WorldWideScience

Sample records for metal oxides compared

  1. Comparative metal oxide nanoparticle toxicity using embryonic zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Wehmas, Leah C.; Anders, Catherine; Chess, Jordan; Punnoose, Alex; Pereira, Cliff B.; Greenwood, Juliet A.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Engineered metal oxide nanoparticles (MO NPs) are finding increasing utility in the medical field as anticancer agents. Before validation of in vivo anticancer efficacy can occur, a better understanding of whole-animal toxicity is required. We compared the toxicity of seven widely used semiconductor MO NPs made from zinc oxide (ZnO), titanium dioxide, cerium dioxide and tin dioxide prepared in pure water and in synthetic seawater using a five-day embryonic zebrafish assay. We hypothesized tha...

  2. Comparative metal oxide nanoparticle toxicity using embryonic zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah C. Wehmas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Engineered metal oxide nanoparticles (MO NPs are finding increasing utility in the medical field as anticancer agents. Before validation of in vivo anticancer efficacy can occur, a better understanding of whole-animal toxicity is required. We compared the toxicity of seven widely used semiconductor MO NPs made from zinc oxide (ZnO, titanium dioxide, cerium dioxide and tin dioxide prepared in pure water and in synthetic seawater using a five-day embryonic zebrafish assay. We hypothesized that the toxicity of these engineered MO NPs would depend on physicochemical properties. Significant agglomeration of MO NPs in aqueous solutions is common making it challenging to associate NP characteristics such as size and charge with toxicity. However, data from our agglomerated MO NPs suggests that the elemental composition and dissolution potential are major drivers of toxicity. Only ZnO caused significant adverse effects of all MO particles tested, and only when prepared in pure water (point estimate median lethal concentration = 3.5–9.1 mg/L. This toxicity was life stage dependent. The 24 h toxicity increased greatly (∼22.7 fold when zebrafish exposures started at the larval life stage compared to the 24 h toxicity following embryonic exposure. Investigation into whether dissolution could account for ZnO toxicity revealed high levels of zinc ion (40–89% of total sample were generated. Exposure to zinc ion equivalents revealed dissolved Zn2+ may be a major contributor to ZnO toxicity.

  3. Enhanced sun protection of nano-sized metal oxide particles over conventional metal oxide particles: an in vitro comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P; Nanda, A

    2014-06-01

    A systematic and detailed study has been designed and conducted, taking into account some of the proposed benefits such as increased efficiency, transparency, unique texture, protection of active ingredient and higher consumer compliance of cosmetics containing nano-sized metal oxides. This study also presents an in vitro method to determine sun protection factor of the investigational sunscreen cream samples containing zinc oxide and titanium dioxide with a varied range of particle size. Finally, a comparative study has been conducted between metal oxide particles, conventional as well as nanoparticles. All the skin cosmetics formulated were thermally stable with a pH ranging from 7.9 to 8.2. Moreover, the fatty acid substance content and residue were found to be analogous to the standard values in each skin cosmetic. The skin cosmetics containing the titanium or zinc oxide nanoparticles were found to have improved spreadability as compared to skin cosmetics containing conventional titanium or zinc oxide particles, respectively. All skin cosmetics were found to have uniform distribution of the particles. The sunscreen creams containing zinc oxide nanoparticles and titanium dioxide nanoparticles were found to have higher in vitro sun protection factor (SPF of 3.65 for ZnO nanoparticles and 4.93 for TiO2 nanoparticles) as compared to that of sunscreen creams containing conventional zinc oxide particles (SPF = 2.90) and conventional titanium dioxide (SPF = 1.29), clearly indicating the effect of reduction in particles size, from micro to nano, on the sun protection factor. Good texture, better spreadability and enhanced in vitro SPF proved the advantageous role of nanoparticles in cosmetics. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  4. A Comparative Study of Natural Fiber and Glass Fiber Fabrics Properties with Metal or Oxide Coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusis, Andrej; Pentjuss, Evalds; Bajars, Gunars; Sidorovicha, Uljana; Strazds, Guntis

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly growing global demand for technical textiles industries is stimulated to develop new materials based on hybrid materials (yarns, fabrics) made from natural and glass fibres. The influence of moisture on the electrical properties of metal and metal oxide coated bast (flax, hemp) fibre and glass fibre fabrics are studied by electrical impedance spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. The bast fibre and glass fiber fabrics are characterized with electrical sheet resistance. The method for description of electrical sheet resistance of the metal and metal oxide coated technical textile is discussed. The method can be used by designers to estimate the influence of moisture on technical data of new metal coated hybrid technical textile materials and products

  5. Flexible pores of a metal oxide-based capsule permit entry of comparatively larger organic guests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Ayala; Grego, Alina; Kopilevich, Sivil; Zeiri, Leila; Miro, Pere; Bo, Carles; Müller, Achim; Weinstock, Ira A

    2009-05-13

    In zeolites and other rigid solid-state oxides, substrates whose sizes exceed the pore dimensions of the material are rigorously excluded. Now, using a porous 3 nm diameter capsule-like oxomolybdate complex [{Mo(VI)(6)O(21)(H(2)O)(6)}(12){(Mo(V)(2)O(4))(30)(OAc)(21)(H(2)O)(18)}](33-) as a water-soluble analogue of solid-state oxides (e.g., as a soluble analogue of 3 A molecular sieves), we show that carboxylates (RCO(2)(-)) can negotiate passage through flexible Mo(9)O(9) pores in the surface of the capsule and that the rates follow the general trend R = 1 degree > 2 degrees > 3 degrees > phenyl (no reaction). Surprisingly, the branched alkanes (R = iso-Pr and tert-Bu) enter the capsule even though they are larger than the crystallographic dimensions of the Mo(9)O(9) pores. Four independent lines of spectroscopic and kinetic evidence demonstrate that these organic guests enter the interior of the capsule through its Mo(9)O(9) apertures and that no irreversible changes in the metal oxide framework are involved. This unexpected phenomenon likely reflects the greater flexibility of molecular versus solid-state structures and represents a sharp departure from traditional models for diffusion through porous solid-state (rigid) oxides.

  6. A comparative study of metal oxide and sulfate catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Zhong, Zhaoping; Yang, Han; Wang, Chunhua

    2017-05-01

    The properties and characteristics of metal oxide and sulfate catalysts with different active elements for selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH 3 were investigated. Cerium-based oxide catalyst showed the widest temperature window for NO x removal and manganese-based oxide catalyst exhibited the best catalytic performance at low temperature. For all the catalysts, the SCR activities at low temperature were directly related with the redox abilities of catalysts. The existence of sulfate groups inhibited the redox abilities of active species for sulfate catalysts compared with the metal oxide catalysts. The catalytic activities of CeWTi-S and MnWTi-S were seriously decreased in contrast to CeWTi-N and MnWTi-N. The temperature window of CuWTi-S was shifted toward higher temperature comparing with CuWTi-N. The FeWTi-N and FeWTi-S catalysts both showed high NO x conversion in the temperature range between 300°C and 400°C and N 2 O concentrations for iron-based samples were least among the same kind of catalysts. The abundance of acid sites and weak stability of surface sulfate groups for iron- and copper-based sulfate catalysts might be the main reasons accounting for the better NO x conversion in the medium-temperature range.

  7. Nanotoxicology of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedea B. Seabra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses recent advances in the synthesis, characterization and toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles obtained mainly through biogenic (green processes. The in vitro and in vivo toxicities of these oxides are discussed including a consideration of the factors important for safe use of these nanomaterials. The toxicities of different metal oxide nanoparticles are compared. The importance of biogenic synthesized metal oxide nanoparticles has been increasing in recent years; however, more studies aimed at better characterizing the potent toxicity of these nanoparticles are still necessary for nanosafely considerations and environmental perspectives. In this context, this review aims to inspire new research in the design of green approaches to obtain metal oxide nanoparticles for biomedical and technological applications and to highlight the critical need to fully investigate the nanotoxicity of these particles.

  8. Comparative effects of metal oxide nanoparticles on human airway epithelial cells and macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotoli, Bianca Maria; Bussolati, Ovidio; Costa, Anna Luisa; Blosi, Magda; Di Cristo, Luisana; Zanello, Pier Paolo; Bianchi, Massimiliano G.; Visigalli, Rossana; Bergamaschi, Enrico

    2012-09-01

    Among nanomaterials of industrial relevance, metal-based nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used, but their effects on airway cells are relatively poorly characterized. To compare the effects of metal NPs on cells representative of the lung-blood barrier, Calu-3 epithelial cells and Raw264.7 macrophages were incubated with three industrially relevant preparations of TiO2 NPs (size range 4-33 nm), two preparations of CeO2 NPs (9-36 nm) and CuO NPs (25 nm). While Raw264.7 were grown on standard plasticware, Calu-3 cells were seeded on permeable filters, where they form a high-resistance monolayer, providing an in vitro model of the airway barrier. Metal NPs, obtained from industrial sources, were characterized under the conditions adopted for the biological tests. Cytotoxicity was assessed with resazurin method in both epithelial and macrophage cells, while epithelial barrier permeability was monitored measuring the trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER). In macrophages, titania and ceria had no significant effect on viability in the whole range of nominal doses tested (15-240 μg/cm2 of monolayer), while CuO NPs produced a marked viability loss. Moreover, only CuO NPs, but not the other NPs, lowered TEER of Calu-3 monolayers, pointing to the impairment of the epithelial barrier. TEER decreased by 30 % at the dose of 10 μg/cm2 of CuO NPs, compared to untreated control, and was abolished at doses ≥80 μg/cm2, in strict correlation with changes in cell viability. These results indicate that (1) CuO NPs increase airway epithelium permeability even at relatively low doses and are significantly toxic for macrophages and airway epithelial cells, likely through the release of Cu ions in the medium; (2) TiO2 and CeO2 NPs do not affect TEER and exhibit little acute toxicity for airway epithelial cells and macrophages; and (3) TEER measurement can provide a simple method to assess the impairment of in vitro airway epithelial barrier model by manufactured nanomaterials.

  9. Monolithic metal oxide transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yongsuk; Park, Won-Yeong; Kang, Moon Sung; Yi, Gi-Ra; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2015-04-28

    We devised a simple transparent metal oxide thin film transistor architecture composed of only two component materials, an amorphous metal oxide and ion gel gate dielectric, which could be entirely assembled using room-temperature processes on a plastic substrate. The geometry cleverly takes advantage of the unique characteristics of the two components. An oxide layer is metallized upon exposure to plasma, leading to the formation of a monolithic source-channel-drain oxide layer, and the ion gel gate dielectric is used to gate the transistor channel effectively at low voltages through a coplanar gate. We confirmed that the method is generally applicable to a variety of sol-gel-processed amorphous metal oxides, including indium oxide, indium zinc oxide, and indium gallium zinc oxide. An inverter NOT logic device was assembled using the resulting devices as a proof of concept demonstration of the applicability of the devices to logic circuits. The favorable characteristics of these devices, including (i) the simplicity of the device structure with only two components, (ii) the benign fabrication processes at room temperature, (iii) the low-voltage operation under 2 V, and (iv) the excellent and stable electrical performances, together support the application of these devices to low-cost portable gadgets, i.e., cheap electronics.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of metal oxide nanoparticles against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ameer Azam,1,2 Arham S Ahmed,2 Mohammad Oves,3 Mohammad S Khan,3 Sami S Habib,1 Adnan Memic11Centre of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Centre of Excellence in Materials Science (Nanomaterials, 3Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, IndiaBackground: Nanomaterials have unique properties compared to their bulk counterparts. For this reason, nanotechnology has attracted a great deal of attention from the scientific community. Metal oxide nanomaterials like ZnO and CuO have been used industrially for several purposes, including cosmetics, paints, plastics, and textiles. A common feature that these nanoparticles exhibit is their antimicrobial behavior against pathogenic bacteria. In this report, we demonstrate the antimicrobial activity of ZnO, CuO, and Fe2O3 nanoparticles against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.Methods and results: Nanosized particles of three metal oxides (ZnO, CuO, and Fe2O3 were synthesized by a sol–gel combustion route and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. X-ray diffraction results confirmed the single-phase formation of all three nanomaterials. The particle sizes were observed to be 18, 22, and 28 nm for ZnO, CuO, and Fe2O3, respectively. We used these nanomaterials to evaluate their antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis bacteria.Conclusion: Among the three metal oxide nanomaterials, ZnO showed greatest antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria used in this study. It was observed that ZnO nanoparticles have excellent bactericidal potential, while Fe2O3 nanoparticles exhibited the least bactericidal activity. The order of antibacterial activity was demonstrated to be the following: ZnO > CuO > Fe2O3

  11. Responses of a soil bacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 to commercial metal oxide nanoparticles compared with responses to metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimkpa, Christian O.; Calder, Alyssa; Britt, David W.; McLean, Joan E.; Anderson, Anne J.

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity of commercially-available CuO and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) to pathogenic bacteria was compared for a beneficial rhizosphere isolate, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6. The NPs aggregated, released ions to different extents under the conditions used for bacterial exposure, and associated with bacterial cell surface. Bacterial surface charge was neutralized by NPs, dependent on pH. The CuO NPs were more toxic than the ZnO NPs. The negative surface charge on colloids of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) was reduced by Cu ions but not by CuO NPs; the EPS protected cells from CuO NPs-toxicity. CuO NPs-toxicity was eliminated by a Cu ion chelator, suggesting that ion release was involved. Neither NPs released alkaline phosphatase from the cells' periplasm, indicating minimal outer membrane damage. Accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species was correlated with CuO NPs lethality. Environmental deposition of NPs could create niches for ion release, with impacts on susceptible soil microbes. - Highlights: → Toxicity of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) was evaluated in a beneficial bacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 (PcO6). → Aggregated commercial CuO and ZnO NPs released Cu and Zn ions and changed bacterial surface charge, depending on pH. → The NPs were toxic to PcO6 through NP-specific, but also ion release mechanisms. → Reactive oxygen species were produced by CuO NP and Cu ion at lethal concentrations, but bacterial EPS protected against Cu. → The periplasmic marker, alkaline phosphate, activity was increased by the NPs and ions. - Aggregated CuO and ZnO nanoparticles release ions and cause different toxicities in a beneficial soil bacterium.

  12. Surveying and Comparing Thermal Conductivity and Physical Properties of Oil Base NanoFluids Containing Carbon and Metal Oxide Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ahmadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, nano materials with tubular structures are added to SAE 20W50 engine oil to study the rate of their effects on the properties of engine oil. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and vanadium oxide nanotubes (VONTs has been used as two different additive materials, one of them is carbonic and the other is metallic oxides and their effect on  different parameters containing viscosity, thermal conductivity coefficient, flash point and pour point of engine oil as the quality properties of engine oil has been studied and compared. The samples of two concentrations 0.1 and 0.2 wt% with using planetary ball mill were made. The obtained results show that MWCNTs in all cases, which  have been evaluated, had better functionality with respect to vanadium oxide nanotubes. In the 0.1 wt% concentration, flash point of MWCNTs/oil and VONTs/oil increased about 9.3% and 5.8% respectively. In addition, thermal conductivity of them increased 13.2% and 10.2% respectively.

  13. Oxidation by metal salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhon'kov, D.I.; Cheprakov, A.V.; Rodkin, M.A.; Mil'chenko, A.Yu.; Beletskaya, I.P.

    1986-01-01

    Oxidation of toluene and para-substituted toluenes containing electron acceptor groups: p-toluic acid, p-methyltoluylate and p-nitrotoluene by ammonium cerium (4) nitrate and ammonium cerium (4) sulfate in aqueous solutions of trifluoroacetic acid in the presence of chlorides and bromides of alkali metals is studied. The rate and selectivity of oxidative halogenation in side chain and/or aromatic ring under the conditions studied depend both on the nature of substrate and halogenide-ion and on the reaction conditions and ligand surrounding of cerium (4) atom

  14. A Comparative Study of Mn/Co Binary Metal Catalysts Supported on Two Commercial Diatomaceous Earths for Oxidation of Benzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tomatis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Two commercial diatomaceous earths were used as supports for the preparation of Mn/Co binary metal catalysts at different metal loads (5 to 10 wt % Mn and 5 to 15 wt % Co by incipient wetness deposition. The activity of the prepared catalysts towards the complete oxidation of benzene to CO2 and water was investigated between 100 and 400 °C. Raw supports and synthesized catalysts were characterized by XRD, N2 physisorption, SEM-EDS, H2-TPR, and TPD. The purification treatment of food-grade diatomite significantly affected the crystallinity of this support while reducing its specific surface area (SSA. A loss of SSA, associated with the increase in the metal load, was observed on samples prepared on natural diatomite, while the opposite trend occurred with food-grade diatomite-supported catalysts. Metal nanoparticles of around 50 nm diameter were observed on the catalysts’ surface by SEM analysis. EDS analysis confirmed the uniform deposition of the active phases on the support’s surface. A larger H2 consumption was found by TPR analysis of natural diatomite-based samples in comparison to those prepared at the same metal load on food-grade diatomite. During the catalytic oxidation experiment, over 90% conversion of benzene were achieved at a reaction temperature of 225 °C by all of the prepared samples. In addition, the formation of coke during the oxidation tests was demonstrated by TGA analysis and the soluble fraction of the produced coke was characterized by GC-MS.

  15. Conducting metal oxide and metal nitride nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSalvo, Jr., Francis J.; Subban, Chinmayee V.

    2017-12-26

    Conducting metal oxide and nitride nanoparticles that can be used in fuel cell applications. The metal oxide nanoparticles are comprised of for example, titanium, niobium, tantalum, tungsten and combinations thereof. The metal nitride nanoparticles are comprised of, for example, titanium, niobium, tantalum, tungsten, zirconium, and combinations thereof. The nanoparticles can be sintered to provide conducting porous agglomerates of the nanoparticles which can be used as a catalyst support in fuel cell applications. Further, platinum nanoparticles, for example, can be deposited on the agglomerates to provide a material that can be used as both an anode and a cathode catalyst support in a fuel cell.

  16. Thin film hydrous metal oxide catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosch, Robert G.; Stephens, Howard P.

    1995-01-01

    Thin film (metal oxide catalysts are prepared by 1) synthesis of a hydrous metal oxide, 2) deposition of the hydrous metal oxide upon an inert support surface, 3) ion exchange with catalytically active metals, and 4) activating the hydrous metal oxide catalysts.

  17. A red metallic oxide photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoxiang; Randorn, Chamnan; Efstathiou, Paraskevi; Irvine, John T. S.

    2012-07-01

    Light absorption across the bandgap in semiconductors is exploited in many important applications such as photovoltaics, light emitting diodes and photocatalytic conversion. Metals differ from semiconductors in that there is no energy gap separating occupied and unoccupied levels; however, it is still possible to excite electrons between bands. This is evidenced by materials with metallic properties that are also strongly coloured. An important question is whether such coloured metals could be used in light harvesting or similar applications. The high conductivity of a metal would preclude sufficient electric field being available to separate photocarriers; however, the high carrier mobility in a metal might also facilitate kinetic charge separation. Here we clearly demonstrate for the first time the use of a red metallic oxide, Sr1-xNbO3 as an effective photocatalyst. The material has been used under visible light to photocatalyse the oxidation of methylene blue and both the oxidation and reduction of water assisted by appropriate sacrificial elements.

