to examine the effect of 4 different surface

  7. Investigations of thin p-GaN light-emitting diodes with surface plasmon compatible metallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadil, Ahmed; Ou, Yiyu; Iida, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    We investigate device performance of InGaN light-emitting diodes with a 30-nm p-GaN layer. The metallization used to separate the p-contact from plasmonic metals, reveals limitations on current spreading which reduces surface plasmonic enhancement.......We investigate device performance of InGaN light-emitting diodes with a 30-nm p-GaN layer. The metallization used to separate the p-contact from plasmonic metals, reveals limitations on current spreading which reduces surface plasmonic enhancement....

  8. High surface area graphene-supported metal chalcogenide assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Orme, Christine A.

    2017-04-25

    Disclosed here is a method for hydrocarbon conversion, comprising contacting at least one graphene-supported assembly with at least one hydrocarbon feedstock, wherein the graphene-supported assembly comprises (i) a three-dimensional network of graphene sheets crosslinked by covalent carbon bonds and (ii) at least one metal chalcogenide compound disposed on the graphene sheets, wherein the chalcogen of the metal chalcogenide compound is selected from S, Se and Te, and wherein the metal chalcogenide compound accounts for at least 20 wt. % of the graphene-supported assembly.

  9. Excitation mechanism in the photoisomerization of a surface-bound azobenzene derivative: Role of the metallic substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Sebastian; Kate, Peter; Leyssner, Felix; Nandi, Dhananjay; Wolf, Martin; Tegeder, Petra

    2008-10-01

    Two-photon photoemission spectroscopy is employed to elucidate the electronic structure and the excitation mechanism in the photoinduced isomerization of the molecular switch tetra-tert-butyl-azobenzene (TBA) adsorbed on Au(111). Our results demonstrate that the optical excitation and the mechanism of molecular switching at a metal surface is completely different compared to the corresponding process for the free molecule. In contrast to direct (intramolecular) excitation operative in the isomerization in the liquid phase, the conformational change in the surface-bound TBA is driven by a substrate-mediated charge transfer process. We find that photoexcitation above a threshold hν ≈2.2 eV leads to hole formation in the Au d-band followed by a hole transfer to the highest occupied molecular orbital of TBA. This transiently formed positive ion resonance subsequently results in a conformational change. The photon energy dependent photoisomerization cross section exhibit an unusual shape for a photochemical reaction of an adsorbate on a metal surface. It shows a thresholdlike behavior below hν ≈2.2 eV and above hν ≈4.4 eV. These thresholds correspond to the minimum energy required to create single or multiple hot holes in the Au d-bands, respectively. This study provides important new insights into the use of light to control the structure and function of molecular switches in direct contact with metal electrodes.

  10. Excitation mechanism in the photoisomerization of a surface-bound azobenzene derivative: Role of the metallic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, Sebastian; Kate, Peter; Leyssner, Felix; Nandi, Dhananjay; Wolf, Martin; Tegeder, Petra

    2008-01-01

    Two-photon photoemission spectroscopy is employed to elucidate the electronic structure and the excitation mechanism in the photoinduced isomerization of the molecular switch tetra-tert-butyl-azobenzene (TBA) adsorbed on Au(111). Our results demonstrate that the optical excitation and the mechanism of molecular switching at a metal surface is completely different compared to the corresponding process for the free molecule. In contrast to direct (intramolecular) excitation operative in the isomerization in the liquid phase, the conformational change in the surface-bound TBA is driven by a substrate-mediated charge transfer process. We find that photoexcitation above a threshold hν≅2.2 eV leads to hole formation in the Au d-band followed by a hole transfer to the highest occupied molecular orbital of TBA. This transiently formed positive ion resonance subsequently results in a conformational change. The photon energy dependent photoisomerization cross section exhibit an unusual shape for a photochemical reaction of an adsorbate on a metal surface. It shows a thresholdlike behavior below hν≅2.2 eV and above hν≅4.4 eV. These thresholds correspond to the minimum energy required to create single or multiple hot holes in the Au d-bands, respectively. This study provides important new insights into the use of light to control the structure and function of molecular switches in direct contact with metal electrodes.

  11. Photodetachment of negative ion in a gradient electric field near a metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tian-Qi; Wang De-Hua; Han Cai; Liu Jiang; Liang Dong-Qi; Xie Si-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Based on closed-orbit theory, the photodetachment of H − in a gradient electric field near a metal surface is studied. It is demonstrated that the gradient electric field has a significant influence on the photodetachment of negative ions near a metal surface. With the increase of the gradient of the electric field, the oscillation in the photodetachment cross section becomes strengthened. Besides, in contrast to the photodetachment of H − near a metal surface in a uniform electric field, the oscillating amplitude and the oscillating region in the cross section of a gradient electric field also become enlarged. Therefore, we can use the gradient electric field to control the photodetachment of negative ions near a metal surface. We hope that our results will be useful for understanding the photodetachment of negative ions in the vicinity of surfaces, cavities, and ion traps. (atomic and molecular physics)

  12. Numerical simulation on the explosive boiling phenomena on the surface of molten metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Deqi; Peng Cheng; Wang Qinghua; Pan Liangming

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, numerical simulation was carried out to investigate the explosive boiling phenomenon on high temperature surface also the influence of vapor growth rate during explosive boiling, vapor condensation in sub-cooled water and the subsequent effect on flowing and heat transfer. The simulation result indicates that the steam on the molten metal surface grows with very high speed, and it pushes away the sub-cooled water around and causes severe flowing. The steam clusters which block the sub-cooled water to rewet the molten metal surface are appearing at the same time. During the growth, lifting off as well as condensation of the steam clusters, the sub-cooled water around is strongly disturbed, and obvious vortexes appear. Conversely, the vortex will influence the steam cluster detachment and cub-cooled water rewetting the metal surface. This simulation visually displays the complex explosive boiling phenomena on the molten metal surface with high temperature. (authors)

  13. Preparation of surface conductive and highly reflective silvered polyimide films by surface modification and in situ self-metallization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhanpeng; Wu Dezhen; Qi Shengli; Zhang Teng; Jin Riguang

    2005-01-01

    Double surface conductive and reflective flexible silvered polyimide films have been prepared by alkali hydroxylation of polyimide film surface and incorporation of silver ions through subsequent ion exchange. Thermal curing of silver(I) polyamate precursor leads to re-cycloimidization of modified surface with concomitant silver reduction, yielding a reflective and conductive silver surface approaching that of native metal. The reflective and conductive surface evolves only when the cure temperature rises to 300 deg. C. The metallized films usually retain the essential mechanical properties of the parent films. Films were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy and tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM demonstrates that the diameter of close-packed silver particles of the silver layers was about 50-150 nm. TEM shows that thickness of silver layer on the polyimide film surface is about 400-600 nm

  14. Influence of refraction of p-polarized light on photoemission from metallic surface states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagchi, A.; Barrera, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    The refraction of p-polarized light at a metal surface leads, under certain circumstances, to a large peak in the spatial distribution of the normal component of the electric field near the surface. The origin of this peak is explained both in terms of a classical correspondence and in terms of a theory based on the non-local dielectric response of the metal surface. The significance of the large magnitude and rapid variation of the surface electric field in exciting photoelectrons from surface states is discussed [pt

  15. Tensile bond strength of metal bracket bonding to glazed ceramic surfaces with different surface conditionings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhoundi, Ms Ahmad; Kamel, M Rahmati; Hashemi, Sh Mahmood; Imani, M

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the tensile bond strength of metal brackets bonding to glazed ceramic surfaces using three various surface treatments. Forty two glazed ceramic disks were assigned to three groups. In the first and second groups the specimens were etched with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid (HFA). Subsequently in first group, ceramic primer and adhesive were applied, but in second group a bonding agent alone was used. In third group, specimens were treated with 35% phosphoric acid followed by ceramic primer and adhesive application. Brackets were bonded with light cure composites. The specimens were stored in distilled water in the room temperature for 24 hours and thermocycled 500 times between 5°C and 55°C. The universal testing machine was used to test the tensile bond strength and the adhesive remenant index scores between three groups was evaluated. The data were subjected to one-way ANOVA, Tukey and Kruskal-Wallis tests respectively. The tensile bond strength was 3.69±0.52 MPa forfirst group, 2.69±0.91 MPa for second group and 3.60±0.41 MPa for third group. Group II specimens showed tensile strength values significantly different from other groups (Ptensile bond strength.

  16. Plasmon mediated inverse Faraday effect in a graphene-dielectric-metal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkov, Igor V; Kuzmin, Dmitry A; Tolkachev, Valentine A; Plaksin, Pavel S; Shavrov, Vladimir G

    2018-01-01

    This Letter shows the features of inverse Faraday effect (IFE) in a graphene-dielectric-metal (GDM) structure. The constants of propagation and attenuation of the surface plasmon-polariton modes are calculated. The effective magnetic field induced by surface plasmon modes in the dielectric due to the IFE is estimated to reach above 1 tesla. The possibility to control the distribution of the magnetic field by chemical potential of graphene is shown. The concept of strain-driven control of the IFE in the structure has been proposed and investigated.

  17. Surface effects in metal oxide-based nanodevices

    KAUST Repository

    Lien, Der Hsien

    2015-10-29

    As devices shrink to the nanoscale, surface-to-volume ratio increases and the surface-environment interaction becomes a major factor for affecting device performance. The variation of electronic properties, including the surface band bending, gas chemisorption or photodesorption, native surface defects, and surface roughness, is called "surface effects". Such effects are ambiguous because they can be either negative or beneficial effects, depending on the environmental conditions and device application. This review provides an introduction to the surface effects on different types of nanodevices, offering the solutions to respond to their benefits and negative effects and provides an outlook on further applications regarding the surface effect. This review is beneficial for designing nano-enabled photodetectors, harsh electronics, memories, sensors and transistors via surface engineering.

  18. Surface effects in metal oxide-based nanodevices

    KAUST Repository

    Lien, Der Hsien; Duran Retamal, Jose Ramon; Ke, Jr Jian; Kang, Chen Fang; He, Jr-Hau

    2015-01-01

    As devices shrink to the nanoscale, surface-to-volume ratio increases and the surface-environment interaction becomes a major factor for affecting device performance. The variation of electronic properties, including the surface band bending, gas chemisorption or photodesorption, native surface defects, and surface roughness, is called "surface effects". Such effects are ambiguous because they can be either negative or beneficial effects, depending on the environmental conditions and device application. This review provides an introduction to the surface effects on different types of nanodevices, offering the solutions to respond to their benefits and negative effects and provides an outlook on further applications regarding the surface effect. This review is beneficial for designing nano-enabled photodetectors, harsh electronics, memories, sensors and transistors via surface engineering.

  19. Spectroscopic studies of organometallic compounds on single crystal metal surfaces: Surface acetylides of silver (110)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madix, Robert J.

    The nature of compounds formed by the reaction of organic molecules with metal surfaces can be studied with a battery of analytical methods based on both physicals and chemical understanding. In this paper the application of UPS, XPS, LEED and EELS as well as temperature programmed reaction spectroscopy (TPRS) and chemical titration methods to the characterization of surface complexes is discussed. Particular emphasis is given to the reaction of acetylene with a single crystal surface of silver, Ag(110). Previous work has shown that this surface, when clean, is unreactive to hydrocarbons, alcohols and carboxylic acids under ultra high vacuum conditions. Preadsorption of oxygen, however, renders the surface reactive, and a wide variety of organometallic surface compounds can be formed. As expected then, no stable adsorption state and no reaction was observed with clean Ag(110) following room temperature exposure to acetylene. Following exposure at 150 K, however, a weekly bound chemisorption state was observed to desorb at 195 K, indicating a binding energy to the surface of approximately 12 kcal/gmole. Reaction with preadsorbed oxygen gave water formulation upon dosing and produced surface intermediates which yeilded two acetylene desorption states at 195 and 175 K. Heating above 300 K to completely desorb the higher temperature state produced new, well-defined LEED Features due to residual surface carbon which disappeared when the surface was heated above 550 K. Clearly, there were distinc changes in the nature of the absorbed layer at 195, 300 and 550 K. These changes were reflected in XPS. For the weakly chemisorbed acetylene a large C(ls) peak at 285.6 eV with a small, broad, indistinc shoulder at higher binding energy (288.2) was observed. The spectrum of the species following acetylene desorption at 275 K, however, showed the formulation of a large C(ls) peak at 283.6 eV in addition to peaks characteristics of the weakly chemisorbed state. This result

  20. Surface properties of ceramic/metal composite materials for thermionic converter applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.R.; Bozack, M.J.; Swanson, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    Ceramic/metal composite electrode materials are of interest for thermionic energy conversion (TEC) applications for several reasons. These materials consist of submicron metal fibers or islands in an oxide matrix and therefore provide a basis for fabricating finely structured electrodes, with projecting or recessed metallic regions for more efficient electron emission or collection. Furthermore, evaporation and surface diffusion of matrix oxides may provide oxygen enhancement of cesium adsorption and work function lowering at both the collecting and emitting electrode surfaces of the TEC. Finally, the high work function oxide matrix or oxide-metal interfaces may provide efficient surface ionization of cesium for space-charge reduction in the device. The authors are investigating two types of ceramic/metal composite materials. One type is a directionally solidified eutectic consisting of a bulk oxide matrix such as UO 2 or stabilized ZrO 2 with parallel metal fibers (W) running through the oxide being exposed at the surface by cutting perpendicular to the fiber direction. The second type of material, called a surface eutectic, consists of a refractory substrate (Mo) with a thin layer of deposited and segregated material (Mo-Cr 2 O 3 -A1 2 O 3 ) on the surface. The final configuration of this layer is an oxide matrix with metallic islands scattered throughout

  1. Raising the shields: PCR in the presence of metallic surfaces protected by tailor-made coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherag, Frank D; Brandstetter, Thomas; Rühe, Jürgen

    2014-10-01

    The implementation of PCR reactions in the presence of metallic surfaces is interesting for the generation of novel bioanalytical devices, because metals exhibit high mechanical stability, good thermal conductivity, and flexibility during deformation. However, metallic substrates are usually non-compatible with enzymatic reactions such as PCR due to poisoning of the active center of the enzyme or nonspecific adsorption of the enzymeto the metal surface, which could result in protein denaturation. We present a method for the generation of polymer coatings on metallic surfaces which are designed to minimize protein adsorption and also prevent the release of metal ions. These coatings consist of three layers covalently linked to each other; a self-assembled monolayer to promote adhesion, a photochemically generated barrier layer and a photochemically generated hydrogel. The coatings can be deposited onto aluminum, stainless steel, gold and copper surfaces. We compare PCR efficiencies in the presence of bare metallic surfaces with those of surfaces treated with the novel coating system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The passivation of uranium metal surfaces by nitrogen bombardment — the formation of uranium nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Geoffrey C.; Holmes, Nigel R.

    1988-05-01

    As part of a detailed investigation of the behaviour of metallic uranium in various atmospheres, we have examined the reaction between nitrogen gas and uranium metal. At room temperature there was no evidence of reaction between nitrogen gas and a clean metal surface; the only changes observed could be attributed to reaction between the metal and traces of oxygen (less than 0.1 ppm) in the nitrogen gas. Reaction between the metal and nitrogen was induced, however, by accelerating nitrogen towards the surface using a fast atom gun. The resulting nitrided surface was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and its oxidation behaviour was monitored over an extended period in UHV and in air.

  3. The passivation of uranium metal surfaces by nitrogen bombardment - the formation of uranium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, G.C.; Holmes, N.R.

    1987-08-01

    As part of a detailed investigation of the behaviour of metallic uranium in various atmospheres, we have examined the reaction between nitrogen gas and uranium metal. At room temperature there was no evidence of reaction between nitrogen gas and a clean metal surface; the only changes observed could be attributed to reaction between the metal and traces of oxygen (less than 0.1 ppm) in the nitrogen gas. Reaction between the metal and nitrogen was induced however by accelerating nitrogen towards the surface using a fast atom gun. The resulting nitrided surface was characterised by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and its oxidation behaviour was monitored over an extended period in UHV and in air. (author)

  4. The passivation of uranium metal surfaces by nitrogen bombardment - the formation of uranium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, G.C.; Holmes, N.R.

    1988-01-01

    As part of a detailed investigation of the behaviour of metallic uranium in various atmospheres, we have examined the reaction between nitrogen gas and uranium metal. At room temperature there was no evidence of reaction between nitrogen gas and a clean metal surface; the only changes observed could be attributed to reaction between the metal and traces of oxygen (less than 0.1 ppm) in the nitrogen gas. Reaction between the metal and nitrogen was induced, however, by accelerating nitrogen towards the surface using a fast atom gun. The resulting nitrided surface was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and its oxidation behaviour was monitored over an extended period in UHV and in air. (orig.)

  5. Site-Specific Molecule-Surface Interactions on Metal Oxides

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reisler, Hanna

    1998-01-01

    .... At low incident energies rotational and translational temperatures of scattered HCl were equal to the surface temperature, and residence times in the millisecond regime were observed at low surface temperature. When HCl(v=2, J=1...

  6. Electronic properties of adsorbates and clean surfaces of metals and semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecante, J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper surveys recent progress in experimental studies on electronic properties of adsorbates and clean metal surfaces. Electron spectroscopy and particularly angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy appears to be a very powerful tool to get informations on electronic levels of adsorbates or clean surfaces. Moreover this technique may also give informations about the atomic geometry of the surface. Experimental investigation about surface plasmons, surface states, core level shifts are presented for clean surfaces. As examples of adsorbate covered surfaces two typical cases are chosen: two dimensional band structure and oriented molecules. Finally the photoelectron diffraction may be used for surface structure determination either in the case of an adsorbate or a clean metal surface [fr

  7. Annotated bibliography for liquid metal surface tensions of groups III-A, IV-A, and V-A metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murtha, M.J.; Burnet, G.

    1976-04-01

    An annotated bibliography has been prepared which includes summaries of 82 publications dating from 1920 and dealing with the measurement of the surface tensions of Groups III-A, IV-A, and V-A metals in the liquid state. The bibliography is organized by key element investigated, and contains a tabulation of correlations for surface tension as a function of temperature. A brief discussion dealing with variables and methods has been included

  8. Study of structure and surface morphology of two-layer contact Ti/Al metallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill D. Vanyukhin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ti/Al/Ni/Au metallization widely used in the technology of GaN base devices have a very important imperfection i.e. rough surface. There are different opinions about the causes of this imperfection: balling-up of molten aluminum or the appearance of intermetallic melt phases in the Au–Al system. To check the effect of the former cause, we have studied the formation of rough surface after annealing of Ti/Al metallization which is used as a basis of many metallization systems for GaN. The substrates were made from silicon wafers covered with Si3N4 films (0.15 μm. On these substrates we deposited the Ti(12 nm/Al(135 nm metallization system. After the deposition the substrates were annealed in nitrogen for 30 s at 850 °С. The as-annealed specimens were tested for metallization sheet resistivity, appearance and surface morphology. We have shown that during annealing of the Ti/Al metallization system, mutual diffusion of the metals and their active interaction with the formation of intermetallic phases occur. This makes the metallization system more resistant to subsequent annealing, oxidation and chemical etching. After annealing the surface of the Ti/Al metallization system becomes gently matted. However, large hemispherical convex areas (as in the Ti/Al/Ni/Au metallization system do not form. Thus, the hypothesis on the balling-up of molten aluminum on the surface of the Ti/Al metallization system has not been confirmed.

  9. Multiplex and high-throughput DNA detection using surface plasmon mediated fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Zhong

    The overall objective of this research project was to develop a user-friendly and sensitive biosensor for nucleic acid aptamers with multiplexing and high-throughput capability. The sensing was based on the fluorescence signals emitted by the fluorophores coupling with plamonic nanoparticle (gold nanorod) deposited on a patterned substrate. Gold nanorods (GNRs) were synthesized using a binary mixture of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium oleate (NaOL) in seed mediated growth method. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) printed glass slides were selectively coated with a gold thin-film to define hydrophilic areas for GNR deposition. Due to the wettablity contrast, GNR solution dropped on the slide was induced to assemble exclusively in the hydrophilic spots. By controlling temperature and humidity of the evaporation process, vertically-standing GNR arrays were achieved on the pattered slide. Fluorescence was conjugated to GNR surface via DNA double strand with tunable length. Theoretical simulation predicted a flat layer ( 30 nm thick) of uniform "hot spots" presented on the GNR tips, which could modify the nearby fluorescence. Experimentally, the vertical GNR arrays yielded metallic enhanced fluorescence (MEF) effect, which was dependent on the spectrum overlap and GNR-fluorophore distance. Specifically, the maximum enhancement of Quasar 670 and Alexa 750 was observed when it was coupled with GNR664 (plasmonic wavelength 664 nm) and GNR778 respectively at a distance of 16 nm, while the carboxyfluorescein (FAM) was at maximal intensity when attached to gold nanosphere520. This offers an opportunity for multiplexed DNA sensing. Based on this, we developed a novel GNR mediated fluorescence biosensor for DNA detection. Fluorescence labeled haipin-DNA probes were introduced to designated spots of GNR array with the matching LSPR wavelengths on the substrate. The fluorescence was quenched originally because of Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) effect

  10. Catoptric electrodes: transparent metal electrodes using shaped surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kik, Pieter G

    2014-09-01

    An optical electrode design is presented that theoretically allows 100% optical transmission through an interdigitated metallic electrode at 50% metal areal coverage. This is achieved by redirection of light incident on embedded metal electrode lines to an angle beyond that required for total internal reflection. Full-field electromagnetic simulations using realistic material parameters demonstrate 84% frequency-averaged transmission for unpolarized illumination across the entire visible spectral range using a silver interdigitated electrode at 50% areal coverage. The redirection is achieved through specular reflection, making it nonresonant and arbitrarily broadband, provided the electrode width exceeds the optical wavelength. These findings could significantly improve the performance of photovoltaic devices and optical detectors that require high-conductivity top contacts.

