WorldWideScience

Sample records for metal reinforced carbon

  1. Carbon nanotube reinforced metal binder for diamond cutting tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidorenko, Daria; Mishnaevsky, Leon; Levashov, Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    The potential of carbon nanotube reinforcement of metallic binders for the improvement of quality and efficiency of diamond cutting wheels is studied. The effect of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) reinforcement on the mechanical properties i.e. hardness, Young modulus, strength and deformation...... of grain size of the structural constituents of the binder, what in turn leads to the improved simultaneously hardness, Young modulus, plastic extension, bending strength and performances of the metallic binders. Comparing service properties of diamond end-cutting drill bits with and without MWCNT one...

  2. Electrochemical corrosion of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic-metal electrode couples in corrosion media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chukalovskaya, T.V.; Shcherbakov, A.I.; Chigirinskaya, L.A.; Bandurkin, V.V.; Medova, I.L.; Chukalovskij, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Polarization diagrams, obtained for carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic(cathode)-metallic material(anode) contact couples are analyzed to predict the corrosion behaviour of some technical metals and alloys (carbon steel, stainless steels, brass, aluminium, titanium) in contact with carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic in differen agressive media (H 2 SO 4 , HCl, H 3 PO 4 , NaOH solutions in wide temperature and concentration range, synthetic seawater at 30 and 50 deg C). The predicted behaviour was supported by direct investigation into carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic-titanium and carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic-aluminium contact couples at different square ratios. 6 refs.; 4 figs

  3. Influence of tool pin in friction stir welding on activated carbon reinforced aluminium metal matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    DijuSamuel, G.; Raja Dhas, J. Edwin

    2017-10-01

    This paper focus on impact of tool pin in friction stir welding on activated carbon reinforced aluminium metal matrix composite. For fabrication of metal matrix composite AA6061 is used as matrix and activated carbon is used as reinforcement and it is casted using modified stir casting technique. After casting metal matrix composite has undergone various microstructure tests like SEM,EDAX and XRD. FSW is carried out in this metal matrix composite by choosing various tool pin profile like square,round,Threaded round, hexagon and taper. The quality of welded plates is measured in terms of ultimate tensile strength and hardness.

  4. Dual energy CT inspection of a carbon fibre reinforced plastic composite combined with metal components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavřík, Daniel; Jakůbek, J.; Kumpová, Ivana; Pichotka, M.

    6, Part B, November (2016), s. 47-55 ISSN 2214-6571 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-07210S Keywords : dual energy computed tomography * carbon fibre reinforced plastic composite * metal artefact suppression Subject RIV: JI - Composite Material s http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214657116300107

  5. Performance and properties of anodes reinforced with metal oxide nanoparticles for molten carbonate fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardo, Grazia; Frattini, Domenico; Yoon, Sung Pil; Ham, Hyung Chul; Nam, Suk Woo

    2017-12-01

    Development of electrode materials for molten carbonate fuel cells is a fundamental issue as a balance between mechanical and electrochemical properties is required due to the particular operating environments of these cells. As concern the anode, a viable strategy is to use nano-reinforced particles during electrodes' fabrication. Candidate nanomaterials comprise, but are not limited to, ZrO2, CeO2, TiO2, Ti, Mg, Al, etc. This work deals with the characterization and test of two different types of hard oxide nanoparticles as reinforce for NiAl-based anodes in molten carbonate fuel cells. Nano ceria and nano zirconia are compared each other and single cell test performances are presented. Compared to literature, the use of hard metal oxide nanoparticles allows good performance and promising perspectives with respect to the use a third alloying metal. However, nano zirconia performed slightly better than nano ceria as polarization and power curves are higher even if nano ceria has the highest mechanical properties. This means that the choice of nanoparticles to obtain improved anodes performance and properties is not trivial and a trade-off between relevant properties plays a key role.

  6. Bisphenyl-Polymer/Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composite Compared to Titanium Alloy Bone Implant

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Aerospace/aeronautical thermoset bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber-reinforced composites are considered as new advanced materials to replace metal bone implants. In addition to well-recognized nonpolar chemistry with related bisphenol-polymer estrogenic factors, carbon-fiber-reinforced composites can offer densities and electrical conductivity/resistivity properties close to bone with strengths much higher than metals on a per-weight basis. In vivo bone-marrow tests with Sprague-Dawley rats reve...

  7. Metal Matrix Composites Reinforced by Nano-Particles—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Casati

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Metal matrix composites reinforced by nano-particles are very promising materials, suitable for a large number of applications. These composites consist of a metal matrix filled with nano-particles featuring physical and mechanical properties very different from those of the matrix. The nano-particles can improve the base material in terms of wear resistance, damping properties and mechanical strength. Different kinds of metals, predominantly Al, Mg and Cu, have been employed for the production of composites reinforced by nano-ceramic particles such as carbides, nitrides, oxides as well as carbon nanotubes. The main issue of concern for the synthesis of these materials consists in the low wettability of the reinforcement phase by the molten metal, which does not allow the synthesis by conventional casting methods. Several alternative routes have been presented in literature for the production of nano-composites. This work is aimed at reviewing the most important manufacturing techniques used for the synthesis of bulk metal matrix nanocomposites. Moreover, the strengthening mechanisms responsible for the improvement of mechanical properties of nano-reinforced metal matrix composites have been reviewed and the main potential applications of this new class of materials are envisaged.

  8. Synthesis of carbon fibre-reinforced, silicon carbide composites by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    carbon fibre (Cf) reinforced, silicon carbide matrix composites which are ... eral applications, such as automotive brakes, high-efficiency engine systems, ... The PIP method is based on the use of organo metallic pre-ceramic precursors.

  9. Bisphenyl-Polymer/Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composite Compared to Titanium Alloy Bone Implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Richard C

    2011-05-03

    Aerospace/aeronautical thermoset bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber-reinforced composites are considered as new advanced materials to replace metal bone implants. In addition to well-recognized nonpolar chemistry with related bisphenol-polymer estrogenic factors, carbon-fiber-reinforced composites can offer densities and electrical conductivity/resistivity properties close to bone with strengths much higher than metals on a per-weight basis. In vivo bone-marrow tests with Sprague-Dawley rats revealed far-reaching significant osseoconductivity increases from bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber composites when compared to state-of-the-art titanium-6-4 alloy controls. Midtibial percent bone area measured from the implant surface increased when comparing the titanium alloy to the polymer composite from 10.5% to 41.6% at 0.8 mm, P engineering potential.

  10. Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifen [Newton, MA; Wen, Jian Guo [Newton, MA; Lao, Jing Y [Chestnut Hill, MA; Li, Wenzhi [Brookline, MA

    2008-10-28

    Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials are disclosed. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  11. Fracture Toughness of Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Metal- and Ceramic-Matrix Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.L.; Liu, B.; Hwang, K.C.; Chen, Y.L.; Huang, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Hierarchical analysis of the fracture toughness enhancement of carbon nanotube- (CNT-) reinforced hard matrix composites is carried out on the basis of shear-lag theory and fracture mechanics. It is found that stronger CNT/matrix interfaces cannot definitely lead to the better fracture toughness of these composites, and the optimal interfacial chemical bond density is that making the failure mode just in the transition from CNT pull-out to CNT break. For hard matrix composites, the fracture toughness of composites with weak interfaces can be improved effectively by increasing the CNT length. However, for soft matrix composite, the fracture toughness improvement due to the reinforcing CNTs quickly becomes saturated with an increase in CNT length. The proposed theoretical model is also applicable to short fiber-reinforced composites.

  12. Fracture Toughness of Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Metal- and Ceramic-Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical analysis of the fracture toughness enhancement of carbon nanotube- (CNT- reinforced hard matrix composites is carried out on the basis of shear-lag theory and facture mechanics. It is found that stronger CNT/matrix interfaces cannot definitely lead to the better fracture toughness of these composites, and the optimal interfacial chemical bond density is that making the failure mode just in the transition from CNT pull-out to CNT break. For hard matrix composites, the fracture toughness of composites with weak interfaces can be improved effectively by increasing the CNT length. However, for soft matrix composite, the fracture toughness improvement due to the reinforcing CNTs quickly becomes saturated with an increase in CNT length. The proposed theoretical model is also applicable to short fiber-reinforced composites.

  13. Bisphenyl-Polymer/Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composite Compared to Titanium Alloy Bone Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Petersen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerospace/aeronautical thermoset bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber-reinforced composites are considered as new advanced materials to replace metal bone implants. In addition to well-recognized nonpolar chemistry with related bisphenol-polymer estrogenic factors, carbon-fiber-reinforced composites can offer densities and electrical conductivity/resistivity properties close to bone with strengths much higher than metals on a per-weight basis. In vivo bone-marrow tests with Sprague-Dawley rats revealed far-reaching significant osseoconductivity increases from bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber composites when compared to state-of-the-art titanium-6-4 alloy controls. Midtibial percent bone area measured from the implant surface increased when comparing the titanium alloy to the polymer composite from 10.5% to 41.6% at 0.8 mm, P<10−4, and 19.3% to 77.7% at 0.1 mm, P<10−8. Carbon-fiber fragments planned to occur in the test designs, instead of producing an inflammation, stimulated bone formation and increased bone integration to the implant. In addition, low-thermal polymer processing allows incorporation of minerals and pharmaceuticals for future major tissue-engineering potential.

  14. Processing of thermo-structural carbon-fiber reinforced carbon composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Cláudio Pardini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the processes used to obtain thermostructural Carbon/Carbon composites. The processing of these materials begins with the definition of the architecture of the carbon fiber reinforcement, in the form of stacked plies or in the form of fabrics or multidirectional reinforcement. Incorporating fiber reinforcement into the carbon matrix, by filling the voids and interstices, leads to the densification of the material and a continuous increase in density. There are two principal processing routes for obtaining these materials: liquid phase processing and gas phase processing. In both cases, thermal processes lead to the formation of a carbon matrix with specific properties related to their precursor. These processes also differ in terms of yield. With liquid phase impregnation the yield is around 45 per cent, while gas phase processing yields around 15 per cent.

  15. Strength and deformability of compressed concrete elements with various types of non-metallic fiber and rods reinforcement under static loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevskii, A. V.; Baldin, I. V.; Kudyakov, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    Adoption of modern building materials based on non-metallic fibers and their application in concrete structures represent one of the important issues in construction industry. This paper presents results of investigation of several types of raw materials selected: basalt fiber, carbon fiber and composite fiber rods based on glass and carbon. Preliminary testing has shown the possibility of raw materials to be effectively used in compressed concrete elements. Experimental program to define strength and deformability of compressed concrete elements with non-metallic fiber reinforcement and rod composite reinforcement included design, manufacture and testing of several types of concrete samples with different types of fiber and longitudinal rod reinforcement. The samples were tested under compressive static load. The results demonstrated that fiber reinforcement of concrete allows increasing carrying capacity of compressed concrete elements and reducing their deformability. Using composite longitudinal reinforcement instead of steel longitudinal reinforcement in compressed concrete elements insignificantly influences bearing capacity. Combined use of composite rod reinforcement and fiber reinforcement in compressed concrete elements enables to achieve maximum strength and minimum deformability.

  16. Graphene-Reinforced Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasar, Ashish K.; Xiong, Guoping; Menezes, Pradeep L.

    2018-06-01

    Composites have tremendous applicability due to their excellent capabilities. The performance of composites mainly depends on the reinforcing material applied. Graphene is successful as an efficient reinforcing material due to its versatile as well as superior properties. Even at very low content, graphene can dramatically improve the properties of polymer and metal matrix composites. This article reviews the fabrication followed by mechanical and tribological properties of metal and polymer matrix composites filled with different kinds of graphene, including single-layer, multilayer, and functionalized graphene. Results reported to date in literature indicate that functionalized graphene or graphene oxide-polymer composites are promising materials offering significantly improved strength and frictional properties. A similar trend of improved properties has been observed in case of graphene-metal matrix composites. However, achieving higher graphene loading with uniform dispersion in metal matrix composites remains a challenge. Although graphene-reinforced composites face some challenges, such as understanding the graphene-matrix interaction or fabrication techniques, graphene-reinforced polymer and metal matrix composites have great potential for application in various fields due to their outstanding properties.

  17. Ballistic impact velocity response of carbon fibre reinforced aluminium alloy laminates for aero-engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, I.; Abu Talib, A. R.; Sultan, M. T. H.; Saadon, S.

    2017-12-01

    Aerospace and other industries use fibre metal laminate composites extensively due to their high specific strength, stiffness and fire resistance, in addition to their capability to be tailored into different forms for specific purposes. The behaviours of such composites under impact loading is another factor to be considered due to the impacts that occur in take-off, landing, during maintenance and operations. The aim of the study is to determine the specific perforation energy and impact strength of the fibre metal laminates of different layering pattern of carbon fibre reinforced aluminium alloy and hybrid laminate composites of carbon fibre and natural fibres (kenaf and flax). The composites are fabricated using the hand lay-up method in a mould with high bonding polymer matrix and compressed by a compression machine, cured at room temperature for one day and post cure in an oven for three hours. The impact tests are conducted using a gun tunnel system with a flat cylindrical bullet fired using a helium gas at a distance of 14 inches to the target. Impact and residual velocity of the projectile are recorded by high speed video camera. Specific perforation energy of carbon fibre reinforced aluminium alloy (CF+AA) for both before and after fire test are higher than the specific perforation energy of the other composites considered before and after fire test respectively. CF +AA before fire test is 55.18% greater than after. The same thing applies to impact strength of the composites where CF +AA before the fire test has the highest percentage of 11.7%, 50.0% and 32.98% as respectively compared to carbon fibre reinforced aluminium alloy (CARALL), carbon fibre reinforced flax aluminium alloy (CAFRALL) and carbon fibre reinforced kenaf aluminium alloy (CAKRALL), and likewise for the composites after fire test. The considered composites in this test can be used in the designated fire zone of an aircraft engine to protect external debris from penetrating the engine

  18. Buckling behavior of fiber reinforced plastic–metal hybrid-composite beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eksi, Secil; Kapti, Akin O.; Genel, Kenan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We developed a new plastic–metal hybrid-composite tubular beam structure. ► This structure offers innovative design solutions with weight reduction. ► It prevents premature buckling without adding significant weight to the structure. ► The composite interaction gives better mechanical properties to the products. ► Buckling and bending loads of the beam increased 3.2 and 7.6 times, respectively. - Abstract: It is known that the buckling is characterized by a sudden failure of a structural member subjected to high compressive load. In this study, the buckling behavior of the aluminum tubular beam (ATB) was analyzed using finite element (FE) method, and the reinforcing arrangements as well as its combinations were decided for the composite beams based on the FE results. Buckling and bending behaviors of thin-walled ATBs with internal cast polyamide (PA6) and external glass and carbon fiber reinforcement polymers (GFRPs and CFRPs) were investigated systematically. Experimental studies showed that the 219% increase in buckling load and 661% in bending load were obtained with reinforcements. The use of plastics and metal together as a reinforced structure yields better mechanical performance properties such as high resistance to buckling and bending loads, dimensional stability and high energy absorption capacity, including weight reduction. While the thin-walled metallic component provides required strength and stiffness, the plastic component provides the support necessary to prevent premature buckling without adding significant weight to the structure. It is thought that the combination of these materials will offer a promising new focus of attention for designers seeking more appropriate composite beams with high buckling loads beside light weight. The developed plastic–metal hybrid-composite structure is promising especially for critical parts serving as a support member of vehicles for which light weight is a critical design

  19. [Carbon fiber-reinforced plastics as implant materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, R; Steinhauser, E; Rechl, H; Siebels, W; Mittelmeier, W; Gradinger, R

    2003-01-01

    Carbon fiber-reinforced plastics have been used clinically as an implant material for different applications for over 20 years.A review of technical basics of the composite materials (carbon fibers and matrix systems), fields of application,advantages (e.g., postoperative visualization without distortion in computed and magnetic resonance tomography), and disadvantages with use as an implant material is given. The question of the biocompatibility of carbon fiber-reinforced plastics is discussed on the basis of experimental and clinical studies. Selected implant systems made of carbon composite materials for treatments in orthopedic surgery such as joint replacement, tumor surgery, and spinal operations are presented and assessed. Present applications for carbon fiber reinforced plastics are seen in the field of spinal surgery, both as cages for interbody fusion and vertebral body replacement.

  20. The development and mechanical characterization of aluminium copper-carbon fiber metal matrix hybrid composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, M. U.; Feroze, M.; Ahmad, T.; Kamran, M.; Butt, M. T. Z.

    2018-04-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMCs) come under advanced materials that can be used for a wide range of industrial applications. MMCs contain a non-metallic reinforcement incorporated into a metallic matrix which can enhance properties over base metal alloys. Copper-Carbon fiber reinforced aluminium based hybrid composites were prepared by compo casting method. 4 weight % copper was used as alloying element with Al because of its precipitation hardened properties. Different weight compositions of composites were developed and characterized by mechanical testing. A significant improvement in tensile strength and micro hardness were found, before and after heat treatment of the composite. The SEM analysis of the fractured surfaces showed dispersed and embedded Carbon fibers within the network leading to the enhanced strength.

  1. Continuous carbon nanotube reinforced composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, L; Suhr, J; Pushparaj, V; Zhang, X; Ajayan, P M

    2008-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes are considered short fibers, and polymer composites with nanotube fillers are always analogues of random, short fiber composites. The real structural carbon fiber composites, on the other hand, always contain carbon fiber reinforcements where fibers run continuously through the composite matrix. With the recent optimization in aligned nanotube growth, samples of nanotubes in macroscopic lengths have become available, and this allows the creation of composites that are similar to the continuous fiber composites with individual nanotubes running continuously through the composite body. This allows the proper utilization of the extreme high modulus and strength predicted for nanotubes in structural composites. Here, we fabricate such continuous nanotube polymer composites with continuous nanotube reinforcements and report that under compressive loadings, the nanotube composites can generate more than an order of magnitude improvement in the longitudinal modulus (up to 3,300%) as well as damping capability (up to 2,100%). It is also observed that composites with a random distribution of nanotubes of same length and similar filler fraction provide three times less effective reinforcement in composites.

  2. [Osseontegration of trial implants of carbon fiber reinforced plastics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, U; Schwarz, M; Scheller, G; Schroeder-Boersch, H; Jani, L

    2000-01-01

    To what extent are carbon fibre-reinforced plastics (CFRP) suitable as an osseous integration surface for implants? CFRP test implants having a plexus-structured, rhombus-structured, and plexus-structured, hydroxyapatite surface were implanted in the femura of mini-plgs. Exposure time lasted 12 weeks. The implants were subjected to a macroradiological, a histological-histomorphometrical, and a fluorescence-microscopical evaluation. One half of the uncoated, plexus-structured implants were not osteointegrated, the other half displayed an osteointegration rate of 11.8% in the spongy area and 29.8% in the cortex layer. The HA-coated test implants showed an osteointegration of 29.5% in the spongiosa and 56.8% in the cortex layer. The rhombus-structured test implants had an osteointegration of 29.2% (spongiosa) and 46.2% (cortex layer). Compared to the osteointegration of metallic, especially titanium surfaces the CFRP surfaces tested by us fared worse, especially the uncoated, plexus-structured surfaces. For this reason we view very critically the use of carbon-fibre reinforced plastics together with the surfaces tested by us as osteointegrating surfaces.

  3. Microstructure and mechanical properties of carbon fiber reinforced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    68

    Alumina; composites; carbon fiber reinforcement; sol; mechanical properties. 1. Introduction ... The reinforcement was 3D carbon fiber (T300 3k, ex-PAN carbon fiber ... where f(a/H) = 2.9(a/H)1/2 – 4.6(a/H)3/2 + 21.8(a/H)5/2. – 37.6(a/H)7/2 + ...

  4. CARBON-FIBRE-REINFORCED POLYMER PARTS EFFECT ON SPACECRAFT OPTOELECTRONIC MODULE LENS SCATTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kolasha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spacecraft optoelectronic modules traditionally have aluminum alloy or titanium alloy casing which substantial weight increases fuel consumption required to put them into orbit and, consequently, total cost of the project. Carbon fiber reinforced polymer based composite constructive materials is an efficient solution that allows reducing weight and dimensions of large optoelectronic modules 1,5–3 times and the coefficient of linear thermal expansion 15–20 times if compared with metals. Optical characteristic is a crucial feature of carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer that determines composite material interaction with electromagnetic emission within the optical range. This work was intended to develop a method to evaluate Carbon fiber reinforced polymer optoelectronic modules casing effect on lens scattering by computer simulation with Zemax application software package. Degrees of scattered, reflected and absorbed radiant flux effect on imaging quality are described here. The work included experimental study in order to determine bidirectional reflectance distribution function by goniometric method for LUP-0.1 carbon fabric check test pieces of EDT-69U epoxy binder with EPOFLEX-0.4 glue layer and 5056-3.5-23-A aluminium honeycomb filler. The scattered emission was registered within a hemisphere above the check test piece surface. Optical detection direction was determined with zenith (0º < θ < 90º and azimuth (0º < φ < 180º angles with 10° increment. The check test piece surface was proved to scatter emission within a narrow angle range (approximately 20° with clear directivity. Carbon fiber reinforced polymers was found to feature integrated reflectance coefficient 3 to 4 times greater than special coatings do. 

  5. Experimental analysis of reinforced concrete beams strengthened in bending with carbon fiber reinforced polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. VIEIRA

    Full Text Available The use of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP has been widely used for the reinforcement of concrete structures due to its practicality and versatility in application, low weight, high tensile strength and corrosion resistance. Some construction companies use CFRP in flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete beams, but without anchor systems. Therefore, the aim of this study is analyze, through an experimental program, the structural behavior of reinforced concrete beams flexural strengthened by CFRP without anchor fibers, varying steel reinforcement and the amount of carbon fibers reinforcement layers. Thus, two groups of reinforced concrete beams were produced with the same geometric feature but with different steel reinforcement. Each group had five beams: one that is not reinforced with CFRP (reference and other reinforced with two, three, four and five layers of carbon fibers. Beams were designed using a computational routine developed in MAPLE software and subsequently tested in 4-point points flexural test up to collapse. Experimental tests have confirmed the effectiveness of the reinforcement, ratifying that beams collapse at higher loads and lower deformation as the amount of fibers in the reinforcing layers increased. However, the increase in the number of layers did not provide a significant increase in the performance of strengthened beams, indicating that it was not possible to take full advantage of strengthening applied due to the occurrence of premature failure mode in the strengthened beams for pullout of the cover that could have been avoided through the use of a suitable anchoring system for CFRP.

  6. Carbon fiber/carbon nanotube reinforced hierarchical composites: Effect of CNT distribution on shearing strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, H. W.; Mishnaevsky, Leon; Yi, H. Y.

    2016-01-01

    The strength and fracture behavior of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites with carbon nanotube (CNT) secondary reinforcement are investigated experimentally and numerically. Short Beam Shearing tests have been carried out, with SEM observations of the damage evolution in the composites. 3D...... CNT nanoreinforcement into the matrix and/or the sizing of carbon fiber/reinforced composites ensures strong increase of the composite strength. The effect of secondary CNTs reinforcement is strongest when some small addition of CNTs in the polymer matrix is complemented by the fiber sizing with high...... multiscale computational (FE) models of the carbon/polymer composite with varied CNT distributions have been developed and employed to study the effect of the secondary CNT reinforcement, its distribution and content on the strength and fracture behavior of the composites. It is shown that adding secondary...

  7. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Carbon Composite Valve for an Internal Combustion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Northam, G. Burton (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite valve for internal combustion engines and the like formed of continuous carbon fibers throughout the valve's stem and head is disclosed. The valve includes braided carbon fiber material over axially aligned unidirectional carbon fibers forming a valve stem; the braided and unidirectional carbon fibers being broomed out at one end of the valve stem forming the shape of the valve head; the valve-shaped structure being densified and rigidized with a matrix of carbon containing discontinuous carbon fibers: and the finished valve being treated to resist oxidation. Also disclosed is a carbon matrix plug containing continuous and discontinuous carbon fibers and forming a net-shape valve head acting as a mandrel over which the unidirectional and braided carbon fibers are formed according to textile processes. Also disclosed are various preform valves and processes for making finished and preform carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite valves.

  8. Mechanical properties of carbon fibre reinforced thermoplastics for cryogenic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlborn, K.

    1989-01-01

    The high specific strength, the high specific stiffness and the excellent fatigue behaviour favours carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) as a supplement to metals for low temperature applications. The weakest link in the composite is the polymeric matrix, which is preloaded by thermal tensile strains and becomes brittle at low temperatures. Tough thermoplastic polymers show a higher cryogenic fracture strain than commonly used epoxy-matrix systems. Two carbon fibre reinforced tough thermoplastics (PEEK, PC) were tested at 293 K, 77 K and 5 K by tensile, bending and fatigue loading. It has been found, that the toughness of the matrices generally improves the static strength at low temperatures. In bidirectionally reinforced thermoplastics, transversal cracks appear in the matrix or in the boundary layer at composite strains below 0,2%, originated by the thermal preloading. The formation and development of the cracks depend on the fibre-matrix-bond and on the thickness of the composite layers. Fibre-misalignment results in a poor tension-tension fatigue endurance limit of less than 50% of the static strength. Further developments in the manufacturing process are necessary to improve the homogeneity of the composite structure in order to increase the long term fatigue behaviour. (orig.) [de

  9. Analytical, Numerical and Experimental Examination of Reinforced Composites Beams Covered with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimzade, A. A.; Tuhta, S.

    2012-03-01

    In the article, analytical, numerical (Finite Element Method) and experimental investigation results of beam that was strengthened with fiber reinforced plastic-FRP composite has been given as comparative, the effect of FRP wrapping number to the maximum load and moment capacity has been evaluated depending on this results. Carbon FRP qualitative dependences have been occurred between wrapping number and beam load and moment capacity for repair-strengthen the reinforced concrete beams with carbon fiber. Shown possibilities of application traditional known analysis programs, for the analysis of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) strengthened structures.

  10. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Grids for Shear and End Zone Reinforcement in Bridge Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Corrosion of reinforcing steel reduces life spans of bridges throughout the United States; therefore, using non-corroding carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) reinforcement is seen as a way to increase service life. The use of CFRP as the flexural ...

  11. Preparation and characterization of carbon nanotube-hybridized carbon fiber to reinforce epoxy composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Feng; Lu, Chunxiang; Li, Yonghong; Guo, Jinhai; Lu, Xiaoxuan; Lu, Huibin; He, Shuqing; Yang, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → CNTs were uniformly grown onto the carbon fibers. → No obvious mechanical properties of carbon fiber were observed after CNT growth. → The IFSS of multiscale epoxy composite was measured by single fiber pull-out tests. → Observing fractography of composite, the fracture modes of CNTs were discussed. -- Abstract: The multiscale carbon nanotube-hybridized carbon fiber was prepared by a newly developed aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposition. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope were carried out to characterize this multiscale material. Compared with the original carbon fibers, the fabrication of this hybrid fiber resulted in an almost threefold increase of BET surface area to reach 2.22 m 2 /g. Meanwhile, there was a slight degradation of fiber tensile strength within 10%, while the fiber modulus was not significantly affected. The interfacial shearing strength of a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composite with carbon nanotube-hybridized carbon fiber and an epoxy matrix was determined from the single fiber pull-out tests of microdroplet composite. Due to an efficient increase of load transfer at the fiber/matrix interfaces, the interracial shear strength of composite reinforced by carbon nanotube-hybridized carbon fiber is almost 94% higher than that of one reinforced by the original carbon fiber. Based on the fractured morphologies of the composites, the interfacial reinforcing mechanisms were discussed through proposing different types of carbon nanotube fracture modes along with fiber pulling out from epoxy composites.

  12. Plasma electrolytic polishing of metalized carbon fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falko Böttger-Hiller

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Efficient lightweight structures require intelligent materials that meet versatile functions. Especially, carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRPs are gaining relevance. Their increasing use aims at reducing energy consumption in many applications. CFRPs are generally very light in weight, while at the same time being extremely stiff and strong (specific strength: CFRPs: 1.3 Nm kg–1, steel: 0.27 Nm kg–1; specific stiffness: CFRPs: 100 Nm kg–1, steel: 25 Nm kg–1. To increase performance and especially functionality of CFRPs, the integration of microelectronic components into CFRP parts is aspired. The functionalization by sensors, actuators and electronics can enable a high lightweight factor and a new level of failure-safety. The integration of microelectronic components for this purpose requires a working procedure to provide electrical contacts for a reliable connection to energy supply and data interfaces. To overcome this challenge, metalized carbon fibers are used. Metalized fibers are, similar to the usual reinforcing fibers, able to be soldered and therefore easy to incorporate into CFRPs. Unfortunately, metalized fibers have to be pre-treated by flux-agents. Until now, there is no flux which is suitable for mass production without destroying the polymer of the CFRP. The process of plasma electrolytic polishing (PeP could be an option, but is so far not available for copper. Thus, in this study, plasma electrolytic polishing is transferred to copper and its alloys. To achieve this, electrolytic parameters as well as the electrical setup are adapted. It can be observed that the gloss and roughness can be adjusted by means of this procedure. Finally, plasma electrolytic polishing is used to treat thin copper layers on carbon fibers.

  13. Carbon fiber reinforced asphalt concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahromi, Saeed G.

    2008-01-01

    Fibers are often used in the manufacture of other materials. For many years, they have been utilized extensively in numerous applications in civil engineering. Fiber-reinforcement refers to incorporating materials with desired properties within some other materials lacking those properties. Use of fibers is not a new phenomenon, as the technique of fiber-reinforced bitumen began early as 1950. In all industrialized countries today, nearly all concretes used in construction are reinforced. A multitude of fibers and fiber materials are being introduced in the market regularly. The present paper presents characteristics and properties of carbon fiber-reinforced asphalt mixtures, which improve the performance of pavements. To evaluate the effect of fiber contents on bituminous mixtures, laboratory investigations were carried out on the samples with and without fibers. During the course of this study, various tests were undertaken, applying Marshall Test indirect tensile test, creep test and resistance to fatigue cracking by using repeated load indirect tensile test. Carbon fiber exhibited consistency in results and as such it was observed that the addition of fiber does affect the properties of bituminous mixtures, i.e. an increase in its stability and decrease in the flow value as well as an increase in voids in the mix. Results indicate that fibers have the potential to resist structural distress in pavement, in the wake of growing traffic loads and thus improve fatigue by increasing resistance to cracks or permanent deformation. On the whole, the results show that the addition of carbon fiber will improve some of the mechanical properties like fatigue and deformation in the flexible pavement. (author)

  14. Control of Porosity and Pore Size of Metal Reinforced Carbon Nanotube Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Gray

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Membranes are crucial in modern industry and both new technologies and materials need to be designed to achieve higher selectivity and performance. Exotic materials such as nanoparticles offer promising perspectives, and combining both their very high specific surface area and the possibility to incorporate them into macrostructures have already shown to substantially increase the membrane performance. In this paper we report on the fabrication and engineering of metal-reinforced carbon nanotube (CNT Bucky-Paper (BP composites with tuneable porosity and surface pore size. A BP is an entangled mesh non-woven like structure of nanotubes. Pure CNT BPs present both very high porosity (>90% and specific surface area (>400 m2/g. Furthermore, their pore size is generally between 20–50 nm making them promising candidates for various membrane and separation applications. Both electro-plating and electroless plating techniques were used to plate different series of BPs and offered various degrees of success. Here we will report mainly on electroless plated gold/CNT composites. The benefit of this method resides in the versatility of the plating and the opportunity to tune both average pore size and porosity of the structure with a high degree of reproducibility. The CNT BPs were first oxidized by short UV/O3 treatment, followed by successive immersion in different plating solutions. The morphology and properties of these samples has been investigated and their performance in air permeation and gas adsorption will be reported.

  15. Strength and deformability of concrete beams reinforced by non-metallic fiber and composite rebar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudyakov, K. L.; Plevkov, V. S.; Nevskii, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Production of durable and high-strength concrete structures with unique properties has always been crucial. Therefore special attention has been paid to non-metallic composite and fiber reinforcement. This article describes the experimental research of strength and deformability of concrete beams with dispersed and core fiber-based reinforcement. As composite reinforcement fiberglass reinforced plastic rods with diameters 6 mm and 10 mm are used. Carbon and basalt fibers are used as dispersed reinforcement. The developed experimental program includes designing and production of flexural structures with different parameters of dispersed fiber and composite rebar reinforcement. The preliminary testing of mechanical properties of these materials has shown their effectiveness. Structures underwent bending testing on a special bench by applying flexural static load up to complete destruction. During the tests vertical displacements were recorded, as well as value of actual load, slippage of rebars in concrete, crack formation. As a result of research were obtained structural failure and crack formation graphs, value of fracture load and maximum displacements of the beams at midspan. Analysis of experimental data showed the effectiveness of using dispersed reinforcement of concrete and the need for prestressing of fiberglass composite rebar.

  16. Shear transfer in concrete reinforced with carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mokadem, Khaled Mounir

    2001-10-01

    Scope and method of study. The research started with preliminary tests and studies on the behavior and effect of carbon fibers in different water solutions and mortar/concrete mixes. The research work investigated the use of CF in the production of concrete pipes and prestressed concrete double-tee sections. The research then focused on studying the effect of using carbon fibers on the direct shear transfer of sand-lightweight reinforced concrete push-off specimens. Findings and conclusions. In general, adding carbon fibers to concrete improved its tensile characteristics but decreased its compressive strength. The decrease in compressive strength was due to the decrease in concrete density as fibers act as three-dimensional mesh that entrapped air. The decrease in compressive strength was also due to the increase in the total surface area of non-cementitious material in the concrete. Sand-lightweight reinforced concrete push-off specimens with carbon fibers had lower shear carrying capacity than those without carbon fibers for the same cement content in the concrete. Current building codes and specifications estimate the shear strength of concrete as a ratio of the compressive strength. If applying the same principals then the ratio of shear strength to compressive strength for concrete reinforced with carbon fibers is higher than that for concrete without carbon fibers.

  17. Tough ceramic coatings: Carbon nanotube reinforced silica sol-gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A. J.; Rico, A.; Rodríguez, J.; Rams, J.

    2010-08-01

    Silica coatings reinforced with carbon nanotubes were produced via sol-gel route using two mixing techniques of the sol-gel precursors, mechanical and ultrasonic mixing, and dip-coating as deposition process on magnesium alloy substrates. Effective incorporation and distribution of 0.1 wt.% of carbon nanotubes in the amorphous silica matrix of the coatings were achieved using both techniques. Fabrication procedure determines the morphological aspects of the coating. Only mechanical mixing process produced coatings dense and free of defects. Nanoindentation technique was used to examine the influence of the fabrication process in the mechanical features of the final coatings, i.e. indentation fracture toughness, Young's modulus and hardness. A maximum toughening effect of about 24% was achieved in silica coatings reinforced with carbon nanotubes produced by the mechanical mixing route. Scanning electron microscopy investigation revealed that the toughening of these reinforced coatings was mainly due to bridging effect of the reinforcement.

  18. Strain gradient plasticity effects in whisker-reinforced metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2002-01-01

    A metal reinforced by fibers in the micron range is studied using the strain gradient plasticity theory of Fleck and Hutchinson (2001). Cell-model analyzes are used to study the influence of the material length parameters numerically. Different higher order boundary conditions are considered...... at the fiber-matrix interface. The results are presented as overall stress-strain curves for the whisker-reinforced metal, and also contour plots of effective plastic strain are shown. The strain gradient plasticity theory predicts a significant stiffening effect when compared to conventional models...

  19. FEM performance of concrete beams reinforced by carbon fiber bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Hashim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete structures may be vulnerable to harsh environment, reinforcement with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP bars have an increasing acceptance than normal steel. The nature of (FRP bar is (non-corrosive which is very beneficial for increased durability as well as the reinforcement of FRP bar has higher strength than steel bar. FRP usage are being specified more and more by public structural engineers and individual companies as main reinforcement and as strengthening of structures. Steel reinforcement as compared to (FRP reinforcement are decreasingly acceptable for structural concrete reinforcement including precast concrete, cast in place concrete, columns, beams and other components. Carbon Fiber Reinforcement Polymer (CFRP have a very high modulus of elasticity “high modulus” and very high tensile strength. In aerospace industry, CFRP with high modulus are popular among all FRPs because it has a high strength to weight ratio. In this research, a finite element models will be used to represent beams with Carbon Fiber Reinforcement and beams with steel reinforcement. The primary objective of the research is the evaluation of the effect of (CFR on beam reinforcement.

  20. Piezoelectric ceramic-reinforced metal matrix composites

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Composite materials comprising piezoelectric ceramic particulates dispersed in a metal matrix are capable of vibration damping. When the piezoelectric ceramic particulates are subjected to strain, such as the strain experienced during vibration of the material, they generate an electrical voltage that is converted into Joule heat in the surrounding metal matrix, thereby dissipating the vibrational energy. The piezoelectric ceramic particulates may also act as reinforcements to improve the mec...

  1. Nanoporous metal-carbon composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Satcher, Joe; Kucheyev, Sergei; Charnvanichborikarn, Supakit; Colvin, Jeffrey; Felter, Thomas; Kim, Sangil; Merrill, Matthew; Orme, Christine

    2017-12-19

    Described here is a metal-carbon composite, comprising (a) a porous three-dimensional scaffold comprising one or more of carbon nanotubes, graphene and graphene oxide, and (b) metal nanoparticles disposed on said porous scaffold, wherein the metal-carbon composite has a density of 1 g/cm.sup.3 or less, and wherein the metal nanoparticles account for 1 wt. % or more of the metal-carbon composite. Also described are methods for making the metal-carbon composite.

  2. Reinforcement of RC structure by carbon fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissi B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, rehabilitation has been the subject of extensive research due to the increased spending on building maintenance work and restoration of built works. In all cases, it is essential to carry out methods of reinforcement or maintenance of structural elements, following an inspection analysis and methodology of a correct diagnosis. This research focuses on the calculation of the necessary reinforcement sections of carbon fiber for structural elements with reinforced concrete in order to improve their load bearing capacity and rigidity. The different results obtained reveal a considerable gain in resistance and deformation capacity of reinforced sections without significant increase in the weight of the rehabilitated elements.

  3. Quantitative radiographic analysis of fiber reinforced polymer composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidya, K P; Ramakrishna, S; Rahman, M; Ritchie, A

    2001-01-01

    X-ray radiographic examination of the bone fracture healing process is a widely used method in the treatment and management of patients. Medical devices made of metallic alloys reportedly produce considerable artifacts that make the interpretation of radiographs difficult. Fiber reinforced polymer composite materials have been proposed to replace metallic alloys in certain medical devices because of their radiolucency, light weight, and tailorable mechanical properties. The primary objective of this paper is to provide a comparable radiographic analysis of different fiber reinforced polymer composites that are considered suitable for biomedical applications. Composite materials investigated consist of glass, aramid (Kevlar-29), and carbon reinforcement fibers, and epoxy and polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) matrices. The total mass attenuation coefficient of each material was measured using clinical X-rays (50 kev). The carbon fiber reinforced composites were found to be more radiolucent than the glass and kevlar fiber reinforced composites.

  4. Mechanical improvement of metal reinforcement rings for a finite ring-shaped superconducting bulk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Guang; Zhou, You-He

    2018-03-01

    As a key technique, reinforcement of type-II superconducting bulks with metal rings can efficiently improve their mechanical properties to enhance the maximum trapped field. In this paper, we study the magnetostrictive and fracture behaviors of a finite superconducting ring bulk reinforced by three typical reinforcing structures composed of metal rings during the magnetizing process by means of the minimization of magnetic energy and the finite element method. After a field-dependent critical current density is adopted, the magnetostriction, pinning-induced stress, and crack tip stress intensity factor are calculated considering the demagnetization effects. The results show that the mechanical properties of the ring bulk are strongly dependent on the reinforcing structure and the material and geometrical parameters of the metal rings. Introducing the metal ring can significantly reduce the hoop stress, and the reduction effect by internal reinforcement is much improved relative to external reinforcement. By comparison, bilateral reinforcement seems to be the best candidate structure. Only when the metal rings have particular Young's modulus and radial thickness will they contribute to improve the mechanical properties the most. In addition, if an edge crack is pre-existing in the ring bulk, the presence of metal rings can effectively avoid crack propagation since it reduces the crack tip stress intensity factor by nearly one order of magnitude.

  5. Fabrication and properties of carbon network reinforced composite fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umer, Malik Adeel; Mistarihi, Qusai Mahmoud; Kim, Joon Hui; Hong, Soon Hyung; Ryu, Ho Jin

    2014-01-01

    Zirconium dioxide composites reinforced with 3D glassy carbon foam was fabricated using Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) with a heating rate of 100degC/min and a uniaxial pressure of 50 MPa at 1500degC, 1600degC, and 1700degC, respectively. The effect of carbon foam on the thermal properties of the ZrO 2 composites was investigated. In addition, the effect of the sintering temperature on the densification of the composites was also investigated and the optimized sintering temperature was identified. The microstructures of 3D carbon foam reinforced ZrO 2 composites showed that the 3D shape of carbon foam was retained after the sintering process, and the ZrO 2 was homogeneously distributed within the 3D carbon foam. At the interfaces between the 3D carbon foam and ZrO 2 , neither a chemical reaction nor a new phase formation was detected by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffractometry (XRD). The thermal diffusivity of carbon foam reinforced ZrO 2 composites measured at 1100degC was increased by 47% and reached to 0.66 mm 2 s -1 and the thermal conductivity was increased by 50% and reached to 2.428 W/m-K. (author)

  6. Metallic Glasses as Potential Reinforcements in Al and Mg Matrices: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jayalakshmi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of metal matrix composites (MMCs with metallic glass/amorphous alloy reinforcements is an emerging research field. As reinforcements, metallic glasses with their high strength (up to ~2 GPa and high elastic strain limit (~2% can provide superior mechanical properties. Being metallic in nature, the glassy alloys can ensure better interfacial properties when compared to conventional ceramic reinforcements. Given the metastable nature of metallic glasses, lightweight materials such as aluminum (Al and magnesium (Mg with relatively lower melting points are suitable matrix materials. Synthesis of these advanced composites is a challenge as selection of processing method and appropriate reinforcement type (which does not allow devitrification of the metallic glass during processing is important. Non-conventional techniques such as high frequency induction sintering, bidirectional microwave sintering, friction stir processing, accumulative roll-bonding, and spark plasma sintering are being explored to produce these novel materials. In this paper, an overview on the synthesis and properties of aluminum and magnesium based composites with glassy reinforcement produced by various unconventional methods is presented. Evaluation of properties of the produced composites indicate: (i retention of amorphous state of the reinforcement after processing; (ii significant improvement in hardness and strength; (iii improvement/retention of ductility; and (iv high wear resistance and low coefficient of friction. Further, a comparative understanding of the properties highlights that the selection of the processing method is important in producing high performance composites.

  7. Preparation and properties of in-situ growth of carbon nanotubes reinforced hydroxyapatite coating for carbon/carbon composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shoujie, E-mail: jlliushoujie@126.com; Li, Hejun, E-mail: lihejun@nwpu.edu.cn; Su, Yangyang, E-mail: suyangyang@mail.nwpu.edu.cn; Guo, Qian, E-mail: 1729299905@163.com; Zhang, Leilei, E-mail: zhangleilei@nwpu.edu.cn

    2017-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess excellent mechanical properties for their role playing in reinforcement as imparting strength to brittle hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic coating. However, there are few reports relating to the in-situ grown carbon nanotubes reinforced hydroxyapatite (CNTs-HA) coating. Here we demonstrate the potential application in reinforcing biomaterials by an attempt to use in-situ grown of CNTs strengthen HA coating, using a combined method composited of injection chemical vapor deposition (ICVD) and pulsed electrodeposition. The microstructure, phases and chemical compositions of CNTs-HA coatings were characterized by various advanced methods. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicated that CNTs-HA coatings avoided the inhomogeneous dispersion of CNTs inside HA coating. The result show that the interfacial shear strength between CNTs-HA coating and the C/C composite matrix reaches to 12.86 ± 1.43 MPa. Potenitodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies show that the content of CNTs affects the corrosion resistance of CNTs-HA coating. Cell culturing and simulated body fluid test elicit the biocompatibility with living cells and bioactivity of CNTs-HA coatings, respectively. - Highlights: • A novel bioceramic composite coating of hydroxyapatite reinforced with in-situ grown carbon nanotubes was fabricated. • The doping of carbon nanotubes had almost no impact on the biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite coatings. • The doping of carbon nanotubes improved corrosion resistance of hydroxyapatite coatings in simulated human body solution.

  8. Growth, structure, and optical properties of carbon-reinforced silica fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z. J.; Ajayan, P. M.; Ramanath, G.; Vacik, J.; Xu, Y. H.

    2001-01-01

    We report the synthesis of carbon-reinforced silica fibers by methane exposure of metallocene-treated oxidized-Si(001) substrates at 1100 degree C. The SiO 2 cap layer transforms into silica fibers reinforced by glassy carbon in the core during methane exposure. High-resolution electron microscopy and spatially resolved spectroscopy measurements of the fibers reveal an amorphous structure without a hollow, and domains of glassy carbon embedded at the fiber core. The carbon-reinforced fibers are optically transparent and have an optical band gap of ≅3.1 eV. These fibers are organized in radial patterns that vary for different metallocene species. On nickelocene-treated substrates, the fibers originate from the circumference of the circular templates and grow outwards, forming radial patterns. On ferrocene-treated substrates, randomly oriented fibers grow within as well as slightly outside the perimeter of the templates, forming wreath-like patterns. Aligned growth of such fibers could be useful for fabricating optoelectronics devices and reinforced composites. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  9. Design aid for shear strengthening of reinforced concrete T-joints using carbon fiber reinforced plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergely, Ioan

    The research presented in the present work focuses on the shear strengthening of beam column joints using carbon fiber composites, a material considered in seismic retrofit in recent years more than any other new material. These composites, or fiber reinforced polymers, offer huge advantages over structural steel reinforced concrete or timber. A few of these advantages are the superior resistance to corrosion, high stiffness to weight and strength to weight ratios, and the ability to control the material's behavior by selecting the orientation of the fibers. The design and field application research on reinforced concrete cap beam-column joints includes analytical investigations using pushover analysis; design of carbon fiber layout, experimental tests and field applications. Several beam column joints have been tested recently with design variables as the type of composite system, fiber orientation and the width of carbon fiber sheets. The surface preparation has been found to be critical for the bond between concrete and composite material, which is the most important factor in joint shear strengthening. The final goal of this thesis is to develop design aids for retrofitting reinforced concrete beam column joints. Two bridge bents were tested on the Interstate-15 corridor. One bent was tested in the as-is condition. Carbon fiber reinforced plastic composite sheets were used to externally reinforce the second bridge bent. By applying the composite, the displacement ductility has been doubled, and the bent overall lateral load capacity has been increased as well. The finite element model (using DRAIN-2DX) was calibrated to model the actual stiffness of the supports. The results were similar to the experimental findings.

  10. Carbon nanotube reinforced hybrid composites: Computational modeling of environmental fatigue and usability for wind blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Gaoming; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2015-01-01

    The potential of advanced carbon/glass hybrid reinforced composites with secondary carbon nanotube reinforcement for wind energy applications is investigated here with the use of computational experiments. Fatigue behavior of hybrid as well as glass and carbon fiber reinforced composites...... with the secondary CNT reinforcements (especially, aligned tubes) present superior fatigue performances than those without reinforcements, also under combined environmental and cyclic mechanical loading. This effect is stronger for carbon composites, than for hybrid and glass composites....

  11. Radiation processing for PTFE composite reinforced with carbon fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akihiro Oshima; Akira Udagawa; Yousuke Morita

    1999-01-01

    The present work is an attempt to evaluate the performance of crosslinked PTFE as a polymer matrix for carbon fiber-reinforced composite materials. The carbon fiber-reinforced PTFE pre-composite, which is laminated with PTFE fine powder, is crosslinked by electron beam irradiation. Mechanical and frictional properties of the crosslinked PTFE composite obtained are higher than those of PTFE resin. The crosslinked PTFE composite with high mechanical and radiation resistant performance is obtained by radiation crosslinking process

  12. CARBON-CONTAINING COMPOSITES BASED ON METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VAGANOV V. E.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement Among the developed technologies metal-composites production,a special place takes powder metallurgy, having fundamental differences from conventionally used foundry technologies. The main advantages of this technology are: the possibility of sensitive control, the structure and phase composition of the starting components, and ultimately the possibility of obtaining of bulk material in nanostructured state with a minimum of processing steps. The potential reinforcers metals include micro and nano-sized oxides, carbides, nitrides, whiskers. The special position is occupied with carbon nanostructures (CNS: С60 fullerenes, single-layer and multi-layer nanotubes, onions (spherical "bulbs", nano-diamonds and graphite,their properties are being intensively studied in recent years. These objects have a high thermal and electrical conductivity values, superelasticity, and have a strength approximate to the theoretical value, which can provide an obtaining composite nanomaterial with a unique set of physical and mechanical properties. In creation of a metal matrix composite nanomaterials (CM, reinforced by various CNS, a special attention should be given to mechanical activation processes (MA already at the stage of preparation of the starting components affecting the structure, phase composition and properties of aluminum-matrix composites. Purpose. To investigate the influence of mechanical activation on the structure and phase composition of aluminum-matrix composites. Conclusion. The results of the study of the structure and phase composition of the initial and mechanically activated powders and bulk-modified metal-composites are shown, depending on the type and concentration of modifying varieties CNS, regimes of MA and parameters of compaction. The study is conducted of tribological properties of Al-CNS OF nanostructured materials.

  13. High-performance carbon nanotube-reinforced bioplastic

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramontja, J

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available -1 High-Performance Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Bioplastic 1. James Ramontja1,2, 2. Suprakas Sinha Ray1,*, 3. Sreejarani K. Pillai1, 4. Adriaan S. Luyt2 1. 1 DST/CSIR Nanotechnology Innovation Centre, National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials...

  14. Radiation processing for carbon fiber-reinforced polytetrafluoroethylene composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Akihiro; Udagawa, Akira; Morita, Yousuke

    2001-01-01

    The present work is an attempt to evaluate the performance of the fiber composites with crosslinked polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) as a polymer matrix by radiation. The uni-directional carbon fiber-reinforced composites were fabricated with PTFE fine powder impregnation method and then crosslinked by electron beams irradiation under selective conditions. The carbon fiber-reinforced crosslinked PTFE composites show good mechanical properties compared with crosslinked PTFE. The radiation resistance of crosslinked PTFE composites is improved more than that of crosslinked resin without fiber. (author)

  15. EB treatment of carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szebenyi, G.; Romhany, G.; Czvikovszky, T.; Vajna, B.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. A small amount - less than 0.5% - carbon nanotube reinforcement may improve significantly the mechanical properties of epoxy based composite materials. The basic technical problem is on one side the dispersion of the nanotubes into the viscous matrix resin. Namely the fine, powder-like - less than 100 nanometer diameter - nanotubes are prone to form aggregates. On the other side, the good connection between the nanofiber and matrix, - which is determining the success of the reinforcement, - requires some efficient adhesion promoting treatment. After an elaborate masterbatch mixing technology we applied Electron Beam treatment of epoxy-matrix polymer composites containing carbon nanotubes in presence of vinylester resins. The Raman spectra of vinylester-epoxy mixtures treated by an 8 MeV EB showed the advantage of the electron treatment. Even in the case of partially immiscible epoxy and vinylester resins, the anchorage of carbon nanotubes reflects improvement if a reasonable 25 kGy EB dose is applied. Atomic Force Microscopy as well as mechanical tests on flexural and impact properties confirm the benefits of EB treatment. Simultaneous application of multiwall carbon nanotubes and 'conventional' carbon fibers as reinforcement in vinylester modified epoxies results in new types of hybrid nanocomposites as engineering materials. The bending- and interlaminar properties of such hybrid systems showed the beneficial effect of the EB treatment. Acknowledgement: This work has been supported by the New Hungary Development Plan (Project ID: TAMOP-4.2.1/B-09/1/KMR-2010-0002).

  16. Environmental Durability of Reinforced Concrete Deck Girders Strengthened for Shear with Surface-Bonded Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    "This research investigated the durability of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites (CFRP) used for shear strengthening reinforced concrete deck girders. Large beams were used to avoid accounting for size effects in the data analysis. The effort...

  17. Wear Characterization of Aluminium/Basalt Fiber Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites - A Novel Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Amuthakkannan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum alloy based metal matrix composite participate have a wider applications in wear resistance applications. Attempt made in current study is that, basalt fiber reinforced aluminum metal matrix composite have been prepared using stir casting method. Different weight percentage of basalt fiber reinforced with Al (6061 metal matrix composites are used to study the wear resistance of the composites. For wear study, percentage of reinforcement, normal load and sliding velocity are the considered as important parameters. To study the effect of basalt fiber reinforcement on the dry sliding wear of Al6061 alloy composites the Pin On wear tester is used. Initially hardness of the composites was tested, it was found that increasing reinforcement in the composite hardness value of the composites also increased. Based on the Grey relation analysis (GRA the effects of wear resistance of the composites were studied.

  18. The extrinsic influence of carbon fibre reinforced plastic laminates to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The extrinsic influence of carbon fibre reinforced plastic laminates to strengthen steel structures ... The intrinsic advantages of strengthening the steel-based structures by the use of fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) material have ... Sadhana | News.

  19. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Carbon Composites Rotary Valves for Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite rotary, sleeve, and disc valves for internal combustion engines and the like are disclosed. The valves are formed from knitted or braided or warp-locked carbon fiber shapes. Also disclosed are valves fabricated from woven carbon fibers and from molded carbon matrix material. The valves of the present invention with their very low coefficient of thermal expansion and excellent thermal and self-lubrication properties, do not present the sealing and lubrication problems that have prevented rotary, sleeve, and disc valves from operating efficiently and reliably in the past. Also disclosed are a sealing tang to further improve sealing capabilities and anti-oxidation treatments.

  20. Self-diagnosis of structures strengthened with hybrid carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z. S.; Yang, C. Q.; Harada, T.; Ye, L. P.

    2005-06-01

    The correlation of mechanical and electrical properties of concrete beams strengthened with hybrid carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (HCFRP) sheets is studied in this paper. Two types of concrete beams, with and without reinforcing bars, are strengthened with externally bonded HCFRP sheets, which have a self-structural health monitoring function due to the electrical conduction and piezoresistivity of carbon fibers. Parameters investigated include the volume fractions and types of carbon fibers. According to the investigation, it is found that the hybridization of uniaxial HCFRP sheets with several different types of carbon fibers is a viable method for enhancing the mechanical properties and obtaining a built-in damage detection function for concrete structures. The changes in electrical resistance during low strain ranges before the rupture of carbon fibers are generally smaller than 1%. Nevertheless, after the gradual ruptures of carbon fibers, the electrical resistance increases remarkably with the strain in a step-wise manner. For the specimens without reinforcing bars, the electrical behaviors are not stable, especially during the low strain ranges. However, the electrical behaviors of the specimens with reinforcing bars are relatively stable, and the whole range of self-sensing function of the HCFRP-strengthened RC structures has realized the conceptual design of the HCFRP sensing models and is confirmed by the experimental investigations. The relationships between the strain/load and the change in electrical resistance show the potential self-monitoring capacity of HCFRP reinforcements used for strengthening concrete structures.

  1. Carbide-reinforced metal matrix composite by direct metal deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novichenko, D.; Thivillon, L.; Bertrand, Ph.; Smurov, I.

    Direct metal deposition (DMD) is an automated 3D laser cladding technology with co-axial powder injection for industrial applications. The actual objective is to demonstrate the possibility to produce metal matrix composite objects in a single-step process. Powders of Fe-based alloy (16NCD13) and titanium carbide (TiC) are premixed before cladding. Volume content of the carbide-reinforced phase is varied. Relationships between the main laser cladding parameters and the geometry of the built-up objects (single track, 2D coating) are discussed. On the base of parametric study, a laser cladding process map for the deposition of individual tracks was established. Microstructure and composition of the laser-fabricated metal matrix composite objects are examined. Two different types of structures: (a) with the presence of undissolved and (b) precipitated titanium carbides are observed. Mechanism of formation of diverse precipitated titanium carbides is studied.

  2. Potential of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Cement Composites as Concrete Repair Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir Manzur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are a virtually ideal reinforcing agent due to extremely high aspect ratios and ultra high strengths. It is evident from contemporary research that utilization of CNT in producing new cement-based composite materials has a great potential. Consequently, possible practical application of CNT reinforced cementitious composites has immense prospect in the field of applied nanotechnology within construction industry. Several repair, retrofit, and strengthening techniques are currently available to enhance the integrity and durability of concrete structures with cracks and spalling, but applicability and/or reliability is/are often limited. Therefore, there is always a need for innovative high performing concrete repair materials with good mechanical, rheological, and durability properties. Considering the mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs and the test results of CNT reinforced cement composites, it is apparent that such composites could be used conveniently as concrete repair material. With this end in view, the applicability of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT reinforced cement composites as concrete repair material has been evaluated in this study in terms of setting time, bleeding, and bonding strength (slant shear tests. It has been found that MWNT reinforced cement mortar has good prospective as concrete repair material since such composites exhibited desirable behavior in setting time, bleeding, and slant shear.

  3. Ferroelastic ceramic-reinforced metal matrix composites

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Composite materials comprising ferroelastic ceramic particulates dispersed in a metal matrix are capable of vibration damping. When the ferroelastic ceramic particulates are subjected to stress, such as the cyclic stress experienced during vibration of the material, internal stresses in the ceramic cause the material to deform via twinning, domain rotation or domain motion thereby dissipating the vibrational energy. The ferroelastic ceramic particulates may also act as reinforcements to impro...

  4. Reinforcement of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube in Nitrile Rubber: In Comparison with Carbon Black, Conductive Carbon Black, and Precipitated Silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atip Boonbumrung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of nitrile rubber (NBR reinforced by multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT, conductive carbon black (CCB, carbon black (CB, and precipitated silica (PSi were investigated via viscoelastic behavior, bound rubber content, electrical properties, cross-link density, and mechanical properties. The filler content was varied from 0 to 15 phr. MWCNT shows the greatest magnitude of reinforcement considered in terms of tensile strength, modulus, hardness, and abrasion resistance followed by CCB, CB, and PSi. The MWCNT filled system also exhibits extremely high levels of filler network and trapped rubber even at relatively low loading (5 phr leading to high electrical properties and poor dynamic mechanical properties. Although CCB possesses the highest specific surface area, it gives lower level of filler network than MWCNT and also gives the highest elongation at break among all fillers. Both CB and PSi show comparable degree of reinforcement which is considerably lower than CCB and MWCNT.

  5. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Carbon Composite Rotary Valve for an Internal Combustion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, G.Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite rotary sleeve, and disc valves for internal combustion engines and the like are disclosed. The valves are formed from knitted or braided or wrap-locked carbon fiber shapes. Also disclosed are valves fabricated from woven carbon fibers and from molded carbon matrix material. The valves of the present invention with their very low coefficient of thermal expansion and excellent thermal and self-lubrication properties do not present the sealing and lubrication problems that have prevented rotary sleeve and disc valves from operating efficiently and reliably in the past. Also disclosed are a sealing tang to further improve sealing capabilities and anti-oxidation treatments.

  6. Enhancement of osteogenesis on micro/nano-topographical carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone–nanohydroxyapatite biocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Anxiu [College of Stomatology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 401147 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases and Biomedical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 401147 (China); Liu, Xiaochen [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gao, Xiang; Deng, Feng [College of Stomatology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 401147 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases and Biomedical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 401147 (China); Deng, Yi, E-mail: 18210357357@163.com [College of Stomatology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 401147 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases and Biomedical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 401147 (China); Wei, Shicheng, E-mail: weishicheng99@163.com [College of Stomatology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 401147 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases and Biomedical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 401147 (China)

    2015-03-01

    As an FDA-approved implantable material, carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFRPEEK) possesses excellent mechanical properties similar to those of human cortical bone and is a prime candidate to replace conventional metallic implants. The bioinertness and inferior osteogenic properties of CFRPEEK, however, limit its clinical application as orthopedic/dental implants. The present work aimed at developing a novel carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone–nanohydroxyapatite (PEEK/CF/n-HA) ternary biocomposite with micro/nano-topographical surface for the enhancement of the osteogenesis as a potential bioactive material for bone grafting and bone tissue-engineering applications. The combined modification of oxygen plasma and sand-blasting could improve the hydrophily and generate micro/nano-topographical structures on the surface of the CFRPEEK-based ternary biocomposite. The results clearly showcased that the micro-/nano-topographical PEEK/n-HA/CF ternary biocomposite demonstrated the outstanding ability to promote the proliferation and differentiation of MG-63 cells in vitro as well as to boost the osseointegration between implant and bone in vivo, thereby boding well application to bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • A novel micro/nano-topographical PEEK/n-HA/CF ternary biocomposite was developed. • The modified PEEK biocomposite promotes proliferation and differentiation of cells. • In vivo osseointegration of the micro/nano-topographical PEEK/n-HA/CF was enhanced.

  7. Enhancement of osteogenesis on micro/nano-topographical carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone–nanohydroxyapatite biocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Anxiu; Liu, Xiaochen; Gao, Xiang; Deng, Feng; Deng, Yi; Wei, Shicheng

    2015-01-01

    As an FDA-approved implantable material, carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFRPEEK) possesses excellent mechanical properties similar to those of human cortical bone and is a prime candidate to replace conventional metallic implants. The bioinertness and inferior osteogenic properties of CFRPEEK, however, limit its clinical application as orthopedic/dental implants. The present work aimed at developing a novel carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone–nanohydroxyapatite (PEEK/CF/n-HA) ternary biocomposite with micro/nano-topographical surface for the enhancement of the osteogenesis as a potential bioactive material for bone grafting and bone tissue-engineering applications. The combined modification of oxygen plasma and sand-blasting could improve the hydrophily and generate micro/nano-topographical structures on the surface of the CFRPEEK-based ternary biocomposite. The results clearly showcased that the micro-/nano-topographical PEEK/n-HA/CF ternary biocomposite demonstrated the outstanding ability to promote the proliferation and differentiation of MG-63 cells in vitro as well as to boost the osseointegration between implant and bone in vivo, thereby boding well application to bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • A novel micro/nano-topographical PEEK/n-HA/CF ternary biocomposite was developed. • The modified PEEK biocomposite promotes proliferation and differentiation of cells. • In vivo osseointegration of the micro/nano-topographical PEEK/n-HA/CF was enhanced

  8. Interfacial reaction in cast WC particulate reinforced titanium metal matrix composites coating produced by laser processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dejian; Hu, Peipei; Min, Guoqing

    2015-06-01

    Laser injection of ceramic particle was conducted to produce particulate reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs) coating on Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Cast WC particle (WCp) was used as injection reinforcement to avoid excessive release of carbon atoms into the melt pool. The interfaces and boundaries between WC and Ti matrix were investigated by electron microscopy study. Compared with single crystal WCp, cast WCp was an appropriate solution to control the reaction products (TiC) in the matrix and the total amount of reaction products was significantly reduced. Irregular-shape reaction layers were formed around cast WCp. The reaction layers consist of a W2C layer and a mixed layer of W and TiC. Such reaction layers are effective in load transfer under an external load.