  18. METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

    2007-10-01

    This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

  19. Synthesis of vertically aligned metal oxide nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Roqan, Iman S.

    2016-03-03

    Metal oxide nanostructure and methods of making metal oxide nanostructures are provided. The metal oxide nanostructures can be 1 -dimensional nanostructures such as nanowires, nanofibers, or nanotubes. The metal oxide nanostructures can be doped or undoped metal oxides. The metal oxide nanostructures can be deposited onto a variety of substrates. The deposition can be performed without high pressures and without the need for seed catalysts on the substrate. The deposition can be performed by laser ablation of a target including a metal oxide and, optionally, a dopant. In some embodiments zinc oxide nanostructures are deposited onto a substrate by pulsed laser deposition of a zinc oxide target using an excimer laser emitting UV radiation. The zinc oxide nanostructure can be doped with a rare earth metal such as gadolinium. The metal oxide nanostructures can be used in many devices including light-emitting diodes and solar cells.

  20. Mesoporous metal oxide graphene nanocomposite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Kou, Rong; Wang, Donghai

    2016-05-24

    A nanocomposite material formed of graphene and a mesoporous metal oxide having a demonstrated specific capacity of more than 200 F/g with particular utility when employed in supercapacitor applications. A method for making these nanocomposite materials by first forming a mixture of graphene, a surfactant, and a metal oxide precursor, precipitating the metal oxide precursor with the surfactant from the mixture to form a mesoporous metal oxide. The mesoporous metal oxide is then deposited onto a surface of the graphene.

  1. Methods for synthesizing metal oxide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Kumar, Vivekanand; Kim, Jeong H.; Clark, Ezra Lee

    2016-08-09

    A method of synthesizing a metal oxide nanowire includes the steps of: combining an amount of a transition metal or a transition metal oxide with an amount of an alkali metal compound to produce a mixture; activating a plasma discharge reactor to create a plasma discharge; exposing the mixture to the plasma discharge for a first predetermined time period such that transition metal oxide nanowires are formed; contacting the transition metal oxide nanowires with an acid solution such that an alkali metal ion is exchanged for a hydrogen ion on each of the transition metal oxide nanowires; and exposing the transition metal oxide nanowires to the plasma discharge for a second predetermined time period to thermally anneal the transition metal oxide nanowires. Transition metal oxide nanowires produced using the synthesis methods described herein are also provided.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Cobalt Oxide Nanoisland Stability and Edge Structures on Three Related Noble Metal Surfaces: Au (111), Pt (111) and Ag (111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fester, Jakob; Bajdich, Michal; Walton, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Metal oxide nanostructures and thin films grown on metallic substrates have attracted strong attention as model catalysts and as interesting inverse catalyst systems in their own right. In this study, we investigate the role of metal support in the growth and stabilization of cobalt oxide...... nanostructures on the three related (111) surfaces of Au, Pt and Ag, as investigated by means of high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and DFT calculations. All three substrates promote the growth of crystalline CoOx (x = 1−2) islands under oxidative conditions, but we find several noteworthy differences...

  3. Preparation of uniform nanoparticles of ultra-high purity metal oxides, mixed metal oxides, metals, and metal alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodfield, Brian F.; Liu, Shengfeng; Boerio-Goates, Juliana; Liu, Qingyuan; Smith, Stacey Janel

    2012-07-03

    In preferred embodiments, metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal (alloy) nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal oxide nanoparticles are provided. According to embodiments, the nanoparticles may possess narrow size distributions and high purities. In certain preferred embodiments, methods of preparing metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal nanoparticles are provided. These methods may provide tight control of particle size, size distribution, and oxidation state. Other preferred embodiments relate to a precursor material that may be used to form nanoparticles. In addition, products prepared from such nanoparticles are disclosed.

  4. Fundamentals of metal oxide catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Hari

    The properties of metal oxide catalysts and hence, catalytic activity are highly dependent on the composition and structure of these oxides. This dissertation has 3 parts -- all directed towards understanding relationships between structure, composition and activity in metal oxide catalysts. The first part of this dissertation focuses on supported metal oxide catalysts of tungsten, vanadium and molybdenum. Mechanisms are proposed for ethanol oxidative dehydrogenation which is used to probe the acidity and reducibility of these oxide catalysts. These studies are then used to develop a novel method to quantify active redox sites and determine the nature of the active site on these catalysts -- our results show that the intrinsic redox turn-over frequency is independent of the nature of the metal oxide and its loading and that the actual rate obtained over an oxide is only a function of the number of removable oxygen atoms linking the metal to the support. The extension of Ultraviolet-visible Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS) to the study of active oxide domains in binary oxide catalysts is demonstrated for distinguishing between interacting and non-interacting domains in binary MoO x-WOx catalysts on alumina. We show also how the rigorous analysis of pre-edge features, absorption white-line intensity and the full width at half maximum of the white-line in X-ray Absorption Spectra provide determinants for metal atom coordination and domain size in supported metal oxide catalysts. The second part of this work looks at effects of structure variations on the activity of polyoxometalate catalysts that are promising for the production of Methacrylic Acid from Isobutane. The use of these catalysts is limited by structural changes that impact their performance -- an "activation" period is required before the catalysts become active for methacrylic acid production and structural changes also lead to degradation of the catalyst, which are also seen during thermal

  5. Metal oxide nanorod arrays on monolithic substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Pu-Xian; Guo, Yanbing; Ren, Zheng

    2018-01-02

    A metal oxide nanorod array structure according to embodiments disclosed herein includes a monolithic substrate having a surface and multiple channels, an interface layer bonded to the surface of the substrate, and a metal oxide nanorod array coupled to the substrate surface via the interface layer. The metal oxide can include ceria, zinc oxide, tin oxide, alumina, zirconia, cobalt oxide, and gallium oxide. The substrate can include a glass substrate, a plastic substrate, a silicon substrate, a ceramic monolith, and a stainless steel monolith. The ceramic can include cordierite, alumina, tin oxide, and titania. The nanorod array structure can include a perovskite shell, such as a lanthanum-based transition metal oxide, or a metal oxide shell, such as ceria, zinc oxide, tin oxide, alumina, zirconia, cobalt oxide, and gallium oxide, or a coating of metal particles, such as platinum, gold, palladium, rhodium, and ruthenium, over each metal oxide nanorod. Structures can be bonded to the surface of a substrate and resist erosion if exposed to high velocity flow rates.

  6. Making A Noble-Metal-On-Metal-Oxide Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Irvin M.; Davis, Patricia P.; Upchurch, Billy T.

    1989-01-01

    Catalyst exhibits superior performance in oxidation of CO in CO2 lasers. Two-step process developed for preparing platinum- or palladium-on-tin-oxide catalyst for recombination of CO and O2, decomposition products that occur in high-voltage discharge region of closed-cycle CO2 laser. Process also applicable to other noble-metal/metal-oxide combinations.

  7. Nanostructured transition metal oxides useful for water oxidation catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Heinz M; Jiao, Feng

    2013-12-24

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising a nanostructured transition metal oxide capable of oxidizing two H.sub.2O molecules to obtain four protons. In some embodiments of the invention, the composition further comprises a porous matrix wherein the nanocluster of the transition metal oxide is embedded on and/or in the porous matrix.

  8. Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan [Santa Fe, NM; Mendoza, Daniel [Santa Fe, NM; Chen, Chun-Ku [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-04-15

    Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone into metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and into the cooler plasma afterglow where it oxidizes, cools and condenses to form solid metal oxide nanoparticles.

  9. Nanoparticular metal oxide/anatase catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    the catalyst metai oxide is co-precipitated with the carrier metal oxide, which crystallization seeds are removed by combustion in a final calcining step. The present invention also concerns processes wherein the nanoparticular metal oxide catalysts of the invention are used, such as SCR (deNOx) reactions...

  10. Aerobic Oxidations of Light Alkanes over Solid Metal Oxide Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Joseph T; Venegas, Juan M; McDermott, William P; Hermans, Ive

    2017-11-07

    Heterogeneous metal oxide catalysts are widely studied for the aerobic oxidations of C 1 -C 4 alkanes to form olefins and oxygenates. In this review, we outline the properties of supported metal oxides, mixed-metal oxides, and zeolites and detail their most common applications as catalysts for partial oxidations of light alkanes. By doing this we establish similarities between different classes of metal oxides and identify common themes in reaction mechanisms and research strategies for catalyst improvement. For example, almost all partial alkane oxidations, regardless of the metal oxide, follow Mars-van Krevelen reaction kinetics, which utilize lattice oxygen atoms to reoxidize the reduced metal centers while the gaseous O 2 reactant replenishes these lattice oxygen vacancies. Many of the most-promising metal oxide catalysts include V 5+ surface species as a necessary constituent to convert the alkane. Transformations involving sequential oxidation steps (i.e., propane to acrylic acid) require specific reaction sites for each oxidation step and benefit from site isolation provided by spectator species. These themes, and others, are discussed in the text.

  11. Metal Oxide Solubility and Molten Salt Corrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-29

    soluble oxides that relations like eq. (3) are significant. The oxides of several metal oxides have been found to be amphoteric , i.e., their solution...METAL OXIDE SOLUBILITY AND MOLTEN SALT CORROSION.(U) MAR 82 K H STERN UNCLASSI E DL R L-4772NL EL .2. MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BURALU...METAL OXIDE SOLUBILITY AND MOLTEN SALT Interim report on a continuing CORROSION NRL problem. S. PERFORMING a4. REPORT NUMlER 7. AuTtwORr) S. CONTRACT OR

  12. Metal oxides for optoelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xinge; Marks, Tobin J.; Facchetti, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Metal oxides (MOs) are the most abundant materials in the Earth's crust and are ingredients in traditional ceramics. MO semiconductors are strikingly different from conventional inorganic semiconductors such as silicon and III-V compounds with respect to materials design concepts, electronic structure, charge transport mechanisms, defect states, thin-film processing and optoelectronic properties, thereby enabling both conventional and completely new functions. Recently, remarkable advances in MO semiconductors for electronics have been achieved, including the discovery and characterization of new transparent conducting oxides, realization of p-type along with traditional n-type MO semiconductors for transistors, p-n junctions and complementary circuits, formulations for printing MO electronics and, most importantly, commercialization of amorphous oxide semiconductors for flat panel displays. This Review surveys the uniqueness and universality of MOs versus other unconventional electronic materials in terms of materials chemistry and physics, electronic characteristics, thin-film fabrication strategies and selected applications in thin-film transistors, solar cells, diodes and memories.

  13. Reduction of Metal Oxide to Metal using Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Ramana Reddy

    2012-04-12

    A novel pathway for the high efficiency production of metal from metal oxide means of electrolysis in ionic liquids at low temperature was investigated. The main emphasis was to eliminate the use of carbon and high temperature application in the reduction of metal oxides to metals. The emphasis of this research was to produce metals such as Zn, and Pb that are normally produced by the application of very high temperatures. The reduction of zinc oxide to zinc and lead oxide to lead were investigated. This study involved three steps in accomplishing the final goal of reduction of metal oxide to metal using ionic liquids: 1) Dissolution of metal oxide in an ionic liquid, 2) Determination of reduction potential using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and 3) Reduction of the dissolved metal oxide. Ionic liquids provide additional advantage by offering a wide potential range for the deposition. In each and every step of the process, more than one process variable has been examined. Experimental results for electrochemical extraction of Zn from ZnO and Pb from PbO using eutectic mixtures of Urea ((NH2)2CO) and Choline chloride (HOC2H4N(CH3)3+Cl-) or (ChCl) in a molar ratio 2:1, varying voltage and temperatures were carried out. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy studies of ionic liquids with and without metal oxide additions were conducted. FTIR and induction coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICPS) was used in the characterization of the metal oxide dissolved ionic liquid. Electrochemical experiments were conducted using EG&G potentiostat/galvanostat with three electrode cell systems. Cyclic voltammetry was used in the determination of reduction potentials for the deposition of metals. Chronoamperometric experiments were carried out in the potential range of -0.6V to -1.9V for lead and -1.4V to -1.9V for zinc. The deposits were characterized using XRD and SEM-EDS for phase, morphological and elemental analysis. The results showed that pure metal was deposited on the cathode

  14. Pulsed laser deposition: metal versus oxide ablation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeswijk, L.M.; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Blank, David H.A.

    2004-01-01

    We present experimental results of pulsed laser interaction with metal (Ni, Fe, Nb) and oxide (TiO2, SrTiO3, BaTiO3) targets. The influence of the laser fluence and the number of laser pulses on the resulting target morphology are discussed. Although different responses for metal and oxide targets

  15. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-09-04

    Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10C.

  16. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-10-15

    Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C.

  17. Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J

    2014-03-04

    Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.

  18. Metal ion binding to iron oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.; Benedetti, M.F.; Ponthieu, M.

    2006-01-01

    The biogeochemistry of trace elements (TE) is largely dependent upon their interaction with heterogeneous ligands including metal oxides and hydrous oxides of iron. The modeling of TE interactions with iron oxides has been pursued using a variety of chemical models. The objective of this work is to

  19. PREPARATION OF METAL OXIDE POWDERS FROM METAL LOADED VERSATIC ACID

    OpenAIRE

    KAKIHATA, Takayuki; USAMI, Kensuke; YAMAMOTO, Hideki; SHIBATA, Junji

    1998-01-01

    A production process for metal oxide powders was developed using a solvent extraction method. Versatic Acid 10 and D2EHPA solutions containing copper, zinc and nickel were used for a precipitation-stripping process, where oxalic acid was added to the solution as a precipitation reagent.Copper, zinc and nickel oxalates were easily formed in an aqueous phase, and 99.9% of precipitation was obtained for each metal during this process. These metal oxalates were easily converted to metal oxides by...

  20. Mesoporous metal oxides and processes for preparation thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suib, Steven L.; Poyraz, Altug Suleyman

    2018-03-06

    A process for preparing a mesoporous metal oxide, i.e., transition metal oxide. Lanthanide metal oxide, a post-transition metal oxide and metalloid oxide. The process comprises providing an acidic mixture comprising a metal precursor, an interface modifier, a hydrotropic ion precursor, and a surfactant; and heating the acidic mixture at a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to form the mesoporous metal oxide. A mesoporous metal oxide prepared by the above process. A method of controlling nano-sized wall crystallinity and mesoporosity in mesoporous metal oxides. The method comprises providing an acidic mixture comprising a metal precursor, an interface modifier, a hydrotropic ion precursor, and a surfactant; and heating the acidic mixture at a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to control nano-sized wall crystallinity and mesoporosity in the mesoporous metal oxides. Mesoporous metal oxides and a method of tuning structural properties of mesoporous metal oxides.

  1. Bioleaching of heavy metals from sewage sludge by indigenous iron-oxidizing microorganisms using ammonium ferrous sulfate and ferrous sulfate as energy sources: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Ashish; Dastidar, M G; Sreekrishnan, T R

    2009-11-15

    The potential of indigenous iron-oxidizing microorganisms enriched at initial neutral pH of the sewage sludge for bioleaching of heavy metals was investigated at initial neutral pH of the sludge using ammonium ferrous sulfate (FAS) and ferrous sulfate (FS) as an energy sources in two different sets of experiments. After 16 days of bioleaching, 56% Cu, 48% Ni, 68% Zn and 42% C were removed from the sludge using ammonium ferrous sulfate as an energy source. On the other hand, 64% Cu, 58% Ni, 76% Zn and 52% Cr were removed using ferrous sulfate. Further, 32% nitrogen and 24% phosphorus were leached from the sludge using ferrous sulfate, whereas only 22% nitrogen and 17% phosphorus were removed using ammonium ferrous sulfate. The BCR sequential extraction study on speciation of metals showed that using ammonium ferrous sulfate and ferrous sulfate, all the metals remained in bioleached sludge as stable form (F4 fraction). The results of the present study indicate that the bioleached sludge would be safer for land application. Also, the fertilizing property was largely conserved in the bioleached sludge using both the substrates.

  2. Catalytic dehydrogenation of light alkanes on metals and metal oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sattler, Jesper J H B|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328235601; Ruiz-Martinez, Javier|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341386405; Santillan-Jimenez, Eduardo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323171958; Weckhuysen, Bert M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397

    2014-01-01

    A study is conducted to demonstrate catalytic dehydrogenation of light alkanes on metals and metal oxides. The study provides a complete overview of the materials used to catalyze this reaction, as dehydrogenation for the production of light olefins has become extremely relevant. Relevant factors,

  3. Mesoporous Transition Metal Oxides for Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, transition metal oxides, such as ruthenium oxide (RuO2, manganese dioxide (MnO2, nickel oxides (NiO and cobalt oxide (Co3O4, have been widely investigated as electrode materials for pseudo-capacitors. In particular, these metal oxides with mesoporous structures have become very hot nanomaterials in the field of supercapacitors owing to their large specific surface areas and suitable pore size distributions. The high specific capacities of these mesoporous metal oxides are resulted from the effective contacts between electrode materials and electrolytes as well as fast transportation of ions and electrons in the bulk of electrode and at the interface of electrode and electrolyte. During the past decade, many achievements on mesoporous transition metal oxides have been made. In this mini-review, we select several typical nanomaterials, such as RuO2, MnO2, NiO, Co3O4 and nickel cobaltite (NiCo2O4, and briefly summarize the recent research progress of these mesoporous transition metal oxides-based electrodes in the field of supercapacitors.