  11. The surface chemistry of metal-oxygen interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokbro, Kurt; Baroni, Stefano

    1997-01-01

    We report on a computational study of the clean and oxygen-covered Rh(110) surface, based on density-functional theory within the local-density approximation. We have used plane-wave basis sets and Vanderbilt ultra-soft pseudopotentials. For the clean surface, we present results for the equilibrium...... structure, surface energy and surface stress of the unreconstructed and (1 x 2) reconstructed structures. For the oxygen-covered surface we have performed a geometry optimization at 0.5, 1, and 2 monolayer oxygen coverages, and we present results for the equilibrium configurations, workfunctions and oxygen...

  12. The role of substrate electrons in the wetting of a metal surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiros, T.; Takahashi, O.; Andersson, Klas Jerker

    2010-01-01

    We address how the electronic and geometric structures of metal surfaces determine water-metal bonding by affecting the balance between Pauli repulsion and electrostatic attraction. We show how the rigid d-electrons and the softer s-electrons utilize different mechanisms for the redistribution...

  13. Effect of surface-breakdown plasma on metal drilling by pulsed CO2-laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutiunian, P. V.; Baranov, V. Iu.; Bobkov, I. V.; Bol'Shakov, L. A.; Dolgov, V. A.

    1988-03-01

    The effect of low-threshold surface breakdown produced by short (5-microsec) CO2-laser pulses on the metal drilling process is investigated. Data on the interaction of metals with laser pulses having the same duration but different shape are shown to be different. The effect of the ambient atmospheric pressure on the laser drilling process is investigated.

  14. Additively manufactured metallic porous biomaterials based on minimal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bobbert, F. S. L.; Lietaert, K.; Eftekhari, Ali Akbar

    2017-01-01

    Porous biomaterials that simultaneously mimic the topological, mechanical, and mass transport properties of bone are in great demand but are rarely found in the literature. In this study, we rationally designed and additively manufactured (AM) porous metallic biomaterials based on four different...... of bone properties is feasible, biomaterials that could simultaneously mimic all or most of the relevant bone properties are rare. We used rational design and additive manufacturing to develop porous metallic biomaterials that exhibit an interesting combination of topological, mechanical, and mass...

  15. Surface chemistry of metals and their oxides in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomlinson, M.

    1975-01-01

    Examination of oxide and metal surfaces in water at high temperature by a broad spectrum of techniques is bringing understanding of corrosion product movement and alleviation of activity transport in CANDU-type reactor primary coolant circuits. (Author)

  16. Structural coloration of metallic surfaces with micro/nano-structures induced by elliptical vibration texturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Pan, Yayue; Guo, Ping

    2017-04-01

    Creating orderly periodic micro/nano-structures on metallic surfaces, or structural coloration, for control of surface apparent color and optical reflectivity has been an exciting research topic over the years. The direct applications of structural coloration include color marking, display devices, and invisibility cloak. This paper presents an efficient method to colorize metallic surfaces with periodic micro/nano-gratings using elliptical vibration texturing. When the tool vibration is coupled with a constant cutting velocity, controlled periodic ripples can be generated due to the overlapping tool trajectory. These periodic ripples with a wavelength near visible spectrum can act as micro-gratings to introduce iridescent colors. The proposed technique also provides a flexible method for color marking of metallic surfaces with arbitrary patterns and images by precise control of the spacing distance and orientation of induced micro/nano-ripples. Theoretical analysis and experimental results are given to demonstrate structural coloration of metals by a direct mechanical machining technique.

  17. Measurement of sound velocity on metal surfaces by impulsive stimulated Brillouin scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yukihiro; Murakami, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Akihiko

    2005-01-01

    Impulsive stimulated Brillouin Scattering (ISBS) experiment was performed in order to measure acoustic waves on metal surfaces. The ISBS technique offers robust method of obtaining acoustic velocities without physical contact. The generation and detection mechanism were discussed. (author)

  18. Influence of metallic surface states on electron affinity of epitaxial AlN films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Monu; Krishna, Shibin; Aggarwal, Neha [Advanced Materials and Devices Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi110012 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-NPL Campus, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Gupta, Govind, E-mail: govind@nplindia.org [Advanced Materials and Devices Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi110012 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-NPL Campus, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2017-06-15

    The present article investigates surface metallic states induced alteration in the electron affinity of epitaxial AlN films. AlN films grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy system with (30% and 16%) and without metallic aluminium on the surface were probed via photoemission spectroscopic measurements. An in-depth analysis exploring the influence of metallic aluminium and native oxide on the electronic structure of the films is performed. It was observed that the metallic states pinned the Fermi Level (FL) near valence band edge and lead to the reduction of electron affinity (EA). These metallic states initiated charge transfer and induced changes in surface and interface dipoles strength. Therefore, the EA of the films varied between 0.6–1.0 eV due to the variation in contribution of metallic states and native oxide. However, the surface barrier height (SBH) increased (4.2–3.5 eV) adversely due to the availability of donor-like surface states in metallic aluminium rich films.

  19. Electron Transfer Mediator Effects in Water Oxidation Catalysis by Solution and Surface-Bound Ruthenium Bpy-Dicarboxylate Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheridan, Matthew V.; Sherman, Benjamin D.; Marquard, Seth L.; Fang, Zhen; Ashford, Dennis L.; Wee, Kyung-Ryang; Gold, Alexander S.; Alibabaei, Leila; Rudd, Jennifer A.; Coggins, Michael K.; Meyer, Thomas J.

    2015-11-12

    Electrocatalytic water oxidation by the catalyst, ruthenium 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylate (bda) bis-isoquinoline (isoq), [Ru(bda)(isoq)2], 1, was investigated at metal oxide electrodes surface-derivatized with electron transfer (ET) mediators. At indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) in pH 7.2 in H2PO4–/HPO42– buffers in 0.5 M NaClO4 with added acetonitrile (MeCN), the catalytic activity of 1 is enhanced by the surface-bound redox mediators [Ru (4,4'-PO3H2-bpy)(4,4'-R-bpy)2]2+ (RuPbpyR22+, R = Br, H, Me, or OMe, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine). Rate-limiting ET between the Ru3+ form of the mediator and the RuIV(O) form in the [RuV/IV(O)]+/0 couple of 1 is observed at relatively high concentrations of HPO42– buffer base under conditions where O···O bond formation is facilitated by atom-proton transfer (APT). For the solution [Ru(bpy)3]3+/2+ mediator couple and 1 as the catalyst, catalytic currents vary systematically with the concentration of mediator and the HPO42– buffer base concentration. Electron transfer mediation of water oxidation catalysis was also investigated on nanoparticle TiO2 electrodes co-loaded with catalyst [Ru(bda)(py-4-O(CH2)3-PO3H2)2], 2, (py = pyridine) and RuPbpyR22+ (R = H, Me, or OMe) with an interplay between rate-limiting catalyst oxidation and rate-limiting O···O bond formation by APT. Lastly, the co-loaded assembly RuPbpyR22+ + 2 has been investigated in a dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cell for water splitting.

  20. Chemical bonding of water to metal surfaces studied with core-level spectroscopies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiros, T.; Andersson, Klas Jerker; Pettersson, L.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    The nature of the contact layer of water on surfaces is of relevance for many practical fields, including corrosion, electrochemistry, environmental science and heterogeneous catalysis. Here we focus on the geometric and electronic structure of the water contact layer on transition metal surfaces......-specific information on the partial local density of states, local atomic structure, geometrical parameters and molecular orientation, allowing general principles for water-metal interaction to be derived....

  1. Understanding interaction of curcumin and metal ions on electrode surfaces using EDXRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Daisy; Kumar, K. Krishna; Narayanan, S. Sriman

    2018-04-01

    A chemically modified electrode was developed for determination of metal ions (Cd, Pb, Zn, Co, Hg). The modifier used for the study was Curcumin. Curcumin acts as a complexing agent at the surface of the electrode for preconcentration of metal ions from electrolyte to electrode surface and stripped back to electrolyte during analysis. EDXRF was used to analyze these electrodes and it was concluded that the PCR modified electrode favored effective chelation for lead and mercury.

  2. Removal of foreign atoms from a metal surface bombarded with fast atomic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolotov, S.K.; Evstigneev, S.A.; Luk' yanov, S.Yu.; Martynenko, Yu.V.; Chicherov, V.M.

    1976-07-01

    A metal surface coated with foreign atoms was irradiated with periodically repeating ion current pulses. The energy of the ions bombarding the target was 20 to 30 keV, and inert gas ions were used. A study of the time dependences of the current of the dislodged foreign atoms showed that the rate of their removal from the target surface is determined by the sputtering coefficient of the substrate metal.

  3. Removal of foreign atoms from a metal surface bombarded with fast atomic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolotov, S.K.; Evstigneev, S.A.; Luk'yanov, S.Yu.; Martynenko, Yu.V.; Chicherov, V.M.

    A metal surface coated with foreign atoms was irradiated with periodically repeating ion current pulses. The energy of the ions bombarding the target was 20 to 30 keV, and inert gas ions were used. A study of the time dependences of the current of the dislodged foreign atoms showed that the rate of their removal from the target surface is determined by the sputtering coefficient of the substrate metal

  4. Ultrafast electron dynamics at alkali/ice structures adsorbed on a metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this work is to study the interaction between excess electrons in water ice structures adsorbed on metal surfaces and other charged or neutral species, like alkali ions, or chemically reactive molecules, like chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), respectively. The excess electrons in the ice can interact with the ions directly or indirectly via the hydrogen bonded water molecules. In both cases the presence of the alkali influences the population, localization, and lifetime of electronic states of excess electrons in the ice adlayer. These properties are of great relevance when considering the highly reactive character of the excess electrons, which can mediate chemical reactions by dissociative electron attachment (DEA). The influence of alkali adsorption on electron solvation and transfer dynamics in ice structures is investigated for two types of adsorption configurations using femtosecond time-resolved two-photon photoelectron spectroscopy. In the first system alkali atoms are coadsorbed on top of a wetting amorphous ice film adsorbed on Cu(111). At temperatures between 60 and 100 K alkali adsorption leads to the formation of positively charged alkali ions at the ice/vacuum interface. The interaction between the alkali ions at the surface and the dipole moments of the surrounding water molecules results in a reorientation of the water molecules. As a consequence new electron trapping sites, i.e. at local potential minima, are formed. Photoinjection of excess electrons into these alkali-ion covered amorphous ice layers, results in the trapping of a solvated electron at an alkali-ion/water complex. In contrast to solvation in pure amorphous ice films, where the electrons are located in the bulk of the ice layer, solvated electrons at alkali-ion/water complexes are located at the ice/vacuum interface. They exhibit lifetimes of several picoseconds and show a fast energetic stabilization. With ongoing solvation, i.e. pump-probe time delay, the electron transfer is

  5. Facile creation of bio-inspired superhydrophobic Ce-based metallic glass surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kesong; Li, Zhou; Wang, Weihua; Jiang, Lei

    2011-12-01

    A bio-inspired synthesis strategy was conducted to fabricate superhydrophobic Ce-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) surfaces with self-cleaning properties. Micro-nanoscale hierarchical structures were first constructed on BMG surfaces and then modified with the low surface energy coating. Surface structures, surface chemical compositions, and wettability were characterized by combining scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements. Research indicated that both surface multiscale structures and the low surface free energy coating result in the final formation of superhydrophobicity.

  6. Friction and surface chemistry of some ferrous-base metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    The friction properties of some ferrous-base metallic glasses were measured both in argon and in vacuum to a temperature of 350 C. The alloy surfaces were also analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to identify the compounds and elements present on the surface. The results of the investigation indicate that even when the surfaces of the amorphous alloys, or metallic glasses, are atomically clean, bulk contaminants such as boric oxide and silicon dioxide diffuse to the surfaces. Friction measurements in both argon and vacuum indicate that the alloys exhibit higher coefficients of friction in the crystalline state than they do in the amorphous state.

  7. A calculation of the surface recombination rate constant for hydrogen isotopes on metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskes, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    The surface recombination rate constant for hydrogen isotopes on a metal has been calculated using a simple model whose parameters may be determined by direct experimental measurements. Using the experimental values for hydrogen diffusivity, solubility, and sticking coefficient at zero surface coverage a reasonable prediction of the surface recombination constant may be made. The calculated recombination constant is in excellent agreement with experiment for bcc iron. A heuristic argument is developed which, along with the rate constant calculation, shows that surface recombination is important in those metals in which hydrogen has an exothermic heat of solution. (orig.)

  8. Thermal Diffusion Processes in Metal-Tip-Surface Interactions: Contact Formation and Adatom Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Reinholdt; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Jonsson, Hannes

    1996-01-01

    and the surface can occur by a sequence of atomic hop and exchange processes which become active on a millisecond time scale when the tip is about 3-5 Angstrom from the surface. Adatoms on the surface are stabilized by the presence of the tip and energy barriers for diffusion processes in the region under the tip......We have carried out computer simulations to identify and characterize various thermally activated atomic scale processes that can play an important role in room temperature experiments where a metal tip is brought close to a metal surface. We find that contact formation between the tip...

  9. XPS study on the surface reaction of uranium metal with carbon monoxide at 200 degree C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoling; Fu Yibei; Xie Renshou; Huang Ruiliang

    1996-12-01

    The surface reaction of uranium metal with carbon monoxide at 200 degree C has been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The carbon monoxide adsorption on the surface oxide layer resulted in U4f peak shifting to the lower binding energy and the content of oxygen in the oxide is decreased. O/U radio decreases with increasing the exposure of carbon monoxide to the surface layer. The investigation indicated the surface layer of uranium metal was further reduced in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide at high temperature. (3 refs., 5 figs.)

  10. ADHESION OF PSEUDOMONAS-FLUORESCENS TO METALLIC SURFACES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VIEIRA, MJ; OLIVEIRA, R; MELO, L; PINHEIRO, M; VANDERMEI, HC

    1992-01-01

    Deposition of Pseudomonas fluorescens on aluminium, brass and copper plates was studied in a flow system. The number of bacteria deposited on aluminium was greater than on the other two types of metals. The results are discussed in terms of the mechanisms (transport and/or adhesion) that may control

  11. Trends in Metal Oxide Stability for Nanorods, Nanotubes, and Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowbray, Duncan; Martinez, Jose Ignacio; Vallejo, Federico Calle

    2011-01-01

    The formation energies of nanostructures play an important role in determining their properties, including their catalytic activity. For the case of 15 different rutile and 8 different perovskite metal oxides, we used density functional theory (DFT) to calculate the formation energies of (2,2) na...

  12. Zwitterionic sulfobetaine polymer-immobilized surface by simple tyrosinase-mediated grafting for enhanced antifouling property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ho Joon; Lee, Yunki; Phuong, Le Thi; Seon, Gyeung Mi; Kim, Eunsuk; Park, Jong Chul; Yoon, Hyunjin; Park, Ki Dong

    2017-10-01

    Introducing antifouling property to biomaterial surfaces has been considered an effective method for preventing the failure of implanted devices. In order to achieve this, the immobilization of zwitterions on biomaterial surfaces has been proven to be an excellent way of improving anti-adhesive potency. In this study, poly(sulfobetaine-co-tyramine), a tyramine-conjugated sulfobetaine polymer, was synthesized and simply grafted onto the surface of polyurethane via a tyrosinase-mediated reaction. Surface characterization by water contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy demonstrated that the zwitterionic polymer was successfully introduced onto the surface of polyurethane and remained stable for 7days. In vitro studies revealed that poly(sulfobetaine-co-tyramine)-coated surfaces dramatically reduced the adhesion of fibrinogen, platelets, fibroblasts, and S. aureus by over 90% in comparison with bare surfaces. These results proved that polyurethane surfaces grafted with poly(sulfobetaine-co-tyramine) via a tyrosinase-catalyzed reaction could be promising candidates for an implantable medical device with excellent bioinert abilities. Antifouling surface modification is one of the key strategy to prevent the thrombus formation or infection which occurs on the surface of biomaterial after transplantation. Although there are many methods to modify the surface have been reported, necessity of simple modification technique still exists to apply for practical applications. The purpose of this study is to modify the biomaterial's surface by simply immobilizing antifouling zwitterion polymer via enzyme tyrosinase-mediated reaction which could modify versatile substrates in mild aqueous condition within fast time period. After modification, pSBTA grafted surface becomes resistant to various biological factors including proteins, cells, and bacterias. This approach appears to be a promising method to impart antifouling property on

  13. Surface Termination of the Metal-Organic Framework HKUST-1: A Theoretical Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirjalayer, Saeed; Tafipolsky, Maxim; Schmid, Rochus

    2014-09-18

    The surface morphology and termination of metal-organic frameworks (MOF) is of critical importance in many applications, but the surface properties of these soft materials are conceptually different from those of other materials like metal or oxide surfaces. Up to now, experimental investigations are scarce and theoretical simulations have focused on the bulk properties. The possible surface structure of the archetypal MOF HKUST-1 is investigated by a first-principles derived force field in combination with DFT calculations of model systems. The computed surface energies correctly predict the [111] surface to be most stable and allow us to obtain an unprecedented atomistic picture of the surface termination. Entropic factors are identified to determine the preferred surface termination and to be the driving force for the MOF growth. On the basis of this, reported strategies like employing "modulators" during the synthesis to tailor the crystal morphology are discussed.

  14. Tensile Bond Strength of Metal Bracket Bonding to Glazed Ceramic Surfaces With Different Surface Conditionings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Imani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the tensile bond strength of metal brackets bonding to glazed ceramic surfaces using three various surface treatments.Materials and Methods: Forty two glazed ceramic disks were assigned to three groups. In the first and second groups the specimens were etched with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid (HFA. Subsequently in first group, ceramic primer and adhesive were applied, but in second group a bonding agent alone was used. In third group, specimens were treated with 35% phosphoric acid followed by ceramic primerand adhesive application. Brackets were bonded with light cure composites. The specimens were stored in distilled water in the room temperature for 24 hours and thermocycled 500 times between 5°C and 55°C. The universal testing machine was used to test the tensile bond strength and the adhesive remenant index scores between three groups was evaluated. The data were subjected to one-way ANOVA, Tukey and Kruskal-Wallis tests respectively.Results: The tensile bond strength was 3.69±0.52 MPa forfirst group, 2.69±0.91 MPa for second group and 3.60±0.41 MPa for third group. Group II specimens showed tensile strength values significantly different from other groups (P<0.01.Conclusion: In spite of limitations in laboratory studies it may be concluded that in application of Scotch bond multipurpose plus adhesive, phosphoric acid can be used instead of HFA for bonding brackets to the glazed ceramic restorations with enough tensile bond strength.

  15. Surface modification of nanodiamond through metal free atom transfer radical polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Guangjian; Liu, Meiying; Shi, Kexin; Heng, Chunning; Mao, Liucheng; Wan, Qing; Huang, Hongye [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Deng, Fengjie, E-mail: fengjiedeng@aliyun.com [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Zhang, Xiaoyong, E-mail: xiaoyongzhang1980@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wei, Yen, E-mail: weiyen@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry and the Tsinghua Center for Frontier Polymer Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Surface modification of ND with water soluble and biocompatible polymers. • Functionalized ND through metal free surface initiated ATRP. • The metal free surface initiated ATRP is rather simple and effective. • The ND-poly(MPC) showed high dispersibility and desirable biocompatibility. - Abstract: Surface modification of nanodiamond (ND) with poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) [poly(MPC)] has been achieved by using metal free surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The ATRP initiator was first immobilized on the surface of ND through direct esterification reaction between hydroxyl group of ND and 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide. The initiator could be employed to obtain ND-poly(MPC) nanocomposites through SI-ATRP using an organic catalyst. The final functional materials were characterized by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis in detailed. All of these characterization results demonstrated that ND-poly(MPC) have been successfully obtained via metal free photo-initiated SI-ATRP. The ND-poly(MPC) nanocomposites shown enhanced dispersibility in various solvents as well as excellent biocompatibility. As compared with traditional ATRP, the metal free ATRP is rather simple and effective. More importantly, this preparation method avoided the negative influence of metal catalysts. Therefore, the method described in this work should be a promising strategy for fabrication of polymeric nanocomposites with great potential for different applications especially in biomedical fields.