  9. MECHANICAL AND THERMO–MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BI-DIRECTIONAL AND SHORT CARBON FIBER REINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. AGARWAL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper based on bidirectional and short carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites reports the effect of fiber loading on physical, mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties respectively. The five different fiber loading, i.e., 10wt. %, 20wt. %, 30wt. %, 40wt. % and 50wt. % were taken for evaluating the above said properties. The physical and mechanical properties, i.e., hardness, tensile strength, flexural strength, inter-laminar shear strength and impact strength are determined to represent the behaviour of composite structures with that of fiber loading. Thermo-mechanical properties of the material are measured with the help of Dynamic Mechanical Analyser to measure the damping capacity of the material that is used to reduce the vibrations. The effect of storage modulus, loss modulus and tan delta with temperature are determined. Finally, Cole–Cole analysis is performed on both bidirectional and short carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites to distinguish the material properties of either homogeneous or heterogeneous materials. The results show that with the increase in fiber loading the mechanical properties of bidirectional carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites increases as compared to short carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites except in case of hardness, short carbon fiber reinforced composites shows better results. Similarly, as far as Loss modulus, storage modulus is concerned bidirectional carbon fiber shows better damping behaviour than short carbon fiber reinforced composites.

  10. Moment Capacity of Timber Reinforced with Punched Metal Plate Fasteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Ellegaard, Peter

    When designing timber trusses it is often found that the cross section controlling the dimensions of the top chord is located at a joint with a moment peak. However, the timber volume affected by the moment peak is rather limited and by embedding a punched metal plate in this area a reinforcement...... of the section is obtained, resulting in a more economic truss design. In order to develop design methods for sections with plate reinforcement, bending tests have been made. The timber is Swedish spruce of strength class K-18(S8) and K-24(S10) with a thickness of 45 mm. The punched metal plate is from Gang...

  11. Reinforced magnesium composites by metallic particles for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahid, Alireza; Hodgson, Peter [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3217 (Australia); Li, Yuncang, E-mail: yuncang.li@rmit.edu.au [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3217 (Australia); School of Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia)

    2017-02-08

    Pure magnesium (Mg) implants have unsatisfactory mechanical properties, particularly in loadbearing applications. Particulate-reinforced Mg composites are known as promising materials to provide higher strength implants compared to unreinforced metals. In the current work biocompatible niobium (Nb) and tantalum (Ta) particles are selected as reinforcement, and Mg-Nb and Mg-Ta composites fabricated via a powder metallurgy process associated with the ball milling technique. The effect of Nb and Ta contents on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg matrix was investigated. There was a uniform distribution of reinforcements in the Mg matrix with reasonable integrity and no intermetallic formation. The compressive mechanical properties of composites vary with reinforcement contents. The optimal parameters to fabricate biocompatible Mg composites and the optimal composition with appropriate strength, hardness and ductility are recommended.

  12. Comparison of Properties of Polymer Composite Materials Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygoń P.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes because of their high mechanical, optical or electrical properties, have found use as semiconducting materials constituting the reinforcing phase in composite materials. The paper presents the results of the studies on the mechanical properties of polymer composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNT. Three-point bending tests were carried out on the composites. The density of each obtained composite was determined as well as the surface roughness and the resistivity at room temperature.

  13. Hybrid Composites Based on Carbon Fiber/Carbon Nanofilament Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Tehrani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanofilament and nanotubes (CNTs have shown promise for enhancing the mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced composites (FRPs and imparting multi-functionalities to them. While direct mixing of carbon nanofilaments with the polymer matrix in FRPs has several drawbacks, a high volume of uniform nanofilaments can be directly grown on fiber surfaces prior to composite fabrication. This study demonstrates the ability to create carbon nanofilaments on the surface of carbon fibers employing a synthesis method, graphitic structures by design (GSD, in which carbon structures are grown from fuel mixtures using nickel particles as the catalyst. The synthesis technique is proven feasible to grow nanofilament structures—from ethylene mixtures at 550 °C—on commercial polyacrylonitrile (PAN-based carbon fibers. Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy were employed to characterize the surface-grown carbon species. For comparison purposes, a catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD technique was also utilized to grow multiwall CNTs (MWCNTs on carbon fiber yarns. The mechanical characterization showed that composites using the GSD-grown carbon nanofilaments outperform those using the CCVD-grown CNTs in terms of stiffness and tensile strength. The results suggest that further optimization of the GSD growth time, patterning and thermal shield coating of the carbon fibers is required to fully materialize the potential benefits of the GSD technique.

  14. Thermal characteristics of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-woo Lee

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The material with irregular atomic structures such as polymer material exhibits low thermal conductivity because of the complex structural properties. Even materials with same atomic configurations, thermal conductivity may be different based on their structural properties. It is expected that nanoparticles with conductivity will change non-conductive polymer base materials to electrical conductors, and improve the thermal conductivity even with extremely small filling amount. Nano-composite materials contain nanoparticles with a higher surface ratio which makes the higher interface percentage to the total surface of nanoparticles. Therefore, thermal resistance of the interface becomes a dominating factor determines the effective thermal conductivity in nano-composite materials. Carbon fiber has characteristic of resistance or magnetic induction and Also, Carbon nanotube (CNT has electronic and thermal property. It can be applied for heating system. These characteristic are used as heating composite. In this research, the exothermic characteristics of Carbon fiber reinforced composite added CNT were evaluated depend on CNT length and particle size. It was found that the CNT dispersed in the resin reduces the resistance between the interfaces due to the decrease in the total resistance of the heating element due to the addition of CNTs. It is expected to improve the life and performance of the carbon fiber composite material as a result of the heating element resulting from this paper. Keywords: Carbon Nanotube (CNT, Carbon Fiber Reinforcement Plastic (CFRP, Heater, Exothermic characteristics

  15. Femtosecond laser ablation of carbon reinforced polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, P.; Mendez, C.; Garcia, A.; Arias, I.; Roso, L.

    2006-01-01

    Interaction of intense ultrashort laser pulses (120 fs at 795 nm) with polymer based composites has been investigated. We have found that carbon filled polymers exhibit different ultrafast ablation behaviour depending on whether the filling material is carbon black or carbon fiber and on the polymer matrix itself. The shape and dimensions of the filling material are responsible for some geometrical bad quality effects in the entrance and inner surfaces of drilled microholes. We give an explanation for these non-quality effects in terms of fundamentals of ultrafast ablation process, specifically threshold laser fluences and material removal paths. Since carbon fiber reinforced polymers seemed particularly concerned, this could prevent the use of ultrafast ablation for microprocessing purposes of some of these materials

  16. Methodical Specifics of Thermal Experiments with Thin Carbon Reinforced Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Denisov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer composite materials (CM are widely used in creation of large space constructions, especially reflectors of space antennas. Composite materials should provide high level of specific stiffness and strength for space structures. Thermal conductivity in reinforcement plane is a significant factor in case of irregular heating space antennas. Nowadays, data on CM reinforcement plane thermal conductivity are limited and existing methods of its defining are imperfect. Basically, traditional methods allow us to define thermal conductivity in perpendicular direction towards the reinforcement plane on the samples of round or rectangular plate. In addition, the thickness of standard samples is larger than space antenna thickness. Consequently, new methods are required. Method of contact heating, which was developed by BMSTU specialists with long hollow carbon beam, could be a perspective way. This article is devoted to the experimental method of contact heating on the thin carbon plates.Thermal tests were supposed to provide a non-stationary temperature field with a gradient being co-directional with the plane reinforcement in the material sample. Experiments were conducted in vacuum chamber to prevent unstructured convection. Experimental thermo-grams processing were calculated by 1-d thermal model for a thin plate. Influence of uncertainty of experimental parameters, such as (radiation emission coefficients of sample surface, glue, temperature sensors and uncertainty of sensors placement on the result of defined thermal conductivity has been estimated. New data on the thermal conductivity in reinforcement plane were obtained within 295 - 375 K temperature range, which can be used to design and develop reflectors of precision space antennas. In the future it is expedient to conduct tests of thin-wall plates from carbon fiber-reinforced plastic in wide temperature range, especially in the low-range temperatures.

  17. Strain gradient plasticity effects in whisker-reinforced metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2003-01-01

    A metal reinforced by fibers in the micron range is studied using the strain gradient plasticity theory of Fleck and Hutchinson (J. Mech. Phys. Solids 49 (2001) 2245). Cell-model analyses are used to study the influence of the material length parameters numerically, for both a single parameter...

  18. Performance of carbon fiber reinforced rubber composite armour against shaped charge jet penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Lian-yong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural rubber is reinforced with carbon fiber; the protective performances of the carbonfiber reinforced rubber composite armour to shaped charge jet have been studied based on the depth of penetration experiments. The craters on the witness blocks, the nature rubber based composite plates’ deformation and the Scanning Electron Microscopy for the hybrid fiber reinforced rubber plate also is analyzed. The results showed that the composite armour can affect the stability of the jet and made part of the jet fracture. The carbon fiber reinforced rubber composite armour has good defence ablity especially when the nature rubber plate hybrid 15% volume percentage carbonfiber and the obliquity angle is 68°. The hybrid fiber reinforced rubber composite armour can be used as a new kind of light protective armour.

  19. The usage of carbon fiber reinforcement polymer and glass fiber reinforcement polymer for retrofit technology building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, Johannes; Meka, Randi; Nursyamsi

    2018-03-01

    Fiber Reinforcement Polymer has been used as a material technology since the 1970s in Europe. Fiber Reinforcement Polymer can reinforce the structure externally, and used in many types of buildings like beams, columns, and slabs. It has high tensile strength. Fiber Reinforcement Polymer also has high rigidity and strength. The profile of Fiber Reinforcement Polymer is thin and light, installation is simple to conduct. One of Fiber Reinforcement Polymer material is Carbon Fiber Reinforcement Polymer and Glass Fiber Reinforcement Polymer. These materials is tested when it is installed on concrete cylinders, to obtain the comparison of compressive strength CFRP and GFRP. The dimension of concrete is diameter of 15 cm and height of 30 cm. It is amounted to 15 and divided into three groups. The test is performed until it collapsed to obtain maximum load. The results of research using CFRP and GFRP have shown the significant enhancement in compressive strength. CFRP can increase the compressive strength of 26.89%, and GFRP of 14.89%. For the comparison of two materials, CFRP is more strengthening than GFRP regarding increasing compressive strength. The usage of CFRP and GFRP can increase the loading capacity.

  20. Research on carbon fiber–reinforced plastic bumper beam subjected to low-velocity frontal impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yefa Hu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight and safety performance of automobiles are two important factors for automobile designs. In this article, a research on lightweight and crashworthiness of automotive bumper has been conducted. The carbon fiber–reinforced plastic bumper beam is considered to replace the traditional high-strength steel one. The low-velocity impact finite element simulations for the above two bumper beams are performed via LS-DYNA. Furthermore, the energy absorption capabilities and dynamic response characteristics of the carbon fiber–reinforced plastic bumper beam are investigated and compared with the steel one. The results show that the carbon fiber–reinforced plastic bumper beam is of the better energy absorption capabilities and dynamic response characteristics than those of the steel one; the weight has decreased remarkably close to 50%. Meanwhile, the effect of lay-up and wall thickness on the crashworthiness of the carbon fiber–reinforced plastic bumper beam under low-velocity impact is also studied in this article to select appropriate design schemes.

  1. Short and long carbon fibre reinforced Cu-matrix composites: microstructural results and structural origin of properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchgraber, W.

    1997-01-01

    Carbon fibre reinforced copper matrix composites possess properties of copper, i.e. excellent thermal and electrical conductivities, and properties of carbon fibre, i.e. a small thermal expansion coefficient. Since the desirable properties of the composite can be obtained by selecting the amount, type and orientation of the carbon fibres, it is considered to be suitable for use as electric and electronic materials. This lecture focuses on two-dimensional isotropic carbon fibre reinforced copper matrix composites with long or short carbon fibres. Short carbon fibre reinforced copper matrix composites have been produced by hot-pressing of copper coated short carbon fibres. During hot-pressing, the carbon fibres take on a preferred orientation in a plane perpendicular to the hot pressing direction. Within this plane the fibre orientation is random. Long carbon fibre reinforced copper matrix composites have been made by hot pressing of monolayers consisting of copper coated long carbon fibres. Different orientations of the monolayers will be compared. Both the physical and mechanical properties of the discussed composites are strongly influenced not only by the properties of its individual constituents, but also by the microstructure and properties of the fibre matrix interface. The problem of poor wettability of the carbon fibre by the copper matrix will be discussed. The microstructure of several types of carbon fibre reinforced copper matrix composites will be discussed. Their thermophysical properties will be compared with microstructural results. (author)

  2. In-Space Repair of Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Thermal Protection System Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay

    2006-01-01

    Advanced repair and refurbishment technologies are critically needed for the thermal protection system of current space transportation system as well as for future Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV). The damage to these components could be caused by impact during ground handling or due to falling of ice or other objects during launch. In addition, in-orbit damage includes micrometeoroid and orbital debris impact as well as different factors (weather, launch acoustics, shearing, etc.) during launch and re-entry. The GRC developed GRABER (Glenn Refractory Adhesive for Bonding and Exterior Repair) material has shown multiuse capability for repair of small cracks and damage in reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) material. The concept consists of preparing an adhesive paste of desired ceramic with appropriate additives and then applying the paste to the damaged/cracked area of the RCC composites with adhesive delivery system. The adhesive paste cures at 100-120 C and transforms into a high temperature ceramic during simulated entry conditions. A number of plasma torch and ArcJet tests were carried out to evaluate the crack repair capability of GRABER materials for Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) composites. For the large area repair applications, integrated system for tile and leading edge repair (InSTALER) have been developed. In this presentation, critical in-space repair needs and technical challenges as well as various issues and complexities will be discussed along with the plasma performance and post test characterization of repaired RCC materials.

  3. Mechanical characterization of SiC particulate & E-glass fiber reinforced Al 3003 hybrid metal matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, K. S. Lakshmi; Shivanand, H. K.

    2018-04-01

    Metal matrix composites constitute a class of low cost high quality materials which offer high performance for various industrial applications. The orientation of this research is towards the study of mechanical properties of as cast silicon carbide (SiC) particulates and Short E-Glass fibers reinforced Aluminum matrix composites (AMCs). The Hybrid metal matrix composite is developed by reinforcing SiC particulates of 100 microns and short E-Glass fibers of 2-3 mm length with Al 3003 in different compositions. The vortex method of stir casting was employed, in which the reinforcements were introduced into the vortex created by the molten metal by means of mechanical stirrer. The mechanical properties of the prepared metal matrix composites were analyzed. From the studies it was noticed that an improvement in mechanical properties of the reinforced alloys compared to unreinforced alloys.

  4. NDE for Characterizing Oxidation Damage in Reinforced Carbon-Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J.; Rauser, Richard W.; Jacobson, nathan S.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Walker, James L.; Cosgriff, Laura A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, coated reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) samples of similar structure and composition as that from the NASA space shuttle orbiter s thermal protection system were fabricated with slots in their coating simulating craze cracks. These specimens were used to study oxidation damage detection and characterization using NDE methods. These specimens were heat treated in air at 1143 and 1200 C to create cavities in the carbon substrate underneath the coating as oxygen reacted with the carbon and resulted in its consumption. The cavities varied in diameter from approximately 1 to 3 mm. Single-sided NDE methods were used since they might be practical for on-wing inspection, while x-ray micro-computed tomography (CT) was used to measure cavity sizes in order to validate oxidation models under development for carbon-carbon materials. An RCC sample having a naturally-cracked coating and subsequent oxidation damage was also studied with x-ray micro-CT. This effort is a follow-on study to one that characterized NDE methods for assessing oxidation damage in an RCC sample with drilled holes in the coating. The results of that study are briefly reviewed in this article as well. Additionally, a short discussion on the future role of simulation to aid in these studies is provided.

  5. Gases and carbon in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehn, H.; Fromm, E.; Hoerz, G.

    1978-01-01

    This issue is part of a series of data on 'gases and carbon in metals'. The present survey includes results from papers dealing with gases and carbon in actinides and recommends critically selected data for each element. Firstly data od binary systems are presented, starting with hydrogen and followed by carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and rare gases. Within one metal-metalloid system the data are listed under topics such as solubility limit, dissociation pressure of compunds, vapour pressure of volatile oxides, thermodynamic data, diffusion, transport parameters (effective valence, heat of transport), permeation of gases through metals, gas adsorption and gas desorption kinetics, compound formation, precipitation kinetics, and property changes. Following the data on binary systems, the data of ternary systems are presented, beginning with systems which contain one metal and two gases or one gas and carbon and continuing with systems with two metals and one gas or carbon. Within a ternary system the topics are arranged in the same way as in binary systems. (HB) [de

  6. Flexural strength using Steel Plate, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) on reinforced concrete beam in building technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, Johannes; Patra, Fadel Muhammad; Sitorus, Torang

    2018-03-01

    Reinforced concrete structures are very commonly used in buildings because they are cheaper than the steel structures. But in reality, many concrete structures are damaged, so there are several ways to overcome this problem, by providing reinforcement with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) and reinforcement with steel plates. Each type of reinforcements has its advantages and disadvantages. In this study, researchers discuss the comparison between flexural strength of reinforced concrete beam using steel plates and Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP). In this case, the researchers use Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) as external reinforcements. The dimension of the beams is 15 x 25 cm with the length of 320 cm. Based on the analytical results, the strength of the beam with CFRP is 1.991 times its initial, GFRP is 1.877 times while with the steel plate is 1.646 times. Based on test results, the strength of the beam with CFRP is 1.444 times its initial, GFRP is 1.333 times while the steel plate is 1.167 times. Based on these test results, the authors conclude that beam with CFRP is the best choice for external reinforcement in building technology than the others.

  7. Creep Forming of Carbon-Reinforced Ceramic-Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Wallace L.; Scotti, Stephan J.; Ashe, Melissa P.; Connolly, Liz

    2007-01-01

    A set of lecture slides describes an investigation of creep forming as a means of imparting desired curvatures to initially flat stock plates of carbon-reinforced ceramic-matrix composite (C-CMC) materials. The investigation is apparently part of a continuing effort to develop improved means of applying small CCMC repair patches to reinforced carbon-carbon leading edges of aerospace vehicles (e.g., space shuttles) prior to re-entry into the atmosphere of the Earth. According to one of the slides, creep forming would be an intermediate step in a process that would yield a fully densified, finished C-CMC part having a desired size and shape (the other steps would include preliminary machining, finish machining, densification by chemical vapor infiltration, and final coating). The investigation included experiments in which C-CMC disks were creep-formed by heating them to unspecified high temperatures for time intervals of the order of 1 hour while they were clamped into single- and double-curvature graphite molds. The creep-formed disks were coated with an oxidation- protection material, then subjected to arc-jet tests, in which the disks exhibited no deterioration after exposure to high-temperature test conditions lasting 490 seconds.

  8. Investigations on neutron irradiated 3D carbon fibre reinforced carbon composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopalan, Ramani; Alur, V. D.; Patra, A. K.; Acharya, R.; Srivastava, D.

    2018-04-01

    As against conventional graphite materials carbon-carbon (C/C) composite materials are now being contemplated as the promising candidate materials for the high temperature and fusion reactor owing to their high thermal conductivity and high thermal resistance, better mechanical/thermal properties and irradiation stability. The current need is for focused research on novel carbon materials for future new generation nuclear reactors. The advantage of carbon-carbon composite is that the microstructure and the properties can be tailor made. The present study encompasses the irradiation of 3D carbon composite prepared by reinforcement using PAN carbon fibers for nuclear application. The carbon fiber reinforced composite was subjected to neutron irradiation in the research reactor DHRUVA. The irradiated samples were characterized by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), small angle neutron scattering (SANS), XRD and Raman spectroscopy. The DSC scans were taken in argon atmosphere under a linear heating program. The scanning was carried out at temperature range from 30 °C to 700 °C at different heating rates in argon atmosphere along with reference as unirradiated carbon composite. The Wigner energy spectrum of irradiated composite showed two peaks corresponding to 200 °C and 600 °C. The stored energy data for the samples were in the range 110-170 J/g for temperature ranging from 30 °C to 700 °C. The Wigner energy spectrum of irradiated carbon composite did not indicate spontaneous temperature rise during thermal annealing. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments have been carried out to investigate neutron irradiation induced changes in porosity of the composite samples. SANS data were recorded in the scattering wave vector range of 0.17 nm-1 to 3.5 nm-1. Comparison of SANS profiles of irradiated and unirradiated samples indicates significant change in pore morphology. Pore size distributions of the samples follow power law size distribution with

  9. Microstructures and properties of ceramic particle-reinforced metal matrix composite layers produced by laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingmao; He, Jingjiang; Liu, Wenjin; Zhong, Minlin

    2005-01-01

    Different weight ratio of titanium, zirconium, WC and Fe-based alloy powders were mixed, and cladded onto a medium carbon steel substrate using a 3kW continuous wave CO2 laser, aiming at producing Ceramic particles- reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs) layers. The microstructures of the layers are typical hypoeutectic, and the major phases are Ni3Si2, TiSi2, Fe3C, FeNi, MC, Fe7Mo3, Fe3B, γ(residual austenite) and M(martensite). The microstructure morphologies of MMCs layers are dendrites/cells. The MC-type reinforcements are in situ synthesis Carbides which main compositions consist of transition elements Zr, Ti, W. The MC-type particles distributed within dendrite and interdendritic regions with different volume fractions for single and overlapping clad layers. The MMCs layers are dense and free of cracks with a good metallurgical bonding between the layer and substrate. The addition ratio of WC in the mixtures has the remarkable effect on the microhardness of clad layers.

  10. Electromagnetic configurable architectures for assessment of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steigmann Rozina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics are used in most wide domains due their low density, lack of mechanical fatigue phenomena and high strength–to weight ratio. From electromagnetic point of view, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics structure represents an inhomogeneous structure of electric conductive fibers embedded into a dielectric material, thus an electromagnetic configurable architecture can be used to evaluate above mentioned defects. The paper proposes a special sensor, send receiver type and the obtaining of electromagnetic image by post-processing each coil signals in each point of scanning, using a sub-encoding image reconstruction algorithm and super-resolution procedures. The layout of fibers can be detected interrogating only diagonal reception coils.

  11. Metal Nanoparticle Catalysts for Carbon Nanotube Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Benjamin F.

    2003-01-01

    Work this summer involved and new and unique process for producing the metal nanoparticle catalysts needed for carbon nanotube (CNT) growth. There are many applications attributed to CNT's, and their properties have deemed them to be a hot spot in research today. Many groups have demonstrated the versatility in CNT's by exploring a wide spectrum of roles that these nanotubes are able to fill. A short list of such promising applications are: nanoscaled electronic circuitry, storage media, chemical sensors, microscope enhancement, and coating reinforcement. Different methods have been used to grow these CNT's. Some examples are laser ablation, flame synthesis, or furnace synthesis. Every single approach requires the presence of a metal catalyst (Fe, Co, and Ni are among the best) that is small enough to produce a CNT. Herein lies the uniqueness of this work. Microemulsions (containing inverse micelles) were used to generate these metal particles for subsequent CNT growth. The goal of this summer work was basically to accomplish as much preliminary work as possible. I strived to pinpoint which variable (experimental process, metal product, substrate, method of application, CVD conditions, etc.) was the determining factor in the results. The resulting SEM images were sufficient for the appropriate comparisons to be made. The future work of this project consists of the optimization of the more promising experimental procedures and further exploration onto what exactly dictated the results.

  12. Micro structural analysis of nanocomposite of metallic matrix of aluminum reinforced by 2% of NTC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Fabio Saldanha; LavaredaCarlos Romulo; Mendes, Luiz Fernando; Queiroz, Jennyson Luz

    2016-01-01

    The study of based on aluminum materials has a high importance level, mainly when is intense wanted in automobile and aerospace industry to transform in light and high perform parts. Aluminum has low specific weight and easiness to join with other materials and these qualities can supply excellent properties and lots of technological applications. Components based on aluminum represents good examples to develop optimized micro structures during the fabrication process that can be basic on properties mechanical performance. As a result this work analyses the micro structure's composites with metallic matrix reinforced by 2% of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes manufactured by aluminum splinters mixed to CNT (author)

  13. Reinforced sulphur concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    Reinforced sulphur concrete wherein one or more metal reinforcing members are in contact with sulphur concrete is disclosed. The reinforced sulphur concrete comprises an adhesion promoter that enhances the interaction between the sulphur and the one or more metal reinforcing members.

  14. Fabrication and characterization of nanocomposites reinforced by carbon nanotubes - (1) synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hseuh Hsiangming; Tai Nyanhwa; Perng Tongping [Dept. of Material Science, National Tsing-Hwa Univ., TW (China); Chyou Sander [Taiwan Power Research Inst., Taiwan Power Co., Taipei (China)

    2003-07-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) produced by floating catalyst method were used for reinforcing material in polymeric nanocomposites. Five different kinds of carbon sources (benzene, toluene, xylene, cyclo-hexane, n-hexane) were used as precursors in the thermal chemical vapor deposition process. The products were collected and examined by Raman, HRTEM, and FESEM. The differences in microstructure and morphologies among these products are analyzed and discussed. (orig.)

  15. [Experimental study on carbon fiber reinforced plastic plate--analysis of stabilizing force required for plate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, H

    1990-11-01

    Plates currently in use for the management of bone fracture made of metal present with various problems. We manufactured carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) plates from Pyrofil T/530 puriplegs overlaid at cross angles of +/- 10 degrees, +/- 20 degrees, and +/- 30 degrees for trial and carried out an experimental study on rabbit tibiofibular bones using 316L stainless steel plates of comparable shape and size as controls. The results indicate the influence of CFRP plate upon cortical bone was milder than that of stainless steel plate, with an adequate stabilizing force for the repair of fractured rabbit tibiofibular bones. CFRP has the advantages over metals of being virtually free from corrosion and fatigue, reasonably radiolucent and able to meet a wide range of mechanical requirements. This would make CFRP plate quite promising as a new devices of treating fracture of bones.

  16. Titanium Implant Osseointegration Problems with Alternate Solutions Using Epoxy/Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Petersen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to present recent developments in material research with bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber-reinforced composite that have produced highly influential results toward improving upon current titanium bone implant clinical osseointegration success. Titanium is now the standard intra-oral tooth root/bone implant material with biocompatible interface relationships that confer potential osseointegration. Titanium produces a TiO2 oxide surface layer reactively that can provide chemical bonding through various electron interactions as a possible explanation for biocompatibility. Nevertheless, titanium alloy implants produce corrosion particles and fail by mechanisms generally related to surface interaction on bone to promote an inflammation with fibrous aseptic loosening or infection that can require implant removal. Further, lowered oxygen concentrations from poor vasculature at a foreign metal surface interface promote a build-up of host-cell-related electrons as free radicals and proton acid that can encourage infection and inflammation to greatly influence implant failure. To provide improved osseointegration many different coating processes and alternate polymer matrix composite (PMC solutions have been considered that supply new designing potential to possibly overcome problems with titanium bone implants. Now for important consideration, PMCs have decisive biofunctional fabrication possibilities while maintaining mechanical properties from addition of high-strengthening varied fiber-reinforcement and complex fillers/additives to include hydroxyapatite or antimicrobial incorporation through thermoset polymers that cure at low temperatures. Topics/issues reviewed in this manuscript include titanium corrosion, implant infection, coatings and the new epoxy/carbon-fiber implant results discussing osseointegration with biocompatibility related to nonpolar molecular attractions with secondary bonding, carbon fiber in vivo

  17. Repair of reinforced concrete beams using carbon fiber reinforced polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karzad Abdul Saboor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper is part of an ongoing research on the behaviour of Reinforced Concrete (RC beams retrofitted with Externally Bonded Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (EB-CFRP. A total of 5 large-scale rectangular beams, previously damaged due to shear loading, were repaired and strengthened with EB-CFRP and tested in this study. The major cracks of the damaged beams were injected with epoxy and the beams were wrapped with 2 layers of EB-CFRP discrete strips with 100mm width and 150mm center to center spacing. The beams were instrumented and tested to failure under three points loading in simply supported configuration. The measured test parameters were the beams deflection, maximum load, and the strain in the FRP strips. The failure mode was also observed. The results showed that applying EB-FRP strips increased the shear strength significantly relative to the original shear capacity of the beam. The results demonstrate that the application of EB-FRP strips used in this study is an effective repair method that can be used to repair and strengthen damaged beams.

  18. EFFECT OF HARDENER ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON FIBRE REINFORCED PHENOLIC RESIN COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. SULAIMAN

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the effect of hardener on mechanical properties of carbon reinforced phenolic resin composites is investigated. Carbon fibre is one of the most useful reinforcement materials in composites, its major use being the manufacture of components in the aerospace, automotive, and leisure industries. In this study, carbon fibres are hot pressed with phenolic resin with various percentages of carbon fibre and hardener contents that range from 5-15%. Composites with 15% hardener content show an increase in flexural strength, tensile strength and hardness. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS, flexural strength and hardness for 15% hardener are 411.9 MPa, 51.7 MPa and 85.4 HRR respectively.

  19. Laser absorption of carbon fiber reinforced polymer with randomly distributed carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Xu, Hebing; Li, Chao

    2018-03-01

    Laser processing of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) is a non-traditional machining method which has many prospective applications. The laser absorption characteristics of CFRP are analyzed in this paper. A ray tracing model describing the interaction of the laser spot with CFRP is established. The material model contains randomly distributed carbon fibers which are generated using an improved carbon fiber placement method. It was found that CFRP has good laser absorption due to multiple reflections of the light rays in the material’s microstructure. The randomly distributed carbon fibers make the absorptivity of the light rays change randomly in the laser spot. Meanwhile, the average absorptivity fluctuation is obvious during movement of the laser. The experimental measurements agree well with the values predicted by the ray tracing model.

  20. Flexural properties of polyethylene, glass and carbon fiber-reinforced resin composites for prosthetic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, Yukinori; Nishigawa, Goro; Irie, Masao; Yoshihara, Kumiko; Minagi, Shogo

    2015-01-01

    High flexural properties are needed for fixed partial denture or implant prosthesis to resist susceptibility to failures caused by occlusal overload. The aim of this investigation was to clarify the effects of four different kinds of fibers on the flexural properties of fiber-reinforced composites. Polyethylene fiber, glass fiber and two types of carbon fibers were used for reinforcement. Seven groups of specimens, 2 × 2 × 25 mm, were prepared (n = 10 per group). Four groups of resin composite specimens were reinforced with polyethylene, glass or one type of carbon fiber. The remaining three groups served as controls, with each group comprising one brand of resin composite without any fiber. After 24-h water storage in 37°C distilled water, the flexural properties of each specimen were examined with static three-point flexural test at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Compared to the control without any fiber, glass and carbon fibers significantly increased the flexural strength (p glass fiber (p glass fibers (p > 0.05). Fibers could, therefore, improve the flexural properties of resin composite and carbon fibers in longitudinal form yielded the better effects for reinforcement.

  1. Compressive behavior of wire reinforced bulk metallic glass matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Yub [Department of Materials Science, M/C 138-78, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Clausen, Bjorn [Lujan Neutron Science Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Uestuendag, Ersan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)]. E-mail: ustundag@iastate.edu; Choi-Yim, Haein [Department of Materials Science, M/C 138-78, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Aydiner, C. Can [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Bourke, Mark A.M. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2005-06-15

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) possess a unique set of mechanical properties that make them attractive structural materials. However, when loaded without constraint, BMGs fracture catastrophically due to formation of macroscopic shear bands and this behavior reduces their reliability. To address this issue, BMG matrix composites have been developed. In this investigation, neutron diffraction was used during uniaxial compressive loading to measure the internal strains in the second phases of various BMG composites reinforced with Ta, Mo, or stainless steel wires. The diffraction data were then employed to develop a finite element model that deduced the in situ constitutive behavior of each phase. It was found that the reinforcements yielded first and started transferring load to the matrix, which remained elastic during the whole experiment. While the present composites exhibited enhanced ductility, largely due to their ductile reinforcements, they yielded at applied stresses lower than those found in W reinforced composites.

  2. Trends in the Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Supported on Carbon Nano tubes and Their Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motshekga, S.C.; Pillai, S.K.; Ray, S.S.; Motshekga, S.C.; Ray, S.S.; Jalama, K.; Krause, Rui.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    The study of coating carbon nano tubes with metal/oxides nanoparticles is now becoming a promising and challenging area of research. To optimize the use of carbon nano tubes in various applications, it is necessary to attach functional groups or other nano structures to their surface. The combination of the distinctive properties of carbon nano tubes and metal/oxides is expected to be applied in field emission displays, nano electronic devices, novel catalysts, and polymer or ceramic reinforcement. The synthesis of these composites is still largely based on conventional techniques, such as wet impregnation followed by chemical reduction of the metal nanoparticle precursors. These techniques based on thermal heating can be time consuming and often lack control of particle size and morphology. Hence, there is interest in microwave technology recently, where using microwaves represents an alternative way of power input into chemical reactions through dielectric heating. This paper covers the synthesis and applications of carbon-nano tube-coated metal/oxides nanoparticles prepared by a microwave-assisted method. The reviewed studies show that the microwave-assisted synthesis of the composites allows processes to be completed within a shorter reaction time with uniform and well-dispersed nanoparticle formation.

  3. Recent Trends in the Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Supported on Carbon Nanotubes and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C. Motshekga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of coating carbon nanotubes with metal/oxides nanoparticles is now becoming a promising and challenging area of research. To optimize the use of carbon nanotubes in various applications, it is necessary to attach functional groups or other nanostructures to their surface. The combination of the distinctive properties of carbon nanotubes and metal/oxides is expected to be applied in field emission displays, nanoelectronic devices, novel catalysts, and polymer or ceramic reinforcement. The synthesis of these composites is still largely based on conventional techniques, such as wet impregnation followed by chemical reduction of the metal nanoparticle precursors. These techniques based on thermal heating can be time consuming and often lack control of particle size and morphology. Hence, there is interest in microwave technology recently, where using microwaves represents an alternative way of power input into chemical reactions through dielectric heating. This paper covers the synthesis and applications of carbon-nanotube-coated metal/oxides nanoparticles prepared by a microwave-assisted method. The reviewed studies show that the microwave-assisted synthesis of the composites allows processes to be completed within a shorter reaction time with uniform and well-dispersed nanoparticle formation.

  4. Microstructure and mechanical properties of carbon fibre-reinforced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-05-17

    May 17, 2018 ... was focussed on the characteristics of sol and the mechanical properties and high-temperature resistance of ... The reinforcement was 3D carbon fibre (T300 3k, ex-PAN ... where f (a/H) = 2.9(a/H)1/2−4.6(a/H)3/2+21.8(a/H)5/2.

  5. Puncture-Healing Thermoplastic Resin Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Keith L. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Grimsley, Brian W. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Czabaj, Michael W. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A composite comprising a combination of a self-healing polymer matrix and a carbon fiber reinforcement is described. In one embodiment, the matrix is a polybutadiene graft copolymer matrix, such as polybutadiene graft copolymer comprising poly(butadiene)-graft-poly(methyl acrylate-co-acrylonitrile). A method of fabricating the composite is also described, comprising the steps of manufacturing a pre-impregnated unidirectional carbon fiber preform by wetting a plurality of carbon fibers with a solution, the solution comprising a self-healing polymer and a solvent, and curing the preform. A method of repairing a structure made from the composite of the invention is described. A novel prepreg material used to manufacture the composite of the invention is described.

  6. Advances in Thermal Spray Deposition of Billets for Particle Reinforced Light Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzelburger, Martin; Zimmermann, Christian; Gadow, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Forming of light-metals in semi-solid state offers some advantages like low process temperatures, improved mould durability, good flow behavior and fine, globular microstructure of the final material. By the introduction of ceramic particles, increased elastic modulus and yield strength as well as wear resistance and creep behavior can be obtained. By semi-solid forging or semi-solid casting, particle reinforced metals (PRM) can be produced with improved matrix microstructure and beneficial forming process parameters compared to conventional MMC manufacturing techniques. The production of this kind of light metal matrix composites requires the supply of dense semi-finished parts with well defined volume fractions of homogeneously distributed particulate reinforcement. A manufacturing method for cylindrical light metal billets is described that applies thermal spraying as a build-up process for simultaneous deposition of matrix and reinforcement phase with cored wires as spraying material. Thermal spraying leads to small grain sizes and prevents dendrite formation. However, long process cycle times lead to billet heating and recrystallization of the matrix microstructure. In order to preserve small grain sizes that enable semi-solid forming, the thermal spraying process was analyzed by in-flight particle analysis and thermography. As a consequence, the deposition process was optimized by adaptation of the thermal spraying parameters and by application of additional cooling, leading to lower billet temperatures and finer PRM billet microstructure

  7. Development of textile-reinforced carbon fibre aluminium composites manufactured with gas pressure infiltration methods

    OpenAIRE

    W. Hufenbach; M. Gude; A. Czulak; J. Śleziona; A. Dolata-Grosz; M. Dyzia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of his paper is to show potential of textile-reinforced carbon fibre aluminium composite with advantage of the lightweight construction of structural components subjected to thermo-mechanical stress.Design/methodology/approach: The manufacture of specimens of the carbon fibre-reinforced aluminium was realised with the aid of an advanced differential gas pressure infiltration technique, which was developed at ILK, TU Dresden.Findings: The gas pressure infiltration technology e...

  8. Review of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Reinforced Material in Concrete Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayuddin Ayuddin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP is a material that is lightweight, strong, anti-magnetic and corrosion resistant. This material can be used as an option to replace the steel material in concrete construction or as material to improve the strength of existing construction. CFRP is quite easy to be attached to the concrete structure and proved economically used as a material for repairing damaged structures and increase the resilience of structural beams, columns, bridges and other parts of the structure against earthquakes. CFRP materials can be shaped sheet to be attached to the concrete surface. Another reason is due to the use of CFRP has a higher ultimate strength and lower weight compared to steel reinforcement so that the handling is significantly easier. Through this paper suggests that CFRP materials can be applied to concrete structures, especially on concrete columns. Through the results of experiments conducted proved that the concrete columns externally wrapped with CFRP materials can increase the strength. This treatment is obtained after testing experiments on 130 mm diameter column with a height of 700 mm with concentric loading method to collapse. The experimental results indicate that a column is wrapped externally with CFRP materials can achieve a load capacity of 250 kN compared to the concrete columns externally without CFRP material which only reached 150 kN. If the column is given internally reinforcing steel and given externally CFRP materials can reach 270 kN. It shows that CFRP materials can be used for concrete structures can even replace reinforcing steel that has been widely used in building construction in Indonesia.

  9. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Carbon-Al-Cu Composite for Friction Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lihui; Luo, Ruiying; Ma, Denghao

    2018-03-31

    A carbon/carbon-Al-Cu composite reinforced with carbon fiber 2.5D-polyacrylonitrile-based preforms was fabricated using the pressureless infiltration technique. The Al-Cu alloy liquids were successfully infiltrated into the C/C composites at high temperature and under vacuum. The mechanical and metallographic properties, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) of the C/C-Al-Cu composites were analyzed. The results showed that the bending property of the C/C-Al-Cu composites was 189 MPa, whereas that of the pure carbon slide material was only 85 MPa. The compressive strength of C/C-Al-Cu was 213 MPa, whereas that of the pure carbon slide material was only 102 MPa. The resistivity of C/C-Al-Cu was only 1.94 μΩm, which was lower than that of the pure carbon slide material (29.5 μΩm). This finding can be attributed to the "network conduction" structure. Excellent wettability was observed between Al and the carbon matrix at high temperature due to the existence of Al₄C₃. The friction coefficients of the C/C, C/C-Al-Cu, and pure carbon slide composites were 0.152, 0.175, and 0.121, respectively. The wear rate of the C/C-Al-Cu composites reached a minimum value of 2.56 × 10 -7 mm³/Nm. The C/C-Al-Cu composite can be appropriately used as railway current collectors for locomotives.

  10. Hybrid Effect Evaluation of Steel Fiber and Carbon Fiber on the Performance of the Fiber Reinforced Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weimin; Yin, Jian

    2016-08-18

    Fiber reinforcement is an important method to enhance the performance of concrete. In this study, the compressive test and impact test were conducted, and then the hybrid effect between steel fiber (SF) and carbon fiber (CF) was evaluated by employing the hybrid effect index. Compressive toughness and impact toughness of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC), carbon fiber reinforced concrete (CFRC) and hybrid fiber reinforced concrete (HFRC) were explored at steel fiber volume fraction 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and carbon fiber 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%. Results showed that the addition of steel fiber and carbon fiber can increase the compressive strength. SF, CF and the hybridization between them could increase the compressive toughness significantly. The impact test results showed that as the volume of fiber increased, the impact number of the first visible crack and the ultimate failure also increased. The improvement of toughness mainly lay in improving the crack resistance after the first crack. Based on the test results, the positive hybrid effect of steel fiber and carbon fiber existed in hybrid fiber reinforced concrete. The relationship between the compressive toughness and impact toughness was also explored.

  11. Evaluating the mechanical properties of E-Glass fiber/carbon fiber reinforced interpenetrating polymer networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Suresh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of vinyl ester and polyurethane interpenetrating polymer networks were prepared by changing the component ratios of VER (Vinyl ester and PU (Polyurethane and the polymerization process was confirmed with Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy. IPN (Inter Penetrating Polymer Network - VER/PU reinforced Glass and carbon fiber composite laminates were made using the Hand lay up technique. The Mechanical properties of the E-glass and carbon fiber specimens were compared from tests including Tensile, Compressive, Flexural, ILSS (Inter Laminar Shear Strength, Impact & Head Deflection Test (HDT. The IPN Reinforced Carbon fiber specimen showed better results in all the tests than E-Glass fibre reinforced IPN laminate with same thickness of the specimen, according to ASTM standards. It was found that the combination of 60%VER and 40%PU IPN exhibits better impact strength and maximum elongation at break, but at the slight expense of mechanical properties such as tensile, compressive, flexural, ILSS properties. The morphology of the unreinforced and reinforced composites was analyzed with help of scanning electron microscopy.

  12. Calculating the Carrying Capacity of Flexural Prestressed Concrete Beams with Non-Metallic Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Atutis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews moment resistance design methods of prestressed concrete beams with fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP reinforcement. FRP tendons exhibit linear elastic response to rupture without yielding and thus failure is expected to be brittle. The structural behaviour of beams prestressed with FRP tendons is different from beams with traditional steel reinforcement. Depending on the reinforcement ratio, the flexural behaviour of the beam can be divided into several groups. The numerical results show that depending on the nature of the element failure, moment resistance calculation results are different by using reviewed methods. It was found, that the use of non-metallic reinforcement in prestressed concrete structures is effective: moment capacity is about 5% higher than that of the beams with conventional steel reinforcement.Article in Lithuanian

  13. Application of carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite to nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Masahiro

    2003-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced carbon matrix composite (C/C composite) is thought to be one of promising structural materials with high temperature resistivity in the nuclear engineering field. In the high temperature gas-cooled reactors with gas outlet temperature maximum around 1000degC, high performance core internal structures, such as control rod sheath, core restraint mechanism, will be expected to achieve by the C/C composite application. Moreover, in the fusion reactors, plasma facing structures having high temperature with high neutron irradiation and particle collision will be expected to achieve by the C/C composite application. In this paper, current research and development studies of the C/C composite application on both reactors are reviewed and vista of the future on the C/C composite application is mentioned. (author)

  14. Seismic Retrofitting: Reinforced Concrete (RC shear wall versus Reinforcement of RC element by Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP using PUSHOVER analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya RIYAD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Seismic retrofitting of constructions vulnerable to earthquakes is a current problem of great political and social relevance. During the last sixty years, moderate to severe earthquakes have occurred in Morocco (specifically in Agadir 1960 and Hoceima 2004. Such events have clearly shown the vulnerability of the building stock in particular and of the built environment in general. Hence, it is very much essential to retrofit the vulnerable building to cope up for the next damaging earthquake. In this paper, the focus will be on a comparative study between two techniques of seismic retrofitting, the first one is a reinforcement using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP applied to RC elements by bonding , and the second one is a reinforcement with a shear wall. For this study, we will use a non-linear static analysis -also known as Pushover analysis - on a reinforced concrete structure consisting of beams and columns, and composed from eight storey with a gross area of 240 m², designed conforming to the Moroccan Seismic code[1].

  15. Chemical recycling of carbon fibers reinforced epoxy resin composites in oxygen in supercritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yongping; Wang, Zhi; Feng, Liqun

    2010-01-01

    The carbon fibers in carbon fibers reinforced epoxy resin composites were recovered in oxygen in supercritical water at 30 ± 1 MPa and 440 ± 10 o C. The microstructure of the recovered carbon fibers was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atom force microscopy (AFM). The results revealed that the clean carbon fibers were recovered and had higher tensile strength relative to the virgin carbon fibers when the decomposition rate was above 85 wt.%, although the recovered carbon fibers have clean surface, the epoxy resin on the surface of the recovered carbon fibers was readily observed. As the decomposition rate increased to above 96 wt.%, no epoxy resin was observed on the surface of the carbon fibers and the oxidation of the recovered carbon fibers was readily measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The carbon fibers were ideally recovered and have original strength when the decomposition rates were between 94 and 97 wt.%. This study clearly showed the oxygen in supercritical water is a promising way for recycling the carbon fibers in carbon fibers reinforced resin composites.

  16. Impact fatigue behaviour of carbon fibre-reinforced vinylester resin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two types of unidirectional carbon fibre, one of high strength (DHMS) and another of medium strength (VLMS) reinforced vinylester resin composites have been examined for their impact fatigue behaviour over 104 impact cycles for the first time. The study was conducted using a pendulum type repeated impact apparatus ...

  17. Impact fatigue behaviour of carbon fibre-reinforced vinylester resin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Two types of unidirectional carbon fibre, one of high strength (DHMS) and another of medium strength (VLMS) reinforced vinylester resin composites have been examined for their impact fatigue behaviour over 104 impact cycles for the first time. The study was conducted using a pendulum type repeated impact.

  18. Fracture toughness behaviour of carbon fibre epoxy composite with Kevlar reinforced interleave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, S.N.; Kumar, Vijai; Verma, Sushil K.

    2006-01-01

    This work was to evaluate as to how mode II fracture toughness G II is affected by interleave having Kevlar fibre reinforcement in the fracture plane. Thermoset interleave and chopped Kevlar fibres were applied between the carbon/epoxy composite layers. An artificial crack starter was implanted in the mid-plane to initiate the fracture process. The following five different types of carbon fibre/epoxy composites were prepared and tested. (a) Base laminate without interleave (b) unreinforced interleave and (c) 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg/cm 2 chopped Kevlar fibre reinforced interleave. Results obtained show that fracture toughness G IIC enhanced up to about two times in all the laminates. However, enhancement in fracture toughness G IIC was more effective in interleaved laminate than Kevlar reinforced interleaved because of large energy absorbing capabilities of interleaf. Mechanism of fracture and toughening were examined by using scanning electron microscope

  19. Studying impact damage on carbon-fiber reinforced aircraft composite panels with sonicir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Xiaoyan; Zhang Ding; He Qi; Song Yuyang; Lubowicki, Anthony; Zhao Xinyue; Newaz, Golam.; Favro, Lawrence D.; Thomas, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Composites are becoming more important materials in commercial aircraft structures such as the fuselage and wings with the new B787 Dreamliner from Boeing which has the target to utilize 50% by weight of composite materials. Carbon-fiber reinforced composites are the material of choice in aircraft structures. This is due to their light weight and high strength (high strength-to-weight ratio), high specific stiffness, tailorability of properties, design flexibility etc. Especially, by reducing the aircraft's body weight by using such lighter structures, the cost of fuel can be greatly reduced with the high jet fuel price for commercial airlines. However, these composites are prone to impact damage and the damage may occur without any observable sign on the surface, yet resulting in delaminations and disbonds that may occur well within the layers. We are studying the impact problem with carbon-fiber reinforced composite panels and developing SonicIR for this application as a fast and wide-area NDE technology. In this paper, we present our results in studying composite structures including carbon-fiber reinforced composite materials, and preliminary quantitative studies on delamination type defect depth identification in the panels.

  20. Experiment-Based Sensitivity Analysis of Scaled Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Elastomeric Isolators in Bonded Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Hedayati Dezfuli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-reinforced elastomeric isolators (FREIs are a new type of elastomeric base isolation systems. Producing FREIs in the form of long laminated pads and cutting them to the required size significantly reduces the time and cost of the manufacturing process. Due to the lack of adequate information on the performance of FREIs in bonded applications, the goal of this study is to assess the performance sensitivity of 1/4-scale carbon-FREIs based on the experimental tests. The scaled carbon-FREIs are manufactured using a fast cold-vulcanization process. The effect of several factors including the vertical pressure, the lateral cyclic rate, the number of rubber layers, and the thickness of carbon fiber-reinforced layers are explored on the cyclic behavior of rubber bearings. Results show that the effect of vertical pressure on the lateral response of base isolators is negligible. However, decreasing the cyclic loading rate increases the lateral flexibility and the damping capacity. Additionally, carbon fiber-reinforced layers can be considered as a minor source of energy dissipation.

  1. Mechanical properties of carbon fibre-reinforced polymer/magnesium alloy hybrid laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pengpeng; Wu, Xuan; Pan, Yingcai; Tao, Ye; Wu, Guoqing; Huang, Zheng

    2018-04-01

    In this study, we prepared fibre metal laminates (FMLs) consisting of high-modulus carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) prepregs and thin AZ31 alloy sheets by using hot-pressing technology. Tensile and low-velocity impact tests were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties and fracture behaviour of the magnesium alloy-based FMLs (Mg-FMLs) and to investigate the differences in the fracture behaviour between the Mg-FMLs and traditional Mg-FMLs. Results show that the Mg-FMLs exhibit higher specific tensile strength and specific tensile modulus than traditional Mg-FMLs and that the tensile behaviour of the Mg-FMLs is mainly governed by the CFRP because of the combination of high interlaminar shear properties and thin magnesium alloy layers. The Mg-FMLs exhibit excellent bending stiffness. Hence, no significant difference between the residual displacement d r and indentation depth d i , and the permanent deformation is mainly limited to a small zone surrounding the impact location after the impact tests.

  2. Investigations on mechanical and two-body abrasive wear behaviour of glass/carbon fabric reinforced vinyl ester composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresha, B.; Kumar, Kunigal N. Shiva

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research article is to study the mechanical and two-body abrasive wear behaviour of glass/carbon fabric reinforced vinyl ester composites. The measured wear volume loss increases with increase in abrading distance/abrasive particle size. However, the specific wear rate decreases with increase in abrading distance and decrease in abrasive particle size. The results showed that the highest specific wear rate is for glass fabric reinforced vinyl ester composite with a value of 10.89 x 10 -11 m 3 /Nm and the lowest wear rate is for carbon fabric reinforced vinyl ester composite with a value of 4.02 x 10 -11 m 3 /Nm. Mechanical properties were evaluated and obtained values are compared with the wear behaviour. The worn surface features have been examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Photomicrographs of the worn surfaces revealed higher percentage of broken glass fiber as compared to carbon fiber. Also better interfacial adhesion between carbon and vinyl ester in carbon reinforced vinyl ester composite was observed.

  3. Fatigue Damage Evaluation of Short Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics Based on Phase Information of Thermoelastic Temperature Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozawa, Daiki; Sakagami, Takahide; Nakamura, Yu; Nonaka, Shinichi; Hamada, Kenichi

    2017-12-06

    Carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) is widely used for structural members of transportation vehicles such as automobile, aircraft, or spacecraft, utilizing its excellent specific strength and specific rigidity in contrast with the metal. Short carbon fiber composite materials are receiving a lot of attentions because of their excellent moldability and productivity, however they show complicated behaviors in fatigue fracture due to the random fibers orientation. In this study, thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) using an infrared thermography was applied to evaluate fatigue damage in short carbon fiber composites. The distribution of the thermoelastic temperature change was measured during the fatigue test, as well as the phase difference between the thermoelastic temperature change and applied loading signal. Evolution of fatigue damage was detected from the distribution of thermoelastic temperature change according to the thermoelastic damage analysis (TDA) procedure. It was also found that fatigue damage evolution was more clearly detected than before by the newly developed thermoelastic phase damage analysis (TPDA) in which damaged area was emphasized in the differential phase delay images utilizing the property that carbon fiber shows opposite phase thermoelastic temperature change.

  4. Dynamic mechanical analysis of carbon nanotube-reinforced nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her, Shiuh-Chuan; Lin, Kuan-Yu

    2017-06-16

    To predict the mechanical properties of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-reinforced polymers, it is necessary to understand the role of the nanotube-polymer interface with regard to load transfer and the formation of the interphase region. The main objective of this study was to explore and attempt to clarify the reinforcement mechanisms of MWCNTs in epoxy matrix. Nanocomposites were fabricated by adding different amounts of MWCNTs to epoxy resin. Tensile test and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) were conducted to investigate the effect of MWCNT contents on the mechanical properties and thermal stability of nanocomposites. Compared with the neat epoxy, nanocomposite reinforced with 1 wt% of MWCNTs exhibited an increase of 152% and 54% in Young's modulus and tensile strength, respectively. Dynamic mechanical analysis demonstrates that both the storage modulus and glass transition temperature tend to increase with the addition of MWCNTs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations reveal that uniform dispersion and strong interfacial adhesion between the MWCNTs and epoxy are achieved, resulting in the improvement of mechanical properties and thermal stability as compared with neat epoxy.

  5. EB treatment of carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szebényi, G.; Romhány, G.; Vajna, B.; Czvikovszky, T.

    2012-01-01

    A small amount — less than 0.5% — carbon nanotube reinforcement may improve the mechanical properties of epoxy based composite materials significantly. The basic technical problem on one side is the dispersion of the nanotubes into the viscous matrix resin, namely, the fine powder-like — less than 100 nanometer diameter — nanotubes are prone to form aggregates. On the other side, the good connection between the nanofiber and matrix, which is determining the success of the reinforcement, requires some efficient adhesion promoting treatment. The goal of our research was to give one such treatment capable of industrial size application. A two step curing epoxy/vinylester resin process technology has been developed where the epoxy component has been cured conventionally, while the vinylester has been cured by electron treatment afterwards. The sufficient irradiation dose has been selected according to Raman spectroscopy characterization. Using the developed hybrid resin system hybrid composites containing carbon fibers and multiwalled carbon nanotubes have been prepared. The effect of the electron beam induced curing of the vinylester resin on the mechanical properties of the composites has been characterized by three point bending and interlaminar shear tests, which showed clearly the superiority of the developed resin system. The results of the mechanical tests have been supported by AFM studies of the samples, which showed that the difference in the viscoelastic properties of the matrix constituents decreased significantly by the electron beam treatment.

  6. Electron beam processing of carbon fibre reinforced braided composites beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halasz, L.; Zsigmond, B.; Czvikovszky, T.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In this paper the possibility of producing a new type carbon fiber reinforced composite is examined by applying braiding, a well-known process of textile technology. The appearance of the new Hungarian carbon fiber with excellent mechanical properties in the market enables the development of newer type carbon fiber reinforced composites in the continuously widening range of engineering applications. Advanced hollow profiles, pipes and other composite products can be manufactured in continuous operation. A new way of composite production of this kind is the manufacturing of reinforcing structure by braiding technology producing a composite with sufficient mechanical properties from this cross directional fabric-like textile structure by impregnation. This manufacturing process can complete the variety of hollow products serving the same purpose as pultrusion or filament winding. This way a profile type framework element with a hollow cross section is manufactured having favorable mechanical properties. Owing to its small mass and high specific strength this product can be applied in dynamically loaded structures e.g. in the automotive industry. For crosslinking of the matrix the method of high-speed electron beam curing has been examined in order to reach continuous operation. The field of use and application of carbon fiber braided structures has a great chance especially in machine engineering and in the automotive industry. The main reason for this is that braiding processes are capable of producing structures having good mechanical properties at a low processing price. The mass of the composite load-bearing structure produced this way is one fifth of the steel product having similar geometry, and its specific mechanical properties are nearly as good as that of the most commonly applied semiproduct and structural component, the welded steel profile

  7. Performance of carbon fiber reinforced rubber composite armour against shaped charge jet penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Yue Lian-yong; Li Wei; Zu Xu-dong; Huang Zheng-xiang; Gao Zhen-yu

    2016-01-01

    Natural rubber is reinforced with carbon fiber; the protective performances of the carbonfiber reinforced rubber composite armour to shaped charge jet have been studied based on the depth of penetration experiments. The craters on the witness blocks, the nature rubber based composite plates’ deformation and the Scanning Electron Microscopy for the hybrid fiber reinforced rubber plate also is analyzed. The results showed that the composite armour can affect the stability of the jet and made pa...

  8. Metal Matrix Composite Solar Cell Metallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilt David M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced solar cells are moving to ever thinner formats in order to save mass and in some cases improve performance. As cells are thinned, the possibility that they may fracture or cleave due to mechanical stresses is increased. Fractures of the cell can degrade the overall device performance if the fracture propagates through the contact metallization, which frequently occurs. To address this problem, a novel semiconductor metallization system based on multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT reinforcement, termed metal matrix composite (MMC metallization is under investigation. Electro-mechanical characterization of MMC films demonstrate their ability to provide electrical conductivity over >40 micron wide cracks in the underlying semiconductor, with the carbon nanotubes bridging the gap. In addition, these materials show a “self-healing” behaviour, electrically reconnecting at ~30 microns when strained past failure. Triple junction (TJ space cells with MMC metallization demonstrated no loss in Jsc after intentional fracture, whereas TJ cells with conventional metallization suffer up to 50% Jsc loss.

  9. Investigation of different carbon nanotube reinforcements for fabricating bulk AlMg5 matrix nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallip, Kaspar, E-mail: kaspar.kallip@empa.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science and Technology, Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland); Leparoux, Marc [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science and Technology, Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland); AlOgab, Khaled A. [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), National Centers for Advanced Materials, P O Box 6086, Riyadh, 11442 (Saudi Arabia); Clerc, Steve; Deguilhem, Guillaume [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science and Technology, Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland); Arroyo, Yadira [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science and Technology, Electron Microscopy Center, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Kwon, Hansang [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science and Technology, Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland); Pukyong National University, Department of Materials System Engineering, 365 Sinseon-ro, Busan 608-739 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    AlMg5-based metal matrix composites were successfully fabricated using high energy planetary ball-milling and hot pressing. The influence of 6 types of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with different properties was investigated for reinforcement. Over 3 fold increase in hardness and ultimate tensile strength was achieved with maximum values of 200 HV{sub 20} and 720 MPa respectively by varying CNT content from 0.5 to 5 vol%. The state, the dispersion as well as the reactivity of the different CNTs were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction and microscopy. The CNTs were considered to be dispersed homogeneously, but were shortened due to high energy milling. No significant differences in mechanical performances could be observed depending either on the nature or on the agglomeration initial state of the investigated CNTs. The milling time has to be however adjusted to the CNT content as higher concentrations require a longer milling time for achieving dispersion of the nano-reinforcement. - Highlights: • CNTs sustained the milling process and became homogeneously dispersed. • 3 times strengthening over unreinforced alloy achieved. • Flexible processing route for dispersing wide range of nanoparticulate materials.

  10. Low-frequency plasmons in metallic carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, M.F.; Chuu, D.S.; Shung, K.W.

    1997-01-01

    A metallic carbon nanotube could exhibit a low-frequency plasmon, while a semiconducting carbon nanotube or a graphite layer could not. This plasmon is due to the free carriers in the linear subbands intersecting at the Fermi level. The low-frequency plasmon, which corresponds to the vanishing transferred angular momentum, belongs to an acoustic plasmon. For a smaller metallic nanotube, it could exist at larger transferred momenta, and its frequency is higher. Such a plasmon behaves as that in a one-dimensional electron gas (EGS). However, it is very different from the π plasmons in all carbon nanotubes. Intertube Coulomb interactions in a metallic multishell nanotube and a metallic nanotube bundle have been included. They have a strong effect on the low-frequency plasmon. The intertube coupling among coaxial nanotubes markedly modifies the acoustic plasmons in separate metallic nanotubes. When metallic carbon nanotubes are packed in the bundle form, the low-frequency plasmon would change into an optical plasmon, and behave like that in a three-dimensional EGS. Experimental measurements could be used to distinguish metallic and semiconducting carbon nanotubes. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. Dynamic Response of Functionally Graded Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Sandwich Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehar, Kulmani; Panda, Subrata Kumar

    2018-03-01

    In this article, the dynamic response of the carbon nanotube-reinforced functionally graded sandwich composite plate has been studied numerically with the help of finite element method. The face sheets of the sandwich composite plate are made of carbon nanotube- reinforced composite for two different grading patterns whereas the core phase is taken as isotropic material. The final properties of the structure are calculated using the rule of mixture. The geometrical model of the sandwich plate is developed and discretized suitably with the help of available shell element in ANSYS library. Subsequently, the corresponding numerical dynamic responses computed via batch input technique (parametric design language code in ANSYS) of ANSYS including Newmark’s integration scheme. The stability of the sandwich structural numerical model is established through the proper convergence study. Further, the reliability of the sandwich model is checked by comparison study between present and available results from references. As a final point, some numerical problems have been solved to examine the effect of different design constraints (carbon nanotube distribution pattern, core to face thickness ratio, volume fractions of the nanotube, length to thickness ratio, aspect ratio and constraints at edges) on the time-responses of sandwich plate.