  4. Effective dose assessment in the maxillofacial region using thermoluminescent (TLD) and metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosemeters: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, D; Wolff, J; Rottke, D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare the performance of metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) technology dosemeters with thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) (TLD 100; Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA) in the maxillofacial area. Methods: Organ and effective dose measurements were performed using 40 TLD and 20 MOSFET dosemeters that were alternately placed in 20 different locations in 1 anthropomorphic RANDO® head phantom (the Phantom Laboratory, Salem, NY). The phantom was exposed to four different CBCT default maxillofacial protocols using small (4 × 5 cm) to full face (20 × 17 cm) fields of view (FOVs). Results: The TLD effective doses ranged between 7.0 and 158.0 µSv and the MOSFET doses between 6.1 and 175.0 µSv. The MOSFET and TLD effective doses acquired using four different (FOV) protocols were as follows: face maxillofacial (FOV 20 × 17 cm) (MOSFET, 83.4 µSv; TLD, 87.6 µSv; −5%); teeth, upper jaw (FOV, 8.5 × 5.0 cm) (MOSFET, 6.1 µSv; TLD, 7.0 µSv; −14%); tooth, mandible and left molar (FOV, 4 × 5 cm) (MOSFET, 10.3 µSv; TLD, 12.3 µSv; −16%) and teeth, both jaws (FOV, 10 × 10 cm) (MOSFET, 175 µSv; TLD, 158 µSv; +11%). The largest variation in organ and effective dose was recorded in the small FOV protocols. Conclusions: Taking into account the uncertainties of both measurement methods and the results of the statistical analysis, the effective doses acquired using MOSFET dosemeters were found to be in good agreement with those obtained using TLD dosemeters. The MOSFET dosemeters constitute a feasible alternative for TLDs for the effective dose assessment of CBCT devices in the maxillofacial region. PMID:25143020

  5. Heavy metal removal from water/wastewater by nanosized metal oxides: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Ming; Zhang, Shujuan; Pan, Bingcai; Zhang, Weiming; Lv, Lu; Zhang, Quanxing

    2012-04-15

    Nanosized metal oxides (NMOs), including nanosized ferric oxides, manganese oxides, aluminum oxides, titanium oxides, magnesium oxides and cerium oxides, provide high surface area and specific affinity for heavy metal adsorption from aqueous systems. To date, it has become a hot topic to develop new technologies to synthesize NMOs, to evaluate their removal of heavy metals under varying experimental conditions, to reveal the underlying mechanism responsible for metal removal based on modern analytical techniques (XAS, ATR-FT-IR, NMR, etc.) or mathematical models, and to develop metal oxide-based materials of better applicability for practical use (such as granular oxides or composite materials). The present review mainly focuses on NMOs' preparation, their physicochemical properties, adsorption characteristics and mechanism, as well as their application in heavy metal removal. In addition, porous host supported NMOs are particularly concerned because of their great advantages for practical application as compared to the original NMOs. Also, some magnetic NMOs were included due to their unique separation performance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Metal oxide nanostructures as gas sensing devices

    CERN Document Server

    Eranna, G

    2016-01-01

    Metal Oxide Nanostructures as Gas Sensing Devices explores the development of an integrated micro gas sensor that is based on advanced metal oxide nanostructures and is compatible with modern semiconductor fabrication technology. This sensor can then be used to create a compact, low-power, handheld device for analyzing air ambience. The book first covers current gas sensing tools and discusses the necessity for miniaturized sensors. It then focuses on the materials, devices, and techniques used for gas sensing applications, such as resistance and capacitance variations. The author addresses the issues of sensitivity, concentration, and temperature dependency as well as the response and recovery times crucial for sensors. He also presents techniques for synthesizing different metal oxides, particularly those with nanodimensional structures. The text goes on to highlight the gas sensing properties of many nanostructured metal oxides, from aluminum and cerium to iron and titanium to zinc and zirconium. The final...

  7. Electrochemical analysis of metal oxides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grygar, Tomáš; Bezdička, Petr; Hradil, David; Pikna, L.

    90-91, - (2003), s. 45-50 ISSN 1012-0394 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : powder electroanalysis * Fe oxides * Mn oxides Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.687, year: 2003

  8. Thin film metal-oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Ramanathan, Shriram

    2009-01-01

    Presents an account of the fundamental structure-property relations in oxide thin films. This title discusses the functional properties of thin film oxides in the context of applications in the electronics and renewable energy technologies.

  9. A comparative DFT study on the CO oxidation reaction over Al- and Ge-embedded graphene as efficient metal-free catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esrafili, Mehdi D.; Nematollahi, Parisa; Abdollahpour, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The oxidation of CO by O 2 molecule is investigated over Al- and Ge-embedded graphene. • The first reaction pathway of the CO oxidation over both surfaces should proceed with the ER mechanism. • Ge-embedded graphene can be used as a more efficient catalyst for oxidation of CO than Al- embedded graphene. - Abstract: In the present study, by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, the catalytic oxidation of CO by O 2 molecule is investigated over Al- and Ge-embedded graphene. The large atomic radius of these dopant atoms can induce a local surface curvature and modulate the electronic structure properties of the graphene sheet through the charge redistribution. It is found that the adsorption of molecular O 2 over Al- or Ge-embedded graphene is stronger than that of CO molecule. The CO oxidation reaction by molecular O 2 on Al- and Ge-embedded graphene is comparably studied. The results indicate that a two-step process can occur, namely, CO + O 2 → CO 2 + O ads and CO + O ads → CO 2 . Furthermore, the computed activation energy (E act ) for the first reaction on Ge-doped graphene is lower than that of Al-doped one, and the formation of second CO 2 molecule on both surfaces can occur rapidly due to its low energy barrier (0.1 eV).

  10. Graphene composites containing chemically bonded metal oxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Composites of graphene involving chemically bonded nano films of metal oxides have been prepared by reacting graphene containing surface oxygen functionalities with metal halide vapours followed by exposure to water vapour. The composites have been characterized by electron microscopy, atomic force ...

  11. Graphene composites containing chemically bonded metal oxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Composites of graphene involving chemically bonded nano films of metal oxides have been prepared by reacting graphene containing surface oxygen functionalities with metal halide vapours followed by exposure to water vapour. The composites have been characterized by electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy ...

  12. Oxidation behaviour of metallic glass foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, B.R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 434 Dougherty Hall, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2200 (United States)], E-mail: bbarnard@utk.edu; Liaw, P.K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 434 Dougherty Hall, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2200 (United States); Demetriou, M.D.; Johnson, W.L. [Department of Materials Science, Keck Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    In this study, the effects of porosity on the oxidation behaviour of bulk-metallic glasses were investigated. Porous Pd- and Fe-based bulk-metallic glass (BMG) foams and Metglas ribbons were studied. Oxidizing experiments were conducted at 70 deg. C, and around 80 deg. C below glass-transition temperatures, (T{sub g}s). Scanning-electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) studies revealed little evidence of oxidation at 70 deg. C. Specimens exhibited greater oxidation at T{sub g} - 80 deg. C. Oxides were copper-based for Pd-based foams, Fe-, Cr-, and Mo-based for Fe-based foams, and Co-based with borosilicates likely for the Metglas. Pd-based foams demonstrated the best oxidation resistance, followed by Metglas ribbons, followed by Fe-based foams.

  13. PLUTONIUM METAL: OXIDATION CONSIDERATIONS AND APPROACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estochen, E.

    2013-03-20

    Plutonium is arguably the most unique of all metals when considered in the combined context of metallurgical, chemical, and nuclear behavior. Much of the research in understanding behavior and characteristics of plutonium materials has its genesis in work associated with nuclear weapons systems. However, with the advent of applications in fuel materials, the focus in plutonium science has been more towards nuclear fuel applications, as well as long term storage and disposition. The focus of discussion included herein is related to preparing plutonium materials to meet goals consistent with non-proliferation. More specifically, the emphasis is on the treatment of legacy plutonium, in primarily metallic form, and safe handling, packaging, and transport to meet non-proliferation goals of safe/secure storage. Elevated temperature oxidation of plutonium metal is the treatment of choice, due to extensive experiential data related to the method, as the oxide form of plutonium is one of only a few compounds that is relatively simple to produce, and stable over a large temperature range. Despite the simplicity of the steps required to oxidize plutonium metal, it is important to understand the behavior of plutonium to ensure that oxidation is conducted in a safe and effective manner. It is important to understand the effect of changes in environmental variables on the oxidation characteristics of plutonium. The primary purpose of this report is to present a brief summary of information related to plutonium metal attributes, behavior, methods for conversion to oxide, and the ancillary considerations related to processing and facility safety. The information provided is based on data available in the public domain and from experience in oxidation of such materials at various facilities in the United States. The report is provided as a general reference for implementation of a simple and safe plutonium metal oxidation technique.

  14. Method of making spherical metallic oxide and metallic carbide particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, E.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for making spherical metallic oxide and metallic carbide particles, especially particles consisting of fuel or breeder material such as oxide or carbide compounds of uranium, plutonium, thorium and the like with a diameter of from 0.1 to 1.5 millimeters, according to which an aqueous solution of a metallic nitrate or a metallic chloride or a mixture of metallic nitrates or metallic chlorides in which the metallic ions and anions are in a stoichiometric ratio to each other, is added dropwise to an organic phase. The method is characterized primarily in that the drops formed from the aqueous solution after congealing are washed in an aqueous solution containing ammonia and from 0.001 percent to 0.1 percent of a non-ionic surface active agent, especially an ethylene oxide condensate, enveloping the particles and preventing them from clumping during the following drying step. The hardened particles are dried in an air current having a temperature of from 150 to 300 0 C and an atmospheric moisture content corresponding to the degree of saturation of the air at a temperature of about from 20 to 50 0 C, and sintered at about 1300 0 C

  15. A comparison in activity between transition-metal oxides and transition metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojvodic, Aleksandra; Studt, Felix; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Bligaard, Thomas; Nørskov, Jens

    2012-02-01

    Transition-metal oxides are widely used materials in catalysis as substrates and promoters, but also as the active catalyst materials themselves. We compare the reactivity of transition-metal oxides with the one of transition metals. The comparison is exemplified for the ammonia synthesis reaction. First we show that there exist characteristic Brønsted-Evans Polanyi (BEP) relations (linear relations between transition state and dissociation energies) for dissociation of molecules on transition-metal oxides in the rutile and perovskite structure. It is well-known that the (211) metal surface is several orders of magnitude more reactive than the (111) metal surface due to the lower BEP line for the 211 facet. We find that both rutiles and perovskites follow BEP relations that are lower than the one of the 211 facet. Second we utilize the established BEP relations together with calculated adsorption energetics in a micro-kinetic model to obtain a volcano plot for the catalytic activity. We find that oxides have a higher turn over frequency as compared with metals. Hence, oxides intrinsically have a great advantage in terms of catalytic activity which opens up for catalyst design.

  16. Oxidation-Mediated Fingering in Liquid Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaker, Collin B.; Hight, David C.; O'Regan, John D.; Dickey, Michael D.; Daniels, Karen E.

    2017-10-01

    We identify and characterize a new class of fingering instabilities in liquid metals; these instabilities are unexpected due to the large interfacial tension of metals. Electrochemical oxidation lowers the effective interfacial tension of a gallium-based liquid metal alloy to values approaching zero, thereby inducing drastic shape changes, including the formation of fractals. The measured fractal dimension (D =1.3 ±0.05 ) places the instability in a different universality class than other fingering instabilities. By characterizing changes in morphology and dynamics as a function of droplet volume and applied electric potential, we identify the three main forces involved in this process: interfacial tension, gravity, and oxidative stress. Importantly, we find that electrochemical oxidation can generate compressive interfacial forces that oppose the tensile forces at a liquid interface. The surface oxide layer ultimately provides a physical and electrochemical barrier that halts the instabilities at larger positive potentials. Controlling the competition between interfacial tension and oxidative (compressive) stresses at the interface is important for the development of reconfigurable electronic, electromagnetic, and optical devices that take advantage of the metallic properties of liquid metals.

  17. Nanopowder Metal Oxide for Photoluminescent Gas Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhyrovetsky, V. M.; Popovych, D. I.; Savka, S. S.; Serednytski, A. S.

    2017-02-01

    Gas sensing properties of metal oxide nanopowders (ZnO, TiO2, WO3, SnO2) with average diameters of 40-60 nm were analyzed by room-temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy. The influence of gas environment (O2, N2, H2, CO, CO2) on the emission intensity was investigated for metal oxide nanopowders with surface doped by impurities (Pt, Ag, Au, Sn, Ni or Cu). Established physicochemical regularities of modification of surface electronic states of initial and doped nanopowders during gas adsorption. The nature of metal oxide nanopowder gas-sensing properties (adsorption capacity, sensitivity, selectivity) has been established and the design and optimal materials for the construction of the multi-component sensing matrix have been selected.

  18. Nanopowder Metal Oxide for Photoluminescent Gas Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Zhyrovetsky

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gas sensing properties of metal oxide nanopowders (ZnO, TiO2, WO3, SnO2 with average diameters of 40–60 nm were analyzed by room-temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy. The influence of gas environment (O2, N2, H2, CO, CO2 on the emission intensity was investigated for metal oxide nanopowders with surface doped by impurities (Pt, Ag, Au, Sn, Ni or Cu. Established physicochemical regularities of modification of surface electronic states of initial and doped nanopowders during gas adsorption. The nature of metal oxide nanopowder gas-sensing properties (adsorption capacity, sensitivity, selectivity has been established and the design and optimal materials for the construction of the multi-component sensing matrix have been selected.

  19. Surface Embedded Metal Oxide Sensors (SEMOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jesper Lebæk; Talat Ali, Syed; Pleth Nielsen, Lars

    is the second and main part of the project. The main challenges in developing metal oxide sensors are proper choice of the material, sensor location and fabrication technique due to lifetime and cross sensitivity issues in harsh environment where the problems like de-bonding or some kind of diffusion......SEMOS is a joint project between Aalborg University, Danish Technological Institute and Danish Technical University in which micro temperature sensors and metal oxide-based gas sensors are developed and tested in a simulated fuel cell environment as well as in actual working fuel cells. Initially...... complex and sensors are not easily implemented in the construction. Hence sensor interface and sensor position must therefore be chosen carefully in order to make the sensors as non-intrusive as possible. Metal Oxide Sensors (MOX) for measuring H2, O2 and CO concentration in a fuel cell environment...

  20. Charge transport in metal oxide nanocrystal-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnerstrom, Evan Lars

    matrix, and that the morphology and properties of the nanocomposites can be manipulated by changing the chemical composition of the deposition solution. Careful application of AC impedance spectroscopy techniques and DC measurements are used to show that the nanocomposites exhibit mixed ionic and electronic conductivity, where electronic charge is transported through the ITO nanocrystal phase, and ionic charge is transported through the polymer matrix phase. The synthetic methods developed here and understanding of charge transport ultimately lead to the fabrication of a solid state nanocomposite electrochromic device based on nanocrystals of ITO and cerium oxide. Part II of this dissertation considers electron transport within individual metal oxide nanocrystals themselves. It primarily examines relationships between synthetic chemistry, doping mechanisms in metal oxides, and the accompanying physics of free carrier scattering within the interior of highly doped metal oxide nanocrystals, with particular mind paid to ITO nanocrystals. Additionally, synthetic methods as well as metal oxide defect chemistry influences the balance between activation and compensation of dopants, which limits the nanocrystals' free carrier concentration. Furthermore, because of ionized impurity scattering of the oscillating electrons by dopant ions, scattering must be treated in a fundamentally different way in semiconductor metal oxide materials when compared with conventional metals. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  1. Electronic doping of transition metal oxide perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cammarata, Antonio, E-mail: cammaant@fel.cvut.cz [Department of Control Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 2, 16627 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Rondinelli, James M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2016-05-23

    CaFeO{sub 3} is a prototypical negative charge transfer oxide that undergoes electronic metal-insulator transition concomitant with a dilation and contraction of nearly rigid octahedra. Altering the charge neutrality of the bulk system destroys the electronic transition, while the structure is significantly modified at high charge content. Using density functional theory simulations, we predict an alternative avenue to modulate the structure and the electronic transition in CaFeO{sub 3}. Charge distribution can be modulated using strain-rotation coupling and thin film engineering strategies, proposing themselves as a promising avenue for fine tuning electronic features in transition metal-oxide perovskites.

  2. Recent Advances in Antimicrobial Hydrogels Containing Metal Ions and Metals/Metal Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazli Wahid

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens has caused a serious health problem. Scientists respond to the threat by developing new antimicrobial materials to prevent or control infections caused by these pathogens. Polymer-based nanocomposite hydrogels are versatile materials as an alternative to conventional antimicrobial agents. Cross-linking of polymeric materials by metal ions or the combination of polymeric hydrogels with nanoparticles (metals and metal oxide is a simple and effective approach for obtaining a multicomponent system with diverse functionalities. Several metals and metal oxides such as silver (Ag, gold (Au, zinc oxide (ZnO, copper oxide (CuO, titanium dioxide (TiO2 and magnesium oxide (MgO have been loaded into hydrogels for antimicrobial applications. The incorporation of metals and metal oxide nanoparticles into hydrogels not only enhances the antimicrobial activity of hydrogels, but also improve their mechanical characteristics. Herein, we summarize recent advances in hydrogels containing metal ions, metals and metal oxide nanoparticles with potential antimicrobial properties.

  3. Metal oxide/polyaniline nanocomposites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nanocomposites of iron oxide with conducting polymer in the form of powders of varying compositions have been studied to understand the effects of particle size, cluster size and magnetic inter-particle interactions. The sizes of the nanoparticles were estimated to be ∼ 10–20 nm from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the ...

  4. Metal oxide electrocatalysts for alternative energy technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacquette, Adele Lawren

    This dissertation focuses on the development of metal oxide electrocatalysts with varying applications for alternative energy technologies. Interest in utilizing clean, renewable and sustainable sources of energy for powering the planet in the future has received much attention. This will address the growing concern of the need to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. The facile synthesis of metal oxides from earth abundant metals was explored in this work. The electrocatalysts can be incorporated into photoelectrochemical devices, fuel cells, and other energy storage devices. The first section addresses the utilization of semiconductors that can harness solar energy for water splitting to generate hydrogen. An oxysulfide was studied in order to combine the advantageous properties of the stability of metal oxides and the visible light absorbance of metal chalcogenides. Bi 2O2S was synthesized under facile hydrothermal conditions. The band gap of Bi2O2S was smaller than that of its oxide counterpart, Bi2O3. Light absorption by Bi 2O2S was extended to the visible region (>600 nm) in comparison to Bi2O3. The formation of a composite with In 2O3 was formed in order to create a UV irradiation protective coating of the Bi2O2S. The Bi2O2S/In 2O3 composite coupled with a dye CrTPP(Cl) and cocatalysts Pt and Co3O4 was utilized for water splitting under light irradiation to generate hydrogen and oxygen. The second section focuses on improving the stability and light absorption of semiconductors by changing the shapes and morphologies. One of the limitations of semiconductor materials is that recombination of electron-hole pairs occur within the bulk of the materials instead of migration to the surface. Three-dimensional shapes, such as nanorods, can prevent this recombination in comparison to spherical particles. Hierarchical structures, such as dendrites, cubes, and multipods, were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions, in order to reduce recombination and improve

  5. Improved description of metal oxide stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauho, Thomas Stenbæk; Olsen, Thomas; Bligaard, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    transition-metal oxides. The mean absolute error relative to experiments is 0.21 eV and 0.38 eV per oxygen atom for rAPBE and RPA, respectively, and thus the rAPBE method greatly improves the description of metal-oxygen bonds across a wide range of oxides. The failure of the RPA can be partly attributed......The renormalized adiabatic PBE (rAPBE) method has recently been shown to comprise a significant improvement over the random phase approximation (RPA) for total energy calculations of simple solids and molecules. Here we consider the formation energies of 19 group I and II metal oxides and a few...... to the lack of error cancellation between the correlation energy of the oxide on the one hand and the bulk metal and oxygen molecule on the other hand, which are all separately predicted much too negative by the RPA. We ascribe the improved performance of the rAPBE to its significantly better description...