  16. Surface modification of nanodiamond through metal free atom transfer radical polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Guangjian; Liu, Meiying; Shi, Kexin; Heng, Chunning; Mao, Liucheng; Wan, Qing; Huang, Hongye; Deng, Fengjie; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface modification of ND with water soluble and biocompatible polymers. • Functionalized ND through metal free surface initiated ATRP. • The metal free surface initiated ATRP is rather simple and effective. • The ND-poly(MPC) showed high dispersibility and desirable biocompatibility. - Abstract: Surface modification of nanodiamond (ND) with poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) [poly(MPC)] has been achieved by using metal free surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The ATRP initiator was first immobilized on the surface of ND through direct esterification reaction between hydroxyl group of ND and 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide. The initiator could be employed to obtain ND-poly(MPC) nanocomposites through SI-ATRP using an organic catalyst. The final functional materials were characterized by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis in detailed. All of these characterization results demonstrated that ND-poly(MPC) have been successfully obtained via metal free photo-initiated SI-ATRP. The ND-poly(MPC) nanocomposites shown enhanced dispersibility in various solvents as well as excellent biocompatibility. As compared with traditional ATRP, the metal free ATRP is rather simple and effective. More importantly, this preparation method avoided the negative influence of metal catalysts. Therefore, the method described in this work should be a promising strategy for fabrication of polymeric nanocomposites with great potential for different applications especially in biomedical fields.

  17. Laser spectroscopy and photochemistry on metal surfaces, pt.1

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, HL

    1995-01-01

    Using lasers to induce and probe surface processes has the advantages of quantum state specificity, species selectivity, surface sensitivity, fast time-resolution, high frequency resolution, and accessibility to full pressure ranges. These advantages make it highly desirable to use light to induce, control, or monitor surface chemical and physical processes. Recent applications of laser based techniques in studying surface processes have stimulated new developments and enabled the understanding of fundamental problems in energy transfer and reactions. This volume will include discussions on sp

  18. Laser spectroscopy and photochemistry on metal surfaces, pt.2

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, HL

    1995-01-01

    Using lasers to induce and probe surface processes has the advantages of quantum state specificity, species selectivity, surface sensitivity, fast time-resolution, high frequency resolution, and accessibility to full pressure ranges. These advantages make it highly desirable to use light to induce, control, or monitor surface chemical and physical processes. Recent applications of laser based techniques in studying surface processes have stimulated new developments and enabled the understanding of fundamental problems in energy transfer and reactions. This volume will include discussions on sp

  19. Phase transitions and adsorbate restructuring at metal surface

    CERN Document Server

    King, DA

    1994-01-01

    The objective in initiating this series in 1980 was to provide an in-depth review of advances made in the understanding key aspects of surface chemistry and physics through the application of new techniques to the study of well-defined surfaces. Since then the field of surface science has greatly matured, and further important techniques, particularly scanning probe microscopies, have been successfully assimilated into the applications armoury of the surface scientist. The present volume is a series of timely reviews by many of the current experts in the field of phase transitions an

  20. Morphological and structural characterizations of dendrimer-mediated metallic Ti and Al thin film nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, M. [Center for Materials for Information Technology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0209 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0209 (United States); Li, X. [Center for Materials for Information Technology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0209 (United States); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Science and Engineering, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0209 (United States); Zhang, J. [Center for Materials for Information Technology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0209 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0209 (United States); Weaver, M.L. [Center for Materials for Information Technology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0209 (United States); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Science and Engineering, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0209 (United States); Street, S.C. [Center for Materials for Information Technology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0209 (United States) and Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0209 (United States)]. E-mail: sstreet@bama.ua.edu

    2007-02-26

    Evidence is presented here for significant influence on the surface topography of Ti and Al films in the presence of poly(amidoamine) dendrimer monolayers [generations G(4-8)] on SiO {sub x}. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis clearly indicates formation of nitrides and carbides for Ti metal grown on dendrimer monolayers. In addition, obvious trends in measured correlation lengths and crystalline growth modes of Ti films indicate grain sizes tracking the intrinsic roughness of dendrimer monolayers. No formation of metal nitride is observed for Al depositions. Atomic force microscopy analyses show significant changes in rms vertical roughness and aggregation of as-deposited Ti or Al in presence of dendrimer monolayers.

  1. Raman scattering enhancement in photon-plasmon resonance mediated metal-dielectric microcavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guddala, Sriram; Narayana Rao, D.; Dwivedi, Vindesh K.; Vijaya Prakash, G.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report the photon-plasmon interaction scheme and enhanced field strengths resulted into the amplification of phonon in a novel microcavity. A metal-dielectric microcavity, with unified cavity photonic mode and localized surface plasmon resonances, is visualized by impregnating the gold nanoparticles into the deep see-through nano-sized pores of porous silicon microcavity. The intense optical field strengths resulting from the photon-plasmon interactions are probed by both resonant and non-resonant Raman scattering experiments. Due to photon-plasmon-phonon interaction mechanism, several orders of enhancement in the intensity of scattered Raman Stokes photon (at 500 cm −1 ) are observed. Our metal nanoparticle-microcavity hybrid system shows the potential to improve the sensing figure of merit as well as the applications of plasmonics for optoelectronics, photovoltaics, and related technologies

  2. Detection of DNA damage based on metal-mediated molecular beacon and DNA strands displacement reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yanxiang; Wei, Min; Wei, Wei; Yin, Lihong; Pu, Yuepu; Liu, Songqin

    2014-01-01

    DNA hairpin structure probes are usually designed by forming intra-molecular duplex based on Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds. In this paper, a molecular beacon based on silver ions-mediated cytosine-Ag+-cytosine base pairs was used to detect DNA. The inherent characteristic of the metal ligation facilitated the design of functional probe and the adjustment of its binding strength compared to traditional DNA hairpin structure probes, which make it be used to detect DNA in a simple, rapid and easy way with the help of DNA strands displacement reaction. The method was sensitive and also possesses the good specificity to differentiate the single base mismatched DNA from the complementary DNA. It was also successfully applied to study the damage effect of classic genotoxicity chemicals such as styrene oxide and sodium arsenite on DNA, which was significant in food science, environmental science and pharmaceutical science.

  3. Microbe and Mineral Mediated Transformation of Heavy Metals, Radionuclides, and Organic Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, R.

    2011-12-01

    Microorganisms influence their surroundings in many ways and humans have utilized microbially catalyzed reactions for benefit for centuries. Over the past few decades, microorganisms have been used for the control of contaminant transport in subsurface environments where many microbe mineral interactions occur. This presentation will discuss microbially influenced mineral formation and transformation as well as their influence on the fate of organic contaminants such as chlorinated aliphatics & 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), heavy metals such as chromium, and radionuclides such as uranium & strontium. Both, batch and flow experiments have been performed, which monitor the net effect of microbe mineral interactions on the fate of these contaminants. This invited presentation will place an emphasis on the relative importance of direct microbial (i.e. biotic) transformations, mineral-mediated transformations as well as other abiotic reactions influencing the fate of environmental contaminants. Experiments will be summarized and placed in context of past and future engineered applications for the control of subsurface contaminants.

  4. Off-line testing of multifunctional surfaces for metal forming applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, A.; Grønbæk, J.; De Chiffre, L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, Bending-Under-Tension, an off-line test method simulating deep-drawing, is chosen for investigating the effectiveness of multifunctional (MUFU) surfaces in metal forming operations. Four different MUFU surfaces, characterized by a plateau bearing area and grooves for lubricant...... retention, are manufactured, together with two polished references. During the tests, surface texture is the only variable. The results show how MUFU surfaces perform better than the polished references, which produce severe galling, while MUFU surfaces with low bearing area display no clear evidence...... of galling. Metal-to-metal contact occurs anyway, but the strip material is pulverized and deposited onto the tool instead of cold-welding to it. The pockets create a discontinuity on the texture hindering pick-up propagation....

  5. Stripping scattering of fast atoms on surfaces of metal-oxide crystals and ultrathin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blauth, David

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of the present dissertation the interactions of fast atoms with surfaces of bulk oxides, metals and thin films on metals were studied. The experiments were performed in the regime of grazing incidence of atoms with energies of some keV. The advantage of this scattering geometry is the high surface sensibility and thus the possibility to determine the crystallographic and electronic characteristics of the topmost surface layer. In addition to these experiments, the energy loss and the electron emission induced by scattered projectiles was investigated. The energy for electron emission and exciton excitation on Alumina/NiAl(110) and SiO 2 /Mo(112) are determined. By detection of the number of projectile induced emitted electrons as function of azimuthal angle for the rotation of the target surface, the geometrical structure of atoms forming the topmost layer of different adsorbate films on metal surfaces where determined via ion beam triangulation. (orig.)

  6. Scaling Relationships for Adsorption Energies of C2 Hydrocarbons on Transition Metal Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, G

    2011-08-18

    Using density functional theory calculations we show that the adsorption energies for C{sub 2}H{sub x}-type adsorbates on transition metal surfaces scale with each other according to a simple bond order conservation model. This observation generalizes some recently recognized adsorption energy scaling laws for AH{sub x}-type adsorbates to unsaturated hydrocarbons and establishes a coherent simplified description of saturated as well as unsaturated hydrocarbons adsorbed on transition metal surfaces. A number of potential applications are discussed. We apply the model to the dehydrogenation of ethane over pure transition metal catalysts. Comparison with the corresponding full density functional theory calculations shows excellent agreement.

  7. Guiding spoof surface plasmon polaritons by infinitely thin grooved metal strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Wan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the propagation characteristics of spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs on infinitely thin corrugated metal strips are theoretically analyzed. Compared with the situations of infinitely thick lateral thickness, the infinitely thin lateral thickness leads to lower plasma frequency according to the analyses. The propagation lengths and the binding capacity of the spoof SPPs are evaluated based on the derived dispersion equation. The effects of different lateral thicknesses are also investigated. At the end, a surface wave splitter is presented using infinitely thin corrugated metal strip. Other functional planar or flexible devices can also be designed using these metal strips in microwave or terahertz regimes.

  8. Friction stir processed Al - Metal oxide surface composites: Anodization and optical appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Jensen, Flemming; Canulescu, Stela

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-pass friction stir processing (FSP) was employed to impregnate metal oxide (TiO2, Y2O3 and CeO2) particles into the surface of an Aluminium alloy. The surface composites were then anodized in a sulphuric acid electrolyte. The effect of anodizing parameters on the resulting optical...... dark to greyish white. This is attributed to the localized microstructural and morphological differences around the metal oxide particles incorporated into the anodic alumina matrix. The metal oxide particles in the FSP zone electrochemically shadowed the underlying Al matrix and modified the local...

  9. High-power spallation target using a heavy liquid metal free surface flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litfin, K.; Fetzer, J.R.; Batta, A.; Class, A.G.; Wetzel, Th.

    2015-01-01

    A prototype of a heavy liquid metal free surface target as proposed for the multi-purpose hybrid research reactor for high-tech applications in Mol, Belgium, has been set up and experimentally investigated at the Karlsruhe Liquid Metal Laboratory. A stable operation was demonstrated in a wide range of operating conditions and the surface shape was detected and compared with numerical pre-calculations employing Star-CD. Results show a very good agreement of experiment and numerical predictions which is an essential input for other windowless target designs like the META:LIC target for the European Spallation Source. (author)

  10. Heavy metals in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China: Their relations to environmental factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Jie [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Zhao, Changpo [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Luo, Yupeng [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Liu, Chunsheng, E-mail: liuchunshengidid@126.com [College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Kyzas, George Z. [Laboratory of General and Inorganic Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Luo, Yin [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhao, Dongye [Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); An, Shuqing [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhu, Hailiang, E-mail: zhuhl@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Zhengzhou City had major effect on the pollution of the Jialu River. • TN, OP, TP and COD{sub Mn} in water drove heavy metals to deposit in sediments. • B-IBI was sensitive to the adverse effect of heavy metals in sediments. - Abstract: This work investigated heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China. Sediment samples were collected at 19 sites along the river in connection with field surveys and the total concentrations were determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Sediment samples with higher metal concentrations were collected from the upper reach of the river, while sediments in the middle and lower reaches had relatively lower metal concentrations. Multivariate techniques including Pearson correlation, hierarchical cluster and principal components analysis were used to evaluate the metal sources. The ecological risk associated with the heavy metals in sediments was rated as moderate based on the assessments using methods of consensus-based Sediment Quality Guidelines, Potential Ecological Risk Index and Geo-accumulation Index. The relations between heavy metals and various environmental factors (i.e., chemical properties of sediments, water quality indices and aquatic organism indices) were also studied. Nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in sediments showed a co-release behavior with heavy metals. Ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, orthophosphate, total phosphate and permanganate index in water were found to be related to metal sedimentation. Heavy metals in sediments posed a potential impact on the benthos community.

  11. Heavy metals in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China: Their relations to environmental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Jie; Zhao, Changpo; Luo, Yupeng; Liu, Chunsheng; Kyzas, George Z.; Luo, Yin; Zhao, Dongye; An, Shuqing; Zhu, Hailiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Zhengzhou City had major effect on the pollution of the Jialu River. • TN, OP, TP and COD Mn in water drove heavy metals to deposit in sediments. • B-IBI was sensitive to the adverse effect of heavy metals in sediments. - Abstract: This work investigated heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China. Sediment samples were collected at 19 sites along the river in connection with field surveys and the total concentrations were determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Sediment samples with higher metal concentrations were collected from the upper reach of the river, while sediments in the middle and lower reaches had relatively lower metal concentrations. Multivariate techniques including Pearson correlation, hierarchical cluster and principal components analysis were used to evaluate the metal sources. The ecological risk associated with the heavy metals in sediments was rated as moderate based on the assessments using methods of consensus-based Sediment Quality Guidelines, Potential Ecological Risk Index and Geo-accumulation Index. The relations between heavy metals and various environmental factors (i.e., chemical properties of sediments, water quality indices and aquatic organism indices) were also studied. Nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in sediments showed a co-release behavior with heavy metals. Ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, orthophosphate, total phosphate and permanganate index in water were found to be related to metal sedimentation. Heavy metals in sediments posed a potential impact on the benthos community

  12. Oxidation of Ethylene Carbonate on Li Metal Oxide Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Thomas M.; Giordano, Livia; Castelli, Ivano Eligio

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the reactivity of the cathode surface is of key importance to the development of batteries. Here, density functional theory is applied to investigate the oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte component, ethylene carbonate (EC), on layered LixMO(2) oxide surfaces. We compare...

  13. Predicting supramolecular self-assembly on reconstructed metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Thomas J.; Barrena, Esther; Ocal, Carmen; Faraudo, Jordi

    2014-06-01

    The prediction of supramolecular self-assembly onto solid surfaces is still challenging in many situations of interest for nanoscience. In particular, no previous simulation approach has been capable to simulate large self-assembly patterns of organic molecules over reconstructed surfaces (which have periodicities over large distances) due to the large number of surface atoms and adsorbing molecules involved. Using a novel simulation technique, we report here large scale simulations of the self-assembly patterns of an organic molecule (DIP) over different reconstructions of the Au(111) surface. We show that on particular reconstructions, the molecule-molecule interactions are enhanced in a way that long-range order is promoted. Also, the presence of a distortion in a reconstructed surface pattern not only induces the presence of long-range order but also is able to drive the organization of DIP into two coexisting homochiral domains, in quantitative agreement with STM experiments. On the other hand, only short range order is obtained in other reconstructions of the Au(111) surface. The simulation strategy opens interesting perspectives to tune the supramolecular structure by simulation design and surface engineering if choosing the right molecular building blocks and stabilising the chosen reconstruction pattern.The prediction of supramolecular self-assembly onto solid surfaces is still challenging in many situations of interest for nanoscience. In particular, no previous simulation approach has been capable to simulate large self-assembly patterns of organic molecules over reconstructed surfaces (which have periodicities over large distances) due to the large number of surface atoms and adsorbing molecules involved. Using a novel simulation technique, we report here large scale simulations of the self-assembly patterns of an organic molecule (DIP) over different reconstructions of the Au(111) surface. We show that on particular reconstructions, the molecule

  14. Generation Mechanism of Work Hardened Surface Layer in Metal Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikiji, Rikio; Kondo, Eiji; Kawagoishi, Norio; Arai, Minoru

    Finish machining used to be carried out in grinding, but it is being replaced by cutting with very small undeformed chip thickness. In ultra precision process, the effects of the cutting conditions and the complicated factors on the machined surface integrity are the serious problems. In this research, work hardened surface layer was dealt with as an evaluation of the machined surface integrity and the effect of the mechanical factors on work hardening was investigated experimentally in orthogonal cutting. As a result, it was found that work hardened surface layer was affected not only by the shear angle varied under the cutting conditions and the thrust force of cutting resistance, but also by the thrust force acting point, the coefficient of the thrust force and the compressive stress equivalent to the bulk hardness. Furthermore, these mechanical factors acting on the depth of the work hardened surface layer were investigated with the calculation model.

  15. Launching focused surface plasmon in circular metallic grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pawan; Tripathi, V. K.; Kumar, Ashok; Shao, X.

    2015-01-01

    The excitation of focused surface plasma wave (SPW) over a metal–vacuum interface embedded with circular surface grating is investigated theoretically. The normally impinged radiation imparts oscillatory velocity to free electrons that beats with the surface ripple to produce a nonlinear current, driving the SPW. As SPW propagates, it gets focused. The focused radiation has a maximum at the centre of grating and decreases beyond the centre due to diffraction. The amplitude of SPW is fixed for a given groove depth and increases rapidly around the resonance frequency. The intensity at the focus point depends on dimensions of the grating. It increases with the radiation frequency approaching the surface plasmon resonance. The scheme has potential applications for photonic devices and surface enhanced Raman scattering

  16. Surface/structure functionalization of copper-based catalysts by metal-support and/or metal-metal interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsolakis, Michalis; Ioakeimidis, Zisis

    2014-11-01

    Cu-based catalysts have recently attracted great attention both in catalysis and electro-catalysis fields due to their excellent catalytic performance and low cost. Given that their performance is determined, to a great extent, by Cu sites local environment, considerable efforts have been devoted on the strategic modifications of the electronic and structural properties of Cu sites. In this regard, the feasibility of tuning the local structure of Cu entities by means of metal-support or metal-metal interactions is investigated. More specifically, the physicochemical properties of Cu entities are modified by employing: (i) different oxides (CeO2, La2O3, Sm2O3), or (ii) ceria-based mixed oxides (Ce1-xSmxOδ) as supporting carriers, and (iii) a second metal (Cobalt) adjacent to Cu (bimetallic Cu-Co/CeO2). A characterization study, involving BET, XRD, TPR, and XPS, reveal that significant modifications on structural, redox and electronic properties of Cu sites can be induced by adopting either different oxide carriers or bimetallic complexes. Fundamental insights into the tuning of Cu local environment by metal-support or metal-metal interactions are provided, paving the way for real-life industrial applications.

  17. Viscous surface flow induced on Ti-based bulk metallic glass by heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kun [Key Laboratory of Microgravity (National Microgravity Laboratory), Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Hu, Zheng [Key Laboratory of Microgravity (National Microgravity Laboratory), Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Science and Technology on Vehicle Transmission Laboratory, China North Vehicle Research Institute, Beijing 100072 (China); Li, Fengjiang [Key Laboratory of Microgravity (National Microgravity Laboratory), Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wei, Bingchen, E-mail: weibc@imech.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Microgravity (National Microgravity Laboratory), Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Obvious smoothing and roughening phases on the Ti-based MG surface resulted, which correspond respectively to the normal and off-normal incidence angles. • Atomic force microscopy confirms two types of periodic ripples distributed evenly over the rough surface. • The irradiation-induced viscosity of MG is about 4×10{sup 12} Pa·s, which accords with the theoretical prediction for metallic glasses close to glass transition temperature. • Surface-confined viscous flow plays a dominant quantitative role, which is due to radiation-induced softening of the low-viscosity surface layer. - Abstract: Ti-based bulk metallic glass was irradiated by a 20 MeV Cl{sup 4+} ion beam under liquid-nitrogen cooling, which produced remarkable surface smoothing and roughening that respectively correspond to normal and off-normal incidence angles of irradiation. Atomic force microscopy confirms two types of periodic ripples distributed evenly over the rough glass surface. In terms of mechanism, irradiation-induced viscosity agrees with the theoretical prediction for metallic glasses near glass transition temperature. Here, a model is introduced, based on relaxation of confined viscous flow with a thin liquid-like layer, that explains both surface smoothing and ripple formation. This study demonstrates that bulk metallic glass has high morphological instability and low viscosity under ion irradiation, which assets can pave new paths for metallic glass applications.