  12. Rheology of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Cement-Based Mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banfill, Phillip F. G.; Starrs, Gerry; McCarter, W. John

    2008-01-01

    Carbon fibre reinforced cement based materials (CFRCs) offer the possibility of fabricating 'smart' electrically conductive materials. Rheology of the fresh mix is crucial to satisfactory moulding and fresh CFRC conforms to the Bingham model with slight structural breakdown. Both yield stress and plastic viscosity increase with increasing fibre length and volume concentration. Using a modified Viskomat NT, the concentration dependence of CFRC rheology up to 1.5% fibre volume is reported

  13. Rheology of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Cement-Based Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfill, Phillip F. G.; Starrs, Gerry; McCarter, W. John

    2008-07-01

    Carbon fibre reinforced cement based materials (CFRCs) offer the possibility of fabricating "smart" electrically conductive materials. Rheology of the fresh mix is crucial to satisfactory moulding and fresh CFRC conforms to the Bingham model with slight structural breakdown. Both yield stress and plastic viscosity increase with increasing fibre length and volume concentration. Using a modified Viskomat NT, the concentration dependence of CFRC rheology up to 1.5% fibre volume is reported.

  14. Compressive yielding of tungsten fiber reinforced bulk metallic glass composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, B.; Lee, S.-Y.; Uestuendag, E.; Aydiner, C.C.; Conner, R.D.; Bourke, M.A.M

    2003-07-15

    In-situ uniaxial compression tests were conducted on four tungsten fiber reinforced bulk metallic glass matrix composites using neutron diffraction. The results were interpreted with a finite element model. Both phases were seen to approximately obey the von Mises yield criterion. The fibers were observed to yield first and then transfer load to the matrix.

  15. Compressive yielding of tungsten fiber reinforced bulk metallic glass composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, B.; Lee, S.-Y.; Uestuendag, E.; Aydiner, C.C.; Conner, R.D.; Bourke, M.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    In-situ uniaxial compression tests were conducted on four tungsten fiber reinforced bulk metallic glass matrix composites using neutron diffraction. The results were interpreted with a finite element model. Both phases were seen to approximately obey the von Mises yield criterion. The fibers were observed to yield first and then transfer load to the matrix

  16. Optical and mechanical excitation thermography for impact response in basalt-carbon hybrid fiber-reinforced composite laminates

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hai; Sfarra, Stefano; Sarasini, Fabrizio; Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Perilli, Stefano; Fernandes, Henrique; Duan, Yuxia; Peeters, Jeroen; Avelidis, Nicholas P; Maldague, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper, optical and mechanical excitation thermography were used to investigate basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP), carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) and basalt-carbon fiber hybrid specimens subjected to impact loading. Interestingly, two different hybrid structures including sandwich-like and intercalated stacking sequence were used. Pulsed phase thermography (PPT), principal component thermography (PCT) and partial least squares thermography (PLST) were used to pro...

  17. Mechanical characterization of epoxy composite with multiscale reinforcements: Carbon nanotubes and short carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmanian, S.; Suraya, A.R.; Shazed, M.A.; Zahari, R.; Zainudin, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Multiscale composite was prepared by incorporation of carbon nanotubes and fibers. • Carbon nanotubes were also grown on short carbon fibers to enhance stress transfer. • Significant improvements were achieved in mechanical properties of composites. • Synergic effect of carbon nanotubes and fibers was demonstrated. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and short carbon fibers were incorporated into an epoxy matrix to fabricate a high performance multiscale composite. To improve the stress transfer between epoxy and carbon fibers, CNT were also grown on fibers through chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method to produce CNT grown short carbon fibers (CSCF). Mechanical characterization of composites was performed to investigate the synergy effects of CNT and CSCF in the epoxy matrix. The multiscale composites revealed significant improvement in elastic and storage modulus, strength as well as impact resistance in comparison to CNT–epoxy or CSCF–epoxy composites. An optimum content of CNT was found which provided the maximum stiffness and strength. The synergic reinforcing effects of combined fillers were analyzed on the fracture surface of composites through optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

  18. Gases and carbon in metals. Pt. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehn, H.; Speck, H.; Hehn, W.; Fromm, E.; Hoerz, G.

    1981-01-01

    This issue is part of a series of data on 'Gases and Carbon in Metals' which supplements the data compilation in the book 'Gase und Kohlenstoff in Metallen' (Gases and Carbon in Metals), edited by E. Fromm and E. Gebhardt, Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1976. The present survey includes results from papers published after the copy deadline and recommends critically selected data. Furthermore, it comprises a bibliography of relevant literature. For each element, firstly data on binary systems are presented, starting with hydrogen and followed by carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and rare gases. Within one metal-metalloid system the data are listed under topics such as solubility, solubility limit, dissociation pressure of compounds, vapour pressure of volatile oxides, thermodynamic data, diffusion, transport parameters (effective valence, heat of transport), permeation of gases through metals, gas absorption and gas desorption kinetics, compound formation kinetics, precipitation kinetics, and property changes. Following the data on binary systems, the data of ternary systems are presented, beginning with systems which contain one metal and two gases or one gas and carbon and continuing with systems with two metals and one gas or carbon. (orig./GE)

  19. [Fusion implants of carbon fiber reinforced plastic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Früh, H J; Liebetrau, A; Bertagnoli, R

    2002-05-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) are used in the medical field when high mechanical strength, innovative design, and radiolucency (see spinal fusion implants) are needed. During the manufacturing process of the material CFRP carbon fibers are embedded into a resin matrix. This resin material could be thermoset (e.g., epoxy resin EPN/DDS) or thermoplastic (e.g., PEAK). CFRP is biocompatible, radiolucent, and has higher mechanical capabilities compared to other implant materials. This publication demonstrates the manufacturing process of fusion implants made of a thermoset matrix system using a fiber winding process. The material has been used clinically since 1994 for fusion implants of the cervical and lumbar spine. The results of the fusion systems CORNERSTONE-SR C (cervical) and UNION (lumbar) showed no implant-related complications. New implant systems made of this CFRP material are under investigation and are presented.

  20. Carbonation of metal silicates for long-term CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blencoe, James G; Palmer, Donald A; Anovitz, Lawrence M; Beard, James S

    2014-03-18

    In a preferred embodiment, the invention relates to a process of sequestering carbon dioxide. The process comprises the steps of: (a) reacting a metal silicate with a caustic alkali-metal hydroxide to produce a hydroxide of the metal formerly contained in the silicate; (b) reacting carbon dioxide with at least one of a caustic alkali-metal hydroxide and an alkali-metal silicate to produce at least one of an alkali-metal carbonate and an alkali-metal bicarbonate; and (c) reacting the metal hydroxide product of step (a) with at least one of the alkali-metal carbonate and the alkali-metal bicarbonate produced in step (b) to produce a carbonate of the metal formerly contained in the metal silicate of step (a).

  1. Metal-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes and production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Anne C.; Heben, Michael J.; Gennett, Thomas; Parilla, Philip A.

    2007-01-09

    Metal-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes and production thereof. The metal-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes may be produced according to one embodiment of the invention by combining single-walled carbon nanotube precursor material and metal in a solution, and mixing the solution to incorporate at least a portion of the metal with the single-walled carbon nanotube precursor material. Other embodiments may comprise sputter deposition, evaporation, and other mixing techniques.

  2. Research on mechanical properties of carbon fiber /polyamide reinforced PP composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinghui; Yu, Qiang; Liu, Lixia; Ji, Wenhua; Yang, Li; Fan, Dongli

    2017-10-01

    The polyamide composites reinforced by carbon fiber/polypropylene are produced by injection molding processing. The flow abilities and mechanical properties of the CF/PA/PP composite materials are studied by the fusion index instrument and the universal testing machine. The results show that with the content of carbon fiber/polyamide increase, the impact breaking strength and the tensile property of the composite materials increase, which is instructive to the actual injection production of polypropylene products.

  3. Use of high energy ball milling to study the role of graphene nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes reinforced magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashad, Muhammad, E-mail: rashadphy87@gmail.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Pan, Fusheng, E-mail: fspan@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Chongqing Academy of Science and Technology, Chongqing, Chongqing 401123 (China); Zhang, Jianyue [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Asif, Muhammad [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Graphene nanoplatelets (few layer graphene) and carbon nanotubes were used as reinforcement fillers to enhance the mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy through high energy ball milling, sintering, and hot extrusion techniques. Experimental results revealed that tensile fracture strain of AZ31 magnesium alloy was enhanced by +49.6% with 0.3 wt.% graphene nanoplatelets compared to −8.3% regression for 0.3 wt.% carbon nanotubes. The tensile strength of AZ31 magnesium alloy was decreased (−11.2%) with graphene nanoplatelets addition, while increased (+7.7%) with carbon nanotubes addition. Unlike tensile test, compression tests showed different trend. The compression strength of carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composite was +51.2% greater than AZ31 magnesium alloy as compared to +0.6% increase for graphene nanoplatelets. The compressive fracture strain of carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composite was decreased (−14.1%) while no significant change in fracture strain of graphene nanoplatelets-AZ31 composite was observed. The X-ray diffraction results revealed that addition of reinforcement particles weaken the basal textures which affect the composite's yield asymmetry. Microstructure evaluation revealed the absence of intermetallic phase formation between reinforcements and matrix. The carbon reinforcements in AZ31 magnesium alloy dissolve and isolate β phases throughout the matrix. The increased fracture strain and mechanical strength of graphene nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composites are attributed to large specific surface area of graphene nanoplatelets and stiffer nature of carbon nanotubes respectively. - Highlights: • Powder metallurgy method was used to fabricate magnesium composites. • The AZ31-carbon materials composite were blended using ball milling. • The reinforcement particles weaken the basal texture which affects yield asymmetry of composites. • AZ31-graphene nanoplatelets composite exhibited impressive increase in tensile elongation

  4. Use of high energy ball milling to study the role of graphene nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes reinforced magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashad, Muhammad; Pan, Fusheng; Zhang, Jianyue; Asif, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Graphene nanoplatelets (few layer graphene) and carbon nanotubes were used as reinforcement fillers to enhance the mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy through high energy ball milling, sintering, and hot extrusion techniques. Experimental results revealed that tensile fracture strain of AZ31 magnesium alloy was enhanced by +49.6% with 0.3 wt.% graphene nanoplatelets compared to −8.3% regression for 0.3 wt.% carbon nanotubes. The tensile strength of AZ31 magnesium alloy was decreased (−11.2%) with graphene nanoplatelets addition, while increased (+7.7%) with carbon nanotubes addition. Unlike tensile test, compression tests showed different trend. The compression strength of carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composite was +51.2% greater than AZ31 magnesium alloy as compared to +0.6% increase for graphene nanoplatelets. The compressive fracture strain of carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composite was decreased (−14.1%) while no significant change in fracture strain of graphene nanoplatelets-AZ31 composite was observed. The X-ray diffraction results revealed that addition of reinforcement particles weaken the basal textures which affect the composite's yield asymmetry. Microstructure evaluation revealed the absence of intermetallic phase formation between reinforcements and matrix. The carbon reinforcements in AZ31 magnesium alloy dissolve and isolate β phases throughout the matrix. The increased fracture strain and mechanical strength of graphene nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composites are attributed to large specific surface area of graphene nanoplatelets and stiffer nature of carbon nanotubes respectively. - Highlights: • Powder metallurgy method was used to fabricate magnesium composites. • The AZ31-carbon materials composite were blended using ball milling. • The reinforcement particles weaken the basal texture which affects yield asymmetry of composites. • AZ31-graphene nanoplatelets composite exhibited impressive increase in tensile elongation

  5. Effect of epoxy coatings on carbon fibers during manufacture of carbon fiber reinforced resin matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Hui; Huang, Yudong; Liu, Li; Shi, Xiaohua

    2010-01-01

    The changes in oxygen and nitrogen during manufacture of the carbon fiber reinforced resin matrix composites were measured using the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy method. The effects of the change in oxygen and nitrogen on the strength of the carbon fibers were investigated and the results revealed that the change of the tensile strength with increasing heat curing temperature was attributed to the change in the surface flaws of the carbon fibers because the carbon fibers are sensitive to the surface flaws. The effect of the surface energy that was calculated using Kaelble's method on the strength of the carbon fibers was investigated. Furthermore, the surface roughness of the carbon fibers was measured using atom force microscopy. The change trend of roughness was reverse to that of the strength, which was because of the brittle fracture of the carbon fibers.

  6. Load transfer in short fibre reinforced metal matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garces, Gerardo; Bruno, Giovanni; Wanner, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    The internal load transfer and the deformation behaviour of aluminium-matrix composites reinforced with 2D-random alumina (Saffil) short fibres was studied for different loading modes. The evolution of stress in the metallic matrix was measured by neutron diffraction during in situ uniaxial deformation tests. Tensile and compressive tests were performed with loading axis parallel or perpendicular to the 2D-reinforcement plane. The fibre stresses were computed based on force equilibrium considerations. The results are discussed in light of a model recently established by the co-authors for composites with visco-plastic matrix behaviour and extended to the case of plastic deformation in the present study. Based on that model, the evolution of internal stresses and the macroscopic stress-strain were simulated. Comparison between the experimental and computational results shows a qualitative agreement in all relevant aspects

  7. Energy efficient microwave heating of carbon fibre reinforced plastic; Energieeffiziente Mikrowellentemperierung von kohlenstofffaserverstaerkten Duroplasten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilov, Maksim

    2013-07-01

    The polymerization of carbon fiber reinforced thermosetting composites (CFRP) is a dull process step with high energy requirements within the production chain. His improvement would affect the economic and ecological balance of the fiber reinforced materials in a positive way. One possible approach investigated here is tempering of raw materials in a microwave oven. In this work the material to be processed - a carbon fiber-reinforced plastic laminate - is being characterized in the microwave field through electromagnetic and thermal parameters. The relationship between its design parameters (fiber orientation and number of layers), the energy levels (reflection, absorption and transmittance) and the thermal process parameters (temperature gradient achievable) will be established. Afterwards, constructive options will be examined and evaluated which are suitable to install a low-loss (both by means of wave reflections and heat losses) industrial process.

  8. Recycling of carbon fibre reinforced composites using water in subcritical conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yuyan, E-mail: liuyy@hit.edu.cn [Harbin Institute of Technology, No.92 Xidazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Shan Guohua; Meng Linghui [Harbin Institute of Technology, No.92 Xidazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper, a method of chemical recycling of thermosetting epoxy composite was discussed. Water was used to be reaction medium and the decomposition of carbon fibre reinforced epoxy composites was studied. Experiments were devised in order to identify the significant process parameters that affect fibre reinforced composite recovery potential including temperature, time, catalyst, feedstock, and pressure. Experiments were performed in a batch-type reactor without stirring. Under the condition that the temperature was 260 deg. C and the ratio of resin and water was 1:5 g/mL, the decomposition rate could reach 100 wt.% and the carbon fibres were obtained. The results from the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) measurements showed that the fibres were clean and no cracks or defects were found. The average tensile strength of the reclaimed fibres was about 98.2% than that of the virgin fibres.

  9. Flexural Behaviour of Reinforced Fibrous Concrete Beams: Experiments and Analytical Modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameed, R.; Sellier, A.; Turatsinze, A.; Duprat, F.

    2013-01-01

    Flexural behaviour of reinforced fibrous concrete beams was investigated in this research study. Two types of metallic fibers were studied: amorphous metallic fibers (FibraFlex fibers), and carbon steel hooked-end fibers (Dramix fibers). Four types of reinforced concretes were made: one control (without fibers) and three fibrous. Among three reinforced fibrous concretes, two contained fibers in mono form and one contained fibers in hybrid form. The total quantity of fibers in mono and hybrid forms was 20 kg/m3 and 40 kg/m3, respectively. Three point bending tests were performed according to European standards NF EN 14651 on beams of 150 x 150 mm cross section and length of 550 mm. The results showed that due to positive synergetic interaction between the two metallic fibers used, reinforced fibrous concret (RFC) beams containing fibers in hybrid form exhibited better response at all loading stages. Analytical model to predict ultimate moment capacity of the RFC beam of rectangular section was developed and is presented in this paper. Analytical results for ultimate moment were found to be in good agreement with experimental results. (author)

  10. Characterization and modeling of three-dimensional self-healing shape memory alloy-reinforced metal-matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manuel, Michele Viola [University of Florida, Gainesville; Zhu, Pingping [Northwestern University, Evanston; Newman, John A. [NASA Langely Research Center (LaRC), Virginia; Wright, M Clara [NASA Kennedy Space Center, FL; Brinson, L Catherine [Northwestern University, Evanston; Kesler, Michael S. [ORNL

    2016-09-10

    In this paper, three-dimensional metal-matrix composites (MMCs) reinforced by shape memory alloy (SMA) wires are modeled and simulated, by adopting an SMA constitutive model accounting for elastic deformation, phase transformation and plastic behavior. A modeling method to create composites with pre-strained SMA wires is also proposed to improve the self-healing ability. Experimental validation is provided with a composite under three-point bending. This modeling method is applied in a series of finite element simulations to investigate the self-healing effects in pre-cracked composites, especially the role of the SMA reinforcement, the softening property of the matrix, and the effect of pre-strain in the SMA. The results demonstrate that SMA reinforcements provide stronger shape recovery ability than other, non-transforming materials. The softening property of the metallic matrix and the pre-strain in SMA are also beneficial to help crack closure and healing. This modeling approach can serve as an efficient tool to design SMA-reinforced MMCs with optimal self-healing properties that have potential applications in components needing a high level of reliability.

  11. Characterisation of Microstructure of We43 Magnesium Matrix Composites Reinforced with Carbon Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gryc A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the microstructures of WE43 matrix composites reinforced with carbon fibres have been characterised. The influence of reinforcement type and T6 heat treatment (a solution treatment at 525°C for 8 h, a hot water quench and a subsequent ageing treatment at 250°C for 16 h on microstructure have been evaluated. The light microscope and scanning electron microscope investigations have been carried out. No significant differences in samples reinforced with non-coated textiles have been reported. The substantial changes in sample reinforced with nickel-coated textile have been observed. The segregation of alloying elements to the matrix-reinforcement layer has been identified. The T6 heat treatment caused the appearance of disperse precipitates of β phase, but the process cannot be considered as satisfactory (irregular distribution, low volume fraction, relatively large size.

  12. Microstructure and mechanical properties of nickel coated multi walled carbon nanotube reinforced stainless steel 316L matrix composites by laser sintering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanthesha, P.; Mohankumar, G. C.

    2018-04-01

    Electroless Ni coated Multi-walled Carbon nanotubes reinforced with Stainless Steel 316L matrix composite was developed by Direct Metal Laser Sintering process (DMLS). Homogeneous mixture of Stainless Steel 316L powder and carbon nanotubes in different vol. % was obtained by using double cone blender machine. Characterization of electroless Ni coated carbon nanotubes was done by using X-ray diffraction, FESEM and EDS. Test samples were fabricated at different laser scan speeds. Effect of process parameters and CNT vol. % content on solidification microstructure and mechanical properties of test samples was investigated by using Optical microscopy, FESEM, and Hounsfield tensometer. Experimental results reveal DMLS process parameters affect the density and microstructure of sintered parts. Dense parts with minimum porosity when processed at low laser scan speeds and low CNT vol. %. Tensile fractured surface of test specimens evidences the survival of carbon nanotubes under high temperature processing condition.

  13. Effect of doping of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on phenolic based carbon fiber reinforced nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, Sadaf; Hakeem, Saira; Faheem, Muhammad; Alvi, Rashid Ahmed; Farooq, Khawar; Hussain, Syed Tajammul; Ahmad, Shahid Nisar

    2013-01-01

    We report on the effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on different properties of phenolic resin. A low content of MWCNTs (∼ 0.05 wt%) was mixed in phenolic resin and a stable dispersion was achieved by ultrasonication, followed by melt mixing. After curing the characterization of these composites was done by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). The thermal and ablative properties of carbon fiber reinforced MWCNTs-phenolic nanocomposites were also studied. The addition of MWCNTs showed improvement in thermal stability and ablation properties.

  14. Numerical modelling in friction lap joining of aluminium alloy and carbon-fiber-reinforced-plastic sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A.; Bang, H. S.; Bang, H. S.

    2018-05-01

    Multi-material combinations of aluminium alloy and carbon-fiber-reinforced-plastics (CFRP) have gained attention in automotive and aerospace industries to enhance fuel efficiency and strength-to-weight ratio of components. Various limitations of laser beam welding, adhesive bonding and mechanical fasteners make these processes inefficient to join metal and CFRP sheets. Friction lap joining is an alternative choice for the same. Comprehensive studies in friction lap joining of aluminium to CFRP sheets are essential and scare in the literature. The present work reports a combined theoretical and experimental study in joining of AA5052 and CFRP sheets using friction lap joining process. A three-dimensional finite element based heat transfer model is developed to compute the temperature fields and thermal cycles. The computed results are validated extensively with the corresponding experimentally measured results.

  15. Conduction noise absorption by fiber-reinforced epoxy composites with carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ok Hyoung; Kim, Sung-Soo; Lim, Yun-Soo

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all electronic equipment is susceptible to malfunction as a result of electromagnetic interference. In this study, glass fiber, and carbon fiber as a type reinforcement and epoxy as a matrix material were used to fabricate composite materials. In an attempt to increase the conduction noise absorption, carbon nanotubes were grown on the surface of glass fibers and carbon fibers. A microstrip line with characteristic impedance of 50 Ω in connection with network analyzer was used to measure the conduction noise absorption. In comparing a glass fiber/epoxy composite with a GF-CNT/Ep composite, it was demonstrated that the CNTs significantly influence the noise absorption property mainly due to increase in electric conductivity. In the carbon fiber composites, however, the effectiveness of CNTs on the degree of electric conductivity is negligible, resulting in a small change in reflection and transmission of an electromagnetic wave. - Research Highlights: → In this study, glass fiber and carbon fiber as a type reinforcement and epoxy as a matrix material were used to fabricate composite materials. In an attempt to increase the conduction noise absorption, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown on the surface of glass fibers and carbon fibers. A microstrip line with characteristic impedance of 50 Ω in connection with network analyzer was used to measure the conduction noise absorption. → In comparing a glass fiber/epoxy composite with a GF-CNT/Ep composite, it was demonstrated that the CNTs significantly influence the noise absorption property mainly due to increase in electric conductivity. In the carbon fiber composites, however, the effectiveness of CNTs on the degree of electric conductivity is negligible, resulting in a small change in reflection and transmission of an electromagnetic wave.

  16. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes bridging metal electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotlar, M.; Vojs, M.; Marton, M.; Vesel, M.; Redhammer, R.

    2012-01-01

    In our work we demonstrate growth of carbon nanotubes that can conductively bridge the metal electrodes. The role of different catalysts was examined. Interdigitated metal electrodes are made from copper and we are using bimetal Al/Ni as catalyst for growth of carbon nanotubes. We are using this catalyst composition for growth of the single-walled carbon nanotube network. (authors)

  17. Interfacial adhesion improvement in carbon fiber/carbon nanotube reinforced hybrid composites by the application of a reactive hybrid resin initiated by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szebényi, G.; Faragó, D.; Lámfalusi, Cs.; Göbl, R.

    2018-04-01

    Interfacial adhesion is a key factor in composite materials. The effective co-working of the reinforcing materials and matrix is essential for the proper load transfer between them, and to achieve the desired reinforcing effect. In case of nanocomposites, especially carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced nanocomposites the adhesion between the CNTs and the polymer matrix is poor. To improve the interfacial adhesion and exploit the reinforcing effect of these nanoparticles a two step curable epoxy (EP)/vinylester (VE) hybrid resin system was developed where the EP is cured using hardener in the first step, during the composite production, and in the second step the curing of the VE is initiated by gamma irradiation, which also activates the reinforcing materials and the cured matrix component. A total of six carbon fiber reinforced composite systems were compared with neat epoxy and EP/VE hybrid matrices with and without chemical initiator and MWCNT nano-reinforcement. The effect of gamma irradiation was investigated at four absorbed dose levels. According to our three point bending and interlaminar shear test results the adhesion has improved between all constituents of the composite system. It was demonstrated that gamma irradiation has beneficial effect on the static mechanical, especially interlaminar properties of both micro- and nanocomposites in terms of modulus, strength and interlaminar shear strength.

  18. Crack and wear behavior of SiC particulate reinforced aluminium based metal matrix composite fabricated by direct metal laser sintering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Subrata Kumar; Saha, Partha

    2011-01-01

    In this investigation, crack density and wear performance of SiC particulate (SiCp) reinforced Al-based metal matrix composite (Al-MMC) fabricated by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process have been studied. Mainly, size and volume fraction of SiCp have been varied to analyze the crack and wear behavior of the composite. The study has suggested that crack density increases significantly after 15 volume percentage (vol.%) of SiCp. The paper has also suggested that when size (mesh) of reinforcement increases, wear resistance of the composite drops. Three hundred mesh of SiCp offers better wear resistance; above 300 mesh the specific wear rate increases significantly. Similarly, there has been no improvement of wear resistance after 20 vol.% of reinforcement. The scanning electron micrographs of the worn surfaces have revealed that during the wear test SiCp fragments into small pieces which act as abrasives to result in abrasive wear in the specimen.

  19. Solid-State Recycling of Light Metal Reinforced Inclusions by Equal Channel Angular Pressing: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Alimi Sami.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state recycling of light metals reinforced inclusions through hot Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP is performed to directly recycle metal scraps and reduce cost of material in engineering applications. The ECAP is one of the most important method in severe plastic deformation (SPD that can convert light metals into finished products. This paper reviews several experimental and numerical works that have been done to investigate the effects of the ECAP parameters such as die angles, material properties, outer corner angle, friction coefficient, temperature, size of chips, pressing force, ram speed and direct effects of number of passes on the strain distributions. It also includes the performance enhancement of aluminium matrix composite reinforced ceramic-based particles that derived from direct recycled aluminium chips for sustainable manufacturing practices.

  20. Recent Advances on Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene Reinforced Ceramics Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Yazdani, Bahareh; Zhu, Yanqiu

    2015-01-01

    Ceramics suffer the curse of extreme brittleness and demand new design philosophies and novel concepts of manufacturing to overcome such intrinsic drawbacks, in order to take advantage of most of their excellent properties. This has been one of the foremost challenges for ceramic material experts. Tailoring the ceramics structures at nanometre level has been a leading research frontier; whilst upgrading via reinforcing ceramic matrices with nanomaterials including the latest carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene has now become an eminent practice for advanced applications. Most recently, several new strategies have indeed improved the properties of the ceramics/CNT nanocomposites, such as by tuning with dopants, new dispersions routes and modified sintering methods. The utilisation of graphene in ceramic nanocomposites, either as a solo reinforcement or as a hybrid with CNTs, is the newest development. This article will summarise the recent advances, key difficulties and potential applications of the ceramics nanocomposites reinforced with CNTs and graphene. PMID:28347001

  1. In vitro evaluation of carbon-nanotube-reinforced bioprintable vascular conduits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolati, Farzaneh; Yu, Yin; Zhang, Yahui; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T; Jesus, Aribet M De; Sander, Edward A

    2014-01-01

    Vascularization of thick engineered tissue and organ constructs like the heart, liver, pancreas or kidney remains a major challenge in tissue engineering. Vascularization is needed to supply oxygen and nutrients and remove waste in living tissues and organs through a network that should possess high perfusion ability and significant mechanical strength and elasticity. In this paper, we introduce a fabrication process to print vascular conduits directly, where conduits were reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to enhance their mechanical properties and bioprintability. In vitro evaluation of printed conduits encapsulated in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells was performed to characterize the effects of CNT reinforcement on the mechanical, perfusion and biological performance of the conduits. Perfusion and permeability, cell viability, extracellular matrix formation and tissue histology were assessed and discussed, and it was concluded that CNT-reinforced vascular conduits provided a foundation for mechanically appealing constructs where CNTs could be replaced with natural protein nanofibers for further integration of these conduits in large-scale tissue fabrication. (paper)

  2. Fatigue damage characterization in plain-wave carbon-carbon fabric reinforced plastic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Z.; Al-sulaiman, F.S.; Farooqi, J.K.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper fatigue damage mechanisms in 8 ply Carbon-Carbon Fabric reinforced Plastic Laminates obtained from polyester resin-prepreg plain weave carbon-carbon fabric layers have been investigated. Enhanced dye penetrant, X-ray radiography, optical microscopy, edge replication, and scanning electron fractography have been employed to examine the fatigue damage in three classes of laminates having the unidirectional (O)/sub delta/, the angle-plied (0,0,45,-45)/sub s/ fiber orientations. It is shown the laminates that have off axis plies, i.e.,0,0,45,-45), and (45,-45,0,0) /sub s/, the fatigue damage is initiated through matrix cracking. This matrix cracking induces fiber fracture in adjacent plies near the matrix crack tip. This event is followed by the man damage event of delamination of the stacked plies. It is shown that the delamination was the major damage mode, which caused the eventual fatigue failure in the angle-plied composites. The unidirectional composite (O)/sub delta/ laminates failed predominantly by lateral fracture instead of delamination. Fiber fracture was observed in the prime damage mode in unidirectional (O)/sub delta/ composite laminates. (author)

  3. Reinforcement steel corrosion in passive state and by carbonation: Consideration of galvanic currents and interface steel - concrete defaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasser, A.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis aims to study the durability of nuclear waste deep storage structures. The work carried out is essentially an experimental study, and focuses on the corrosion of steel in the passive state with aerated or non-aerated conditions on the one hand, and the corrosion of steel in carbonated concrete during the propagation phase on the other hand. Indeed, the pore solution of concrete in contact with the metal is alkaline (pH between 12 and 13). Under these conditions, steel reinforced concrete remains passive by forming a stable and protective oxide layer (corrosion of steel in the passive state). This passive layer limits the steel corrosion rate at very low values (negligible on a short life time) but not null. For the nuclear waste storage structures due to a very long life time (up to several hundred years), this low corrosion rate can become a risk. Therefore, it is necessary to study the evolution of the oxide layer growth over time. The objectives of the thesis are to study the influence of the steel-concrete interface quality on reinforcement corrosion in passive and active state, and the possible occurrence of galvanic corrosion currents between different reinforcement steel areas. (author)

  4. Carbonation of metal silicates for long-term CO.sub.2 sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blencoe, James G.; Palmer, Donald A.; Anovitz, Lawrence M.; Beard, James S.

    2017-08-01

    In a preferred embodiment, the invention relates to a process of sequestering carbon dioxide. The process comprises the steps of: (a) reacting a metal silicate with a caustic alkali-metal hydroxide to produce a hydroxide of the metal formerly contained in the silicate; (b) reacting carbon dioxide with at least one of a caustic alkali-metal hydroxide and an alkali-metal silicate to produce at least one of an alkali-metal carbonate and an alkali-metal bicarbonate; and (c) reacting the metal hydroxide product of step (a) with at least one of the alkali-metal carbonate and the alkali-metal bicarbonate produced in step (b) to produce a carbonate of the metal formerly contained in the metal silicate of step (a).

  5. Carbonation of metal silicates for long-term CO.sub.2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blencoe, James G [Harriman, TN; Palmer, Donald A [Oliver Springs, TN; Anovitz, Lawrence M [Knoxville, TN; Beard, James S [Martinsville, VA

    2012-02-14

    In a preferred embodiment, the invention relates to a process of sequestering carbon dioxide. The process comprises the steps of: (a) reacting a metal silicate with a caustic alkali-metal hydroxide to produce a hydroxide of the metal formerly contained in the silicate; (b) reacting carbon dioxide with at least one of a caustic alkali-metal hydroxide and an alkali-metal silicate to produce at least one of an alkali-metal carbonate and an alkali-metal bicarbonate; and (c) reacting the metal hydroxide product of step (a) with at least one of the alkali-metal carbonate and the alkali-metal bicarbonate produced in step (b) to produce a carbonate of the metal formerly contained in the metal silicate of step (a).

  6. Effects of carbon blacks with various structures on vulcanization and reinforcement of filled ethylene-propylene-diene rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of carbon blacks on vulcanization and mechanical properties of filled ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM are investigated, by comparing with five types of rubber-grade carbon blacks. Curing kinetics is studied by rheometer and the results indicate that the curing characteristics are influenced by combination of surface area of carbon black and sulphur content on the filler surface, because the former one enhances the physical cross-linking and the latter one introduces the additional chemical cross-linking. Both the degree of cross-linking and cure rate increase with increasing surface area and sulphur content, whereas the optimum cure time and scorch time decrease. The reinforcing nature of the carbon black is assessed from mechanical measurements. It is suggested that the surface area of carbon blacks strongly affects the physical properties of EPDM/carbon black composites. Conductive carbon black (N472 can be used as desirable reinforcing filler due to the higher degree of cross-linking of EPDM with N472 than other EPDM/carbon black composites. The morphology and distribution of particles are studied by using scanning electron microscope. The sound reinforcing ability of N472 is also supported by scanning electron microscope due to the notable dispersibility of N472 within EPDM matrix. N472 ensures the EPDM/N472 composite the most conductive sample among the five composites.

  7. Operational factors influence on service life characteristics of structural carbon fiber-reinforced plastic

    OpenAIRE

    Борозенець, Григорій; Павлов, Віктор; Семак, Інна

    2013-01-01

    The nature of strength changing of aircraft structural carbon fiber-reinforced plastic under influence of water saturation after static preloading and mode changing of structural elements forming process pressure is considered.

  8. Some Properties of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Magnetic Reactive Powder Concrete Containing Nano Silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zain El-Abdin Raouf

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study involves the design of 24 mixtures of fiber reinforced magnetic reactive powder concrete containing nano silica. Tap water was used for 12 of these mixtures, while magnetic water was used for the others. The nano silica (NS with ratios (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 % by weight of cement, were used for all the mixtures. The results have shown that the mixture containing 2.5% NS gives the highest compressive strength at age 7 days. Many different other tests were carried out, the results have shown that the carbon fiber reinforced magnetic reactive powder concrete containing 2.5% NS (CFRMRPCCNS had higher compressive strength, modulus of rupture, splitting tension, stress in compression and strain in compression than the corresponding values for the carbon fiber reinforced nonmagnetic reactive powder concrete containing the same ratio of NS (CFRNRPCCNS. The percentage increase in these values for CFRMRPCCNS were (22.37, 17.96, 19.44, 6.44 and 25.8 % at 28 days respectively, as compared with the corresponding CFRNRPCCNS mixtures.

  9. Flexural reinforced concrete member with FRP reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Putzolu, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    One of the most problematic point in construction is the durability of the concrete especially related to corrosion of the steel reinforcement. Due to this problem the construction sector, introduced the use of Fiber Reinforced Polymer, the main fibers used in construction are Glass, Carbon and Aramid. In this study, the author aim to analyse the flexural behaviour of concrete beams reinforced with FRP. This aim is achieved by the analysis of specimens reinforced with GFRP bars, with theoreti...

  10. Carbon fibre-reinforced, alkali-activated slag mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcés, P.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the effect of carbon fibre on alkaliactivated slag mortar (AAS mechanical strength, volume stability and reinforcing steel corrosion, compared to its effect on the same properties in Portland cement (PC properties. Mechanical strength and volume stability tests were performed as set out in the respective Spanish UNE standards. The corrosion rate of steel embedded in the specimens studied was determined from polarization resistance analysis. One of the findings of the study performed was that carbon fibre failed to improve AAS or CP mortar strength. As far as volume stability is concerned, the inclusion of carbon fibres in AAS with a liquid/solid ratio of 0.5 reduced drying shrinkage by about 50%. The effect of carbon fibre on PC mortars differed from its effect on AAS mortars. Studies showed that in the presence of carbonation, steel corrosion reached higher levels in carbon-fibre reinforced AAS mortars; the inclusion of 1% carbon fibre improved corrosion resistance perceptibly in these same mortars, however, when exposed to chloride attack.Se ha estudiado el efecto de la incorporación de fibras de carbón en el comportamiento mecánico, estabilidad de volumen y nivel de corrosión de la armadura en morteros de escorias activadas alcalinamente (AAS. Se evalúa la influencia de las fibras de carbón en el comportamiento de morteros alcalinos en comparación con el efecto que producen en morteros de Portland (CP. Los ensayos mecánicos y de estabilidad de volumen se han realizado según lo establecido en la norma UNE que los regula. Se ha utilizado la técnica de la Resistencia a la Polarización para determinar la velocidad de corrosión del acero embebido en las muestras estudiadas. Como consecuencia del estudio realizado, se ha podido concluir que la adición de fibras de carbón a morteros de AAS y CP no mejora las características resistentes de los mismos. En relación con la estabilidad de volumen, la incorporación de

  11. Plasma treatment of carbon fibres and glass-fibre-reinforced polyesters at atmospheric pressure for adhesion improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom; Toftegaard, Helmuth Langmaack

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment is useful for adhesion improvement, because cleaning, roughening and addition of polar functional groups can be expected at the surfaces. Its possible applications in the wind energy industry include plasma treatment of fibres and fibre-reinforced polymer...... composites before assembling them to build wind turbine blades. In the present work, unsized carbon fibres are continuously treated using a dielectric barrier discharge plasma in helium at atmospheric pressure, and carbon fibre reinforced epoxy composite plates are manufactured for the mechanical test....... The plasma treatment improved fracture toughness, indicating that adhesion between the fibres and the epoxy was enhanced by the treatment. In addition, glass-fibre-reinforced polyester plates are treated using a gliding arc and an ultrasound enhanced dielectric barrier discharge, improving the wettability...

  12. Reinforcement of Aluminum Castings with Dissimilar Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q

    2004-01-07

    The project ''Reinforcement of Aluminum Casting with Dissimilar Metal'' was a Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Cummins Inc. This project, technologies have been developed to reinforce aluminum castings with steel insert. Defect-free bond between the steel insert and the aluminum casting has been consistently obtained. The push-out experiment indicated that the bond strength is higher than that of the Al-Fin method. Two patents have been granted to the project team that is comprised of Cummins Inc. and ORNL. This report contains four sections: the coating of the steel pins, the cast-in method, microstructure characterization, and the bond strength. The section of the coating of the steel pins contains coating material selection, electro-plating technique for plating Cu and Ni on steel, and diffusion bonding of the coatings to the steel. The section of cast-in method deals with factors that affecting the quality of the metallurgical bond between the coated steel and the aluminum castings. The results of microstructure characteristics of the bonding are presented in the microstructure characterization section. A push-out experiment and the results obtained using this method is described in the section of bond strength/mechanical property.

  13. Electrospinning of single wall carbon nanotube reinforced aligned fibrils and yarns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hoa Le

    Commercial carbon fibers produced from a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursor have reached their performance limit. The approach in this study involves the use of single carbon nanotubes (SWNT) with an ultra-high elastic modulus of approximately ˜1 TPa and tensile strength of ˜37 GPa at a breaking strain of ˜6% to reinforce PAN. In order to translate these extraordinary properties to a higher order structure, the need for a media to carry and assemble the SWNT into continuous fibers or yarns is necessary. Effective translation of properties can only be achieved through uniform distribution of SWNT and their alignment in the fiber axis. This has been one of the major challenges since SWNTs tend to agglomerate due to high van der Waals attraction between tubes. It is the goal of this study to develop dispersion technique(s) for the SWNT and process them into aligned fibers utilizing the electrospinning process. The electrospun nanofibers were then characterized by various techniques such as ESEM, Raman microspectroscopy, HRTEM, and tensile testing. Composite nanofibers containing various contents of SWNT up to 10 wt. % with diameter ranging from 40--300 nm were successfully electrospun through varying the polymer concentration and spinning parameters. The inclusion of SWNTs and their alignment in the fiber axis were confirmed by Raman microspectroscopy, polarized Raman and HRETEM. The failure mechanism of the nanofibers was investigated by HRTEM through fiber surface fracture. A two stage rupture mechanism was observed where crazing initiates at a surface defect followed by SWNTs pulling out of the PAN matrix. Such mechanisms consume energy therefore strengthening and toughening the fibers. Mechanical drawing of the fiber prior to heat treatment induced molecular orientation resulting in oriented graphite layers in the carbonized fibers. This study has established a processing base and characterization techniques to support the design and development of SWNT

  14. Predicting Mechanical Properties of Metal Matrix Syntactic Foams Reinforced with Ceramic Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    predicting the properties of interest listed above. Kiser et al. [12] extended a metal foam model to account for ceramic reinforcement to predict the...Daoud A. J Alloys Compd. 2009; 487:618. 11. Drury WJ, Rickles SA, Sanders Jr TH, Cochran JK. In Light-Weight Alloys for Aerospace Applications, ed. Loe

  15. Preparation of granular activated carbons from composite of powder activated carbon and modified β-zeolite and application to heavy metals removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedein Ghannad, S M R; Lotfollahi, M N

    2018-03-01

    Heavy metals are continuously contaminating the surface and subsurface water. The adsorption process is an attractive alternative for removing the heavy metals because of its low cost, simple operation, high efficiency, and flexible design. In this study, influences of β-zeolite and Cu-modified β-zeolite on preparation of granular activated carbons (GACs) from a composite of powder activated carbon (PAC), methylcellulose as organic binder, bentonite as inorganic binder, and water were investigated. A number of granular samples were prepared by controlling the weight percentage of binder materials, PAC and zeolites as a reinforcing adsorbent. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction techniques were employed to characterize zeolite, modified zeolite and produced GAC. The produced GACs were used as the adsorbent for removal of Zn +2 , Cd 2+ and Pb 2+ ions from aqueous solutions. The results indicated that the adsorption of metals ions depended on the pH (5.5) and contact time (30 min). Maximum adsorption of 97.6% for Pb 2+ , 95.9% for Cd 2+ and 91.1% for Zn +2 occurred with a new kind of GAC made of Cu-modified β-zeolite. The Zn +2 , Cd 2+ and Pb 2+ ions sorption kinetics data were well described by a pseudo-second order model for all sorbents. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to analyze the experimental equilibrium data.

  16. Exposure Assessment of Particulate Matter from Abrasive Treatment of Carbon and Glass Fibre-Reinforced Epoxy-Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Alexander C. Ø.; Levin, Marcus; Koivisto, Antti J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of composites is ever increasing due to their important structural and chemical features. The composite component production often involves high energy grinding and sanding processes to which emissions workers are potentially exposed. In this study we investigated the machining of carbon...... and glass fibre-reinforced epoxy composite materials at two facilities. We measured particle number concentrations and size distributions of the released material in near field and far field during sanding of glass-and carbon fibre-reinforced composites. We assessed the means of reducing exposure during...

  17. Fracture resistance of abutment screws made of titanium, polyetheretherketone, and carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Aloisio Fleck NEUMANN

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fractured abutment screws may be replaced; however, sometimes, the screw cannot be removed and the entire implant must be surgically removed and replaced. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture resistance of abutment retention screws made of titanium, polyetheretherketone (PEEK and 30% carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK, using an external hexagonal implant/UCLA-type abutment interface assembly. UCLA-type abutments were fixed to implants using titanium screws (Group 1, polyetheretherketone (PEEK screws (Group 2, and 30% carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK screws (Group 3. The assemblies were placed on a stainless steel holding apparatus to allow for loading at 45o off-axis, in a universal testing machine. A 200 N load (static load was applied at the central point of the abutment extremity, at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/minute, until failure. Data was analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey’s range test. The titanium screws had higher fracture resistance, compared with PEEK and 30% carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK screws (p 0.05. Finally, visual analysis of the fractions revealed that 100% of them occurred at the neck of the abutment screw, suggesting that this is the weakest point of this unit. PEEK abutment screws have lower fracture resistance, in comparison with titanium abutment screws.

  18. Fracture resistance of abutment screws made of titanium, polyetheretherketone, and carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Eduardo Aloisio Fleck; Villar, Cristina Cunha; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Fractured abutment screws may be replaced; however, sometimes, the screw cannot be removed and the entire implant must be surgically removed and replaced. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture resistance of abutment retention screws made of titanium, polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and 30% carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK, using an external hexagonal implant/UCLA-type abutment interface assembly. UCLA-type abutments were fixed to implants using titanium screws (Group 1), polyetheretherketone (PEEK) screws (Group 2), and 30% carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK screws (Group 3). The assemblies were placed on a stainless steel holding apparatus to allow for loading at 45o off-axis, in a universal testing machine. A 200 N load (static load) was applied at the central point of the abutment extremity, at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/minute, until failure. Data was analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's range test. The titanium screws had higher fracture resistance, compared with PEEK and 30% carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK screws (p 0.05). Finally, visual analysis of the fractions revealed that 100% of them occurred at the neck of the abutment screw, suggesting that this is the weakest point of this unit. PEEK abutment screws have lower fracture resistance, in comparison with titanium abutment screws.

  19. Thermally Conductive Metal-Tube/Carbon-Composite Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    An improved method of fabricating joints between metal and carbon-fiber-based composite materials in lightweight radiators and heat sinks has been devised. Carbon-fiber-based composite materials have been used in such heat-transfer devices because they offer a combination of high thermal conductivity and low mass density. Metal tubes are typically used to carry heat-transfer fluids to and from such heat-transfer devices. The present fabrication method helps to ensure that the joints between the metal tubes and the composite-material parts in such heat-transfer devices have both (1) the relatively high thermal conductances needed for efficient transfer of heat and (2) the flexibility needed to accommodate differences among thermal expansions of dissimilar materials in operation over wide temperature ranges. Techniques used previously to join metal tubes with carbon-fiber-based composite parts have included press fitting and bonding with epoxy. Both of these prior techniques have been found to yield joints characterized by relatively high thermal resistances. The present method involves the use of a solder (63 percent Sn, 37 percent Pb) to form a highly thermally conductive joint between a metal tube and a carbon-fiber-based composite structure. Ordinarily, the large differences among the coefficients of thermal expansion of the metal tube, solder, and carbon-fiber-based composite would cause the solder to pull away from the composite upon post-fabrication cooldown from the molten state. In the present method, the structure of the solder is modified (see figure) to enable it to deform readily to accommodate the differential thermal expansion.

  20. Elastomer Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jared L.; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2009-01-01

    Elastomers are reinforced with functionalized, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) giving them high-breaking strain levels and low densities. Cross-linked elastomers are prepared using amine-terminated, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), with an average molecular weight of 5,000 daltons, and a functionalized SWNT. Cross-link densities, estimated on the basis of swelling data in toluene (a dispersing solvent) indicated that the polymer underwent cross-linking at the ends of the chains. This thermally initiated cross-linking was found to occur only in the presence of the aryl alcohol functionalized SWNTs. The cross-link could have been via a hydrogen-bonding mechanism between the amine and the free hydroxyl group, or via attack of the amine on the ester linage to form an amide. Tensile properties examined at room temperature indicate a three-fold increase in the tensile modulus of the elastomer, with rupture and failure of the elastomer occurring at a strain of 6.5.

  1. Nature and morphology of the joints of metal matrix composites to metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzak, K.

    1997-01-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMCs) reinforced with short ceramic fibres (e.g. carbon or Al 2 O 3 fibres) or with other metals (such as e.g., tungsten) show numerous advantages since their properties can be programmed by modifying appropriately their composition and technology. A point of considerable importance is the possibility of joining the composites with metals or their alloys. The major problem here is to choose the appropriate joining technique, such that ensures the formation of a high quality joint resistant to the service conditions, avoids the degradation of the composite microstructure, in particular of the interface layer between the matrix and the reinforcement, and still, is not expensive (1). The paper presents the results of experiments on joining the following composites: 6061Al-based materials containing 15 vol.% of δ-alumina fibres, CuCrl-based materials containing 20 vol.% of carbon fibres (C f ), CuZrl-based materials containing 20 vol.% of C f and Cu-based materials with 10 vol.% of dispersed tungsten powder. The CuCrI-C f and CuZrl-C f composites were joined with austenitic steel, the 6061Al-Al 2 O 3 composite - with the 6061Al alloy and the CuW composite - with copper of 99.99 % purity. The material pairs were chosen so as to take into account their possible application. Several different joining techniques were examined. This paper discusses the results obtained when using diffusion bonding, vacuum brazing and gluing. The morphology and the nature of the interface layer after bonding process between the matrix and the reinforcement and between the MMCs and metal were examined by analysing the distributions of the elements, by SEM and by X-ray techniques. The degree of the degradation of the MMCs structure was taken to be described by the coefficient of the relative content of the reinforcing material RCRM = X/B, where X is the percent content of the reinforcing phase in the composite after the joining process, and B is the percent content of

  2. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM METAL BY CARBON REDUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, R.B.; Powers, R.M.; Blaber, O.J.

    1959-09-22

    The preparation of uranium metal by the carbon reduction of an oxide of uranium is described. In a preferred embodiment of the invention a charge composed of carbon and uranium oxide is heated to a solid mass after which it is further heated under vacuum to a temperature of about 2000 deg C to produce a fused uranium metal. Slowly ccoling the fused mass produces a dendritic structure of uranium carbide in uranium metal. Reacting the solidified charge with deionized water hydrolyzes the uranium carbide to finely divide uranium dioxide which can be separated from the coarser uranium metal by ordinary filtration methods.

  3. Additive Manufacturing and Characterization of Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composites Containing Metal Reinforcements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuentz, Lily; Salem, Anton; Singh, M.; Halbig, M. C.; Salem, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing of polymeric systems using 3D printing has become quite popular recently due to rapid growth and availability of low cost and open source 3D printers. Two widely used 3D printing filaments are based on polylactic acid (PLA) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) systems. PLA is much more environmentally friendly in comparison to ABS since it is made from renewable resources such as corn, sugarcane, and other starches as precursors. Recently, polylactic acid-based metal powder containing composite filaments have emerged which could be utilized for multifunctional applications. The composite filaments have higher density than pure PLA, and the majority of the materials volume is made up of polylactic acid. In order to utilize functionalities of composite filaments, printing behavior and properties of 3-D printed composites need to be characterized and compared with the pure PLA materials. In this study, pure PLA and composite specimens with different metallic reinforcements (Copper, Bronze, Tungsten, Iron, etc) were 3D printed at various layer heights and resulting microstructures and properties were characterized. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) behavior of filaments with different reinforcements were studied. The microscopy results show an increase in porosity between 3-D printed regular PLA and the metal composite PLA samples, which could produce weaker mechanical properties in the metal composite materials. Tensile strength and fracture toughness behavior of specimens as a function of print layer height will be presented.

  4. Gasification of carbon deposits on catalysts and metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, J L

    1986-10-01

    'Coke' deposited on catalysts and reactor surfaces includes a variety of carbons of different structures and origins, their reactivities being conveniently assessed by Temperature Programmed Reaction (TPR). The gasification of carbon deposits obtained in the laboratory under well controlled conditions, and the regeneration of coked catalysts from petroleum refining processes are reviewed and discussed. Filamentary carbon deposits, containing dispersed metal particles, behave as supported metal catalysts during gasification, and show high reactivities. Pyrolytic and acid catalysis carbons are less reactive on their own, as the gasification is not catalysed; however, metal components of the catalyst or metal impurities deposited on the surface may enhance gasification. 26 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Regeneration of sulfated metal oxides and carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubble, Bill R.; Siegel, Stanley; Cunningham, Paul T.

    1978-03-28

    Alkali metal or alkaline earth metal carbonates such as calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate found in dolomite or limestone are employed for removal of sulfur dioxide from combustion exhaust gases. The sulfated carbonates are regenerated to oxides through use of a solid-solid reaction, particularly calcium sulfide with calcium sulfate to form calcium oxide and sulfur dioxide gas. The regeneration is performed by contacting the sulfated material with a reductant gas such as hydrogen within an inert diluent to produce calcium sulfide in mixture with the sulfate under process conditions selected to permit the sulfide-sulfate, solid-state reaction to occur.

  6. Electrical conductivity of short carbon fibers and carbon black-reinforced chloroprene rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoshniat, A. R.; MirAli, M.; Hemmati, M.; Afshar Taromi, F.; Katbab, A.

    2002-01-01

    Elastomers and plastics are intrinsically insulating materials, but by addition of some conductive particles such as conductive carbon black, carbon fibers and metals, they can change to conductive form. Conductivity of these composites are due to formation of the lattices of conductive filler particles in polymer chains. In this report, conductivity of chloroprene rubber filled with carbon black and carbon fibers as a function of temperature and pressure are studied. Electrical conductivity of chloroprene in a function of temperature and pressure are studied. Electrical conductivity of chloroprene in the presence of carbon black with proper mixing conditions increases to the conductivity level of semiconductors and even in the presence of carbon fibers it increases to the level of a conductor material. Meanwhile, the sensitivity of this compound to heat and pressure rises. Thus these composites have found various applications in the manufacture of heat and pressure sensitive sensors

  7. Interaction of alkali metal nitrates with calcium carbonate and kyanite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protsyuk, A.P.; Malakhov, A.I.; Karabanov, V.P.; Lebedeva, L.P.

    1978-01-01

    Thermographic, thermodynamic and X-ray phase studies have been made into the interaction of alkali metal nitrates with calcium carbonate and kyanite. Examined among other things was the effect of water vapor and carbon dioxide on the interaction between alkali metal nitrates and kyanite. The chemical mechanism of the occurring processes has been established. The interaction with calcium carbonates results in the formation of alkali metal carbonates and calcium oxide with liberation of nitrogen oxide and oxygen. The products of the interaction with kyanite are shown to be identical with the compounds forming when alkali metal carbonates are used

  8. Overall mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced metal matrix composites for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, J.H.; Bolt, H.

    2002-01-01

    The high-temperature strength and creep properties are among the crucial criteria for the structural materials of plasma facing components (PFC) of fusion reactors, as they will be subjected to severe thermal stresses. The fiber-reinforced metal matrix composites are a potential heat sink material for the PFC application, since the combination of different material properties can lead to versatile performances. In this article, the overall mechanical properties of two model composites based on theoretical predictions are presented. The matrix materials considered were a precipitation hardened CuCrZr alloy and reduced activation martensitic steel 'Eurofer'. Continuous SiC fibers were used for the reinforcement. The results demonstrate that yield stress, ultimate tensile strength, work hardening rate and creep resistance could be extensively improved by the fiber reinforcement up to fiber content of 40 vol.%. The influence of the residual stresses on the plastic behavior of the composites is also discussed

  9. Effect of Thermal Cycling on the Tensile Behavior of Polymer Composites Reinforced by Basalt and Carbon Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, S. Mohammad Reza; Najafi, Moslem; Eslami-Farsani, Reza

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of thermal cycling on the tensile behavior of three types of polymer-matrix composites — a phenolic resin reinforced with woven basalt fibers, woven carbon fibers, and hybrid basalt and carbon fibers — in an ambient environment. For this purpose, tensile tests were performed on specimens previously subjected to a certain number of thermal cycles. The ultimate tensile strength of the specimen reinforced with woven basalt fibers had by 5% after thermal cycling, but the strength of the specimen with woven carbon fibers had reduced to a value by 11% higher than that before thermal cycling.

  10. Mechanical properties of sheet metal components with local reinforcement produced by additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünsal, Ismail; Hama-Saleh, R.; Sviridov, Alexander; Bambach, Markus; Weisheit, A.; Schleifenbaum, J. H.

    2018-05-01

    New technological challenges like electro-mobility pose an increasing demand for cost-efficient processes for the production of product variants. This demand opens the possibility to combine established die-based manufacturing methods and innovative, dieless technologies like additive manufacturing [1, 2]. In this context, additive manufacturing technologies allow for the weight-efficient local reinforcement of parts before and after forming, enabling manufacturers to produce product variants from series parts [3]. Previous work by the authors shows that the optimal shape of the reinforcing structure can be determined using sizing optimization. Sheet metal parts can then be reinforced using laser metal deposition. The material used is a pearlite-reduced, micro-alloyed steel (ZE 630). The aim of this paper is to determine the effect of the additive manufacturing process on the material behavior and the mechanical properties of the base material and the resulting composite material. The parameters of the AM process are optimized to reach similar material properties in the base material and the build-up volume. A metallographic analysis of the parts is presented, where the additive layers, the base material and also the bonding between the additive layers and the base material are analyzed. The paper shows the feasibility of the approach and details the resulting mechanical properties and performance.

  11. Laser surface treatment for enhanced titanium to carbon fiber-reinforced polymer adhesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palavra, Armin; Coelho, Bruno N.; de Hosson, Jeff Th. M.; Lima, Milton S. F.; Carvalho, Sheila M.; Costa, Adilson R.

    The adhesion between carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) and titanium parts can be improved by laser surface texturing before gluing them together. Here, a pulsed Nd:YAG laser was employed before bonding of the textured surfaces using an epoxy paste adhesive. To investigate the influence of the

  12. Cost efficient carbon fibre reinforced thermoplastics with in-situ polymerization of polyamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, T.; Akdere, M.; Röding, T.; Gries, T.; Seide, G.

    2017-10-01

    Lightweight design has gained more and more relevance over the last decades. Especially in automotive industry it is of paramount importance to reduce weight and save fuel. At the same time the demand for safety and performance increases the components’ weight. To reach a trade-off between driving comfort and efficiency new lightweight materials have to be developed. One possible solution is the usage of carbon fibre reinforced thermoplastics (CFRTP) as a lightweight substitute material. In contrast to conventional carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP), CFRTPs are cheaper and have a higher impact resistance. Furthermore they are characterized by hot forming ability, weldability and recyclability. However, the impregnation of the textile requires high pressure, because of the melted polymer’s high viscosity. A new innovative approach for CFRTP is the usage of in-situ polymerization with ɛ-caprolactam as matrix, which has a much lower viscosity and thus requires much lower pressure for impregnation and consolidation.

  13. Nanostructured carbon-metal oxide composite electrodes for supercapacitors: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Mingjia; Xiang, Chengcheng; Li, Jiangtian; Li, Ming; Wu, Nianqiang

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a review of the research progress in the carbon-metal oxide composites for supercapacitor electrodes. In the past decade, various carbon-metal oxide composite electrodes have been developed by integrating metal oxides into different carbon nanostructures including zero-dimensional carbon nanoparticles, one-dimensional nanostructures (carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers), two-dimensional nanosheets (graphene and reduced graphene oxides) as well as three-dimensional porous carbon nano-architectures. This paper has described the constituent, the structure and the properties of the carbon-metal oxide composites. An emphasis is placed on the synergistic effects of the composite on the performance of supercapacitors in terms of specific capacitance, energy density, power density, rate capability and cyclic stability. This paper has also discussed the physico-chemical processes such as charge transport, ion diffusion and redox reactions involved in supercapacitors.

  14. Nanostructured carbon-metal oxide composite electrodes for supercapacitors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Mingjia; Xiang, Chengcheng; Li, Jiangtian; Li, Ming; Wu, Nianqiang

    2013-01-07

    This paper presents a review of the research progress in the carbon-metal oxide composites for supercapacitor electrodes. In the past decade, various carbon-metal oxide composite electrodes have been developed by integrating metal oxides into different carbon nanostructures including zero-dimensional carbon nanoparticles, one-dimensional nanostructures (carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers), two-dimensional nanosheets (graphene and reduced graphene oxides) as well as three-dimensional porous carbon nano-architectures. This paper has described the constituent, the structure and the properties of the carbon-metal oxide composites. An emphasis is placed on the synergistic effects of the composite on the performance of supercapacitors in terms of specific capacitance, energy density, power density, rate capability and cyclic stability. This paper has also discussed the physico-chemical processes such as charge transport, ion diffusion and redox reactions involved in supercapacitors.

  15. Experimental Exploration of Metal Cable as Reinforcement in 3D Printed Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Freek P; Ahmed, Zeeshan Y; Jutinov, Evgeniy R; Salet, Theo A M

    2017-11-16

    The Material Deposition Method (MDM) is enjoying increasing attention as an additive method to create concrete mortar structures characterised by a high degree of form-freedom, a lack of geometrical repetition, and automated construction. Several small-scale structures have been realised around the world, or are under preparation. However, the nature of this construction method is unsuitable for conventional reinforcement methods to achieve ductile failure behaviour. Sometimes, this is solved by combining printing with conventional casting and reinforcing techniques. This study, however, explores an alternative strategy, namely to directly entrain a metal cable in the concrete filament during printing to serve as reinforcement. A device is introduced to apply the reinforcement. Several options for online reinforcement media are compared for printability. Considerations specific to the manufacturing process are discussed. Subsequently, pull-out tests on cast and printed specimens provide an initial characterisation of bond behaviour. Bending tests furthermore show the potential of this reinforcement method. The bond stress of cables in printed concrete was comparable to values reported for smooth rebar but lower than that of the same cables in cast concrete. The scatter in experimental results was high. When sufficient bond length is available, ductile failure behaviour for tension parallel to the filament direction can be achieved, even though cable slip occurs. Further improvements to the process should pave the way to achieve better post-crack resistance, as the concept in itself is feasible.

  16. Effects of Carbon Nanomaterial Reinforcement on Composite Joints Under Cyclic and Impact Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    prepreg . 2 Figure 1. Composite decks on DDG1000. (From [3]) Figure 2. USV built from nanotube-reinforced carbon fiber composites. (From [2...been proven that the infusion of CNTs enhances the strength and fracture toughness of CFRP laminates under static loading (mode I and mode II...Kostopoulos et al. [5] investigated the influence of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the impact and after-impact behavior of CFRP laminates

  17. Process for the manufacture of seamless metal-clad fiber-reinforced organic matrix composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluck, Raymond M. (Inventor); Bush, Harold G. (Inventor); Johnson, Robert R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A process for producing seamless metal-clad composite structures includes providing a hollow, metallic inner member and an outer sleeve to surround the inner member and define an inner space therebetween. A plurality of continuous reinforcing fibers is attached to the distal end of the outside diameter of the inner member, and the inner member is then introduced, distal end first, into one end of the outer sleeve. The inner member is then moved, distal end first, into the outer sleeve until the inner member is completely enveloped by the outer sleeve. A liquid matrix material is then injected into the space containing the reinforcing fibers between the inner member and the outer sleeve. Next a pressurized heat transfer medium is passed through the inner member to cure the liquid matrix material. Finally, the wall thickness of both the inner member and the outer sleeve are reduced to desired dimensions by chemical etching, which adjusts the thermal expansion coefficient of the metal-clad composite structure to a desired value.

  18. Mechanical and Electrochemical Performance of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer in Oxygen Evolution Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hua Zhu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP is recognized as a promising anode material to prevent steel corrosion in reinforced concrete. However, the electrochemical performance of CFRP itself is unclear. This paper focuses on the understanding of electrochemical and mechanical properties of CFRP in an oxygen evolution environment by conducting accelerated polarization tests. Different amounts of current density were applied in polarization tests with various test durations, and feeding voltage and potential were measured. Afterwards, tensile tests were carried out to investigate the failure modes for the post-polarization CFRP specimens. Results show that CFRP specimens had two typical tensile-failure modes and had a stable anodic performance in an oxygen evolution environment. As such, CFRP can be potentially used as an anode material for impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP of reinforced concrete structures, besides the fact that CFRP can strengthen the structural properties of reinforced concrete.