  6. Metal Oxide Vertical Graphene Hybrid Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A metal oxide vertical graphene hybrid supercapacitor is provided. The supercapacitor includes a pair of collectors facing each other, and vertical graphene electrode material grown directly on each of the pair of collectors without catalyst or binders. A separator may separate the vertical graphene electrode materials.

  7. Charge transport in metal oxide nanocrystal-based materials

    OpenAIRE

    Runnerstrom, Evan Lars

    2016-01-01

    There is probably no class of materials more varied, more widely used, or more ubiquitous than metal oxides. Depending on their composition, metal oxides can exhibit almost any number of properties. Of particular interest are the ways in which charge is transported in metal oxides: devices such as displays, touch screens, and smart windows rely on the ability of certain metal oxides to conduct electricity while maintaining visible transparency. Smart windows, fuel cells, and other electrochem...

  8. Local Oxidation Nanolithography on Metallic Transition Metal Dichalcogenides Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pinilla-Cienfuegos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The integration of atomically-thin layers of two dimensional (2D materials in nanodevices demands for precise techniques at the nanoscale permitting their local modification, structuration or resettlement. Here, we present the use of Local Oxidation Nanolithography (LON performed with an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM for the patterning of nanometric motifs on different metallic Transition Metal Dichalcogenides (TMDCs. We show the results of a systematic study of the parameters that affect the LON process as well as the use of two different modes of lithographic operation: dynamic and static. The application of this kind of lithography in different types of TMDCs demonstrates the versatility of the LON for the creation of accurate and reproducible nanopatterns in exfoliated 2D-crystals and reveals the influence of the chemical composition and crystalline structure of the systems on the morphology of the resultant oxide motifs.

  9. Preparation of oxide materials from metal alkoxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turevskaya, E.P.; Turova, N.Ya.; Yanovskaya, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    The results of studies on the sol-gel technologies on the basis of alkoxides are presented. The synthesis and properties of titanates zirconates, niobates, tantalates, vanadates and solid solutions on the basis of Mo, W and Bi oxides, iron oxides and high-temperature superconductors are presented. The most important aspects, determining the choice of optimal conditions for preparation of oxides of concrete compositions with required properties are pointed out. Accomplishment of the whole chain of studies made it possible to synthesize a broad range of metal alkoxides and study their properties and also carry out large-scale studies on preparation of various oxides and materials on the basis thereof, using the source base of the sol-gel method [ru

  10. 40 CFR 721.5549 - Lithiated metal oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lithiated metal oxide. 721.5549... Substances § 721.5549 Lithiated metal oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as lithiated metal oxide (LiNiO2) (PMN P-96-19...

  11. 40 CFR 721.4610 - Mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.4610... Substances § 721.4610 Mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxides (PMN P-98-0002...

  12. Polymorphism Control in Nanostructured Metal Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Shantanu

    Polymorphic phase transformations are common to all nanocrystalline binary metal oxides. The polymorphic nature of such metal oxides makes available a large number of phases with differing crystal structures, each stable under certain conditions of temperature, pressure, and/or particle size. These different crystal structures translate to unique physical and chemical properties for each structural class of polymorphs. Thus predicting when polymorphic phase transitions are likely to occur becomes important to the synthesis of stable functional materials with desired properties. Theoretical calculations using a heuristic approach have resulted in an accurate estimation of the critical particle size predicting metastable to stable phase transitions. This formula is applied to different case studies: for anatase to rutile titania; gamma-Alumina to alpha-Alumina; and tetragonal to monoclinic zirconia. The theoretical values calculated have been seen to be very close to the experimental results from the literature. Manifestation of the effect of phase transitions in nanostructured metal oxides was provided in the study of metastable to stable phase transitions in WO3. Nanowires of tungsten trioxide have been synthesized in-situ inside an electron microscope. Such structure of tungsten trioxide result due to a metastable to stable phase transformation, from the cubic to the monoclinic phase. The transformation is massive and complete. The structures formed are unique one-dimensional nanowires. Such a method can be scaled inside any equipment equipped with an electron gun, for example lithography systems either using STEM or E-beam lithography. Another study on nanowire formation in binary metal oxides involved the synthesis of stable orthorhombic MoO3 by means of blend electrospinning. Both a traditional single jet electrospinning set up and a novel high-throughput process to get high aspect ratio nanowires. The latter is a jet-controlled and flow controlled

  13. Magnetic Interactions in Transition-Metal Oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Solovyev, I. V.

    2003-01-01

    This a review article, which presents a general framework for the analysis of interatomic magnetic interactions in the spin-density-functional theory, which is based on the magnetic force theorem, make a link with the models for transition-metal oxides, and gives several examples of how this strategy can be used for the analysis of magnetic properties of colossal-magnetoresistive perovskite manganites, double perovskite and pyrochlore compounds.

  14. Catalysed electrolytic metal oxide dissolution processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machuron-Mandard, X.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrometallurgical processes designed for recovering valuable metals from mineral ores as well as industrial wastes usually require preliminary dissolution of inorganic compounds in aqueous media before extraction and purification steps. Unfortunately, most of the minerals concerned hardly or slowly dissolve in acidic or basic solutions. Metallic oxides, sulfides and silicates are among the materials most difficult to dissolve in aqueous solutions. They are also among the main minerals containing valuable metals. The redox properties of such materials sometimes permit to improve their dissolution by adding oxidizing or reducing species to the leaching solution, which leads to an increase in the dissolution rate. Moreover, limited amounts of redox promoters are required if the redox agent is regenerated continuously thanks to an electrochemical device. Nuclear applications of such concepts have been suggested since the dissolution of many actinide compounds (e.g., UO 2 , AmO 2 , PuC, PuN,...) is mainly based on redox reactions. In the 1980s, improvements of the plutonium dioxide dissolution process have been proposed on the basis of oxidation-reduction principles, which led a few years later to the design of industrial facilities (e.g., at Marcoule or at the french reprocessing plant of La Hague). General concepts and well-established results obtained in France at the Atomic Energy Commission (''Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique'') will be presented and will illustrate applications to industrial as well as analytical problems. (author)

  15. Hydrous metal oxide catalysts for oxidation of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.E.; Dosch, R.G.; McLaughlin, L.I. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Process Research Dept.

    1993-07-01

    This report describes work performed at Sandia under a CRADA with Shell Development of Houston, Texas aimed at developing hydrous metal oxide (HMO) catalysts for oxidation of hydrocarbons. Autoxidation as well as selective oxidation of 1-octene was studied in the presence of HMO catalysts based on known oxidation catalysts. The desired reactions were the conversion of olefin to epoxides, alcohols, and ketones, HMOs seem to inhibit autoxidation reactions, perhaps by reacting with peroxides or radicals. Attempts to use HMOs and metal loaded HMOs as epoxidation catalysts were unsuccessful, although their utility for this reaction was not entirely ruled out. Likewise, alcohol formation from olefins in the presence of HMO catalysts was not achieved. However, this work led to the discovery that acidified HMOs can lead to carbocation reactions of hydrocarbons such as cracking. An HMO catalyst containing Rh and Cu that promotes the reaction of {alpha}-olefins with oxygen to form methyl ketones was identified. Although the activity of the catalyst is relatively low and isomerization reactions of the olefin simultaneously occur, results indicate that these problems may be addressed by eliminating mass transfer limitations. Other suggestions for improving the catalyst are also made. 57 refs.

  16. Selective propene oxidation on mixed metal oxide catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, David William

    2002-01-01

    Selective catalytic oxidation processes represent a large segment of the modern chemical industry and a major application of these is the selective partial oxidation of propene to produce acrolein. Mixed metal oxide catalysts are particularly effective in promoting this reaction, and the two primary candidates for the industrial process are based on iron antimonate and bismuth molybdate. Some debate exists in the literature regarding the operation of these materials and the roles of their catalytic components. In particular, iron antimonate catalysts containing excess antimony are known to be highly selective towards acrolein, and a variety of proposals for the enhanced selectivity of such materials have been given. The aim of this work was to provide a direct comparison between the behaviour of bismuth molybdate and iron antimonate catalysts, with additional emphasis being placed on the component single oxide phases of the latter. Studies were also extended to other antimonate-based catalysts, including cobalt antimonate and vanadium antimonate. Reactivity measurements were made using a continuous flow microreactor, which was used in conjunction with a variety of characterisation techniques to determine relationships between the catalytic behaviour and the properties of the materials. The ratio of Fe/Sb in the iron antimonate catalyst affects the reactivity of the system under steady state conditions, with additional iron beyond the stoichiometric value being detrimental to the acrolein selectivity, while extra antimony provides a means of enhancing the selectivity by decreasing acrolein combustion. Studies on the single antimony oxides of iron antimonate have shown a similarity between the reactivity of 'Sb 2 O 5 ' and FeSbO 4 , and a significant difference between these and the Sb 2 O 3 and Sb 2 O 4 phases, implying that the mixed oxide catalyst has a surface mainly comprised of Sb 5+ . The lack of reactivity of Sb 2 O 4 implies a similarity of the surface with

  17. The competing oxide and sub-oxide formation in metal-oxide molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Patrick; Bierwagen, Oliver [Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, D-10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-02-23

    The hetero-epitaxial growth of the n-type semiconducting oxides β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and SnO{sub 2} on c- and r-plane sapphire was performed by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The growth-rate and desorbing flux from the substrate were measured in-situ under various oxygen to metal ratios by laser reflectometry and quadrupole mass spectrometry, respectively. These measurements clarified the role of volatile sub-oxide formation (Ga{sub 2}O, In{sub 2}O, and SnO) during growth, the sub-oxide stoichiometry, and the efficiency of oxide formation for the three oxides. As a result, the formation of the sub-oxides decreased the growth-rate under metal-rich growth conditions and resulted in etching of the oxide film by supplying only metal flux. The flux ratio for the exclusive formation of the sub-oxide (e.g., the p-type semiconductor SnO) was determined, and the efficiency of oxide formation was found to be the highest for SnO{sub 2}, somewhat lower for In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and the lowest for Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Our findings can be generalized to further oxides that possess related sub-oxides.

  18. Electrochromic device containing metal oxide nanoparticles and ultraviolet blocking material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Guillermo; Koo, Bonil; Gregoratto, Ivano; Basu, Sourav; Rosen, Evelyn; Holt, Jason; Thomsen, Scott

    2017-10-17

    An electrochromic device includes a nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze layer that includes one or more transition metal oxide and one or more dopant. The electrochromic device also includes nanoparticles containing one or more transparent conducting oxide (TCO), a solid state electrolyte, a counter electrode, and at least one protective layer to prevent degradation of the one or more nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze. The nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze selectively modulates transmittance of near-infrared (NIR) and visible radiation as a function of an applied voltage to the device.

  19. Self-assembled monolayers on metal oxides : applications in nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, O.

    2010-01-01

    The thesis describes the use of phosph(on)ate-based self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) to modify and pattern metal oxides. Metal oxides have interesting electronic and magnetic properties such as insulating, semiconducting, metallic, ferromagnetic etc. and SAMs can tailor the surface properties. FePt

  20. Passivation ability of graphene oxide demonstrated by two-different-metal solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wen-Tzu; Tsai, Zong-Sian; Chen, Liang-Chun; Chen, Guan-Yu; Lin, Chun-Chieh; Chen, Mei-Hsin; Song, Jenn-Ming; Lin, Chu-Hsuan

    2014-12-01

    The study on graphene oxide (GO) grows rapidly in recent years. We find that graphene oxide could act as the passivation material in photovoltaic applications. Graphene oxide has been applied on Si two-different-metal solar cells. The suitable introduction of graphene oxide could result in obvious enhancement on the efficiency. The simple chemical process to deposit graphene oxide makes low thermal budget, large-area deposition, and fast production of surface passivation possible. The different procedures to incorporate graphene oxide in Si two-different-metal solar cells are compared, and 21% enhancement on the efficiency is possible with a suitable deposition method.

  1. Tin etching from metallic and oxidized scandium thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pachecka, Malgorzata; Lee, Christopher James; Sturm, J.M.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    The role of oxide on Sn adhesion to Sc surfaces was studied with in-situ ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary electron microscopy. Sn etching with hydrogen radicals was performed on metallic Sc, metallic Sc with a native oxide, and a fully oxidized Sc layer. The results show

  2. Growth and sacrificial oxidation of transition metal nanolayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Tsarfati,; Zoethout, E.; van de Kruijs, R.; F. Bijkerk,

    2009-01-01

    Growth and oxidation of Au, Pt, Pd, Rh, Cu, Ru, Ni and Co layers of 0.3-4.3 nm thickness on Mo have been investigated with ARPES and AFM. Co and Ni layers oxidize while the Mo remains metallic. For nobler metals, the on top O and oxidation state of subsurface Mo increase, suggesting sacrificial e(-)

  3. Growth and sacrificial oxidation of transition metal nanolayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsarfati, T.; Tsarfati, Tim; Zoethout, E.; Zoethout, E.; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2009-01-01

    Growth and oxidation of Au, Pt, Pd, Rh, Cu, Ru, Ni and Co layers of 0.3–4.3 nm thickness on Mo have been investigated with ARPES and AFM. Co and Ni layers oxidize while the Mo remains metallic. For nobler metals, the on top O and oxidation state of subsurface Mo increase, suggesting sacrificial e−

  4. Metallic oxide switches using thick film technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, D. N.; Williams, L., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Metallic oxide thick film switches were processed on alumina substrates using thick film technology. Vanadium pentoxide in powder form was mixed with other oxides e.g., barium, strontium copper and glass frit, ground to a fine powder. Pastes and screen printable inks were made using commercial conductive vehicles and appropriate thinners. Some switching devices were processed by conventional screen printing and firing of the inks and commercial cermet conductor terminals on 96% alumina substrates while others were made by applying small beads or dots of the pastes between platinum wires. Static, and dynamic volt-ampere, and pulse tests indicate that the switching and self-oscillatory characteristics of these devices could make them useful in memory element, oscillator, and automatic control applications.

  5. Metal oxide membranes for gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Marc A.; Webster, Elizabeth T.; Xu, Qunyin

    1994-01-01

    A method for permformation of a microporous ceramic membrane onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane having mean pore sizes less than 30 Angstroms and useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or gas separation.

  6. Magnetic correlations in doped transition metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors review recent reactor- and spallation-source-based neutron scattering experiments on the magnetic fluctuations and order in a variety of doped transition metal oxides. In particular, data are shown for the NiO chain compound, Y 2-x Ca x BaNiO 5 , the two-dimensional cuprate superconductors La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 and YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x , and the classical three-dimensional ''Mott-Hubbard'' system V 2-y O 3

  7. Performance of metal and oxide fuels during accidents in a large liquid metal cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahalan, J.; Wigeland, R.; Friedel, G.; Kussmaul, G.; Royl, P.; Moreau, J.; Perks, M.

    1990-01-01

    In a cooperative effort among European and US analysts, an assessment of the comparative safety performance of metal and oxide fuels during accidents in a large (3500 MWt), pool-type, liquid-metal-cooled reactor (LMR) was performed. The study focused on three accident initiators with failure to scram: the unprotected loss-of-flow (ULOF), the unprotected transient overpower (UTOP), and the unprotected loss-of-heat-sink (ULOHS). Emphasis was placed on identification of design features that provide passive, self-limiting responses to upset conditions, and quantification of relative safety margins. The analyses show that in ULOF and ULOHS sequences, metal-fueled LMRs with pool-type primary systems provide larger temperature margins to coolant boiling than oxide-fueled reactors of the same design. 3 refs., 4 figs

  8. Thin films of metal oxides on metal single crystals: Structure and growth by scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, H.C.

    1995-12-01

    Detailed studies of the growth and structure of thin films of metal oxides grown on metal single crystal surfaces using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) are presented. The oxide overlayer systems studied are iron oxide and titanium oxide on the Pt(III) surface. The complexity of the metal oxides and large lattice mismatches often lead to surface structures with large unit cells. These are particularly suited to a local real space technique such as scanning tunneling microscopy. In particular, the symmetry that is directly observed with the STM elucidates the relationship of the oxide overlayers to the substrate as well as distinguishing, the structures of different oxides

  9. Transition Metal Oxides for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction: Influence of the Oxidation States of the Metal and its Position on the Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Rou Jun; Sofer, Zdeněk; Pumera, Martin

    2015-11-16

    Electrocatalysts have been developed to meet the needs and requirements of renewable energy applications. Metal oxides have been well explored and are promising for this purpose, however, many reports focus on only one or a few metal oxides at once. Herein, thirty metal oxides, which were either commercially available or synthesized by a simple and scalable method, were screened for comparison with regards to their electrocatalytic activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). We show that although manganese, iron, cobalt, and nickel oxides generally displayed the ability to enhance the kinetics of oxygen reduction under alkaline conditions compared with bare glassy carbon, there is no significant correlation between the position of a metal on the periodic table and the electrocatalytic performance of its respective metal oxides. Moreover, it was also observed that mixed valent (+2, +3) oxides performed the poorest, compared with their respective pure metal oxides. These findings may be of paramount importance in the field of renewable energy. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Nanotoxicity: oxidative stress mediated toxicity of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Abhijit; Ghosh, Manoranjan; Sil, Parames Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Metal and metal oxide nanoparticles are often used as industrial catalysts or to improve product's functional properties. Recent advanced nanotechnology have been expected to be used in various fields, ranging from sensors, environmental remediation to biomedicine, medical biology and imaging, etc. However, the growing use of nanoparticles has led to their release into environment and increased levels of these particles at nearby sites or the surroundings of their manufacturing factories become obvious. The toxicity of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles on humans, animals, and certainly to the environment has become a major concern to our community. However, controversies still remain with respect to the toxic effects and the mechanisms of these nanoparticles. The scientific community now feels that an understanding of the toxic effects is necessary to handle these nanoparticles and their use. A new discipline, named nanotoxicology, has therefore been developed that basically refers to the study of the interactions of nanoparticles with biological systems and also measures the toxicity level related to human health. Nanoparticles usually generate reactive oxygen species to a greater extent than micro-sized particles resulting in increased pro-inflammatory reactions and oxidative stress via intracellular signaling pathways. In this review, we mainly focus on the routes of exposure of some metal and metal oxide nanoparticles and how these nanoparticles affect us or broadly the cells of our organs. We would also like to discuss the responsible mechanism(s) of the nanoparticle-induced reactive oxygen species mediated organ pathophysiology. A brief introduction of the characterization and application of these nanoparticles has also been included in the article.