  18. Removing roughness on metal surface by irradiation of intense short-pulsed ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Surface modification of metals with an intense pulsed ion beam (IPIB) was studied experimentally. When the temperature rise of metal surfaces by IPIB irradiation exceeds their boiling point, it is found that machining roughness on surfaces is removed. The experiments were performed with the pulsed power generator HARIMA-II at Himeji Institute of Technology. The main components of the ion beam were carbon and fluorine ions. The IPIB was irradiated to metal plates (Al, Cu and Ti) which were placed at the focal point. Machining roughness on Ti surface was removed after IPIB irradiation, while roughness on Al and Cu plates was not removed. Using the present experimental parameters (beam power density: 32 W/cm 2 , pulse width: 25 ns), the temperature rise of the Ti surface was estimated to be 8,100 K which exceed its boiling point (3,000 K). However, the estimated temperatures of Al and Cu surfaces was 2,500 and 1,500 K, respectively, that are less than their boiling points. These studies above suggests that temperature rise over the boiling point of metals is necessary for removing machining roughness on metal surfaces

  19. Arc-textured metal surfaces for high thermal emittance space radiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, B.A.; Rutledge, S.K.; Mirtich, M.J.; Behrend, T.; Hotes, D.; Kussmaul, M.; Barry, J.; Stidham, C.; Stueber, T.; DiFilippo, F.

    1994-01-01

    Carbon arc electrical discharges struck across the surfaces of metals such as Nb-1% Zr, alter the morphology to produce a high thermal emittance surface. Metal from the surface and carbon from the arc electrode vaporize during arcing, and then condense on the metal surface to produce a microscopically rough surface having a high thermal emittance. Quantitative spectral reflectance measurements from 0.33 to 15 μm were made on metal surfaces which were carbon arc treated in an inert gas environment. The resulting spectral reflectance data were then used to calculate thermal emittance as a function of temperature for various methods of arc treatment. The results of arc treatment on various metals are presented for both ac and dc arcs. Surface characterization data, including thermal emittance as a function of temperature, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic oxygen durability, are also presented. Ac arc texturing was found to increase the thermal emittance at 800 K from 0.05. to 0.70

  20. Versatile Surface Functionalization of Metal-Organic Frameworks through Direct Metal Coordination with a Phenolic Lipid Enables Diverse Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Wei [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Xiang, Guolei [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Shang, Jin [Univ. of Hong Kong (China); Guo, Jimin [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Motevalli, Benyamin [Monash Univ., Clayton, VIC (Australia); Durfee, Paul [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Agola, Jacob Ongudi [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Coker, Eric N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brinker, C. Jeffrey [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-22

    Here, a novel strategy for the versatile functionalization of the external surface of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been developed based on the direct coordination of a phenolic-inspired lipid molecule DPGG (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-galloyl) with metal nodes/sites surrounding MOF surface. X-ray diffraction and Argon sorption analysis prove that the modified MOF particles retain their structural integrity and porosity after surface modification. Density functional theory calculations reveal that strong chelation strength between the metal sites and the galloyl head group of DPGG is the basic prerequisite for successful coating. Due to the pH-responsive nature of metal-phenol complexation, the modification process is reversible by simple washing in weak acidic water, showing an excellent regeneration ability for water-stable MOFs. Moreover, the colloidal stability of the modified MOFs in the nonpolar solvent allows them to be further organized into 2 dimensional MOF or MOF/polymer monolayers by evaporation-induced interfacial assembly conducted on an air/water interface. Lastly, the easy fusion of a second functional layer onto DPGG-modified MOF cores, enabled a series of MOF-based functional nanoarchitectures, such as MOFs encapsulated within hybrid supported lipid bilayers (so-called protocells), polyhedral core-shell structures, hybrid lipid-modified-plasmonic vesicles and multicomponent supraparticles with target functionalities, to be generated. for a wide range of applications.

  1. Surface analysis applied to metal-ceramic and bioceramic interfacial bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, R.St.C.; Arora, P.S.; Steveson, M.; Kawashima, N.; Cavallaro, G.P.; Ming, H.; Skinner, W.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Low temperature plasma reactions, combined with sol-gel coatings, have been used to produce a variety of ceramic surface layers on metal substrates and interfacial layers between metals and oxides or other ceramics. These layers can be designed to be compositionally and functionally graded from the metal to bulk ceramic material, eg. silica, alumina, hydroxyapatite. The graded layers are generally <50nm thick, continuous, fully bonded to the substrate and deformable without disbonding. The objectives in design of these layers have been to produce: metal surfaces protected from oxidation, corrosion and acid attack; improved metal-ceramic bonding; and bioceramic titanium-based interfaces to bioactive hydroxyapatite for improved dental and medical implants. Modified Auger parameter studies for Si in XPS spectra show that the structure on the metal surfaces grades from amorphous, dehydroxylated silica on the outer surface through layer silicates, chain silicates, pyrosilicates to orthosilicates close to the metal interface. At the metal interface, detached grains of the metal are imaged with interpenetration of the oxide and silicate species linking the layer to the oxidised metal surface. The ∼30nm layer has a substantially increased frictional load compared with the untreated oxidised metal, i.e. behaviour consistent with either stronger adhesion of the coating to the substrate or a harder surface. The composition, structure and thickness of these layers can be controlled by the duration of each plasma reaction and the choice of the final reagent. The mechanisms of reaction in each process step have been elucidated with a combination of XPS, TOF-SIMS, TEM, SEM and FTIR. Similar, graded titanium/oxide/silicate/silica ceramic surface layers have been shown to form using the low temperature plasma reactions on titanium alloys used in medical and dental implants. Thicker (i.e. μm) overlayers of ceramic materials can be added to the graded surface layers

  2. Adsorption of volatile metals on metal surfaces and the possibilities of its application in nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, B.; Huebener, S.; Rossbach, H.

    1985-08-01

    Using an empiric model partial molar enthalpies of adsorption of the rare earth metals at zero coverage have been calculated for the adsorbent metals Ti, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zr, Nb, Mo, Rh, Pd, Ag, Ta, W, Re, Ir, Pt, Au as well as Al, Si, Zn, Ge, Cd, and Pb. The electron densities at the boundary of the Wigner-Seitz cells in the rare earth metals, necessary for the calculations, have been derived from the crystal entropies. In some cases the magnetic entropy was considered too. The calculated enthalpies of adsorption are compared with experimental data taken from the literature. The valence state of adsorbed europium and ytterbium is discussed in relation to the nature of the adsorbent metal. (author)

  3. Characterizing heavy metal build-up on urban road surfaces: Implication for stormwater reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, An; Liu, Liang; Li, Dunzhu; Guan, Yuntao

    2015-01-01

    Stormwater reuse is increasingly popular in the worldwide. In terms of urban road stormwater, it commonly contains toxic pollutants such as heavy metals, which could undermine the reuse safety. The research study investigated heavy metal build-up characteristics on urban roads in a typical megacity of South China. The research outcomes show the high variability in heavy metal build-up loads among different urban road sites. The degree of traffic congestion and road surface roughness was found to exert a more significant influence on heavy metal build-up rather than traffic volume. Due to relatively higher heavy metal loads, stormwater from roads with more congested traffic conditions or rougher surfaces might be suitable for low-water-quality required activities while the stormwater from by-pass road sections could be appropriate for relatively high-water-quality required purposes since the stormwater could be relatively less polluted. Based on the research outcomes, a decision-making process for heavy metals based urban road stormwater reuse was proposed. The new finding highlights the importance to undertaking a “fit-for-purpose” road stormwater reuse strategy. Additionally, the research results can also contribute to enhancing stormwater reuse safety. - Highlights: • Heavy metal (HM) build-up varies with traffic and road surface conditions. • Traffic congestion and surface roughness exert a higher impact on HM build-up. • A “fit-for-purpose” strategy could suit urban road stormwater reuse

  4. Characterizing heavy metal build-up on urban road surfaces: Implication for stormwater reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, An [Research Centre of Environmental Engineering and Management, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); Cooperative Research and Education Centre for Environmental Technology, Kyoto University–Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); Liu, Liang; Li, Dunzhu [Research Centre of Environmental Engineering and Management, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); Guan, Yuntao, E-mail: guanyt@tsinghua.edu.cn [Research Centre of Environmental Engineering and Management, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Stormwater reuse is increasingly popular in the worldwide. In terms of urban road stormwater, it commonly contains toxic pollutants such as heavy metals, which could undermine the reuse safety. The research study investigated heavy metal build-up characteristics on urban roads in a typical megacity of South China. The research outcomes show the high variability in heavy metal build-up loads among different urban road sites. The degree of traffic congestion and road surface roughness was found to exert a more significant influence on heavy metal build-up rather than traffic volume. Due to relatively higher heavy metal loads, stormwater from roads with more congested traffic conditions or rougher surfaces might be suitable for low-water-quality required activities while the stormwater from by-pass road sections could be appropriate for relatively high-water-quality required purposes since the stormwater could be relatively less polluted. Based on the research outcomes, a decision-making process for heavy metals based urban road stormwater reuse was proposed. The new finding highlights the importance to undertaking a “fit-for-purpose” road stormwater reuse strategy. Additionally, the research results can also contribute to enhancing stormwater reuse safety. - Highlights: • Heavy metal (HM) build-up varies with traffic and road surface conditions. • Traffic congestion and surface roughness exert a higher impact on HM build-up. • A “fit-for-purpose” strategy could suit urban road stormwater reuse.

  5. Universality in Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysis on Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian; Hansen, Heine Anton; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we extend the activity volcano for oxygen reduction from the face-centered cubic (fcc) metal (111) facet to the (100) facet. Using density functional theory calculations, we show that the recent findings of constant scaling between OOH* and OH* holds on the fcc metal (100) facet......, as well. Using this fact, we show the existence of a universal activity volcano to describe oxygen reduction electrocatalysis with a minimum overpotential, ηmin = 0.37 ± 0.1 V. Specifically, we find that the (100) facet of Pt is found to bind oxygen intermediates too strongly and is not active for oxygen...... reduction reaction (ORR). In contrast, Au(100) is predicted to be more active than Au(111) and comparable in activity to Pt alloys. Using this activity volcano, we further predict that Au alloys that bind OH more strongly could display improved ORR activity on the (100) facet. We carry out a computational...

  6. The substrate strain mediated magnetotransport properties of surface states in topological insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ning, E-mail: maning@stu.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, MOE Key Laboratory of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Department of Applied Physics, MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhang, Shengli, E-mail: zhangsl@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu, Daqing, E-mail: liudq@cczu.edu.cn [School of Mathematics and Physics, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China)

    2016-10-14

    Recent experiments reveal that the strained bulk HgTe can be regarded as a three-dimensional topological insulator (TI). We further explore the strain effects on magnetotransport in HgTe at magnetic field. We find that the substrate strain associated with the surface index of carriers, can remove the surfaces degeneracy in Landau levels. This accordingly induces the well separated surface quantum Hall plateaus and Shubnikov–de Haas oscillations. These results can be used to generate and detect surface polarization, not only in HgTe but also in a broad class of TIs, which would be very great news for electronic applications of TIs. - Highlights: • We explore the strain mediated magnetotransport in topological insulators. • We analytically derive the zero frequency magnetoconductivity. • The strain removes the surface degeneracy in Landau levels. • The strain gives rise to the splitting and mixture of Landau levels. • The strain leads to the surface asymmetric spectrum of conductivity.

  7. The interaction of H2O with strained uranium metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiferet, E.; Mintz, M. H.; Zalkind, S.; Jacob, I.; Shamir, N.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of water vapor was studied on uranium metal surfaces, with various degrees of strain (relieved by different degrees of heating). The main features of dissociation, adsorption and initial oxidation for the studied surfaces will be presented. Common to all strained surfaces, on the metal surface a full dissociation occurs, while after oxidation only on most of them the water dissociation is full and on one of them, it is only partial. The oxygen dissociation product adsorbs (with sticking coefficient decreasing with strain relief), forming clusters, for all strains, while the hydrogen product clusters only on the strain relieved and recrystallized surface. The most interesting phenomenon, revealed for these surfaces, is the inhibition of hydrogen adsorption by traces of water vapor , changing from 10% for the mostly strained (defected) surface down to 1% for the strain relieved one. The suggested mechanism for this inhibition will be discussed

  8. Seasonal Distribution of Trace Metals in Ground and Surface Water of Golaghat District, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boarh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study has been carried out on the quality of ground and surface water with respect to chromium, manganese, zinc, copper, nickel, cadmium and arsenic contamination from 28 different sources in the predominantly rural Golaghat district of Assam (India. The metals were analysed by using atomic absorption spectrometer. Water samples were collected from groundwater and surface water during the dry and wet seasons of 2008 from the different sources in 28 locations (samples. The results are discussed in the light of possible health hazards from the metals in relation to their maximum permissible limits. The study shows the quality of ground and surface water in a sizeable number of water samples in the district not to be fully satisfactory with respect to presence of the metals beyond permissible limits of WHO. The metal concentration of groundwater in the district follows the trend As>Zn>Mn>Cr>Cu>Ni>Cd in both the seasons.

  9. Contamination by urban superficial runoff: accumulated heavy metals on a road surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alfonso Zafra Mejía

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying the behaviour of accumulated contamination on urban surfaces is important in designing control methods minimising the impacts of surface runoff on the environment. This paper presents data regarding the sediment collected on the surface of an urban road in the city of Torrelavega in northern Spain during a period of 65 days during which 132 samples were collected. Two types of sediment collection samples were obtained: vacuumed dry samples (free load and those swept up following vacuuming (fixed load. The results showed that heavy metal concentration in the collected sediment (Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd was inversely proportional to particle diameter. High heavy metal concentrations were found in the smaller fraction (63 pm. Regression equations were calculated for heavy metal concentration regarding particle diameter. Large heavy metal loads were found in the larger fraction (125 pm. The results provide information for analysing runoff water quality in urban areas and designing treatment strategies.

  10. Metal-Mediated Halogen Exchange in Aryl and Vinyl Halides: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evano, Gwilherm; Nitelet, Antoine; Thilmany, Pierre; Dewez, Damien F.

    2018-04-01

    Halogenated arenes and alkenes are of prime importance in many areas of science, especially in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical and chemical industries. While the simplest ones are commercially available, some of them are still hardly accessible depending on their substitution patterns and the nature of the halogen atom. Reactions enabling the selective and efficient replacement of the halogen atom of an aryl or alkenyl halide by another one, lighter or heavier, are therefore of major importance since they can be used for example to turn a less reactive aryl/alkenyl chloride into the more reactive iodinated derivatives or, in a reversed sense, to block an undesired reactivity, for late-stage modifications or for the introduction of a radionuclide. If some halogen exchange reactions are possible with activated substrates, they usually require catalysis with metal complexes. Remarkably efficient processes have been developed for metal-mediated halogen exchange in aryl and vinyl halides: they are overviewed, in a comprehensive manner, in this review article.

  11. Oxide surfaces and metal/oxide interfaces studied by grazing incidence X-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Gilles

    Experimental determinations of the atomic structure of insulating oxide surfaces and metal/oxide interfaces are scarce, because surface science techniques are often limited by the insulating character of the substrate. Grazing incidence X-ray scattering (GIXS), which is not subject to charge effects, can provide very precise information on the atomic structure of oxide surfaces: roughness, relaxation and reconstruction. It is also well adapted to analyze the atomic structure, the registry, the misfit relaxation, elastic or plastic, the growth mode and the morphology of metal/oxide interfaces during their growth, performed in situ. GIXS also allows the analysis of thin films and buried interfaces, in a non-destructive way, yielding the epitaxial relationships, and, by variation of the grazing incidence angle, the lattice parameter relaxation along the growth direction. On semi-coherent interfaces, the existence of an ordered network of interfacial misfit dislocations can be demonstrated, its Burger's vector determined, its ordering during in situ annealing cycles followed, and sometimes even its atomic structure can be addressed. Careful analysis during growth allows the modeling of the dislocation nucleation process. This review emphasizes the new information that GIXS can bring to oxide surfaces and metal/oxide interfaces by comparison with other surface science techniques. The principles of X-ray diffraction by surfaces and interfaces are recalled, together with the advantages and properties of grazing angles. The specific experimental requirements are discussed. Recent results are presented on the determination of the atomic structure of relaxed or reconstructed oxide surfaces. A description of results obtained during the in situ growth of metal on oxide surfaces is also given, as well as investigations of thick metal films on oxide surfaces, with lattice parameter misfit relaxed by an array of dislocations. Recent work performed on oxide thin films having

  12. Pollution distribution of heavy metals in surface soil at an informal electronic-waste recycling site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Takashi; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2014-02-01

    We studied distribution of heavy metals [lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn)] in surface soil at an electronic-waste (e-waste) recycling workshop near Metro Manila in the Philippines to evaluate the pollution size (spot size, small area or the entire workshop), as well as to assess heavy metal transport into the surrounding soil environment. On-site length-of-stride-scale (~70 cm) measurements were performed at each surface soil point using field-portable X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF). The surface soil at the e-waste recycling workshop was polluted with Cu, Zn and Pb, which were distributed discretely in surface soil. The site was divided into five areas based on the distance from an entrance gate (y-axis) of the e-waste recycling workshop. The three heavy metals showed similar concentration gradients in the y-axis direction. Zn, Pb and Cu concentrations were estimated to decrease to half of their maximum concentrations at ~3, 7 and 7 m from the pollution spot, respectively, inside the informal e-waste recycling workshop. Distance from an entrance may play an important role in heavy metal transport at the soil surface. Using on-site FP-XRF, we evaluated the metal ratio to characterise pollution features of the solid surface. Variability analysis of heavy metals revealed vanishing surficial autocorrelation over metre ranges. Also, the possibility of concentration prediction at unmeasured points using geostatistical kriging was evaluated, and heavy metals had a relative "small" pollution scales and remained inside the original workshop compared with toxic organohalogen compounds. Thus, exposure to heavy metals may directly influence the health of e-waste workers at the original site rather than the surrounding habitat and environmental media.

  13. Adsorption of simple molecules on clean metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na Lamphun, O.-A.

    1980-06-01

    The adsorption of nitric oxide, oxygen, krypton and xenon on evaporated tungsten, nickel and iron films is studied. The theoretical and experimental aspects of adsorption are reviewed, a preliminary study of adsorption by the volumetric method is presented, surface potential and sticking probability studies of adsorption using ion gauges are investigated and an analysis of residual gases, sticking probability and surface potential studies using quadrupole mass spectrometry, given. (author)

  14. Reactive solute transport in streams: A surface complexation approach for trace metal sorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, Robert L.; Kimball, Briant A.; McKnight, Diane M.; Bencala, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A model for trace metals that considers in-stream transport, metal oxide precipitation-dissolution, and pH-dependent sorption is presented. Linkage between a surface complexation submodel and the stream transport equations provides a framework for modeling sorption onto static and/or dynamic surfaces. A static surface (e.g., an iron- oxide-coated streambed) is defined as a surface with a temporally constant solid concentration. Limited contact between solutes in the water column and the static surface is considered using a pseudokinetic approach. A dynamic surface (e.g., freshly precipitated metal oxides) has a temporally variable solid concentration and is in equilibrium with the water column. Transport and deposition of solute mass sorbed to the dynamic surface is represented in the stream transport equations that include precipitate settling. The model is applied to a pH-modification experiment in an acid mine drainage stream. Dissolved copper concentrations were depressed for a 3 hour period in response to the experimentally elevated pH. After passage of the pH front, copper was desorbed, and dissolved concentrations returned to ambient levels. Copper sorption is modeled by considering sorption to aged hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) on the streambed (static surface) and freshly precipitated HFO in the water column (dynamic surface). Comparison of parameter estimates with reported values suggests that naturally formed iron oxides may be more effective in removing trace metals than synthetic oxides used in laboratory studies. The model's ability to simulate pH, metal oxide precipitation-dissolution, and pH-dependent sorption provides a means of evaluating the complex interactions between trace metal chemistry and hydrologic transport at the field scale.