  19. Toxicity effects on metal sequestration by microbially-induced carbonate precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugwar, Ahmed J. [Cardiff School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Queen’s Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); College of Engineering, Al-Muthanna University, Samawah (Iraq); Harbottle, Michael J., E-mail: harbottlem@cardiff.ac.uk [Cardiff School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Queen’s Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) are determined for S. pasteurii with a range of metals. • Zinc & cadmium bioprecipitation is strongly linked to microbial carbonate generation. • Lead & copper carbonate bioprecipitation is limited & abiotic processes may be significant. • Bioprecipitation allows survival at & remediation of higher metal concentrations than expected. - Abstract: Biological precipitation of metallic contaminants has been explored as a remedial technology for contaminated groundwater systems. However, metal toxicity and availability limit the activity and remedial potential of bacteria. We report the ability of a bacterium, Sporosarcina pasteurii, to remove metals in aerobic aqueous systems through carbonate formation. Its ability to survive and grow in increasingly concentrated aqueous solutions of zinc, cadmium, lead and copper is explored, with and without a metal precipitation mechanism. In the presence of metal ions alone, bacterial growth was inhibited at a range of concentrations depending on the metal. Microbial activity in a urea-amended medium caused carbonate ion generation and pH elevation, providing conditions suitable for calcium carbonate bioprecipitation, and consequent removal of metal ions. Elevation of pH and calcium precipitation are shown to be strongly linked to removal of zinc and cadmium, but only partially linked to removal of lead and copper. The dependence of these effects on interactions between the respective metal and precipitated calcium carbonate are discussed. Finally, it is shown that the bacterium operates at higher metal concentrations in the presence of the urea-amended medium, suggesting that the metal removal mechanism offers a defence against metal toxicity.

  20. Fabrication of novel fiber reinforced aluminum composites by friction stir processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arab, Seyyed Mohammad; Karimi, Saeed; Jahromi, Seyyed Ahmad Jenabali, E-mail: jahromi@shirazu.ac.ir; Javadpour, Sirus; Zebarjad, Seyyed Mojtaba

    2015-04-24

    In this study, chopped and attrition milled high strength carbon, E-glass, and S-glass fibers have been used as the reinforcing agents in an aluminum alloy (Al1100) considered as the matrix. The Surface Metal Matrix Composites (SMMCs) then are produced by Friction Stir Processing (FSP). Tensile and micro-hardness examinations represent a magnificent improvement in the hardness, strength, ductility and toughness for all of the processed samples. Scanning Electron Micrographs reveal a proper distribution of the reinforcements in the matrix and a change in the fracture behavior of the FSPed specimens. The synergetic effects of reinforcing by fibers and Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD) lead to an extra ordinary improvement in the mechanical properties.

  1. Reinforcing method for reinforced concrete structures by using carbon fibers; Tanso sen`i ni yoru tekkin concrete kozobutsu no hokyo koho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T.; Taniki, K. [Mitsubishi Kasei Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kojima, N.; Kimura, K.; Katsumata, H. [Obayashi Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1994-08-15

    This paper describes the development of a reinforcing method for reinforced concrete (hereinafter RC) structures by using carbon fibers (hereinafter CF). This developed method attaches a light-weight CFUD prepreg material for reinforcement by laterally winding CF strand impregnated with epoxy resin, which is hardened under normal temperature. This method is economical because no skills and special tools are required. An RC pillar with circular cross section and a hollow RC test body assuming a chimney were used as models. The paper details the experiment. This method has been used in several ten existing RC stacks with effective reinforcing result. Resistance strengths of CF strands and UD prepregs were verified in an accelerated exposure test performed according to JIS A 1415, standard for plastic building materials. The effects of the anti-seismic reinforcement have resulted in improvement in shear resistance force in RC pillars by means of CF winding method, improvement in bending stress in RC structures as a result of CF attaching method, and effectiveness in repair of existing RC stacks. Sufficient exposure resistance has also been proved. A bending test by means of two-point concentrated loading has been performed as a weighted test. 4 figs.

  2. Carbon fibre as a composites materials precursor-A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, A.F.; Yusof, N.; Mustafa, A.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon fibers are widely used as reinforcement in composite materials such as carbon fiber reinforced plastics, carbon fiber reinforced ceramics, carbon-carbon composites and carbon fiber reinforced metals, due to their high specific strength and modulus. Carbon fiber composites are ideally suited to applications where strength, stiffness, lower weight and outstanding fatigue characteristics are critical requirements. Generally, there are two main sectors of carbon fiber applications. Application of carbon fiber in high technology sectors includes aerospace and nuclear engineering whereby the use of carbon fiber is driven by maximum performance and not significantly influenced by cost factors. Meanwhile, the application in general engineering and transportations sector is dominated by cost constraints. Carbon fibers used in composites are often coated or surface treated to improve interaction between the fiber surface and the matrix. PAN/ CNT composite fibers are good candidates for the development of next generation carbon fibers with improved tensile strength and modulus while retaining its compressive strength. This paper aims at reviewing and critically discussing the fabrication aspects of carbon fiber for composites which can be divided into several sections: precursor selection, spinning process, pretreatment of the precursor, pyrolysis process, and also surface treatment of the carbon fiber. The future direction of carbon fiber for composite is also briefly identified to further extend the boundary of science and technology in order to fully exploit its potential. (author)

  3. Progress in Research on Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Cementitious Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As one-dimensional (1D nanofiber, carbon nanotubes (CNTs have been widely used to improve the performance of nanocomposites due to their high strength, small dimensions, and remarkable physical properties. Progress in the field of CNTs presents a potential opportunity to enhance cementitious composites at the nanoscale. In this review, current research activities and key advances on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs reinforced cementitious composites are summarized, including the effect of MWCNTs on modulus of elasticity, porosity, fracture, and mechanical and microstructure properties of cement-based composites. The issues about the improvement mechanisms, MWCNTs dispersion methods, and the major factors affecting the mechanical properties of composites are discussed. In addition, large-scale production methods of MWCNTs and the effects of CNTs on environment and health are also summarized.

  4. Interaction of terbium group metal oxides with carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vodop'yanov, A.G.; Baranov, S.V.; Kozhevnikov, G.N.

    1990-01-01

    Mechanism of carbothermal reduction of terbium group metals from oxides is investigated using thermodynamic and kinetic analyses. Interaction of metal oxides with carbon covers dissociation of metal oxides and reduction by carbon monoxide, which contribution into general reduction depends on CO pressure. Temperatures of reaction beginning for batch initial components at P=1.3x10 -4 and P CO =0.1 MPa and of formation of oxycarbide melts are determined

  5. Interfacial fracture of the fibre-metal laminates based on fibre reinforced thermoplastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, M.R.; Prawoto, Y.; Cantwell, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    As the adhesion quality plays an important role in determining the mechanical performance and environmental stability of most types of fibre-metal laminates (FMLs), investigating the interfacial fracture properties becomes one of the key factors for the improvement. Adhesion of a self-reinforced polypropylene (SRPP) and glass fibre reinforced polypropylene (GFPP) based FML is evaluated experimentally. Single Cantilever Beam (SCB) tests were performed to access interfacial fracture energy (G c ) of the bi-material laminates and their associated interlayer materials. Simulations mimicking the experiments were also performed. The energy needed to fracture was obtained experimentally and also via stress intensity factor from the simulations. The test results show that good adhesion between the aluminium and fibre reinforced thermoplastics can be achieved using a sulphuric acid anodising surface pre-treatment. Further examination has shown that the edges of the test samples highlighted the presence of significant fibre bridging in the SRPP and plastics deformation in the GFPP. - Highlights: • Adhesion of a self-reinforced polypropylene and glass fibre reinforced polypropylene is evaluated. • Single Cantilever Beam tests were performed to access interfacial fracture energy. • The energy needed to fracture was obtained experimentally and also via stress intensity factor from the simulations. • The test results show that best adhesion is achieved using a sulphuric acid anodizing surface pre-treatment

  6. Thermal characteristics of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-woo; Park, Soo-Jeong; Kim, Yun-hae; Riichi-Murakami

    2018-06-01

    The material with irregular atomic structures such as polymer material exhibits low thermal conductivity because of the complex structural properties. Even materials with same atomic configurations, thermal conductivity may be different based on their structural properties. It is expected that nanoparticles with conductivity will change non-conductive polymer base materials to electrical conductors, and improve the thermal conductivity even with extremely small filling amount. Nano-composite materials contain nanoparticles with a higher surface ratio which makes the higher interface percentage to the total surface of nanoparticles. Therefore, thermal resistance of the interface becomes a dominating factor determines the effective thermal conductivity in nano-composite materials. Carbon fiber has characteristic of resistance or magnetic induction and Also, Carbon nanotube (CNT) has electronic and thermal property. It can be applied for heating system. These characteristic are used as heating composite. In this research, the exothermic characteristics of Carbon fiber reinforced composite added CNT were evaluated depend on CNT length and particle size. It was found that the CNT dispersed in the resin reduces the resistance between the interfaces due to the decrease in the total resistance of the heating element due to the addition of CNTs. It is expected to improve the life and performance of the carbon fiber composite material as a result of the heating element resulting from this paper.

  7. A study of tribological behaviors of the phenolic composite coating reinforced with carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Haojie; Zhang Zhaozhu; Luo Zhuangzhu

    2007-01-01

    The nitric acid treatment was used as a method to bind acidic oxygen functional groups on carbon fiber surfaces, thereafter these fibers (CFO) and unmodified carbon fibers (CF) were incorporated into the phenolic composite coating for wear investigations. Surface analyses of the carbon fibers before and after treatments were performed by FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS). Tribological behaviors of carbon fibers filled phenolic coatings were investigated using a ring on block wear tests under dry friction condition, and the worn surfaces and the transfer films formed on the surface of counterpart ring were, respectively, studied by SEM and optical microscope. The results show that the additions of carbon fibers were able to reduce the friction coefficient of the phenolic coating and enhance the wear life of it, especially, the wear life of the phenolic coating was the best when content of carbon fibers is at 10 wt.%. Moreover, we found that the friction and wear behaviors of the phenolic coating reinforced with 10 wt.% CFO were better than those of the coating reinforced with 10 wt.% CF. FTIR and XPS analyses indicated that the oxygen functional groups, such as -OH, O-C=O, C=O, and C-O, were attached on the carbon fiber surfaces after the oxidated treatment. In both cases, appropriate treatments could effectively improve the mechanical and tribological properties in the phenolic composite coating due to the enhanced fiber-matrix interfacial bonding

  8. In situ carbon nanotube reinforcements in a plasma-sprayed aluminum oxide nanocomposite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balani, K.; Zhang, T.; Karakoti, A.; Li, W.Z.; Seal, S.; Agarwal, A.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are potential reinforcements for toughening the ceramic matrix. The critical issue of avoiding CNT agglomeration and introducing CNT-matrix anchoring has challenged many researchers to improve the mechanical properties of the CNT reinforced nanocomposite. In the current work, dispersed CNTs are grown on Al 2 O 3 powder particles in situ by the catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) technique. Consequently, 0.5 wt.% CNT-reinforced Al 2 O 3 particles were successfully plasma sprayed to obtain a 400 μm thick coating on the steel substrate. In situ CNTs grown on Al 2 O 3 shows a promising enhancement in hardness and fracture toughness of the plasma-sprayed coating attributed to the existence of strong metallurgical bonding between Al 2 O 3 particles and CNTs. In addition, CNT tentacles have imparted multi-directional reinforcement in securing the Al 2 O 3 splats. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy shows interfacial fusion between Al 2 O 3 and CNT and the formation of Y-junction nanotubes

  9. Development of carbon nanotubes reinforced hydroxyapatite composite coatings on titanium by electrodeposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopi, D.; Shinyjoy, E.; Sekar, M.; Surendiran, M.; Kavitha, L.; Sampath Kumar, T.S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Successful development of CNTs reinforced HAP coating on Ti by electrodeposition. •CNTs as a reinforcing material imparts strength and toughness to HAP. •Incorporating CNTs improves crystallinity, morphology, biological properties of HAP. •CNTs–HAP coating on Ti is bioresistive, better candidate for implant applications. -- Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are outstanding reinforcement material for imparting strength and toughness to brittle hydroxyapatite (HAP). This work reports the electrodeposition of CNTs reinforced HAP on titanium substrate at −1.4 V vs. SCE during 30 min with the functionalised CNTs concentration ranging from 0 to 2 wt.%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), mechanical and biological studies were used to characterise the coatings. Also, the corrosion resistance of the coatings was evaluated by electrochemical techniques in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution

  10. Nonlocal plasticity effects on fibre debonding in a whisker-reinforced metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2002-01-01

    Numerical cell-model analyses for the matrix-fibre debonding in a metal matrix composite are used to study the effect of a characteristic material length in the plasticity description of the matrix material deformations. Characteristic material lengths are already present in the model problem...... in the problem. The nonlocal plasticity effect tends to increase the stress level at a given overall strain, which clearly tends to promote the onset of debonding......., in the form of fibre sizes and the length associated with the debonding process, so the nonlocal plasticity model brings in an additional material length. The analyses for metal reinforced by aligned short fibres are used to obtain an understanding of the interaction of the different length scales...

  11. Multiply fully recyclable carbon fibre reinforced heat-resistant covalent thermosetting advanced composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yanchao; Sun, Yanxiao; Yan, Shijing; Zhao, Jianqing; Liu, Shumei; Zhang, Mingqiu; Zheng, Xiaoxing; Jia, Lei

    2017-03-02

    Nondestructive retrieval of expensive carbon fibres (CFs) from CF-reinforced thermosetting advanced composites widely applied in high-tech fields has remained inaccessible as the harsh conditions required to recycle high-performance resin matrices unavoidably damage the structure and properties of CFs. Degradable thermosetting resins with stable covalent structures offer a potential solution to this conflict. Here we design a new synthesis scheme and prepare a recyclable CF-reinforced poly(hexahydrotriazine) resin matrix advanced composite. The multiple recycling experiments and characterization data establish that this composite demonstrates performance comparable to those of its commercial counterparts, and more importantly, it realizes multiple intact recoveries of CFs and near-total recycling of the principal raw materials through gentle depolymerization in certain dilute acid solution. To our best knowledge, this study demonstrates for the first time a feasible and environment-friendly preparation-recycle-regeneration strategy for multiple CF-recycling from CF-reinforced advanced composites.

  12. Analysis and Tests of Reinforced Carbon-Epoxy/Foam-Core Sandwich Panels with Cutouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Donald J.; Rogers, Charles

    1996-01-01

    The results of a study of a low-cost structurally efficient minimum-gage shear-panel design that can be used in light helicopters are presented. The shear-panel design is based on an integrally stiffened syntactic-foam stabilized-skin with an all-bias-ply tape construction for stabilized-skin concept with an all-bias-ply tape construction for the skins. This sandwich concept is an economical way to increase the panel bending stiffness weight penalty. The panels considered in the study were designed to be buckling resistant up to 100 lbs/in. of shear load and to have an ultimate strength of 300 lbs/in. The panel concept uses unidirectional carbon-epoxy tape on a syntactic adhesive as a stiffener that is co-cured with the skin and is an effective concept for improving panel buckling strength. The panel concept also uses pultruded carbon-epoxy rods embedded in a syntactic adhesive and over-wrapped with a bias-ply carbon-epoxy tape to form a reinforcing beam which is an effective method for redistributing load around rectangular cutout. The buckling strength of the reinforced panels is 83 to 90 percent of the predicted buckling strength based on a linear buckling analysis. The maximum experimental deflection exceeds the maximum deflection predicted by a nonlinear analysis by approximately one panel thickness. The failure strength of the reinforced panels was two and a half to seven times of the buckling strength. This efficient shear-panel design concept exceeds the required ultimate strength requirement of 300 lbs/in by more than 100 percent.

  13. Plasma cleaning and the removal of carbon from metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    In an investigation of the plasma cleaning of metals and the plasma etching of carbon, a mass spectrometer was used as a sensitive process monitor. CO 2 produced by the plasma oxidation of carbon films or of organic contamination and occluded carbon at the surfaces of metals proved to be the most suitable gas to monitor. A good correlation was obtained between the measured etch rate of carbon and the resulting CO 2 partial pressure monitored continuously with the mass spectrometer. The rate of etching of carbon in an oxygen-argon plasma at 0.1 Torr was high when the carbon was at cathode potential and low when it was electrically isolated in the plasma, thus confirming the findings of previous workers and indicating the importance of ion bombardment in the etching process. Superficial organic contamination on the surfaces of the metals aluminium and copper and of the alloy Inconel 625 was quickly removed by the oxygen-argon plasma when the metal was electrically isolated and also when it was at cathode potential. Occluded carbon (or carbides) at or near the surfaces of the metals was removed slowly and only when the metal was at cathode potential, thus illustrating again the importance of ion bombardment. (Auth.)

  14. Online Structural-Health Monitoring of Glass Fiber-Reinforced Thermoplastics Using Different Carbon Allotropes in the Interphase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Thomas Müller

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available An electromechanical response behavior is realized by nanostructuring the glass fiber interphase with different highly electrically conductive carbon allotropes like carbon nanotubes (CNT, graphene nanoplatelets (GNP, or conductive carbon black (CB. The operational capability of these multifunctional glass fibers for an online structural-health monitoring is demonstrated in endless glass fiber-reinforced polypropylene. The electromechanical response behavior, during a static or dynamic three-point bending test of various carbon modifications, shows qualitative differences in the signal quality and sensitivity due to the different aspect ratios of the nanoparticles and the associated electrically conductive network densities in the interphase. Depending on the embedding position within the glass fiber-reinforced composite compression, shear and tension loadings of the fibers can be distinguished by different characteristics of the corresponding electrical signal. The occurrence of irreversible signal changes during the dynamic loading can be attributed to filler reorientation processes caused by polymer creeping or by destruction of electrically conductive paths by cracks in the glass fiber interphase.

  15. Metal Dusting: Catastrophic Corrosion by Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, David J.; Zhang, Jianqiang

    2012-12-01

    Reducing gases rich in carbon-bearing species such as CO can be supersaturated with respect to graphite at intermediate temperatures of about 400-700°C. Engineering alloys such as low-alloy and stainless steels, and heat-resisting iron-, nickel-, and cobalt-base alloys catalyze gas processes that release the carbon. An understanding of how the resulting carbon deposition can destroy alloys at a catastrophically rapid rate has been the objective of a great deal of research. The current review of recent work on metal dusting covers the mass transfer—principally carbon diffusion—and graphite nucleation processes involved. A clear distinction emerges between ferritic alloys, which form cementite and precipitate graphite within that carbide, and austenitics that nucleate graphite directly within the metal. The latter process is facilitated by the strong orientation relationship between the graphite and face-centered cubic (fcc) lattices. Strategies for the control of dusting are briefly outlined.

  16. PROPERTIES OF NR AND NR/ENR BASED RUBBER COMPOUNDS REINFORCED WITH CHOPPED AND SIZED CARBON FIBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bağdagül Karaağaç

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available High elasticity, mechanical resistance and antivibration characteristics of natural rubber (NR are essential issue in the main area of vehicle tyres and high modulus demanding bearing applications. In this study, especially in bearing applications, where natural rubber modulus properties are limited, natural rubber has been reinforced with chopped and hydrocarbon sized carbon fiber to get improved tensile modulus. Besides, epoxidized natural rubber (ENR, which was produced by chemical modification of natural rubber, blended with NR and the compounds have been reinforced with epoxy sized carbon fiber. NR and NR/ENR based rubber compounds’ rheological, mechanical, and aging properties have been systematically investigated and evaluated.

  17. Effect of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes on the Mechanical Properties of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polyamide-6/Polypropylene Composites for Lightweight Automotive Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huu-Duc Nguyen-Tran

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of lightweight automotive parts is an important issue for improving the efficiency of vehicles. Polymer composites have been widely applied to reduce weight and improve mechanical properties by mixing polymers with carbon fibers, glass fibers, and carbon nanotubes. Polypropylene (PP has been added to carbon fiber-reinforced nylon-6 (CF/PA6 composite to achieve further weight reduction and water resistance. However, the mechanical properties were reduced by the addition of PP. In this research, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs were added to compensate for the reduced mechanical properties experienced when adding PP. Tensile testing and bending tests were carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties. A small amount of CNTs improved the mechanical properties of carbon fiber-reinforced PA6/PP composites. For example, the density of CF/PA6 was reduced from 1.214 to 1.131 g/cm3 (6.8% by adding 30 wt % PP, and the tensile strength of 30 wt % PP composite was improved from 168 to 173 MPa (3.0% by adding 0.5 wt % CNTs with small increase of density (1.135 g/cm3. The developed composite will be widely used for lightweight automotive parts with improved mechanical properties.

  18. Analysis of the strength and stiffness of timber beams reinforced with carbon fiber and glass fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Fiorelli

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available An experimental analysis of pinewood beams (Pinus caribea var hondurensis reinforced with glass and/or carbon fibers is discussed. The theoretical model employed to calculate the beam's bending strength takes into account the timber's ultimate limit states of tensile strength and failure by compression, considering a model of fragile elastic tension and plastic elastic compression. The validity of the theoretical model is confirmed by a comparison of the theoretical and experimental results, while the efficiency of the fiber reinforcement is corroborated by the increased strength and stiffness of the reinforced timber beams.

  19. Electrical and Mechanical Performance of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Used as the Impressed Current Anode Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ji-Hua; Zhu, Miaochang; Han, Ningxu; Liu, Wei; Xing, Feng

    2014-07-24

    An investigation was performed by using carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) as the anode material in the impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) system of steel reinforced concrete structures. The service life and performance of CFRP were investigated in simulated ICCP systems with various configurations. Constant current densities were maintained during the tests. No significant degradation in electrical and mechanical properties was found for CFRP subjected to anodic polarization with the selected applied current densities. The service life of the CFRP-based ICCP system was discussed based on the practical reinforced concrete structure layout.

  20. Change in the structure and properties of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic with a polysulfone matrix under the effect of gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, A.A.; Korkhov, V.P.; Pudnik, V.V.; Rodin, Yu.P.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents the results of studying the change in the structure and properties of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic with a thermoplastic matrix -- aromatic polysulfone -- as a function of the absorbed dose of gamma radiation. In view of the presence in the polysulfone macromolecules and in carbon fibers of a large number of aromatic rings and double bonds providing high radiation resistance of the composite, irradiation was carried out up to large values of absorbed doses (10 9 rad). Specimens of orthogonally reinforced composite KTMU-1 with a thickness of 1.3 mm made from aromatic polysulfone PSF-150 and carbon ribbon that absorbed various gamma radiation dosages were used. It was found that structural transformations under the effect of gamma radiation did not have a substantial effect on the mechanical properties of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic. 2 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Designing of epoxy composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes grown carbon fiber fabric for improved electromagnetic interference shielding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Singh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, we report preparation of strongly anchored multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs carbon fiber (CF fabric preforms. These preforms were reinforced in epoxy resin to make multi scale composites for microwave absorption in the X-band (8.2-12.4GHz. The incorporation of MWCNTs on the carbon fabric produced a significant enhancement in the electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI-SE from −29.4 dB for CF/epoxy-composite to −51.1 dB for CF-MWCNT/epoxy multiscale composites of 2 mm thickness. In addition to enhanced EMI-SE, interlaminar shear strength improved from 23 MPa for CF/epoxy-composites to 50 MPa for multiscale composites indicating their usefulness for making structurally strong microwave shields.

  2. Low-weight Impact Behaviour of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Methyl Methacrylate Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginija Jankauskaitė

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Inthis study, the carbon fibre reinforced methyl methacrylate (CF/MMA compositetoecap for safety shoes was manufactured to increase the energy absorptioncapacity during impact. Different types of nanofillers such as organic andinorganic nanotubes, unmodified and organically modified nanoclays were appliedto modify matrix impact properties. The drop-weight impact tests of thenanocomposite toecap were performed with respect to nanofiller nature andcarbon fibre stacking sequence. It was found that the most influence on thestiffness and impact damage of the carbon fibre methyl methacrylatenanocomposite toecaps besides stacking sequence show organic and inorganic nanotubesor unmodified nanoclay.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.2.7075

  3. Monitoring of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Old Timber Beams via Strain and Multiresonant Acoustic Emission Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Rescalvo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the monitoring of old timber beams with natural defects (knots, grain deviations, fissures and wanes, reinforced using carbon composite materials (CFRP. Reinforcement consisted of the combination of a CFRP laminate strip and a carbon fabric discontinuously wrapping the timber element. Monitoring considered the use and comparison of two types of sensors: strain gauges and multi-resonant acoustic emission (AE sensors. Results demonstrate that: (1 the mechanical behavior of the beams can be considerably improved by means of the use of CFRP (160% in bending load capacity and 90% in stiffness; (2 Acoustic emission sensors provide comparable information to strain gauges. This fact points to the great potential of AE techniques for in-service damage assessment in real wood structures.

  4. Monitoring of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Old Timber Beams via Strain and Multiresonant Acoustic Emission Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescalvo, Francisco J; Valverde-Palacios, Ignacio; Suarez, Elisabet; Roldán, Andrés; Gallego, Antolino

    2018-04-17

    This paper proposes the monitoring of old timber beams with natural defects (knots, grain deviations, fissures and wanes), reinforced using carbon composite materials (CFRP). Reinforcement consisted of the combination of a CFRP laminate strip and a carbon fabric discontinuously wrapping the timber element. Monitoring considered the use and comparison of two types of sensors: strain gauges and multi-resonant acoustic emission (AE) sensors. Results demonstrate that: (1) the mechanical behavior of the beams can be considerably improved by means of the use of CFRP (160% in bending load capacity and 90% in stiffness); (2) Acoustic emission sensors provide comparable information to strain gauges. This fact points to the great potential of AE techniques for in-service damage assessment in real wood structures.

  5. Tribological behavior of the carbon fiber reinforced polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) composite coating under dry sliding and water lubrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Haiyan; Feng Zhizhong; Chen Jianmin; Zhou Huidi

    2006-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced polyphenylene sulphide (PPS) composite coatings (the mass fraction of the carbon fiber varied from 1 to 5 wt%) were prepared by flame spraying. The microstructure and physical properties of the composite coating were studied. The friction and wear characteristics of the PPS coating and carbon fiber reinforced PPS composite coating under dry- and water-lubricated sliding against stainless steel were comparatively investigated using a block-ring tester. The composite coatings showed lower friction coefficient and higher wear rate than pure PPS coatings under dry sliding. Under water-lubricated condition, the composite coatings showed better wear resistance than under dry. Under water-lubricated condition the tribological behaviors of the 3 wt% carbon fiber reinforced composite coating also were investigated under different sliding speed and load. The result showed that the sliding speed had little effect on the tribological properties, but the load affected greatly on that of the composite coatings. The morphologies of the worn surfaces of the composite coatings and the counterpart steel were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), coupled with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) for compositional analysis

  6. Biomimetic synthesis and morphological control of metal carbonates at the air/solution interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Shichoon; Cho, Kilwon; Son, Younggon

    2012-01-01

    Biomimetic approaches can provide a means of fabricating nanostructured materials under environmentally benign conditions. In this paper, we synthesized metal carbonate films, such as calcite, strontianite, malachite, and hydrozincite films, at the air-solution interface of solutions containing corresponding metal ions by using inflowing CO 2 from the atmosphere. The addition of acidic polymers, fulfilling the role of an acidic protein in biomineralization, provided CaCO 3 nanofibers, SrCO 3 nanofibers oriented in a specific direction, and copper carbonate and zinc carbonate hydroxide thin films. The metal carbonates prepared in this study were used as precursors for the formation of metal oxide nanocrystals via pyrolysis. This work showed that various metal carbonates and metal oxides with nanostructures can be prepared by using atmospheric CO 2 . - Highlights: ► Biomimetic synthesis of metal carbonate nanofilms at the air/solution interface. ► The reaction between metal ions and carbonate ions derived from CO 2 in the air. ► Calcium, strontium, copper and zinc carbonates were formed. ► The morphologies of the nanofilms were controlled by adding the acidic polymer. ► Nanostructured metal oxides were prepared by pyrolysis of the metal carbonates.

  7. Strengthening of Existing Bridge Structures for Shear and Bending with Carbon Textile-Reinforced Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Herbrand

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing traffic loads and changes in code provisions lead to deficits in shear and flexural capacity of many existing highway bridges. Therefore, a large number of structures are expected to require refurbishment and strengthening in the future. This projection is based on the current condition of many older road bridges. Different strengthening methods for bridges exist to extend their service life, all having specific advantages and disadvantages. By applying a thin layer of carbon textile-reinforced mortar (CTRM to bridge deck slabs and the webs of pre-stressed concrete bridges, the fatigue and ultimate strength of these members can be increased significantly. The CTRM layer is a combination of a corrosion resistant carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP fabric and an efficient mortar. In this paper, the strengthening method and the experimental results obtained at RWTH Aachen University are presented.

  8. A coupled carbonation-rust formation mechanical damage model for steel corrosion in reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Huyen; Bary, B.; L'Hostis, Valerie; DeLarrard, T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting a strategy to simulate the corrosion of steel reinforcement due to carbonation of concrete in atmospheric environment. We propose a model coupling drying, carbonation, diffusion of oxygen, formation of rust and mechanics to describe these phenomena. The rust layer is assumed to be composed of two sub-layers with different elastic modulus. An unstable layer with a low modulus (from 0.1 to 5 GPa) is located next to the transformed medium, and another more stable one with a higher modulus (from 100 to 150 GPa) at the interface with steel reinforcement. This model is applied to a numerical meso-structure composed of 4 phases: mortar matrix, randomly distributed aggregates, steel rebar and rust layers to underline the effect of aggregates on damage initiation and corresponding crack pattern of concrete cover. (authors)

  9. Strengthening of Existing Bridge Structures for Shear and Bending with Carbon Textile-Reinforced Mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbrand, Martin; Adam, Viviane; Classen, Martin; Kueres, Dominik; Hegger, Josef

    2017-09-19

    Increasing traffic loads and changes in code provisions lead to deficits in shear and flexural capacity of many existing highway bridges. Therefore, a large number of structures are expected to require refurbishment and strengthening in the future. This projection is based on the current condition of many older road bridges. Different strengthening methods for bridges exist to extend their service life, all having specific advantages and disadvantages. By applying a thin layer of carbon textile-reinforced mortar (CTRM) to bridge deck slabs and the webs of pre-stressed concrete bridges, the fatigue and ultimate strength of these members can be increased significantly. The CTRM layer is a combination of a corrosion resistant carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) fabric and an efficient mortar. In this paper, the strengthening method and the experimental results obtained at RWTH Aachen University are presented.

  10. Preparation of carbon-free TEM microgrids by metal sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janbroers, S.; Kruijff, T.R. de; Xu, Q.; Kooyman, P.J.; Zandbergen, H.W.

    2009-01-01

    A new method for preparing carbon-free, temperature-stable Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) grids is presented. An 80% Au/20% Pd metal film is deposited onto a 'holey' microgrid carbon supported on standard mixed-mesh Au TEM grids. Subsequently, the carbon film is selectively removed using plasma cleaning. In this way, an all-metal TEM film is made containing the 'same' microgrid as the original carbon film. Although electron transparency of the foil is reduced significantly, the open areas for TEM inspection of material over these areas are maintained. The metal foil can be prepared with various thicknesses and ensures good electrical conductivity. The new Au/Pd grids are stable to at least 775 K under vacuum conditions.

  11. Preparation of carbon-free TEM microgrids by metal sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janbroers, S; de Kruijff, T R; Xu, Q; Kooyman, P J; Zandbergen, H W

    2009-08-01

    A new method for preparing carbon-free, temperature-stable Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) grids is presented. An 80% Au/20% Pd metal film is deposited onto a 'holey' microgrid carbon supported on standard mixed-mesh Au TEM grids. Subsequently, the carbon film is selectively removed using plasma cleaning. In this way, an all-metal TEM film is made containing the 'same' microgrid as the original carbon film. Although electron transparency of the foil is reduced significantly, the open areas for TEM inspection of material over these areas are maintained. The metal foil can be prepared with various thicknesses and ensures good electrical conductivity. The new Au/Pd grids are stable to at least 775K under vacuum conditions.

  12. Effect of carbon fiber dispersion on the mechanical properties of carbon fiber-reinforced cement-based composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuang; Li Kezhi; Li Hejun; Jiao Gengsheng; Lu Jinhua; Hou Dangshe

    2008-01-01

    The preparation of carbon fiber-reinforced cement-based composites involved two-step dispersions of carbon fibers. Both steps affected greatly the mechanical properties of the composites. With the aid of ultrasonic wave, a new dispersant hydroxyethyl cellulose was used to help fiber dispersion in the first step. The fracture surface of the composites was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The distribution of major elements was analyzed by the energy dispersive spectroscopy and the composition was analyzed through X-ray diffraction. The flexural strength, tensile strength, modulus, and compression strength were measured. Results showed that the distribution of major elements varied with the variation of the fiber dispersion status. The compressive strength increased by 20%, the tensile strength was 2.4 times that of the material without carbon fibers, the modulus increased by 26.8%, whereas the flexure stress decreased by 12.9%

  13. Thermally sprayed prepregs for thixoforging of UD fiber reinforced light metal MMCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Martin; Wenzelburger, Martin; Gadow, Rainer

    2007-04-01

    Low density and good mechanical properties are the basic requirements for lightweight structures in automotive and aerospace applications. With their high specific strength and strain to failure values, aluminum alloys could be used for such applications. Only the insufficient stiffness and thermal and fatigue strength prevented their usage in high-end applications. One possibility to solve this problem is to reinforce the light metal with unidirectional fibers. The UD fiber allows tailoring of the reinforcement to meet the direction of the component's load. In this study, the production of thermally sprayed prepregs for the manufacturing of continuous fiber reinforced MMC by thixoforging is analysed. The main aim is to optimize the winding procedure, which determines the fiber strand position and tension during the coating process. A method to wind and to coat the continuous fibers with an easy-to-use handling technique for the whole manufacturing process is presented. The prepregs were manufactured by producing arc wire sprayed AlSi6 coatings on fibers bundles. First results of bending experiments showed appropriate mechanical properties.

  14. Free vibration of fully functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced graphite/epoxy laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Shih-Yao

    2018-03-01

    This study provides the first-known vibration analysis of fully functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced hybrid composite (FFG-CNTRHC) laminates. CNTs are non-uniformly distributed to reinforce the graphite/epoxy laminates. Some CNT distribution functions in the plane and thickness directions are proposed to more efficiently increase the stiffening effect. The rule of mixtures is modified by considering the non-homogeneous material properties of FFG-CNTRHC laminates. The formulation of the location dependent stiffness matrix and mass matrix is derived. The effects of CNT volume fraction and distribution on the natural frequencies of FFG-CNTRHC laminates are discussed. The results reveal that the FFG layout may significantly increase the natural frequencies of FFG-CNTRHC laminate.

  15. Micro/Nanomechanical characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes reinforced epoxy composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Peng; Wang, Xinnan; Tangpong, X W

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, the mechanical properties of 1 wt.% multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) reinforced epoxy nanocomposites were characterized using a self-designed micro/nano three point bending tester that was on an atomic force microscope (AFM) to in situ observe MWCNTs movement on the sample surface under loading. The migration of an individual MWCNT at the surface of the nanocomposite was tracked to address the nanomechanical reinforcing mechanism of the nanocomposites. Through morphology analysis of the nanocomposite via scanning electron microscopy, AFM, and digital image correlation technique, it was found that the MWCNTs agglomerate and the bundles were the main factors for limiting the bending strength of the composites. The agglomeration/bundle effect was included in the Halpin-Tsai model to account for the elastic modulus of the nanocomposites.

  16. Measurement of defects in carbon fiber reinforced polymer drilled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual Víctor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, fiber-reinforced materials are more widely used because of their good mechanical properties. It is usual to join pieces of these materials through screws and rivets, for which it is necessary to make a hole in the piece, usually by drilling. One of the problems of use CFRP resides in the appearance of defects due to the machining. The main defect to be taken into account is the delamination. Delamination implies poor tolerance when assembling parts, reducing the structural integrity of the part, and areas with high wear, as a series of stresses arise when mounting the screws. Much has been published about delamination and the factors that influence its appearance, so we are not going to focus on it. The present study aims to quantify and measure the defects associated with the drilling of compounds reinforced with carbon fibers, in relation to the cutting parameters used in each case. For this purpose, an optical measurement system and a posterior digital image processing will be used through Deltec Vision software.

  17. Mesoporous carbon incorporated metal oxide nanomaterials as supercapacitor electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Hao [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Ma, Jan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Li, Chunzhong [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2012-08-08

    Supercapacitors have attracted huge attention in recent years as they have the potential to satisfy the demand of both huge energy and power density in many advanced technologies. However, poor conductivity and cycling stability remains to be the major challenge for its widespread application. Various strategies have been developed for meeting the ever-increasing energy and power demands in supercapacitors. This Research News article aims to review recent progress in the development of mesoporous carbon incorporated metal oxide nanomaterials, especially metal oxide nanoparticles confined in ordered mesoporous carbon and 1D metal oxides coated with a layer of mesoporous carbon for high-performance supercapacitor applications. In addition, a recent trend in supercapacitor development - hierarchical porous graphitic carbons (HPGC) combining macroporous cores, mesoporous walls, and micropores as an excellent support for metal oxides - is also discussed. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Failure phenomena in fibre-reinforced composites. Part 6: a finite element study of stress concentrations in unidirectional carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, P.W.J.; Goutianos, S.; Young, R.J.; Peijs, A.A.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) finite element (FE) analysis of the stress situation around a fibre break in a unidirectional carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy composite has been performed. Two cases were considered: (i) good fibre/matrix adhesion and (ii) fibre/matrix debonding. In the case of good adhesion,

  19. Toughened microstructures for ductile phase reinforced molybdenum disilicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickard, S.M.; Ghosh, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    Various morphologies of ductile Nb refractory metal reinforcement are incorporated into a MoSi 2 matrix using powder metallurgy, including single-ply laminates, continuous metal ribbons and sections of 2-dimensional wire mesh. Hot forging techniques are used to redistribute the reinforcement and change the dimensions and the aspect ratio of the reinforcing metal ligaments. Work-of-rupture measurements are conducted on bend test specimens and precracked tensile specimens of the composite so that the toughness contribution from the various ductile metal morphologies can be assessed according to its effectiveness. Accompanying microstructural examination of crack bridging interaction with the reinforcement is conducted

  20. Digital-image-correlation-based experimental stress analysis of reinforced concrete beams strengthened using carbon composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Jeffrey; Kurtz, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    The strengthening of reinforced concrete beams through the use of epoxy-bonded carbon composites has been widely researched in the United States since 1991. Despite the widespread attention of researchers, however, there are no reliable methods of predicting the failure of the repaired and strengthened beams by peeling of the fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) material from the parent concrete. To better understand peeling failure, several investigators have presented analytical work to predict the distribution of stresses along the interface between the FRP and the concrete. Several closed-form solutions can be found in the literature to predict the levels of shear stress present between the bonded composite plate and the parent concrete beam. However, there has been very little experimental verification of these analytical predictions because few experiments on large-scale beams have had sufficient instrumentation to facilitate the comparison. Some experiments have been presented1 in which electrical resistance strain gages were placed along the length of the carbon plate in order to deduce the interfacial shear stress using first differences. This method, though very crude, demonstrated that there are substantial differences between the distributions of interfacial shear stresses in actual repaired beams versus the analytical predictions. This paper presents a new test program in which large-scale carbon-fiber-strengthened reinforced concrete beams are load-tested to failure, while employing digital image correlation (DIC) to record the strains in the carbon fiber plate. Relying on the linear elasticity of carbon fiber, the interfacial shear can be determined and compared with the analytical predictions of the literature. The focus of this paper is the presentation of the experimental shear stress distributions and comparisons of these distributions with previous results available in the literature.

  1. Poultry litter-based activated carbon for removing heavy metal ions in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingxin; Qiu, Guannan; Song, Weiping

    2010-02-01

    Utilization of poultry litter as a precursor material to manufacture activated carbon for treating heavy metal-contaminated water is a value-added strategy for recycling the organic waste. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to investigate kinetics, isotherms, and capacity of poultry litter-based activated carbon for removing heavy metal ions in water. It was revealed that poultry litter-based activated carbon possessed significantly higher adsorption affinity and capacity for heavy metals than commercial activated carbons derived from bituminous coal and coconut shell. Adsorption of metal ions onto poultry litter-based carbon was rapid and followed Sigmoidal Chapman patterns as a function of contact time. Adsorption isotherms could be described by different models such as Langmuir and Freundlich equations, depending on the metal species and the coexistence of other metal ions. Potentially 404 mmol of Cu2+, 945 mmol of Pb2+, 236 mmol of Zn2+, and 250-300 mmol of Cd2+ would be adsorbed per kg of poultry litter-derived activated carbon. Releases of nutrients and metal ions from litter-derived carbon did not pose secondary water contamination risks. The study suggests that poultry litter can be utilized as a precursor material for economically manufacturing granular activated carbon that is to be used in wastewater treatment for removing heavy metals.

  2. Microstructure changes and properties of TiC-coated carbon fiber-reinforced carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kunjie; Guo Quangui; Zhang Guobing; Shi Jingli; Zhang Hua; Liu Lang

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to study distortion of TiC crystals after thermal cycles in plasma environment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe morphology changes and penetrating cracks in TiC/C coatings. To avoid the cracks and enhance properties of coated carbon fiber-reinforced carbon (C/C) composites, TiC/C composites were prepared as buffer layer to relieve thermal stresses. Thermal cycles indicated that the buffer layer could effectively improve thermal shock resistance of pure TiC coated C/C composites. To study the reason, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results suggested that TiC particles were uniformly imbedded in pyrocarbon in the buffer layer, which was advantageous to relieve mismatch of coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) between pure TiC and C/C. Moreover, thermal conductivity tests showed that the buffer layer was in favor of transferring heat loading

  3. Electrical and Mechanical Performance of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Used as the Impressed Current Anode Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hua Zhu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was performed by using carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP as the anode material in the impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP system of steel reinforced concrete structures. The service life and performance of CFRP were investigated in simulated ICCP systems with various configurations. Constant current densities were maintained during the tests. No significant degradation in electrical and mechanical properties was found for CFRP subjected to anodic polarization with the selected applied current densities. The service life of the CFRP-based ICCP system was discussed based on the practical reinforced concrete structure layout.

  4. Heavy metal ion adsorption onto polypyrrole-impregnated porous carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Moonjung; Jang, Jyongsik

    2008-09-01

    Polypyrrole-impregnated porous carbon was readily synthesized using vapor infiltration polymerization of pyrrole monomers. The results show that the functionalized polymer layer was successfully coated onto the pore surface of carbon without collapse of mesoporous structure. The modified porous carbon exhibited an improved complexation affinity for heavy metal ions such as mercury, lead, and silver ions due to the amine group of polypyrrole. The introduced polypyrrole layer could provide the surface modification to be applied for heavy metal ion adsorbents. Especially, polymer-impregnated porous carbon has an enhanced heavy metal ion uptake, which is 20 times higher than that of adsorbents with amine functional groups. Furthermore, the relationship between the coated polymer amount and surface area was also investigated in regard to adsorption capacity.

  5. Preparation of carbon-free TEM microgrids by metal sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janbroers, S., E-mail: stephan.janbroers@albemarle.com [Albemarle Catalysts B.V., Nieuwendammerkade 1-3, 1030 BE, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands); Kruijff, T.R. de; Xu, Q. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands); Kooyman, P.J. [DelftChemTech, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 136, 2628 BL, Delft (Netherlands); Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands); Zandbergen, H.W. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-08-15

    A new method for preparing carbon-free, temperature-stable Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) grids is presented. An 80% Au/20% Pd metal film is deposited onto a 'holey' microgrid carbon supported on standard mixed-mesh Au TEM grids. Subsequently, the carbon film is selectively removed using plasma cleaning. In this way, an all-metal TEM film is made containing the 'same' microgrid as the original carbon film. Although electron transparency of the foil is reduced significantly, the open areas for TEM inspection of material over these areas are maintained. The metal foil can be prepared with various thicknesses and ensures good electrical conductivity. The new Au/Pd grids are stable to at least 775 K under vacuum conditions.

  6. Fracture resistance of metal-free composite crowns-effects of fiber reinforcement, thermal cycling, and cementation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Franziska; Eickemeyer, Grit; Rammelsberg, Peter

    2004-09-01

    The improved mechanical properties of contemporary composites have resulted in their extensive use for the restoration of posterior teeth. However, the influence of fiber reinforcement, cementation technique, and physical stress on the fracture resistance of metal-free crowns is unknown. This in vitro study evaluated the effect of fiber reinforcement, physical stress, and cementation methods on the fracture resistance of posterior metal-free Sinfony crowns. Ninety-six extracted human third molars received a standardized tooth preparation: 0.5-mm chamfer preparation and occlusal reduction of 1.3 to 1.5 mm. Sinfony (nonreinforced crowns, n=48) and Sinfony-Vectris (reinforced crowns, n=48) crowns restoring original tooth contour were prepared. Twenty-four specimens of each crown type were cemented, using either glass ionomer cement (GIC) or resin cement. Thirty-two crowns (one third) were stored in humidity for 48 hours. Another third was exposed to 10,000 thermal cycles (TC) between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C. The remaining third was treated with thermal cycling and mechanical loading (TCML), consisting of 1.2 million axial loads of 50 N. The artificial crowns were then vertically loaded with a steel sphere until failure occurred. Significant differences in fracture resistance (N) between experimental groups were assessed by nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-test (alpha=.05). Fifty percent of the Sinfony and Sinfony-Vectris crowns cemented with glass ionomer cement loosened after thermal cycling. Thermal cycling resulted in a significant reduction in the mean fracture resistance for Sinfony crowns cemented with GIC, from 2037 N to 1282 N (P=.004). Additional fatigue produced no further effects. Fiber reinforcement significantly increased fracture resistance, from 1555 N to 2326 N (P=.001). The minimal fracture resistance was above 600 N for all combinations of material, cement and loading. Fracture resistance of metal-free Sinfony crowns was significantly increased by

  7. A Comparative Study on Graphene Oxide and Carbon Nanotube Reinforcement of PMMA-Siloxane-Silica Anticorrosive Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Samarah V; Pulcinelli, Sandra H; Santilli, Celso V; Knowles, Kevin M; Hammer, Peter

    2016-06-29

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene oxide (GO) have been used to reinforce PMMA-siloxane-silica nanocomposites considered to be promising candidates for environmentally compliant anticorrosive coatings. The organic-inorganic hybrids were prepared by benzoyl peroxide (BPO)-induced polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) covalently bonded through 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (MPTS) to silica domains formed by hydrolytic condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). Single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide nanosheets were dispersed by surfactant addition and in a water/ethanol solution, respectively. These were added to PMMA-siloxane-silica hybrids at a carbon (CNT or GO) to silicon (TEOS and MPTS) molar ratio of 0.05% in two different matrices, both prepared at BPO/MMA molar ratios of 0.01 and 0.05. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed very smooth, homogeneous, and defect-free surfaces of approximately 3-7 μm thick coatings deposited onto A1020 carbon steel by dip coating. Mechanical testing and thermogravimetric analysis confirmed that both additives CNT and GO improved the scratch resistance, adhesion, wear resistance, and thermal stability of PMMA-siloxane-silica coatings. Results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 3.5% NaCl solution, discussed in terms of equivalent circuits, showed that the reinforced hybrid coatings act as a very efficient anticorrosive barrier with an impedance modulus up to 1 GΩ cm(2), approximately 5 orders of magnitude higher than that of bare carbon steel. In the case of GO addition, the high corrosion resistance was maintained for more than 6 months in saline medium. These results suggest that both carbon nanostructures can be used as structural reinforcement agents, improving the thermal and mechanical resistance of high performance anticorrosive PMMA-siloxane-silica coatings and thus extending their application range to abrasive environments.

  8. Decoration of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes by Metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    tures inside the nanotubes to increase the available surface for catalysis6 or in ... most common method to decorate CNTs by metal nanoparticles and metal oxides due .... 2.6 Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes, Metal Nano- particles and ...

  9. [Tribological properties of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic. Experimental and clinical results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Früh, H J; Ascherl, R; Hipp, E

    1997-02-01

    Wear of the articulating components (especially PE-UHMW) of total hip endoprostheses is the most important technical factor limiting the functional lifetime. To minimize wear debris, ceramic heads, according to ISO 6474 (Al2O3), have been used, from 1969 paired with Al2O3 and since 1975 paired with PE-UHMW. Al2O3 balls articulating with cups made from CFRP have been in clinical use since 1988. Laboratory experiments and in-vivo testing showed minimized wear debris and mild biological response to wear products using CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic) instead of PE-UHMW as the cup material. The articulating surfaces of retrieved ceramic heads (Al2O3-Biolox) and cementless CFRP cups (carbon fiber reinforced plastic, Caproman) were compared using sphericity measurement techniques, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and roughness measurements (including advanced roughness parameters Rvk or Rpk according to ISO 4287). Altogether, the first results of the clinical study showed that the combination Al2O3-ball/CFRP-cup came up to the expected lower wear rates compared with the conventional combinations. The wear rates are comparable with the combination Al2O3/Al2O3 without the material-related problems of ceramic components in all ceramic combinations.

  10. Reinforced carbon fiber laminates with oriented carbon nanotube epoxy nanocomposites: Magnetic field assisted alignment and cryogenic temperature mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuxin; Yang, Song; Liu, Hu; Shao, Qian; Chen, Qiuyu; Lu, Chang; Jiang, Yuanli; Liu, Chuntai; Guo, Zhanhu

    2018-05-01

    The epoxy nanocomposites with ordered multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used to influence the micro-cracks resistance of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy (CF/EP) laminate at 77 K, Oxidized MWCNTs functionalized with Fe 3 O 4 (Fe 3 O 4 /O-MWCNTs) with good magnetic properties were prepared by co-precipitation method and used to modify epoxy (EP) for cryogenic applications. Fe 3 O 4 /O-MWCNTs reinforced carbon fiber epoxy composites were also prepared through vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM). The ordered Fe 3 O 4 /O-MWCNTs were observed to have effectively improved the mechanical properties of epoxy (EP) matrix at 77 K and reduce the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of EP matrix. The ordered Fe 3 O 4 /O-MWCNTs also obviously improved the micro-cracks resistance of CF/EP composites at 77 K. Compared to neat EP, the CTE of ordered Fe 3 O 4 /O-MWCNTs modified CF/EP composites was decreased 37.6%. Compared to CF/EP composites, the micro-cracks density of ordered Fe 3 O 4 /O-MWCNTs modified CF/EP composites at 77 K was decreased 37.2%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Functionalized graphene oxide-reinforced electrospun carbon nanofibers as ultrathin supercapacitor electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.K.Chee; H.N.Lim; Y.Andou; Z.Zainal; A.A.B.Hamra; I.Harrison; M.Altarawneh; Z.T.Jiang; N.M.Huang

    2017-01-01

    Graphene oxide has been used widely as a starting precursor for applications that cater to the needs of tunable graphene. However, the hydrophilic characteristic limits their application, especially in a hydrophobic condition. Herein, a novel non-covalent surface modification approach towards graphene oxide was conducted via a UV-induced photo-polymerization technique that involves two major routes; a UV-sensitive initiator embedded via pi-pi interactions on the graphene planar rings, and the polymerization of hydrophobic polymeric chains along the surface. The functionalized graphene oxide successfully achieved the desired hydrophobicity as it displayed the characteristic of being readily dissolved in organic solvent. Upon its addition into a polymeric solution and subjected to an electrospinning process,non-woven random nanofibers embedded with graphene oxide sheets were obtained. The prepared polymeric nanofibers were subjected to two-step thermal treatments that eventually converted the polymeric chains into a carbon-rich conductive structure. A unique morphology was observed upon the addition of the functionalized graphene oxide, whereby the sheets were embedded and intercalated within the carbon nanofibers and formed a continuous structure. This reinforcement effectively enhanced the electrochemical performance of the carbon nanofibers by recording a specific capacitance of up to 140.10 F/g at the current density of 1 A/g, which was approximately three folds more than that of pristine nanofibers.It also retained the capacitance up to 96.2% after 1000 vigorous charge/discharge cycles. This functionalization technique opens up a new pathway in tuning the solubility nature of graphene oxide towards the synthesis of a graphene oxide-reinforced polymeric structure.

  12. Effects of alumina nanoparticles on dynamic impact responses of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy matrix nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Halil B. Kaybal; Hasan Ulus; Okan Demir; Ömer S. Şahin; Ahmet Avcı

    2018-01-01

    The influence of alumina (Al2O3) nanoparticles addition upon low-velocity impact behaviors of carbon fiber (CF) reinforced laminated epoxy nanocomposites have been investigated. For this purpose, different amounts of Al2O3 nanoparticles ranging from 1 to 5 wt% were added to the epoxy resin in order to observe the effect of nanoparticle loadings. CF reinforced epoxy based laminated nanocomposites were produced using Vacuum Assisted Resin Infusion Method (VARIM). The low velocity impact (LVI) t...

  13. Non-Lubricated Diamond-Coated Bearings Reinforced by Carbon Fibers to Work in Lunar Dust, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase I, we made prototype sliding bearings from functionally-graded, diamond-coated carbon-fiber reinforced composite. In dry-sliding experiments, the friction...

  14. Influence of size and volume fraction of SiC particulates on properties of ex situ reinforced Al-4.5Cu-3Mg metal matrix composite prepared by direct metal laser sintering process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Subrata Kumar [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Midnapore (West), Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India); Saha, Partha, E-mail: psaha@mech.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Midnapore (West), Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India); Kishore, Shyam [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Midnapore (West), Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India)

    2010-07-15

    Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process has a great potential to prepare metal matrix composites (MMCs) in fabrication of arbitrary shaped jobs through rapid manufacturing. In the present work, silicon carbide particulates reinforced aluminium based metal matrix composite was developed by direct metal laser sintering process. Influences of SiC particulate (SiCp) on density, porosity and microhardness of the composite were investigated. It shows that SiCp having 300 mesh size provides higher density and lower porosity because of lower clustering effect. Higher microhardness was achieved at 1200 mesh of reinforcement because of lower grain size. Microhardness increases with increase of volume fraction of SiCp and higher value was achieved at high reinforcement content of 30 vol.%. Microstructure was studied through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray elemental mapping. Interfacial microstructure was also investigated and cracks were found in number of cases due to difference between co-efficient of thermal expansion of matrix alloy and SiCp.

  15. Influence of size and volume fraction of SiC particulates on properties of ex situ reinforced Al-4.5Cu-3Mg metal matrix composite prepared by direct metal laser sintering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Subrata Kumar; Saha, Partha; Kishore, Shyam

    2010-01-01

    Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process has a great potential to prepare metal matrix composites (MMCs) in fabrication of arbitrary shaped jobs through rapid manufacturing. In the present work, silicon carbide particulates reinforced aluminium based metal matrix composite was developed by direct metal laser sintering process. Influences of SiC particulate (SiCp) on density, porosity and microhardness of the composite were investigated. It shows that SiCp having 300 mesh size provides higher density and lower porosity because of lower clustering effect. Higher microhardness was achieved at 1200 mesh of reinforcement because of lower grain size. Microhardness increases with increase of volume fraction of SiCp and higher value was achieved at high reinforcement content of 30 vol.%. Microstructure was studied through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray elemental mapping. Interfacial microstructure was also investigated and cracks were found in number of cases due to difference between co-efficient of thermal expansion of matrix alloy and SiCp.

  16. Static and dynamic experimental study of strengthened reinforced short concrete corbel by using carbon fabrics, crack path in shear zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ivanova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an experimental analysis of tracking the path of the cracks and crack growth in strengthened or repair reinforced concrete short corbels bonded by carbon fiber fabrics under static and dynamic loads. The reinforced short concrete corbel is a used precast element, for industrial buildings and structures. In fact, their functioning interestingly unconventional is compared to classical beam type elements. Then the effects of bending and shearing are combined in this case. The horizontal reinforced steel is localized to resist to tensile strength induced in bending top and a transversal strength-absorbing contribution. The introduction of carbon fiber composite in the field of Civil Engineering allows to strengthen or repair reinforced concrete structures using adhesive. So the carbon fiber material has many advantages as its low weight, flexibility, easier handling and also interesting physicochemical properties. However maintenance of civil engineering works is to protect them by ensuring better sealing or limiting corrosion. Then strengthening is to repair structures by using bonding technique to compensate their rigidity loss and limit the cracking. This allows to improve their performance and durability. Bonding of composite material in tensile zone of corbel retrieves most tensile stress and allows the structure to extend their load-bearing capacity. The local behavior of the structure is measured by means of the extensometer technique based on electrical strain gauges. This technique allowed to measure strains of steel, carbon fiber fabrics and concrete. The results of this investigation showed that strengthened reinforced concrete corbel bonded by carbon fiber fabrics can improve the ultimate load to twice and stiffens less than a third. The ultimate load, strain and displacement of the specimen are compared to reference experimental model of monotonic and cyclic applied loads. The success of strengthening depends strongly

  17. Silver matrix composites reinforced with galvanically silvered particles

    OpenAIRE

    J. Śleziona; J. Wieczorek,

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper presents the possibility of the application of metalic layers drifted with the use of the galvanic methods on the ceramic particles surface. The application of the layers was aimed at obtaining the rewetting of the reinforcing particles with the liquid silver in the course of the producing of silver matrix composites with the use of mechanical stirring method. To enable introducing of the iron powder and glass carbon powder to liquid silver the solution of covering the powd...

  18. Natural Corrosion Inhibitors for Steel Reinforcement in Concrete — a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Pandian Bothi; Ghoreishiamiri, Seyedmojtaba; Ismail, Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    Reinforced concrete is one of the widely used construction materials for bridges, buildings, platforms and tunnels. Though reinforced concrete is capable of withstanding a large range of severe environments including marine, industrial and alpine conditions, there are still a large number of failures in concrete structures for many reasons. Either carbonation or chloride attack is the main culprit which is due to depassivation of reinforced steel and subsequently leads to rapid steel corrosion. Among many corrosion prevention measures, application of corrosion inhibitors play a vital role in metal protection. Numerous range of corrosion inhibitors were reported for concrete protection that were also used commercially in industries. This review summarizes the application of natural products as corrosion inhibitors for concrete protection and also scrutinizes various factors influencing its applicability.

  19. A New Generation of Sub Mm Telescopes, Made of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezger, P.; Baars, J. W. M.; Ulich, B. L.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) appears to be the material most suited for the construction of submillimeter telescopes (SMT) not only for ground-based use but also for space applications. The accuracy of the CFRP reflectors needs to be improved beyond value of the 17 micron rms envisaged for the 10 m SMT.

  20. Earthquake Response of Reinforced Concrete Building Retrofitted with Geopolymer Concrete and X-shaped Metallic Damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madheswaran, C. K.; Prakash vel, J.; Sathishkumar, K.; Rao, G. V. Rama

    2017-06-01

    A three-storey half scale reinforced concrete (RC) building is fixed with X-shaped metallic damper at the ground floor level, is designed and fabricated to study its seismic response characteristics. Experimental studies are carried out using the (4 m × 4 m) tri-axial shake-table facility to evaluate the seismic response of a retrofitted RC building with open ground storey (OGS) structure using yielding type X-shaped metallic dampers (also called as Added Damping and Stiffness-ADAS elements) and repairing the damaged ground storey columns using geopolymer concrete composites. This elasto-plastic device is normally incorporated within the frame structure between adjacent floors through chevron bracing, so that they efficiently enhance the overall energy dissipation ability of the seismically deficient frame structure under earthquake loading. Free vibration tests on RC building without and with yielding type X-shaped metallic damper is carried out. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of RC building without and with yielding type X-shaped metallic damper are determined. The retrofitted reinforced concrete building is subjected to earthquake excitations and the response from the structure is recorded. This work discusses the preparation of test specimen, experimental set-up, instrumentation, method of testing of RC building and the response of the structure. The metallic damper reduces the time period of the structure and displacement demands on the OGS columns of the structure. Nonlinear time history analysis is performed using structural analysis package, SAP2000.

  1. Corrosion detection of steel reinforced concrete using combined carbon fiber and fiber Bragg grating active thermal probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Weijie; Ho, Siu Chun Michael; Song, Gangbing

    2016-01-01

    Steel reinforcement corrosion is one of the dominant causes for structural deterioration for reinforced concrete structures. This paper presents a novel corrosion detection technique using an active thermal probe. The technique takes advantage of the fact that corrosion products have poor thermal conductivity, which will impede heat propagation generated from the active thermal probe. At the same time, the active thermal probe records the temperature response. The presence of corrosion products can thus be detected by analyzing the temperature response after the injection of heat at the reinforcement-concrete interface. The feasibility of the proposed technique was firstly analyzed through analytical modeling and finite element simulation. The active thermal probe consisted of carbon fiber strands to generate heat and a fiber optic Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensor. Carbon fiber strands are used due to their corrosion resistance. Wet-dry cycle accelerated corrosion experiments were performed to study the effect of corrosion products on the temperature response of the reinforced concrete sample. Results suggest a high correlation between corrosion severity and magnitude of the temperature response. The technique has the merits of high accuracy, high efficiency in measurement and excellent embeddability. (paper)

  2. Allotropic Carbon Nanoforms as Advanced Metal-Free Catalysts or as Supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermenegildo Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This perspective paper summarizes the use of three nanostructured carbon allotropes as metal-free catalysts (“carbocatalysts” or as supports of metal nanoparticles. After an introductory section commenting the interest of developing metal-free catalysts and main features of carbon nanoforms, the main body of this paper is focused on exemplifying the opportunities that carbon nanotubes, graphene, and diamond nanoparticles offer to develop advanced catalysts having active sites based on carbon in the absence of transition metals or as large area supports with special morphology and unique properties. The final section provides my personal view on future developments in this field.

  3. Surface Crack Detection for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic Materials Using Pulsed Eddy Current Based on Rectangular Differential Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialong Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the surface defect inspection of carbon fiber reinforced composite, the differential and the direct measurement finite element simulation models of pulsed eddy current flaw detection were built. The principle of differential pulsed eddy current detection was analyzed and the sensitivity of defect detection was compared through two kinds of measurements. The validity of simulation results was demonstrated by experiments. The simulation and experimental results show that the pulsed eddy current detection method based on rectangular differential probe can effectively improve the sensitivity of surface defect detection of carbon fiber reinforced composite material.