  11. Oxidation of vanadium metal in oxygen plasma and their characterizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabindar Kumar Sharma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, the role of oxygen plasma on oxidation of vanadium (V metal and the volatilization of its oxides has been studied as a function of source (V metal strip temperature (Tss and oxygen partial pressure (PO2. The presence of O2-plasma not only enhances the oxidation rate but also ficilitates in transport of oxide molecules from metal to substrate, as confirmed by the simultanous deposition of oxide film onto substrate. Both the oxidized metal strips and oxide films deposited on substrates are characterized separately. The structural and vibrational results evidence the presence of two different oxide phases (i.e. orthorhombic V2O5 and monocilinic V O2 in oxide layers formed on V metal strips, whereas the oxide films deposited on substrates exhibit only orthorhombic phase (i.e. V2O5. The decrease in peak intensities recorded from heated V metal strips on increasing Tss points out the increment in the rate of oxide volatilization, which also confirms by the oxide layer thickness measurements. The SEM results show the noticeable surface changes on V-strips as the function of Tss and PO2 and their optimum values are recorded to be 500   ˚ C and 7.5 × 10−2 Torr, respectively to deposit maximum thick oxide film on substrate. The formation of microcracks on oxidized V-strips, those responsible to countinue oxidation is also confirmed by SEM results. The compositional study of oxide layers formed on V-strips, corroborates their pureness and further assures about the existence of mixed oxide phases. The effect of oxygen partial pressure on oxidation of V-metal has also been discussed in the present report. All the results are well in agreement to each other.

  12. Oxidation of vanadium metal in oxygen plasma and their characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rabindar Kumar; Singh, Megha; Kumar, Prabhat; Reddy, G. B.

    2015-09-01

    In this report, the role of oxygen plasma on oxidation of vanadium (V) metal and the volatilization of its oxides has been studied as a function of source (V metal strip) temperature (Tss) and oxygen partial pressure (PO2). The presence of O2-plasma not only enhances the oxidation rate but also ficilitates in transport of oxide molecules from metal to substrate, as confirmed by the simultanous deposition of oxide film onto substrate. Both the oxidized metal strips and oxide films deposited on substrates are characterized separately. The structural and vibrational results evidence the presence of two different oxide phases (i.e. orthorhombic V2O5 and monocilinic V O2) in oxide layers formed on V metal strips, whereas the oxide films deposited on substrates exhibit only orthorhombic phase (i.e. V2O5). The decrease in peak intensities recorded from heated V metal strips on increasing Tss points out the increment in the rate of oxide volatilization, which also confirms by the oxide layer thickness measurements. The SEM results show the noticeable surface changes on V-strips as the function of Tss and PO2 and their optimum values are recorded to be 500 ˚ C and 7.5 × 10-2 Torr, respectively to deposit maximum thick oxide film on substrate. The formation of microcracks on oxidized V-strips, those responsible to countinue oxidation is also confirmed by SEM results. The compositional study of oxide layers formed on V-strips, corroborates their pureness and further assures about the existence of mixed oxide phases. The effect of oxygen partial pressure on oxidation of V-metal has also been discussed in the present report. All the results are well in agreement to each other.

  13. An improved method of preparation of nanoparticular metal oxide catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention concerns an improved method of preparation of nanoparticular vanadium oxide/anatase titania catalysts having a narrow particle size distribution. In particular, the invention concerns preparation of nanoparticular vanadium oxide/anatase titania catalyst precursors comprising...... combustible crystallization seeds upon which the catalyst metal oxide is coprecipitated with the carrier metal oxide, which crystallization seeds are removed by combustion in a final calcining step....

  14. Sol-Gel/Hydrothermal Synthesis of Mixed Metal Oxide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mixed metal oxides of titanium and zinc nanocomposites were prepared through sol-gel method under hydrothermal condition ... Keywords: Nanocomposites, Titanium dioxide, Zinc oxide, Particle sizes, Optical property, X-Ray Diffraction. ABSTRACT. 321 ... doping with other semiconductors like zinc oxide, aluminium oxide ...

  15. Size characterization of metal oxide nanoparticles in commercial sunscreen products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairi, Venu Gopal; Lim, Jin-Hee; Fong, Andrew; Linder, Sean W.

    2017-07-01

    There is an increase in the usage of engineered metal oxide (TiO2 and ZnO) nanoparticles in commercial sunscreens due to their pleasing esthetics and greater sun protection efficiency. A number of studies have been done concerning the safety of nanoparticles in sunscreen products. In order to do the safety assessment, it is pertinent to develop novel analytical techniques to analyze these nanoparticles in commercial sunscreens. This study is focused on developing analytical techniques that can efficiently determine particle size of metal oxides present in the commercial sunscreens. To isolate the mineral UV filters from the organic matrices, specific procedures such as solvent extraction were identified. In addition, several solvents (hexane, chloroform, dichloromethane, and tetrahydrofuran) have been investigated. The solvent extraction using tetrahydrofuran worked well for all the samples investigated. The isolated nanoparticles were characterized by using several different techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, differential centrifugal sedimentation, and x-ray diffraction. Elemental analysis mapping studies were performed to obtain individual chemical and morphological identities of the nanoparticles. Results from the electron microscopy techniques were compared against the bulk particle sizing techniques. All of the sunscreen products tested in this study were found to contain nanosized (≤100 nm) metal oxide particles with varied shapes and aspect ratios, and four among the 11 products were showed to have anatase TiO2.

  16. Facile solid-state synthesis of oxidation-resistant metal nanoparticles at ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu Hyung; Jung, Hyuk Joon; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Kyungtae; Lee, Byeongno; Nam, Dohyun; Kim, Chung Man; Jung, Myung-Hwa; Hur, Nam Hwi

    2018-05-01

    A simple and scalable method for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles in the solid-state was developed, which can produce nanoparticles in the absence of solvents. Nanoparticles of coinage metals were synthesized by grinding solid hydrazine and the metal precursors in their acetates and oxides at 25 °C. The silver and gold acetates converted completely within 6 min into Ag and Au nanoparticles, respectively, while complete conversion of the copper acetate to the Cu sub-micrometer particles took about 2 h. Metal oxide precursors were also converted into metal nanoparticles by grinding alone. The resulting particles exhibit distinctive crystalline lattice fringes, indicating the formation of highly crystalline phases. The Cu sub-micrometer particles are better resistant to oxidation and exhibit higher conductivity compared to conventional Cu nanoparticles. This solid-state method was also applied for the synthesis of platinum group metals and intermetallic Cu3Au, which can be further extended to synthesize other metal nanoparticles.

  17. Directional dependence of the threshold displacement energies in metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Benjamin J.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2017-12-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to investigate the directional dependence and the values of the threshold energies (TDEs) for the displacements of the oxygen and metal atoms and for producing stable Frenkel pairs in five metal oxides of Cr2O3, Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2, and MgO. The TDEs for the Frenkel pairs and atoms displacement are calculated in 66 crystallographic directions, on both the anion and cation sublattices. The performed simulations are for metal and oxygen PKA energies up to 350 and 400 eV, respectively. The calculated probability distributions for the atoms displacement and average number of Frenkel pairs produced in the different oxides are compared. The results revealed unique symmetrical patterns of the TDEs for the displacement of the atoms and the formation of stable Frenkel pairs, confirming the strong dependence on the direction and the crystalline structure of the oxides. Results also showed that the formation of stable Frenkel pairs is associated with the displacements of the PKAs and/or of the SKAs. The probabilities of the TDEs for the displacement of the oxygen and metal PKAs are consistently lower than those of the atoms in the crystal. In SiO2, TDEs for the displacement of oxygen and metal atoms and those for the formation of stable Frenkel pairs are the lowest, while those in TiO2 are among the highest. The results for Cr2O3 and Al2O3, which have the same crystal structure, are similar. The calculated TDEs for MgO, Al2O3 and TiO2 are generally in good agreement with the experimental values and the probability distributions of the TDEs for the PKAs in TiO2 are in good agreement with reported MD simulation results.

  18. Metal Oxide Nanoparticle Photoresists for EUV Patterning

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    © 2014SPST. Previous studies of methacrylate based nanoparticle have demonstrated the excellent pattern forming capability of these hybrid materials when used as photoresists under 13.5 nm EUV exposure. HfO2 and ZrO2 methacrylate resists have achieved high resolution (∼22 nm) at a very high EUV sensitivity (4.2 mJ/cm2). Further investigations into the patterning process suggests a ligand displacement mechanism, wherein, any combination of a metal oxide with the correct ligand could generate patterns in the presence of the suitable photoactive compound. The current investigation extends this study by developing new nanoparticle compositions with transdimethylacrylic acid and o-toluic acid ligands. This study describes their synthesis and patterning performance under 248 nm KrF laser (DUV) and also under 13.5 nm EUV exposures (dimethylacrylate nanoparticles) for the new resist compositions.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of metal oxide nanorod brushes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    ducing chromium ions during the synthesis of alumina rods. Keywords. Metal oxide nanorods; nanorod brushes; alumina nanorods; MoO3 nanorods; ZnO nanorods; ruby nanorods. 1. Introduction. Synthesis of one-dimensional metal oxide nanostructures is getting enormous attention in recent years due to their potential ...

  20. Recent Development in Metal Oxides and Related Materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Recent Development in Metal Oxides and. Related Materials. FOREWORD. This special issue of the Journal of Chemical Sciences contains a col- lection of articles contributed by the participants of Recent Development in Metal Oxides ... energy transfer, nano particle synthesis, magnetic transport properties of rare earth ...

  1. A novel parameter estimation method for metal oxide surge arrester ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with experimental results. Keywords. Metal oxide surge arrester models; PSO; ACO; parameter estimation;. EMTP. 1. Introduction. Metal oxide (MO) surge arresters are widely used as protective devices against switching and lightning over-voltages in power systems. The proper nonlinear voltage-current characteristics,. ∗.

  2. Stabilization of electrocatalytic metal nanoparticles at metal-metal oxide-graphene triple junction points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Rong; Shao, Yuyan; Mei, Donghai; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Donghai; Wang, Chongmin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V; Park, Sehkyu; Aksay, Ilhan A; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun

    2011-03-02

    Carbon-supported precious metal catalysts are widely used in heterogeneous catalysis and electrocatalysis, and enhancement of catalyst dispersion and stability by controlling the interfacial structure is highly desired. Here we report a new method to deposit metal oxides and metal nanoparticles on graphene and form stable metal-metal oxide-graphene triple junctions for electrocatalysis applications. We first synthesize indium tin oxide (ITO) nanocrystals directly on functionalized graphene sheets, forming an ITO-graphene hybrid. Platinum nanoparticles are then deposited, forming a unique triple-junction structure (Pt-ITO-graphene). Our experimental work and periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that the supported Pt nanoparticles are more stable at the Pt-ITO-graphene triple junctions. Furthermore, DFT calculations suggest that the defects and functional groups on graphene also play an important role in stabilizing the catalysts. These new catalyst materials were tested for oxygen reduction for potential applications in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, and they exhibited greatly enhanced stability and activity.

  3. Laboratory studies of refractory metal oxide smokes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuth, J.A.; Nelson, R.N.; Donn, B.

    1989-01-01

    Studies of the properties of refractory metal oxide smokes condensed from a gas containing various combinations of SiH4, Fe(CO)5, Al(CH3)3, TiCl4, O2 and N2O in a hydrogen carrier stream at 500 K greater than T greater than 1500 K were performed. Ultraviolet, visible and infrared spectra of pure, amorphous SiO(x), FeO(x), AlO(x) and TiO(x) smokes are discussed, as well as the spectra of various co-condensed amorphous oxides, such as FE(x)SiO(y) or Fe(x)AlO(y). Preliminary studies of the changes induced in the infrared spectra of iron-containing oxide smokes by vacuum thermal annealing suggest that such materials become increasingly opaque in the near infrared with increased processing: hydration may have the opposite effect. More work on the processing of these materials is required to confirm such a trend: this work is currently in progress. Preliminary studies of the ultraviolet spectra of amorphous Si2O3 and MgSiO(x) smokes revealed no interesting features in the region from 200 to 300 nm. Studies of the ultraviolet spectra of both amorphous, hydrated and annealed SiO(x), TiO(x), AlO(x) and FeO(x) smokes are currently in progress. Finally, data on the oxygen isotopic composition of the smokes produced in the experiments are presented, which indicate that the oxygen becomes isotopically fractionated during grain condensation. Oxygen in the grains is as much as 3 percent per amu lighter than the oxygen in the original gas stream. The authors are currently conducting experiments to understand the mechanism by which fractionation occurs

  4. Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite for decontamination of sulfur mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveen Kumar, J.; Prasad, G.K., E-mail: gkprasad2001@yahoo.com; Ramacharyulu, P.V.R.K.; Garg, P.; Ganesan, K.

    2013-11-01

    Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. They were prepared by precipitation pyrolysis method and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. Obtained data indicated the presence of mesopores with diameter ranging from 2 to 80 nm and the materials exhibited relatively high surface area 86 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} when compared to the individual metal oxide nanoparticles. Reactive sites of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied by infrared spectroscopy technique using pyridine as a probe molecule. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard when compared to single component metal oxides and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Highlights: • Preparation of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • CuO–ZnO with better surface area was synthesized by precipitation pyrolysis. • Decontamination of HD using mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • HD decontaminated by elimination and hydrolysis reactions.

  5. Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite for decontamination of sulfur mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praveen Kumar, J.; Prasad, G.K.; Ramacharyulu, P.V.R.K.; Garg, P.; Ganesan, K.

    2013-01-01

    Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. They were prepared by precipitation pyrolysis method and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. Obtained data indicated the presence of mesopores with diameter ranging from 2 to 80 nm and the materials exhibited relatively high surface area 86 m 2 g −1 when compared to the individual metal oxide nanoparticles. Reactive sites of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied by infrared spectroscopy technique using pyridine as a probe molecule. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard when compared to single component metal oxides and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Highlights: • Preparation of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • CuO–ZnO with better surface area was synthesized by precipitation pyrolysis. • Decontamination of HD using mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • HD decontaminated by elimination and hydrolysis reactions

  6. High-Pressure Thermodynamic Properties of f-electron Metals, Transition Metal Oxides, and Half-Metallic Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard T. Scalettar; Warren E. Pickett

    2005-01-01

    This project involves research into the thermodynamic properties of f-electron metals, transition metal oxides, and half-metallic magnets at high pressure. These materials are ones in which the changing importance of electron-electron interactions as the distance between atoms is varied can tune the system through phase transitions from localized to delocalized electrons, from screened to unscreened magnetic moments, and from normal metal to one in which only a single spin specie can conduct. Three main thrusts are being pursued: (1) Mott transitions in transition metal oxides, (2) magnetism in half-metallic compounds, and (3) large volume-collapse transitions in f-band metals

  7. High-Pressure Thermodynamic Properties of f-electron Metals, Transition Metal Oxides, and Half-Metallic Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scalettar, Richard T.; Pickett, Warren E.

    2004-07-01

    This project involves research into the thermodynamic properties of f-electron metals, transition metal oxides, and half-metallic magnets at high pressure. These materials are ones in which the changing importance of electron-electron interactions as the distance between atoms is varied can tune the system through phase transitions from localized to delocalized electrons, from screened to unscreened magnetic moments, and from normal metal to one in which only a single spin specie can conduct. Three main thrusts are being pursued: (1) Mott transitions in transition metal oxides, (2) magnetism in half-metallic compounds, and (3) large volume-collapse transitions in f-band metals.

  8. High-Pressure Thermodynamic Properties of f-electron Metals, Transition Metal Oxides, and Half-Metallic Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard T. Scalettar; Warren E. Pickett

    2005-08-02

    This project involves research into the thermodynamic properties of f-electron metals, transition metal oxides, and half-metallic magnets at high pressure. These materials are ones in which the changing importance of electron-electron interactions as the distance between atoms is varied can tune the system through phase transitions from localized to delocalized electrons, from screened to unscreened magnetic moments, and from normal metal to one in which only a single spin specie can conduct. Three main thrusts are being pursued: (i) Mott transitions in transition metal oxides, (ii) magnetism in half-metallic compounds, and (iii) large volume-collapse transitions in f-band metals.

  9. Miscibility and oxidation rate of the simulated metallic spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, K. S.; Joo, J. S.; Shin, Y. J.; Oh, S. C. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-10-01

    The simulated metallic spent fuel was fabricated by using Uranium, Neodymium and Palladium in order to study the miscibility of Neodymium and Palladium with Uranium. For analysis of long-term safty on the metallized spent fuel, the simulated metallic spent fuel was oxidized under pure oxygen environment at 183{approx}250 deg C. From the results, the oxidation rate correlation and activation energy were obtained.

  10. Synthesis, Characterization, and Ultrafast Dynamics of Metal, Metal Oxide, and Semiconductor Nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Damon Andreas

    2013-01-01

    SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, AND ULTRAFAST DYNAMICS OF METAL, METAL OXIDE, AND SEMICONDUCTOR NANOMATERIALSABSTRACTThe optical properties of each of the three main classes of inorganic nanomaterials, metals, metal oxides, and semiconductors differ greatly due to the intrinsically different nature of the materials. These optical properties are among the most fascinating and useful aspects of nanomaterials with applications spanning cancer treatment, sensors, lasers, and solar cells. One techn...

  11. Noble metal nanoparticle@metal oxide core/yolk-shell nanostructures as catalysts: recent progress and perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guodong; Tang, Zhiyong

    2014-04-21

    Controllable integration of noble metals (e.g., Au, Ag, Pt, and Pd) and metal oxides (e.g., TiO₂, CeO₂, and ZrO₂) into single nanostructures has attracted immense research interest in heterogeneous catalysis, because they not only combine the properties of both noble metals and metal oxides, but also bring unique collective and synergetic functions in comparison with single-component materials. Among many strategies recently developed, one of the most efficient ways is to encapsulate and protect individual noble metal nanoparticles by a metal oxide shell of a certain thickness to generate the core-shell or yolk-shell structure, which exhibits enhanced catalytic performance compared with conventional supported catalysts. In this review article, we summarize the state-of-the art progress in synthesis and catalytic application of noble metal nanoparticle@metal oxide core/yolk-shell nanostructures. We hope that this review will help the readers to obtain better insight into the design and application of well-defined nanocomposites in both the energy and environmental fields.

  12. Catalysis using hydrous metal oxide ion exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosch, Robert G.; Stephens, Howard P.; Stohl, Frances V.

    1985-01-01

    In a process which is catalyzed by a catalyst comprising an active metal on a carrier, said metal being active as a catalyst for the process, an improvement is provided wherein the catalyst is a hydrous, alkali metal or alkaline earth metal titanate, zirconate, niobate or tantalate wherein alkali or alkaline earth metal cations have been exchanged with a catalytically effective amount of cations of said metal.

  13. Two-dimensional metal dichalcogenides and oxides for hydrogen evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, Mohnish; Vojvodic, Aleksandra; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2015-01-01

    We explore the possibilities of hydrogen evolution by basal planes of 2D metal dichalcogenides and oxides in the 2H and 1T class of structures using the hydrogen binding energy as a computational activity descriptor. For some groups of systems like the Ti, Zr, and Hf dichalcogenides the hydrogen...... bonding to the 2H structure is stronger than that to the 1T structure, while for the Cr, Mo, and W dichalcogenides the behavior is opposite. This is rationalized by investigating shifts in the chalcogenide p levels comparing the two structures. We find that usually for a given material only at most one...