  15. C-N Bond Activation and Ring Opening of a Saturated N-Heterocyclic Carbene by Lateral Alkali-Metal-Mediated Metalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernán-Gómez, Alberto; Kennedy, Alan R; Hevia, Eva

    2017-06-01

    Combining alkali-metal-mediated metalation (AMMM) and N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) chemistry, a novel C-N bond activation and ring-opening process is described for these increasingly important NHC molecules, which are generally considered robust ancillary ligands. Here, mechanistic investigations on reactions of saturated NHC SIMes (SIMes=[:C{N(2,4,6-Me 3 C 6 H 2 )CH 2 } 2 ]) with Group 1 alkyl bases suggest this destructive process is triggered by lateral metalation of the carbene. Exploiting co-complexation and trans-metal-trapping strategies with lower polarity organometallic reagents (Mg(CH 2 SiMe 3 ) 2 and Al(TMP)iBu 2 ), key intermediates in this process have been isolated and structurally defined. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Model for H-, D- production by hydrogen backscattering from alkali and alkali/transition-metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiskes, J.R.; Schneider, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    A model for H - , D - production by energetic particles reflecting from metal surfaces is discussed. The model employs the energy and angular distribution data derived from the Marlowe code. The model is applied to particles incident normally upon Cs, Ni, and Cs/Ni surfaces

  17. Electron density in reasonably real metallic surfaces, including interchange and correlation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraga, L.A.; Martinez, G.

    1981-01-01

    By means of a new method, the electron density in a jellium surface is calculated taking in account interchange and correlation effects; reproducing, in this way, the Lang and Kohn results. The new method is self-consistent but not iterative and hence is possible extend it to the solution of the same problem in more reasonably real metallic surfaces. (L.C.) [pt

  18. Methods for surface treating metals, ceramics, and plastics before adhesive bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Althouse, L.P.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for pretreating the surfaces of metals, ceramics, and plastics before they are coated with adhesive and used in assembly are described. The treatments recommended have been used successfully in the laboratory at LLL. Many are used in the assembly of nuclear devices. However, an unusual alloy or complex configuration may require trials before a specific surface treatment is chosen

  19. Direct observation of surface reconstruction and termination on a complex metal oxide catalyst by electron microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Yihan

    2012-03-19

    On the surface: The surface reconstruction of an MoVTeO complex metal oxide catalyst was observed directly by various electron microscopic techniques and the results explain the puzzling catalytic behavior. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. FDTD/TDSE study of surface-enhanced infrared absorption by metal nanoparticles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.-H.; Schatz, G. C.; Gray, S. K.; Chemistry; Northwestern Univ.; National Cheng-Kung Univ.

    2006-01-01

    We study surface-enhanced infrared absorption, including multiphoton processes, due to the excitation of surface plasmons on metal nanoparticles. The time-dependent Schroedinger equation and finite-difference time-domain method are self-consistently coupled to treat the problem.

  1. Study of plasma formation in CW CO2 laser beam-metal surface interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azharonok, V. V.; Vasilchenko, Zh V.; Golubev, Vladimir S.; Gresev, A. N.; Zabelin, Alexandre M.; Chubrik, N. I.; Shimanovich, V. D.

    1994-04-01

    An interaction of the cw CO2 laser beam and a moving metal surface has been studied. The pulsed and thermodynamical parameters of the surface plasma were investigated by optical and spectroscopical methods. The subsonic radiation wave propagation in the erosion plasma torch has been studied.

  2. Interference effects in plasom excitation by particles reflected near a metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denton, C.D.; Gervasoni, J.L.; Barrachina, R.O.; Arista, N.R.; Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza

    1993-01-01

    Using the dielectric formalism and the specular reflection model, we evaluate the probability of surface and bulk plasmon excitation by particles reflected in the proximity of a metal surface. We obtain a strong oscillatory behaviour as a function of the penetration distance. (author)

  3. Effect of alloy type and surface conditioning on roughness and bond strength of metal brackets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nergiz, I.; Schmage, P.; Herrmann, W.; Ozcan, M.; Nergiz, [No Value

    2004-01-01

    The effect of 5 different surface conditioning methods on bonding of metal brackets to cast dental alloys was examined. The surface conditioning methods were fine (30-µm) or rough (125-µm) diamond bur, sandblasting (50-µm or 110-µm aluminum oxide [Al2O3]), and silica coating (30-µm silica). Fifty

  4. Surface Modification and Nanojunction Fabrication with Molecular Metal Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    single - crystal X-ray diffraction studies of 2 and 3. Both the single - crystal structural data of 2 and 3 and the spectroscopic/voltammetric data...structure, magnetic properties, and single -molecule conductance of two new trinuclear metal string complexes, [Ni3(dzp)4(NCS)2] (2) and [ Co3 (dzp)4(NCS...modifying the crystallization conditions. The [s- Co3 (dpa)4(Cl)2] contains a symmetrical tricobalt framework with identical Co–Co bond lengths (2.34 Å

  5. Quantum bus of metal nanoring with surface plasmon polaritons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Zhirong; Guo Guoping; Tu Tao; Li Haiou; Zou Changling; Ren Xifeng; Guo Guangcan; Chen Junxue; Lu Yonghua

    2010-01-01

    We develop an architecture for distributed quantum computation using quantum bus of plasmonic circuits and spin qubits in self-assembled quantum dots. Deterministic quantum gates between two distant spin qubits can be reached by using an adiabatic approach in which quantum dots couple with highly detuned plasmon modes in a metallic nanoring. Plasmonic quantum bus offers a robust and scalable platform for quantum optics experiments and the development of on-chip quantum networks composed of various quantum nodes, such as quantum dots, molecules, and nanoparticles.

  6. Study on the influence of carbon monoxide to the surface oxide layer of uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaolin; Duan Rongliang; Fu Yibei; Xie Renshou; Zuo Changming; Zhao Chunpei; Chen Hong

    1997-01-01

    The influence of carbon monoxide to the surface oxide layer of uranium metal has been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and gas chromatography (GC). Carbon monoxide adsorption on the oxide layer resulted in U4f peak shifting to the lower binding energy. The content of oxygen in the oxide is decreased and the atomic ratio (O/U) is decreased by 7.2%. The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere after the surface reaction is increased by 11.0%. The investigation indicates that the surface layer can prevent the further oxidation uranium metal in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide

  7. Influence of the Surface Layer on the Electrochemical Deposition of Metals and Semiconductors into Mesoporous Silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubenko, E. B., E-mail: eugene.chubenko@gmail.com; Redko, S. V.; Sherstnyov, A. I.; Petrovich, V. A.; Kotov, D. A.; Bondarenko, V. P. [Belarusian State University of Information and RadioElectronics (Belarus)

    2016-03-15

    The influence of the surface layer on the process of the electrochemical deposition of metals and semiconductors into porous silicon is studied. It is shown that the surface layer differs in structure and electrical characteristics from the host porous silicon bulk. It is established that a decrease in the conductivity of silicon crystallites that form the surface layer of porous silicon has a positive effect on the process of the filling of porous silicon with metals and semiconductors. This is demonstrated by the example of nickel and zinc oxide. The effect can be used for the formation of nanocomposite materials on the basis of porous silicon and nanostructures with a high aspect ratio.

  8. Superhydrophobic Zr-based metallic glass surface with high adhesive force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Xia, Ting; Heng, Liping; Liu, Lin

    2013-06-01

    Micro/nano hierarchical structures were constructed on Zr35Ti30Be26.75Cu8.25 metallic glass surface by silicon moulding and subsequently chemical etching. The as-formed surface exhibited both superhydrophobicity and high adhesive force towards water. The superhydrophobicity is rationalized based on the modified Cassie-Baxter model [A. B. D. Cassie and S. Baxter, Trans. Faraday Soc. 40, 546 (1944)]. The origin of the robust adhesion is described in terms of intermolecular capillary forces. The present results not only provide a method to fabricate superhydrophobic metallic glasses surface but also explore an important industrial application as dry adhesives and transport of liquid microdroplets.

  9. Influence of the Surface Layer on the Electrochemical Deposition of Metals and Semiconductors into Mesoporous Silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubenko, E. B.; Redko, S. V.; Sherstnyov, A. I.; Petrovich, V. A.; Kotov, D. A.; Bondarenko, V. P.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the surface layer on the process of the electrochemical deposition of metals and semiconductors into porous silicon is studied. It is shown that the surface layer differs in structure and electrical characteristics from the host porous silicon bulk. It is established that a decrease in the conductivity of silicon crystallites that form the surface layer of porous silicon has a positive effect on the process of the filling of porous silicon with metals and semiconductors. This is demonstrated by the example of nickel and zinc oxide. The effect can be used for the formation of nanocomposite materials on the basis of porous silicon and nanostructures with a high aspect ratio.

  10. Bare and protected sputtered-noble-metal films for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaga, David; Bonhommeau, Sébastien

    2014-11-01

    Sputtered silver and gold films with different surface morphologies have been prepared and coated with a benzenethiol self-assembled monolayer. Rough noble metal films showed strong Raman features assigned to adsorbed benzenethiol molecules upon irradiation over a wide energy range in the visible spectrum, which disclosed the occurrence of a significant surface-enhanced Raman scattering with maximal enhancement factors as high as 6 × 106. In addition, the adsorption of ethanethiol onto silver surfaces hinders their corrosion over days while preserving mostly intact enhancement properties of naked silver. This study may be applied to develop stable and efficient metalized probes for tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  11. Heavy metals uptake by sonicated activated sludge: Relation with floc surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Julien; Casellas, Magali; Dagot, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    The effects of sonication of activated sludge on heavy metal uptake were in a first time investigated in respect with potential modifications of floc surface properties. The treatment led to the simultaneous increase of specific surface area and of the availability of negative and/or hydrophilic sites. In parallel, organic matter was released in the soluble fraction. Sorption isotherms of cadmium and copper showed that uptake characteristics and mechanisms were highly dependent on both heavy metal species and specific energy supplied. The increase of both specific surface area and fixation sites availability led to the increase of Cd(II) uptake. For Cu(II), organic matter released in soluble phase during the treatment seemed to act as a ligand and to limit adsorption on flocs surface. Three different heavy metals uptake mechanisms have been identified: proton exchange, ion exchange and (co)precipitation

  12. Spatial Gradients in Trace Metal Concentrations in the Surface Microlayer of the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eTovar-Sanchez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between dust deposition and surface water metal concentrations is poorly understood. Dissolution, solubility, and partitioning reactions of trace metals from dust particles are governed by complex chemical, biological, and physical processes occurring in the surface ocean. Despite that, the role of the sea surface microlayer (SML, a thin, but fundamental component modulating the air-sea exchange of materials has not been properly evaluated. Our study revealed that the SML of the Mediterranean Sea is enriched with bioactive trace metals (i.e., Cd, Co, Cu and Fe, ranging from 8 (for Cd to 1000 (for Fe times higher than the dissolved metal pool in the underlying water column. The highest enrichments were spatially correlated with the atmospheric deposition of mineral particles. Our mass balance results suggest that the SML in the Mediterranean Sea contains about 2 tonnes of Fe. However, we did not detect any trends between the concentrations of metals in SML with the subsurface water concentrations and biomass distributions. These findings suggest that future studies are needed to quantify the rate of metal exchange between the SML and the bioavailable pool and that the SML should be considered to better understand the effect of atmospheric inputs on the biogeochemistry of trace metals in the ocean.

  13. Damage of metal surfaces by a hot, dense deuterium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayotou, N.F.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of differences in alloy chemistry and systematic changes in microstructural interface density on the occurrence of unipolar arcing was studied. The effect of thermionic emission is examined by comparing the refractory metals W, Nb, and Nb-751 alloy to the non-refractory stainless steels, AISI 304, 316 and Nimonic PE-16. The effect of alloying additions is examined by comparing Mo containing 316 and Mo free 304 stainless steels as well as Zr containing Nb-751 and Zr free Nb. The effect of interface density is examined by systematically varying the density of microstructural interfaces in AISI 4130, a ferritic steel. Although most of the metals and alloys studied are candidate fusion reactor materials, 4130 was chosen on the basis of our ability to modify the density of microstructural interfaces in the material by heat treatment. The results are discussed with respect to available unipolar arcing theory. The significance of the work, in terms of actual power reactors is assessed and the need for further work defined

  14. Changes of electrical conductivity of the metal surface layer by the laser alloying with foreign elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrubiec, Franciszek; Pawlak, Ryszard; Raczynski, Tomasz; Walczak, Maria

    1994-09-01

    Laser treatment of the surface of materials is of major importance for many fields technology. One of the latest and most significant methods of this treatment is laser alloying consisting of introducing foreign atoms into the metal surface layer during the reaction of laser radiation with the surface. This opens up vast possibilities for the modification of properties of such a layer (obtaining layers of increased microhardness, increased resistance to electroerosion in an electric arc, etc.). Conductivity of the material is a very important parameter in case of conductive materials used for electrical contacts. The paper presents the results of studies on change in electrical conductivity of the surface layer of metals alloyed with a laser. A comparative analysis of conductivity of base metal surface layers prior to and following laser treatment has been performed. Depending on the base metal and the alloying element, optical treatment parameters allowing a required change in the surface layer conductivity have been selected. A very important property of the contact material is its resistance to plastic strain. It affects the real value of contact surface coming into contact and, along with the material conductivity, determines contact resistance and the amount of heat generated in place of contact. These quantities are directly related to the initiation and the course of an arc discharge, hence they also affect resistance to electroerosion. The parameter that reflects plastic properties with loads concentrated on a small surface, as is the case with a reciprocal contact force of two real surfaces with their irregularities being in contact, is microhardness. In the paper, the results of investigations into microhardness of modified surface layers compared with base metal microhardness have been presented.

  15. Demonstrating electromagnetic control of free-surface, liquid-metal flows relevant to fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvasta, M. G.; Kolemen, E.; Fisher, A. E.; Ji, H.

    2018-01-01

    Plasma-facing components (PFC’s) made from solid materials may not be able to withstand the large heat and particle fluxes that will be produced within next-generation fusion reactors. To address the shortcomings of solid PFC’s, a variety of liquid-metal (LM) PFC concepts have been proposed. Many of the suggested LM-PFC designs rely on electromagnetic restraint (Lorentz force) to keep free-surface, liquid-metal flows adhered to the interior surfaces of a fusion reactor. However, there is very little, if any, experimental data demonstrating that free-surface, LM-PFC’s can actually be electromagnetically controlled. Therefore, in this study, electrical currents were injected into a free-surface liquid-metal that was flowing through a uniform magnetic field. The resultant Lorentz force generated within the liquid-metal affected the velocity and depth of the flow in a controllable manner that closely matched theoretical predictions. These results show the promise of electromagnetic control for LM-PFC’s and suggest that electromagnetic control could be further developed to adjust liquid-metal nozzle output, prevent splashing within a tokamak, and alter heat transfer properties for a wide-range of liquid-metal systems.

  16. Heavy metals pollution and pb isotopic signatures in surface sediments collected from Bohai Bay, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bo; Lu, Jin; Hao, Hong; Yin, Shuhua; Yu, Xiao; Wang, Qiwen; Sun, Ke

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics and potential sources of heavy metals pollution, surface sediments collected from Bohai Bay, North China, were analyzed for the selected metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn). The Geoaccumulation Index was used to assess the level of heavy metal pollution. Pb isotopic compositions in sediments were also measured to effectively identify the potential Pb sources. The results showed that the average concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were 0.15, 79.73, 28.70, 36.56, 25.63, and 72.83 mg/kg, respectively. The mean concentrations of the studied metals were slightly higher than the background values. However, the heavy metals concentrations in surface sediments in Bohai Bay were below the other important bays or estuaries in China. The assessment by Geoaccumulation Index indicated that Cr, Zn, and Cd were classified as "the unpolluted" level, while Ni, Cu, and Pb were ranked as "unpolluted to moderately polluted" level. The order of pollution level of heavy metals was: Pb > Ni > Cu > Cr > Zn > Cd. The Pb isotopic ratios in surface sediments varied from 1.159 to 1.185 for (206)Pb/(207)Pb and from 2.456 to 2.482 for (208)Pb/(207)Pb. Compared with Pb isotopic radios in other sources, Pb contaminations in the surface sediments of Bohai Bay may be controlled by the mix process of coal combustion, aerosol particles deposition, and natural sources.

  17. Fabrication and condensation characteristics of metallic superhydrophobic surface with hierarchical micro-nano structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Fuqiang; Wu, Xiaomin

    2016-05-01

    Metallic superhydrophobic surfaces have various applications in aerospace, refrigeration and other engineering fields due to their excellent water repellent characteristics. This study considers a simple but widely applicable fabrication method using a two simultaneous chemical reactions method to prepare the acid-salt mixed solutions to process the metal surfaces with surface deposition and surface etching to construct hierarchical micro-nano structures on the surface and then modify the surface with low surface-energy materials. Al-based and Cu-based superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated using this method. The Al-based superhydrophobic surface had a water contact angle of 164° with hierarchical micro-nano structures similar to the lotus leaves. The Cu-based surface had a water contact angle of 157° with moss-like hierarchical micro-nano structures. Droplet condensation experiments were also performed on these two superhydrophobic surfaces to investigate their condensation characteristics. The results show that the Al-based superhydrophobic surface has lower droplet density, higher droplet jumping probability, slower droplet growth rate and lower surface coverage due to the more structured hierarchical structures.

  18. Polaron-mediated surface reconstruction in the reduced Rutile TiO2 (110) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reticcioli, Michele; Setvin, Martin; Hao, Xianfeng; Diebold, Ulrike; Franchini, Cesare

    The role of polarons is of key importance for the understanding of the fundamental properties and functionalities of TiO2. We use density functional theory with an on-site Coulomb interaction and molecular dynamics to study the formation and dynamics of small polarons in the reduced rutile (110) surface. We show that excess electrons donated by oxygen-vacancies (VO) form mobile small polarons that hop easily in subsurface and surface Ti-sites. The polaron formation becomes more favorable by increasing the VO concentration level (up to 20%) due to the progressively lower energy cost needed to distort the lattice. However, at higher VO concentration the shortening of the averaged polaron-polaron distance leads to an increased Coulomb repulsion among the trapped charges at the Ti-sites, which weakens this trend. This instability is overtaken by means of a structural 1 × 2 surface reconstruction, characterized by a distinctively more favorable polaron distribution. The calculations are validated by a direct comparison with experimental AFM and STM data. Our study identifies a fundamentally novel mechanism to drive surface reconstructions and resolves a long standing issue on the origin of the reconstruction in rutile (110) surface.

  19. Influence of submonolayer films on the metal surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigun, G.I.

    1979-01-01

    Carried out is the calculation of concentration dependence of the work function, surface energy and binding energy of adsorption systems in the framework of ''jelly'' model. Electron density is approximated with parametric exponential family. Unknown parameters are found from the neutrality and continuity conditions using obtained relation of electrostatic potential values in the depth of the substrate and on the surface. Each of the systems Li-W(110), Na-W(110), K-W(111) and Cs-W(112) is compared with a certain value of the thickness of positive charge substituting adsorbate ion film. Quantitative agreement of the theory and experiment takes place

  20. Terahertz surface plasmon polariton waveguiding with periodic metallic cylinders

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ying

    2017-06-15

    We demonstrated a structure with periodic cylinders arranged bilaterally and a thin dielectric layer covered inside that supports bound modes of surface plasmon polaritons at terahertz frequencies. This structure can confine the surface plasmon polaritons in the lateral direction, and at the same time reduce the field expansion into space. We examined and explored the characteristics of several different structures using scanning near-field terahertz microscopy. The proposed designs pave a novel way to terahertz waveguiding and may have important applications in the development of flexible, wideband and compact photonic circuits operating at terahertz frequencies.

  1. Terahertz surface plasmon polariton waveguiding with periodic metallic cylinders

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Shaoxian; Xu, Quan; Tian, Chunxiu; Gu, Jianqiang; Li, Yanfeng; Tian, Zhen; Ouyang, Chunmei; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrated a structure with periodic cylinders arranged bilaterally and a thin dielectric layer covered inside that supports bound modes of surface plasmon polaritons at terahertz frequencies. This structure can confine the surface plasmon polaritons in the lateral direction, and at the same time reduce the field expansion into space. We examined and explored the characteristics of several different structures using scanning near-field terahertz microscopy. The proposed designs pave a novel way to terahertz waveguiding and may have important applications in the development of flexible, wideband and compact photonic circuits operating at terahertz frequencies.