  4. Vertically aligned TiO2 nanorods-woven carbon fiber for reinforcement of both mechanical and anti-wear properties in resin composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Jie; Zhang, Chao; Luo, Dan; Cui, Yali; Li, Hejun; Lu, Zhaoqing; Huang, Jianfeng

    2018-03-01

    A series of TiO2 nanorods were successfully grown on woven carbon fiber by hydrothermal method to reinforce the resin composite. The TiO2 nanorods improved the mechanical interlocking among woven carbon fibers and resin matrix, resulting in better fibers/resin interfacial bonding. Compared with desized-woven carbon fiber, the uniform TiO2 nanorods array resulted in an improvement of 84.3% and 73.9% in the tensile and flexural strength of the composite. However, the disorderly TiO2 nanorods on woven carbon fiber leaded to an insignificant promotion of the mechanical strength. The enhanced performance of well-proportioned TiO2 nanorods-woven carbon fiber was also reflected in the nearly 56% decrease of wear rate, comparing to traditional woven carbon fiber reinforced composite.

  5. Investigation of the resistance of several new metallic reinforcing bars to chloride-induced corrosion in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Virginia Department of Transportation recently initiated a search for metallic reinforcing bars that are not only more durable and corrosion resistant than the epoxy-coated bars currently used, but also economical. In the last few years, several ...

  6. Mechanical and morphological characterizations of carbon fiber fabric reinforced epoxy composites used in aeronautical field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maria Faulstich de Paiva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFRC have been used in aeronautical industry in the manufacture of different aircraft components that must attend tight mechanical requirements. This paper shows a study involving mechanical (flexural, shear, tensile and compressive tests and morphological characterizations of four different laminates based on 2 epoxy resin systems (8552TM and F584TM and 2 carbon fiber fabric reinforcements (Plain Weave (PW and Eight Harness Satin (8HS. All laminates were obtained by handing lay-up of prepregs plies (0º/90º and consolidation in an autoclave following an appropriate curing cycle with vacuum and pressure. The results show that the F584-epoxy matrix laminates present better mechanical properties in the tensile and compressive tests than 8552 composites. It is also observed that PW laminates for both matrices show better flexural and interlaminar shear properties.

  7. Fungal nanoscale metal carbonates and production of electrochemical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qianwei; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2017-09-01

    Fungal biomineralization of carbonates results in metal removal from solution or immobilization within a solid matrix. Such a system provides a promising method for removal of toxic or valuable metals from solution, such as Co, Ni, and La, with some carbonates being of nanoscale dimensions. A fungal Mn carbonate biomineralization process can be applied for the synthesis of novel electrochemical materials. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Braided reinforced composite rods for the internal reinforcement of concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonilho Pereira, C.; Fangueiro, R.; Jalali, S.; Araujo, M.; Marques, P.

    2008-05-01

    This paper reports on the development of braided reinforced composite rods as a substitute for the steel reinforcement in concrete. The research work aims at understanding the mechanical behaviour of core-reinforced braided fabrics and braided reinforced composite rods, namely concerning the influence of the braiding angle, the type of core reinforcement fibre, and preloading and postloading conditions. The core-reinforced braided fabrics were made from polyester fibres for producing braided structures, and E-glass, carbon, HT polyethylene, and sisal fibres were used for the core reinforcement. The braided reinforced composite rods were obtained by impregnating the core-reinforced braided fabric with a vinyl ester resin. The preloading of the core-reinforced braided fabrics and the postloading of the braided reinforced composite rods were performed in three and two stages, respectively. The results of tensile tests carried out on different samples of core-reinforced braided fabrics are presented and discussed. The tensile and bending properties of the braided reinforced composite rods have been evaluated, and the results obtained are presented, discussed, and compared with those of conventional materials, such as steel.

  9. Semi-solid metal forming of beryllium-reinforced aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haws, W.; Lane, L.; Marder, J.; Nicholas, N.

    1995-01-01

    A Powder Metallurgy (PM) based, Semi-Solid Metal (SSM) forming process has been developed to produce low cost near-net shapes of beryllium-reinforced aluminum alloys. Beryllium acts as a reinforcing additive to the aluminum, in which there is nearly no mutual solid solubility. The modulus of elasticity of the alloy dramatically increases, while the density and thermal expansion coefficient decrease with increasing beryllium content. The material is suitable for complex thermal management and vibration resistance applications, as well as for airborne components which are density and stiffness sensitive. The forming process involves heating a blank of the material to a temperature at which the aluminum is semi-solid and the beryllium is solid. The semi-solid blank is then injected without turbulence into a permanent mold. High quality, near net shape components can be produced which are functionally superior to those produced by other permanent mold processes. Dimensional accuracy is equivalent to or better than that obtained in high pressure die casting. Cost effectiveness is the primary advantage of this technique compared to other forming processes. The advantages and limitations of the process are described. Physical and mechanical property data are presented, as well as directions for future investigation

  10. Discussion of Carbon Emissions for Charging Hot Metal in EAF Steelmaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ling-zhi; Jiang, Tao; Li, Guang-hui; Guo, Yu-feng

    2017-07-01

    As the cost of hot metal is reduced for iron ore prices are falling in the international market, more and more electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking enterprises use partial hot metal instead of scrap as raw materials to reduce costs and the power consumption. In this paper, carbon emissions based on 1,000 kg molten steel by charging hot metal in EAF steelmaking is studied. Based on the analysis of material and energy balance calculation in EAF, the results show that 146.9, 142.2, 137.0, and 130.8 kg/t of carbon emissions are produced at a hot metal ratio of 0 %, 30 %, 50 %, and 70 %, while 143.4, 98.5, 65.81, and 31.5 kg/t of carbon emissions are produced at a hot metal ratio of 0 %, 30 %, 50 %, and 70 % by using gas waste heat utilization (coal gas production) for EAF steelmaking unit process. However, carbon emissions are increased by charging hot metal for the whole blast furnace-electric arc furnace (BF-EAF) steelmaking process. In the condition that the hot metal produced by BF is surplus, as carbon monoxide in gas increased by charging hot metal, the way of coal gas production can be used for waste heat utilization, which reduces carbon emissions in EAF steelmaking unit process.

  11. Activated Carbon Textile via Chemistry of Metal Extraction for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Do Van; Jo, Kyungmin; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Hak-Joo; Lee, Seung-Mo

    2016-12-27

    Carbothermic reduction in the chemistry of metal extraction (MO(s) + C(s) → M(s) + CO(g)) using carbon as a sacrificial agent has been used to smelt metals from diverse oxide ores since ancient times. Here, we paid attention to another aspect of the carbothermic reduction to prepare an activated carbon textile for high-rate-performance supercapacitors. On the basis of thermodynamic reducibility of metal oxides reported by Ellingham, we employed not carbon, but metal oxide as a sacrificial agent in order to prepare an activated carbon textile. We conformally coated ZnO on a bare cotton textile using atomic layer deposition, followed by pyrolysis at high temperature (C(s) + ZnO(s) → C'(s) + Zn(g) + CO(g)). We figured out that it leads to concurrent carbonization and activation in a chemical as well as mechanical way. Particularly, the combined effects of mechanical buckling and fracture that occurred between ZnO and cotton turned out to play an important role in carbonizing and activating the cotton textile, thereby significantly increasing surface area (nearly 10 times) compared with the cotton textile prepared without ZnO. The carbon textiles prepared by carbothermic reduction showed impressive combination properties of high power and energy densities (over 20-fold increase) together with high cyclic stability.

  12. Long-term prediction of reinforced concrete structures - Use of thermodynamic data to assess steel corrosion in carbonated concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, Bruno; L'Hostis, Valerie; Le Bescop, Patrick; Idrissi, Hassane

    2004-01-01

    In the context of the prediction of the long-term behaviour of reinforced concrete structures involved in the nuclear waste storage, the corrosion mechanisms of the steels have to be assessed and modelled. When nuclear wastes are embedded in reinforced concrete containers, the chemical environment of the reinforcement is progressively modified, due to the diffusion of the carbonation front inside the concrete matrix. This modification leads to the variation of the properties of the iron oxides formed at the steel/concrete interface, and the active corrosion can be initiated. In order to understand and modelled the mechanisms of steel corrosion in concrete, the equilibrium of two main systems must be separately described with the help of thermodynamic data issued from the literature: - The mineral phases, lime and calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H), in equilibrium with the pore solution during the propagation of the carbonation front; - The iron oxides in equilibrium with the aqueous solution. For this purpose, the nature of aqueous species present in the pore solution was calculated in the whole range of pH encountered during the cement paste degradation by carbonation. As a matter of fact, as the pH decreases, calcium concentration decreases and silicates concentration increases due to the calcium carbonate formation and C-S-H dissolution. The pH of a carbonated concrete ranges between 8.3 and 10, depending on the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the porosity and the conversion degree of carbonation. In this pH range, the iron oxides equilibria were analysed as a function of the redox potential and aqueous species (carbonates and sulphates present in the solution) present inside the solution. In a reductive solution and in presence of carbonates, the high solubility of iron oxides may prevent passivation or generate the dissolution of the passive film. Moreover, the relevance of thermodynamics calculations has been confirmed by corrosion tests of mild steel

  13. Long-term prediction of reinforced concrete structures - Use of thermodynamic data to assess steel corrosion in carbonated concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huet, Bruno [Laboratoire d' Etude du Comportement des Betons et Argiles, DEN/DPC/SCCME/LECBA, Bat. 158, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France)]|[Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie Industrielle, LPCI, INSA de Lyon, Bat. Leonard de Vinci, 20 av. Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne cedex (France); L' Hostis, Valerie; Le Bescop, Patrick [Laboratoire d' Etude du Comportement des Betons et Argiles, DEN/DPC/SCCME/LECBA, Bat. 158, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Idrissi, Hassane [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie Industrielle, LPCI, INSA de Lyon, Bat. Leonard de Vinci, 20 av. Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne cedex (France)

    2004-07-01

    In the context of the prediction of the long-term behaviour of reinforced concrete structures involved in the nuclear waste storage, the corrosion mechanisms of the steels have to be assessed and modelled. When nuclear wastes are embedded in reinforced concrete containers, the chemical environment of the reinforcement is progressively modified, due to the diffusion of the carbonation front inside the concrete matrix. This modification leads to the variation of the properties of the iron oxides formed at the steel/concrete interface, and the active corrosion can be initiated. In order to understand and modelled the mechanisms of steel corrosion in concrete, the equilibrium of two main systems must be separately described with the help of thermodynamic data issued from the literature: - The mineral phases, lime and calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H), in equilibrium with the pore solution during the propagation of the carbonation front; - The iron oxides in equilibrium with the aqueous solution. For this purpose, the nature of aqueous species present in the pore solution was calculated in the whole range of pH encountered during the cement paste degradation by carbonation. As a matter of fact, as the pH decreases, calcium concentration decreases and silicates concentration increases due to the calcium carbonate formation and C-S-H dissolution. The pH of a carbonated concrete ranges between 8.3 and 10, depending on the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the porosity and the conversion degree of carbonation. In this pH range, the iron oxides equilibria were analysed as a function of the redox potential and aqueous species (carbonates and sulphates present in the solution) present inside the solution. In a reductive solution and in presence of carbonates, the high solubility of iron oxides may prevent passivation or generate the dissolution of the passive film. Moreover, the relevance of thermodynamics calculations has been confirmed by corrosion tests of mild steel

  14. A Study on the Interlaminar Shear Strength of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics Depending on the Lamination Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Min Sang Lee; Hee Jae Shin; In Pyo Cha; Sun Ho Ko; Hyun Kyung Yoon; Hong Gun Kim; Lee Ku Kwac

    2015-01-01

    The prepreg process among the CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic) forming methods is the short term of ‘Pre-impregnation’, which is widely used for aerospace composites that require a high quality property such as a fiber-reinforced woven fabric, in which an epoxy hardening resin is impregnated the reality. However, that this process requires continuous researches and developments for its commercialization because the delamination characteristically develops between th...

  15. Design and characterization of a carbon-nanotube-reinforced adhesive coating for piezoelectric ceramic discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzara, G; Chang, F-K

    2009-01-01

    The silver paste electrode of piezoelectric (PZT) ceramic discs has been shown to produce a weak interface bond between a bare PZT and its paste coating under a peeling force. In this work, an investigation was conducted to reinforce the bond with a high density array of oriented carbon nanotube nano-electrodes (CNTs-NEA), between a bare PZT ceramic and a metal substrate. The ensuing design and fabrication of a carbon-nanotube-coated piezoelectric disc (CPZT) is presented along with a study of the bondline integrity of a CPZT mounted on a hosting structure. The CPZT has its electrode silver paste coating replaced with a high density array of CNTs-NEA. Mechanical tests were performed to characterize the shear strength of the bondline between CPZT discs and the substrate. The test results were compared with shear strengths of the bondlines made of pure non-conductive adhesive and adhesive with randomly mixed CNTs. The comparison showed the oriented CNT coating on PZTs could significantly enhance the interfacial shear strength. Through the microscopic examination, it was evident that the ratio between the CNT length (Lc) and the bond thickness (H) significantly influenced the bond strength of CPZT discs. Three major interface microstructure types and their corresponding failure modes for specific Lc/H values were identified. The study also showed that failure did not occur along the interface between the PZT ceramic element and the CNT coating

  16. Aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced composites: processing and mechanical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thostenson, Erik T.; Chou, Tsuwei

    2002-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have been the subject of considerable attention because of their exceptional physical and mechanical properties. These properties observed at the nanoscale have motivated researchers to utilize carbon nanotubes as reinforcement in composite materials. In this research, a micro-scale twin-screw extruder was used to achieve dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in a polystyrene matrix. Highly aligned nanocomposite films were produced by extruding the polymer melt through a rectangular die and drawing the film prior to cooling. Randomly oriented nanocomposites were produced by achieving dispersion first with the twin-screw extruder followed by pressing a film using a hydraulic press. The tensile behaviour of the aligned and random nanocomposite films with 5 wt.{%} loading of nanotubes were characterized. Addition of nanotubes increased the tensile modulus, yield strength and ultimate strengths of the polymer films, and the improvement in elastic modulus with the aligned nanotube composite is five times greater than the improvement for the randomly oriented composite. (author)

  17. Fibre reinforced composites '84; Proceedings of the International Conference, University of Liverpool, England, April 3-5, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Among the topics discussed are phenolic resin matrix composites for high temperature and fire-exposure applications, novel resins for fiber-reinforced composite productivity improvement, the use of engineering textiles for mechanical property improvement in composites, the significance of aramid fiber reinforcement in composites, the energy absorption properties of Sheet Metal Compounds (SMCs) under crash conditions, and SMC impact behavior variations with temperature. Also covered are CFRP applications in high performance structures, composite helicopter main rotor blade technology, composite vehicular leaf springs, carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastics, filament winding development status, the injection processing of fiber-reinforced thermoplastics, civil aircraft composite structure certification, composite radomes, design procedures for short fiber-reinforced thermoplastics, the strength limitations of mechanically fastened lap joints, environmental fatigue and creep in glass-reinforced materials, the effects of moisture on high performance laminates, the environmental behavior of SMC, and corrugated composites.

  18. The concept of a novel hybrid smart composite reinforced with radially aligned zigzag carbon nanotubes on piezoelectric fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, M C

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid piezoelectric composite (HPZC) reinforced with zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and piezoelectric fibers is proposed. The novel constructional feature of this composite is that the uniformly aligned CNTs are radially grown on the surface of piezoelectric fibers. A micromechanics model is derived to estimate the effective piezoelectric and elastic properties. It is found that the effective piezoelectric coefficient e 31 of the proposed HPZC, which accounts for the in-plane actuation, is significantly higher than that of the existing 1-3 piezoelectric composite without reinforcement with carbon nanotubes and the previously reported hybrid piezoelectric composite (Ray and Batra 2009 ASME J. Appl. Mech. 76 034503)

  19. Enhanced oxidation resistance of carbon fiber reinforced lithium aluminosilicate composites by boron doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Long; Jin, Feng; Zhang, Tao; Hu, Xueting; Wu, Songsong; Wen, Guangwu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • C f /LAS composites exhibit enhanced oxidation resistance by boron doping. • Boron doping is beneficial to the improvement of graphitization degree of carbon fibers. • Graphitization of carbon fibers together with the decrease of viscosity of LAS matrix is responsible to the enhancement of oxidation resistance of C f /LAS composites. - Abstract: Carbon fiber reinforced lithium aluminosilicate matrix composites (C f /LAS) modified with boron doping were fabricated and oxidized for 1 h in static air. Weight loss, residual strength and microstructure were analyzed. The results indicate that boron doping has a remarkable effect on improving the oxidation resistance for C f /LAS. The synergism of low viscosity of LAS matrix at high temperature and formation of graphite crystals on the surface of carbon fibers, is responsible for excellent oxidation resistance of the boron doped C f /LAS.

  20. Mechanical Behavior of Steel Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Beams Bonded with External Carbon Fiber Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribniak, Viktor; Tamulenas, Vytautas; Ng, Pui-Lam; Arnautov, Aleksandr K; Gudonis, Eugenijus; Misiunaite, Ieva

    2017-06-17

    This study investigates the mechanical behavior of steel fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC) beams internally reinforced with steel bars and externally bonded with carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets fixed by adhesive and hybrid jointing techniques. In particular, attention is paid to the load resistance and failure modes of composite beams. The steel fibers were used to avoiding the rip-off failure of the concrete cover. The CFRP sheets were fixed to the concrete surface by epoxy adhesive as well as combined with various configurations of small-diameter steel pins for mechanical fastening to form a hybrid connection. Such hybrid jointing techniques were found to be particularly advantageous in avoiding brittle debonding failure, by promoting progressive failure within the hybrid joints. The use of CFRP sheets was also effective in suppressing the localization of the discrete cracks. The development of the crack pattern was monitored using the digital image correlation method. As revealed from the image analyses, with an appropriate layout of the steel pins, brittle failure of the concrete-carbon fiber interface could be effectively prevented. Inverse analysis of the moment-curvature diagrams was conducted, and it was found that a simplified tension-stiffening model with a constant residual stress level at 90% of the strength of the SFRC is adequate for numerically simulating the deformation behavior of beams up to the debonding of the CFRP sheets.

  1. Formation mechanism of a silicon carbide coating for a reinforced carbon-carbon composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, D. C.; Shuford, D. M.; Mueller, J. I.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented for a study to determine the mechanisms involved in a high-temperature pack cementation process which provides a silicon carbide coating on a carbon-carbon composite. The process and materials used are physically and chemically analyzed. Possible reactions are evaluated using the results of these analytical data. The coating is believed to develop in two stages. The first is a liquid controlled phase process in which silicon carbide is formed due to reactions between molten silicon metal and the carbon. The second stage is a vapor transport controlled reaction in which silicon vapors react with the carbon. There is very little volume change associated with the coating process. The original thickness changes by less than 0.7%. This indicates that the coating process is one of reactive penetration. The coating thickness can be increased or decreased by varying the furnace cycle process time and/or temperature to provide a wide range of coating thicknesses.

  2. Rebar corrosion due to carbonation in structural reinforced concretes for near-surface LLW repositories: A critical failure mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torok, J

    1995-03-01

    The concrete roof of a near-surface radioactive waste repository is the principle protection against water infiltration and intrusion. The following potential roof failure mechanism is examined: carbon dioxide generated by the biodegradation of organic materials in the repository initiates corrosion of reinforcing steel embedded in the concrete roof. Because the bottom surface of the roof is mostly under tension, it is susceptible to cracking. The migration path for carbon dioxide is through cracks in the concrete between the bottom of the roof and the reinforcing bars. Carbonate corrosion of the reinforcing bars may result in concrete spalling, more extensive rebar corrosion and ultimately structural failure. Attention is brought to this failure mechanism because it has generally been overlooked in repository performance assessments. Literature relevant to the above failure is reviewed. Prerequisites for rebar corrosion are the presence of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the repository gas, high relative humidity and through-cracks in the concrete. High carbon dioxide concentrations and relative humidity are expected in the repository. The oxygen concentration in the repository is expected to be very low, and that is expected to minimize rebar corrosion rates. Cracks are likely to form in locations with high tensile stresses. Healing of the cracks could be a mitigating factor, but based on our analysis, it can not be relied on. To minimize the potential of this failure mechanism occurring with the Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure (IRUS), Canada`s proposed near-surface repository, carbon dioxide from the repository gas will be absorbed by the reactive, porous concrete placed between the waste and the roof. (author). 4 refs.

  3. Rebar corrosion due to carbonation in structural reinforced concretes for near-surface LLW repositories: A critical failure mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torok, J.

    1995-03-01

    The concrete roof of a near-surface radioactive waste repository is the principle protection against water infiltration and intrusion. The following potential roof failure mechanism is examined: carbon dioxide generated by the biodegradation of organic materials in the repository initiates corrosion of reinforcing steel embedded in the concrete roof. Because the bottom surface of the roof is mostly under tension, it is susceptible to cracking. The migration path for carbon dioxide is through cracks in the concrete between the bottom of the roof and the reinforcing bars. Carbonate corrosion of the reinforcing bars may result in concrete spalling, more extensive rebar corrosion and ultimately structural failure. Attention is brought to this failure mechanism because it has generally been overlooked in repository performance assessments. Literature relevant to the above failure is reviewed. Prerequisites for rebar corrosion are the presence of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the repository gas, high relative humidity and through-cracks in the concrete. High carbon dioxide concentrations and relative humidity are expected in the repository. The oxygen concentration in the repository is expected to be very low, and that is expected to minimize rebar corrosion rates. Cracks are likely to form in locations with high tensile stresses. Healing of the cracks could be a mitigating factor, but based on our analysis, it can not be relied on. To minimize the potential of this failure mechanism occurring with the Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure (IRUS), Canada's proposed near-surface repository, carbon dioxide from the repository gas will be absorbed by the reactive, porous concrete placed between the waste and the roof. (author). 4 refs

  4. Investigation of Selective Laser Melting Surface Alloyed Aluminium Metal Matrix Dispersive Reinforced Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamburov, V. V.; Dimitrova, R. B.; Kandeva, M. K.; Sofronov, Y. P.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to investigate the improvement of mechanical properties and in particular wear resistance of laser surface alloyed dispersive reinforced thin layers produced by selective laser melting (SLM) technology. The wear resistance investigation of aluminium matrix composite layers in the conditions of dry friction surface with abrasive particles and nanoindentation tests were carried out. The process parameters (as scan speed) and their impact on the wear resistant layers have been evaluated. The alloyed layers containing metalized SiC particles were studied by Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). The obtained experimental results of the laser alloyed thin layers show significant development of their wear resistance and nanohardness due to the incorporated reinforced phase of electroless nickel coated SiC particles.

  5. Effect of filler geometry on coefficient of thermal expansion in carbon nanofiber reinforced epoxy composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, M; Jang, J; Suhr, J

    2011-02-01

    This study involves the investigation of the geometry effect of nano-fillers on thermally induced dimensional stability of epoxy composites by experimentally evaluating the linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Carbon nanofibers (CNF) were chosen as the filler in epoxy matrix to investigate the effect of an aspect ratio on the CTE of the nanocomposites at three different volume fractions of 0.5, 1, and 2% of the nano-filler. The composites were fabricated using a mechanical mixing method. The CTE values were evaluated by measuring thermal strains of the composites and also compared with a micromechanics model. It was observed that the composites with short CNF (average L/d = 10) show better thermal stability than one of the composites with long CNF (average L/d = 70), and the thermal stability of the composites was proportional to the volume fraction of the filler in each composite. In addition, the CTE of mutliwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) reinforced epoxy composites was evaluated and compared with the CTE of the CNF reinforced composites. Interestingly, the MWNT reinforced composites show the greatest thermal stability with an 11.5% reduction in the CTE over the pure epoxy. The experimental data was compared with micromechanics model.

  6. Investigation of Mechanical Properties and Morphology of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Cellulose Acetate Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quazi Nahida Sultana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose acetate (CA fibers were reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs at 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0%. Yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, fracture strain and toughness of the nanocomposite fiber increased up to 1.5 wt. % of the carbon nanotube (CNT loading, however, further inclusion (2.0% of MWCNTs in CA decreased the mechanical properties. Experimental properties were also compared with analytical predictions using a Shear lag model for strength and the rule of mixture for modulus. A solution spinning process, coupled with sonication, mixing, and extrusion, was used to process the CNT-reinforced composite fiber. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images of the cross sections of neat CA and CA-MWCNT fibers showed the formation of voids and irregular features. The enhanced interconnected fibrillation in the CNT-reinforced CA samples resulted in improved mechanical properties, which were observed by tensile testing. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR spectra showed the area under the curve for C–H bonding after the inclusion of CNT. There was no significant shift of wavenumber for the inclusion of MWCNT in the CA matrix, which indicates that the sonication process of the CNT-loaded solution did not degrade the CA bonding structure.

  7. Strain Measurement Using Embedded Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors Inside an Anchored Carbon Fiber Polymer Reinforcement Prestressing Rod for Structural Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerrouche, Abdelfateh; Boyle, William J.O.; Sun, Tong

    2009-01-01

    Results are reported from a study carried out using a series of Bragg grating based optical fiber sensors written into a very short length (60mm) optical fiber net work and integrated into carbon fiber polymer reinforcement (CFPR) rod. Such rods are used as reinforcements in concrete structures...

  8. The research of a method for determination of total carbon, combination carbon and free carbon in beryllium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xingzhong; Zhu Xiaohong

    1996-02-01

    A method for determination of total carbon, combination carbon and free carbon in beryllium metal with LECO CS-344 carbon/sulphur determinant has been studied. Tungsten-copper mixed pellets are used as flux to the determination of total carbon. Ratio of weight of the flux to the sample is greater than 20:1. Good analytical results are got. By this method the relative standard deviation is <10% when the content of total carbon in the range of 0.050%∼0.080% in beryllium. A standard steel sample of carbon is added into beryllium, the recoveries are 94%∼106%. For determination of free carbon, the sample are decomposed with 3 mol/L HCl, filtered and followed determination. By this method the relative standard deviation is ≤10% when the content of free carbon in the range of 0.006%∼0.020% in beryllium. the balance of total carbon and free carbon is equal to combination carbon. The method is used to determine the sample of content of total carbon in the range of 0.050%∼1.00%, free carbon in the range of 0.006%∼0.500% in metal beryllium. (6 refs., 1 fig., 13 tabs.)

  9. Electrochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of Diamondlike Carbon-Metal Composite Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MORRISON, M. L.; BUCHANAN, R. A.; LIAW, P. K.; BERRY, C. J.; BRIGMON, R.; RIESTER, L.; JIN, C.; NARAYAN, R. J.

    2005-05-11

    Implants containing antimicrobial metals may reduce morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs associated with medical device-related infections. We have deposited diamondlike carbon-silver (DLC-Ag), diamondlike carbon-platinum (DLC-Pt), and diamondlike carbon-silver-platinum (DLC-AgPt) thin films using a multicomponent target pulsed laser deposition process. Transmission electron microscopy of the DLC-silver and DLC-platinum composite films revealed that the silver and platinum self-assemble into nanoparticle arrays within the diamondlike carbon matrix. The diamondlike carbon-silver film possesses hardness and Young's modulus values of 37 GPa and 331 GPa, respectively. The diamondlike carbon-metal composite films exhibited passive behavior at open-circuit potentials. Low corrosion rates were observed during testing in a phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) electrolyte. In addition, the diamondlike carbon-metal composite films were found to be immune to localized corrosion below 1000 mV (SCE). DLC-silver-platinum films demonstrated exceptional antimicrobial properties against Staphylococcus bacteria. It is believed that a galvanic couple forms between platinum and silver, which accelerates silver ion release and provides more robust antimicrobial activity. Diamondlike carbon-silver-platinum films may provide unique biological functionalities and improved lifetimes for cardiovascular, orthopaedic, biosensor, and implantable microelectromechanical systems.

  10. Hydrofluoric–nitric–sulphuric-acid surface treatment of tungsten for carbon fibre-reinforced composite hybrids in space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanerva, M., E-mail: Mikko.Kanerva@aalto.fi [Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Applied Mechanics, P.O.B. 14300, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Johansson, L.-S.; Campbell, J.M. [Aalto University, School of Chemical Technology, Department of Forest Products Technology, P.O.B. 16300, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Revitzer, H. [Aalto University, School of Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, P.O.B. 16300, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Sarlin, E. [Tampere University of Technology, Department of Materials Science, P.O.B. 589, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Brander, T.; Saarela, O. [Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Applied Mechanics, P.O.B. 14300, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • XPS and AFM analysis of the effect of hydrofluoric–nitric–sulphuric-acid on tungsten. • Dreiling's model established 54.4% thinning of WO{sub 3} due to 67 s treatment. • Strain energy release rate increased ≈8.4 J/m{sup 2} at the interface. • Failure loci analysis expressed the oxide and carbon fibre surfaces as weak points. - Abstract: Hybrid material systems, such as combinations of tungsten foils and carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP), are replacing metal alloy concepts in spacecraft enclosures. However, a good adhesion between the tungsten oxide scale and the epoxy resin used is required. Here, the effects of a hydrofluoric–nitric–sulphuric-acid (HFNS) treatment on tungsten oxides and subsequent adhesion to CFRP are analysed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and fracture testing. The work shows that HFNS treatment results in decreased oxygen content, over 50% thinner tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) layer and increased nano-roughness on thin tungsten foils. Fracture testing established a 39% increase in the average critical strain for tungsten–CFRP specimens after HFNS treatment was carried out on tungsten. The effect of the oxide scale modification regarding the critical strain energy release rate was ΔG{sub c}≈ 8.4 J/m{sup 2}.

  11. A molecular dynamics study on Young's modulus and tribology of carbon nanotube reinforced styrene-butadiene rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Raj; Sharma, Sumit

    2018-03-18

    Styrene-butadiene rubber is a copolymer widely used in making car tires and has excellent abrasion resistance. The Young's modulus and tribology of pure styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) polymer and carbon nanotube reinforced polymer composites have been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The mechanism of enhanced tribology properties using carbon nanotube has been studied and discussed. The obtained Young's modulus shows the enhancement in mechanical properties of SBR polymer when carbon nanotubes are used as reinforcement. The concentration, temperature and velocity profiles, radial distribution function, frictional stresses, and cohesive energy density are calculated and analyzed in detail. The Young's modulus of SBR matrix increases about 29.16% in the presence of the 5% CNT. The atom movement velocity and average cohesive energy density in the friction area of pure SBR matrix was found to be more than that of the CNT/SBR composite. Graphical abstract Initial and final conditions of (a) pure SBR matrix and (b) CNT/SBR matrix subjected toshear loading and frictional stresses of top Fe layers of both pure SBR and CNT/SBR composite.

  12. Development of a novel test-setup for identifying the frictional characteristics of carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites at high surface pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Prateek; Schinzel, Marie; Andrich, Manuela; Modler, Niels

    2016-09-01

    Carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites are extensively used in industrial applications. They are light in weight and have excellent load bearing properties. To understand this material's behaviour when carrying loads at high pressure, a tensile-friction test device was developed that can apply a contact surface pressure between composite and counterpart of 50-300 MPa. A tribological investigation of carbon fibre reinforced epoxy composites was carried out, in which the influence of the surface morphology was investigated by using grinding and sandblasting techniques. The friction coefficient of the polymer composite was measured at 100 MPa surface pressure against uncoated and Diamond-Like Carbon coated stainless steel counterparts.

  13. SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF A PRECAST REINFORCED CONCRETE WALL WITH CUT-OUT OPENING RETROFITTED USING CARBON FIBRE STRIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fofiu M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Precast Reinforced Concrete Wall Panel (PRCWP presented in this paper is part of an experimental study regarding the seismic performance of precast reinforced concrete wall panels, strengthening strategies and investigation on the weakening induced by modifying the opening in these elements due to architectural demands, change of function of buildings or other reasons. The element presented is 1:1.2 scale typical Reinforced Concrete Wall Panel with a window opening used in Romania, in which the opening was changed to a door opening due to comfort considerations. The specimen was subjected to cyclic loading with the lateral loads being applied in displacement control of 0.1% drift ratio. This simulates the shear behaviour of the element. After testing the unstrengthen element we proceed to retrofit it using Carbon Fibre Strips anchored with Carbon Fibre Mash. The purpose of the paper is to present the strengthening strategy and restore the initial load bearing capacity of the element or even increase it. The experimental results of strengthen and unstrengthen specimens will be presented.

  14. Coded excitation for infrared non-destructive testing of carbon fiber reinforced plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulaveesala, Ravibabu; Venkata Ghali, Subbarao

    2011-05-01

    This paper proposes a Barker coded excitation for defect detection using infrared non-destructive testing. Capability of the proposed excitation scheme is highlighted with recently introduced correlation based post processing approach and compared with the existing phase based analysis by taking the signal to noise ratio into consideration. Applicability of the proposed scheme has been experimentally validated on a carbon fiber reinforced plastic specimen containing flat bottom holes located at different depths.

  15. Synthesis and Properties of Carbon Nanotube-Grafted Silica Nanoarchitecture-Reinforced Poly(Lactic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Wen Hsu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel nanoarchitecture-reinforced poly(lactic acid (PLA nanocomposite was prepared using multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT-grafted silica nanohybrids as reinforcements. MWCNT-grafted silica nanohybrids were synthesized by the generation of silica nanoparticles on the MWCNT surface through the sol-gel technique. This synthetic method involves organo-modified MWCNTs that are dispersed in tetrahydrofuran, which incorporates tetraethoxysilane that undergoes an ultrasonic sol-gel process. Gelation yielded highly dispersed silica on the organo-modified MWCNTs. The structure and properties of the nanohybrids were established using 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance, Raman spectroscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The resulting MWCNT nanoarchitectures were covalently assembled into silica nanoparticles, which exhibited specific and controllable morphologies and were used to reinforce biodegradable PLA. The tensile strength and the heat deflection temperature (HDT of the PLA/MWCNT-grafted silica nanocomposites increased when the MWCNT-grafted silica was applied to the PLA matrix; by contrast, the surface resistivity of the PLA/MWCNT-grafted silica nanocomposites appeared to decline as the amount of MWCNT-grafted silica in the PLA matrix increased. Overall, the reinforcement of PLA using MWCNT-grafted silica nanoarchitectures was efficient and improved its mechanical properties, heat resistance, and electrical resistivity.

  16. Microstructural characterization of PAN based carbon fiber reinforced nylon 6 polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munirathnamma, L. M.; Ningaraju, S.; Kumar, K. V. Aneesh; Ravikumar, H. B.

    2018-04-01

    Microstructural characterization of nylon 6/polyacrolonitrile based carbon fibers (PAN-CFs) of 10 to 40 wt% has been performed by positron lifetime technique (PLT). The positron lifetime parameters viz., o-Ps lifetime (τ3), o-Ps intensity (I3) and fractional free volume (Fv) of nylon 6/PAN-CF composites are correlated with the mechanical properties viz., Tensile strength and Young's modulus. The Fv show negative deviation with the reinforcement of 10 to 40 wt% of PAN-CF from the linear additivity relation. The negative deviation in nylon 6/PAN-CF composite suggests the induced molecular packing due to the chemical interaction between the polymeric chains of nylon 6 and PAN-CF. This is evident from Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) studies. The FTIR results suggests that observed negative deviation in PALS results of nylon 6/PAN-CF reinforced polymer composites is due to the induced chemical interaction at N-H-O sites. The improved tensile strength (TS) and Young's modulus (YM) in nylon 6/PAN-CF reinforced polymer composites is due to AS4C (surface treated and epoxy coated) PAN-CF has shown highest adhesion level due to better stress transfer between nylon 6 and PAN-CF.

  17. Logic circuits based on individual semiconducting and metallic carbon-nanotube devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Hyeyeon; Kaelblein, Daniel; Ante, Frederik; Zschieschang, Ute; Kern, Klaus; Klauk, Hagen; Weitz, R Thomas; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscale transistors employing an individual semiconducting carbon nanotube as the channel hold great potential for logic circuits with large integration densities that can be manufactured on glass or plastic substrates. Carbon nanotubes are usually produced as a mixture of semiconducting and metallic nanotubes. Since only semiconducting nanotubes yield transistors, the metallic nanotubes are typically not utilized. However, integrated circuits often require not only transistors, but also resistive load devices. Here we show that many of the metallic carbon nanotubes that are deposited on the substrate along with the semiconducting nanotubes can be conveniently utilized as load resistors with favorable characteristics for the design of integrated circuits. We also demonstrate the fabrication of arrays of transistors and resistors, each based on an individual semiconducting or metallic carbon nanotube, and their integration on glass substrates into logic circuits with switching frequencies of up to 500 kHz using a custom-designed metal interconnect layer.

  18. Hydrogen storage properties of carbon nanomaterials and carbon containing metal hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehlen, Jan Petter

    2003-07-01

    The topic of this thesis is structural investigations of carbon containing materials in respect to their hydrogen storage properties. This work was initially triggered by reports of extremely high hydrogen storage capacities of specific carbon nanostructures. It was decided to try to verify and understand the mechanisms in play in case of the existence of such high hydrogen densities in carbon. Two different routes towards the goal were employed; by studying selected hydrides with carbon as one of its constituents (mainly employing powder diffraction techniques in combination with hydrogen absorption and desorption measurements) and by carefully conducting hydrogen sorption experiments on what was believed to be the most ''promising'' carbon nanomaterial sample. In the latter case, a lot of effort was attributed to characterisations of different carbon nanomaterial containing samples with the aid of electron microscopy. Three different carbon-containing metal hydride systems, Y2C-H, YCoC-H and Y5SiC0.2-H, were examined. A relation between hydrogen occupation and the local arrangement of metal and carbon atoms surrounding the hydrogen sites was established. Several characteristic features of the compounds were noted in addition to solving the structure of the former unknown deuterideY5Si3C0.2D2.0 by the use of direct methods. Several carbon-nanomaterial containing samples were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy and powder diffraction, thus gaining knowledge concerning the structural aspects of nanomaterials. Based on these investigations, a specific sample containing a large amount of open-ended single-wall carbon nanotubes was chosen for subsequent hydrogen storage experiments. The latter experiments revealed moderate hydrogen storage capacities of the nanotubes not exceeding the values obtained for more conventional forms of carbon. These two different routes in investigating the hydrogen storage properties of carbon and carbon containing alloys

  19. Hydrogen storage properties of carbon nanomaterials and carbon containing metal hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehlen, Jan Petter

    2003-07-01

    The topic of this thesis is structural investigations of carbon containing materials in respect to their hydrogen storage properties. This work was initially triggered by reports of extremely high hydrogen storage capacities of specific carbon nanostructures. It was decided to try to verify and understand the mechanisms in play in case of the existence of such high hydrogen densities in carbon. Two different routes towards the goal were employed; by studying selected hydrides with carbon as one of its constituents (mainly employing powder diffraction techniques in combination with hydrogen absorption and desorption measurements) and by carefully conducting hydrogen sorption experiments on what was believed to be the most ''promising'' carbon nanomaterial sample. In the latter case, a lot of effort was attributed to characterisations of different carbon nanomaterial containing samples with the aid of electron microscopy. Three different carbon-containing metal hydride systems, Y2C-H, YCoC-H and Y5SiC0.2-H, were examined. A relation between hydrogen occupation and the local arrangement of metal and carbon atoms surrounding the hydrogen sites was established. Several characteristic features of the compounds were noted in addition to solving the structure of the former unknown deuterideY5Si3C0.2D2.0 by the use of direct methods. Several carbon-nanomaterial containing samples were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy and powder diffraction, thus gaining knowledge concerning the structural aspects of nanomaterials. Based on these investigations, a specific sample containing a large amount of open-ended single-wall carbon nanotubes was chosen for subsequent hydrogen storage experiments. The latter experiments revealed moderate hydrogen storage capacities of the nanotubes not exceeding the values obtained for more conventional forms of carbon. These two different routes in investigating the hydrogen storage properties of carbon and

  20. Strengthening of the Timber Members Using Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Sorina Enţuc

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The reinforcement of structural wood products has become in the last decades an efficient method of improving structural capabilities of load carrying members made of this material. Some important steps in earlier stages of research were focused on using metallic reinforcement, including steel bars, prestressed stranded cables, and bonded steel and aluminum plates. A disadvantage of the metallic reinforcement was the poor compatibility between the wood and the reinforcing materials. In comparison with metallic reinforcement, fiber reinforced polymers (FRP composites are compatible with structural wood products leading to efficient hybrid members. Some interesting strengthening alternatives using FRP applied to wood beams and to wood columns are presented in this paper.

  1. Thermodynamics of carbon deoxidation and aluminium deoxidation of refractory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, S.P.; Sundaram, C.V.

    1975-01-01

    Carbon has been used for removing the last traces of oxygen from many refractory metals by evaporation of CO at high temperature and vacuum. Similar purification can also be achieved employing aluminium deoxidation by evaporation of Al 2 Osub(g). In the present paper a theoretical thermodynamic approach has been attempted to evaluate the deoxidation tendencies of refractory metals of groups IV to VI by these two processes. Expressions have been theoretically derived, relating the concentration product of carbon and oxygen in the metal (which is a measure of the carbon deoxidation tendency of the metal) with temperature and pressure, for various M-C-O systems. Similarly the relative vapour pressure values of Alsub(2)Osub(g),Alsub(g)andMO(g) (suboxide of the metal) over various M-Al-O systems have been calculated as a function of aluminium and oxygen contents of the metal. From these analyses, it has been shown that a substantial amount of oxygen can be removed from M-Al-O alloys by aluminium deoxidation. The estimated values are compared with the reported values based on experiment. (author)

  2. Effect of reinforcement on the cutting forces while machining metal matrix composites–An experimental approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Shoba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid metal matrix composites are of great interest for researchers in recent years, because of their attractive superior properties over traditional materials and single reinforced composites. The machinabilty of hybrid composites becomes vital for manufacturing industries. The need to study the influence of process parameters on the cutting forces in turning such hybrid composite under dry environment is essentially required. In the present study, the influence of machining parameters, e.g. cutting speed, feed and depth of cut on the cutting force components, namely feed force (Ff, cutting force (Fc, and radial force (Fd has been investigated. Investigations were performed on 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 wt% Silicon carbide (SiC and rice husk ash (RHA reinforced composite specimens. A comparison was made between the reinforced and unreinforced composites. The results proved that all the cutting force components decrease with the increase in the weight percentage of the reinforcement: this was probably due to the dislocation densities generated from the thermal mismatch between the reinforcement and the matrix. Experimental evidence also showed that built-up edge (BUE is formed during machining of low percentage reinforced composites at high speed and high depth of cut. The formation of BUE was captured by SEM, therefore confirming the result. The decrease of cutting force components with lower cutting speed and higher feed and depth of cut was also highlighted. The related mechanisms are explained and presented.

  3. Comparison of tensile strength of different carbon fabric reinforced epoxy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maria Faulstich de Paiva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fabric/epoxy composites are materials used in aeronautical industry to manufacture several components as flaps, aileron, landing-gear doors and others. To evaluate these materials become important to know their mechanical properties, for example, the tensile strength. Tensile tests are usually performed in aeronautical industry to determinate tensile property data for material specifications, quality assurance and structural analysis. For this work, it was manufactured four different laminate families (F155/PW, F155/HS, F584/PW and F584/HS using pre-impregnated materials (prepregs based on F155TM and F584TM epoxy resins reinforced with carbon fiber fabric styles Plain Weave (PW and Eight Harness Satin (8HS. The matrix F155TM code is an epoxy resin type DGEBA (diglycidil ether of bisphenol A that contains a curing agent and the F584TM code is a modified epoxy resin type. The laminates were obtained by handing lay-up process following an appropriate curing cycle in autoclave. The samples were evaluated by tensile tests according to the ASTM D3039. The F584/PW laminates presented the highest values of tensile strength. However, the highest modulus results were determined for the 8HS composite laminates. The correlation of these results emphasizes the importance of the adequate combination of the polymeric matrix and the reinforcement arrangement in the structural composite manufacture. The microscopic analyses of the tested specimens show valid failure modes for composites used in aeronautical industry.

  4. Development of high-speed reactive processing system for carbon fiber-reinforced polyamide-6 composite: In-situ anionic ring-opening polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Seong, Dong Gi; Yi, Jin-Woo; Um, Moon-Kwang

    2016-01-01

    In order to manufacture carbon fiber-reinforced polyamide-6 (PA-6) composite, we optimized the reactive processing system. The in-situ anionic ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactam was utilized with proper catalyst and initiator for PA-6 matrix. The mechanical properties such as tensile strength, inter-laminar shear strength and compressive strength of the produced carbon fiber-reinforced PA-6 composite were measured, which were compared with the corresponding scanning electron microscope (SEM) images to investigate the polymer properties as well as the interfacial interaction between fiber and polymer matrix. Furthermore, kinetics of in-situ anionic ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactam will be discussed in the viewpoint of increasing manufacturing speed and interfacial bonding between PA-6 matrix and carbon fiber during polymerization.

  5. Development of high-speed reactive processing system for carbon fiber-reinforced polyamide-6 composite: In-situ anionic ring-opening polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Seong, Dong Gi; Yi, Jin-Woo; Um, Moon-Kwang [Composites Research Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), Changwon, Gyeongnam, 642–831 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-18

    In order to manufacture carbon fiber-reinforced polyamide-6 (PA-6) composite, we optimized the reactive processing system. The in-situ anionic ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactam was utilized with proper catalyst and initiator for PA-6 matrix. The mechanical properties such as tensile strength, inter-laminar shear strength and compressive strength of the produced carbon fiber-reinforced PA-6 composite were measured, which were compared with the corresponding scanning electron microscope (SEM) images to investigate the polymer properties as well as the interfacial interaction between fiber and polymer matrix. Furthermore, kinetics of in-situ anionic ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactam will be discussed in the viewpoint of increasing manufacturing speed and interfacial bonding between PA-6 matrix and carbon fiber during polymerization.

  6. Laser cladding in-situ carbide particle reinforced Fe-based composite coatings with rare earth oxide addition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴朝锋; 马明星; 刘文今; 钟敏霖; 张红军; 张伟明

    2009-01-01

    Particulate reinforced metal matrix composite(PR-MMC) has excellent properties such as good wear resistance,corrosion resistance and high temperature properties.Laser cladding is usually used to form PR-MMC on metal surface with various volume fractions of ceramic particles.Recent literatures showed that laser melting of powder mixture containing carbon and carbide-forming elements,was favorable for the formation of in-situ synthesized carbide particles.In this paper,rare earth oxide(RE2O3) was added into t...

  7. Influence of thermal residual stress on behaviour of metal matrix composites reinforced with particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, R. E.; Hernández Arroyo, E.

    2016-02-01

    The properties of a metallic matrix composites materials (MMC's) reinforced with particles can be affected by different events occurring within the material in a manufacturing process. The existence of residual stresses resulting from the manufacturing process of these materials (MMC's) can markedly differentiate the curves obtained in tensile tests obtained from compression tests. One of the themes developed in this work is the influence of residual stresses on the mechanical behaviour of these materials. The objective of this research work presented is numerically estimate the thermal residual stresses using a unit cell model for the Mg ZC71 alloy reinforced with SiC particles with volume fraction of 12% (hot-forging technology). The MMC's microstructure is represented as a three dimensional prismatic cube-shaped with a cylindrical reinforcing particle located in the centre of the prism. These cell models are widely used in predicting stress/strain behaviour of MMC's materials, in this analysis the uniaxial stress/strain response of the composite can be obtained through the calculation using the commercial finite-element code.

  8. Fracture detection in concrete by glass fiber cloth reinforced plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Soon-Gi; Lee, Sung-Riong

    2006-04-01

    Two types of carbon (carbon fiber and carbon powder) and a glass cloth were used as conductive phases and a reinforcing fiber, respectively, in polymer rods. The carbon powder was used for fabricating electrically conductive carbon powder-glass fiber reinforced plastic (CP-GFRP) rods. The carbon fiber tows and the CP-GFRP rods were adhered to mortar specimens using epoxy resin and glass fiber cloth. On bending, the electrical resistance of the carbon fiber tow attached to the mortar specimen increased greatly after crack generation, and that of the CP-GFRP rod increased after the early stages of deflection in the mortar. Therefore, the CP-GFRP rod is superior to the carbon fiber tow in detecting fractures. Also, by reinforcing with a glass fiber cloth reinforced plastic, the strength of the mortar specimens became more than twice as strong as that of the unreinforced mortar.

  9. Copper-carbon and aluminum-carbon composites fabricated by powder metallurgy processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvain, Jean-François; Veillère, Amélie; Lu, Yongfeng

    2014-01-01

    The increase in both power and packing densities in power electronic devices has led to an increase in the market demand for effective heat-dissipating materials, with high thermal conductivity and thermal- expansion coefficient compatible with chip materials still ensuring the reliability of the power modules. In this context, metal matrix composites: carbon fibers and diamond-reinforced copper and aluminum matrix composites among them are considered very promising as a next generation of thermal-management materials in power electronic packages. These composites exhibit enhanced thermal properties compared to pure copper combined with lower density. This article presents the fabrication techniques of copper/carbon fibers and copper/diamond and aluminum/carbon fibers composite films by powder metallurgy and hot pressing. The thermal analyses clearly indicate that interfacial treatments are required in these composites to achieve high thermomechanical properties. Interfaces (through novel chemical and processing methods), when selected carefully and processed properly will form the right chemical/mechanical link between metal and carbon, enhancing all the desired thermal properties while minimizing the deleterious effect.

  10. Evaluation of a metal shear web selectively reinforced with filamentary composites for space shuttle application. Phase 1 summary report: Shear web design development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, J. H.; Zimmerman, D. K.

    1972-01-01

    An advanced composite shear web design concept was developed for the Space Shuttle orbiter main engine thrust beam structure. Various web concepts were synthesized by a computer-aided adaptive random search procedure. A practical concept is identified having a titanium-clad + or - 45 deg boron/epoxy web plate with vertical boron/epoxy reinforced aluminum stiffeners. The boron-epoxy laminate contributes to the strength and stiffness efficiency of the basic web section. The titanium-cladding functions to protect the polymeric laminate parts from damaging environments and is chem-milled to provide reinforcement in selected areas. Detailed design drawings are presented for both boron/epoxy reinforced and all-metal shear webs. The weight saving offered is 24% relative to all-metal construction at an attractive cost per pound of weight saved, based on the detailed designs. Small scale element tests substantiate the boron/epoxy reinforced design details in critical areas. The results show that the titanium-cladding reliably reinforces the web laminate in critical edge load transfer and stiffener fastener hole areas.

  11. Carbonization of heavy metal impregnated sewage sludge oriented towards potential co-disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Xiaomin [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Chen, Dezhen, E-mail: chendezhen@tongji.edu.cn [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Hu, Yuyan; Feng, Yuheng [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Dai, Xiaohu [National Engineering Research Centre for Urban Pollution Control, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • The carbonization of SS with externally impregnated heavy metals was investigated. • Externally impregnated heavy metals can be immobilized in the SSC. • Higher carbonization temperature help produce non-hazardous SSC. • Incineration FA can be kneaded into SS for co-disposal through co-carbonization. - Abstract: Sewage sludge (SS) is adopted as a stabilizer to immobilize externally impregnated heavy metals through carbonization oriented towards the co-disposal of SS and some hazardous wastes. Firstly Cu and Pb were impregnated into SS to ascertain the impregnating capacity and leaching behaviours of heavy metals in the resulting sewage sludge char (SSC). Meanwhile, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to detect the heavy metal phase in the SSC. The results showed that within 400–800 °C and an impregnating concentration ≨0.5 wt%, more than 90% of the externally impregnated Cu and Pb were remained in the SSC and immobilized. And higher temperatures helped produce non-hazardous SSC. In addition, SEM and XRD analyses revealed that externally impregnated heavy metals could be converted into stable forms and evenly distributed throughout the SSC. In the second step municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (FA) was kneaded into SS and subjected to carbonization; it has been proved that the heavy metals in FA can be well immobilized in the resulting char when FA: SS mass ratio is 1:5. Those results show that sewage sludge can be co-carbonized with wastes contaminated with heavy metals to achieve co-disposal.

  12. Carbonization of heavy metal impregnated sewage sludge oriented towards potential co-disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou, Xiaomin; Chen, Dezhen; Hu, Yuyan; Feng, Yuheng; Dai, Xiaohu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The carbonization of SS with externally impregnated heavy metals was investigated. • Externally impregnated heavy metals can be immobilized in the SSC. • Higher carbonization temperature help produce non-hazardous SSC. • Incineration FA can be kneaded into SS for co-disposal through co-carbonization. - Abstract: Sewage sludge (SS) is adopted as a stabilizer to immobilize externally impregnated heavy metals through carbonization oriented towards the co-disposal of SS and some hazardous wastes. Firstly Cu and Pb were impregnated into SS to ascertain the impregnating capacity and leaching behaviours of heavy metals in the resulting sewage sludge char (SSC). Meanwhile, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to detect the heavy metal phase in the SSC. The results showed that within 400–800 °C and an impregnating concentration ≨0.5 wt%, more than 90% of the externally impregnated Cu and Pb were remained in the SSC and immobilized. And higher temperatures helped produce non-hazardous SSC. In addition, SEM and XRD analyses revealed that externally impregnated heavy metals could be converted into stable forms and evenly distributed throughout the SSC. In the second step municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (FA) was kneaded into SS and subjected to carbonization; it has been proved that the heavy metals in FA can be well immobilized in the resulting char when FA: SS mass ratio is 1:5. Those results show that sewage sludge can be co-carbonized with wastes contaminated with heavy metals to achieve co-disposal.

  13. Experience-based training of students on concretes reinforced by recycled carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgun, Cumhur; Patlolla, Vamsidhar R.; Alzahrani, Naif; Zeineddine, Hatim F.; Asmatulu, Eylem

    2017-04-01

    Fiber reinforcement increases many properties of the concretes, such as toughness, strength, abrasion, and resistance to corrosion. Use of recycled carbon fibers from industrial waste offers many advantages because it will reduce the waste, contribute the economy, protect natural resources and improve the property of structural units. The City of Wichita, KS is known to be "Air Capital of the World" where many aircraft companies have been producing aircraft, parts and components. Due to the superior properties of composites (e.g., light weight, low density, high impact resistance), they have been highly used by aircraft industry. Prepreg is the most preferred combination of the fiber and resin due to the easy application, but it has a limited shelf life (e.g., three months to one year at most) and scrap has no use after all in the same industry. Every year tons of un-used prepreg or after use scrap are being collected in Wichita, KS. Recycling prepreg from the post-consumer waste offers great advantages of waste reduction and resource conservation in the city. Reusing the carbon fibers obtained from outdated prepreg composites for concrete reinforcement will offer double advantages for our environment and concrete structures. In this study, recycled carbon fibers of the outdated prepreg composites were collected, and then incorporated with concretes at different ratios prior to the molding and mechanical testing. An undergraduate student was involved in the project and observed all the process during the laboratory studies, as well as data collection, analysis and presentation. We believe that experience based learning will enhance the students' skills and interest into the scientific and engineering studies.

  14. Effect of the metallic glass volume fraction on the mechanical properties of Zr-based metallic glass reinforced with porous W composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.Q.; Wang, L.; Xue, Y.F.; Cheng, X.W.; Wang, Y.D.; Nie, Z.H.; Zhang, H.F.; Fu, H.M.; Ma, L.L.; Ren, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical properties of both as-cast and as-extruded Zr-based metallic glass reinforced with tungsten composites with 33, 28, and 21 vol. % of metallic glass were investigated under quasi-static compression at strain rates from 10 −4 s −1 to 10 −1 s −1 . These two types of composites exhibited a strain rate sensitivity exponent that increased with the increase of the tungsten volume fraction. Compared to the composites with 33 and 21 vol. % of the metallic glass, the two types of composites with 28 vol. % of the metallic glass phase exhibited superior fracture energies. The in-situ compression test on the as-cast composites using high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction (HEXRD) revealed that the yield stress of the tungsten phase increased with a decrease in the metallic glass volume fraction. The as-cast composite with 28 vol. % of the metallic glass exhibited relatively great mechanical properties compared to the composites that contained 33 and 21 vol. % of the metallic glass. This result was attributed to the great coupling of the load distribution between the two phases and the high lattice strain in the tungsten phase.

  15. Behavior of fiber reinforced metal laminates at high strain rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newaz, Golam; Sasso, Marco; Amodio, Dario; Mancini, Edoardo

    2018-05-01

    Carbon Fiber Reinforced Aluminum Laminate (CARALL) is a good system for energy absorption through plastic deformation in aluminum and micro-cracking in the composite layers. Moreover, CARALL FMLs also provide excellent impact resistance due to the presence of aluminum layer. The focus of this research is to characterize the CARALL behavior under dynamic conditions. High strain rate tests on sheet laminate samples have been carried out by means of direct Split Hopkinson Tension Bar. The sample geometry and the clamping system were optimized by FEM simulations. The clamping system has been designed and optimized in order reduce impedance disturbance due to the fasteners and to avoid the excessive plastic strain outside the gauge region of the samples.

  16. Radiation effects on carbon fiber-reinforced plastics for spacecraft materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udagawa, Akira; Kudoh, Hisaaki; Sasuga, Tsuneo; Morino, Yoshiki; Seguchi, Tadao; Yudate, Kozo.

    1995-02-01

    The effects of space environment were studied for two kinds of carbon fiber-reinforced plastics(CFRP) which were an epoxy resin composite using construction materials of satellite and a polyimide(PMR-15) composite expecting bright future space materials for long term operation. Resistibility of these materials to the space environments were evaluated from the change of mechanical properties after exposure of electron, proton, atomic oxygen and thermal cycling. It was found that the CFRP with PMR-15 as a matrix had good performance in the space environments. No differences in the mechanical properties for the materials were observed between proton and electron irradiations. (author)

  17. Hybrid metallic nanocomposites for extra wear-resistant diamond machining tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loginov, P.A.; Sidorenko, D.A.; Levashov, E.A.

    2018-01-01

    The applicability of metallic nanocomposites as binder for diamond machining tools is demonstrated. The various nanoreinforcements (carbon nanotubes, boron nitride hBN, nanoparticles of tungsten carbide/WC) and their combinations are embedded into metallic matrices and their mechanical properties...... are determined in experiments. The wear resistance of diamond tools with metallic binders modified by various nanoreinforcements was estimated. 3D hierarchical computational finite element model of the tool binder with hybrid nanoscale reinforcements is developed, and applied for the structure...

  18. Reinforced Carbon Carbon (RCC) oxidation resistant material samples - Baseline coated, and baseline coated with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) impregnation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantz, E. E.

    1977-01-01

    Reinforced carbon-carbon material specimens were machined from 19 and 33 ply flat panels which were fabricated and processed in accordance with the specifications and procedures accepted for the fabrication and processing of the leading edge structural subsystem (LESS) elements for the space shuttle orbiter. The specimens were then baseline coated and tetraethyl orthosilicate impregnated, as applicable, in accordance with the procedures and requirements of the appropriate LESS production specifications. Three heater bars were ATJ graphite silicon carbide coated with the Vought 'pack cementation' coating process, and three were stackpole grade 2020 graphite silicon carbide coated with the chemical vapor deposition process utilized by Vought in coating the LESS shell development program entry heater elements. Nondestructive test results are reported.

  19. Adsorption of heavy metal ions on activated carbon, (5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hisayoshi; Kamegawa, Katsumi; Arita, Seiji

    1978-01-01

    The adsorption effect of heavy metal ions Cd 2+ , Zn 2+ and Hg 2+ on activated carbon by adding EDTA is reported, utilizing the experimental data. The activated carbons used for the experiment are mostly D, and B, C and F partly. As for the experimental procedure, the solutions of 100 ml which are composed of activated carbon, pH adjusting liquid, EDTA solution and solutions of heavy metals Cd, Zn and Hg, are shaken for 24 hours at 20 deg C, and after the activated carbon is centrifuged and separated for 15 minutes at 3000 rpm, the remaining heavy metal concentrations and pH in the supernatant are measured. The experimental results showed the useful effect on the adsorption of heavy metal ions of Cd, Zn and Hg by adding about 1 mol ratio of (EDTA/heavy metals). The individual experimental results are presented in detail. Concerning the adsorption quantity, 83% of Cd ions remained in the supernatant without addition of EDTA, but less than 1% with addition of about 1 to 5 mol ratio of (EDTA/Cd), and this adsorption effect was almost similar to Zn and Hg, i.e. 100% to 1% in Zn and 70% to 2 or 3% in Hg, under the condition written above. As for the influence of pH on Cd adsorption, the remaining Cd ratio is less than 10%, when pH is 7 to 10.5 at the mol ratio of 1 and 5.5 to 9 at the mol ratio of 10. The adsorption effect was different according to the kinds of activated carbon. The influencing factors for adsorption effect are the concentration of coexisting cations in the solution and the mixing time, etc. The effects of pH on Zn and Hg adsorption were almost similar to Cd. (Nakai, Y.)

  20. Thermal expansion of fibre-reinforced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, B.

    1991-07-01

    The integral thermal expansion and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of carbon and Kevlar fibre-reinforced composites were measured with high accuracy from 5 K to room temperature. For this, a laser dilatometer and a sophisticated measuring procedure were used. CTE dependence on the orientation angle ω of angle-ply laminates was determined for samples with 5 different fibre alignments (UD 0deg, +/-30deg, +/-45deg, +/-60deg and UD 90deg). A high variability of the CTE with the orientation angle was shown. At angles of approximately +/-30deg even negative CTEs were found. With suitable reinforcing fibres being selected, their absolute values rose up to 30-100% of the positive CTEs of metals. Hence, composites of this type would be suitable as compensating materials in metal constructions where little thermal expansion is desired. To check the lamination theory, theoretical computations of the CTE- ω -dependence were compared with the measured values. An excellent agreement was found. Using the lamination theory, predictions about the expansion behaviour of angle-ply laminates can be made now, if the thermal and mechanical properties of the unidirectional (UD) laminate are known. Furthermore, it is possible to carry out simulation computations aimed at investigating the influence of a single parameter of the UD-laminate (e.g. shear modulus) on the expansion of the angle-ply laminate. (orig.) [de

  1. Method for intercalating alkali metal ions into carbon electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeff, Marca M.; Ma, Yanping; Visco, Steven J.; DeJonghe, Lutgard

    1995-01-01

    A low cost, relatively flexible, carbon electrode for use in a secondary battery is described. A method is provided for producing same, including intercalating alkali metal salts such as sodium and lithium into carbon.