  14. Preparation and characterization of several transition metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wold, A.; Dwight, K.

    1989-01-01

    The structure-property relationships of several conducting transition metal oxides, as well as their preparative methods, are presented in this paper. The importance of preparing homogeneous phases with precisely known stoichiometry is emphasized. A comparison is also made of the various techniques used to prepare both polycrystalline and single crystal samples. For transition metal oxides, the metallic properties are discussed either in terms of metal-metal distances which are short enough to result in metallic behavior, or in terms of the formation of a π* conduction band resulting from covalent metal-oxygen interactions. Metallic behavior is observed when the conduction bands are populated with either electrons or holes. The concentration of these carriers can be affected by either cation or anion substitutions. The discussion in this presentation will be limited to the elements Re, Ti, V, Cr, Mo, and Cu

  15. Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerksen, W.K.

    1988-01-01

    A method for converting uranium oxide to uranium metal is described comprising the steps of heating uranium oxide in the presence of a reducing agent to a temperature sufficient to reduce the uranium oxide to uranium metal and form a heterogeneous mixture of a uranium metal product and oxide by-products, heating the mixture in a hydrogen atmosphere at a temperature sufficient to convert uranium metal in the mixture to uranium hydride, cooling the resulting uranium hydride-containing mixture to a temperature sufficient to produce a ferromagnetic transition in the uranium hydride, magnetically separating the cooled uranium hydride from the mixture, and thereafter heating the separated uranium hydride in an inert atmosphere to a temperature sufficient to convert the uranium hydride to uranium metal

  16. Metal ions, not metal-catalyzed oxidative stress, cause clay leachate antibacterial activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin C Otto

    Full Text Available Aqueous leachates prepared from natural antibacterial clays, arbitrarily designated CB-L, release metal ions into suspension, have a low pH (3.4-5, generate reactive oxygen species (ROS and H2O2, and have a high oxidation-reduction potential. To isolate the role of pH in the antibacterial activity of CB clay mixtures, we exposed three different strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to 10% clay suspensions. The clay suspension completely killed acid-sensitive and acid-tolerant E. coli O157:H7 strains, whereas incubation in a low-pH buffer resulted in a minimal decrease in viability, demonstrating that low pH alone does not mediate antibacterial activity. The prevailing hypothesis is that metal ions participate in redox cycling and produce ROS, leading to oxidative damage to macromolecules and resulting in cellular death. However, E. coli cells showed no increase in DNA or protein oxidative lesions and a slight increase in lipid peroxidation following exposure to the antibacterial leachate. Further, supplementation with numerous ROS scavengers eliminated lipid peroxidation, but did not rescue the cells from CB-L-mediated killing. In contrast, supplementing CB-L with EDTA, a broad-spectrum metal chelator, reduced killing. Finally, CB-L was equally lethal to cells in an anoxic environment as compared to the aerobic environment. Thus, ROS were not required for lethal activity and did not contribute to toxicity of CB-L. We conclude that clay-mediated killing was not due to oxidative damage, but rather, was due to toxicity associated directly with released metal ions.

  17. Comparison of properties of silver-metal oxide electrical contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćosović V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in physical properties such as density, porosity, hardness and electrical conductivity of the Ag-SnO2 and Ag-SnO2In2O3 electrical contact materials induced by introduction of metal oxide nanoparticles were investigated. Properties of the obtained silver-metal oxide nanoparticle composites are discussed and presented in comparison to their counterparts with the micro metal oxide particles as well as comparable Ag-SnO2WO3 and Ag-ZnO contact materials. Studied silvermetal oxide composites were produced by powder metallurgy method from very fine pure silver and micro- and nanoparticle metal oxide powders. Very uniform microstructures were obtained for all investigated composites and they exhibited physical properties that are comparable with relevant properties of equivalent commercial silver based electrical contact materials. Both Ag-SnO2 and Ag- SnO2In2O3 composites with metal oxide nanoparticles were found to have lower porosity, higher density and hardness than their respective counterparts which can be attributed to better dispersion hardening i.e. higher degree of dispersion of metal oxide in silver matrix.

  18. Method and apparatus for the production of metal oxide powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael T.; Scott, Timothy C.; Byers, Charles H.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for preparing metal oxide powder. A first solution, which is substantially organic, is prepared. A second solution, which is an aqueous solution substantially immiscible in the first solution, is prepared and delivered as drops to the first solution. The drops of the second solution are atomized by a pulsed electric field forming micro-drops of the second solution. Reagents in the first solution diffuse into and react with reactants in the micro-drops of the second solution forming metal hydroxide or oxalate particles. The metal hydroxide or metal oxalate particles are then recovered and dried to produce the metal oxide powder. An apparatus for preparing a metal oxide powder is also disclosed.

  19. CO oxidation studies over supported noble metal catalysts and single crystals: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boecker, Dirk; Gonzalez, Richard D.

    1987-01-01

    The catalytic oxidation of CO over noble metal catalysts is reviewed. Results obtained on supported noble metal catalysts and single crystals both at high pressures and under UHV conditions are compared. The underlying causes which result in surface instabilities and multiple steady-state oscillations are considered, in particular, the occurrence of hot spots. CO islands of reactivity, surface oxide formation and phase transformations under oscillatory conditions are discussed.

  20. Photocatalysis of Modified Transition Metal Oxide Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batzill, Matthias

    2018-02-28

    The goal of this project has been to establish a cause-effect relationship for photocatalytic activity variations of different structures of the same material; and furthermore gain fundamental understanding on modification of photocatalysts by compositional or surface modifications. The reasoning is that gaining atomic scale understanding of how surface and bulk modifications alter the photo reactivity will lead to design principles for next generation photocatalysts. As a prototypical photocatalyst the research focused on TiO2 synthesized in well-defined single crystalline form to enable fundamental characterizations.We have obtained results in the following areas: (a) Preparation of epitaxial anataseTiO2 samples by pulsed laser deposition. (b) Comparison of hydrogen diffusion on different crystallographic surface. (c) Determining the stability of the TiO2(011)-2x1 reconstruction upon interactions with adsorbates. (d) Characterization of adsorption and (thermal and photo) reaction of molecules with nitro-endgroups, (e) Exploring the possibility of modifying planar model photocatalyst surfaces with graphene to enable fundamental studies on reported enhanced photocatalytic activities of graphene modified transition metal oxides, (f) gained fundamental understanding on the role of crystallographic polymorphs of the same material for their photocatalytic activities.

  1. Effect of CO on surface oxidation of uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Fu, Y.; Xie, R.

    1997-01-01

    The surface reactions of uranium metal with carbon monoxide at 25 and 200 deg C have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS);respectively. Adsorption of carbon monoxide on the surface layer of uranium metal leads to partial reduction of surface oxide and results in U4f photoelectron peak shifting to the lower binding energy. The content of oxygen in the surface oxide is decreased and O1s/O4f ratio decreases with increasing the exposure of carbon monoxide. The investigation indicates the surface layer of uranium metal has resistance to further oxidation in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide. (author)

  2. Fabrication of Arrays of Metal and Metal Oxide Nanotubes by Shadow Evaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickey, Michael D.; Weiss, Emily A.; Smythe, Elizabeth J.; Chiechi, Ryan C.; Capasso, Federico; Whitesides, George M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a simple technique for fabricating uniform arrays of metal and metal oxide nanotubes with controlled heights and diameters. The technique involves depositing material onto an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane template using a collimated electron beam evaporation source. The

  3. Systematic study of metal-insulator-metal diodes with a native oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Donchev, E.

    2014-10-07

    © 2014 SPIE. In this paper, a systematic analysis of native oxides within a Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) diode is carried out, with the goal of determining their practicality for incorporation into a nanoscale Rectenna (Rectifying Antenna). The requirement of having a sub-10nm oxide scale is met by using the native oxide, which forms on most metals exposed to an oxygen containing environment. This, therefore, provides a simplified MIM fabrication process as the complex, controlled oxide deposition step is omitted. We shall present the results of an investigation into the current-voltage characteristics of various MIM combinations that incorporate a native oxide, in order to establish whether the native oxide is of sufficient quality for good diode operation. The thin native oxide layers are formed by room temperature oxidation of the first metal layer, deposited by magnetron sputtering. This is done in-situ, within the deposition chamber before depositing the second metal electrode. Using these structures, we study the established trend where the bigger the difference in metal workfunctions, the better the rectification properties of MIM structures, and hence the selection of the second metal is key to controlling the device\\'s rectifying properties. We show how leakage current paths through the non-optimised native oxide control the net current-voltage response of the MIM devices. Furthermore, we will present the so-called diode figures of merit (asymmetry, non-linearity and responsivity) for each of the best performing structures.

  4. Metal-core@metal oxide-shell nanomaterials for gas-sensing applications: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzaei, A.; Janghorban, K.; Hashemi, B.; Neri, G.

    2015-01-01

    With an ever-increasing number of applications in many advanced fields, gas sensors are becoming indispensable devices in our daily life. Among different types of gas sensors, conductometric metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors are found to be the most appealing for advanced applications in the automotive, biomedical, environmental, and safety sectors because of the their high sensitivity, reduced size, and low cost. To improve their sensing characteristics, new metal oxide-based nanostructures have thus been proposed in recent years as sensing materials. In this review, we extensively review gas-sensing properties of core@ shell nanocomposites in which metals as the core and metal oxides as the shell structure, both of nanometer sizes, are assembled into a single metal@metal oxide core–shell. These nanostructures not only combine the properties of both noble metals and metal oxides, but also bring unique synergetic functions in comparison with single-component materials. Up-dated achievements in the synthesis and characterization of metal@metal oxide core–shell nanostructures as well as their use in MOS sensors are here reported with the main objective of providing an overview about their gas-sensing properties

  5. Metal-core@metal oxide-shell nanomaterials for gas-sensing applications: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, A.; Janghorban, K.; Hashemi, B.; Neri, G.

    2015-09-01

    With an ever-increasing number of applications in many advanced fields, gas sensors are becoming indispensable devices in our daily life. Among different types of gas sensors, conductometric metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors are found to be the most appealing for advanced applications in the automotive, biomedical, environmental, and safety sectors because of the their high sensitivity, reduced size, and low cost. To improve their sensing characteristics, new metal oxide-based nanostructures have thus been proposed in recent years as sensing materials. In this review, we extensively review gas-sensing properties of core@ shell nanocomposites in which metals as the core and metal oxides as the shell structure, both of nanometer sizes, are assembled into a single metal@metal oxide core-shell. These nanostructures not only combine the properties of both noble metals and metal oxides, but also bring unique synergetic functions in comparison with single-component materials. Up-dated achievements in the synthesis and characterization of metal@metal oxide core-shell nanostructures as well as their use in MOS sensors are here reported with the main objective of providing an overview about their gas-sensing properties.

  6. Energy level alignment in metal/oxide/semiconductor and organic dye/oxide systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersch, Eric

    The alignment between the energy levels of the constituent materials of metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFET's) and dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC's) is a key property that is critical to the functions of these devices. We have measured the energy level alignment (band offsets) for metal/oxide/semiconductor (MOS) systems with high-kappa gate oxides and metal gates, and for organic dye/oxide systems. The combination of UV photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) and inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IPS) in the same vacuum system was used to measure both the occupied and unoccupied density of states (DOS), respectively, of these materials systems. Additional soft X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (SXPS) measurements were made of both the valence bands and core levels of the high-kappa systems. The combination of the UPS, IPS and SXPS measurements were used to determine the band offsets between the high-kappa oxides and the Si substrates of thin film oxide/Si samples. To find the metal-oxide band offsets, thin metal layers were sequentially deposited on the oxide surfaces, followed by spectroscopic measurements. These measurements, combined with the measurements from the clean oxide surfaces, were used to find the metal-oxide band offsets. Metal-oxide band offset values were also calculated by the Interface Gap State (IGS) model. We compared the experimental metal-oxide conduction band offset (CBO) values with those calculated using the IGS model, and found that they tended to agree well for Ru/oxide and Ti/oxide systems, but not as well for Al/oxide systems. Through core level spectroscopy, we correlated observations of the composition of the metallic layers with the trends in agreement between the experimental and IGS CBO values, which led to the conclusion that the IGS model gives accurate values for the CBO for systems with chemically abrupt interfaces. Core level spectroscopy of the MOS systems also showed that Al and Ti overlayers reduced the

  7. Method of physical vapor deposition of metal oxides on semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, David P.

    2001-01-01

    A process for growing a metal oxide thin film upon a semiconductor surface with a physical vapor deposition technique in a high-vacuum environment and a structure formed with the process involves the steps of heating the semiconductor surface and introducing hydrogen gas into the high-vacuum environment to develop conditions at the semiconductor surface which are favorable for growing the desired metal oxide upon the semiconductor surface yet is unfavorable for the formation of any native oxides upon the semiconductor. More specifically, the temperature of the semiconductor surface and the ratio of hydrogen partial pressure to water pressure within the vacuum environment are high enough to render the formation of native oxides on the semiconductor surface thermodynamically unstable yet are not so high that the formation of the desired metal oxide on the semiconductor surface is thermodynamically unstable. Having established these conditions, constituent atoms of the metal oxide to be deposited upon the semiconductor surface are directed toward the surface of the semiconductor by a physical vapor deposition technique so that the atoms come to rest upon the semiconductor surface as a thin film of metal oxide with no native oxide at the semiconductor surface/thin film interface. An example of a structure formed by this method includes an epitaxial thin film of (001)-oriented CeO.sub.2 overlying a substrate of (001) Ge.

  8. A general approach to mesoporous metal oxide microspheres loaded with noble metal nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Zhao

    2012-04-26

    Catalytic microspheres: A general approach is demonstrated for the facile preparation of mesoporous metal oxide microspheres loaded with noble metal nanoparticles (see TEM image in the picture). Among 18 oxide/noble metal catalysts, TiO 2/0.1 mol Pd microspheres showed the highest turnover frequency in NaBH 4 reduction of 4-nitrophenol (see picture). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Tin etching from metallic and oxidized scandium thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pachecka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of oxide on Sn adhesion to Sc surfaces was studied with in-situ ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary electron microscopy. Sn etching with hydrogen radicals was performed on metallic Sc, metallic Sc with a native oxide, and a fully oxidized Sc layer. The results show that Sn adsorbs rather weakly to a non-oxidized Sc surface, and is etched relatively easily by atomic hydrogen. In contrast, the presence of native oxide on Sc allows Sn to adsorb more strongly to the surface, slowing the etching. Furthermore, thinner layers of scandium oxide result in weaker Sn adsorption, indicating that the layer beneath the oxide plays a significant role in determining the adsorption strength. Unexpectedly, for Sn on Sc2O3, and, to a lesser extent, for Sn on Sc, the etch rate shows a variation over time, which is explained by surface restructuring, temperature change, and hydrogen adsorption saturation.

  10. Displacement method and apparatus for reducing passivated metal powders and metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell,; Jonathan S. , Ripley; Edward, B [Knoxville, TN

    2009-05-05

    A method of reducing target metal oxides and passivated metals to their metallic state. A reduction reaction is used, often combined with a flux agent to enhance separation of the reaction products. Thermal energy in the form of conventional furnace, infrared, or microwave heating may be applied in combination with the reduction reaction.

  11. Aging of trivalent metal hydroxide/oxide gels in divalent metal salt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Aging of trivalent metal hydroxide/oxide gels in divalent metal salt solutions: Mechanism of formation of layered double hydroxides (LDHs). A V RADHA and P ..... This situation promotes coprecipitation of the two metal hydroxides, by virtue of which the titrations yield the. Zn–Al LDH. The LDHs isolated before and after ...

  12. Fabrication and characterization of metal oxide nanowire sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guozhen

    2008-01-01

    Trace detection of chemicals and biological species like industrial gases, proteins, drug molecules, and chemical warfare agents, is an important issue to human health and safety. Central to this issue is the development of high sensitivity, high selectivity, high stability and rapid detection chemical and bio-sensors. With special geometry and chemical and physical properties, one-dimensional (1-D) metal oxide nanostructures have become the promising candidates for chemical and biosensing applications in recent years. Here, we intend to provide an overview on this interesting and important field. In the first part, the patents for rational synthesis of 1-D metal oxide nanostructures on a large scale will be introduced. The patents on chemical and biosensors built on 1-D metal oxide nanostructures are then introduced in the second part. Finally, we provide a review of the recent development of electronic nose systems using 1-D metal oxide nanostructures, which show great potential for the improvement of sensing abilities.

  13. Electrochemical behaviour of metal hexacyanoferrate converted to metal hydroxide films immobilized on indium tin oxide electrodes-Catalytic ability towards alcohol oxidation in alkaline medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesh, V.; Latha Maheswari, D.; Berchmans, Sheela

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: In this work, we demonstrate a simple method to modify indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes in order to perform electro-catalytic oxidation of alcohols in alkaline medium. Metal hexacyanoferrate (MHCF) films such as nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) and copper hexacyanoferrate (CuHCF) were successfully immobilized on ITO electrodes using an electrochemical method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to characterize the structural and morphological aspects of MHCF films. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to study the redox properties and to determine the surface coverage of these films on ITO electrodes. Electrochemical potential cycling was carried out in alkaline medium in order to alter the chemical structure of these films and convert to their corresponding metal hydroxide films. SEM and XPS were performed to analyze the structure and morphology of metal hydroxide modified electrodes. Electro-catalytic oxidation ability of these films towards methanol and ethanol in alkaline medium was investigated using CV. From these studies we found that metal hydroxide modified electrodes show a better catalytic performance and good stability for methanol oxidation along with the alleviation of CO poisoning effect. We have obtained an anodic oxidation current density of ∼82 mA cm -2 for methanol oxidation, which is at least 10 fold higher than that of any metal hydroxide modified electrodes reported till date. The onset potential for methanol oxidation is lowered by ∼200 mV compared to other chemically modified electrodes reported. A plausible mechanism was proposed for the alcohol oxidation based on the redox properties of these modified electrodes. The methodology adapted in this work does not contain costlier noble metals like platinum and ruthenium and is economically viable.

  14. Catalytic decomposition of N2O on ordered crystalline metal oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen; Ren, Yu; Lu, Yanbin; Bruce, Peter G

    2013-07-01

    The synthesis of mesoporous metal oxides using mesoporous silicas or carbons as hard templates has attracted growing interest recently, but the catalytic application of mesoporous metal oxides has not been studied sufficiently. In addition, few publications have compared the catalytic performance of a series of mesoporous metal oxides in the same reaction, and little is known about the influence of preparation details of mesoporous metal oxides on catalytic activity. Herein, ordered crystalline mesoporous metal oxides (i.e., CeO2, Co3O4, Cr2O3, CuO, alpha-Fe2O3, beta-MnO2, Mn2O3, Mn3O4, NiO) prepared using mesoporous SiO2 (KIT-6) as a hard template were tested in the decomposition of N2O, an environmental pollutant, and the catalytic performance was compared with that of commercial metal oxides with low surface areas. In particular, mesoporous Co3O4, beta-MnO2, and NiO showed high N2O conversions at 350 degrees C. The influence of preparation parameters of mesoporous Co3O4 on catalytic activity was then studied in more detail. Mesoporous Co3O4 samples with different pore sizes and wall thicknesses were prepared using KIT-6 synthesized under different hydrothermal or calcination temperatures. Interestingly, the catalytic activities of different mesoporous Co3O4 samples were found to be influenced by these preparation details.