  2. Reaction dynamics of small molecules at metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, P.A.

    1999-09-01

    The dissociation-desorption dynamics of D 2 upon the Sn/Pt(111) surface alloy are dependent on the surface concentration of Sn. The p(2 x 2) Sn/Pt(111) alloy surface (Θ Sn = 0.25 ML), is initially ∼30 times less reactive towards D 2 adsorption than clean Pt(111). On the (√3 x √3) R30 deg Sn/Pt(111) alloy surface (Θ Sn = 0.33 ML), increased inhibition of D 2 adsorption is reported, with S o ∼ 10 -5 at low energy, coinciding with the loss of stable Pt 3 hollow sites and a significant reduction in the D atom binding energy. Sticking on the √3 alloy is activated with an increased energy threshold of ∼280 meV, with no evidence that vibration enhances dissociation. The barrier to dissociation remains in the entrance channel before the D 2 bond begins to stretch. Vibrational excitation is, however, observed in nitrogen desorption from the catalytic reaction of NO + H 2 over Pd(110). For a surface at 600 K, N 2 vibrational state population ratios of P(v=1/v=0) = 0.50 ± 0.05 and P(v=2/v=0) = 0.60 ± 0.20 are reported. Desorption occurs via the N(ad) + N(ad) recombination channel with little energy released into translation and rotation. The translational energy release observed is dependent on the N 2 vibrational state, with translational temperatures of 425 K, 315 K and 180 K reported for the v=0, 1 and 2 states respectively. Sub-thermal energy releases and normally directed angular distributions suggest the influence of a trapping mechanism, recombining molecules scattering through a molecularly adsorbed state, with a transition state of large d NN responsible for the product vibrational excitation. Although N 2 dissociation on Fe(100) forms a simple overlayer structure, on Fe(110), molecular chemisorption does not occur at or above room temperature and the sticking is extremely small (∼10 -6 to 10 -7 ). Activated nitrogen bombardment can be used to prepare a 'surface nitride' with a structure related to the geometry of bulk Fe 4 N. Scanning tunnelling

  3. Transfer matrix treatment of atomic chemisorption on transition metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariz, A.M.; Koiller, B.

    1980-05-01

    The atomic adsorption of hydrogen on paramagnetic nickel 100 surface is studied, using the Green's function formalism and the transfer matrix technique, which allows the treatment of the geometry of the system in a simple manner. Electronic correlation at the adatom orbital in a self consistent Hartree-Fock approach is incorporated. The adsorption energy, local density of states and charge transfer between the solid and the adatom are calculated for different crystal structures (sc and fcc) and adatom positions at the surface. The results are discussed in comparison with other theories and with available experimental data, with satisfactory agreement. (Author) [pt

  4. Fermi surface measurements in actinide metals and compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arko, A.J.; Schirber, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    The various techniques of measuring Fermi Surface parameters are briefly discussed in terms f application to actinide systems. Particular emphasis is given the dHvA effect. Some general results found in the dHvA studies of actinide compounds are given. The dHvA effect has been measured in α-U and is presented in detail. None of the observed frequencies corresponds to closed surfaces. Results are compared to the calculations of Freeman, Koelling and Watson-Yang where qualitative agreement is observed

  5. Photoelectric work function measurement of a cesiated metal surface and its correlation with the surface-produced H- ion flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, M.; Berkner, K.H.; Pyle, R.V.; Stearns, J.W.

    1982-09-01

    For application in plasma heating, fueling, and current drive of magnetic fusion devices, high current negative deuterium ion sources for intense neutral beam injectors are being developed using efficient production of negative hydrogen isotope ions on low work function metal surfaces imbedded in hydrogen plasmas. In order to investigate the correlation between work function and negative hydrogen ion production, photoelectron emission from a cesiated metal surface, which is immersed in a hydrogen plasma with an electron density less than 5 x 10 10 /cc, was measured in the photon energy range of 1.3 to 4.1 eV. The work function determination was based on Fowler's analysis, and at the optimum coverage a work function of less than 1.5 eV was observed for a Cs-Cu surface. Measured values of work functions for different Cs coverages were compared to the negative hydrogen currents produced at the metal surface in the discharge; the surface production of negative hydrogen ion current is monotonically increasing with decreasing work function

  6. Stabilized Lithium-Metal Surface in a Polysulfide-Rich Environment of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Chenxi; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2014-08-07

    Lithium-metal anode degradation is one of the major challenges of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, hindering their practical utility as next-generation rechargeable battery chemistry. The polysulfide migration and shuttling associated with Li-S batteries can induce heterogeneities of the lithium-metal surface because it causes passivation by bulk insulating Li2S particles/electrolyte decomposition products on a lithium-metal surface. This promotes lithium dendrite formation and leads to poor lithium cycling efficiency with complicated lithium surface chemistry. Here, we show copper acetate as a surface stabilizer for lithium metal in a polysulfide-rich environment of Li-S batteries. The lithium surface is protected from parasitic reactions with the organic electrolyte and the migrating polysulfides by an in situ chemical formation of a passivation film consisting of mainly Li2S/Li2S2/CuS/Cu2S and electrolyte decomposition products. This passivation film also suppresses lithium dendrite formation by controlling the lithium deposition sites, leading to a stabilized lithium surface characterized by a dendrite-free morphology and improved surface chemistry.

  7. Calculation of the surface energy of hcp-metals with the empirical electron theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Baoqin; Liu Wei; Li Zhilin

    2009-01-01

    A brief introduction of the surface model based on the empirical electron theory (EET) and the dangling bond analysis method (DBAM) is presented in this paper. The anisotropy of spatial distribution of covalent bonds of hexagonal close-packed (hcp) metals such as Be, Mg, Sc, Ti, Co, Zn, Y, Zr, Tc, Cd, Hf, and Re, has been analyzed. And under the first-order approximation, the calculated surface energy values for low index surfaces of these hcp-metals are in agreement with experimental and other theoretical values. Correlated analysis showed that the anisotropy of surface energy of hcp-metals was related with the ratio of lattice constants (c/a). The calculation method for the research of surface energy provides a good basis for models of surface science phenomena, and the model may be extended to the surface energy estimation of more metals, alloys, ceramics, and so on, since abundant information about the valence electronic structure (VES) is generated from EET.

  8. Transfer of metallic debris from the metal surface of an acetabular cup to artificial femoral heads by scraping: comparison between alumina and cobalt-chrome heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chong Bum; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Song, Won Seok; Kim, Deug Joong; Koo, Kyung-Hoi; Kim, Hee Joong

    2008-04-01

    We aimed to investigate the transfer of metal to both ceramic (alumina) and metal (cobalt-chrome) heads that were scraped by a titanium alloy surface under different load conditions. The ceramic and metal heads for total hip arthroplasties were scraped by an acetabular metal shell under various loads using a creep tester. Microstructural changes in the scraped area were visualized with a scanning electron microscope, and chemical element changes were assessed using an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Changes in the roughness of the scraped surface were evaluated by a three-dimensional surface profiling system. Metal transfer to the ceramic and metal heads began to be detectable at a 10 kg load, which could be exerted by one-handed force. The surface roughness values significantly increased with increasing test loads in both heads. When the contact force increased, scratching of the head surface occurred in addition to the transfer of metal. The results documented that metallic debris was transferred from the titanium alloy acetabular shell to both ceramic and metal heads by minor scraping. This study suggests that the greatest possible effort should be made to protect femoral heads, regardless of material, from contact with metallic surfaces during total hip arthroplasty.

  9. Surface/structure functionalization of copper-based catalysts by metal-support and/or metal–metal interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konsolakis, Michalis, E-mail: mkonsol@science.tuc.gr [School of Production Engineering and Management, Technical University of Crete, GR-73100 Chania, Crete (Greece); Ioakeimidis, Zisis [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Western Macedonia, Bakola and Sialvera, GR-50100 Kozani (Greece)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • The surface chemistry of Cu-based catalysts is adjusted by metal-support or metal–metal interactions. • Three series of catalysts, i.e., Cu/REOs, Cu/Ce{sub 1−x}Sm{sub x}O{sub δ} and Cu–Co/CeO{sub 2} were prepared. • The local structure of Cu sites is remarkably affected by support or active phase modification. • Useful insights toward the fundamental understanding of Cu-catalyzed reactions are provided. - Abstract: Cu-based catalysts have recently attracted great attention both in catalysis and electro-catalysis fields due to their excellent catalytic performance and low cost. Given that their performance is determined, to a great extent, by Cu sites local environment, considerable efforts have been devoted on the strategic modifications of the electronic and structural properties of Cu sites. In this regard, the feasibility of tuning the local structure of Cu entities by means of metal-support or metal–metal interactions is investigated. More specifically, the physicochemical properties of Cu entities are modified by employing: (i) different oxides (CeO{sub 2}, La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}), or (ii) ceria-based mixed oxides (Ce{sub 1−x}Sm{sub x}O{sub δ}) as supporting carriers, and (iii) a second metal (Cobalt) adjacent to Cu (bimetallic Cu–Co/CeO{sub 2}). A characterization study, involving BET, XRD, TPR, and XPS, reveal that significant modifications on structural, redox and electronic properties of Cu sites can be induced by adopting either different oxide carriers or bimetallic complexes. Fundamental insights into the tuning of Cu local environment by metal-support or metal–metal interactions are provided, paving the way for real-life industrial applications.

  10. Mechanical tearing of graphene on an oxidizing metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Lijin; Gupta, Aparna; Shaina, P R; Jaiswal, Manu; Gupta, Nandita Das

    2015-01-01

    Graphene, the thinnest possible anticorrosion and gas-permeation barrier, is poised to transform the protective coatings industry for a variety of surface applications. In this work, we have studied the structural changes of graphene when the underlying copper surface undergoes oxidation upon heating. Single-layer graphene directly grown on a copper surface by chemical vapour deposition was annealed under ambient atmosphere conditions up to 400 °C. The onset temperature of the surface oxidation of copper is found to be higher for graphene-coated foils. Parallel arrays of graphene nanoripples are a ubiquitous feature of pristine graphene on copper, and we demonstrate that these form crucial sites for the onset of the oxidation of copper, particularly for ∼0.3–0.4 μm ripple widths. In these regions, the oxidation proceeds along the length of the nanoripples, resulting in the formation of parallel stripes of oxidized copper regions. We demonstrate from temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy that the primary defect formation process in graphene involves boundary-type defects rather than vacancy or sp"3-type defects. This observation is consistent with a mechanical tearing process that splits graphene into small polycrystalline domains. The size of these is estimated to be sub-50 nm. (paper)

  11. Mechanical tearing of graphene on an oxidizing metal surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Lijin; Gupta, Aparna; Shaina, P R; Das Gupta, Nandita; Jaiswal, Manu

    2015-12-11

    Graphene, the thinnest possible anticorrosion and gas-permeation barrier, is poised to transform the protective coatings industry for a variety of surface applications. In this work, we have studied the structural changes of graphene when the underlying copper surface undergoes oxidation upon heating. Single-layer graphene directly grown on a copper surface by chemical vapour deposition was annealed under ambient atmosphere conditions up to 400 °C. The onset temperature of the surface oxidation of copper is found to be higher for graphene-coated foils. Parallel arrays of graphene nanoripples are a ubiquitous feature of pristine graphene on copper, and we demonstrate that these form crucial sites for the onset of the oxidation of copper, particularly for ∼0.3-0.4 μm ripple widths. In these regions, the oxidation proceeds along the length of the nanoripples, resulting in the formation of parallel stripes of oxidized copper regions. We demonstrate from temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy that the primary defect formation process in graphene involves boundary-type defects rather than vacancy or sp(3)-type defects. This observation is consistent with a mechanical tearing process that splits graphene into small polycrystalline domains. The size of these is estimated to be sub-50 nm.

  12. Substrate Vibrations as Promoters of Chemical Reactivity on Metal Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Victoria L; Chen, Nan; Guo, Han; Jackson, Bret; Utz, Arthur L

    2015-12-17

    Studies exploring how vibrational energy (Evib) promotes chemical reactivity most often focus on molecular reagents, leaving the role of substrate atom motion in heterogeneous interfacial chemistry underexplored. This combined theoretical and experimental study of methane dissociation on Ni(111) shows that lattice atom motion modulates the reaction barrier height during each surface atom's vibrational period, which leads to a strong variation in the reaction probability (S0) with surface temperature (Tsurf). State-resolved beam-surface scattering studies at Tsurf = 90 K show a sharp threshold in S0 at translational energy (Etrans) = 42 kJ/mol. When Etrans decreases from 42 kJ/mol to 34 kJ/mol, S0 decreases 1000-fold at Tsurf = 90 K, but only 2-fold at Tsurf = 475 K. Results highlight the mechanism for this effect, provide benchmarks for DFT calculations, and suggest the potential importance of surface atom induced barrier height modulation in heterogeneously catalyzed reactions, particularly on structurally labile nanoscale particles and defect sites.

  13. Dynamic and Impure Perovskite Structured Metal Oxide Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karin Vels; Norrman, Kion; Traulsen, Marie Lund

    2017-01-01

    Surfaces of LSF and LSCF perovskite model electrodes were investigated using a variety of analytical methods on flat model electrodes that were prepared as either pellets or as thin films on top of YSZ pellets in other to throw more light on the widely discussed segregation of layers and particles...

  14. Surface intermediates on metal electrodes at high temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; Jacobsen, Torben; Bay, Lasse

    1998-01-01

    The mechanisms widely conceived for the O(2)-reduction or H(2)-oxidation reactions in SOFC's involve intermediate O/H species adsorbed on the electrode surface. The presence of these intermediates is investigated by linear sweep voltammetry. In air at moderate temperatures (500 degrees C) Pt...

  15. Functionalization of silicon nanowire surfaces with metal-organic frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Nian; Yao, Yan; Cha, Judy; McDowell, Matthew T.; Han, Yu; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    -dimensional electronic properties. Integration of the two materials into one composite could synergistically combine the advantages of both materials and lead to new applications. We report the first example of a MOF synthesized on surface-modified SiNWs. The synthesis

  16. Role of particle size and composition in metal adsorption by solids deposited on urban road surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunawardana, Chandima; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2014-01-01

    Despite common knowledge that the metal content adsorbed by fine particles is relatively higher compared to coarser particles, the reasons for this phenomenon have gained little research attention. The research study discussed in the paper investigated the variations in metal content for different particle sizes of solids associated with pollutant build-up on urban road surfaces. Data analysis confirmed that parameters favourable for metal adsorption to solids such as specific surface area, organic carbon content, effective cation exchange capacity and clay forming minerals content decrease with the increase in particle size. Furthermore, the mineralogical composition of solids was found to be the governing factor influencing the specific surface area and effective cation exchange capacity. There is high quartz content in particles >150 μm compared to particles <150 μm. As particle size reduces below 150 μm, the clay forming minerals content increases, providing favourable physical and chemical properties that influence adsorption. -- Highlights: • Physico-chemical parameters investigated in build-up samples from 32 road surfaces. • Mineralogical composition primarily governs the physico-chemical characteristics. • High clay forming mineral content in fine solids increases SSA and ECEC. • Characteristics influenced by quartz and amorphous content with particle size. • High quartz content in coarse particles contributes reduced metal adsorption. -- The mineralogical composition of solids is the governing factor influencing metal adsorption to solids in pollutant build-up on urban surfaces

  17. Polymer powder adhesion to metallic surface improvement with plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladik, J.; Pichal, J.; Spatenka, P.; Pichal, J.; Spatenka, P.

    2008-01-01

    Useful method for corrosion prevention is coating of a base material with a suitable substance. It performs a barrier between the base material and its environment. Great attractions in this field have found polymers, among them polyethylenes (PE). Due to the low adhesion grade of unmodified polymer powder or granules the application of any modification process increasing the adhesion grade is crucial. At present there is no universal approach to polymer adhesion improvement and there have been employed various quite different techniques. Our research employed the PE adhesion improvement by plasma modification. There were used two plasma reactors - the microwave low pressure reactor and the atmospheric reactor employing dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The adhesion of the powder was determined by measurement of strength force demanded for displacement of the PE-metal joint

  18. Possible evidence for metal accretion onto the surfaces of metal-poor main-sequence stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Kohei; Yoshii, Yuzuru [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Beers, Timothy C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Carollo, Daniela [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, 2109 NSW (Australia); Lee, Young Sun, E-mail: khattori@ioa.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The entire evolution of the Milky Way, including its mass-assembly and star-formation history, is imprinted onto the chemo-dynamical distribution function of its member stars, f(x, v, [X/H]), in the multi-dimensional phase space spanned by position, velocity, and elemental abundance ratios. In particular, the chemo-dynamical distribution functions for low-mass stars (e.g., G- or K-type dwarfs) are precious tracers of the earliest stages of the Milky Way's formation, since their main-sequence lifetimes approach or exceed the age of the universe. A basic tenet of essentially all previous analyses is that the stellar metallicity, usually parameterized as [Fe/H], is conserved over time for main-sequence stars (at least those that have not been polluted due to mass transfer from binary companions). If this holds true, any correlations between metallicity and kinematics for long-lived main-sequence stars of different masses, effective temperatures, or spectral types must strictly be the same, since they reflect the same mass-assembly and star-formation histories. By analyzing a sample of nearby metal-poor halo and thick-disk stars on the main sequence, taken from Data Release 8 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we find that the median metallicity of G-type dwarfs is systematically higher (by about 0.2 dex) than that of K-type dwarfs having the same median rotational velocity about the Galactic center. If it can be confirmed, this finding may invalidate the long-accepted assumption that the atmospheric metallicities of long-lived stars are conserved over time.

  19. Laser-induced surface modification of metals and alloys in liquid argon medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakevich, V S; Kazakevich, P V; Yaresko, P S; Kamynina, D A

    2016-01-01

    Micro and nanostructuring of metals and alloys surfaces (Ti, Mo, Ni, T30K4) was considered by subnanocosecond laser radiation in stationary and dynamic mode in the liquid argon, ethanol and air. Depending of structures size on the samples surface from the energy density and the number of pulses were built. Non-periodic (NSS) and periodic (PSS) surface structures with periods about λ-λ/2 were obtained. PSS formation took place as at the target surface so at the NSS surface. (paper)

  20. Mediatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarvard, Stig

    2017-01-01

    Mediatization research shares media effects studies' ambition of answering the difficult questions with regard to whether and how media matter and influence contemporary culture and society. The two approaches nevertheless differ fundamentally in that mediatization research seeks answers...... to these general questions by distinguishing between two concepts: mediation and mediatization. The media effects tradition generally considers the effects of the media to be a result of individuals being exposed to media content, i.e. effects are seen as an outcome of mediated communication. Mediatization...... research is concerned with long-term structural changes involving media, culture, and society, i.e. the influences of the media are understood in relation to how media are implicated in social and cultural changes and how these processes come to create new conditions for human communication and interaction...

  1. Heavy metals in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China: their relations to environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jie; Zhao, Changpo; Luo, Yupeng; Liu, Chunsheng; Kyzas, George Z; Luo, Yin; Zhao, Dongye; An, Shuqing; Zhu, Hailiang

    2014-04-15

    This work investigated heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China. Sediment samples were collected at 19 sites along the river in connection with field surveys and the total concentrations were determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Sediment samples with higher metal concentrations were collected from the upper reach of the river, while sediments in the middle and lower reaches had relatively lower metal concentrations. Multivariate techniques including Pearson correlation, hierarchical cluster and principal components analysis were used to evaluate the metal sources. The ecological risk associated with the heavy metals in sediments was rated as moderate based on the assessments using methods of consensus-based Sediment Quality Guidelines, Potential Ecological Risk Index and Geo-accumulation Index. The relations between heavy metals and various environmental factors (i.e., chemical properties of sediments, water quality indices and aquatic organism indices) were also studied. Nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in sediments showed a co-release behavior with heavy metals. Ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, orthophosphate, total phosphate and permanganate index in water were found to be related to metal sedimentation. Heavy metals in sediments posed a potential impact on the benthos community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Bacterial mediated alleviation of heavy metal stress and decreased accumulation of metals in plant tissues: Mechanisms and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etesami, Hassan

    2018-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution of agricultural soils is one of main concerns causing some of the different ecological and environmental problems. Excess accumulation of these metals in soil has changed microbial community (e.g., structure, function, and diversity), deteriorated soil, decreased the growth and yield of plant, and entered into the food chain. Plants' tolerance to heavy metal stress needs to be improved in order to allow growth of crops with minimum or no accumulation of heavy metals in edible parts of plant that satisfy safe food demands for the world's rapidly increasing population. It is well known that PGPRs (plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria) enhance crop productivity and plant resistance to heavy metal stress. Many recent reports describe the application of heavy metal resistant-PGPRs to enhance agricultural yields without accumulation of metal in plant tissues. This review provides information about the mechanisms possessed by heavy metal resistant-PGPRs that ameliorate heavy metal stress to plants and decrease the accumulation of these metals in plant, and finally gives some perspectives for research on these bacteria in agriculture in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Theory of the reaction dynamics of small molecules on metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Bret [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2016-09-09

    The objective of this project has been to develop realistic theoretical models for gas-surface interactions, with a focus on processes important in heterogeneous catalysis. The dissociative chemisorption of a molecule on a metal is a key step in many catalyzed reactions, and is often the rate-limiting step. We have explored the dissociative chemisorption of H2, H2O and CH4 on a variety of metal surfaces. Most recently, our extensive studies of methane dissociation on Ni and Pt surfaces have fully elucidated its dependence on translational energy, vibrational state and surface temperature, providing the first accurate comparisons with experimental data. We have explored Eley-Rideal and hot atom reactions of H atoms with H- and C-covered metal surfaces. H atom interactions with graphite have also been explored, including both sticking and Eley-Rideal recombination processes. Again, our methods made it possible to explain several experiments studying these reactions. The sticking of atoms on metal surfaces has also been studied. To help elucidate the experiments that study these processes, we examine how the reaction dynamics depend upon the nature of the molecule-metal interaction, as well as experimental variables such as substrate temperature, beam energy, angle of impact, and the internal states of the molecules. Electronic structure methods based on Density Functional Theory are used to compute each molecule-metal potential energy surface. Both time-dependent quantum scattering techniques and quasi-classical methods are used to examine the reaction or scattering dynamics. Much of our effort has been directed towards developing improved quantum methods that can accurately describe reactions, as well as include the effects of substrate temperature (lattice vibration).