  2. Small Molecule Injection into Single-Cell C. elegans Embryos via Carbon-Reinforced Nanopipettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Diane G.; Fellman, Shanna M.; Chung, SueYeon; Soltani, Mohammad; Kevek, Joshua W.; McEuen, Paul M.; Kemphues, Kenneth J.; Wang, Michelle D.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of chemical inhibitors into living cells at specific times in development is a useful method for investigating the roles of specific proteins or cytoskeletal components in developmental processes. Some embryos, such as those of Caenorhabditis elegans, however, possess a tough eggshell that makes introducing drugs and other molecules into embryonic cells challenging. We have developed a procedure using carbon-reinforced nanopipettes (CRNPs) to deliver molecules into C. elegans embryos with high temporal control. The use of CRNPs allows for cellular manipulation to occur just subsequent to meiosis II with minimal damage to the embryo. We have used our technique to replicate classical experiments using latrunculin A to inhibit microfilaments and assess its effects on early polarity establishment. Our injections of latrunculin A confirm the necessity of microfilaments in establishing anterior-posterior polarity at this early stage, even when microtubules remain intact. Further, we find that latrunculin A treatment does not prevent association of PAR-2 or PAR-6 with the cell cortex. Our experiments demonstrate the application of carbon-reinforced nanopipettes to the study of one temporally-confined developmental event. The use of CRNPs to introduce molecules into the embryo should be applicable to investigations at later developmental stages as well as other cells with tough outer coverings. PMID:24086620

  3. Proposed Methodology for Design of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Spike Anchors into Reinforced Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacFarlane, Eric Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-26

    The included methodology, calculations, and drawings support design of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) spike anchors for securing U-wrap CFRP onto reinforced concrete Tbeams. This content pertains to an installation in one of Los Alamos National Laboratory’s facilities. The anchors are part of a seismic rehabilitation to the subject facility. The information contained here is for information purposes only. The reader is encouraged to verify all equations, details, and methodology prior to usage in future projects. However, development of the content contained here complied with Los Alamos National Laboratory’s NQA-1 quality assurance program for nuclear structures. Furthermore, the formulations and details came from the referenced published literature. This literature represents the current state of the art for FRP anchor design. Construction personnel tested the subject anchor design to the required demand level demonstrated in the calculation. The testing demonstrated the ability of the anchors noted to carry loads in excess of 15 kips in direct tension. The anchors were not tested to failure in part because of the hazards associated with testing large-capacity tensile systems to failure. The calculation, methodology, and drawing originator was Eric MacFarlane of Los Alamos National Laboratory’s (LANL) Office of Seismic Hazards and Risk Mitigation (OSHRM). The checker for all components was Mike Salmon of the LANL OSHRM. The independent reviewers of all components were Insung Kim and Loring Wyllie of Degenkolb Engineers. Note that Insung Kim contributed to the initial formulations in the calculations that pertained directly to his Doctoral research.

  4. Metal supply constraints for a low-carbon economy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, A. de; Kleijn, R.; Huppes, G.; Sprecher, B.; Engelen, G. van; Tukker, A.

    2018-01-01

    Low-carbon energy systems are more metal-intensive than traditional energy systems. Concerns have been expressed that this may hamper the transition to a low-carbon economy. We estimate the required extraction of Fe, Al, Cu, Ni, Cr, In, Nd, Dy, Li, Zn, and Pb until 2050 under several

  5. Gas chromatographic method fr determination of carbon in metallic uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikol'skij, V.A.; Markov, V.K.; Evseeva, T.I.; Cherstvenkova, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    Gas chromatographic device to determine carbon in metal uranium is developed. Burnout unite, permitting to load in the burnout tube simultaneously quite a few (up to 20) weight amounts of materials to be burned is a characteristic feature of the device. As a result amendments for control experiment and determination limit are decreased. The time of a single determination is also reduced. Conditions of carbon burn out from metal uranium are studied and temperature and time of complete extraction of carbon in the form of dioxide from weight amount into gaseous phase are established

  6. Self-organized formation of metal-carbon nanostructures by hyperthermal ion deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannstein, I.K.

    2006-04-26

    The quasi-simultaneous deposition of mass-selected hyperthermal carbon and metal ions results in a variety of interesting film morphologies, depending on the metal used and the deposition conditions. The observed features are of the order of a few nanometres and are therefore interesting for future potential applications in the various fields of nanotechnology. The present study focuses on the structural analysis of amorphous carbon films containing either copper, silver, gold, or iron using amongst others Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy. The film morphologies found are as follows: copper-containing films consist of copper nanoclusters with sizes ranging from about 3 to 9 nm uniformly distributed throughout the amorphous carbon matrix. The cluster size hereby rises with the copper content of the films. The silver containing films decompose into a pure amorphous carbon film with silver agglomerates at the surface. Both, the gold- and the iron-containing films show a multilayer structure of metal-rich layers with higher cluster density separated by metal-depleted amorphous carbon layers. The layer distances are of the order of up to 15 nm in the case of gold-carbon films and 7 nm in the case of iron-carbon films. The formation of theses different structures cannot be treated in the context of conventional self-organization mechanisms basing upon thermal diffusion and equilibrium thermodynamics. Instead, an ion-induced atomic transport, sputtering effects, and the stability of small metal clusters were taken into account in order to model the structure formation processes. A similar multilayer morphology was recently also reported in the literature for metal-carbon films grown by magnetron sputtering techniques. In order to investigate, whether the mechanisms are the same as in the case of the ion beam deposited films described above, first experiments were conducted

  7. Corrosion of metal materials embedded in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffo, G.S.; Farina, S.B.; Schulz, F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon steel is the material most frequently used to strengthen reinforced concrete structures; however, stainless steel and galvanized steel reinforcements are also used in construction concretes; and they are not often used in Latin America. Meanwhile, there are other metals that are embedded in the concrete forming part of the openings (aluminum) or in tubing systems (copper and lead). The use of concrete as a cementing material is also useful for immobilizing wastes, such as for example those generated by the nuclear industry. There is a great deal of research and development on the corrosion of steel reinforcements, but the same is not true for the behavior of other metals embedded in concrete and that also undergo corrosive processes. This work aims to study the corrosion of different metals: copper, lead, aluminum, zinc, stainless steel and carbon steel; embedded in concrete with and without the presence of aggressive species for the metal materials. Test pieces were made of mortar containing rods of different materials for testing, and with chlorides added in concentrations of 0; 0.3 % and 1% (mass of chloride per mass of cement). The test pieces were exposed to different conditions; laboratory environment with a relative humidity (RH) of 45%, a controlled atmosphere with 98% RH and submerged in a solution of 3.5% NaCl. The susceptibility to corrosion of the different metals was evaluated using techniques to monitor the corrosion potential, the resistivity of the mortar and the polarization resistance (PR). The rods were weighed before being placed inside the test pieces to later determine the loss of weight generated by the corrosion process. Polarization curves for the metals were also traced in a simulated pore solution (SPS) and in SPS with added chloride. The results obtained to date show that, of all the metals analyzed, aluminum is the most susceptible to corrosion, and that the test specimens with 0% and 1% of chloride exposed to the laboratory

  8. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars and thermohaline mixing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stancliffe, R.J.; Glebbeek, E.; Izzard, R.G.; Pols, O.R.

    2007-01-01

    One possible scenario for the formation of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars is the accretion of carbon-rich material from a binary companion which may no longer visible. It is generally assumed that the accreted material remains on the surface of the star and does not mix with the interior until

  9. Development of an in-situ multi-component reinforced Al-based metal matrix composite by direct metal laser sintering technique — Optimization of process parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Subrata Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik; Saha, Partha

    2014-01-01

    In the present investigation, an in-situ multi-component reinforced aluminum based metal matrix composite was fabricated by the combination of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis and direct metal laser sintering process. The different mixtures of Al, TiO 2 and B 4 C powders were used to initiate and maintain the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis by laser during the sintering process. It was found from the X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy that the reinforcements like Al 2 O 3 , TiC, and TiB 2 were formed in the composite. The scanning electron microscopy revealed the distribution of the reinforcement phases in the composite and phase identities. The variable parameters such as powder layer thickness, laser power, scanning speed, hatching distance and composition of the powder mixture were optimized for higher density, lower porosity and higher microhardness using Taguchi method. Experimental investigation shows that the density of the specimen mainly depends upon the hatching distance, composition and layer thickness. On the other hand, hatching distance, layer thickness and laser power are the significant parameters which influence the porosity. The composition, laser power and layer thickness are the key influencing parameters for microhardness. - Highlights: • The reinforcements such as Al 2 O 3 , TiC, and TiB 2 were produced in Al-MMC through SHS. • The density is mainly influenced by the material composition and hatching distance. • Hatching distance is the major influencing parameter on porosity. • The material composition is the significant parameter to enhance the microhardness. • The SEM micrographs reveal the distribution of TiC, TiB 2 and Al 2 O 3 in the composite

  10. Interactive effects between carbon allotrope fillers on the mechanical reinforcement of polyisoprene based nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Galimberti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interactive effects of carbon allotropes on the mechanical reinforcement of polymer nanocomposites were investigated. Carbon nanotubes (CNT and nano-graphite with high shape anisotropy (nanoG were melt blended with poly(1,4-cis-isoprene, as the only fillers or in combination with carbon black (CB, measuring the shear modulus at low strain amplitudes for peroxide crosslinked composites. The nanofiller was found to increase the low amplitude storage modulus of the matrix, with or without CB, by a factor depending on nanofiller type and content. This factor, fingerprint of the nanofiller, was higher for CNT than for nanoG. The filler-polymer interfacial area was able to correlate modulus data of composites with CNT, CB and with the hybrid filler system, leading to the construction of a common master curve.

  11. Obtention and dynamical mechanical behavior of polymer matrix carbon fire reinforced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, Nelson Marques

    2001-01-01

    Polymer matrix composites reinforced with carbon fibres have been extensively used in the nuclear, aeronautics, automotive and leisure industry. This is due to their superior performance when compared to conventional materials in terms of specific strength and specific modulus (3 to 4 times higher than that of mild steels). However, these materials are anisotropic, requiring characterisation for each process and particular application. In the present work, the evaluation of epoxy resin reinforced with unidirectional and continuous carbon fibres was carried out. The composites materials were obtained by filament winding, with three different cure cycles, with two types of carbon fibres (6000 and 12000 filaments per strand) and with fibres volumetric fraction around 60 %. The evaluation of the composites was undertaken using following techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM); dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA); thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). These techniques allowed the evaluation and comparison of storage modulus, internal energy dissipation, glass transition region and glass transition temperature - Tg, cure cycling. Besides, void volumetric fraction was measured. The results indicate that the DMA is a good alternative technique to DSC and TGA. It provides an indication of the quality of the produced composite, both thermal and mechanical. The technique can assist the quality control of composite components by measuring mechanical and thermal properties - modulus and Tg. The DMA technique was sensitive to cure cycling evaluation. Regarding the obtained composites, the results showed the need for the development of specific cure cycle for each application, establishing a compromise between properties such as storage modulus and internal energy dissipation, and involved costs. The results demonstrated differences between the storage modulus and internal energy dissipation for the two types of used fibres. (author)

  12. Highly ordered three-dimensional macroporous carbon spheres for determination of heavy metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Jianming; Liu, Yang; Huang, Hui; Kang, Zhenhui

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres (MPCSs) were prepared. ► MPCS was covalently modified by cysteine (MPCS–CO–Cys). ► MPCS–CO–Cys was first time used in electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions. ► Heavy metal ions such as Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ can be simultaneously determined. -- Abstract: An effective voltammetric method for detection of trace heavy metal ions using chemically modified highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres electrode surfaces is described. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were prepared by carbonization of glucose in silica crystal bead template, followed by removal of the template. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were covalently modified by cysteine, an amino acid with high affinities towards some heavy metals. The materials were characterized by physical adsorption of nitrogen, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. While the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize the functional groups on the surface of carbon spheres. High sensitivity was exhibited when this material was used in electrochemical detection (square wave anodic stripping voltammetry) of heavy metal ions due to the porous structure. And the potential application for simultaneous detection of heavy metal ions was also investigated.

  13. Development and Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and Silicon Carbide (SiC) Reinforced Al-based Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujba, Kachalla Abdullahi

    Composites are engineered materials developed from constituent materials; matrix and reinforcements, to attain synergistic behavior at the micro and macroscopic level which are different from the individual materials. The high specific strength, low weight, excellent chemical resistance and fatigue endurance makes these composites superior than other materials despite anisotropic behaviors. Metal matrix composites (MMCs) have excellent physical and mechanical properties and alumium (Al) alloy composites have gained considerable interest and are used in multiple industries including: aerospace, structural and automotive. The aim of this research work is to develop an advanced Al-based nanocomposites reinforced with Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and silicon carbide particulates (SiCp) nanophases using mechanical alloying and advanced consolidation procedure (Non-conventional) i.e. Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) using two types of aluminum alloys (Al-7Si-0.3mg and Al-12Si-0.3Mg). Different concentrations of SiCp and CNTs were added and ball milled for different milling periods under controlled atmosphere to study the effect of milling time and the distribution of the second phases. Characterization techniques were used to investigate the morphology of the as received monolithic and milled powder using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X-Ray Mapping, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Particle Size Analyses (PSA). The results revealed that the addition of high concentrations of SiCp and CNTs in both alloys aided in refining the structure of the resulting powder further as the reinforcement particles acted like a grinding agent. Good distribution of reinforcing particles was observed from SEM and no compositional fluctuations were observed from the EDS. Some degree of agglomerations was observed despite the ethyl alcohol sonication effect of the CNTs before ball milling. From the XRD; continuous reduction in crystallite size and

  14. Depositing nanometer-sized particles of metals onto carbon allotropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kent A. (Inventor); Fallbach, Michael J. (Inventor); Ghose, Sayata (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor); Delozier, Donavon M. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A process for depositing nanometer-sized metal particles onto a substrate in the absence of aqueous solvents, organic solvents, and reducing agents, and without any required pre-treatment of the substrate, includes preparing an admixture of a metal compound and a substrate by dry mixing a chosen amount of the metal compound with a chosen amount of the substrate; and supplying energy to the admixture in an amount sufficient to deposit zero valance metal particles onto the substrate. This process gives rise to a number of deposited metallic particle sizes which may be controlled. The compositions prepared by this process are used to produce polymer composites by combining them with readily available commodity and engineering plastics. The polymer composites are used as coatings, or they are used to fabricate articles, such as free-standing films, fibers, fabrics, foams, molded and laminated articles, tubes, adhesives, and fiber reinforced articles. These articles are well-suited for many applications requiring thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, antibacterial activity, catalytic activity, and combinations thereof.

  15. Hydrogen storage evaluation based on investigations of the catalytic properties of metal/metal oxides in electrospun carbon fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Ji Sun; Lee, Young-Seak [Department of Fine Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea); Park, Soo-Jin [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea); Kim, Taejin [Core Technology Research Center for Fuel Cell, Jeollabuk-do 561-844 (Korea)

    2009-05-15

    In order to investigate the catalytic capacity of metals and metal oxides based on electrospun carbon fibers for improving hydrogen storage, electrospinning and heat treatments were carried out to obtain metal/metal oxide-embedded carbon fibers. Although the fibers were treated with the same activation procedure, they had different pore structures, due to the nature of the metal oxide. When comparing the catalytic capacity of metal and metal oxide, metal exhibits better performance as a catalyst for the improvement of hydrogen storage, when considering the hydrogen storage system. When a metal oxide with an m.p. lower than the temperature of heat treatment was used, the metal oxide was changed to metal during the heat treatment, developing a micropore structure. The activation process produced a high specific surface area of up to 2900 m{sup 2}/g and a pore volume of up to 2.5 cc/g. The amount of hydrogen adsorption reached approximately 3 wt% at 100 bar and room temperature. (author)

  16. Experimental investigation and numerical modeling of carbonation process in reinforced concrete structures Part II. Practical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saetta, Anna V.; Vitaliani, Renato V.

    2005-01-01

    The mathematical-numerical method developed by the authors to predict the corrosion initiation time of reinforced concrete structures due to carbonation process, recalled in Part I of this work, is here applied to some real cases. The final aim is to develop and test a practical method for determining the durability characteristics of existing buildings liable to carbonation, as well as estimating the corrosion initiation time of a building at the design stage. Two industrial sheds with different ages and located in different areas have been analyzed performing both experimental tests and numerical analyses. Finally, a case of carbonation-induced failure in a prestressed r.c. beam is presented

  17. Effect of intercritical heat treatment on mechanical properties of reinforcing steel bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abro, M.I.; Memon, R.A.; Soomro, I.A.; Aftab, U.

    2017-01-01

    Intercritical heat treatments attempts were made to enhance the mechanical properties of reinforcing steel bars milled from scrap metal. For this, two grades of steel bars were obtained from different steel mills and their mechanical properties that include hardness, ultimate tensile strength, and percent elongation before and after intercritical heat treatment were determined. Results indicated that 25.5 and 17.6%, improvements in UTS (Ultimate Tensile Strength) and 18.8 and 14.3% improvement in percent elongation in two grades of reinforcing steel samples containing 0.17 and 0.24% carbon respectively was achieved while heating at 750 degree C for 2h. Appreciable improvement in the mechanical properties was noted due to birth of sufficient quantity of martensite along with ferrite. (author)

  18. Characterization of Reinforced Structural Composites with Carbon Nanotubes Grown Directly on the Fibers/Fabrics Using the PopTube Approach

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An ideal candidate to accomplish the reinforcement of the matrix and interphase zone of FRPs is carbon nanotubes (CNTs), because of their superior mechanical...

  19. Study of solubility of some metal cyclohexane carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niyazov, A.N.; Amanov, K.B.; Trapeznikova, V.F.; Kul'maksimov, A.; Kolosova, N.

    1978-01-01

    The solubility of calcium, magnesium, strontium, barium, cabalt, copper and aluminium cyclohexane, carbonates (CHC) in water has been studied at 25 deg C. The salt solubility has been calculated according to the metal ion concentration in saturated solutions. It has been established, that the cobalt and rare earth cyclohexane carbonates are relatively very soluble in water and have solubility products of SP > 1x10 -5 . The solubility of CHC of multivalent metals increases with the decrease of pH values. Each salt has some ''limiting'' pH value of a solution, below which it decomposes completely and can not exist in a solution in the form of solid phase

  20. Microstructure and Mechanical Behavior of Microwave Sintered Cu50Ti50 Amorphous Alloy Reinforced Al Metal Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M. Penchal; Ubaid, F.; Shakoor, R. A.; Mohamed, A. M. A.

    2018-06-01

    In the present work, Al metal matrix composites reinforced with Cu-based (Cu50Ti50) amorphous alloy particles synthesized by ball milling followed by a microwave sintering process were studied. The amorphous powders of Cu50Ti50 produced by ball milling were used to reinforce the aluminum matrix. They were examined by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), microhardness and compression testing. The analysis of XRD patterns of the samples containing 5 vol.%, 10 vol.% and 15 vol.% Cu50Ti50 indicates the presence of Al and Cu50Ti50 peaks. SEM images of the sintered composites show the uniform distribution of reinforced particles within the matrix. Mechanical properties of the composites were found to increase with an increasing volume fraction of Cu50Ti50 reinforcement particles. The hardness and compressive strength were enhanced to 89 Hv and 449 MPa, respectively, for the Al-15 vol.% Cu50Ti50 composites.

  1. Decoration of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes by Metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The powder patterns of the as-prepared and acid treated MWCNTs are shown by the XRD spectra. The TEM results show the microstructure of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes well decorated with metal nanoparticles (Cu, Fe, Ni) and metal oxides (CuO, Fe2O3, NiO), while the SEM show the surface morphology.

  2. Recycling and characterization of carbon fibers from carbon fiber reinforced epoxy matrix composites by a novel super-heated-steam method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwan-Woo; Lee, Hye-Min; An, Jeong-Hun; Chung, Dong-Chul; An, Kay-Hyeok; Kim, Byung-Joo

    2017-12-01

    In order to manufacture high quality recycled carbon fibers (R-CFs), carbon fiber-reinforced composite wastes were pyrolysed with super-heated steam at 550 °C in a fixed bed reactor for varying reaction times. The mechanical and surface properties of the R-CFs were characterized with a single fiber tensile test, interface shear strength (IFSS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface analysis showed that there was no matrix char residue on the fiber surfaces. The tensile strength and IFSS values of the R-CFs were 90% and 115% compared to those of virgin carbon fibers (V-CFs), respectively. The recycling efficiency of the R-CFs from the composites were strongly dependent on the pyrolysis temperature, reaction time, and super-heated steam feeding rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The erosion performance of particle reinforced metal matrix composite coatings produced by co-deposition cold gas dynamic spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, Tom; Galloway, Alexander; Toumpis, Athanasios; McNutt, Philip; Iqbal, Naveed

    2017-02-01

    This work reports on the erosion performance of three particle reinforced metal matrix composite coatings, co-deposited with an aluminium binder via cold-gas dynamic spraying. The deposition of ceramic particles is difficult to achieve with typical cold spray techniques due to the absence of particle deformation. This issue has been overcome in the present study by simultaneously spraying the reinforcing particles with a ductile metallic binder which has led to an increased level of ceramic/cermet particles deposited on the substrate with thick (>400 μm) coatings produced. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the erosion performance of the co-deposited coatings within a slurry environment. The study also incorporated standard metallographic characterisation techniques to evaluate the distribution of reinforcing particles within the aluminium matrix. All coatings exhibited poorer erosion performance than the uncoated material, both in terms of volume loss and mass loss. The Al2O3 reinforced coating sustained the greatest amount of damage following exposure to the slurry and recorded the greatest volume loss (approx. 2.8 mm3) out of all of the examined coatings. Despite the poor erosion performance, the WC-CoCr reinforced coating demonstrated a considerable hardness increase over the as-received AA5083 (approx. 400%) and also exhibited the smallest free space length between adjacent particles. The findings of this study reveal that the removal of the AA5083 matrix by the impinging silicon carbide particles acts as the primary wear mechanism leading to the degradation of the coating. Analysis of the wear scar has demonstrated that the damage to the soft matrix alloy takes the form of ploughing and scoring which subsequently exposes carbide/oxide particles to the impinging slurry.

  4. Growth of carbon nanocone arrays on a metal catalyst: The effect of carbon flux ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levchenko, I.; Khachan, J.; Vladimirov, S. V.; Ostrikov, K.

    2008-01-01

    The growth of carbon nanocone arrays on metal catalyst particles by deposition from a low-temperature plasma is studied by multiscale Monte Carlo/surface diffusion numerical simulation. It is demonstrated that the variation in the degree of ionization of the carbon flux provides an effective control of the growth kinetics of the carbon nanocones, and leads to the formation of more uniform arrays of nanostructures. In the case of zero degree of ionization (neutral gas process), a width of the distribution of nanocone heights reaches 360 nm with the nanocone mean height of 150 nm. When the carbon flux of 75% ionization is used, the width of the distribution of nanocone heights decreases to 100 nm, i.e., by a factor of 3.6. A higher degree of ionization leads to a better uniformity of the metal catalyst saturation and the nanocone growth, thus contributing to the formation of more height-uniform arrays of carbon nanostructures.

  5. Deposition of metallic nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes via a fast evaporation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Guoqiang; Xing Yangchuan

    2006-01-01

    A new technique was developed for the deposition of colloidal metal nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes. It involves fast evaporation of a suspension containing sonochemically functionalized carbon nanotubes and colloidal nanoparticles. It was demonstrated that metallic nanoparticles with different sizes and concentrations can be deposited on the carbon nanotubes with only a few agglomerates. The technique does not seem to be limited by what the nanoparticles are, and therefore would be applicable to the deposition of other nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes. PtPd and CoPt 3 alloy nanoparticles were used to demonstrate the deposition process. It was found that the surfactants used to disperse the nanoparticles can hinder the nanoparticle deposition. When the nanoparticles were washed with ethanol, they could be well deposited on the carbon nanotubes. The obtained carbon nanotube supported metal nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry

  6. Highly ordered three-dimensional macroporous carbon spheres for determination of heavy metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Jianming [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: yangl@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Huang, Hui [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Kang, Zhenhui, E-mail: zhkang@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres (MPCSs) were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MPCS was covalently modified by cysteine (MPCS-CO-Cys). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MPCS-CO-Cys was first time used in electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heavy metal ions such as Pb{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} can be simultaneously determined. -- Abstract: An effective voltammetric method for detection of trace heavy metal ions using chemically modified highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres electrode surfaces is described. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were prepared by carbonization of glucose in silica crystal bead template, followed by removal of the template. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were covalently modified by cysteine, an amino acid with high affinities towards some heavy metals. The materials were characterized by physical adsorption of nitrogen, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. While the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize the functional groups on the surface of carbon spheres. High sensitivity was exhibited when this material was used in electrochemical detection (square wave anodic stripping voltammetry) of heavy metal ions due to the porous structure. And the potential application for simultaneous detection of heavy metal ions was also investigated.

  7. Development of an in-situ multi-component reinforced Al-based metal matrix composite by direct metal laser sintering technique — Optimization of process parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Subrata Kumar, E-mail: subratagh82@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Tripura 799055 (India); Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik; Saha, Partha [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2014-07-01

    In the present investigation, an in-situ multi-component reinforced aluminum based metal matrix composite was fabricated by the combination of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis and direct metal laser sintering process. The different mixtures of Al, TiO{sub 2} and B{sub 4}C powders were used to initiate and maintain the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis by laser during the sintering process. It was found from the X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy that the reinforcements like Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiC, and TiB{sub 2} were formed in the composite. The scanning electron microscopy revealed the distribution of the reinforcement phases in the composite and phase identities. The variable parameters such as powder layer thickness, laser power, scanning speed, hatching distance and composition of the powder mixture were optimized for higher density, lower porosity and higher microhardness using Taguchi method. Experimental investigation shows that the density of the specimen mainly depends upon the hatching distance, composition and layer thickness. On the other hand, hatching distance, layer thickness and laser power are the significant parameters which influence the porosity. The composition, laser power and layer thickness are the key influencing parameters for microhardness. - Highlights: • The reinforcements such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiC, and TiB{sub 2} were produced in Al-MMC through SHS. • The density is mainly influenced by the material composition and hatching distance. • Hatching distance is the major influencing parameter on porosity. • The material composition is the significant parameter to enhance the microhardness. • The SEM micrographs reveal the distribution of TiC, TiB{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the composite.

  8. Electronic Transport Parameter of Carbon Nanotube Metal-Semiconductor On-Tube Heterojunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukirno

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon Nanotubes research is one of the top five hot research topics in physics since 2006 because of its unique properties and functionalities, which leads to wide-range applications. One of the most interesting potential applications is in term of nanoelectronic device. It has been modeled carbon nanotubes heterojunction, which was built from two different carbon nanotubes, that one is metallic and the other one is semiconducting. There are two different carbon nanotubes metal-semiconductor heterojunction. The first one is built from CNT(10,10 as metallic carbon nanotube and CNT (17,0 as semiconductor carbon nanotube. The other one is built from CNT (5,5 as metallic carbon nanotube and CNT (8,0. All of the semiconducting carbon nanotubes are assumed to be a pyridine-like N-doped. Those two heterojunctions are different in term of their structural shape and diameter. It has been calculated their charge distribution and potential profile, which would be useful for the simulation of their electronic transport properties. The calculations are performed by using self-consistent method to solve Non-Homogeneous Poisson’s Equation with aid of Universal Density of States calculation method for Carbon Nanotubes. The calculations are done by varying the doping fraction of the semiconductor carbon nanotubes The electron tunneling transmission coefficient, for low energy region, also has been calculated by using Wentzel-Kramer-Brillouin (WKB approximation. From the calculation results, it is obtained that the charge distribution as well as the potential profile of this device is doping fraction dependent. It is also inferred that the WKB method is fail to be used to calculate whole of the electron tunneling coefficient in this system. It is expected that further calculation for electron tunneling coefficient in higher energy region as well as current-voltage characteristic of this system will become an interesting issue for this carbon nanotube based

  9. Self-tapping ability of carbon fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone suture anchors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feerick, Emer M; Wilson, Joanne; Jarman-Smith, Marcus; Ó'Brádaigh, Conchur M; McGarry, J Patrick

    2014-10-01

    An experimental and computational investigation of the self-tapping ability of carbon fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) has been conducted. Six CFR-PEEK suture anchor designs were investigated using PEEK-OPTIMA® Reinforced, a medical grade of CFR-PEEK. Experimental tests were conducted to investigate the maximum axial force and torque required for self-taping insertion of each anchor design. Additional experimental tests were conducted for some anchor designs using pilot holes. Computational simulations were conducted to determine the maximum stress in each anchor design at various stages of insertion. Simulations also were performed to investigate the effect of wall thickness in the anchor head. The maximum axial force required to insert a self-tapping CFR-PEEK suture anchor did not exceed 150 N for any anchor design. The maximum torque required to insert a self-tapping CFR-PEEK suture anchor did not exceed 0.8 Nm. Computational simulations reveal significant stress concentrations in the region of the anchor tip, demonstrating that a re-design of the tip geometry should be performed to avoid fracture during self-tapping, as observed in the experimental component of this study. This study demonstrates the ability of PEEK-OPTIMA Reinforced suture anchors to self-tap polyurethane foam bone analogue. This provides motivation to further investigate the self-tapping ability of CFR-PEEK suture anchors in animal/cadaveric bone. An optimised design for CFR-PEEK suture anchors offers the advantages of radiolucency, and mechanical properties similar to bone with the ability to self-tap. This may have positive implications for reducing surgery times and the associated costs with the procedure. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Visualization of flowing current in braided carbon fiber reinforced plastics using SQUID gradiometer for nondestructive evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatsukade, Y; Yoshida, K; Kage, T; Tanaka, S; Takai, Y; Aly-Hassan, M S; Hamada, H; Nakai, A

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, visualization of flowing current in various braided carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs) was demonstrated using high-temperature superconductor (HTS) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) gradiometer, in order to study electrical properties and integrity of the braided CFRP samples. Step-by-step tensile loading was also applied to the samples, in order to study their mechanical properties and destructive mechanism. Experimental results indicated that the addition of carbon nano fibers and middle-end carbon fiber bundles attributed to modify not only the mechanical properties, but also the electrical properties of the samples. Combining the results by the both methods, a scenario of the destructive mechanism of one sample was estimated.

  11. The metal-carbon-fluorine system for improving hydrogen storage by using metal and fluorine with different levels of electronegativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Ji Sun; Lee, Young-Seak [Department of Fine Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, BK21-E2M, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea); Park, Soo-Jin [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea)

    2009-02-15

    In order to improve the capacity of hydrogen storage using activated carbon nanofibers, metal and fluorine were introduced into the activated carbon nanofibers by electrospinning, heat treatment, and direct fluorination. The pore structure of the samples was developed by the KOH activation process and investigated using nitrogen isotherms and micropore size distribution. The specific surface area and total pore volume approached 2800 m{sup 2}/g and 2.7 cc/g, respectively. Because of the electronegativity gap between the two elements (metal and fluorine), the electron of a hydrogen molecule can be attracted to one side. This reaction effectively guides the hydrogen molecule into the carbon nanofibers. The amount of hydrogen storage was dramatically increased in this metal-carbon-fluorine system; hydrogen content was as high as 3.2 wt%. (author)

  12. Metallic Carbon Nanotubes and Ag Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brus, Louis E

    2014-03-04

    The goal of this DOE solar energy research was to understand how visible light interacts with matter, and how to make electric excitations evolve into separated electrons and holes in photovoltaic cells, especially in nanoparticles and nanowires. Our specific experiments focused on A) understanding plasmon enhanced spectroscopy and charge-transfer (metal-to-molecule) photochemistry on the surface of metallic particles and B) the spectroscopy and photochemistry of carbon nanotubes and graphene. I also worked closely with R. Friesner on theoretical studies of photo-excited electrons near surfaces of titanium dioxide nanoparticles; this process is relevant to the Gratzel photovoltaic cell.

  13. UV-Assisted 3D Printing of Glass and Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Dual-Cure Polymer Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invernizzi, Marta; Natale, Gabriele; Levi, Marinella; Turri, Stefano; Griffini, Gianmarco

    2016-07-16

    Glass (GFR) and carbon fiber-reinforced (CFR) dual-cure polymer composites fabricated by UV-assisted three-dimensional (UV-3D) printing are presented. The resin material combines an acrylic-based photocurable resin with a low temperature (140 °C) thermally-curable resin system based on bisphenol A diglycidyl ether as base component, an aliphatic anhydride (hexahydro-4-methylphthalic anhydride) as hardener and (2,4,6,-tris(dimethylaminomethyl)phenol) as catalyst. A thorough rheological characterization of these formulations allowed us to define their 3D printability window. UV-3D printed macrostructures were successfully demonstrated, giving a clear indication of their potential use in real-life structural applications. Differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis highlighted the good thermal stability and mechanical properties of the printed parts. In addition, uniaxial tensile tests were used to assess the fiber reinforcing effect on the UV-3D printed objects. Finally, an initial study was conducted on the use of a sizing treatment on carbon fibers to improve the fiber/matrix interfacial adhesion, giving preliminary indications on the potential of this approach to improve the mechanical properties of the 3D printed CFR components.

  14. UV-Assisted 3D Printing of Glass and Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Dual-Cure Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Invernizzi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Glass (GFR and carbon fiber-reinforced (CFR dual-cure polymer composites fabricated by UV-assisted three-dimensional (UV-3D printing are presented. The resin material combines an acrylic-based photocurable resin with a low temperature (140 °C thermally-curable resin system based on bisphenol A diglycidyl ether as base component, an aliphatic anhydride (hexahydro-4-methylphthalic anhydride as hardener and (2,4,6,-tris(dimethylaminomethylphenol as catalyst. A thorough rheological characterization of these formulations allowed us to define their 3D printability window. UV-3D printed macrostructures were successfully demonstrated, giving a clear indication of their potential use in real-life structural applications. Differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis highlighted the good thermal stability and mechanical properties of the printed parts. In addition, uniaxial tensile tests were used to assess the fiber reinforcing effect on the UV-3D printed objects. Finally, an initial study was conducted on the use of a sizing treatment on carbon fibers to improve the fiber/matrix interfacial adhesion, giving preliminary indications on the potential of this approach to improve the mechanical properties of the 3D printed CFR components.

  15. 1/f noise in metallic and semiconducting carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Shahed; Huynh, Quyen T.; Bosman, Gijs; Sippel-Oakley, Jennifer; Rinzler, Andrew G.

    2006-11-01

    The charge transport and noise properties of three terminal, gated devices containing multiple single-wall metallic and semiconducting carbon nanotubes were measured at room temperature. Applying a high voltage pulsed bias at the drain terminal the metallic tubes were ablated sequentially, enabling the separation of measured conductance and 1/f noise into metallic and semiconducting nanotube contributions. The relative low frequency excess noise of the metallic tubes was observed to be two orders of magnitude lower than that of the semiconductor tubes.

  16. Trace metal mobilization in an experimental carbon sequestration scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcon, Virginia [University of Wyoming, Geology and Geophysics, Laramie, WY. 82070 (United States); Kaszuba, John [University of Wyoming, Geology and Geophysics, Laramie, WY. 82070 (United States); Univeristy of Wyoming, School of Energy Resources, Larmaie, WY. 82070 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Mobilizing trace metals with injection of supercritical CO{sub 2} into deep saline aquifers is a concern for geologic carbon sequestration. Hydrothermal experiments investigate the release of harmful metals from two zones of a sequestration injection reservoir: at the cap-rock-reservoir boundary and deeper within the reservoir, away from the cap-rock. In both systems, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn behave in a similar manner, increasing in concentration with injection, but subsequently decreasing in concentration over time. SEM images and geochemical models indicate initial dissolution of minerals and precipitation of Ca-Mg-Fe carbonates, metal sulfides (i.e. Fe, As, Ag, and Co sulfides), and anhydrite in both systems. The results suggest that Ba, Cu, and Zn will not be contaminants of concern, but Pb, Fe, and As may require careful attention. (authors)

  17. Dual Function Behavior of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer in Simulated Pore Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hua Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical and electrochemical performance of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP were investigated regarding a novel improvement in the load-carrying capacity and durability of reinforced concrete structures by adopting CFRP as both a structural strengthener and an anode of the impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP system. The mechanical and anode performance of CFRP were investigated in an aqueous pore solution in which the electrolytes were available to the anode in a cured concrete structure. Accelerated polarization tests were designed with different test durations and various levels of applied currents in accordance with the international standard. The CFRP specimens were mechanically characterized after polarization. The measured feeding voltage and potential during the test period indicates CFRP have stable anode performance in a simulated pore solution. Two failure modes were observed through tensile testing. The tensile properties of the post-polarization CFRP specimens declined with an increased charge density. The CFRP demonstrated success as a structural strengthener and ICCP anode. We propose a mathematic model predicting the tensile strengths of CFRP with varied impressed charge densities.

  18. Research on carbon fiber–reinforced plastic bumper beam subjected to low-velocity frontal impact

    OpenAIRE

    Yefa Hu; Can Liu; Jinguang Zhang; Guoping Ding; Qiong Wu

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight and safety performance of automobiles are two important factors for automobile designs. In this article, a research on lightweight and crashworthiness of automotive bumper has been conducted. The carbon fiber–reinforced plastic bumper beam is considered to replace the traditional high-strength steel one. The low-velocity impact finite element simulations for the above two bumper beams are performed via LS-DYNA. Furthermore, the energy absorption capabilities and dynamic response c...

  19. Structure-property relations for silicon nitride matrix composites reinforced with pyrolytic carbon pre-coated Hi-Nicalon fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, B.J.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; Olivier, C.; Veyret, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    Si3N4 matrix composites reinforced with pyrolytic carbon pre-coated Hi-Nicalon (SiC) fibers, were studied using tensile testing and transmission electron microscopy. Three types of samples were evaluated all with a nominal coating thickness of 200 nm. The composites were densified by hot pressing at

  20. Reconstruction of fiber Bragg grating strain profile used to monitor the stiffness degradation of the adhesive layer in carbon fiber–reinforced plastic single-lap joint

    OpenAIRE

    Song Chunsheng; Zhang Jiaxiang; Yang Mo; Shang Erwei; Zhang Jinguang

    2017-01-01

    The adhesive-bonded joint of carbon fiber–reinforced plastic is one of the core components in aircraft structure design. It is an effective guarantee for the safety and reliability of the aerospace aircraft structure to use effective methods for monitoring and early warning of internal failure. In this article, the mapping relation model between the strain profiles of the adherend of the carbon fiber–reinforced plastic single-lap adhesive joint and the stiffness degradation evolution of adhes...

  1. Scanning tone burst eddy-current thermography (S-TBET) for NDT of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libin, M. N.; Maxfield, B. W.; Balasubramanian, Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    Tone Burst Eddy Current technique uses eddy current to apply transient heating inside a component and uses a conventional IR camera for visualization of the response to the transient heating. This technique has been earliest demonstrated for metallic components made of AL, Steel, Stainless Steel, etc., and for detection of cracks, corrosion and adhesive dis-bonds. Although, not nearly as conducting as metals, the Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) material absorbs measurable electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range above 10 kHz. When the surface temperature is observed on the surface that is being heated (defined as the surface just beneath and slightly to one side of the heating coil), the surface temperature increases with increasing frequency because the internal heating increases with frequency. A 2-D anisotropic transient Eddy current heating and thermal conduction model has been developed that provides a reasonable description of the processes described above. The inherent anisotropy of CFRP laminates is included in this model by calculating the heating due to three superimposed, tightly coupled isotropic layers having a specified ply-layup. The experimental apparatus consists of an induction heating coil and an IR camera with low NETD and high frame rates. The coil is moved over the sample using a stepper motor controlled manipulator. The IR data recording is synchronized with the motion control to provide a movie of the surface temperature over time. Several components were evaluated for detection of impact damage, location of stiffeners, etc. on CFRP components

  2. Scanning tone burst eddy-current thermography (S-TBET) for NDT of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libin, M. N.; Maxfield, B. W.; Balasubramanian, Krishnan [Centre for Nondestructive Evaluation, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2014-02-18

    Tone Burst Eddy Current technique uses eddy current to apply transient heating inside a component and uses a conventional IR camera for visualization of the response to the transient heating. This technique has been earliest demonstrated for metallic components made of AL, Steel, Stainless Steel, etc., and for detection of cracks, corrosion and adhesive dis-bonds. Although, not nearly as conducting as metals, the Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) material absorbs measurable electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range above 10 kHz. When the surface temperature is observed on the surface that is being heated (defined as the surface just beneath and slightly to one side of the heating coil), the surface temperature increases with increasing frequency because the internal heating increases with frequency. A 2-D anisotropic transient Eddy current heating and thermal conduction model has been developed that provides a reasonable description of the processes described above. The inherent anisotropy of CFRP laminates is included in this model by calculating the heating due to three superimposed, tightly coupled isotropic layers having a specified ply-layup. The experimental apparatus consists of an induction heating coil and an IR camera with low NETD and high frame rates. The coil is moved over the sample using a stepper motor controlled manipulator. The IR data recording is synchronized with the motion control to provide a movie of the surface temperature over time. Several components were evaluated for detection of impact damage, location of stiffeners, etc. on CFRP components.

  3. Diffusion of gases in metal containing carbon aerogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, L.M.; Conceicao, F.L.; Carrott, M.M.L. Ribeiro; Carrott, P.J.M. [Evora Univ. (Portugal). Centro de Quimica de Evora

    2011-02-15

    Carbon aerogels containing Fe, Ni, Cu or no metal were prepared by carbonisation of polymer aerogels synthesised from 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and formaldehyde and modified by CVD of benzene. Uptakes and diffusion coefficients of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} were measured and the results compared with those obtained using a commercial carbon molecular sieve. The results indicated that the diffusion of light gas molecules in carbon aerogels cannot be interpreted solely on the basis of micropore diffusion, but that the very high mesopore volumes of the aerogel monoliths exert a strong influence on the kinetics of diffusion in these materials. The mesoporosity is decreased when the % solids used during synthesis of the polymer precursor increases and this resulted in kinetic behaviour which was more similar to that predicted by Fickian or LDF models. Increasing % solids was also accompanied by generally slower diffusion rates and generally lower uptakes. The single gas uptakes and diffusion coefficients could be altered by varying the % solids used during synthesis of the polymer precursor, by introducing different metals into the polymer hydrogel by ion exchange, or by CVD of benzene on the carbon aerogel. (author)

  4. Diffusion of gases in metal containing carbon aerogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, L.M.; Conceicao, F.L.; Carrott, M.M.L. Ribeiro; Carrott, P.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon aerogels containing Fe, Ni, Cu or no metal were prepared by carbonisation of polymer aerogels synthesised from 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and formaldehyde and modified by CVD of benzene. Uptakes and diffusion coefficients of CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 and O 2 were measured and the results compared with those obtained using a commercial carbon molecular sieve. The results indicated that the diffusion of light gas molecules in carbon aerogels cannot be interpreted solely on the basis of micropore diffusion, but that the very high mesopore volumes of the aerogel monoliths exert a strong influence on the kinetics of diffusion in these materials. The mesoporosity is decreased when the % solids used during synthesis of the polymer precursor increases and this resulted in kinetic behaviour which was more similar to that predicted by Fickian or LDF models. Increasing % solids was also accompanied by generally slower diffusion rates and generally lower uptakes. The single gas uptakes and diffusion coefficients could be altered by varying the % solids used during synthesis of the polymer precursor, by introducing different metals into the polymer hydrogel by ion exchange, or by CVD of benzene on the carbon aerogel. (author)

  5. Critical Metals in Strategic Low-carbon Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, R. L.

    2012-04-01

    Due to the rapid growth in demand for certain materials, compounded by political risks associated with the geographical concentration of the supply of them, shortages of materials could be a potential bottleneck to the deployment of low-carbon energy technologies. Consequently, an assessment has been carried out to ascertain whether such shortages could jeopardise the objectives of the EU's Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan), especially in the six low-carbon energy technologies of SET-Plan, namely: nuclear, solar, wind, bioenergy, carbon capture and storage (CCS) and electricity grids. The assessment identified 14 metals for which the deployment of the six technologies will require 1% or more (and in some cases, much more) of current world supply per annum between 2020 and 2030. Following a more critical examination, based on the likelihood of rapid future global demand growth, limitations to expanding supply in the short to medium term, and the concentration of supply and political risks associated with key suppliers, 5 of the 14 metals were pinpointed to be at high risk, namely: the rare earth metals neodymium and dysprosium (for wind technology), and the by-products (from the processing of other metals) indium, tellurium and gallium (for photovoltaic technologies). In addition, the work has explored potential mitigation strategies, ranging from expanding European output, increasing recycling and reuse to reducing waste and finding substitutes for these metals in their main applications. Furthermore, recommendations are provided which include closely working with the EU's Raw Materials Initiative; supporting efforts to ensure reliable supply of ore concentrates at competitive prices; promoting R&D and demonstration projects on new lower cost separation processes; and promoting the further development of recycling technologies and increasing end-of-life collection

  6. Improved Mechanical Properties of Various Fabric-Reinforced Geocomposite at Elevated Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Sneha; Phan Thanh, Nhan; Petríková, Iva; Marvalová, Bohadana

    2015-07-01

    This article signifies the improved performance of the various types of fabric reinforcement of geopolymer as a function of physical, thermal, mechanical, and heat-resistant properties at elevated temperatures. Geopolymer mixed with designed Si:Al ratios of 15.6 were synthesized using three different types of fabric reinforcement such as carbon, E-glass, and basalt fibers. Heat testing was conducted on 3-mm-thick panels with 15 × 90 mm surface exposure region. The strength of carbon-based geocomposite increased toward a higher temperature. The basalt-reinforced geocomposite strength decreased due to the catastrophic failure in matrix region. The poor bridging effect and dissolution of fabric was observed in the E-glass-reinforced geocomposite. At an elevated temperature, fiber bridging was observed in carbon fabric-reinforced geopolymer matrix. Among all the fabrics, carbon proved to be suitable candidate for the high-temperature applications in thermal barrier coatings and fire-resistant panels.

  7. Carbon formation and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; Wright, I.G.

    1997-02-01

    The product gases generated by coal gasification systems contain high concentrations of CO and, characteristically, have relatively high carbon activities. Accordingly, carbon deposition and metal dusting can potentially degrade the operation of such gasifier systems. Therefore, the product gas compositions of eight representative gasifier systems were examined with respect to the carbon activity of the gases at temperatures ranging from 480 to 1,090 C. Phase stability calculations indicated that Fe{sub 3}C is stable only under very limited thermodynamic conditions and with certain kinetic assumptions and that FeO and Fe{sub 0.877}S tend to form instead of the carbide. As formation of Fe{sub 3}C is a necessary step in the metal dusting of steels, there are numerous gasifier environments where this type of carbon-related degradation will not occur, particularly under conditions associated with higher oxygen and sulfur activities. These calculations also indicated that the removal of H{sub 2}S by a hot-gas cleanup system may have less effect on the formation of Fe{sub 3}C in air-blown gasifier environments, where the iron oxide phase can exist and is unaffected by the removal of sulfur, than in oxygen-blown systems, where iron sulfide provides the only potential barrier to Fe{sub 3}C formation. Use of carbon- and/or low-alloy steels dictates that the process gas composition be such that Fe{sub 3}C cannot form if the potential for metal dusting is to be eliminated. Alternatively, process modifications could include the reintroduction of hydrogen sulfide, cooling the gas to perhaps as low as 400 C and/or steam injection. If higher-alloy steels are used, a hydrogen sulfide-free gas may be processed without concern about carbon deposition and metal dusting.

  8. Carbon fiber reinforced magnesium alloy in a Ti-6Al-4V shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astanin Vasily

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous carbon fiber reinforced magnesium alloy pieces in SMC Ti-6Al-4V shell have been fabricated using pressure infiltration. Similar temperatures (~700°C for superplastic formation of the shell and melting of the alloy allow this to be done in one step. The quality of infiltration of the molten alloys is found to be proportional to load. A limiting parameter in increasing the infiltration pressure is the strength of the welded bonds. Structure, fracture parameters and mechanical properties are discussed.

  9. Fracture Mechanics Analyses of Subsurface Defects in Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Joggles Subjected to Thermo-Mechanical Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Raju, Ivatury S.; Song, Kyongchan

    2011-01-01

    Coating spallation events have been observed along the slip-side joggle region of the Space Shuttle Orbiter wing-leading-edge panels. One potential contributor to the spallation event is a pressure build up within subsurface voids or defects due to volatiles or water vapor entrapped during fabrication, refurbishment, or normal operational use. The influence of entrapped pressure on the thermo-mechanical fracture-mechanics response of reinforced carbon-carbon with subsurface defects is studied. Plane-strain simulations with embedded subsurface defects are performed to characterize the fracture mechanics response for a given defect length when subjected to combined elevated-temperature and subsurface-defect pressure loadings to simulate the unvented defect condition. Various subsurface defect locations of a fixed-length substrate defect are examined for elevated temperature conditions. Fracture mechanics results suggest that entrapped pressure combined with local elevated temperatures have the potential to cause subsurface defect growth and possibly contribute to further material separation or even spallation. For this anomaly to occur, several unusual circumstances would be required making such an outcome unlikely but plausible.

  10. Flame Retardancy Effects of Graphene Nanoplatelet/Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Membranes on Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxian Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotube/graphene nanoplatelet (MWCNT/GNP hybrid membranes with lower liquid permeability and better barrier effect compared to MWCNT membranes were successfully synthesized by vacuum filtering. Their morphologies, water permeability, and pore structures were characterized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM and nitrogen adsorption isotherms. Furthermore, MWCNT/GNP membranes were used to improve the flame retardancy of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP composites, and the influence of weight percentage of GNPs on the permeability and flame retardancy of MWCNT/GNP membranes was systematically investigated. Results show that incorporation of MWCNT/GNP membranes on CFRP composite plates can remarkably improve the flame retardancy of CFRP composites. Specifically, the incorporation of hierarchical MWCNT/GNP membrane with 7.5 wt% of GNP displays a 35% reduction in the peak heat release rate (PHRR for a CFRP composite plate with the epoxy as matrix and a 11% reduction in PHRR compared with the incorporation of MWCNT membrane only. A synergistic flame retarding mechanism is suggested to be attributed to these results, which includes controlling the pore size and penetrative network structure.

  11. Microstructure characteristics of nickel reinforced metal matrix composites (Ni/AC8A) by low-pressure metal infiltration process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Jun; Rong, Hua Wei; Jun, Ji Ang; Park, Sung Ho; Huh, Sun Chul; Park, Won Jo [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    MMCs(Metal Matrix Composites) can obtain mechanical characteristics of application purposes that a single material is difficult to obtain. Al alloy composite material that nickel is added by reinforcement is used for piston of diesel engine, because high temperature properties, strength, corrosion resistant are improved excellently than existent Al alloy. And, in case of processing, interface between Ni and Al improves wear resistant by intermetallic compound of high hardness. Also, in the world, industrial circles are proceeding research to apply excellent composite material. Existent process methods of MMC using preform were manufactured by high-pressure. But, it cause deformation of preform or fault of completed MMC. Using low-pressure as infiltration pressure can prevent this problem, and there is an advantage that is able to reduce the cost of production by small scale of production equipment. Accordingly, process methods of MMC have to consider low-pressure infiltration for the strength of preform, and nowadays, there are many studies about reducing infiltration pressure. In this study produced Al composite material that Ni is added by reinforcement by low-pressure infiltration, and observed microstructure of completed MMCs.

  12. Metal adsorption process in activated carbon fiber from textile PAN fiber aim electrode production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Aline Castilho; Goncalves, Emerson Sarmento; Silva, Elen Leal da; Marcuzzo, Jossano Saldanha; Baldan, Mauricio Ribeiro; Cuna, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Carbon fibers have a variety of applications in industry and have been increasingly studied to explore their various characteristics. Studies show that the activated carbon fiber has been effective in removing small contaminants as well as activated carbon, because of its characteristic porosity. Other studies relate carbonaceous materials to the electrical conductivity devices application. This work is based on the use of an activated carbon fiber from textile polyacrylonitrile (PAN) for metallic ion adsorption from aqueous solution. Consequently, it improves the electrical characteristics and this fact show the possibility to use this material as electrode. The work was performed by adsorption process in saline solution (NO 3 Ag and ClPd) and activated carbon fiber in felt form as adsorbent. The metal adsorption on activated carbon fiber was characterized by textural analysis, x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive x-ray (SEM-EDX), Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was observed that activated carbon fiber showed good adsorption capacity for the metals used. At the end of the process, the activated carbon fiber samples gained about 15% by weight, related to metallic fraction incorporated into the fiber and the process of adsorption does not changed the structural, morphological and chemistry inertness of the samples. The results indicate the feasibility of this metal incorporation techniques activated carbon fiber for the production of electrodes facing the electrochemical area. (author)

  13. Metal adsorption process in activated carbon fiber from textile PAN fiber aim electrode production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Aline Castilho; Goncalves, Emerson Sarmento, E-mail: alinerodrigues_1@msn.com [Instituto Tecnologico Aeroespacial (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Silva, Elen Leal da; Marcuzzo, Jossano Saldanha; Baldan, Mauricio Ribeiro [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Cuna, Andres [Faculdade de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica (Uruguay)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Carbon fibers have a variety of applications in industry and have been increasingly studied to explore their various characteristics. Studies show that the activated carbon fiber has been effective in removing small contaminants as well as activated carbon, because of its characteristic porosity. Other studies relate carbonaceous materials to the electrical conductivity devices application. This work is based on the use of an activated carbon fiber from textile polyacrylonitrile (PAN) for metallic ion adsorption from aqueous solution. Consequently, it improves the electrical characteristics and this fact show the possibility to use this material as electrode. The work was performed by adsorption process in saline solution (NO{sub 3}Ag and ClPd) and activated carbon fiber in felt form as adsorbent. The metal adsorption on activated carbon fiber was characterized by textural analysis, x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive x-ray (SEM-EDX), Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was observed that activated carbon fiber showed good adsorption capacity for the metals used. At the end of the process, the activated carbon fiber samples gained about 15% by weight, related to metallic fraction incorporated into the fiber and the process of adsorption does not changed the structural, morphological and chemistry inertness of the samples. The results indicate the feasibility of this metal incorporation techniques activated carbon fiber for the production of electrodes facing the electrochemical area. (author)

  14. Tensile flow stress of ceramic particle-reinforced metal in the presence of particle cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, R. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratory for Mechanical Metallurgy, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Rossoll, A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratory for Mechanical Metallurgy, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)], E-mail: andreas.rossoll@epfl.ch; Weber, L. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratory for Mechanical Metallurgy, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Bourke, M.A.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), LANSCE-12, P.O. Box 1663, MS H805, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Dunand, D.C. [Northwestern University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Mortensen, A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratory for Mechanical Metallurgy, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2008-10-15

    A simplified model is proposed to quantify the effect of damage in the form of particle cracking on the elastic and plastic behaviour of particle-reinforced metal matrix composites under uniaxial tensile loading: cracked particles are simply replaced, in a mean-field model, with as much matrix. Pure aluminium reinforced with 44 vol.% alumina particles, tested in tension and unloaded at periodic plastic deformations, is analysed by neutron diffraction during each reloading elastic step, at 30%, 50%, 70% and 90% of the tensile flow stress. The data give the evolution of the elastic matrix strains in the composite and also measure the progress of internal damage by particle cracking. The test gives (i) the evolution of the in situ matrix flow stress, and (ii) the evolution of load partitioning during elastic deformation with increasing composite damage. Predictions of the present model compare favourably with relevant results in the literature, and with results from the present neutron diffraction experiments.

  15. Tensile flow stress of ceramic particle-reinforced metal in the presence of particle cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, R.; Rossoll, A.; Weber, L.; Bourke, M.A.M.; Dunand, D.C.; Mortensen, A.

    2008-01-01

    A simplified model is proposed to quantify the effect of damage in the form of particle cracking on the elastic and plastic behaviour of particle-reinforced metal matrix composites under uniaxial tensile loading: cracked particles are simply replaced, in a mean-field model, with as much matrix. Pure aluminium reinforced with 44 vol.% alumina particles, tested in tension and unloaded at periodic plastic deformations, is analysed by neutron diffraction during each reloading elastic step, at 30%, 50%, 70% and 90% of the tensile flow stress. The data give the evolution of the elastic matrix strains in the composite and also measure the progress of internal damage by particle cracking. The test gives (i) the evolution of the in situ matrix flow stress, and (ii) the evolution of load partitioning during elastic deformation with increasing composite damage. Predictions of the present model compare favourably with relevant results in the literature, and with results from the present neutron diffraction experiments

  16. Microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of carbon nanotube reinforced aluminum alloy composites produced by ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raviathul Basariya, M.; Srivastava, V.C.; Mukhopadhyay, N.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 6082 Al alloy composite with 2 wt% multiwalled carbon nanotubes prepared by milling. • Effect of milling time on structure and property evolution has been studied. • The reinforced composite powders showed a drastic crystallite size refinement. • The presence of carbon nanotube led to a two fold increase in the hardness and modulus. • The composite powder showed good thermal stability studied by DTA. - Abstract: The influence of milling time on the structure, morphology and thermal stability of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) reinforced EN AW6082 aluminum alloy powders has been studied. After structural and microstructural characterization of the mechanically milled powders micro- and nano-hardness of the composite powder particles were evaluated. The morphological and X-ray diffraction studies on the milled powders revealed that the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were uniformly distributed and embedded within the aluminum matrix. No reaction products were detected even after long milling up to 50 h. Nanotubes became shorter in length as they fractured under the impact and shearing action during the milling process. A high hardness of about 436 ± 52 HV is achieved for the milled powders, due to the addition of MWCNTs, after milling for 50 h. The increased elastic modulus and nanohardness can be attributed to the finer grain size evolved during high energy ball milling and to the uniform distribution of hard CNTs in the Al-alloy matrix. The hardness values of the composite as well as the matrix alloy compares well with that predicted by the Hall–Petch relationship

  17. Metal-carbon nanosystem IR-PVA/Fe-Co for catalysis in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilev, A A; Dzidziguri, E L; Ivantsov, M I; Efimov, M N

    2016-01-01

    Metal-carbon nanosystems consisting of nanodimensional bimetallic particles of Fe- Co dispersed in a carbon matrix for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were studied. Prepared metal-carbon nanopowders samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was shown formation of FeCo nanoparticles with body-centered cubic structures started at 400 °C. FeCo nanoparticles have spherical form, the mean size is 7 - 12 nm and uniform distribution in a carbon matrix. The metal-carbon nanosystem demonstrates a catalytic activity in the Fischer- Tropsch synthesis. The maximum yield of liquid hydrocabons C 5+ was 92 g/m 3 while the selectivity for the target product - 35%. (paper)

  18. Efficient selective catalytic reduction of NO by novel carbon-doped metal catalysts made from electroplating sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia; Zhang, Jingyi; Xu, Yunfeng; Su, Huimin; Li, Xiaoman; Zhou, Ji Zhi; Qian, Guangren; Li, Li; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2014-10-07

    Electroplating sludges, once regarded as industrial wastes, are precious resources of various transition metals. This research has thus investigated the recycling of an electroplating sludge as a novel carbon-doped metal (Fe, Ni, Mg, Cu, and Zn) catalyst, which was different from a traditional carbon-supported metal catalyst, for effective NO selective catalytic reduction (SCR). This catalyst removed >99.7% NO at a temperature as low as 300 °C. It also removed NO steadily (>99%) with a maximum specific accumulative reduced amount (MSARA) of 3.4 mmol/g. Gas species analyses showed that NO removal was accompanied by evolving N2 and CO2. Moreover, in a wide temperature window, the sludge catalyst showed a higher CO2 selectivity (>99%) than an activated carbon-supported metal catalyst. Structure characterizations revealed that carbon-doped metal was transformed to metal oxide in the sludge catalyst after the catalytic test, with most carbon (2.33 wt %) being consumed. These observations suggest that NO removal over the sludge catalyst is a typical SCR where metals/metal oxides act as the catalytic center and carbon as the reducing reagent. Therefore, our report probably provides an opportunity for high value-added utilizations of heavy-metal wastes in mitigating atmospheric pollutions.

  19. Production of metal fullerene surface layer from various media in the process of steel carbonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUZEEV Iskander Rustemovich

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies devoted to production of metal fullerene layer in steels when introducing carbon from organic and inorganic media were performed. Barium carbonate was used as an inorganic medium and petroleum pitch was used as an organic medium. In order to generate the required amount of fullerenes in the process of steel samples carbonization, optimal temperature mode was found. The higher temperature, absorption and cohesive effects become less important and polymeric carbon structures destruction processes become more important. On the bottom the temperature is limited by petroleum pitch softening temperature and its transition to low-viscous state in order to enhance molecular mobility and improve the possibility of their diffusion to metal surface. Identification of fullerenes in the surface modified layer was carried out following the methods of IR-Fourier spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. It was found out that nanocarbon structures, formed during carbonization in barium carbonate and petroleum pitch mediums, possess different morphology. In the process of metal carbonization from carbonates medium, the main role in fullerenes synthesis is belonged to catalytic effect of surface with generation of endohedral derivatives in the surface layer; but in the process of carbonization from pitch medium fullerenes are formed during crystallization of the latter and crystallization centers are of fullerene type. Based on theoretical data and dataof spectral and chromatographic analysis, optimal conditions of metal fullerene layer formation in barium carbonate and petroleum pitch mediums were determined. Low cohesion of layer, modified in barium carbonate medium, with metal basis was discovered. That was caused by limited carbon diffusion in the volume of α-Fe. According to the detected mechanism of fullerenes formation on steel surface in gaseous medium, fullerenes are formed on catalytic centers – ferrum atoms, forming thin metal

  20. Bond Behavior of Wet-Bonded Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer-Concrete Interface Subjected to Moisture

    OpenAIRE

    Yiyan Lu; Tao Zhu; Shan Li; Zhenzhen Liu

    2018-01-01

    The use of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite materials to strengthen concrete structures has become popular in coastal regions with high humidity levels. However, many concrete structures in these places remain wet as a result of tides and wave-splashing, so they cannot be completely dried before repair. Therefore, it is vital to investigate the effects of moisture on the initial and long-term bond behavior between CFRP and wet concrete. This research assesses the effects of mo...

  1. Preparation and mechanical properties of rubber composites reinforced with carbon nanohorns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isshiki, Tetsuya; Hashimoto, Mikiko; Morii, Masato; Ota, Yuki; Kaneda, Kazuo; Takahashi, Hidetaka; Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio; Okino, Fujio

    2010-06-01

    Nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) composites with single-wall carbon nanohorns (SWNHs, or simply NHs), hole-opened NHs (h-NHs), and carbon black (CB), the most commonly used nanocarbon rubber filler, were prepared, and their mechanical properties were compared. The NBR composites with h-NHs (NBR/h-NH) showed higher tensile strength than those with NHs (NBR/NH), and the tensile strength of NBR/h-NH or NBR/NH was much greater than those of the NBR composites with CB (NBR/CB). At 5 parts per hundred of rubber (phr), the tensile stresses at break of NBR/h-NH was about 1.8 times larger than those of NBR/CB, and the strain at the break, 1.2 times larger. Similarly, at 20 phr, both the tensile strength and strain at the break of NBR/h-NH were 1.4 times larger than those of NBR/CB. NBR/NH showed the highest hardness while having the smallest specific gravity. The present results indicate that NHs and h-NHs have much superior reinforcement effects to CB for NBR rubber matrix.