  15. Plutonium metal and oxide container weld development and qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, R.; Horrell, D.R.; Hoth, C.W.; Pierce, S.W.; Rink, N.A.; Rivera, Y.M.; Sandoval, V.D.

    1996-01-01

    Welds were qualified for a container system to be used for long-term storage of plutonium metal and oxide. Inner and outer containers are formed of standard tubing with stamped end pieces gas-tungsten-arc (GTA) welded onto both ends. The weld qualification identified GTA parameters to produce a robust weld that meets the requirements of the Department of Energy standard DOE-STD-3013-94, ''Criteria for the Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides.''

  16. Process for Making a Noble Metal on Tin Oxide Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Patricia; Miller, Irvin; Upchurch, Billy

    2010-01-01

    To produce a noble metal-on-metal oxide catalyst on an inert, high-surface-area support material (that functions as a catalyst at approximately room temperature using chloride-free reagents), for use in a carbon dioxide laser, requires two steps: First, a commercially available, inert, high-surface-area support material (silica spheres) is coated with a thin layer of metal oxide, a monolayer equivalent. Very beneficial results have been obtained using nitric acid as an oxidizing agent because it leaves no residue. It is also helpful if the spheres are first deaerated by boiling in water to allow the entire surface to be coated. A metal, such as tin, is then dissolved in the oxidizing agent/support material mixture to yield, in the case of tin, metastannic acid. Although tin has proven especially beneficial for use in a closed-cycle CO2 laser, in general any metal with two valence states, such as most transition metals and antimony, may be used. The metastannic acid will be adsorbed onto the high-surface-area spheres, coating them. Any excess oxidizing agent is then evaporated, and the resulting metastannic acid-coated spheres are dried and calcined, whereby the metastannic acid becomes tin(IV) oxide. The second step is accomplished by preparing an aqueous mixture of the tin(IV) oxide-coated spheres, and a soluble, chloride-free salt of at least one catalyst metal. The catalyst metal may be selected from the group consisting of platinum, palladium, ruthenium, gold, and rhodium, or other platinum group metals. Extremely beneficial results have been obtained using chloride-free salts of platinum, palladium, or a combination thereof, such as tetraammineplatinum (II) hydroxide ([Pt(NH3)4] (OH)2), or tetraammine palladium nitrate ([Pd(NH3)4](NO3)2).

  17. Enhanced Structural Support of Metal Sites as Nodes in Metal-Organic Frameworks Compared to Metal Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Sanjit

    2013-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks are a new class of crystalline, porous solid-state materials with metal ions periodically linked by organic linkers. This gives rise to one-, two- or three-dimensional structures. Here, we compare the stability of similar metal sites toward external ligand (solvent) induced disruption of the coordination environment in metal complexes and in metal-organic frameworks. Our experimental results show that a metal site as node of a metal-organic framework retains much high...

  18. Metallization of uranium oxide powders by lithium reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I. S.; Seo, J. S.; Oh, S. C.; Hong, S. S.; Lee, W. K.

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory scale experiments on the reduction of uranium oxide powders into metal by lithium were performed in order to determine the equipment setup and optimum operation conditions. The method of filtration using the porous magnesia filter was introduced to recover uranium metal powders produced. Based on the laboratory scale experimental results, mock-up scale (20 kg U/batch) metallizer was designed and made. The applicability to the metallization process was estimated with respect to the thermal stability of the porous magnesia filter in the high temperature molten salt, the filtration of the fine uranium metal powders, and the operability of the equipment

  19. Photodegradation of phenanthrene on metal oxides and fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guesten, H.; Bozicevic, Z.; Klasinc, L.

    1984-10-01

    The photodegradation of phenanthrene adsorbed on the surface of metal oxides, sea sand and fly ashes is investigated in a rotating bed photoreactor emitting simulated solar light. Metal oxides (SiO/sub 2/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, SnO/sub 2/, MgO), which do not absorb the simulated solar light, give rise to a very slow photodegradation of the adsorbed phenanthrene. Metal oxides (TiO/sub 2/, ZnO, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/), which exhibit semiconduction properties, induce a very rapid photodegradation. The two modifications of TiO/sub 2/, rutile and anatase, show different activities in causing the photodegradation of phenanthrene. While in the class of non-solar light absorbing metal oxides the adsorbed phenanthrene is degraded only by direct excitation to its electronic states, photons of band-gap energy in semiconducting metal oxides excite electron-hole pairs at the surface. The quantum yield of the photodegradation of phenanthrene adsorbed on a fly ash of the mullite-quartz of glass type lies between the quantum yields of the two classes of metal oxides investigated. Surprisingly, however, phenanthrene and the very photolabile anthracene are extremely resistant to photodegradation when adsorbed on a fly ash of the spinel type with pig iron content and magnetic properties.

  20. Meso-/Nanoporous Semiconducting Metal Oxides for Gas Sensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Duc Hoa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and/or design of new materials and/or structures for effective gas sensor applications with fast response and high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability are very important issues in the gas sensor technology. This critical review introduces our recent progress in the development of meso-/nanoporous semiconducting metal oxides and their applications to gas sensors. First, the basic concepts of resistive gas sensors and the recent synthesis of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides for gas sensor applications are introduced. The advantages of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides are also presented, taking into account the crystallinity and ordered/disordered porous structures. Second, the synthesis methods of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides including the soft-template, hard-template, and temple-free methods are introduced, in which the advantages and disadvantages of each synthetic method are figured out. Third, the applications of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides as gas sensors are presented. The gas nanosensors are designed based on meso-/nanoporous metal oxides for effective detection of toxic gases. The sensitivity, selectivity, and stability of the meso-/nanoporous gas nanosensors are also discussed. Finally, some conclusions and an outlook are presented.

  1. Oxide-supported metal clusters: models for heterogeneous catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santra, A K; Goodman, D W

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the size-dependent electronic, structural and chemical properties of metal clusters on oxide supports is an important aspect of heterogeneous catalysis. Recently model oxide-supported metal catalysts have been prepared by vapour deposition of catalytically relevant metals onto ultra-thin oxide films grown on a refractory metal substrate. Reactivity and spectroscopic/microscopic studies have shown that these ultra-thin oxide films are excellent models for the corresponding bulk oxides, yet are sufficiently electrically conductive for use with various modern surface probes including scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). Measurements on metal clusters have revealed a metal to nonmetal transition as well as changes in the crystal and electronic structures (including lattice parameters, band width, band splitting and core-level binding energy shifts) as a function of cluster size. Size-dependent catalytic reactivity studies have been carried out for several important reactions, and time-dependent catalytic deactivation has been shown to arise from sintering of metal particles under elevated gas pressures and/or reactor temperatures. In situ STM methodologies have been developed to follow the growth and sintering kinetics on a cluster-by-cluster basis. Although several critical issues have been addressed by several groups worldwide, much more remains to be done. This article highlights some of these accomplishments and summarizes the challenges that lie ahead. (topical review)

  2. Thermal oxidation and electrical properties of silicon carbide metal-oxide-semiconductor structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N.; Rys, A.

    1993-02-01

    The fabrication of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors on n-type, Si-face 6H-SiC is described for both wet and dry oxidation processes, and the effect of thermal oxidation conditions on the electrical properties of MOS capacitors are investigated. The values of the oxide thickness were obtained as a function of the oxidation time at various oxidation temperatures (which were kept between 1150 and 1250 C). It was found that samples prepared by both dry and wet oxidation showed accumulation, depletion, and inversion regions under illumination, while inversion did not occur under dark conditions. The C-V characteristics of oxidized samples were improved after the oxidized samples were annealed in argon for 30 min. The relation between the oxide thickness and the oxidation time could be expressed by parabolic law, which is also used for thermal oxidation of Si.

  3. Electrochemical activity of heavy metal oxides in the process of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2002-02-02

    Feb 2, 2002 ... Abstract. The influence of heavy metal oxides on the chloride induced corrosion of steel reinforcement in concrete was studied. Significant inhibition and stimulation of chloride induced corrosion have been observed. Basicity and acidity of the relevant metal ions, and their ability to form complexes are ...

  4. Electrochemical activity of heavy metal oxides in the process of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2002-02-02

    Feb 2, 2002 ... The influence of heavy metal oxides on the chloride induced corrosion of steel reinforcement in concrete was studied. ... Basicity and acidity of the relevant metal ions, and their ability to form complexes are considered as the main factors of the .... niobium, tantalum, protactinium, and uranium. However,.

  5. Redefining the metal/charge-transfer insulator paradigm in transition metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Hung; Ai, Xinyuan; Marianetti, Chris; Millis, Andrew

    2012-02-01

    The universality of the phase diagram in the variables of interaction strength and d-occupancy, shown for late transition metal oxides in Ref.[1], is examined for two series of early transition metal oxides: (SrVO3, SrCrO3, SrMnO3) and (LaTiO3, LaVO3, LaCrO3) using density functional theory (DFT), DFT+U and DFT+dynamical mean field theory methods. The interaction required to drive the metal-insulator transition is found to depend sensitively on the d-occupancy Nd, and beyond a threshold value of the d-occupancy an insulating state cannot be achieved for any practical value of the interaction. The critical Nd values are determined and compared to ab initio and experimental estimates where available. Additionally, the minimal model for the transition is determined and the crucial role played by the Hunds coupling is demonstrated. [4pt] [1] Xin Wang, M. J. Han, Luca de' Medici, C. A. Marianetti, and Andrew J. Millis (2011). arXiv:1110.2782

  6. Preparation of novel polymer–metal oxide nanocomposites with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. This article deals with preparation of nanocomposite which comprised of nanophase separated structure of polymer chains and metal oxide. By grafting poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate), poly(HEMA) on the surface of titanium which is covered by passive titanium oxide by atom transfer radical polymerization.

  7. Heterogeneous Partial (ammOxidation and Oxidative Dehydrogenation Catalysis on Mixed Metal Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques C. Védrine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of heterogeneous partial (ammoxidation and oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH of hydrocarbons. The review has been voluntarily restricted to metal oxide-type catalysts, as the partial oxidation field is very broad and the number of catalysts is quite high. The main factors of solid catalysts for such reactions, designated by Grasselli as the “seven pillars”, and playing a determining role in catalytic properties, are considered to be, namely: isolation of active sites (known to be composed of ensembles of atoms, Me–O bond strength, crystalline structure, redox features, phase cooperation, multi-functionality and the nature of the surface oxygen species. Other important features and physical and chemical properties of solid catalysts, more or less related to the seven pillars, are also emphasized, including reaction sensitivity to metal oxide structure, epitaxial contact between an active phase and a second phase or its support, synergy effect between several phases, acid-base aspects, electron transfer ability, catalyst preparation and activation and reaction atmospheres, etc. Some examples are presented to illustrate the importance of these key factors. They include light alkanes (C1–C4 oxidation, ethane oxidation to ethylene and acetic acid on MoVTe(SbNb-O and Nb doped NiO, propene oxidation to acrolein on BiMoCoFe-O systems, propane (ammoxidation to (acrylonitrile acrylic acid on MoVTe(SbNb-O mixed oxides, butane oxidation to maleic anhydride on VPO: (VO2P2O7-based catalyst, and isobutyric acid ODH to methacrylic acid on Fe hydroxyl phosphates. It is shown that active sites are composed of ensembles of atoms whose size and chemical composition depend on the reactants to be transformed (their chemical and size features and the reaction mechanism, often of Mars and van Krevelen type. An important aspect is the fact that surface composition and surface crystalline structure vary with reaction on stream until

  8. Trends in Metal Oxide Stability for Nanorods, Nanotubes, and Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowbray, Duncan; Martinez, Jose Ignacio; Vallejo, Federico Calle

    2011-01-01

    ,2) nanorods, (3,3) nanotubes, and the (110) and (100) surfaces. These formation energies can be described semiquantitatively (mean absolute error ≈ 0.12 eV) by the fraction of metal−oxygen bonds broken and the metal d-band and p-band centers in the bulk metal oxide.......The formation energies of nanostructures play an important role in determining their properties, including their catalytic activity. For the case of 15 different rutile and 8 different perovskite metal oxides, we used density functional theory (DFT) to calculate the formation energies of (2...

  9. Mesoporous binary metal oxide nanocomposites: Synthesis, characterization and decontamination of sulfur mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveen Kumar, J., E-mail: praveenjella10@gmail.com; Prasad, G.K.; Ramacharyulu, P.V.R.K.; Singh, Beer; Gopi, T.; Krishna, R.

    2016-04-15

    Mesoporous MnO{sub 2}–ZnO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–ZnO, NiO–ZnO, and CeO{sub 2}–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard. They were synthesized by precipitation pyrolysis method and characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive analysis of X rays, X ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption techniques. The transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption data indicated the presence of pores with diameter ranging from 10 to 70 nm in the binary metal oxide nanocomposites and these materials exhibited surface area values in the range of 76–134 m{sup 2}/g. These binary metal oxide nanocomposites demonstrated large decontamination efficiencies against sulfur mustard when compared to their single component metal oxide nanoparticles. The binary metal oxide nanocomposites effectively decontaminated sulfur mustard into relatively non toxic products such as chloro ethyl vinyl sulfide, divinyl sulfide, 1,4-oxathiane, etc. The promising decontamination properties of binary metal oxide nanocomposites against sulfur mustard were attributed to the basic sites, Lewis acid sites, and the presence of these sites was confirmed by CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} temperature programmed desorption. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous MnO{sub 2}–ZnO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–ZnO, NiO–ZnO, and CeO{sub 2}–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard. - Highlights: • Binary metal oxide nanocomposites were synthesized by co-precipitation method. • They were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard. • They decontaminated sulfur mustard into non toxic products. • MnO{sub 2}–ZnO and CeO{sub 2}–ZnO nanocomposites showed greater decontamination efficiency.

  10. Mesoporous binary metal oxide nanocomposites: Synthesis, characterization and decontamination of sulfur mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praveen Kumar, J.; Prasad, G.K.; Ramacharyulu, P.V.R.K.; Singh, Beer; Gopi, T.; Krishna, R.

    2016-01-01

    Mesoporous MnO 2 –ZnO, Fe 2 O 3 –ZnO, NiO–ZnO, and CeO 2 –ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard. They were synthesized by precipitation pyrolysis method and characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive analysis of X rays, X ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption techniques. The transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption data indicated the presence of pores with diameter ranging from 10 to 70 nm in the binary metal oxide nanocomposites and these materials exhibited surface area values in the range of 76–134 m 2 /g. These binary metal oxide nanocomposites demonstrated large decontamination efficiencies against sulfur mustard when compared to their single component metal oxide nanoparticles. The binary metal oxide nanocomposites effectively decontaminated sulfur mustard into relatively non toxic products such as chloro ethyl vinyl sulfide, divinyl sulfide, 1,4-oxathiane, etc. The promising decontamination properties of binary metal oxide nanocomposites against sulfur mustard were attributed to the basic sites, Lewis acid sites, and the presence of these sites was confirmed by CO 2 and NH 3 temperature programmed desorption. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous MnO 2 –ZnO, Fe 2 O 3 –ZnO, NiO–ZnO, and CeO 2 –ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard. - Highlights: • Binary metal oxide nanocomposites were synthesized by co-precipitation method. • They were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard. • They decontaminated sulfur mustard into non toxic products. • MnO 2 –ZnO and CeO 2 –ZnO nanocomposites showed greater decontamination efficiency.

  11. Nanostructured Metal Oxides for Stoichiometric Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Janoš, Pavel; Skoumal, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Metal oxides have very important applications in many areas of chemistry, physics and materials science; their properties are dependent on the method of preparation, the morphology and texture. Nanostructured metal oxides can exhibit unique characteristics unlike those of the bulk form depending on their morphology, with a high density of edges, corners and defect surfaces. In recent years, methods have been developed for the preparation of metal oxide powders with tunable control of the primary particle size as well as of a secondary particle size: the size of agglomerates of crystallites. One of the many ways to take advantage of unique properties of nanostructured oxide materials is stoichiometric degradation of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) pollutants on their surfaces.

  12. Application of a mixed metal oxide catalyst to a metallic substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevener, Kathleen M. (Inventor); Lohner, Kevin A. (Inventor); Mays, Jeffrey A. (Inventor); Wisner, Daniel L. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method for applying a mixed metal oxide catalyst to a metallic substrate for the creation of a robust, high temperature catalyst system for use in decomposing propellants, particularly hydrogen peroxide propellants, for use in propulsion systems. The method begins by forming a prepared substrate material consisting of a metallic inner substrate and a bound layer of a noble metal intermediate. Alternatively, a bound ceramic coating, or frit, may be introduced between the metallic inner substrate and noble metal intermediate when the metallic substrate is oxidation resistant. A high-activity catalyst slurry is applied to the surface of the prepared substrate and dried to remove the organic solvent. The catalyst layer is then heat treated to bind the catalyst layer to the surface. The bound catalyst layer is then activated using an activation treatment and calcinations to form the high-activity catalyst system.

  13. Is Neurotoxicity of Metallic Nanoparticles the Cascades of Oxidative Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bin; Zhang, YanLi; Liu, Jia; Feng, XiaoLi; Zhou, Ting; Shao, LongQuan

    2016-06-01

    With the rapid development of nanotechnology, metallic (metal or metal oxide) nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in many fields such as cosmetics, the food and building industries, and bio-medical instruments. Widespread applications of metallic NP-based products increase the health risk associated with human exposures. Studies revealed that the brain, a critical organ that consumes substantial amounts of oxygen, is a primary target of metallic NPs once they are absorbed into the body. Oxidative stress (OS), apoptosis, and the inflammatory response are believed to be the main mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity of metallic NPs. Other studies have disclosed that antioxidant pretreatment or co-treatment can reverse the neurotoxicity of metallic NPs by decreasing the level of reactive oxygen species, up-regulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes, decreasing the proportion of apoptotic cells, and suppressing the inflammatory response. These findings suggest that the neurotoxicity of metallic NPs might involve a cascade of events following NP-induced OS. However, additional research is needed to determine whether NP-induced OS plays a central role in the neurotoxicity of metallic NPs, to develop a comprehensive understanding of the correlations among neurotoxic mechanisms and to improve the bio-safety of metallic NP-based products.