  4. Nitroxide-Mediated Radical Polymerization of Styrene Initiated from the Surface of Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abbasian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles, with an average size of about 45 nm, were encapsulated by polystyrene using in situ nitroxide mediated radical polymerization   in the presence of 3-aminopropyl triethoxy silane (APTES as a coupling agent and 2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxy  as a initiator. First, the initiator for NMRP was covalently bonded onto the surface of Titanium dioxide nanoparticles through our novel method. For this purpose, the surface of TiO2 nanoparticle was treated with 3-aminopropyl triethoxy silane, a silane coupling agent, and then these functionalized nanoparticles was reacted with ±-chloro phenyl acetyl chloride. The chlorine groups were converted to nitroxide mediated groups by coupling with 1-hydroxy-2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethyl piperidine. These modified TiO2 nanoparticles were then dispersed in styrene (St monomers to carry out the in situ free radical polymerization.

  5. A new approach to the problem of bulk-mediated surface diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M; Dagdug, Leonardo; Bezrukov, Sergey M

    2015-08-28

    This paper is devoted to bulk-mediated surface diffusion of a particle which can diffuse both on a flat surface and in the bulk layer above the surface. It is assumed that the particle is on the surface initially (at t = 0) and at time t, while in between it may escape from the surface and come back any number of times. We propose a new approach to the problem, which reduces its solution to that of a two-state problem of the particle transitions between the surface and the bulk layer, focusing on the cumulative residence times spent by the particle in the two states. These times are random variables, the sum of which is equal to the total observation time t. The advantage of the proposed approach is that it allows for a simple exact analytical solution for the double Laplace transform of the conditional probability density of the cumulative residence time spent on the surface by the particle observed for time t. This solution is used to find the Laplace transform of the particle mean square displacement and to analyze the peculiarities of its time behavior over the entire range of time. We also establish a relation between the double Laplace transform of the conditional probability density and the Fourier-Laplace transform of the particle propagator over the surface. The proposed approach treats the cases of both finite and infinite bulk layer thicknesses (where bulk-mediated surface diffusion is normal and anomalous at asymptotically long times, respectively) on equal footing.

  6. Environmentally Friendly Cleaners for Removing Tar from Metal Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    treatment plants that handle phosphate type solu- tions. The terms used by commercial vendors such as environmentally friendly, all natural, green, and...solvents used in relation to diesel fuel, and the procedure can also rank solvents quantitatively. Sacco (2004) has studied the blending of two plant ...other bituminous materials from industrial equipment surfaces. The composition is a mixture of a carrier monocyclic monoterpene and a nonionic

  7. HREM of metallized {111} iron oxide nanoparticle surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovely, G R; Brown, A P; Brydson, R; Kirkland, A I; Meyer, R; Chang, L Y; Jefferson, D A; Falke, M; Bleloch, A

    2006-01-01

    Mixed phase Fe 3 O 4 - γ-Fe 2 O 3 (magnetite-maghemite) nanoparticles have been fabricated by colloidal routes. HR(S)TEM images, taken on both aberration corrected and uncorrected (S)TEMs, and indirect reconstruction of images of the nanoparticles show the presence of {111} facets that terminate with enhanced contrast. This extra contrast is shown to be real and is due to additional octahedral cations occupying the {111} surfaces

  8. Laser techniques for radioactive decontamination gives metallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar Alracon, L.; Molina, G.; Vizuet Gonzalez, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this work it presented the prototype for system decontamination at diverse component with removable superficial contamination, using the technique gives laser ablation, for the evaporation at the pollutant. It discusses the principle in the fact that system, as well as the different elements that compose it. The are presented the obtained results when irradiating with a laser a surface without radioactive contamination to verify the system operation

  9. Trace moisture emissions from heated metal surfaces in hydrogen service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funke, Hans H.; Yao Jianlong; Raynor, Mark W.

    2004-01-01

    The formation of trace moisture by exposure of dry heated surfaces of 316 L stainless-steel, Restek Silcosteel registered , and nickel 1/8 in. outer diameter line segments to purified Ar and H 2 was studied using atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry at flow rates of 2 slpm. Prior to H 2 exposure, adsorbed moisture was removed by heating incrementally to 500 deg. C in an argon matrix, where the Restek Silcosteel registered material released a maximum of 50 ppb moisture at 300 deg. C and moisture spikes from the Ni and stainless-steel surfaces reached several 100 ppb. Upon exposure to H 2 , persistent low ppb moisture emissions due to the reduction of surface oxide species were observed at temperatures as low as 100 deg. C. Spikes at 300-500 deg. C ranged from ∼100 ppb for the stainless-steel lines to 400 ppb for the Restek Silcosteel registered material. The observed moisture emissions have to be considered as a potential contamination source for high-purity processes utilizing H 2 purge at elevated temperatures

  10. Alkali-crown ether complexes at metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thontasen, Nicha; Deng, Zhitao; Rauschenbach, Stephan [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Levita, Giacomo [University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Malinowski, Nikola [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Kern, Klaus [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    Crown ethers are polycyclic ethers which, in solution, selectively bind cations depending on the size of the ring cavity. The study of a single host-guest complex is highly desirable in order to reveal the characteristics of these specific interactions at the atomic scale. Such detailed investigation is possible at the surface where high resolution imaging tools like scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) can be applied. Here, electrospray ion beam deposition (ES-IBD) is employed for the deposition of Dibenzo-24-crown-8 (DB24C8)-H{sup +}, -Na{sup +} and -Cs{sup +} complexes on a solid surface in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). Where other deposition techniques have not been successful, this deposition technique combines the advantages of solution based preparation of the complex ions with a highly clean and controlled deposition in UHV. Single molecular structures and the cation-binding of DB24C8 at the surface are studied in situ by STM and MALDI-MS (matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry). The internal structure of the complex, i.e. ring and cavity, is observable only when alkali cations are incorporated. The BD24C8-H{sup +} complex in contrast appears as a compact feature. This result is in good agreement with theoretical models based on density functional theory calculations.

  11. Trends in the Hydrodeoxygenation Activity and Selectivity of Transition Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausche, Adam C.; Falsig, Hanne; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the use of a combination of density functional theory and microkinetic modelling to establish trends in the hydrodeoxygenation rates and selectivites of transition metal surfaces. Biomass and biomass-derived chemicals often contain large fractions of oxygenates. Removal...... of the oxygen through hydrotreating represents one strategy for producing commodity chemicals from these renewable materials. Using the model developed in this paper, we predict ethylene glycol hydrodeoxygenation selectivities for transition metals that are consistent with those reported in the literature...

  12. Surface analysis of model systems: From a metal-graphite interface to an intermetallic catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwolek, Emma J. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-10-25

    This thesis summarizes research completed on two different model systems. In the first system, we investigate the deposition of the elemental metal dysprosium on highly-oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and its resulting nucleation and growth. The goal of this research is to better understand the metal-carbon interactions that occur on HOPG and to apply those to an array of other carbon surfaces. This insight may prove beneficial to developing and using new materials for electronic applications, magnetic applications and catalysis.

  13. Functional Elements on SIRPα IgV domain Mediate Cell Surface Binding to CD47

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yuan; Tong, Qiao; Zhou, Yubin; Lee, Hsiau-Wei; Yang, Jenny J.; Bühring, Hans-Jörg; Chen, Yi-Tien; Ha, Binh; Chen, Celia X-J.; Zen, Ke

    2006-01-01

    SIRPα and SIRPβ1, the two major isoforms of the signal regulatory protein (SIRP) family, are co-expressed in human leukocytes but mediate distinct extracellular binding interactions and divergent cell signaling responses. Previous studies have demonstrated that binding of SIRPα with CD47, another important cell surface molecule, through the extracellular IgV domain regulates important leukocyte functions including macrophage recognition, leukocyte adhesion and transmigration. Although SIRPβ1 ...

  14. Colour interceptions, thermal stability and surface morphology of polyester metal complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zohdy, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Chelating copolymers via grafting of acrylic acid (AAc) and acrylamide (AAm/AAc) comonomer mixture onto polyester micro fiber fabrics (PETMF) using gamma-radiation technique were prepared. The prepared graft chains (PETMF-g-AAc) and (PETMF-g-PAAc/PAAm) acted as chelating sites for some selected transition metal ions. The prepared graft copolymers and their metal complexes were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), colour parameters and surface morphology measurements. The colour interception and strength measurements showed that the metal complexation is homogeneously distributed. The results showed that the thermal stability of PETMF was improved after graft copolymerization and metal complexes. Moreover, the degree of grafting enhanced the thermal stability values of the grafted and complexed copolymers up to 25% of magnitude, on the other hand the activation energy of the grafted-copolymer with acrylic acid increased up to 80%. The SEM observation gives further supports to the homogenous distribution of grafting and metal complexation

  15. Possibility of surface carburization of refractory metals of electric spark alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkhoturov, A.D.; Isaeva, L.P.; Timofeeva, I.I.; Tsyban', V.A.

    1981-01-01

    The paper is concerned with a study in the alloying layer formation under electric spark alloying of refractory (Ti, Zr, Nb, Mo, W, Co, Fe) metals with graphite in argon and in air using the EhFI-46A installation. It is shown that in electric spark alloying with graphite there appear certain specific conditions for the alloying layer formation manifested in the cathode mass decrease during treatment. In this case an alloying layer consisting of carbides, oxides of the corresponding metals and material of the base is formed on the metal surface. The best carburization conditions in the process of electric spark alloying are realized for group 4 metals when treating them in ''soft'' regime, specific time of alloying being 1-3 min/sm 2 and for group 5 and 6 metals - in ''rigid'' regime of treatment and specific time of alloying 3-5 min/cm 2 [ru

  16. Metal Recovery and Preconcentration by Edta and Dtpa Modified Silica Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveliina Repo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the adsorption and preconcentration of various metals by silica gel surfaces modified with aminopolycarboxylic acids namely ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid or diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid. The adsorption performance of the studied materials was determined in mixed metal solutions and the adsorption isotherm studies were conducted for cobalt, nickel, cadmium, and lead. The results were modeled using various theoretical isotherm equations, which suggested that two different adsorption sites were involved in metal removal although lead showed clearly different adsorption behavior attributed to its lowest hydration tendency. Efficient regeneration of the adsorbents and preconcentration of metals was conducted with nitric acid. Results indicated that the metals under study could be analyzed rather accurately after preconcentration from both pure, saline and ground water samples.

  17. Temperature-mediated transition from Dyakonov-Tamm surface waves to surface-plasmon-polariton waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiadini, Francesco; Fiumara, Vincenzo; Mackay, Tom G.; Scaglione, Antonio; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2017-08-01

    The effect of changing the temperature on the propagation of electromagnetic surface waves (ESWs), guided by the planar interface of a homogeneous isotropic temperature-sensitive material (namely, InSb) and a temperature-insensitive structurally chiral material (SCM) was numerically investigated in the terahertz frequency regime. As the temperature rises, InSb transforms from a dissipative dielectric material to a dissipative plasmonic material. Correspondingly, the ESWs transmute from Dyakonov-Tamm surface waves into surface-plasmon-polariton waves. The effects of the temperature change are clearly observed in the phase speeds, propagation distances, angular existence domains, multiplicity, and spatial profiles of energy flow of the ESWs. Remarkably large propagation distances can be achieved; in such instances the energy of an ESW is confined almost entirely within the SCM. For certain propagation directions, simultaneous excitation of two ESWs with (i) the same phase speeds but different propagation distances or (ii) the same propagation distances but different phase speeds are also indicated by our results.

  18. Early human bone response to laser metal sintering surface topography: a histologic report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Carlo; Piattelli, Adriano; d'Avila, Susana; Iezzi, Giovanna; Mangano, Francesco; Onuma, Tatiana; Shibli, Jamil Awad

    2010-01-01

    This histologic report evaluated the early human bone response to a direct laser metal sintering implant surface retrieved after a short period of healing. A selective laser sintering procedure using a Ti-6Al-4V alloy powder with a particle size of 25-45 microm prepared this surface topography. One experimental microimplant was inserted into the anterior mandible of a patient during conventional implant surgery of the jaw. The microimplant and surrounding tissues were removed after 2 months of unloaded healing and were prepared for histomorphometric analysis. Histologically, the peri-implant bone appeared in close contact with the implant surface, whereas marrow spaces could be detected in other areas along with prominently stained cement lines. The mean of bone-to-implant contact was 69.51%. The results of this histologic report suggest that the laser metal sintering surface could be a promising alternative to conventional implant surface topographies.

  19. Nanoscale patterning of two metals on silicon surfaces using an ABC triblock copolymer template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Masato; Buriak, Jillian M

    2006-05-03

    Patterning technologically important semiconductor interfaces with nanoscale metal films is important for applications such as metallic interconnects and sensing applications. Self-assembling block copolymer templates are utilized to pattern an aqueous metal reduction reaction, galvanic displacement, on silicon surfaces. Utilization of a triblock copolymer monolayer film, polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO), with two blocks capable of selective transport of different metal complexes to the surface (PEO and P2VP), allows for chemical discrimination and nanoscale patterning. Different regions of the self-assembled structure discriminate between metal complexes at the silicon surface, at which time they undergo the spontaneous reaction at the interface. Gold deposition from gold(III) compounds such as HAuCl4(aq) in the presence of hydrofluoric acid mirrors the parent block copolymer core structure, whereas silver deposition from Ag(I) salts such as AgNO3(aq) does the opposite, localizing exclusively under the corona. By carrying out gold deposition first and silver second, sub-100-nm gold features surrounded by silver films can be produced. The chemical selectivity was extended to other metals, including copper, palladium, and platinum. The interfaces were characterized by a variety of methods, including scanning electron microscopy, scanning Auger microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy.

  20. Initial steps in the microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of metallic surfaces in a natural marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteso, M.A.; Estrella, C.N.; Dolores de la Rosa, M.; Martinez-Trujillo, R.; Rosales, B.M.; Podesta, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    Immersion of various metal samples in polluted seawater from Tenerife Harbor was followed by microbial attachment as an intermediate step in fouling development. The purpose of this research was to determine the initial steps in MIC by identifying the different microbial species attached to the respective metal or alloy. Image analysis was used to determine the morphologic changes in the metal surfaces. The corrosion products were determined by X-ray diffraction. The open circuit potentials were measured periodically and their variation with time used to assess the electrochemical behavior in the aforementioned marine environment

  1. Surface interactions affect the toxicity of engineered metal oxide nanoparticles toward Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kungang; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Wen; Pu, Zhichao; Jiang, Lin; Chen, Yongsheng

    2012-08-20

    To better understand the potential impacts of engineered metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in the ecosystem, we investigated the acute toxicity of seven different types of engineered metal oxide NPs against Paramecium multimicronucleatum, a ciliated protozoan, using the 48 h LC(50) (lethal concentration, 50%) test. Our results showed that the 48 h LC(50) values of these NPs to Paramecium ranged from 0.81 (Fe(2)O(3) NPs) to 9269 mg/L (Al(2)O(3) NPs); their toxicity to Paramecium increased as follows: Al(2)O(3) Paramecium; this implies that metal oxide NPs with strong association with the cell surface might induce more severe cytotoxicity in unicellular organisms.

  2. Synthesis and Mechanism of Metal-Mediated Polymerization of Phenolic Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenol-formaldehyde (PF resin is a high performance adhesive, but has not been widely developed due to its slow curing rate and high curing temperature. To accelerate the curing rate and to lower the curing temperature of PF resin, four types of metal-mediated catalysts were employed in the synthesis of PF resin; namely, barium hydroxide (Ba(OH2, sodium carbonate (Na2CO3, lithium hydroxide (LiOH, and zinc acetate ((CH3COO2Zn. The cure-acceleration effects of these catalysts on the properties of PF resins were measured, and the chemical structures of the PF resins accelerated with the catalysts were investigated by using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy and quantitative liquid carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR. The results showed that the accelerated efficiency of these catalysts to PF resin could be ordered in the following sequence: Na2CO3 > (CH3COO2Zn > Ba(OH2 > LiOH. The catalysts (CH3COO2Zn and Na2CO3 increased the reaction activity of the phenol ortho position and the condensation reaction of ortho methylol. The accelerating mechanism of (CH3COO2Zn on PF resin is probably different from that of Na2CO3, which can be confirmed by the differences in the differential thermogravimetric (DTG curve and thermogravimetric (TG data. Compared to the Na2CO3-accelerated PF resin, the (CH3COO2Zn-accelerated PF resin showed different peaks in the DTG curve and higher weight residues. In the synthesis process, the catalyst (CH3COO2Zn may form chelating compounds (containing a metal-ligand bond, which can promote the linkage of formaldehyde to the phenolic hydroxyl ortho position.

  3. No contaminant methods for the bio films formation control on metallic surfaces of industrial interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez de Saravia, S. G.; Guiamet, P. S.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper was the control of aerobic and anaerobic bacterial biofilms formation on metal surfaces of industrial interest such as stainless steel and mild steel. A natural biocida obtained of an aqueous extract of seeds of black mustard (Brassica nigra) and mixtures of immunoglobulins IgA, IgG, and IgM were used. Microscopic techniques like scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and epifluorescens microscopy were used for observing bacterial adhesion of the metal surfaces. A marked inhibition of bacterial adherence was observed when an immunoglobulin film was formed on the metal surface. When the natural biocide was used, an important decrease in the number of microorganisms in the biofilms was observed. (Author) 8 refs

  4. An orbital-overlap model for minimal work functions of cesiated metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Sharon H; Bargatin, Igor; Howe, Roger T; Voss, Johannes; Vojvodic, Aleksandra; Abild-Pedersen, Frank

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a model for the effect of cesium adsorbates on the work function of transition metal surfaces. The model builds on the classical point-dipole equation by adding exponential terms that characterize the degree of orbital overlap between the 6s states of neighboring cesium adsorbates and its effect on the strength and orientation of electric dipoles along the adsorbate-substrate interface. The new model improves upon earlier models in terms of agreement with the work function-coverage curves obtained via first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. All the cesiated metal surfaces have optimal coverages between 0.6 and 0.8 monolayers, in accordance with experimental data. Of all the cesiated metal surfaces that we have considered, tungsten has the lowest minimum work function, also in accordance with experiments.

  5. Interaction of Model Inhibitor Compounds with Minimalist Cluster Representations of Hydroxyl Terminated Metal Oxide Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Taylor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The computational modeling of corrosion inhibitors at the level of molecular interactions has been pursued for decades, and recent developments are allowing increasingly realistic models to be developed for inhibitor–inhibitor, inhibitor–solvent and inhibitor–metal interactions. At the same time, there remains a need for simplistic models to be used for the purpose of screening molecules for proposed inhibitor performance. Herein, we apply a reductionist model for metal surfaces consisting of a metal cation with hydroxide ligands and use quantum chemical modeling to approximate the free energy of adsorption for several imidazoline class candidate corrosion inhibitors. The approximation is made using the binding energy and the partition coefficient. As in some previous work, we consider different methods for incorporating solvent and reference systems for the partition coefficient. We compare the findings from this short study with some previous theoretical work on similar systems. The binding energies for the inhibitors to the metal hydroxide clusters are found to be intermediate to the binding energies calculated in other work for bare metal vs. metal oxide surfaces. The method is applied to copper, iron, aluminum and nickel metal systems.

  6. Heavy metals in the surface sediments of lakes on the Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bixi; Liu, Yongqin; Zhang, Fan; Hou, Juzhi; Zhang, Hongbo; Li, Chaoliu

    2018-02-01

    Heavy metal contamination has affected many regions in the world, particularly the developing countries of Asia. We investigated 8 heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni, and As) in the surface sediments of 18 lakes on the Tibetan Plateau. It was found that the distributions of the heavy metals showed no clear spatial pattern on the plateau. The results indicated that the mean concentrations of these metals in the sediment samples diminished as follows: Cr > As > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cu > Co > Cd. The results of geoaccumulation index (I geo ) and potential ecological risk factor (E i r ) assessments showed that the sediments were moderately polluted by Cd and As, which posed much higher risks than the other metals. The values of the potential ecological risk index (RI) showed that lake Bieruoze Co has been severely polluted by heavy metals. Principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and Pearson correlation analysis results indicated that the 8 heavy metals in the lake surface sediments of the Tibetan Plateau could be classified into four groups. Group 1 included Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, and Ni which were mainly derived from both natural and traffic sources. Group 2 included Cd which mainly originated from anthropogenic sources like alloying, electroplating, and dyeing industries and was transported to the Tibetan Plateau by atmospheric circulation. Group 3 included Cr and it might mainly generate from parent rocks of watersheds. The last Group (As) was mainly from manufacturing, living, and the striking deterioration of atmospheric environment of the West, Central Asia, and South Asia.