  2. Effect of surface modification on carbon fiber and its reinforced phenolic matrix composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Hua [Key Laboratory for Liquid phase chemical oxidation Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Carbon Fibre Engineering Research Center, Faculty of Materials Science, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Wang Chengguo, E-mail: sduwangchg@gmail.com [Carbon Fibre Engineering Research Center, Faculty of Materials Science, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Zhang Shan; Lin Xue [Carbon Fibre Engineering Research Center, Faculty of Materials Science, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We used very simple and effective modification method to treat PAN-based carbon fiber by liquid oxidation and coupling agent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon fiber surface functional groups were analyzed by LRS and XPS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proper treatment of carbon fiber can prove an effective way to increase composite's performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon fiber surface modifications by oxidation and APS could strengthen fiber activity and enlarge surface area as well as its roughness. - Abstract: In this work, polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fiber were chemically modified with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, KClO{sub 3} and silane coupling agent ({gamma}-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, APS), and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic matrix composites were prepared. The structural and surface characteristics of the carbon fiber were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), laser Raman scattering (LRS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Single fiber mechanical properties, specific surface area, composite impact properties and interfacial shear strength (ILSS) were researched to indicate the effects of surface modification on fibers and the interaction between modified fiber surface and phenolic matrix. The results showed that carbon fiber surface modification by oxidation and APS can strengthen fiber surface chemical activity and enlarge the fiber surface area as well as its roughness. When carbon fiber (CF) is oxidized treatment, the oxygen content as well as the O/C ratio will be obviously increased. Oxygen functional groups increase with oxidation time increasing. Carbon fiber treated with APS will make C-O-R content increase and O-C=O content decrease due to surface reaction. Proper treatment of carbon fiber with acid and silane coupling agent prove an effective way to increase the interfacial adhesion and improve the mechanical and outdoor

  3. Effect of surface modification on carbon fiber and its reinforced phenolic matrix composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Hua; Wang Chengguo; Zhang Shan; Lin Xue

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We used very simple and effective modification method to treat PAN-based carbon fiber by liquid oxidation and coupling agent. ► Carbon fiber surface functional groups were analyzed by LRS and XPS. ► Proper treatment of carbon fiber can prove an effective way to increase composite's performance. ► Carbon fiber surface modifications by oxidation and APS could strengthen fiber activity and enlarge surface area as well as its roughness. - Abstract: In this work, polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fiber were chemically modified with H 2 SO 4 , KClO 3 and silane coupling agent (γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, APS), and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic matrix composites were prepared. The structural and surface characteristics of the carbon fiber were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), laser Raman scattering (LRS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Single fiber mechanical properties, specific surface area, composite impact properties and interfacial shear strength (ILSS) were researched to indicate the effects of surface modification on fibers and the interaction between modified fiber surface and phenolic matrix. The results showed that carbon fiber surface modification by oxidation and APS can strengthen fiber surface chemical activity and enlarge the fiber surface area as well as its roughness. When carbon fiber (CF) is oxidized treatment, the oxygen content as well as the O/C ratio will be obviously increased. Oxygen functional groups increase with oxidation time increasing. Carbon fiber treated with APS will make C-O-R content increase and O-C=O content decrease due to surface reaction. Proper treatment of carbon fiber with acid and silane coupling agent prove an effective way to increase the interfacial adhesion and improve the mechanical and outdoor performance of the resulting fiber/resin composites.

  4. Nondestructive evaluation of defects in carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Andrew C. Y.; Goh, Henry K. H.; Lin, Karen K.; Liew, W. H.

    2017-04-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites are increasingly used in aerospace applications due to its superior mechanical properties and reduced weight. Adhesive bonding is commonly used to join the composite parts since it is capable of joining incompatible or dissimilar components. However, insufficient adhesive or contamination in the adhesive bonds might occur and pose as threats to the integrity of the plane during service. It is thus important to look for suitable nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques to detect and characterize the sub-surface defects within the CFRP composites. Some of the common NDT techniques include ultrasonic techniques and thermography. In this work, we report the use of the abovementioned techniques for improved interpretation of the results.

  5. Carbon nano fibers reinforced composites origami inspired mechanical metamaterials with passive and active properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshad, Mohamed Ali E.; D'Hondt, Clement; Naguib, Hani E.

    2017-10-01

    Core panels used for compression or impact damping are designed to dissipate energy and to reduce the transferred force and energy. They are designed to have high strain and deformation with low density. The geometrical configuration of such cores plays a significant role in redistributing the applied forces to dampen the compression and impact energy. Origami structures are renowned for affording large macroscopic deformation which can be employed for force redistribution and energy damping. The material selection for the fabrication of origami structures affects the core capacity to withstand compression and impact loads. Polymers are characterized by their high compression and impact resistance; the drawback of polymers is the low stiffness and elastic moduli compared with metallic materials. This work is focused on the study of the effect of Carbon Nano Fibers (CNF) on the global mechanical properties of the origami panel cores made of polymeric blends. The base matrix materials used were Polylactic Acid (PLA) and Thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU) blends, and the percentages of the PLA/TPU were 100/0, 20/80, 65/35, 50/50, 20/80, and 0/100 as a percentage of weight. The weight percentages of CNF added to the polymeric blends were 1%, 3%, and 5%. This paper deals with the fabrication process of the polymeric reinforced blends and the origami cores, in order to predict the best fabrication conditions. The dynamic scanning calorimetry and the dynamic mechanical analyzer were used to test the reinforced blended base material for thermomechanical and viscoelastic properties. The origami core samples were fabricated using per-molded geometrical features and then tested for compression and impact properties. The results of the study were compared with previous published results which showed that there is considerable enhancement in the mechanical properties of the origami cores compared with the pure blended polymeric origami cores. The active properties of the origami

  6. Repeated self-healing of microvascular carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coope, T S; Trask, R S; Bond, I P; Wass, D F

    2014-01-01

    A self-healing, high performance, carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite is demonstrated by embedding a Lewis-acid catalytic curing agent within a laminate, manufactured using out of autoclave (OOA) composite manufacturing methods. Two configurations of healing agent delivery, pre-mixed and autonomous mixing, are investigated via injection of a healing agent through bio-inspired microvascular channels exposed on Mode I fractured crack planes. Healing is effected when an epoxy resin-solvent healing agent mixture reaches the boundary of embedded solid-state scandium(III) triflate (Sc(OTf) 3 ) catalyst, located on the crack plane, to initiate the ring-opening polymerisation (ROP) of epoxides. Tailored self-healing agents confer high healing efficiency values after multiple healing cycles (69–108%) to successfully mitigate against crack propagation within the composite microstructure. (paper)

  7. a comparison of bond perform with reinforcements from son of bond ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    steel that are manufactured from metal scraps (re- ... metal scraps from re-cycle obsolete vehicle and machine ..... (PAC) Reinforced With Glass-Fibre-Reinforced. Polymer ... 99 – 113. [8] Abrishami H. H. and Mitchell D. (1992) “Simulation of.

  8. Thermo-physical properties of epoxy nanocomposites reinforced by carbon nanotubes and vapor grown carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, Hiroaki; Rich, Michael J.; Drzal, Lawrence T.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the thermo-physical properties of epoxy nanocomposites reinforced by fluorinated single wall carbon nanotubes (FSWCNT) and vapor grown carbon fibers (VGCF) were investigated. A sonication technique using a suspension of FSWCNT and VGCF in acetone was utilized to process nanocomposites in anhydride-cured epoxy. The viscoelastic properties of the nanocomposites were measured with dynamic mechanical analysis. The glass transition temperature decreased approximately 30 deg. C with an addition of 0.14 vol.% (0.2 wt.%) FSWCNT. The depression in T g is attributed to non-stoichiometric balance of the epoxy matrix caused by the fluorine on single wall carbon nanotubes. The correct amount of the anhydride curing agent needed to achieve stoichiometry was experimentally determined by DMA measurements. After adjusting the amount of the anhydride curing agent for stoichiometry, the storage modulus of the epoxy at room temperature increased 0.63 GPa with the addition of only 0.21 vol.% (0.30 wt.%) of FSWCNT, a 20% improvement compared with the anhydride-cured neat epoxy. For VGCF, the storage modulus at room temperature increased 0.48 GPa with the addition of only 0.94 vol.% (1.5 wt.%) and then reached a plateau for larger amounts of VGCF. To understand the influence of VGCF on thermo-physical properties, the microstructure of the nanocomposites was interrogated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This study discusses the chemical effects of fluorine on matrix properties and the effect of stoichiometric balance on the thermo-physical properties of nanocomposites

  9. [Reinforcement for overdentures on abutment teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Tomoko

    2006-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of the position of reinforcement wires, differences in artificial teeth, and framework designs on the breaking strength of overdentures. The basal surfaces of composite resin teeth and acrylic resin teeth were removed using a carbide bur. A reinforcement wire or a wrought palatal bar was embedded near the occlusal surface or basal surface. Four types of framework structures were designed : conventional skeleton (skeleton), housing with skeleton (housing), housing plus short metal backing (metal backing), and housing plus long metal backing (double structure). After the wires, bars, and frameworks were sand-blasted with 50 microm Al(2)O(3) powder, they were primed with a metal primer and embedded in a heat-polymerized denture base resin. The breaking strengths (N) and maximum stiffness (N/mm) of two-week aged (37 degrees C) specimens were measured using a bending test (n=8). All data obtained at a crosshead speed of 2.0 mm/min were analyzed by ANOVA/Tukey's test (alpha=0.01). There were no statistical differences between the two kinds of artificial teeth (p>0.01). The wrought palatal bar had significantly higher strength than the reinforcement wire (p0.01). The breaking strength and maximum stiffness of the double structure framework were significantly greater (poverdentures were influenced by the size and position of the reinforcement wires. Double structure frameworks are recommended for overdentures to promote a long-term prognosis without denture breakage.

  10. Electronic transport properties of carbon nanotube metal-semiconductor-metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Khoeini

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available  In this work, we study electronic transport properties of a quasi-one dimensional pure semi-conducting Zigzag Carbon Nanotube (CNT attached to semi-infinite clean metallic Zigzag CNT leads, taking into account the influence of topological defect in junctions. This structure may behave like a field effect transistor. The calculations are based on the tight-binding model and Green’s function method, in which the local density of states(LDOS in the metallic section to semi-conducting section, and muli-channel conductance of the system are calculated in the coherent and linear response regime, numerically. Also we have introduced a circuit model for the system and investigated its current. The theoretical results obtained, can be a base, for developments in designing nano-electronic devices.

  11. Investigation of the Self-Healing Behavior of Sn-Bi Metal Matrix Composite Reinforced with NiTi Shape Memory Alloy Strips Under Flexural Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poormir, Mohammad Amin; Khalili, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Eslami-Farsani, Reza

    2018-06-01

    Utilizing intelligent materials such as shape memory alloys as reinforcement in metal matrix composites is a novel method to mimic self-healing behavior. In this study, the bending behavior of a self-healing metal matrix composite made from Sn-13 wt.% Bi alloy as matrix and NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) strips as reinforcement is investigated. Specimens were fabricated in different reinforcement vol.% (0.78, 1.55, 2.33) and in various pre-strains (0, 2, 6%) and were healed at three healing temperatures (170°C, 180°C, 190°C). Results showed that shape recovery was accomplished in all the specimens, but not all of them were able to withstand second loading after healing. Only specimens with 2.33 vol.% of SMA strips, 1.55 vol.% of SMA, and 6% pre-strain could endure bending force after healing, and they gained 35.31-51.83% of bending force self-healing efficiency.

  12. Characterization of electrical conductivity of carbon fiber reinforced plastic using surface potential distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikunaga, Kazuya; Terasaki, Nao

    2018-04-01

    A new method of evaluating electrical conductivity in a structural material such as carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) using surface potential is proposed. After the CFRP was charged by corona discharge, the surface potential distribution was measured by scanning a vibrating linear array sensor along the object surface with a high spatial resolution over a short duration. A correlation between the weave pattern of the CFRP and the surface potential distribution was observed. This result indicates that it is possible to evaluate the electrical conductivity of a material comprising conducting and insulating regions.

  13. Gases and carbon in metals (thermodynamics, kinetics, and properties). Pt. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehn, H.; Speck, H.; Fromm, E.; Hoerz, G.

    1980-01-01

    This issue is part of a series of data on Gases and Carbon in Metals which supplements the data compilation in the book Gase und Kohlenstoff in Metallen (Gases and Carbon in Metals), edited by E. Fromm and E. Gebhardt, Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1976. The present survey covers chromium and tungsten, includes results from papers published after the copy deadline and recommends critically selected data. Furthermore it comprises a bibliography of relevant literature. (GE) [de

  14. Fabrication of magnesium based composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes having superior mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hiroyuki, E-mail: fukkun-fukuda@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kondoh, Katsuyoshi; Umeda, Junko [Joining and Welding Research Institution, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Fugetsu, Bunshi [Hokkaido University, Niow5, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Using the IPA based solution, the oxide-free pure Mg/CNTs composite powders could be prepared. {yields} The mechanical strength of the pure Mg composite reinforced with CNTs was not improved though the elongation was enhanced due to the elimination of MgO and less residual strain in the composite. {yields} The mechanical strength of the AZ61Mg alloy composite reinforced with CNTs was improved with maintaining adequate ductility due to the interfacial strengthening of Al{sub 2}MgC{sub 2} ternary carbide. {yields} The CNT addition was not influenced on the microstructure and grain orientations of the AZ61 Mg alloy matrix. - Abstract: Magnesium (Mg) composite reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having superior mechanical properties was fabricated using both pure Mg and AZ61 Mg alloy matrix in this study. The composites were produced via powder metallurgy route containing wet process using isopropyl alcohol (IPA) based zwitterionic surfactant solution with unbundled CNTs. The produced composites were evaluated with tensile test and Vickers hardness test and analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD). As a result, only with AZ61 Mg alloy matrix, tensile strength of the composite was improved. In situ formed Al{sub 2}MgC{sub 2} compounds at the interface between Mg matrix and CNTs effectively reinforced the interfacial bonding and enabled tensile loading transfer from the Mg matrix to nanotubes. Furthermore, it was clarified that the microstructures and grain orientations of the composite matrix were not significantly influenced by CNT addition.

  15. Gases and carbon in metals - thermodynamics, kinetics, and properties. Pt. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehn, H.; Speck, H.; Fromm, E.; Hoerz, G.

    1980-01-01

    This issue is part of a series of data on Gases and Carbon in Metals which supplements the data compilation in the book Gase and Kohlenstoff in Metallen (Gases and Carbon in Metals), edited by E.Fromm and E.Gebhardt, Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1976. The present survey includes results from papers published after the copy deadline and recommends critically selected data. Furthermore it comprises a bibliography of relevant literature. For each element the information is given in two parts. In a first section data are listed and in a second section the relevant literature is compiled. For each element, firstly data on binary systems are presented, starting with hydrogen and followed by carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and rare gases. Within one metal-metalloid system the data are listed under topics such as solubility, solubility limit, dissociation pressure of compounds, vapour pressure of volatile oxides, thermodynamic data, diffusion, transport parameters (effective valence, heat of transport), permeation of gases through metals, gas absorption and gas desorption kinetics, compound formation kinetics, precipitation kinetics, and property changes. (orig./GE)

  16. Softening of the Radial Breathing Mode in Metallic Carbon Nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farhat, H. (ed.); Sasaki, K.; Kalbáč, Martin; Hofmann, M.; Saito, R.; Dresselhaus, M. S.; Kong, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 12 (2009), 126804-1-126804-4 ISSN 0031-9007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : metallic carbon nanotubes * radial breathing mode * single waled carbon nanotubes Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 7.328, year: 2009

  17. Boron/nitrogen pairs Co-doping in metallic carbon nanotubes: a first-principle study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Fang-Ping; Peng Sheng-Lin; Chen Ling-Na; Sun Shu-Yuan; Xu Hui

    2011-01-01

    By using the first-principles calculations, the electronic structure and quantum transport properties of metallic carbon nanotubes with B/N pairs co-doping have been investigated. It is shown that the total energies of metallic carbon nanotubes are sensitive to the doping sites of the B/N pairs. The energy gaps of the doped metallic carbon nanotubes decrease with decreasing the concentration of the B/N pair not only along the tube axis but also around the tube. Moreover, the I—V characteristics and transmissions of the doped tubes are studied. Our results reveal that the conducting ability of the doped tube decreases with increasing the concentrations of the B/N pairs due to symmetry breaking of the system. This fact opens a new way to modulate band structures of metallic carbon nanotubes by doping B/N pair with suitable concentration and the novel characteristics are potentially useful in future applications. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  18. Development of Circular Disk Model for Polymeric Nanocomposites and Micromechanical Analysis of Residual Stresses in Reinforced Fibers with Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Ghasemi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Circular Disk Model (CDM has been developed to determine the residual stresses in twophase and three- phase unit cell. The two-phase unit cell is consisting of carbon fiber and matrix. The three-phase unit cell is consisting of carbon fiber, carbon nanotubes and matrix in which the carbon fiber is reinforced with the carbon nanotube using electrophoresis method. For different volume fractions of carbon nanotubes, thermal properties of the carbon fiber and carbon nanotube in different linear and lateral directions and also different placement conditions of carbon nanotubes have been considered. Also, residual stresses distribution in two and three phases has been studied, separately. Results of micromechanical analysis of residual stresses obtained from Finite Element Method and CDM, confirms the evaluation and development of three dimensional CDM.

  19. Heavy metal immobilization via microbially induced carbonate precipitation and co-precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauchnor, E. G.; Stoick, E.

    2017-12-01

    Microbially induced CaCO3 precipitation (MICP) has been successfully used in applications such as porous media consolidation and sealing of leakage pathways in the subsurface, and it has the potential to be used for remediation of metal and radionuclide contaminants in surface and groundwater. In this work, MICP is investigated for removal of dissolved heavy metals from contaminated mine discharge water via co-precipitation in CaCO3 or formation of other metal carbonates. The bacterially catalyzed hydrolysis of urea produces inorganic carbon and ammonium and increases pH and the saturation index of carbonate minerals to promote precipitation of CaCO3. Other heavy metal cations can be co-precipitated in CaCO3 as impurities or by replacing Ca2+ in the crystal lattice. We performed laboratory batch experiments of MICP in alkaline mine drainage sampled from an abandoned mine site in Montana and containing a mixture of heavy metals at near neutral pH. Both a model bacterium, Sporosarcina pasteurii, and a ureolytic bacterium isolated from sediments on the mine site were used to promote MICP. Removal of dissolved metals from the aqueous phase was determined via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and resulting precipitates were analyzed via electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Both S. pasteurii and the native ureolytic isolate demonstrated ureolysis, increased the pH and promoted precipitation of CaCO3 in batch tests. MICP by the native bacterium reduced concentrations of the heavy metals zinc, copper, cadmium, nickel and manganese in the water. S. pasteurii was also able to promote MICP, but with less removal of dissolved metals. Analysis of precipitates revealed calcium carbonate and phosphate minerals were likely present. The native isolate is undergoing identification via 16S DNA sequencing. Ongoing work will evaluate biofilm formation and MICP by the isolate in continuous flow, gravel-filled laboratory columns. This research

  20. Double Fillet Welding of Carbon Steel T-Joint by Double Channel Shielding Gas Metal Arc Welding Method Using Metal Cored Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert T.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low carbon steel material and T-joints are frequently used in ship building and steel constructions. Advantages such as high deposition rates, high quality and smooth weld metals and easy automation make cored wires preferable in these industries. In this study, low carbon steel materials with web and flange thicknesses of 6 mm, 8 mm and 10 mm were welded with conventional GMAW and double channel shielding gas metal arc welding (DMAG method to form double fillet T-joints using metal cored wire. The difference between these two methods were characterized by measurements of mean welding parameters, Vickers hardness profiles, weld bead and HAZ geometry of the joints and thermal camera temperature measurements. When weld bead and HAZ geometries are focused, it was seen filler metal molten area increased and base metal molten area decreased in DMAG of low carbon steel. When compared with traditional GMAW, finer and acicular structures in weld metal and more homogenous and smaller grains in HAZ are obtained with double channel shielding gas metal arc welding.

  1. Enhanced metal recovery through oxidation in liquid and/or supercritical carbon dioxide

    KAUST Repository

    Blanco, Mario; Buttner, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Process for enhanced metal recovery from, for example, metal-containing feedstock using liquid and/or supercritical fluid carbon dioxide and a source of oxidation. The oxidation agent can be free of complexing agent. The metal-containing feedstock

  2. The effect of filler aspect ratio on the electromagnetic properties of carbon-nanofibers reinforced composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vivo, B.; Lamberti, P.; Spinelli, G., E-mail: gspinelli@unisa.it; Tucci, V. [Department of Information Engineering, Electrical Engineering and Applied Mathematics—DIEM, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano SA (Italy); Guadagno, L.; Raimondo, M. [Department of Industrial Engineering—DIIn, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano SA (Italy)

    2015-08-14

    The effect of filler aspect ratio on the electromagnetic properties of epoxy-amine resin reinforced with carbon nanofibers is here investigated. A heat treatment at 2500 °C of carbon nanofibers seems to increase their aspect ratio with respect to as-received ones most likely due to a lowering of structural defects and the improvement of the graphene layers within the dixie cup conformation. These morphological differences revealed by Raman's spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses may be responsible for the different electrical properties of the resulting composites. The DC characterization of the nanofilled material highlights an higher electrical conductivity and a lower electrical percolation threshold for the heat-treated carbon nanofibers based composites. In fact, the electrical conductivity is about 0.107 S/m and 1.36 × 10{sup −3} S/m for the nanocomposites reinforced with heat-treated and as received fibers, respectively, at 1 wt. % of nanofiller loading, while the electrical percolation threshold falls in the range [0.05–0.32]wt. % for the first nanocomposites and above 0.64 wt. % for the latter. Moreover, also a different frequency response is observed since the critical frequency, which is indicative of the transition from a resistive to a capacitive-type behaviour, shifts forward of about one decade at the same filler loading. The experimental results are supported by theoretical and simulation studies focused on the role of the filler aspect ratio on the electrical properties of the nanocomposites.

  3. Nanostructured composite reinforced material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D [Oak Ridge, TN; Ripley, Edward B [Knoxville, TN; Ludtka, Gerard M [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-07-31

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  4. First wall and divertor plate disposed facing to plasma of thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Masanori; Suzuki, Satoshi; Akiba, Masato; Hayata, Yoshiho; Inoue, Taiji; Hayashi, Yukihiro; Kude, Yukinori

    1998-01-01

    In order to make the most of characteristics of each ingredient of carbon fiber-reinforced composite materials, carbon fiber unidirectionally reinforced materials and a carbon fiber three-directionally reinforced material are laminated in the direction of the thickness to form a carbon fiber-reinforced carbon composite material. In this case, the carbon fibers are continuously oriented in the direction of the thickness to constitute the carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite materials integrally. In addition, a carbon fiber-reinforced carbon composite material prepared by bonding a metal on one surface in adjacent with the unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced portion and substantially in perpendicular to the direction of the thickness of the unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced portion is used as a main constitutional material. Further, a metal tube is buried in the carbon fiber three-directionally reinforced carbon composite material. Then, a first wall and a divertor plate excellent in thermal impact resistance to be disposed facing to plasmas of a thermonuclear device can be provided. (N.H.)

  5. Fracture morphology of carbon fiber reinforced plastic composite laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Srinivasa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP composites have been extensively used in fabrication of primary structures for aerospace, automobile and other engineering applications. With continuous and widespread use of these composites in several advanced technology, the frequency of failures is likely to increase. Therefore, to establish the reasons for failures, the fracture modes should be understood thoroughly and unambiguously. In this paper, CFRP composite have been tested in tension, compression and flexural loadings; and microscopic study with the aid of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM has been performed on failed (fractured composite surfaces to identify the principle features of failure. Efforts have been made in correlating the fracture surface characteristics to the failure mode. The micro-mechanics analysis of failure serves as a useful guide in selecting constituent materials and designing composites from the failure behavior point of view. Also, the local failure initiation results obtained here has been reliably extended to global failure prediction.

  6. Nondestructive Evaluation of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites Using Reflective Terahertz Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Terahertz (THz time-domain spectroscopy (TDS imaging is considered a nondestructive evaluation method for composite materials used for examining various defects of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP composites and fire-retardant coatings in the reflective imaging modality. We demonstrate that hidden defects simulated by Teflon artificial inserts are imaged clearly in the perpendicular polarization mode. The THz TDS technique is also used to measure the thickness of thin fire-retardant coatings on CFRP composites with a typical accuracy of about 10 micrometers. In addition, coating debonding is successfully imaged based on the time-delay difference of the time-domain waveforms between closely adhered and debonded sample locations.

  7. Electrical and Self-Sensing Properties of Ultra-High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete with Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    You, Ilhwan; Yoo, Doo-Yeol; Kim, Soonho; Kim, Min-Jae; Zi, Goangseup

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the electrical and self-sensing capacities of ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) with and without carbon nanotubes (CNTs). For this, the effects of steel fiber content, orientation, and pore water content on the electrical and piezoresistive properties of UHPFRC without CNTs were first evaluated. Then, the effect of CNT content on the self-sensing capacities of UHPFRC under compression and flexure was investigated. Test results indicated that higher ...

  8. Influence of carbon monoxide to the surface layer of uranium metal and its oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoling; Fu Yibei; Xie Renshou; Huang Ruiliang

    1996-09-01

    The surface structures of uranium metal and triuranium octaoxide (U 3 O 8 ) and the influence of carbon monoxide to the surface layers have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). After exposure to carbon monoxide, contents of oxygen in the surface oxides of uranium metal and U 3 O 8 are decreased and O/U ratios decrease 7.2%, 8.0% respectively. The investigation indicated the surface layers of uranium metal and its oxides were forbidden to further oxidation in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide. (11 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.)

  9. Structural Foaming at the Nano-, Micro-, and Macro-Scales of Continuous Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    structural porosity at MNM scales could be introduced into the matrix, the carbon fiber reinforcement, and during prepreg lamination processing, without...areas, including fibers. Furthermore, investigate prepreg thickness and resin content effects on the thermomechanical performance of laminated ...Accomplishment 4) 5 Develop constitutive models for nano- foamed and micro- foamed PMC systems from single ply prepreg to multilayer laminated

  10. A Nanomechanical Approach on the Measurement of the Elastic Properties of Epoxy Reinforced Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mansour

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical behavior of nanocomposite materials with multiwallcarbon nanotube ( MWCNT reinforcements is investigated in the present paper. Epoxy nanocomposites with different weight percentages of carbon nanotubes have been characterized following tensile tests and nanoindentations. The objective of this work was to investigate the efficiency of the reinforcement provided by nanotubes and to examine the agreement between the mechanical properties of the epoxynanocomposites obtained via a macroscale and nanoscale experimentalmethods. Higher increase in modulus was accomplished at weight fraction of nanotube reinforcement of 1 %. The modulus as measured by the tensile tests differed an average of 18% with the results obtained from the nanoindentations, however by utilizing a proper calibration method the resulting data were corrected to only a 3% difference. The modulus results obtained from the experiments were compared with the Halpin - Tsai model and with the Thostenson - Chou model accounting for the outer layer interactions of the nanotube with the hosting matrix. A relatively good agreement was found between the models and the experiments.

  11. Evaluation of the potential of additives as corrosion inhibitors of CA-50 carbon steel used as reinforcement in concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennucci, Marina Martins

    2006-01-01

    In this work, various compounds were tested to evaluate their potential capability for their use as corrosion inhibitors of carbon steel reinforcement in concretes. The additives tested were sodium benzoate, polyethylene glycol, hexamethylenetetramine, benzotriazole and yttrium carbonate. Initially, exploratory tests were carried out to select the ones to be used as corrosion inhibitors, based on the inhibit ion efficiency determined from electrochemical tests, specifically polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. These tests were carried out in a solution composed of 0.01 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and 0.05 N potassium hydroxide (KOH) to simulate the composition of the solution inside the pores in concretes. The additive that presented the most promising potential to be used as corrosion inhibitor was benzotriazole (BTA). After the elimination of some compounds and selection of the additive with higher corrosion inhibit ion efficiency in the test medium, the effect of its concentration on the corrosion inhibition efficiency was evaluated. Sodium nitrite solutions with the same concentrations as those solutions with BTA were tested for comparison reasons. Sodium nitrite is a well established corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel reinforcement in concretes but it has been related to toxic effects. The BTA was associated to higher corrosion inhibition efficiencies than that of sodium nitrite in similar concentrations. A blackish adherent film was formed on the steel surface exposed to BTA solutions during long periods of immersion in the alkaline medium. The results suggest that BTA is a potential candidate for substitution of nitrites as corrosion inhibitor of reinforcements in concrete. (author)

  12. Effect of clustering on the mechanical properties of SiC particulate-reinforced aluminum alloy 2024 metal matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Soon-Jik; Kim, Hong-Moule; Huh, Dae; Suryanarayana, C.; Chun, Byong Sun

    2003-01-01

    Al 2024-SiC metal matrix composite (MMC) powders produced by centrifugal atomization were hot extruded to investigate the effect of clustering on their mechanical properties. Fracture toughness and tension tests were conducted on specimens reinforced with different volume fractions of SiC. A model was proposed to suggest that the strength of the MMCs could be estimated from the load transfer model approach that takes into consideration the extent of clustering. This model has been successful in predicting the experimentally observed strength and fracture toughness values of the Al 2024-SiC MMCs. On the basis of experimental observations, it is suggested that the strength of particulate-reinforced MMCs may be calculated from the relation: σ y =σ m V m +σ r (V r -V c )-σ r V c , where σ and V represent the yield strength and volume fraction, respectively, and the subscripts m, r, and c represent the matrix, reinforcement, and clusters, respectively

  13. Towards Flexible Transparent Electrodes Based on Carbon and Metallic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible transparent electrodes (FTEs with high stability and scalability are in high demand for the extremely widespread applications in flexible optoelectronic devices. Traditionally, thin films of indium thin oxide (ITO served the role of FTEs, but film brittleness and scarcity of materials limit its further application. This review provides a summary of recent advances in emerging transparent electrodes and related flexible devices (e.g., touch panels, organic light-emitting diodes, sensors, supercapacitors, and solar cells. Mainly focusing on the FTEs based on carbon nanomaterials (e.g., carbon nanotubes and graphene and metal materials (e.g., metal grid and metal nanowires, we discuss the fabrication techniques, the performance improvement, and the representative applications of these highly transparent and flexible electrodes. Finally, the challenges and prospects of flexible transparent electrodes will be summarized.

  14. A SEARCH FOR UNRECOGNIZED CARBON-ENHANCED METAL-POOR STARS IN THE GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Rossi, Silvia; Kennedy, Catherine R.; Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun; Christlieb, Norbert; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Reimers, Dieter; Wisotzki, Lutz

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a new procedure to search for carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars from the Hamburg/ESO (HES) prism-survey plates. This method employs an extended line index for the CH G band, which we demonstrate to have superior performance when compared to the narrower G-band index formerly employed to estimate G-band strengths for these spectra. Although CEMP stars have been found previously among candidate metal-poor stars selected from the HES, the selection on metallicity undersamples the population of intermediate-metallicity CEMP stars (-2.5 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ -1.0); such stars are of importance for constraining the onset of the s-process in metal-deficient asymptotic giant branch stars (thought to be associated with the origin of carbon for roughly 80% of CEMP stars). The new candidates also include substantial numbers of warmer carbon-enhanced stars, which were missed in previous HES searches for carbon stars due to selection criteria that emphasized cooler stars. A first subsample, biased toward brighter stars (B< 15.5), has been extracted from the scanned HES plates. After visual inspection (to eliminate spectra compromised by plate defects, overlapping spectra, etc., and to carry out rough spectral classifications), a list of 669 previously unidentified candidate CEMP stars was compiled. Follow-up spectroscopy for a pilot sample of 132 candidates was obtained with the Goodman spectrograph on the SOAR 4.1 m telescope. Our results show that most of the observed stars lie in the targeted metallicity range, and possess prominent carbon absorption features at 4300 A. The success rate for the identification of new CEMP stars is 43% (13 out of 30) for [Fe/H] < -2.0. For stars with [Fe/H] < -2.5, the ratio increases to 80% (four out of five objects), including one star with [Fe/H] < -3.0.

  15. Mid-infrared pulsed laser ultrasonic testing for carbon fiber reinforced plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Masahiro; Hatano, Hideki; Watanabe, Makoto; Takekawa, Shunji; Yamawaki, Hisashi; Oguchi, Kanae; Enoki, Manabu

    2018-03-01

    Laser ultrasonic testing (LUT) can realize contactless and instantaneous non-destructive testing, but its signal-to-noise ratio must be improved in order to measure carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs). We have developed a mid-infrared (mid-IR) laser source optimal for generating ultrasonic waves in CFRPs by using a wavelength conversion device based on an optical parametric oscillator. This paper reports a comparison of the ultrasonic generation behavior between the mid-IR laser and the Nd:YAG laser. The mid-IR laser generated a significantly larger ultrasonic amplitude in CFRP laminates than a conventional Nd:YAG laser. In addition, our study revealed that the surface epoxy matrix of CFRPs plays an important role in laser ultrasonic generation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars in dwarf galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Salvadori, Stefania; Skuladottir, Asa; Tolstoy, Eline

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the frequency and origin of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in Local Group dwarf galaxies by means of a statistical, data-calibrated cosmological model for the hierarchical build-up of the Milky Way and its dwarf satellites. The model self-consistently explains the variation with dwarf galaxy luminosity of the observed: i) frequency and [Fe/H] range of CEMP stars; ii) metallicity distribution functions; iii) star formation histories. We show that if primordial faint sup...

  17. Strain Measurement Using Embedded Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors Inside an Anchored Carbon Fiber Polymer Reinforcement Prestressing Rod for Structural Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Kerrouche, Abdelfateh; Boyle, William J.O.; Sun, Tong; Grattan, Kenneth T. V.; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Täljsten, Björn

    2009-01-01

    Results are reported from a study carried out using a series of Bragg grating-based optical fiber sensors written into a very short length (60 mm) optical fiber network and integrated into carbon fiber polymer reinforcement (CFPR) rod. Such rods are used as reinforcements in concrete structures and in tests were subjected to strain through a series of cycles of pulling tests, with applied forces of up to 30 kN. The results show that effective strain measurements can be obtained from the diffe...

  18. A metal-free electrocatalyst for carbon dioxide reduction to multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingjie; Ma, Sichao; Sun, Jing; Gold, Jake I.; Tiwary, Chandrasekhar; Kim, Byoungsu; Zhu, Lingyang; Chopra, Nitin; Odeh, Ihab N.; Vajtai, Robert; Yu, Aaron Z.; Luo, Raymond; Lou, Jun; Ding, Guqiao; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2016-12-01

    Electroreduction of carbon dioxide into higher-energy liquid fuels and chemicals is a promising but challenging renewable energy conversion technology. Among the electrocatalysts screened so far for carbon dioxide reduction, which includes metals, alloys, organometallics, layered materials and carbon nanostructures, only copper exhibits selectivity towards formation of hydrocarbons and multi-carbon oxygenates at fairly high efficiencies, whereas most others favour production of carbon monoxide or formate. Here we report that nanometre-size N-doped graphene quantum dots (NGQDs) catalyse the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide into multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates at high Faradaic efficiencies, high current densities and low overpotentials. The NGQDs show a high total Faradaic efficiency of carbon dioxide reduction of up to 90%, with selectivity for ethylene and ethanol conversions reaching 45%. The C2 and C3 product distribution and production rate for NGQD-catalysed carbon dioxide reduction is comparable to those obtained with copper nanoparticle-based electrocatalysts.

  19. A metal-free electrocatalyst for carbon dioxide reduction to multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingjie; Ma, Sichao; Sun, Jing; Gold, Jake I.; Tiwary, ChandraSekhar; Kim, Byoungsu; Zhu, Lingyang; Chopra, Nitin; Odeh, Ihab N.; Vajtai, Robert; Yu, Aaron Z.; Luo, Raymond; Lou, Jun; Ding, Guqiao; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2016-01-01

    Electroreduction of carbon dioxide into higher-energy liquid fuels and chemicals is a promising but challenging renewable energy conversion technology. Among the electrocatalysts screened so far for carbon dioxide reduction, which includes metals, alloys, organometallics, layered materials and carbon nanostructures, only copper exhibits selectivity towards formation of hydrocarbons and multi-carbon oxygenates at fairly high efficiencies, whereas most others favour production of carbon monoxide or formate. Here we report that nanometre-size N-doped graphene quantum dots (NGQDs) catalyse the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide into multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates at high Faradaic efficiencies, high current densities and low overpotentials. The NGQDs show a high total Faradaic efficiency of carbon dioxide reduction of up to 90%, with selectivity for ethylene and ethanol conversions reaching 45%. The C2 and C3 product distribution and production rate for NGQD-catalysed carbon dioxide reduction is comparable to those obtained with copper nanoparticle-based electrocatalysts. PMID:27958290

  20. Multidimensional Nanocomposites of Epoxy Reinforced with 1D and 2D Carbon Nanostructures for Improve Fracture Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juventino López-Barroso

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid nanocomposites based on epoxy reinforced with a combination of 1D and 2D carbon nanomaterials for improving impact resistance are reported. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes and oxidized-multi-walled carbon nanotubes are used as 1D nanoreinforcements, and graphene derivative materials such as graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide are utilized as 2D nanoreinforcements. In this research, the impact resistance of epoxy matrix reinforced with 1D or 2D and the mixture of both nanomaterials is studied. The research is focused on evaluation of the influence of adding different combinations of nanomaterials into epoxy resin and their Izod impact response. Moreover, fracture surface of nanocomposites is observed by scanning electron microscopy. Images show differences between the surfaces of brittle nature on thermoset epoxy polymer and tough nanocomposites. Synergy created with 1D and 2D nanomaterials produces stable dispersions in the processing, reflected in the interface. The interactions in nanocomposites are evidenced by infrared spectra, principally on the peaks related to oxygenated functional groups present in nanomaterials and absent in polymer matrix. Consequently, an increase of 138% in fracture strength of nanocomposites is exhibited, in comparison to the neat epoxy matrix. In addition, hybrid nanocomposites were synthesized in two different methods to evaluate the influence of manufacturing method on final properties of nanocomposites.

  1. Highly efficient one-step synthesis of carbon encapsulated nanocrystals by the oxidation of metal π-complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boyang; Shao, Yingfeng; Xiang, Xin; Zhang, Fuhua; Yan, Shengchang; Li, Wenge

    2017-08-01

    Various carbon encapsulated nanocrystals, including MnS and MnO, Cr2O3, MoO2, Fe7S8 and Fe3O4, and ZrO2, are prepared in one step and in situ by a simple and highly efficient synthesis approach. The nanocrystals have an equiaxed morphology and a median size smaller than 30 nm. Tens and hundreds of these nanocrystals are entirely encapsulated by a wormlike amorphous carbon shell. The formation of a core-shell structure depends on the strongly exothermic reaction of metal π-complexes with ammonium persulfate in an autoclave at below 200 °C. During the oxidation process, the generated significant amounts of heat will destroy the molecular structure of the metal π-complex and cleave the ligands into small carbon fragments, which further transform into an amorphous carbon shell. The central metal atoms are oxidized to metal oxide/sulfide nanocrystals. The formation of a core-shell structure is independent of the numbers of ligands and carbon atoms as well as the metal types, implying that any metal π-complex can serve as a precursor and that various carbon encapsulated nanocrystals can be synthesized by this method.

  2. Mechano-Physical Properties and Microstructure of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Cement Paste after Thermal Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeląg, Maciej

    2017-09-11

    The article presents the results obtained in the course of a study on the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for the modification of a cement matrix. Carbon nanotubes were introduced into a cement paste in the form of an aqueous dispersion in the presence of a surfactant (SDS-sodium dodecyl sulfate), which was sonicated. The selected physical and mechanical parameters were examined, and the correlations between these parameters were determined. An analysis of the local microstructure of the modified cement pastes has been carried out using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray microanalysis (EDS). In addition, the effect of carbon nanotubes on the change in characteristics of the cementitious material exposed to the sudden, short-term thermal load, was determined. The obtained material was characterized by a much lower density than a traditional cement matrix because the phenomenon of foaming occurred. The material was also characterized by reduced durability, higher shrinkage, and higher resistance to the effect of elevated temperature. Further research on the carbon nanotube reinforced cement paste, with SDS, may contribute to the development of a modified cement binder for the production of a lightweight or an aerated concrete.

  3. Mechano-Physical Properties and Microstructure of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Cement Paste after Thermal Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The article presents the results obtained in the course of a study on the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for the modification of a cement matrix. Carbon nanotubes were introduced into a cement paste in the form of an aqueous dispersion in the presence of a surfactant (SDS—sodium dodecyl sulfate), which was sonicated. The selected physical and mechanical parameters were examined, and the correlations between these parameters were determined. An analysis of the local microstructure of the modified cement pastes has been carried out using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray microanalysis (EDS). In addition, the effect of carbon nanotubes on the change in characteristics of the cementitious material exposed to the sudden, short-term thermal load, was determined. The obtained material was characterized by a much lower density than a traditional cement matrix because the phenomenon of foaming occurred. The material was also characterized by reduced durability, higher shrinkage, and higher resistance to the effect of elevated temperature. Further research on the carbon nanotube reinforced cement paste, with SDS, may contribute to the development of a modified cement binder for the production of a lightweight or an aerated concrete. PMID:28891976

  4. Carbonization of heavy metal impregnated sewage sludge oriented towards potential co-disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaomin; Chen, Dezhen; Hu, Yuyan; Feng, Yuheng; Dai, Xiaohu

    2017-01-05

    Sewage sludge (SS) is adopted as a stabilizer to immobilize externally impregnated heavy metals through carbonization oriented towards the co-disposal of SS and some hazardous wastes. Firstly Cu and Pb were impregnated into SS to ascertain the impregnating capacity and leaching behaviours of heavy metals in the resulting sewage sludge char (SSC). Meanwhile, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to detect the heavy metal phase in the SSC. The results showed that within 400-800°C and an impregnating concentration ≨0.5wt%, more than 90% of the externally impregnated Cu and Pb were remained in the SSC and immobilized. And higher temperatures helped produce non-hazardous SSC. In addition, SEM and XRD analyses revealed that externally impregnated heavy metals could be converted into stable forms and evenly distributed throughout the SSC. In the second step municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (FA) was kneaded into SS and subjected to carbonization; it has been proved that the heavy metals in FA can be well immobilized in the resulting char when FA: SS mass ratio is 1:5. Those results show that sewage sludge can be co-carbonized with wastes contaminated with heavy metals to achieve co-disposal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Considerably improved photovoltaic performance of carbon nanotube-based solar cells using metal oxide layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feijiu; Kozawa, Daichi; Miyauchi, Yuhei; Hiraoka, Kazushi; Mouri, Shinichiro; Ohno, Yutaka; Matsuda, Kazunari

    2015-02-01

    Carbon nanotube-based solar cells have been extensively studied from the perspective of potential application. Here we demonstrated a significant improvement of the carbon nanotube solar cells by the use of metal oxide layers for efficient carrier transport. The metal oxides also serve as an antireflection layer and an efficient carrier dopant, leading to a reduction in the loss of the incident solar light and an increase in the photocurrent, respectively. As a consequence, the photovoltaic performance of both p-single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)/n-Si and n-SWNT/p-Si heterojunction solar cells using MoOx and ZnO layers is improved, resulting in very high photovoltaic conversion efficiencies of 17.0 and 4.0%, respectively. These findings regarding the use of metal oxides as multifunctional layers suggest that metal oxide layers could improve the performance of various electronic devices based on carbon nanotubes.

  6. Considerably improved photovoltaic performance of carbon nanotube-based solar cells using metal oxide layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feijiu; Kozawa, Daichi; Miyauchi, Yuhei; Hiraoka, Kazushi; Mouri, Shinichiro; Ohno, Yutaka; Matsuda, Kazunari

    2015-02-18

    Carbon nanotube-based solar cells have been extensively studied from the perspective of potential application. Here we demonstrated a significant improvement of the carbon nanotube solar cells by the use of metal oxide layers for efficient carrier transport. The metal oxides also serve as an antireflection layer and an efficient carrier dopant, leading to a reduction in the loss of the incident solar light and an increase in the photocurrent, respectively. As a consequence, the photovoltaic performance of both p-single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)/n-Si and n-SWNT/p-Si heterojunction solar cells using MoOx and ZnO layers is improved, resulting in very high photovoltaic conversion efficiencies of 17.0 and 4.0%, respectively. These findings regarding the use of metal oxides as multifunctional layers suggest that metal oxide layers could improve the performance of various electronic devices based on carbon nanotubes.

  7. K{sub 6} carbon: A metallic carbon allotrope in sp{sup 3} bonding networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Chun-Yao; Wang, Xin-Quan; Wang, Jian-Tao, E-mail: wjt@aphy.iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-02-07

    We identify by first-principles calculations a new cubic carbon phase in I4{sub 1}32 (O{sup 8}) symmetry, named K{sub 6} carbon, which has a six atom primitive cell comprising sp{sup 3} hybridized C{sub 3} triangle rings. The structural stability is verified by phonon mode analysis. The calculated elastic constants show that the K{sub 6} carbon is a high ductile material with a density even lower than graphite. Electronic band and density of states calculations reveal that it is a metallic carbon allotrope with a high electronic density of states of ∼0.10 states/eV per atom at the Fermi level. These results broaden our understanding of the structural and electronic properties of carbon allotropes.

  8. Coprecipitation of alkali metal ions with calcium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Minoru; Kitano, Yasushi

    1986-01-01

    The coprecipitation of alkali metal ions Li + , Na + , K + and Rb + with calcium carbonate has been studied experimentally and the following results have been obtained: (1) Alkali metal ions are more easily coprecipitated with aragonite than with calcite. (2) The relationship between the amounts of alkali metal ions coprecipitated with aragonite and their ionic radii shows a parabolic curve with a peak located at Na + which has approximately the same ionic radius as Ca 2+ . (3) However, the amounts of alkali metal ions coprecipitated with calcite decrease with increasing ionic radius of alkali metals. (4) Our results support the hypothesis that (a) alkali metals are in interstitial positions in the crystal structure of calcite and do not substitute for Ca 2+ in the lattice, but (b) in aragonite, alkali metals substitute for Ca 2+ in the crystal structure. (5) Magnesium ions in the parent solution increase the amounts of alkali metal ions (Li + , Na + , K + and Rb + ) coprecipitated with calcite but decrease those with aragonite. (6) Sodium-bearing aragonite decreases the incorporation of other alkali metal ions (Li + , K + and Rb + ) into the aragonite. (author)

  9. Macro-mechanical material model for fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    CERN Document Server

    Banks-Sills, L

    1999-01-01

    The stress-strain behavior of a metal matrix composite reinforced with unidirectional, continuous and periodic fibers is investigated. Three-dimensional micro-mechanical analyses of a unit cell by means of the finite element method $9 and homogenization-localization are carried out. These calculations allow the determination of material behavior of the in-plane, as well as the fiber directions. The fibers are assumed to be elastic and the matrix elasto-plastic. $9 The matrix material is governed by a von Mises yield surface, isotropic hardening and an associated flow rule. With the aid of these analyses, the foundation to a macro-mechanical material model is presented which is employed to $9 consider an elementary problem. The model includes an anisotropic yield surface with isotropic hardening and an associated flow rule. A beam in bending containing square fibers under plane strain conditions is analyzed by means of $9 the model. Two cases are considered: one in which the fibers are symmetric with respect t...

  10. Carbon formation and metal dusting in hot-gas cleanup systems of coal gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; DeVan, J.H.; Wright, I.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1995-11-01

    The product gas resulting from the partial oxidation of Carboniferous materials in a gasifier is typically characterized by high carbon and sulfur, but low oxygen, activities and, consequently, severe degradation of the structural and functional materials can occur. The objective of this task was to establish the potential risks of carbon deposition and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes by examining the current state of knowledge regarding these phenomena, making appropriate thermochemical calculations for representative coal gasifiers, and addressing possible mitigation methods. The paper discusses carbon activities, iron-based phase stabilities, steam injection, conditions that influence kinetics of carbon deposition, and influence of system operating parameters on carbon deposition and metal dusting.

  11. Fabrication and tribological response of aluminium 6061 hybrid composite reinforced with bamboo char and boron carbide micro-fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chethan, K. N.; Pai, Anand; Keni, Laxmikant G.; Singhal, Ashish; Sinha, Shubham

    2018-02-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMCs) have a wide scope of industrial applications and triumph over conventional materials due to their light weight, higher specific strength, good wear resistance and lower coefficient of thermal expansion. The present study aims at establishing the feasibility of using Bamboo charcoal particulate and boron carbide as reinforcements in Al-6061 alloy matrix and to investigate their effect on the wear of composites taking into consideration the interfacial adhesion of the reinforcements in the alloy. Al-6061 alloy was chosen as a base metallic alloy matrix. Sun-dried bamboo canes were used for charcoal preparation with the aid of a muffle furnace. The carbon content in the charcoal samples was determined by EDS (energy dispersive spectroscopy). In present study, stir casting technique was used to prepare the samples with 1%, 2%, and 3% weight of bamboo charcoal and boron carbide with Al-6061. The fabricated composites were homogenised at 570°C for 6 hours and cooled at room temperature. Wear studies were carried out on the specimens with different speed and loads. It was found that wear rate and coefficient of friction decreased with increase in the reinforcement content.

  12. Corrosion of reinforcement induced by environment containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    carbonation and chlorides causing corrosion of steel reinforcement. ... interesting and important when the evaluation of the service life of the ... preferably in the areas of industrial and transport activities. ... For controlling the embedded corrosion sensors, elec- .... danger of corrosion of reinforcement seems to be more.

  13. One-step synthesis of 2D-layered carbon wrapped transition metal nitrides from transition metal carbides (MXenes) for supercapacitors with ultrahigh cycling stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenyu; Cheng, Laifei; Wu, Heng; Zhang, Yani; Lv, Shilin; Guo, Xiaohui

    2018-03-13

    A novel one-step method to synthesize 2D carbon wrapped TiN (C@TiN) was proposed via using 2D metal carbides (MXenes) as precursors. This study provides a novel approach to synthesize carbon wrapped metal nitrides.

  14. Feeding Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes or Graphene to Silkworms for Reinforced Silk Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Wang, Chunya; Zhang, Mingchao; Jian, Muqiang; Zhang, Yingying

    2016-10-12

    Silkworm silk is gaining significant attention from both the textile industry and research society because of its outstanding mechanical properties and lustrous appearance. The possibility of creating tougher silks attracts particular research interest. Carbon nanotubes and graphene are widely studied for their use as reinforcement. In this work, we report mechanically enhanced silk directly collected by feeding Bombyx mori larval silkworms with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and graphene. We found that parts of the fed carbon nanomaterials were incorporated into the as-spun silk fibers, whereas the others went into the excrement of silkworms. Spectroscopy study indicated that nanocarbon additions hindered the conformation transition of silk fibroin from random coil and α-helix to β-sheet, which may contribute to increased elongation at break and toughness modules. We further investigated the pyrolysis of modified silk, and a highly developed graphitic structure with obviously enhanced electrical conductivity was obtained through the introduction of SWNTs and graphene. The successful generation of these SWNT- or graphene-embedded silks by in vivo feeding is expected to open up possibilities for the large-scale production of high-strength silk fibers.

  15. Study on the surface oxidation resistance of uranium metal in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaolin; Fu Yibei; Xie Renshou

    1999-01-01

    The surface reactions of different layers on uranium metal with carbon monoxide at 25, 80 and 200 degree C are studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The experimental results show that the carbon monoxide is adsorbed on the surface oxide layer of uranium and interacted each other. The content of oxygen in the surface oxide and O/U ratio are decreased with increasing the exposure of carbon monoxide to the surface layer. The effect of reduction on the metal surface is more obviously with a higher temperature and increasing of layer thickness. The investigation indicates the uranium metal has resistance to further oxidation in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide

  16. Microencapsulation of phase change materials with carbon nanotubes reinforced shell for enhancement of thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Weiwei; Xia, Yongpeng; Zhang, Huanzhi; Xu, Fen; Zou, Yongjin; Xiang, Cuili; Chu, Hailiang; Qiu, Shujun; Sun, Lixian

    2017-03-01

    Novel microencapsulated phase change materials (micro-PCMs) were synthesized via in-situ polymerization with modified carbon nanotubes(CNTs) reinforced melamine-formaldehyde resin as shell material and CNTs reinforced n-octadecane as PCMs core. DSC results confirm that the micro-PCMs possess good phase change behavior and excellent thermal cycling stability. Melting enthalpy of the micro-PCMs can achieve 133.1 J/g and has slight changes after 20 times of thermal cyclings. And the incorporation of CNTs supplies the micro-PCMs with fast thermal response rate which increases the crystallization temperature of the micro-PCMs. Moreover, the thermal conductivity of the micro-PCMs has been significantly enhanced by introducing CNTs into their shell and core materials. And the thermal conductivity of micro-PCMs with 1.67 wt.% CNTs can increase by 25%. These results exhibit that the obtained micro-PCMs have a good prospect in thermal energy storage applications.

  17. FOAM CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT BY BASALT FIBRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors demonstrate that the foam concrete performance can be improved by dispersed reinforcement, including methods that involve basalt fibres. They address the results of the foam concrete modeling technology and assess the importance of technology-related parameters. Reinforcement efficiency criteria are also provided in the article. Dispersed reinforcement improves the plasticity of the concrete mix and reduces the settlement crack formation rate. Conventional reinforcement that involves metal laths and rods demonstrates its limited application in the production of concrete used for thermal insulation and structural purposes. Dispersed reinforcement is preferable. This technology contemplates the infusion of fibres into porous mixes. Metal, polymeric, basalt and glass fibres are used as reinforcing components. It has been identified that products reinforced by polypropylene fibres demonstrate substantial abradability and deformability rates even under the influence of minor tensile stresses due to the low adhesion strength of polypropylene in the cement matrix. The objective of the research was to develop the type of polypropylene of D500 grade that would demonstrate the operating properties similar to those of Hebel and Ytong polypropylenes. Dispersed reinforcement was performed by the basalt fibre. This project contemplates an autoclave-free technology to optimize the consumption of electricity. Dispersed reinforcement is aimed at the reduction of the block settlement in the course of hardening at early stages of their operation, the improvement of their strength and other operating properties. Reduction in the humidity rate of the mix is based on the plasticizing properties of fibres, as well as the application of the dry mineralization method. Selection of optimal parameters of the process-related technology was performed with the help of G-BAT-2011 Software, developed at Moscow State University of Civil Engineering. The authors also

  18. Enhanced metal recovery through oxidation in liquid and/or supercritical carbon dioxide

    KAUST Repository

    Blanco, Mario

    2017-08-24

    Process for enhanced metal recovery from, for example, metal-containing feedstock using liquid and/or supercritical fluid carbon dioxide and a source of oxidation. The oxidation agent can be free of complexing agent. The metal-containing feedstock can be a mineral such as a refractory mineral. The mineral can be an ore with high sulfide content or an ore rich in carbonaceous material. Waste can also be used as the metal-containing feedstock. The metal-containing feedstock can be used which is not subjected to ultrafine grinding. Relatively low temperatures and pressures can be used. The metal-containing feedstock can be fed into the reactor at a temperature below the critical temperature of the carbon dioxide, and an exotherm from the oxidation reaction can provide the supercritical temperature. The oxidant can be added to the reactor at a rate to maintain isothermal conditions in the reactor. Minimal amounts of water can be used as an extractive medium.

  19. The effect of carbon content on mechanical properties, failure and corrosion resistance of deposited chromium metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Леонід Кімович Лещинськiй

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that if choosing a metal composition for surfacing rolls and rollers of continuous casting machines, both the carbon impact on the mechanical and functional properties and the critical values of the chromium concentration, which determine the corrosion resistance of the metal with regard to electrochemical corrosion theory, should be considered as well. The paper studied the effect of chromium and carbon steel the X5-X12 type on the structure, technological strength, mechanical properties, fracturing resistance and corrosion resistance of the weld metal. The composition of chromium tool steels (deposited metal (X5-used for the rolls of hot rolling mills and (X12-used for continuous casting machines rollers correspond to these values. The impact of carbon on the properties of the deposited metal containing chromium was considered by comparing the data for both types of the deposited metal. It was found that for both types of the deposited metal (X5 and X12, the limiting value of the carbon content, providing an optimal combination of strength, ductility, failure resistance is the same. If the carbon content is more than the limiting value – (0,25% the technological strength and failure resistance of the deposited metal significantly reduce. With increasing carbon content from 0,18 to 0,25% the martensite structure has a mixed morphology – lath and plate. The strength and toughness of the deposited metal grow. Of particular interest is simultaneous increase in the specific work of failure resulted from crack inhibition at the boundary with far less solid and more ductile ferrite. As for the 5% chromium metal, the X12 type composition with 0,25% C, is borderline. With a further increase in the carbon content of the metal both ductility and failure resistance sharply decrease and with 0,40% C the growth rate of fatigue crack increases by almost 1,5 times

  20. Adventitious Carbon on Primary Sample Containment Metal Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, M. J.; Fries, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Future missions that return astromaterials with trace carbonaceous signatures will require strict protocols for reducing and controlling terrestrial carbon contamination. Adventitious carbon (AC) on primary sample containers and related hardware is an important source of that contamination. AC is a thin film layer or heterogeneously dispersed carbonaceous material that naturally accrues from the environment on the surface of atmospheric exposed metal parts. To test basic cleaning techniques for AC control, metal surfaces commonly used for flight hardware and curating astromaterials at JSC were cleaned using a basic cleaning protocol and characterized for AC residue. Two electropolished stainless steel 316L (SS- 316L) and two Al 6061 (Al-6061) test coupons (2.5 cm diameter by 0.3 cm thick) were subjected to precision cleaning in the JSC Genesis ISO class 4 cleanroom Precision Cleaning Laboratory. Afterwards, the samples were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy.

  1. Polarization Induced Deterioration of Reinforced Concrete with CFRP Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ji-Hua; Wei, Liangliang; Zhu, Miaochang; Sun, Hongfang; Tang, Luping; Xing, Feng

    2015-07-15

    This paper investigates the deterioration of reinforced concrete with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) anode after polarization. The steel in the concrete was first subjected to accelerated corrosion to various extents. Then, a polarization test was performed with the external attached CFRP as the anode and the steel reinforcement as the cathode. Carbon fiber reinforced mortar and conductive carbon paste as contact materials were used to adhere the CFRP anode to the concrete. Two current densities of 1244 and 2488 mA/m², corresponding to the steel reinforcements were applied for 25 days. Electrochemical parameters were monitored during the test period. The deterioration mechanism that occurred at the CFRP/contact material interface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The increase of feeding voltage and the failure of bonding was observed during polarization process, which might have resulted from the deterioration of the interface between the contact material and CFRP. The formation and accumulation of NaCl crystals at the contact material/CFRP interface were inferred to be the main causes of the failure at the interface.

  2. Carbon nanotubes reinforced chitosan films: mechanical properties and cell response of a novel biomaterial for cardiovascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroustalli, A; Zisimopoulou, A E; Koch, S; Rongen, L; Deligianni, D; Diamantouros, S; Athanassiou, G; Kokozidou, M; Mavrilas, D; Jockenhoevel, S

    2013-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes have been proposed as fillers to reinforce polymeric biomaterials for the strengthening of their structural integrity to achieve better biomechanical properties. In this study, a new polymeric composite material was introduced by incorporating various low concentrations of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into chitosan (CS), aiming at achieving a novel composite biomaterial with superior mechanical and biological properties compared to neat CS, in order to be used in cardiovascular tissue engineering applications. Both mechanical and biological characteristics in contact with the two relevant cell types (endothelial cells and vascular myofibroblasts) were studied. Regarding the mechanical behavior of MWCNT reinforced CS (MWCNT/CS), 5 and 10 % concentrations of MWCNTs enhanced the mechanical behavior of CS, with that of 5 % exhibiting a superior mechanical strength compared to 10 % concentration and neat CS. Regarding biological properties, MWCNT/CS best supported proliferation of endothelial and myofibroblast cells, MWCNTs and MWCNT/CS caused no apoptosis and were not toxic of the examined cell types. Conclusively, the new material could be suitable for tissue engineering (TE) and particularly for cardiovascular TE applications.

  3. Mechanical performance optimization of neutron shielding material based on short carbon fiber reinforced B4C/epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Tang Xiaobin; Chen Feida; Chen Da

    2013-01-01

    To satisfy engineering requirements for mechanics performance of neutron shielding material, short carbon fiber was used to reinforce the traditional containing B 4 C neutron shielding material and effects of fiber content, length and surface treatment to mechanics performance of material was discussed. Based on Americium-Beryllium neutron source, material's neutron shielding performance was tested. The result of experiment prove that tensile strength of material which the quality ratio of resin and fiber is 5:1 is comparatively excellent for 10wt% B 4 C of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin. The tensile properties of material change little with the fiber length ranged from 3-10 mm The treatment of fiber surface with silane coupling agent KH-550 can increase the tensile properties of materials by 20% compared with the untreated of that. A result of shielding experiment that the novel neutron shielding material can satisfy the neutron shielding requirements can be obtained by comparing with B 4 C/polypropylene materials. The material has good mechanical properties and wide application prospect. (authors)

  4. Fatigue damage and fracture behavior of tungsten fiber reinforced Zr-based metallic glassy composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhang, Z.F. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)]. E-mail: zhfzhang@imr.ac.cn; Wang, Z.G. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Qiu, K.Q. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhang, H.F. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zang, Q.S. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Hu, Z.Q. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2006-02-25

    The fatigue life, damage and fracture behavior of tungsten fiber reinforced metallic glass Zr{sub 41.25}Ti{sub 13.75}Ni{sub 10}Cu{sub 12.5}Be{sub 22.5} composites are investigated under cyclic push-pull loading. It is found that the fatigue life of the composite increases with increasing the volume fraction of tungsten fibers. Similar to crystalline metals, the regions of crack initiation, propagation and overload fracture can be discerned on the fracture surface of the specimen. Fatigue crack normally initiates in the metallic glass matrix at the outer surface of the composite specimen and propagates predominantly in the matrix. Different crack front profile around the tungsten fibers and fiber pullout demonstrate that fatigue crack may propagate around the fiber, leading to bridging of the crack faces by the unbroken fiber and hence improved fatigue crack-growth resistance. Locally decreased effective stiffness in the region where fiber distribution is sparse may provide preferential crack path in the composite. A proposed model was exercised to elucidate different tungsten fiber fracture morphologies in the fatigue crack propagation and overload fracture regions in the light of Poisson's ratio effect during fatigue loading.

  5. Fatigue damage and fracture behavior of tungsten fiber reinforced Zr-based metallic glassy composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Zhang, Z.F.; Wang, Z.G.; Qiu, K.Q.; Zhang, H.F.; Zang, Q.S.; Hu, Z.Q.

    2006-01-01

    The fatigue life, damage and fracture behavior of tungsten fiber reinforced metallic glass Zr 41.25 Ti 13.75 Ni 10 Cu 12.5 Be 22.5 composites are investigated under cyclic push-pull loading. It is found that the fatigue life of the composite increases with increasing the volume fraction of tungsten fibers. Similar to crystalline metals, the regions of crack initiation, propagation and overload fracture can be discerned on the fracture surface of the specimen. Fatigue crack normally initiates in the metallic glass matrix at the outer surface of the composite specimen and propagates predominantly in the matrix. Different crack front profile around the tungsten fibers and fiber pullout demonstrate that fatigue crack may propagate around the fiber, leading to bridging of the crack faces by the unbroken fiber and hence improved fatigue crack-growth resistance. Locally decreased effective stiffness in the region where fiber distribution is sparse may provide preferential crack path in the composite. A proposed model was exercised to elucidate different tungsten fiber fracture morphologies in the fatigue crack propagation and overload fracture regions in the light of Poisson's ratio effect during fatigue loading

  6. Effect of Different Fillers on Adhesive Wear Properties of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Feyzullahoğlu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric composites are used for different aims as substitute of traditional materials such as metals; due to their improved strength at small specific weight. The fiber reinforced polymer (FRP composite material consists of polymeric matrix and reinforcing material. Polymeric materials are commonly reinforced with synthetic fibers such as glass and carbon. The glass fiber reinforced polyester (GFRP composites are used with different filler materials. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different filler materials on adhesive wear behavior of GFRP. In this experimental study; polymetilmetacrilat (PMMA, Glass beads (GB and Glass sand (GS were used as filling material in GFRP composite samples. The adhesive wear behaviors of samples were carried out using ball on disc type tribometer. The friction force and coefficient of friction were measured during the test. The volume loss and wear rate values of samples were calculated according to test results. Barcol hardness values of samples were measured. The densities of samples were measured. Results show that the wear resistance of GB filled GFRP composite samples was much more than non-filled and PMMA filled GFRP composite samples.

  7. Vibration technique for non-destructive testing of carbon fiber reinforced plastic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.G.

    1982-01-01

    For nondestructive testing of structures of KFK (carbon fiber reinforced plastics) Adams and a group at the English University of Bristol, Department of Mechanical Engineering have developed a vibrational testing method. It is based on the fact that the decreasing self-oscillations of a structure can be measured in connection with a dynamical analysis at only one particular location of that structure. This way a damage can be localized and be quantized rawly. The mathematical model is simple and for every tested structure only one analysis is needed. Many kinds of damages in structures can be determined and reproduced especially in structures that represent typical cases of application of KFK in air and aerospace industry. (orig.) [de

  8. Investigation of metal/carbon-related materials for fuel cell applications by electronic structure calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Ki-jeong [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, P.O.Box 107, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: kong@krict.re.kr; Choi, Youngmin [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, P.O.Box 107, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Beyong-Hwan [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, P.O.Box 107, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-O [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, P.O.Box 107, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hyunju [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, P.O.Box 107, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-15

    The potential of carbon-related materials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphite nanofibers (GNFs), supported metal catalysts as an electrode for fuel cell application was investigated using the first-principle electronic structure calculations. The stable binding geometries and energies of metal catalysts are determined on the CNT surface and the GNF edge. The catalyst metal is more tightly bound to the GNF edge than to the CNT surface because of the existence of active dangling bonds of edge carbon atoms. The diffusion barrier of metal atoms on the surface and edge is also obtained. From our calculation results, we have found that high dispersity is achievable for GNF due to high barrier against the diffusion of metal atoms, while CNT appears less suitable. The GNF with a large edge-to-wall ratio is more suitable for the high-performance electrode than perfect crystalline graphite or CNT.

  9. Investigation of metal/carbon-related materials for fuel cell applications by electronic structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Ki-jeong; Choi, Youngmin; Ryu, Beyong-Hwan; Lee, Jeong-O; Chang, Hyunju

    2006-01-01

    The potential of carbon-related materials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphite nanofibers (GNFs), supported metal catalysts as an electrode for fuel cell application was investigated using the first-principle electronic structure calculations. The stable binding geometries and energies of metal catalysts are determined on the CNT surface and the GNF edge. The catalyst metal is more tightly bound to the GNF edge than to the CNT surface because of the existence of active dangling bonds of edge carbon atoms. The diffusion barrier of metal atoms on the surface and edge is also obtained. From our calculation results, we have found that high dispersity is achievable for GNF due to high barrier against the diffusion of metal atoms, while CNT appears less suitable. The GNF with a large edge-to-wall ratio is more suitable for the high-performance electrode than perfect crystalline graphite or CNT

  10. Mechanical and physical properties of carbon-graphite fiber-reinforced polymers intended for implant suprastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerström, Susanna; Ruyter, I Eystein

    2007-09-01

    Mechanical properties and quality of fiber/matrix adhesion of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based materials, reinforced with carbon-graphite (CG) fibers that are able to remain in a plastic state until polymerization, were examined. Tubes of cleaned braided CG fibers were treated with a sizing resin. Two resin mixtures, resin A and resin B, stable in the fluid state and containing different cross-linking agents, were reinforced with CG fiber loadings of 24, 36, and 47 wt% (20, 29, and 38 vol.%). In addition, resin B was reinforced with 58 wt% (47 vol.%). After heat-polymerization, flexural strength and modulus were evaluated, both dry and after water storage. Coefficient of thermal expansion, longitudinally and in the transverse direction of the specimens, was determined. Adhesion between fibers and matrix was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flexural properties and linear coefficient of thermal expansion were similar for both fiber composites. With increased fiber loading, flexural properties increased. For 47 wt% fibers in polymer A the flexural strength was 547.7 (28.12) MPa and for polymer B 563.3 (89.24) MPa when water saturated. Linear coefficient of thermal expansion was for 47 wt% CG fiber-reinforced polymers; -2.5 x 10(-6) degrees C-1 longitudinally and 62.4 x 10(-6) degrees C-1 in the transverse direction of the specimens. SEM revealed good adhesion between fibers and matrix. More porosity was observed with fiber loading of 58 wt%. The fiber treatment and the developed resin matrices resulted in good adhesion between CG fibers and matrix. The properties observed indicate a potential for implant-retained prostheses.

  11. Carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites from acrylic polymer matrices: Interfacial adhesion and physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kishi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic polymers have high potential as matrix polymers for carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic polymers (CFRTP due to their superior mechanical properties and the fact that they can be fabricated at relatively low temperatures. We focused on improving the interfacial adhesion between carbon fibers (CFs and acrylic polymers using several functional monomers for co-polymerization with methyl methacrylate (MMA. The copolymerized acrylic matrices showed good adhesion to the CF surfaces. In particular, an acrylic copolymer with acrylamide (AAm showed high interfacial adhesive strength with CFs compared to pure PMMA, and a hydroxyethyl acrylamide (HEAA copolymer containing both amide and hydroxyl groups showed high flexural strength of the CFRTP. A 3 mol% HEAA-copolymerized CFRTP achieved a flexural strength almost twice that of pure PMMA matrix CFRTP, and equivalent to that of an epoxy matrix CFRP.

  12. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer with Shredded Fibers: Quasi-Isotropic Material Properties and Antenna Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Artner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP laminate, with the top layer consisting of shredded fibers, is proposed and manufactured. The shredded fibers are aligned randomly on the surface to achieve a more isotropic conductivity, as is desired in antenna applications. Moreover, fiber shreds can be recycled from carbon fiber composites. Conductivity, permittivity, and permeability are obtained with the Nicolson-Ross-Weir method from material samples measured inside rectangular waveguides in the frequency range of 4 to 6 GHz. The decrease in material anisotropy results in negligible influence on antennas. This is shown by measuring the proposed CFRP as ground plane material for both a narrowband wire monopole antenna for 5.9 GHz and an ultrawideband conical monopole antenna for 1–10 GHz. For comparison, all measurements are repeated with a twill-weave CFRP.

  13. Mechanical Behavior of Nanostructured Hybrids Based on Poly(Vinyl Alcohol/Bioactive Glass Reinforced with Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Mansur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the synthesis and characterization of novel tridimensional porous hybrids based on PVA combined with bioactive glass and reinforced by chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNT for potential use in bone tissue engineering. The functionalization of CNT was performed by introducing carboxylic groups in multiwall nanotubes. This process aimed at enhancing the affinity of CNTs with the water-soluble PVA polymer derived by the hydrogen bonds formed among alcohol (PVA and carboxylic groups (CNT–COOH. In the sequence, the CNT–COOH (0.25 wt% were used as the nanostructure modifier for the hybrid system based on PVA associated with the bioactive glass (BaG. The mechanical properties of the nanostructured hybrids reinforced with CNT–COOH were evaluated by axial compression tests, and they were compared to reference hybrid. The averaged yield stresses of macroporous hybrids were (2.3 ± 0.9 and (4.4 ± 1.0 MPa for the reference and the CNT reinforced materials, respectively. Moreover, yield strain and Young's modulus were significantly enhanced by about 30% for the CNT–COOH hybrids. Hence, as far as the mechanical properties are concerned, the results have clearly showed the feasibility of utilizing these new hybrids reinforced with functionalized CNT in repairing cancellous bone tissues.

  14. Polymerization initated at sidewalls of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M. (Inventor); Hudson, Jared L. (Inventor); Krishnamoorti, Ramanan (Inventor); Yurekli, Koray (Inventor); Mitchell, Cynthia A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention is directed to aryl halide (such as aryl bromide) functionalized carbon nanotubes that can be utilized in anionic polymerization processes to form polymer-carbon nanotube materials with improved dispersion ability in polymer matrices. In this process the aryl halide is reacted with an alkyllithium species or is reacted with a metal to replace the aryl-bromine bond with an aryl-lithium or aryl-metal bond, respectively. It has further been discovered that other functionalized carbon nanotubes, after deprotonation with a deprotonation agent, can similarly be utilized in anionic polymerization processes to form polymer-carbon nanotube materials. Additionally or alternatively, a ring opening polymerization process can be performed. The resultant materials can be used by themselves due to their enhanced strength and reinforcement ability when compared to their unbound polymer analogs. Additionally, these materials can also be blended with pre-formed polymers to establish compatibility and enhanced dispersion of nanotubes in otherwise hard to disperse matrices resulting in significantly improved material properties. The resultant polymer-carbon nanotube materials can also be used in drug delivery processes due to their improved dispersion ability and biodegradability, and can also be used for scaffolding to promote cellular growth of tissue.

  15. Post-impact fatigue of cross-plied, through-the-thickness reinforced carbon/epoxy composites. M.S. Thesis - Clemson Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdinak, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the post-impact fatigue response of integrally woven carbon/epoxy composites was conducted. Five different through-the-thickness (TTT) reinforcing fibers were used in an experimental textile process that produced an integrally woven (0/90/0/90/0/90/0/90/0)(sub T) ply layup with 21K AS4 carbon tow fiber. The resin was Hercules 3501-6, and the five TTT reinforcing fibers were Kevlar, Toray carbon, AS4 carbon, glass, and IM6 carbon. The purpose of this investigation was to study the post-impact fatigue response of these material systems and to identify the optimum TTT fiber. Samples were impacted with one half inch diameter aluminum balls with an average velocity of 543 ft/sec. Post-impact static compression and constant amplitude tension-compression fatigue tests were conducted. Fatigue tests were conducted with a loading ratio of R=-5, and frequency of 4 Hz. Damage growth was monitored using x-radiographic and sectioning techniques and by examining the stress-strain response (across the impact site) throughout the fatigue tests. The static compressive stress versus far-field strain response was nearly linear for all material groups. All the samples had a transverse shear failure mode. The average compressive modulus (from far-field strain) was about 10 Msi. The average post-impact static compressive strength was about 35.5 Ksi. The IM6 carbon sample had a strength of over 40 Ksi, more than 16 percent stronger than average. There was considerable scatter in the S-N data. However, the IM6 carbon samples clearly had the best fatigue response. The response of the other materials, while worse than IM6 carbon, could not be ranked definitively. The initial damage zones caused by the impact loading and damage growth from fatigue loading were similar for all five TTT reinforcing materials. The initial damage zones were circular and consisted of delaminations, matrix cracks and ply cracks. Post-impact fatigue loading caused delamination growth

  16. Mechanical Properties of Welded Deformed Reinforcing Steel Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghafur H. Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement strength, ductility and bendability properties are important components in design of reinforced concrete members, as the strength of any member comes mainly from reinforcement. Strain compatibility and plastic behaviors are mainly depending on reinforcement ductility. In construction practice, often welding of the bars is required. Welding of reinforcement is an instant solution in many cases, whereas welding is not a routine connection process. Welding will cause deficiencies in reinforcement bars, metallurgical changes and re-crystallization of microstructure of particles. Weld metal toughness is extremely sensitive to the welding heat input that decreases both of its strength and ductility. For determining the effects of welding in reinforcement properties, 48 specimens were tested with 5 different bar diameters, divided into six groups. Investigated parameters were: properties of un-welded bars; strength, ductility and density of weld metal; strength and ductility reduction due to heat input for bundled bars and transverse bars; welding effect on bars’ bending properties; behavior of different joint types; properties of three weld groove shapes also the locations and types of failures sections. Results show that, strength and elongation of the welded bars decreased by (10-40% and (30-60% respectively. Cold bending of welded bars and groove welds shall be prevented.

  17. Highly Conductive Carbon Fiber Reinforced Concrete for Icing Prevention and Curing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galao, Oscar; Bañón, Luis; Baeza, Francisco Javier; Carmona, Jesús; Garcés, Pedro

    2016-04-12

    This paper aims to study the feasibility of highly conductive carbon fiber reinforced concrete (CFRC) as a self-heating material for ice formation prevention and curing in pavements. Tests were carried out in lab ambient conditions at different fixed voltages and then introduced in a freezer at -15 °C. The specimens inside the freezer were exposed to different fixed voltages when reaching +5 °C for prevention of icing and when reaching the temperature inside the freezer, i.e. , -15 °C, for curing of icing. Results show that this concrete could act as a heating element in pavements with risk of ice formation, consuming a reasonable amount of energy for both anti-icing (prevention) and deicing (curing), which could turn into an environmentally friendly and cost-effective deicing method.

  18. Analysis of the Dynamic Response in Blast-Loaded CFRP-Strengthened Metallic Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites (CFRPs are good candidates in enhancing the blast resistant performance of vulnerable public buildings and in reinforcing old buildings. The use of CFRP in retrofitting and strengthening applications is traditionally associated with concrete structures. Nevertheless, more recently, there has been a remarkable aspiration in strengthening metallic structures and components using CFRP. This paper presents a relatively simple analytical solution for the deformation and ultimate strength calculation of hybrid metal-CFRP beams when subjected to pulse loading, with a particular focus on blast loading. The analytical model is based on a full interaction between the metal and the FRP and is capable of producing reasonable results in a dynamic loading scenario. A nonlinear finite element (FE model is also developed to reveal the full dynamic behavior of the CFRP-epoxy-steel hybrid beam, considering the detailed effects, that is, large strains, high strain rates in metal, and different failure modes of the hybrid beam. Experimental results confirm the analytical and the FE results and show a strong correlation.

  19. Energy-momentum conserving higher-order time integration of nonlinear dynamics of finite elastic fiber-reinforced continua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Norbert; Groß, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Since many years the relevance of fibre-reinforced polymers is steadily increasing in fields of engineering, especially in aircraft and automotive industry. Due to the high strength in fibre direction, but the possibility of lightweight construction, these composites replace more and more traditional materials as metals. Fibre-reinforced polymers are often manufactured from glass or carbon fibres as attachment parts or from steel or nylon cord as force transmission parts. Attachment parts are mostly subjected to small strains, but force transmission parts usually suffer large deformations in at least one direction. Here, a geometrically nonlinear formulation is necessary. Typical examples are helicopter rotor blades, where the fibres have the function to stabilize the structure in order to counteract large centrifugal forces. For long-run analyses of rotor blade deformations, we have to apply numerically stable time integrators for anisotropic materials. This paper presents higher-order accurate and numerically stable time stepping schemes for nonlinear elastic fibre-reinforced continua with anisotropic stress behaviour.

  20. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars in dwarf galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvadori, Stefania; Skúladóttir, Ása; Tolstoy, Eline

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the frequency and origin of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in Local Group dwarf galaxies by means of a statistical, data-calibrated cosmological model for the hierarchical build-up of the Milky Way and its dwarf satellites. The model self-consistently explains the variation

  1. Simple and accurate model for voltage-dependent resistance of metallic carbon nanotube interconnects: An ab initio study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamacli, Serhan; Avci, Mutlu

    2009-01-01

    In this work, development of a voltage dependent resistance model for metallic carbon nanotubes is aimed. Firstly, the resistance of metallic carbon nanotube interconnects are obtained from ab initio simulations and then the voltage dependence of the resistance is modeled through regression. Self-consistent non-equilibrium Green's function formalism combined with density functional theory is used for calculating the voltage dependent resistance of metallic carbon nanotubes. It is shown that voltage dependent resistances of carbon nanotubes can be accurately modeled as a polynomial function which enables rapid integration of carbon nanotube interconnect models into electronic design automation tools.

  2. Corrosion behaviour of reinforcements in a carbonaceous concrete: influence of the chemistry of the interstitial solution and of a transport barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, B.

    2005-10-01

    The phenomenon of steel reinforcements corrosion in a carbonaceous concrete is a many-sided process, little understood and of a great economical importance. The aim of this work is to identify, in condition of concrete carbonation, the corrosion mechanisms of reinforcements in order to anticipate the long term damage of the buildings. An analytical and experimental study has been carried out and has revealed two hypotheses. These ones consist to characterize the control of the corrosion velocity, either by the anodic reaction or by addition of an oxidant. The corrosion experiments in solution which represents the interstitial solution of a carbonaceous cement paste show that the evolution of the metal/medium interface is very sensitive to the species introduced in the medium during the carbonation process. The change of the ionic strength and of the sulfate and alkali metals concentrations are the main factors influencing the localization of the reactional areas, the nature of the phases formed at the interface as well as the corrosion velocities and their change with time. The evolution of the water saturation degree of the coating is the preponderant factor on the corrosion velocity. The analytical calculations and the experimental results show that for fixed hydrous conditions, the corrosion velocity in stationary conditions is negligible. The taking into account of transient conditions of transport as well as humidification and drying cycles is required for the long term anticipation of the damage of reinforced concrete buildings. (O.M.)

  3. Milling of Nanoparticles Reinforced Al-Based Metal Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alokesh Pramanik

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the face milling of nanoparticles reinforced Al-based metal matrix composites (nano-MMCs using a single insert milling tool. The effects of feed and speed on machined surfaces in terms of surface roughness, surface profile, surface appearance, chip surface, chip ratio, machining forces, and force signals were analyzed. It was found that surface roughness of machined surfaces increased with the increase of feed up to the speed of 60 mm/min. However, at the higher speed (100–140 mm/min, the variation of surface roughness was minor with the increase of feed. The machined surfaces contained the marks of cutting tools, lobes of material flow in layers, pits and craters. The chip ratio increased with the increase of feed at all speeds. The top chip surfaces were full of wrinkles in all cases, though the bottom surfaces carried the evidence of friction, adhesion, and deformed material layers. The effect of feed on machining forces was evident at all speeds. The machining speed was found not to affect machining forces noticeably at a lower feed, but those decreased with the increase of speed for the high feed scenario.

  4. Assessment of adhesive setting time in reinforced concrete beams strengthened with carbon fibre reinforced polymer laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayyadh, Moatasem M.; Abdul Razak, H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This study investigated the effect of adhesive setting time on the modal parameters. ► Modal parameters recommend the 18th day as the maturity age of the adhesive. ► Static data recommend 7th day as the maturity age of the adhesive. ► Setting time affects the modal parameters as tool for assessment repaired structures. ► Carrying the modal parameters after 1st day results in 55% loss of the actual improvement. -- Abstract: The strengthened effectiveness and the performance capacity of repaired Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures with Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) sheets is dependent on the properties of the adhesive interface layer. Adhesive material requires a specific setting time to achieve the maximum design capacity. Adhesive producer provides technical data which demonstrates the increase with time of the capacity, up to the maximum. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the adhesive setting time on the modal parameters as an indication of the effectiveness of CFRP on repaired RC beams. Firstly, datum modal parameters were determined on the undamaged beam and subsequently the parameters were obtained when damaged was induced on the RC beam by application of load until the appearance of the first crack. Finally, the RC beam is repaired with externally bonded CFRP sheets, and modal parameters are once again applied after 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 11, 15 and 18 days. The comparison is made with the data based on half day results in order to monitor the change in the modal parameters corresponding to the adhesive setting time. The modal parameters where used as indicators for the effectiveness of CFRP are affected by the adhesive time as shown in this study. Results are compared with the adhesive technical data provided by the adhesive producer.

  5. Ablation resistance and mechanical/conductive properties of ZrB{sub 2} reinforced carbon based composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.T.; Shi, J.L.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, G.B.; Guo, Q.G.; Liu, L. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China)

    2007-02-15

    Zirconium diboride reinforced carbon (ZrB{sub 2}/C) particulate composites are prepared from petroleum coke, coal tar pitch, and ZrB{sub 2} powder by hot-pressing. The ablation, mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of the composites are studied. Results show that the composites have excellent flexural strength and thermal conductivity, with highest values reaching 131 MPa and 161 W/mK for a 10% ZrB{sub 2} addition in raw materials. The electrical resistivity reduces rapidly with increasing amount of ZrB{sub 2}. The values of mass and linear ablation rates are lower in the composites than those measured for pure carbon, decreasing with increasing ZrB{sub 2} content, confirming that these materials are promising for ultrahigh temperature materials. Correlations between properties and microstructure of the composites are also discussed.

  6. Prediction of Elastic Constants of the Fuzzy Fibre Reinforced Polymer Using Computational Micromechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Marzena; Lu, Yiling

    2018-05-01

    Computational micromechanics is a useful tool to predict properties of carbon fibre reinforced polymers. In this paper, a representative volume element (RVE) is used to investigate a fuzzy fibre reinforced polymer. The fuzzy fibre results from the introduction of nanofillers in the fibre surface. The composite being studied contains three phases, namely: the T650 carbon fibre, the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) reinforced interphase and the epoxy resin EPIKOTE 862. CNTs are radially grown on the surface of the carbon fibre, and thus resultant interphase composed of nanotubes and matrix is transversely isotropic. Transversely isotropic properties of the interphase are numerically implemented in the ANSYS FEM software using element orientation command. Obtained numerical predictions are compared with the available analytical models. It is found that the CNTs interphase significantly increased the transverse mechanical properties of the fuzzy fibre reinforced polymer. This extent of enhancement changes monotonically with the carbon fibre volume fraction. This RVE model enables to investigate different orientation of CNTs in the fuzzy fibre model.

  7. Non-damaging and scalable carbon nanotube synthesis on carbon fibres

    OpenAIRE

    De Luca, H; Anthony, DB; Qian, H; Greenhalgh, E; Bismarck, A; Shaffer, M

    2016-01-01

    The growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on carbon fibres (CFs) to produce a hierarchical fibre with two differing reinforcement length scales, in this instance nanometre and micrometre respectively, is considered a route to improve current state-of-the-art fibre reinforced composites [1]. The scalable production of carbon nanotube-grafted-carbon fibres (CNT-g-CFs) has been limited due to high temperatures, the use of flammable gases and the requirement of inert conditions for CNT synthesis, whi...

  8. Processing and characterization of laser sintered hybrid B4C/cBN reinforced Ti-based metal matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankit; Hussain, Manowar; Misra, Saurav; Das, Alok Kumar; Mandal, Amitava

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to make a boron carbide (B4C) and cubic boron nitride (cBN) reinforced Ti6Al4V metal matrix composites (MMC's) by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) technique using the continuous wave (CW) SPI fiber laser and to check the feasibility of the formation of three dimensional objects by this process. For this study, the process parameters like laser power density (3.528-5.172 W/cm2 (×104), scanning speed (3500-4500 mm/min), composition of the reinforced materials B4C (5-25% by volume) and cBN (3% by volume) were taken as input variables and hatching gap (0.2 mm), spot diameter (0.4 mm), layer thickness (0.4 mm) were taken as constant. It was analyzed that surface characteristic, density and the mechanical properties of sintered samples were greatly influenced by varying the input process parameters. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD) were performed for microstructural analysis, elemental analysis, and recognition of intermetallic compounds respectively. Mechanical properties like micro-hardness & wear rate were examined by Vickers micro-hardness tester & pin on disc arrangement respectively. From hardness tests, it was observed that hardness property of the sintered specimens was increased as compared to the parent material. The XRD results show that there is a good affinity between Ti6Al4V-B4C-cBN to produce various intermetallic compounds which themselves enhance the mechanical properties of the samples. From FESEM analysis, we can conclude that there is a uniform distribution of reinforcements in the titanium alloy matrix. Furthermore, the coefficient of friction (COF) was characterized by the irregular pattern and it tends to decrease with an increase in the volume % of reinforcement. The results obtained in this work may be useful in preparing the MMC's with improved mechanical properties and overall characteristics.

  9. Tribo-performance of epoxy hybrid composites reinforced with carbon fibers and potassium titanate whiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresha, B.; Harshavardhan, B.; Ravishankar, R.

    2018-04-01

    The present investigation deals with the fabrication and characterization of epoxy reinforced with bidirectional carbon fiber mat (CF/Ep) and filled with 2.5, 5 and 7.5 wt% potassium titanate whiskers (PTw) composites. The effect of PTw loading on hardness, tensile properties and dry sliding wear behaviour of CF/Ep composite were carefully investigated in expectation of providing valuable information for the application of hybrid CF/Ep composites. Results indicated that the incorporation of PTw actually improved the hardness, tensile strength and tensile modulus of CF/Ep composites. Meanwhile, the specific wear rate of CF/Ep filled by 5 wt % PTw reached to 6.3× 10-14 m3/N-m, which is 41% lower than that of CF/Ep composite at the same dry sliding condition. It also seen that the fiber and filler worked synergistically to enhance the wear resistance. Further, for all composites the friction coefficient increases with increase in load and sliding velocity. However, PTw reinforced CF/Ep exhibited considerably higher coefficient of friction compared to unfilled ones, while PTw filler loading of 5 wt% was effective in reducing the specific wear rate of CF/Ep composite. The carbon fiber carried the applied load between the contact surfaces and protected the epoxy from severe abrasion of the counterface. At the same time, the exposed PTw out of the epoxy matrix around the fiber inhibited the direct scraping between the fiber and counterface so that the fibers could be less directly impacted during the subsequent wear process and they were protected from severe damage.

  10. Carbon fiber reinforced hierarchical orthogrid stiffened cylinder: Fabrication and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Lai, Changlian; Sun, Fangfang; Li, Ming; Ji, Bin; Wei, Weiyi; Liu, Debo; Zhang, Xi; Fan, Hualin

    2018-04-01

    To get strong, stiff and light cylindrical shell, carbon fiber reinforced hierarchical orthogrid stiffened cylinders are designed and fabricated. The cylinder is stiffened by two-scale orthogrid. The primary orthogrid has thick and high ribs and contains several sub-orthogrid cells whose rib is much thinner and lower. The primary orthogrid stiffens the bending rigidity of the cylinder to resist the global instability while the sub-orthogrid stiffens the bending rigidity of the skin enclosed by the primary orthogrid to resist local buckling. The cylinder is fabricated by filament winding method based on a silicone rubber mandrel with hierarchical grooves. Axial compression tests are performed to reveal the failure modes. With hierarchical stiffeners, the cylinder fails at skin fracture and has high specific strength. The cylinder will fail at end crushing if the end of the cylinder is not thickened. Global instability and local buckling are well restricted by the hierarchical stiffeners.

  11. Sisal organosolv pulp as reinforcement for cement based composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Joaquim

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes non-conventional sisal (Agave sisalana chemical (organosolv pulp from residues of cordage as reinforcement to cement based materials. Sisal organosolv pulp was produced in a 1:1 ethanol/water mixture and post chemically and physically characterized in order to compare its properties with sisal kraft pulp. Cement based composites reinforced with organosolv or kraft pulps and combined with polypropylene (PP fibres were produced by the slurry de-watering and pressing method as a crude simulation of the Hatschek process. Composites were evaluated at 28 days of age, after exposition to accelerated carbonation and after 100 soak/dry cycles. Composites containing organosolv pulp presented lower mechanical strength, water absorption and apparent porosity than composites reinforced with kraft pulp. The best mechanical performance after ageing was also achieved by samples reinforced with kraft pulp. The addition of PP fibres favoured the maintenance of toughness after ageing. Accelerated carbonation promoted the densification of the composites reinforced with sisal organosolv + PP fibres.

  12. Multifunctional fiber reinforced polymer composites using carbon and boron nitride nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Behnam; Jakubinek, Michael B.; Martinez-Rubi, Yadienka; Rahmat, Meysam; Djokic, Drazen; Laqua, Kurtis; Park, Daesun; Kim, Keun-Su; Simard, Benoit; Yousefpour, Ali

    2017-12-01

    Recent progress in nanotechnology has made several nano-based materials available with the potential to address limitations of conventional fiber reinforced polymer composites, particularly in reference to multifunctional structures. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are the most prevalent case and offer amazing properties at the individual nanotube level. There are already a few high-profile examples of the use of CNTs in space structures to provide added electrical conductivity for static dissipation and electromagnetic shielding. Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs), which are structurally analogous to CNTs, also present a range of attractive properties. Like the more widely explored CNTs, individual BNNTs display remarkable mechanical properties and high thermal conductivity but with contrasting functional attributes including substantially higher thermal stability, high electrical insulation, polarizability, high neutron absorption and transparency to visible light. This presents the potential of employing either or both BNNTs and CNTs to achieve a range of lightweight, functional composites for space structures. Here we present the case for application of BNNTs, in addition to CNTs, in space structures and describe recent advances in BNNT production at the National Research Council Canada (NRC) that have, for the first time, provided sufficiently large quantities to enable commercialization of high-quality BNNTs and accelerate development of chemistry, composites and applications based on BNNTs. Early demonstrations showing the fabrication and limited structural testing of polymer matrix composites, including glass fiber-reinforced composite panels containing BNNTs will be discussed.

  13. Dry Sliding Friction and Wear Studies of Fly Ash Reinforced AA-6351 Metal Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Uthayakumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash particles are potentially used in metal matrix composites due to their low cost, low density, and availability in large quantities as waste by-products in thermal power plants. This study describes multifactor-based experiments that were applied to research and investigation on dry sliding wear system of stir-cast aluminum alloy 6351 with 5, 10, and 15 wt.% fly ash reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs. The effects of parameters such as load, sliding speed, and percentage of fly ash on the sliding wear, specific wear rate, and friction coefficient were analyzed using Grey relational analysis on a pin-on-disc machine. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was also employed to investigate which design parameters significantly affect the wear behavior of the composite. The results showed that the applied load exerted the greatest effect on the dry sliding wear followed by the sliding velocity.

  14. Critical Metals in Strategic Energy Technologies. Assessing Rare Metals as Supply-Chain Bottlenecks in Low-Carbon Energy Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, R.L.; Tzimas, E.; Kara, H.; Willis, P.; Kooroshy, J.

    2011-11-01

    Due to the rapid growth in demand for certain materials, compounded by political risks associated with the geographical concentration of the supply of them, a shortage of these materials could be a potential bottleneck to the deployment of low-carbon energy technologies. In order to assess whether such shortages could jeopardise the objectives of the EU's Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan), an improved understanding of these risks is vital. In particular, this report examines the use of metals in the six low-carbon energy technologies of SET-Plan, namely: nuclear, solar, wind, bioenergy, carbon capture and storage (CCS) and electricity grids. The study looks at the average annual demand for each metal for the deployment of the technologies in Europe between 2020 and 2030. The demand of each metal is compared to the respective global production volume in 2010. This ratio (expressed as a percentage) allows comparing the relative stress that the deployment of the six technologies in Europe is expected to create on the global supplies for these different metals. The study identifies 14 metals for which the deployment of the six technologies will require 1% or more (and in some cases, much more) of current world supply per annum between 2020 and 2030. These 14 metals, in order of decreasing demand, are tellurium, indium, tin, hafnium, silver, dysprosium, gallium, neodymium, cadmium, nickel, molybdenum, vanadium, niobium and selenium. The metals are examined further in terms of the risks of meeting the anticipated demand by analysing in detail the likelihood of rapid future global demand growth, limitations to expanding supply in the short to medium term, and the concentration of supply and political risks associated with key suppliers. The report pinpoints 5 of the 14 metals to be at high risk, namely: the rare earth metals neodymium and dysprosium, and the by-products (from the processing of other metals) indium, tellurium and gallium. The report explores a

  15. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube emitter on metal foil for medical X-ray imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Je Hwang; Kim, Wan Sun; Lee, Seung Ho; Eom, Young Ju; Park, Hun Kuk; Park, Kyu Chang

    2013-10-01

    A simple method is proposed for growing vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on metal foil using the triode direct current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The carbon nanotube (CNT) electron emitter was fabricated using fewer process steps with an acid treated metal substrate. The CNT emitter was used for X-ray generation, and the X-ray image of mouse's joint was obtained with an anode current of 0.5 mA at an anode bias of 60 kV. The simple fabrication of a well-aligned CNT with a protection layer on metal foil, and its X-ray application, were studied.

  16. Wettability between TiN,TiC Containing Carbon Composite Refractory and Molten Slag or Hot Metal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIYue-xun; LIYingand; 等

    1994-01-01

    In order to develop a new-type TiC-TiN containing carbon composite refractory so as to improve the service life of blast furnace hearth,the wettability between the carbon refractory and molten slag or metal has been mea-sured.It was indicated that the carbon refractory is wet-ted by slag(θ≤90°) when(TiC+TiN)>33.52%,The effects of TiN or TiC on wetting behavior are basi-cally identical.When the amount of TiC in the carbon com-posite refractory is greater than 60% it will be wetted by hot metal;therefore,the carbon composite refractory will be wetted by slag but not permeated by hot metal when the amount of TiC is restricted.

  17. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the functionalization of carbon metal-containing nanotubes with phosphorus atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabanova, I.N.; Terebova, N.S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Carbon metal-containing nanotubes (Me–Cu, Ni, Fe) were functionalized with chemical groups containing different concentrations of phosphorous. •The C1s and Me3s spectra were measured by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy method. •The values of the atomic magnetic moment of the carbon metal-containing nanotubes were determined. -- Abstract: In the present paper, carbon metal-containing (Me: Cu, Ni, Fe) nanotubes functionalized with phosphorus atoms (ammonium polyphosphate) were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) on an X-ray electron magnetic spectrometer. It is found that the functionalization leads to the change of the metal atomic magnetic moment, i.e. the value of the atomic magnetic moment in the functionalized carbon metal-containing (Cu, Ni, Fe) nanotubes increases and is higher than that in pristine nanotubes. It is shown that the covalent bond of Me and P atoms is formed. This leads to an increase in the activity of the nanostructure surface which is necessary for the modification of materials

  18. Metal-free carbon materials-catalyzed sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation processes: A review on heterogeneous catalysts and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qingxia; Mao, Qiming; Zhou, Yaoyu; Wei, Jianhong; Liu, Xiaocheng; Yang, Junying; Luo, Lin; Zhang, Jiachao; Chen, Hong; Chen, Hongbo; Tang, Lin

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), especially sulfate radical based AOPs have been widely used in various fields of wastewater treatment due to their capability and adaptability in decontamination. Recently, metal-free carbon materials catalysts in sulfate radical production has been more and more concerned because these materials have been demonstrated to be promising alternatives to conventional metal-based catalysts, but the review of metal-free catalysts is rare. The present review outlines the current state of knowledge on the generation of sulfate radical using metal-free catalysts including carbon nanotubes, graphene, mesoporous carbon, activated carbon, activated carbon fiber, nanodiamond. The mechanism such as the radical pathway and non-radical pathway, and factors influencing of the activation of sulfate radical was also be revealed. Knowledge gaps and research needs have been identified, which include the perspectives on challenges related to metal-free catalyst, heterogeneous metal-free catalyst/persulfate systems and their potential in practical environmental remediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fabrication and mechanical properties of aluminum composite reinforced with functionalized carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavijeh, Elham Zamani; Kokhaei, Saeed; Dehghani, Kamran

    2018-01-01

    Composite aluminum alloy (5000 series) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were made using mechanical alloying, cold press and sintering. The quality of interactions between Al powders and CNTs in the metal matrix composite has a significant effect on mechanical properties. Motivated from the properties of functionalized CNTs, the current study use this material rather than the raw type, because of its reactivity. Besides, a poly-vinyl-alcohol pre-mixing is done, the aim of which is to enhance mixing process. The functionalized carbon nanotubes ware made by chemically method through refluxing with nitric acid. By this method functional groups have been created on CNTs surfaces. 1% and 3% functionalized carbon nanotubes were manufactured using the aforementioned method. To provide unbiased comparisons, 1% and 3% with raw CNTs and pure aluminum is produced with same manner. The numerical experiments affirm the superiority of the functionalized carbon nano-tubes in terms of the relative density and hardness of nanocomposites. As a final activity, the Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to characterize the carbon nanotubes and the powders.

  20. Modelling the side impact of carbon fibre tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudharsan, R; Rolfe, B F; Hodgson, P D

    2010-01-01

    Metallic tubes have been extensively studied for their crashworthiness as they closely resemble automotive crash rails. Recently, the demand to improve fuel economy and reduce vehicle emissions has led automobile manufacturers to explore the crash properties of light weight materials such as fibre reinforced polymer composites, metallic foams and sandwich structures in order to use them as crash barriers. This paper discusses the response of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) tubes and their failure mechanisms during side impact. The energy absorption of CFRP tubes is compared to similar Aluminium tubes. The response of the CFRP tubes during impact was modelled using Abaqus finite element software with a composite fabric material model. The material inputs were given based on standard tension and compression test results and the in-plane damage was defined based on cyclic shear tests. The failure modes and energy absorption observed during the tests were well represented by the finite element model.

  1. Highly Conductive Carbon Fiber Reinforced Concrete for Icing Prevention and Curing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Galao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the feasibility of highly conductive carbon fiber reinforced concrete (CFRC as a self-heating material for ice formation prevention and curing in pavements. Tests were carried out in lab ambient conditions at different fixed voltages and then introduced in a freezer at −15 °C. The specimens inside the freezer were exposed to different fixed voltages when reaching +5 °C for prevention of icing and when reaching the temperature inside the freezer, i.e., −15 °C, for curing of icing. Results show that this concrete could act as a heating element in pavements with risk of ice formation, consuming a reasonable amount of energy for both anti-icing (prevention and deicing (curing, which could turn into an environmentally friendly and cost-effective deicing method.

  2. Dynamic Behavior of Nanocomposites Reinforced with Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yu Lai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT on the structural dynamic behavior of MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposites was investigated. Two different types of MWCNTs, pristine MWCNT and functionalized MWCNT, were used in this study. Carboxylic acid-functionalized MWCNTs (MWCNT-COOH were obtained by oxidation pristine MWCNTs via sonication in sulfuric-nitric acid and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Dynamic behaviors of the MWCNT reinforced nanocomposite including the natural frequency and damping ratio were determined using free vibration test. Experimental results showed that the damping ratio of the nanocomposite decreases with the increase of the MWCNT addition, while the natural frequency is increasing with the increase of the MWCNT addition. Functionalized MWCNTs improved the interfacial bonding between the nanotubes and epoxy resin resulting in the reduction of the interfacial energy dissipation ability and enhancement of the stiffness.

  3. Catalytic activity of metall-like carbides in carbon oxide oxidation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharlamov, A.I.; Kosolapova, T.Ya.; Rafal, A.N.; Kirillova, N.V.

    1980-01-01

    Kinetics of carbon oxide oxidation upon carbides of hafnium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, zirconium and chromium is studied. Probable mechanism of the catalysts action is suggested. The established character of the change of the carbide catalytic activity is explained by the change of d-electron contribution to the metal-metal interaction

  4. Microporous metal-organic framework with potential for carbon dioxide capture at ambient conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiang, S.C.; He, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Wu, H.; Zhou, W.; Krishna, R.; Chen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and separation are important industrial processes that allow the use of carbon dioxide for the production of a range of chemical products and materials, and to minimize the effects of carbon dioxide emission. Porous metal-organic frameworks are promising materials to achieve

  5. Noncompetitive and Competitive Adsorption of Heavy Metals in Sulfur-Functionalized Ordered Mesoporous Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dipendu; Barakat, Soukaina; Van Bramer, Scott E; Nelson, Karl A; Hensley, Dale K; Chen, Jihua

    2016-12-14

    In this work, sulfur-functionalized ordered mesoporous carbons were synthesized by activating the soft-templated mesoporous carbons with sulfur bearing salts that simultaneously enhanced the surface area and introduced sulfur functionalities onto the parent carbon surface. XPS analysis showed that sulfur content within the mesoporous carbons were between 8.2% and 12.9%. The sulfur functionalities include C-S, C═S, -COS, and SO x . SEM images confirmed the ordered mesoporosity within the material. The BET surface areas of the sulfur-functionalized ordered mesoporous carbons range from 837 to 2865 m 2 /g with total pore volume of 0.71-2.3 cm 3 /g. The carbon with highest sulfur functionality was examined for aqueous phase adsorption of mercury (as HgCl 2 ), lead (as Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ), cadmium (as CdCl 2 ), and nickel (as NiCl 2 ) ions in both noncompetitive and competitive mode. Under noncompetitive mode and at a pH greater than 7.0 the affinity of sulfur-functionalized carbons toward heavy metals were in the order of Hg > Pb > Cd > Ni. At lower pH, the adsorbent switched its affinity between Pb and Cd. In the noncompetitive mode, Hg and Pb adsorption showed a strong pH dependency whereas Cd and Ni adsorption did not demonstrate a significant influence of pH. The distribution coefficient for noncompetitive adsorption was in the range of 2448-4000 mL/g for Hg, 290-1990 mL/g for Pb, 550-560 mL/g for Cd, and 115-147 for Ni. The kinetics of adsorption suggested a pseudo-second-order model fits better than other models for all the metals. XPS analysis of metal-adsorption carbons suggested that 7-8% of the adsorbed Hg was converted to HgSO 4 , 14% and 2% of Pb was converted to PbSO 4 and PbS/PbO, respectively, and 5% Cd was converted to CdSO 4 . Ni was below the detection limit for XPS. Overall results suggested these carbon materials might be useful for the separation of heavy metals.

  6. Cathode spot movements along the carbon fibres in carbon/carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chengyu; Qiao Shengru; Yang Zhimao; Ding Bingjun

    2007-01-01

    The cathode spot movements on a polyacrilonitrile (PAN)-based carbon felt reinforced C/C composite and a three dimensional PAN-based carbon fibre reinforced C/C composite (3D-C/C) were investigated by a scanning electron microscope and a digital high-speed video camera. It was found that the carbon fibres have a higher ability to withstand the vacuum arc erosion than the carbon matrix. The cathode spot walks on the matrix, rather than on the carbon fibres. The cathode spot motion is controlled by the architecture of carbon fibres in C/C. The cathode spots move along the carbon fibres by a step-by-step manner rather than a random walk. The cathode spot tracks spread over a wide zone on the 3D-C/C surface parallel to the carbon fibre. The average arc spreading velocity is estimated to be about 0.9 m s -1 and the transient arc spreading velocity is in the range of 0.54-4.5 m s -1

  7. Electron beam irradiation effects on carbon fiber reinforced PEEK composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasuga, Tsuneo; Hagiwara, Miyuki; Odajima, Tosikazu; Sakai, Hideo; Nakakura, Toshiyuki; Masutani, Masahiro.

    1987-03-01

    Carbon fiber(CF) reinforced composites, using polyarylether-sulfone (PES) or polyarylether-ether-ketone (PEEK) as matrix material, were prepared and their electron beam irradiation effects were studied on the basis of changes in mechanical and dynamic viscoelastic properties and observation of fracture surfaces. The flexural strength of PES-CF composite decreased to 70 % of the initial strength after the irradiation of 3 MGy and 40 % after 15 MGy. The change in the profile of stress-strain (S-S) curves and fractographic observation by electron microscopy indicated that this composite irradiated with over 3 MGy was fractured by delamination caused by to the degradation of matrix polymer. The mechanical properties of PEEK-CF composite were scarcely decreased even after irradiated up to 180 MGy and this composite showed very high radiation resistance. The change in the profile of S-S curves and fractographic observation showed that this composite fractured due to destruction of fiber in the dose range less than 180 MGy, indicating that PEEK was excellent matrix material used in high radiation field. PEEK-PES-CF composite which was composed of the carbon fibers coated with PES solution showed less radiation resistance compared with PEEK-CF composite; the flexural strength decreased to 85 % of the initial value after the irradiation with 90 MGy. It was revealed from the changes in the profile of S-S curve that the specimen irradiated over 120 MGy was fractured due to not only fiber destruction but delamination. Deterioration mechanism of PEEK-PES-CF composite was studied by dynamic viscoelastic measurements in connection with the damage on matrix-fiber interface. It was suggested that the deterioration in mechanical properties of this composite was caused by the degradation of PES that coated on the surface of the carbon fibers. (author)

  8. Metallic Reinforcement of Direct Squeeze Die Casting Aluminum Alloys for Improved Strength and Fracture Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Schwam: J.F. Wallace: Y. Zhu: J.W. Ki

    2004-10-01

    The utilization of aluminum die casting as enclosures where internal equipment is rotating inside of the casting and could fracture requires a strong housing to restrain the fractured parts. A typical example would be a supercharger. In case of a failure, unless adequately contained, fractured parts could injure people operating the equipment. A number of potential reinforcement materials were investigated. The initial work was conducted in sand molds to create experimental conditions that promote prolonged contact of the reinforcing material with molten aluminum. Bonding of Aluminum bronze, Cast iron, and Ni-resist inserts with various electroplated coatings and surface treatments were analyzed. Also toughening of A354 aluminum cast alloy by steel and stainless steel wire mesh with various conditions was analyzed. A practical approach to reinforcement of die cast aluminum components is to use a reinforcing steel preform. Such performs can be fabricated from steel wire mesh or perforated metal sheet by stamping or deep drawing. A hemispherical, dome shaped casting was selected in this investigation. A deep drawing die was used to fabricate the reinforcing performs. The tendency of aluminum cast enclosures to fracture could be significantly reduced by installing a wire mesh of austenitic stainless steel or a punched austenitic stainless steel sheet within the casting. The use of reinforcements made of austenitic stainless steel wire mesh or punched austenitic stainless steel sheet provided marked improvement in reducing the fragmentation of the casting. The best strengthening was obtained with austenitic stainless steel wire and with a punched stainless steel sheet without annealing this material. Somewhat lower results were obtained with the annealed punched stainless steel sheet. When the annealed 1020 steel wire mesh was used, the results were only slightly improved because of the lower mechanical properties of this unalloyed steel. The lowest results were

  9. Synthesis, Mechanical Behavior, and Multi-Scale Tribological Performance of Carbon Nanoparticle Reinforced Ceramic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Andy

    This dissertation investigates the effects of carbon nanoparticles on the synthesis, mechanical behavior, and tribological performance of ceramic based composites. Specifically graphene Nanoplatelet (GNP) reinforced Al 2O3 and nanodiamond (ND) reinforced WC-Co systems are investigated. Carbon based nanoparticles such as GNPs and NDs are ideal reinforcements for ceramic based composites because of their unique functional and mechanical properties. GNPs have exceptional mechanical properties such as yield strength and elastic modulus, along with superb functional properties such as thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. NDs possess the highest hardness of any materials, very high elastic modulus, and have a very high thermal conductivity. GNPs are demonstrated to affect the sintering of Al2O 3 matrix composites by wrapping around grains, inhibiting diffusion, and thereby suppressing grain growth. High applied pressures (90 MPa) during sintering are observed to exacerbate grain growth suppression, while promoting attainment of fully dense ceramic composites. Higher applied pressures facilitate the wrapping of GNPs around grains, which promotes the onset of GNP induced grain growth suppression. Grain growth suppression compensates for the decreased hardness induced by low strength of the GNPs phase along the c-axis direction. GNPs enhanced the toughness and wear resistance of the nanocomposites by 21% and 39%, respectively, due to the intrinsic energy dissipating mechanisms such as GNP sheet kinking and sliding and GNP induced phenomena such as micro-cracking and crack bridging. The addition of ND affects the deposition of thermally sprayed coatings. Porosity increased in samples deposited by high velocity oxyacetylene flame spray (HVOF) and decreased in samples deposited by air plasma spray (APS). NDs are believed to inhibit solid state diffusion during splat impact, in the low thermal energy and high kinetic energy HVOF process. The high thermal

  10. In situ formation of titanium carbide using titanium and carbon-nanotube powders by laser cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savalani, M.M.; Ng, C.C.; Li, Q.H.; Man, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    Titanium metal matrix composite coatings are considered to be important candidates for high wear resistance applications. In this study, TiC reinforced Ti matrix composite layers were fabricated by laser cladding with 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt% carbon-nanotube. The effects of the carbon-nanotube content on phase composition, microstructure, micro-hardness and dry sliding wear resistance of the coating were studied. Microstructural observation using scanning electron microscopy showed that the coatings consisted of a matrix of alpha-titanium phases and the reinforcement phase of titanium carbide in the form of fine dendrites, indicating that titanium carbide was synthesized by the in situ reaction during laser irradiation. Additionally, measurements on the micro-hardness and dry sliding wear resistance of the coatings indicated that the mechanical properties were affected by the amount of carbon-nanotube in the starting precursor materials and were enhanced by increasing the carbon-nanotube content. Results indicated that the composite layers exhibit high hardness and excellent wear resistance.

  11. In situ formation of titanium carbide using titanium and carbon-nanotube powders by laser cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savalani, M.M., E-mail: mmfsmm@inet.polyu.edu.hk [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong); Ng, C.C.; Li, Q.H.; Man, H.C. [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong)

    2012-01-15

    Titanium metal matrix composite coatings are considered to be important candidates for high wear resistance applications. In this study, TiC reinforced Ti matrix composite layers were fabricated by laser cladding with 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt% carbon-nanotube. The effects of the carbon-nanotube content on phase composition, microstructure, micro-hardness and dry sliding wear resistance of the coating were studied. Microstructural observation using scanning electron microscopy showed that the coatings consisted of a matrix of alpha-titanium phases and the reinforcement phase of titanium carbide in the form of fine dendrites, indicating that titanium carbide was synthesized by the in situ reaction during laser irradiation. Additionally, measurements on the micro-hardness and dry sliding wear resistance of the coatings indicated that the mechanical properties were affected by the amount of carbon-nanotube in the starting precursor materials and were enhanced by increasing the carbon-nanotube content. Results indicated that the composite layers exhibit high hardness and excellent wear resistance.

  12. Metal-filled carbon nanotubes as a novel class of photothermal nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossella, Francesco; Bellani, Vittorio [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' A. Volta' ' and CNISM, Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Soldano, Caterina [Dipartimento di Chimica e Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Brescia, Via Valotti 9, 25121 Brescia (Italy); Tommasini, Matteo [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica ' ' G. Natta' ' , Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-05-08

    Metal-filled carbon nanotubes represent a novel class of photothermal nanomaterials: when illuminated by visible light they exhibit a strong enhancement of the temperature at the metal sites, due to the enhanced plasmonic light absorption at the metal surface, which behaves as a heat radiator. Potential applications include nanomedicine, heat-assisted magnetic recording, and light-activated thermal gradient-driven devices. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Structural Behavior of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovitigala, Thilan

    The main challenge for civil engineers is to provide sustainable, environmentally friendly and financially feasible structures to the society. Finding new materials such as fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) material that can fulfill the above requirements is a must. FRP material was expensive and it was limited to niche markets such as space shuttles and air industry in the 1960s. Over the time, it became cheaper and spread to other industries such as sporting goods in the 1980-1990, and then towards the infrastructure industry. Design and construction guidelines are available for carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), aramid fiber reinforced polymer (AFRP) and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) and they are currently used in structural applications. Since FRP is linear elastic brittle material, design guidelines for the steel reinforcement are not valid for FRP materials. Corrosion of steel reinforcement affects the durability of the concrete structures. FRP reinforcement is identified as an alternative to steel reinforcement in corrosive environments. Although basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) has many advantages over other FRP materials, but limited studies have been done. These studies didn't include larger BFRP bar diameters that are mostly used in practice. Therefore, larger beam sizes with larger BFRP reinforcement bar diameters are needed to investigate the flexural and shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams. Also, shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams was not yet studied. Experimental testing of mechanical properties and bond strength of BFRP bars and flexural and shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams are needed to include BFRP reinforcement bars in the design codes. This study mainly focuses on the use of BFRP bars as internal reinforcement. The test results of the mechanical properties of BFRP reinforcement bars, the bond strength of BFRP reinforcement bars, and the flexural and shear behavior of concrete beams

  14. A new technique for the strengthening of aluminum tungsten inert gas weld metals: using carbon nanotube/aluminum composite as a filler metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, M; Nabhani, N; Rashidkhani, E; Fattahi, Y; Akhavan, S; Arabian, N

    2013-01-01

    The effect of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) on the mechanical properties of aluminum multipass weld metal prepared by the tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process was investigated. High energy ball milling was used to disperse MWCNT in the aluminum powder. Carbon nanotube/aluminum composite filler metal was fabricated for the first time by hot extrusion of ball-milled powders. After welding, the tensile strength, microhardness and MWCNT distribution in the weld metal were investigated. The test results showed that the tensile strength and microhardness of weld metal was greatly increased when using the filler metal containing 1.5 wt.% MWCNT. Therefore, according to the results presented in this paper, it can be concluded that the filler metal containing MWCNT can serve as a super filler metal to improve the mechanical properties of TIG welds of Al and its alloys. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Smart carbon nanotube/fiber and PVA fiber-reinforced composites for stress sensing and chloride ion detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoheneder, Joshua

    Fiber reinforced composites (FRC) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers and carbon nanofibers (CNF) had an excellent flexural strength in excess of 18.5 MPa compared to reference samples of 15.8 MPa. It was found that the developed, depending on applied stress and exposure to chloride solutions, composites exhibit some electrical conductivity, from 4.20×10 -4 (Ω-1m-1 to 4.13×10 -4 Ω-1m-1. These dependences can be characterized by piezioresistive and chemoresistive coefficients demonstrating that the material possesses self-sensing capabilities. The sensitivity to stain and chloride solutions can be enhanced by incorporating small amounts of carbon nanofibers (CNF) or carbon nanotube (CNT) into composite structure. Conducted research has demonstrated a strong dependency of electrical properties of composite on crack formation in moist environments. The developed procedure is scalable for industrial application in concrete structures that require nondestructive stress monitoring, integrity under high service loads and stability in harsh environments.

  16. AE analysis of delamination crack propagation in carbon fiber-reinforced polymer materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sang Jae; Arakawa, Kazuo [Kyushu University, kasuga (Japan); Chen, Dingding [National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China); Han, Seung Wook; Choi, Nak Sam [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Delamination fracture behavior was investigated using acoustic emission (AE) analysis on carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) samples manufactured using vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM). CFRP plate was fabricated using unidirectional carbon fiber fabric with a lay-up of six plies [+30/-30]6 , and a Teflon film was inserted as a starter crack. Test pieces were sectioned from the inlet and vent of the mold, and packed between two rectangular epoxy plates to load using a universal testing machine. The AE signals were monitored during tensile loading using two sensors. The average tensile load of the inlet specimens was slightly larger than that of the vent specimens; however, the data exhibited significant scattering due to non-uniform resin distribution, and there was no statistically significant different between the strength of the samples sectioned from the inlet or outlet of the mold. Each of the specimens exhibited similar AE characteristics, regardless of whether they were from the inlet or vent of the mold. Four kinds of damage mechanism were observed: micro-cracking, fiber-resin matrix debonding, fiber pull-out, and fiber failure; and three stages of the crack propagation process were identified.

  17. Characterization and mechanical testing of alumina-based nanocomposites reinforced with niobium and/or carbon nanotubes fabricated by spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, K.E.; Jiang, D.; Yao, W.; Ritchie, R.O.; Mukherjee, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Alumina-based nanocomposites reinforced with niobium and/or carbon nanotubes (CNT) were fabricated by advanced powder processing techniques and consolidated by spark plasma sintering. Raman spectroscopy revealed that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) begin to break down at sintering temperatures >1150 °C. Nuclear magnetic resonance showed that, although thermodynamically unlikely, no Al 4 C 3 formed in the CNT–alumina nanocomposites, such that the nanocomposite can be considered as purely a physical mixture with no chemical bond formed between the nanotubes and ceramic matrix. In addition, in situ single-edge notched bend tests were conducted on niobium and/or CNT-reinforced alumina nanocomposites to assess their toughness. Despite the absence of subcritical crack growth, average fracture toughness values of 6.1 and 3.3 MPa m 1/2 were measured for 10 vol.% Nb and 10 vol.% Nb–5 vol.% SWCNT–alumina, respectively. Corresponding tests for the alumina nanocomposites containing 5 vol.% SWCNT, 10 vol.% SWCNT, 5 vol.% double-walled-CNT and 10 vol.% Nb yielded average fracture toughnesses of 3.0, 2.8, 3.3 and 4.0 MPa m 1/2 , respectively. It appears that the reason for not observing improvement in fracture toughness of CNT-reinforced samples is because of either damage to CNTs or possibly non-optimal interfacial bonding between CNT-alumina.

  18. Electroless nickel plating of arc discharge synthesized carbon nanotubes for metal matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagannatham, M.; Sankaran, S.; Prathap, Haridoss

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Electroless Ni coatings have been performed on CNTs for various deposition times. • The deposition of nickel increased with increase in deposition time. • A deposition time of 60 min has been optimum for uniform coating of Ni on CNTs. • The CNTs with uniform coating of Ni are potential for reinforcements in composites. • Electroless nickel coatings are determined to be super paramagnetic behavior. - Abstract: Electroless nickel (EN) plating was performed on arc discharge synthesized multiwalled carbon nanotubes for various deposition times. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Raman spectroscopy characterization techniques are used to identify the presence of nickel deposition on the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the degree of graphitization. The results indicate that impurities are less in the purified CNTs as compared to raw carbon soot. Increasing deposition time up to 60 min increases uniform deposition of nickel throughout the length of the CNTs. However, for deposition time longer than 60 min, nickel particles are seen separated from the surface of the CNTs. Uniformly coated nickel CNTs throughout their length are potential candidates for reinforcements in composite materials. Magnetic properties of the nickel coated CNTs, with deposition time of 30 and 60 min were also evaluated. The magnetic saturation of nickel coated CNTs with deposition time of 30 min is less compared to nickel coated CNTs with deposition time of 60 min

  19. Electroless nickel plating of arc discharge synthesized carbon nanotubes for metal matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagannatham, M.; Sankaran, S.; Prathap, Haridoss, E-mail: prathap@iitm.ac.in

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Electroless Ni coatings have been performed on CNTs for various deposition times. • The deposition of nickel increased with increase in deposition time. • A deposition time of 60 min has been optimum for uniform coating of Ni on CNTs. • The CNTs with uniform coating of Ni are potential for reinforcements in composites. • Electroless nickel coatings are determined to be super paramagnetic behavior. - Abstract: Electroless nickel (EN) plating was performed on arc discharge synthesized multiwalled carbon nanotubes for various deposition times. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Raman spectroscopy characterization techniques are used to identify the presence of nickel deposition on the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the degree of graphitization. The results indicate that impurities are less in the purified CNTs as compared to raw carbon soot. Increasing deposition time up to 60 min increases uniform deposition of nickel throughout the length of the CNTs. However, for deposition time longer than 60 min, nickel particles are seen separated from the surface of the CNTs. Uniformly coated nickel CNTs throughout their length are potential candidates for reinforcements in composite materials. Magnetic properties of the nickel coated CNTs, with deposition time of 30 and 60 min were also evaluated. The magnetic saturation of nickel coated CNTs with deposition time of 30 min is less compared to nickel coated CNTs with deposition time of 60 min.

  20. Additive manufacturing of short and mixed fibre-reinforced polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, James; Duoss, Eric B.; Rodriguez, Jennifer Nicole; Worsley, Marcus A.; King, Michael J.

    2018-01-09

    Additive manufacturing of a fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) product using an additive manufacturing print head; a reservoir in the additive manufacturing print head; short carbon fibers in the reservoir, wherein the short carbon fibers are randomly aligned in the reservoir; an acrylate, methacrylate, epoxy, cyanate ester or isocyanate resin in the reservoir, wherein the short carbon fibers are dispersed in the acrylate, methacrylate, epoxy, cyanate ester or isocyanate resin; a tapered nozzle in the additive manufacturing print head operatively connected to the reservoir, the tapered nozzle produces an extruded material that forms the fiber-reinforced polymer product; baffles in the tapered nozzle that receive the acrylate, methacrylate, epoxy, cyanate ester or isocyanate resin with the short carbon fibers dispersed in the acrylate, methacrylate, epoxy, cyanate ester or isocyanate resin; and a system for driving the acrylate, methacrylate, epoxy, cyanate ester or isocyanate resin with the short carbon fibers dispersed in the acrylate, methacrylate, epoxy, cyanate ester or isocyanate resin from the reservoir through the tapered nozzle wherein the randomly aligned short carbon fibers in the acrylate, methacrylate, epoxy, cyanate ester or isocyanate resin are aligned by the baffles and wherein the extruded material has the short carbon fibers aligned in the acrylate, methacrylate, epoxy, cyanate ester or isocyanate resin that forms the fiber-reinforced polymer product.