  7. TXRF study of electrochemical deposition of metals on glass-ceramic carbon electrode surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alov, N.; Oskolok, K.; Wittershagen, A.; Mertens, M.; Rittmeyer, C.; Kolbesen, B.O.

    2000-01-01

    Nowadays the methods of solid surface analysis are widely used to study the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of joint electrochemical deposition of metals on solid substrates. In this work the surfaces of some binary and ternary metal electrodeposits on disc glass-ceramic carbon electrodes were studied by total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF). Metal alloys were obtained as a result of electrochemical co-deposition of copper, cadmium and lead from n x 10 -4 M (Cu, Cd, Pb)(NO 3 ) 2 + 0.01 M HNO 3 solutions under mixing. TXRF measurements were performed with an ATOMIKA EXTRA II A spectrometer using Mo K α and W (Brems) primary excitation. The serious advantage of TXRF as a method of near-surface analysis is very high element sensitivity. Apart from main elements (Cu, Cd, Pb) we have detected trace elements (Cl, Ag, Pt, Hg) which are present in working solution and has an effect to the electrodeposit formation. The comparison of TXRF data with information obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron-probe x-ray microanalysis permits to realize depth profiling electrochemical alloys. In particular it was found that in binary systems Cu-Pb and Cu-Cd the relative lead and cadmium content on the electrodeposit surface is considerably greater than in the bulk. These phenomena are due to the features of metal nucleation and growth mechanisms. High sensitivity of TXRF to surface morphology and the correlation of TXRF and scanning electron microscopy data allow to determine the area of prevailing location of metal in the heterogeneous alloy surface. So we have established that in Cu-Pb and Cu-Cd-Pb systems solid solution of copper and lead is formed: significant part of lead is deposited not only in specific 3D-clusters but also in copper thin film. It was demonstrated that the near-surface TXRF analysis of metal electrodeposits on solid electrodes is highly effective to study the mechanisms of metal nucleation, metal cluster and thin film

  8. Adsorption of metals and protons on Gloeocapsa sp. cyanobacteria: A surface speciation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokrovsky, O.S. [Geochimie et Biogeochimie Experimentale, LMTG, Universite de Toulouse, CNRS-IRD-OMP, 14 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France)], E-mail: oleg@lmtg.obs-mip.fr; Martinez, R.E.; Golubev, S.V. [Geochimie et Biogeochimie Experimentale, LMTG, Universite de Toulouse, CNRS-IRD-OMP, 14 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Kompantseva, E.I. [Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shirokova, L.S. [Institute of Ecological Problems of the Northern Regions, Russian Academy of Science, 29 Naberezhnaja Sev. Dviny, Arkhangelsk (Russian Federation)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of the present work is to extend our knowledge of metal-cyanobacteria interactions and to contribute to the database on adsorption parameters of aquatic microorganisms with respect to metal pollutants. To this end, the surface properties of the cyanobacteria (Gloeocapsa sp. f-6gl) were studied using potentiometric acid-base titration methods and ATR-FTIR (attenuated total reflection infrared) spectroscopy. The electrophoretic mobility of viable cells was measured as a function of pH and ionic strength (0.01 and 0.1 M). Surface titrations at 0.01-1.0 M NaCl were performed using limited residence time reactors (discontinuous titration) with analysis of Ca, Mg and dissolved organic C for each titration point in order to account for alkali-earth metal-proton exchange and cell degradation, respectively. Results demonstrate that the cell-wall bound Ca and Mg from the culture media contribute to the total proton uptake via surface ion-exchange reactions. This has been explicitly taken into account for net proton balance calculations. Adsorption of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu was studied at 25 deg. C in 0.01 M NaNO{sub 3} as a function of pH and metal concentration. The proportion of adsorbed metal increases as a function of culture age with cells of 44 days old having the largest adsorption capacities. A competitive Langmuir sorption isotherm in conjunction with a linear programming method (LPM) was used to fit experimental data and assess the number of surface sites and adsorption reaction constants involved in the binding of metals to the cyanobacteria surface. These observations allowed the determination of the identity and concentration of the major surface functional groups (carboxylate, amine, phosphoryl/phosphodiester and hydroxyl) responsible for the amphoteric behavior of cyanobacterial cell surfaces in aqueous solutions and for metal adsorption. Results of this work should allow better optimizing of metal bioremediation/biosequestration processes as they help

  9. Adsorption of metals and protons on Gloeocapsa sp. cyanobacteria: A surface speciation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokrovsky, O.S.; Martinez, R.E.; Golubev, S.V.; Kompantseva, E.I.; Shirokova, L.S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to extend our knowledge of metal-cyanobacteria interactions and to contribute to the database on adsorption parameters of aquatic microorganisms with respect to metal pollutants. To this end, the surface properties of the cyanobacteria (Gloeocapsa sp. f-6gl) were studied using potentiometric acid-base titration methods and ATR-FTIR (attenuated total reflection infrared) spectroscopy. The electrophoretic mobility of viable cells was measured as a function of pH and ionic strength (0.01 and 0.1 M). Surface titrations at 0.01-1.0 M NaCl were performed using limited residence time reactors (discontinuous titration) with analysis of Ca, Mg and dissolved organic C for each titration point in order to account for alkali-earth metal-proton exchange and cell degradation, respectively. Results demonstrate that the cell-wall bound Ca and Mg from the culture media contribute to the total proton uptake via surface ion-exchange reactions. This has been explicitly taken into account for net proton balance calculations. Adsorption of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu was studied at 25 deg. C in 0.01 M NaNO 3 as a function of pH and metal concentration. The proportion of adsorbed metal increases as a function of culture age with cells of 44 days old having the largest adsorption capacities. A competitive Langmuir sorption isotherm in conjunction with a linear programming method (LPM) was used to fit experimental data and assess the number of surface sites and adsorption reaction constants involved in the binding of metals to the cyanobacteria surface. These observations allowed the determination of the identity and concentration of the major surface functional groups (carboxylate, amine, phosphoryl/phosphodiester and hydroxyl) responsible for the amphoteric behavior of cyanobacterial cell surfaces in aqueous solutions and for metal adsorption. Results of this work should allow better optimizing of metal bioremediation/biosequestration processes as they help to

  10. Effects of surface stability on the morphological transformation of metals and metal oxides as investigated by first-principles calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Juan; Gracia, Lourdes; Gouveia, Amanda Fernandes; Ferrer, Mateus Meneghetti; Longo, Elson

    2015-10-09

    Morphology is a key property of materials. Owing to their precise structure and morphology, crystals and nanocrystals provide excellent model systems for joint experimental and theoretical investigations into surface-related properties. Faceted polyhedral crystals and nanocrystals expose well-defined crystallographic planes depending on the synthesis method, which allow for thoughtful investigations into structure-reactivity relationships under practical conditions. This feature article introduces recent work, based on the combined use of experimental findings and first-principles calculations, to provide deeper knowledge of the electronic, structural, and energetic properties controlling the morphology and the transformation mechanisms of different metals and metal oxides: Ag, anatase TiO2, BaZrO3, and α-Ag2WO4. According to the Wulff theorem, the equilibrium shapes of these systems are obtained from the values of their respective surface energies. These investigations are useful to gain further understanding of how to achieve morphological control of complex three-dimensional crystals by tuning the ratio of the surface energy values of the different facets. This strategy allows the prediction of possible morphologies for a crystal and/or nanocrystal by controlling the relative values of surface energies.

  11. Promotion effect of monovalent metals (K and Cs) on the GaAs (110) surface oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeri, S.; Sberveglieri, P.; Angeli, E.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of thin (∼ 1 monolayer) overlayers of low electronegativity metals (Cs and K) on the RT oxidation behaviour of GaAs(110) cleavage surface is studied. This study was with Auger and Photoemission spectroscopies. Attention has been focused on the core-valence-valence and Auger lineshapes on the Ga and As 3d peaks. Presence of the alkali metal enhances the GaAs (110) oxidation rate several orders of magnitude above the clean surface value has been found. The range 0-100 Langmuir is investigated in detail. The oxidation process of the GaAs(110) surface in the presence of both K and Cs overlayer follows a multi-step kinetic and reaches a saturation at exposure lower than 100 Langmuir. Both Ga and As atoms are involved in the oxygen bonding. The metal enhanced semiconductor oxidation is generally reported to be a process involving predominantly the semiconductor surface atoms. However in the Cs - and K - GaAs case, an involvement of the alkali metal atoms too, reflected in the shape modification of their Auger line has been found. The promotion effect of K and Cs is discussed in terms of their low electronegativity and in comparison with the results recently reported in the literature for the other low electronegativity metals

  12. The interaction of trace heavy metal with lipid monolayer in the sea surface microlayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siyang; Du, Lin; Tsona, Narcisse T; Wang, Wenxing

    2018-04-01

    Lipid molecules and trace heavy metals are enriched in sea surface microlayer and can be transferred into the sea spray aerosol. To better understand their impact on marine aerosol generation and evolution, we investigated the interaction of trace heavy metals including Fe 3+ , Pb 2+ , Zn 2+ , Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cr 3+ , Cd 2+ , and Co 2+ , with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monolayers at the air-water interface. Phase behavior of the DPPC monolayer on heavy metal solutions was probed with surface pressure-area (π-A) isotherms. The conformation order and orientation of DPPC alkyl chains were characterized by infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS). The π-A isotherms show that Zn 2+ and Fe 3+ strongly interact with DPPC molecules, and induce condensation of the monolayers in a concentration-dependent manner. IRRAS spectra show that the formation of cation-DPPC complex gives rise to conformational changes and immobilization of the headgroups. The current results suggest that the enrichment of Zn 2+ in sea spray aerosols is due to strong binding to the DPPC film. The interaction of Fe 3+ with DPPC monolayers can significantly influence their surface organizations through the formation of lipid-coated particles. These results suggest that the sea surface microlayer is capable of accumulating much higher amounts of these metals than the subsurface water. The organic and metal pollutants may transfer into the atmosphere by this interaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of metal surface grinding at the porcelain try-in stage of fixed dental prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılınç, Halil İbrahim; Kesim, Bülent; Gümüş, Hasan Önder; Dinçel, Mehmet; Erkaya, Selçuk

    2014-08-01

    This study was to evaluate the effect of grinding of the inner metal surface during the porcelain try-in stage on metal-porcelain bonding considering the maximum temperature and the vibration of samples. Ninety-one square prism-shaped (1 × 1 × 1.5 mm) nickel-chrome cast frameworks 0.3 mm thick were prepared. Porcelain was applied on two opposite outer axial surfaces of the frameworks. The grinding was performed from the opposite axial sides of the inner metal surfaces with a low-speed handpiece with two types of burs (diamond, tungsten-carbide) under three grinding forces (3.5 N, 7 N, 14 N) and at two durations (5 seconds, 10 seconds). The shear bond strength (SBS) test was performed with universal testing machine. Statistical analyzes were performed at 5% significance level. The samples subjected to grinding under 3.5 N showed higher SBS values than those exposed to grinding under 7 N and 14 N (P.05). The types of bur (P=.965) and the duration (P=.679) did not affect the SBS values. On the other hand, type of bur, force applied, and duration of the grinding affected the maximum temperatures of the samples, whereas the maximum vibration was affected only by the type of bur (PGrinding the inner metal surface did not affect the metal-porcelain bond strength. Although the grinding affected the maximum temperature and the vibration values of the samples, these did not influence the bonding strength.

  14. Amplification of Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Due to Substrate-Mediated Localized Surface Plasmons in Gold Nanodimers

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng

    2017-03-28

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is ubiquitous in chemical and biochemical sensing, imaging and identification. Maximizing SERS enhancement is a continuous effort focused on the design of appropriate SERS substrates. Here we show that significant improvement in a SERS signal can be achieved with substrates combining localized surface plasmon resonances and a nonresonant plasmonic substrate. By introducing a continuous gold (Au) film underneath Au nanodimers antenna arrays, an over 10-fold increase in SERS enhancement is demonstrated. Triangular, rectangle and disc dimers were studied, with bowtie antenna providing highest SERS enhancement. Simulations of electromagnetic field distributions of the Au nanodimers on the Au film support the observed enhancement dependences. The hybridization of localized plasmonic modes with the image modes in a metal film provides a straightforward way to improve SERS enhancement in designer SERS substrate.

  15. Surface modification of the metal plates using continuous electron beam process (CEBP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jisoo; Kim, Jin-Seok; Kang, Eun-Goo; Park, Hyung Wook

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We performed surface modification of SM20C, SUS303, and Al6061 using CEBP. • We analyzed surface properties and microstructure after electron-beam irradiation. • The surface quality was improved after electron-beam irradiation. • The surface hardness for SM20C was increased by ∼50% after CEBP irradiation. - Abstract: The finishing process is an important component of the quality-control procedure for final products in manufacturing applications. In this study, we evaluated the performance of continuous electron-beam process as the final process for finishing SM20C (steel alloy), SUS303 (stainless steel alloy), and Al6061 (aluminum alloy) surfaces both on the initially smooth and rough surfaces. Surface modification of the metals was carried out by varying the feed and frequency of the continuous electron-beam irradiation procedure. The resulting surface roughness was examined with respect to the initial surface roughness of the metals. SM20C and SUS303 experienced an improvement in surface roughness, particularly for initially rough surfaces. Continuous electron-beam process produced craters during the process and the effect of this phenomenon on the resulting surface roughness was relatively large with the initially smooth SM20C and SUS303 alloy surfaces. For Al6061, the continuous electron-beam process was effective at improving its surface roughness even with the initially smooth surface under the optimized conditions of process; this was attributed to its low melting point. Scanning electron microscopy was used to identify metallurgical variation within the thin melted and re-solidification layers of the tested alloys. Changes in the surface contact angle and hardness before and after electron-beam irradiation were also examined

  16. Surface modification of the metal plates using continuous electron beam process (CEBP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jisoo, E-mail: kimjisu16@unist.ac.kr [School of Mechanical and Advanced Materials Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, UNIST-gil 50, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan Metropolitan City 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin-Seok, E-mail: totoro22@kitech.re.kr [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), KITECH Cheonan Headquarters 35-3 Hongcheon-ri, Ipjang-myeon, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do 330-825 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Eun-Goo, E-mail: egkang@kitech.re.kr [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), KITECH Cheonan Headquarters 35-3 Hongcheon-ri, Ipjang-myeon, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do 330-825 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyung Wook, E-mail: hwpark@unist.ac.kr [School of Mechanical and Advanced Materials Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, UNIST-gil 50, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan Metropolitan City 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • We performed surface modification of SM20C, SUS303, and Al6061 using CEBP. • We analyzed surface properties and microstructure after electron-beam irradiation. • The surface quality was improved after electron-beam irradiation. • The surface hardness for SM20C was increased by ∼50% after CEBP irradiation. - Abstract: The finishing process is an important component of the quality-control procedure for final products in manufacturing applications. In this study, we evaluated the performance of continuous electron-beam process as the final process for finishing SM20C (steel alloy), SUS303 (stainless steel alloy), and Al6061 (aluminum alloy) surfaces both on the initially smooth and rough surfaces. Surface modification of the metals was carried out by varying the feed and frequency of the continuous electron-beam irradiation procedure. The resulting surface roughness was examined with respect to the initial surface roughness of the metals. SM20C and SUS303 experienced an improvement in surface roughness, particularly for initially rough surfaces. Continuous electron-beam process produced craters during the process and the effect of this phenomenon on the resulting surface roughness was relatively large with the initially smooth SM20C and SUS303 alloy surfaces. For Al6061, the continuous electron-beam process was effective at improving its surface roughness even with the initially smooth surface under the optimized conditions of process; this was attributed to its low melting point. Scanning electron microscopy was used to identify metallurgical variation within the thin melted and re-solidification layers of the tested alloys. Changes in the surface contact angle and hardness before and after electron-beam irradiation were also examined.

  17. Fluorescent polymeric nanocomposite films generated by surface-mediated photoinitiation of polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, Heather J.; Chang, Erin L.; May, Allison M.; Berron, Brad J.; Seedorf, Gregory J.; Balasubramaniam, Vivek; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2011-01-01

    Incorporation of nanoparticles (NPs) into polymer films represents a valuable strategy for achieving a variety of desirable physical, optical, mechanical, and electrical attributes. Here, we describe and characterize the creation of highly fluorescent polymer films by entrapment of fluorescent NPs into polymer matrices through surface-mediated eosin photoinitiation reactions. Performing surface-mediated polymerizations with NPs combines the benefits of a covalently anchored film with the unique material properties afforded by NPs. The effects of monomer type, crosslinker content, NP size, and NP surface chemistry were investigated to determine their impact on the relative amount of NPs entrapped in the surface-bound films. The density of entrapped NPs was increased up to 6-fold by decreasing the NP diameter. Increasing the crosslinking agent concentration enabled a greater than 2-fold increase in the amount of NPs entrapped. Additionally, the monomer chemistry played a significant role as poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA)-based monomer formulations entrapped a 10-fold higher density of carboxy-functionalized NPs than did acrylamide/bisacrylamide formulations, though the latter formulations ultimately immobilized more fluorophores by generating thicker films. In the context of a polymerization-based microarray biodetection platform, these findings enabled tailoring of the monomer and NP selection to yield a 200-fold improvement in sensitivity from 31 (±1) to 0.16 (±0.01) biotinylated target molecules per square micron. Similarly, in polymerization-based cell staining applications, appropriate monomer and NP selection enabled facile visualization of microscale, sub-cellular features. Careful consideration of monomer and NP selection is critical to achieve the desired properties in applications that employ surface-mediated polymerization to entrap NPs.

  18. Aminopropyltriethoxysilane-mediated surface functionalization of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and in vitro toxicity assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Shige Wang1, Shihui Wen2, Mingwu Shen2, Rui Guo2, Xueyan Cao2, Jianhua Wang3, Xiangyang Shi1,2,41State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, 2College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 4Centro de Química da Madeira, Universidade da Madeira, Campus da Penteada, Funchal, PortugalBackground: We report on aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS-mediated surface modification of nanohydroxyapatite with different surface functional groups for potential biomedical applications. In this study, nanohydroxyapatite covalently linked with APTS (n-HA-APTS was reacted with acetic anhydride or succinic anhydride to produce neutralized (n-HA-APTS.Ac or negatively charged (n-HA-APTS.SAH nanohydroxyapatite, respectively. Nanohydroxyapatite formed with amine, acetyl, and carboxyl groups was extensively characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, and zeta potential measurements.Results: In vitro 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay revealed that the slight toxicity of the amine-functionalized n-HA-APTS could be eliminated by post-functionalization of APTS amines to form acetyl and carboxyl groups. Blood compatibility assessment demonstrated that the negligible hemolytic activity of the pristine nanohydroxyapatite particles did not appreciably change after APTS-mediated surface functionalization.Conclusion: APTS-mediated functionalization of nanohydroxyapatite with different surface groups may be useful for further functionalization of nanohydroxyapatite with biologically active materials, thereby providing possibilities for a broad range of

  19. Plasma-implantation-based surface modification of metals with single-implantation mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X. B.; Cui, J. T.; Yang, S. Q.; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2004-12-01

    Plasma ion implantation has proven to be an effective surface modification technique. Its biggest advantage is the capability to treat the objects with irregular shapes without complex manipulation of target holder. Many metal materials such as aluminum, stainless steel, tool steel, titanium, magnesium etc, has been treated using this technique to improve their wear-resistance, corrosion-resistance, fatigue-resistance, oxidation-resistance, bio-compatiblity etc. However in order to achieve thicker modified layers, hybrid processes combining plasma ion implantation with other techniques have been frequently employed. In this paper plasma implantation based surface modification of metals using single-implantation mode is reviewed.

  20. Electronic detection of surface plasmon polaritons by metal-oxide-silicon capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Peale

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An electronic detector of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs is reported. SPPs optically excited on a metal surface using a prism coupler are detected by using a close-coupled metal-oxide-silicon (MOS capacitor. Incidence-angle dependence is explained by Fresnel transmittance calculations, which also are used to investigate the dependence of photo-response on structure dimensions. Electrodynamic simulations agree with theory and experiment and additionally provide spatial intensity distributions on and off the SPP excitation resonance. Experimental dependence of the photoresponse on substrate carrier type, carrier concentration, and back-contact biasing is qualitatively explained by simple theory of MOS capacitors.