  14. Shape-controlled syntheses of metal oxide nanoparticles by the introduction of rare-earth metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyo-Won; Kim, Na-Young; Park, Ji-Eun; Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Hickey, Robert J; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Park, So-Jung

    2017-02-23

    Here, we report the size- and shape-controlled synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles through the introduction of rare-earth metals. The addition of gadolinium oleate in the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles induced sphere-to-cube shape changes of nanoparticles and generated iron oxide nanocubes coated with gadolinium. Based on experimental investigations and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we attribute the shape change to the facet-selective binding of undecomposed gadolinium oleates. While many previous studies on the shape-controlled syntheses of nanoparticles rely on the stabilization of specific crystal facets by anionic surfactants or their decomposition products, this study shows that the interaction between growing transition metal oxide nanoparticles and rare-earth metal complexes can be used as a robust new mechanism for shape-controlled syntheses. Indeed, we demonstrated that this approach was applicable to other transition metal oxide nanoparticles (i.e., manganese oxide and manganese ferrite) and rare earth metals (i.e., gadolinium, europium, and cerium). This study also demonstrates that the nature of metal-ligand bonding can play an important role in the shape control of nanoparticles.

  15. VUV photo-oxidation of gaseous benzene combined with ozone-assisted catalytic oxidation: Effect on transition metal catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Haibao, E-mail: seabao8@gmail.com [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology (Sun Yat-sen University) (China); Lu, Haoxian; Zhan, Yujie; Liu, Gaoyuan; Feng, Qiuyu; Huang, Huiling; Wu, Muyan; Ye, Xinguo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University (China)

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Mn nanoparticles are highly dispersed on ZSM-5 and most efficient in benzene degradation in the VUV-OZCO process. - Highlights: • Vacuum UV irradiation is well combined with O{sub 3} catalytic oxidation. • O{sub 3} byproducts was used to enhance catalytic oxidation of VOCs. • Mn/ZSM-5 achieved the best catalytic activity for benzene degradation. - Abstract: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) cause the major air pollution concern. In this study, a series of ZSM-5 supported transition metals were prepared by impregnation method. They were combined with vacuum UV (VUV) photo-oxidation in a continuous-flow packed-bed reactor and used for the degradation of benzene, a typical toxic VOCs. Compared with VUV photo-oxidation alone, the introduction of catalysts can greatly enhance benzene oxidation under the help of O{sub 3}, the by-products from VUV irradiation, via ozone-assisted catalytic oxidation (OZCO). The catalytic activity of transition metals towards benzene oxidation followed the order: Mn > Co > Cu > Ni > Fe. Mn achieved the best catalytic activity due to the strongest capability for O{sub 3} catalytic decomposition and utilization. Benzene and O{sub 3} removal efficiency reached as high as 97% and 100% after 360 min, respectively. O{sub 3} was catalytically decomposed, generating highly reactive oxidants such as ·OH and ·O for benzene oxidation.

  16. Heterogeneous Metal Catalysts for Oxidation Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Eaqub Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation reactions may be considered as the heart of chemical synthesis. However, the indiscriminate uses of harsh and corrosive chemicals in this endeavor are threating to the ecosystems, public health, and terrestrial, aquatic, and aerial flora and fauna. Heterogeneous catalysts with various supports are brought to the spotlight because of their excellent capabilities to accelerate the rate of chemical reactions with low cost. They also minimize the use of chemicals in industries and thus are friendly and green to the environment. However, heterogeneous oxidation catalysis are not comprehensively presented in literature. In this short review, we clearly depicted the current state of catalytic oxidation reactions in chemical industries with specific emphasis on heterogeneous catalysts. We outlined here both the synthesis and applications of important oxidation catalysts. We believe it would serve as a reference guide for the selection of oxidation catalysts for both industries and academics.

  17. Gas phase deposition of oxide and metal-oxide coatings on fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patokin, A.P.; Khrebtov, V.L.; Shirokov, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Production processes and properties of oxide (Al 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 ) and metal-oxide (Mo-Al 2 O 3 , Mo-ZrO 2 , W-Al 2 O 3 , W-ZrO 2 ) coatings on molybdenum substrates and uranium dioxide fuel particles were investigated. It is shown that the main factors that have an effect on the deposition rate, density, microstructure and other properties of coatings are the deposition temperature, the ratio of H 2 and CO 2 flow rates, the total reactor pressure and the ratio of partial pressures of corresponding metal chlorides during formation of metal-oxide coatings

  18. Methods of making metal oxide nanostructures and methods of controlling morphology of same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stanislaus S; Hongjun, Zhou

    2012-11-27

    The present invention includes a method of producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure. The method comprises providing a metal salt solution and providing a basic solution; placing a porous membrane between the metal salt solution and the basic solution, wherein metal cations of the metal salt solution and hydroxide ions of the basic solution react, thereby producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure.

  19. Charge transient spectroscopy measurements of metal-oxide-semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Markus; Fechner, Axel; Zahn, Dietrich R.T. [Chemnitz University of Technology, Semiconductor Physics, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    Charge transient spectroscopy (QTS) is an electrical measurement technique related to deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Using QTS it is possible to measure fast charge reloading processes even in the absence of depletion regions as a function of time and temperature with different pulse voltages and pulse widths. As a result, one can determine the number, the energetic position, the capture cross section, and the density of the electrically active traps. Here QTS measurements of Al/SiO2/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structures are presented revealing the influence of manganese implantation into p- and n-doped silicon on the charge carrier transport and trapping properties. The QTS results are compared to I-V, C-V and DLTS measurements on the same samples and the differences are discussed (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Metal Acetylacetonates as General Precursors for the Synthesis of Early Transition Metal Oxide Nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Willis, Amanda L.; Chen, Zhuoying; He, Jiaqing; Zhu, Yimei; Turro, Nicholas J.; O'Brien, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    A versatile, convenient, and nontoxic solvothermal method for the synthesis of nanocrystalline iron, chromium, and manganese oxides is described. This method employs the reactions of metal acetylacetonate precursors and oxygen-containing solvents in a reaction to prepare metal oxide nanoparticles. Characterization of these nanocrystalline materials was carried out employing transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and elemental analysis.

  1. Metal Acetylacetonates as General Precursors for the Synthesis of Early Transition Metal Oxide Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. Willis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A versatile, convenient, and nontoxic solvothermal method for the synthesis of nanocrystalline iron, chromium, and manganese oxides is described. This method employs the reactions of metal acetylacetonate precursors and oxygen-containing solvents in a reaction to prepare metal oxide nanoparticles. Characterization of these nanocrystalline materials was carried out employing transmission electron microscopy (TEM, high-resolution TEM (HRTEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and elemental analysis.

  2. Metallic nanoparticles in dielectrics: A comparative study

    KAUST Repository

    Agambayev, Agamyrat

    2017-10-25

    The Maxwell-Garnett method is used to predict the effective dielectric constant and the tangent loss of various composites consisting of a PVDF-TrFE-CFE-matrix and metallic microsphere fillers made of Cu, Ni, W, Zn, or Fe. Simulation results demonstrate that for small filler fraction values and at low frequencies, the electrical properties of the resulting composite do not depend on the conductivity of the filler. These findings show that composites fabricated using cheaper metal nanoparticle fillers are as effective as those fabricated using expensive ones.

  3. Kinetics of abiotic nitrous oxide production via oxidation of hydroxylamine by particulate metals in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos, A. R.; Taillefert, M.; Glass, J. B.

    2016-12-01

    The oceans are a significant of nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere. Current models of global oceanic N2­O flux focus on microbial N2O cycling and often ignore abiotic reactions, such as the thermodynamically favorable oxidation of the nitrification intermediate hydroxylamine (NH2OH) by Mn(IV) or Fe(III). At circumneutral pH, NH2OH oxidation is more thermodynamically favorable via Mn(IV) than Fe(III) reduction. We characterized the kinetics of NH2OH oxidation in synthetic ocean water at pH 5.1-8.8 using microsensor electrodes to measure real-time N2O production. N2O production rates and yield were greater when NH2OH was oxidized by Mn(IV) than Fe(III). Accordingly, the reduction of Mn(IV) was first order with respect to NH2OH whereas the reduction of Fe(III) was zero order with respect to NH2OH. Interestingly, the order of the reaction with respect to Mn(IV) appears to be negative whereas the reaction is second order with respect to Fe(III). The inverse order with respect to Mn(IV) may be due to the aggregation of particles in seawater, which decreases their surface area and changes their reactivity. Finally, the reaction is first order with respect to protons with Fe(III) as the oxidant but zero order with Mn(IV). The stronger effect of the pH on the reaction with Fe(III) as the oxidant compared to Mn(IV) reflects the stoichiometry of these two reactions, as each mole of N2O produced by Fe(III) reduction consumes eight protons while each mole of N2O produced with Mn(IV) as the oxidant requires only four protons. Our data show that abiotic NH2OH oxidation by Mn(IV) or Fe(III) particles may represent a significant source of N2O in seawater. These findings suggest that abiotic N2O production in marine waters may be significant in areas of the oceans where particulate metals originating from aerosols, dust, or rivers may react with NH2OH released from ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms.

  4. Chemistry of layered d-metal pnictide oxides and their potential as candidates for new superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Tadashi C; Kauzlarich, Susan M

    2008-01-01

    Layered d-metal pnictide oxides are a unique class of compounds which consist of characteristic d-metal pnictide layers and metal oxide layers. More than 100 of these layered compounds, including the recently discovered Fe-based superconducting pnictide oxides, can be classified into nine structure types. These structure types and the chemical and physical properties of the characteristic d-metal pnictide layers and metal oxide layers of the layered d-metal pnictide oxides are reviewed and discussed. Furthermore, possible approaches to design new superconductors based on these layered d-metal pnictide oxides are proposed. (topical review)

  5. Sustainable synthesis, characterization, and applications of metal oxide nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiano, Amanda Lyn

    Nanomaterials have attracted significant research focus due to their advantageous and unique properties (i.e. electronic, magnetic, optical, and mechanical) as compared with the bulk. Metal oxide nanostructures are of particular interest, as they are very robust and display high chemical and thermal stability, while offering a diverse array of fascinating properties. By reliably controlling the size, morphology, composition, and crystallinity of these nanostructures, their properties can be tuned for a specific purpose. These advantageous tailorable properties render them as ideal candidates for many applications such as catalysis, sensing, electronics, optoelectronics, energy storage, and even medicine. Driven by their increased popularity and potential applications, efforts to synthesize nanomaterials have moved toward environmentally-friendly methodologies, such as wet-chemical, molten-salt, hydrothermal, and sol-gel methods. We will discuss the green synthesis of strontium ruthenate (SrRuO 3), the yttrium manganese oxides (YMnO3 and YMn2O 5), and the magnetic spinel ferrites (MFe2O4 where 'M' is Mg, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn) and our ability to reliably tune their properties for various applications. The effects of the molten salt parameters on the resulting particle size and morphology were explored for SrRuO 3 and the yttrium manganese oxides. For example, rapid cooling rates and the use of surfactants allowed us to produced faceted octahedra of SrRuO 3, which resulted in a 4-fold enhancement of their activity towards methanol oxidation with respect to smooth rounded particles. Similarly, using the hydrothermal method, we generated ferrite nanoparticles of different compositions and sizes. We investigated their potential as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and as photocatalysts, and observed significant differences as a function of both size and composition. Similarly, we will also examine surface and structural effects upon the electronic

  6. Advances in metal-induced oxidative stress and human disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jomova, Klaudia; Valko, Marian

    2011-01-01

    Detailed studies in the past two decades have shown that redox active metals like iron (Fe), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co) and other metals undergo redox cycling reactions and possess the ability to produce reactive radicals such as superoxide anion radical and nitric oxide in biological systems. Disruption of metal ion homeostasis may lead to oxidative stress, a state where increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) overwhelms body antioxidant protection and subsequently induces DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, protein modification and other effects, all symptomatic for numerous diseases, involving cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, atherosclerosis, neurological disorders (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease), chronic inflammation and others. The underlying mechanism of action for all these metals involves formation of the superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical (mainly via Fenton reaction) and other ROS, finally producing mutagenic and carcinogenic malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) and other exocyclic DNA adducts. On the other hand, the redox inactive metals, such as cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) show their toxic effects via bonding to sulphydryl groups of proteins and depletion of glutathione. Interestingly, for arsenic an alternative mechanism of action based on the formation of hydrogen peroxide under physiological conditions has been proposed. A special position among metals is occupied by the redox inert metal zinc (Zn). Zn is an essential component of numerous proteins involved in the defense against oxidative stress. It has been shown, that depletion of Zn may enhance DNA damage via impairments of DNA repair mechanisms. In addition, Zn has an impact on the immune system and possesses neuroprotective properties. The mechanism of metal-induced formation of free radicals is tightly influenced by the action of cellular antioxidants. Many low-molecular weight antioxidants (ascorbic acid (vitamin C), alpha

  7. Comparative anatomy, nutraceutical potentials and heavy metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the anatomical features, nutraceutical potentials and heavy metal compositions in two varieties of Lasianthera africana (P. Beauv) which is a member of the family Icacinaceae predominantly found mostly in southern Nigeria. The anatomical studies were carried out with free hand sectioning using a ...

  8. CO-oxidation catalysts: Low-temperature CO oxidation over Noble-Metal Reducible Oxide (NMRO) catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Richard K.

    1990-01-01

    Oxidation of CO to CO2 is an important reaction technologically and environmentally and a complex and interesting reaction scientifically. In most cases, the reaction is carried out in order to remove CO as an environmental hazard. A major application of heterogeneous catalysts is catalytic oxidation of CO in the exhaust of combustion devices. The reaction over catalysts in exhaust gas is fast and often mass-transfer-limited since exhaust gases are hot and O2/CO ratios are high. The main challenges to catalyst designers are to control thermal sintering and chemical poisoning of the active materials. The effect of the noble metal on the oxide is discussed, followed by the effect of the oxide on the noble metal, the interaction of the noble metal and oxide to form unique catalytic sites, and the possible ways in which the CO oxidation reaction is catalyzed by the NMRO materials.

  9. Polymer-supported metals and metal oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Sudipta; Guibal, E.; Quignard, F.; SenGupta, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    Metal and metal oxide nanoparticles exhibit unique properties in regard to sorption behaviors, magnetic activity, chemical reduction, ligand sequestration among others. To this end, attempts are being continuously made to take advantage of them in multitude of applications including separation, catalysis, environmental remediation, sensing, biomedical applications and others. However, metal and metal oxide nanoparticles lack chemical stability and mechanical strength. They exhibit extremely high pressure drop or head loss in fixed-bed column operation and are not suitable for any flow-through systems. Also, nanoparticles tend to aggregate; this phenomenon reduces their high surface area to volume ratio and subsequently reduces effectiveness. By appropriately dispersing metal and metal oxide nanoparticles into synthetic and naturally occurring polymers, many of the shortcomings can be overcome without compromising the parent properties of the nanoparticles. Furthermore, the appropriate choice of the polymer host with specific functional groups may even lead to the enhancement of the properties of nanoparticles. The synthesis of hybrid materials involves two broad pathways: dispersing the nanoparticles (i) within pre-formed or commercially available polymers; and (ii) during the polymerization process. This review presents a broad coverage of nanoparticles and polymeric/biopolymeric host materials and the resulting properties of the hybrid composites. In addition, the review discusses the role of the Donnan membrane effect exerted by the host functionalized polymer in harnessing the desirable properties of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles for intended applications.

  10. Study of oxide/metal/oxide thin films for transparent electronics and solar cells applications by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Girtan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study of a class of Oxide/Metal/Oxide (Oxide = ITO, AZO, TiO2 and Bi2O3, Metal = Au thin films was done by correlating the spectrophotometric studies with the ellispometric models. Films were deposited by successive sputtering from metallic targets In:Sn, Zn:Al, Ti and Bi in reactive atmosphere (for the oxide films and respective inert atmosphere (for the metallic Au interlayer films on glass substrates. The measurements of optical constants n—the refractive index and k—the extinction coefficient, at different incident photon energies for single oxide films and also for the three layers films oxide/metal/oxide samples were made using the spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE technique. The ellipsometry modelling process was coupled with the recorded transmission spectra data of a double beam spectrophotometer and the best fitting parameters were obtained not only by fitting the n and k experimental data with the dispersion fitting curves as usual is practiced in the most reported data in literature, but also by comparing the calculated the transmission coefficient from ellipsometry with the experimental values obtained from direct spectrophotometry measurements. In this way the best dispersion model was deduced for each sample. Very good correlations were obtained for the other different thin films characteristics such as the films thickness, optical band gap and electrical resistivity obtained by other measurements and calculation techniques. The ellipsometric modelling, can hence give the possibility in the future to predict, by ellipsometric simulations, the proper device architecture in function of the preferred optical and electrical properties.

  11. Metal Inhibition of Growth and Manganese Oxidation in Pseudomonas putida GB-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, J.; Sposito, G.

    2009-12-01

    Biogenic manganese oxides (MnO2) are ubiquitous nanoparticulate minerals that contribute to the adsorption of nutrient and toxicant metals, the oxidative degradation of various organic compounds, and the respiration of metal-reducing bacteria in aquatic and terrestrial environments. The formation of these minerals is catalyzed by a diverse and widely-distributed group of bacteria and fungi, often through the enzymatic oxidation of aqueous Mn(II) to Mn(IV). In metal-impacted ecosystems, toxicant metals may alter the viability and metabolic activity of Mn-oxidizing organisms, thereby limiting the conditions under which biogenic MnO2 can form and diminishing their potential as adsorbent materials. Pseudomonas putida GB-1 (P. putida GB-1) is a model Mn-oxidizing laboratory culture representative of freshwater and soil biofilm-forming bacteria. Manganese oxidation in P. putida GB-1 occurs via two single-electron-transfer reactions, involving a multicopper oxidase enzyme found on the bacterial outer membrane surface. Near the onset of the stationary phase of growth, dark brown MnO2 particles are deposited in a matrix of bacterial cells and extracellular polymeric substances, thus forming heterogeneous biomineral assemblages. In this study, we assessed the influence of various transition metals on microbial growth and manganese oxidation capacity in a P. putida GB-1 culture propagated in a nutrient-rich growth medium. The concentration-response behavior of actively growing P. putida GB-1 cells was investigated for Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn at pH ≈ 6 in the presence and absence of 1 mM Mn. Toxicity parameters such as EC0, EC50 and Hillslope, and EC100 were obtained from the sigmoidal concentration-response curves. The extent of MnO2 formation in the presence of the various metal cations was documented 24, 50, 74 and 104 h after the metal-amended medium was inoculated. Toxicity values were compared to twelve physicochemical properties of the metals tested. Significant

  12. Fabrication of Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles by Algae and their Toxic Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqi, Khwaja Salahuddin; Husen, Azamal

    2016-01-01

    Of all the aquatic organisms, algae are a good source of biomolecules. Since algae contain pigments, proteins, carbohydrates, fats, nucleic acids and secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, some aromatic compounds, macrolides, peptides and terpenes, they act as reducing agents to produce nanoparticles from metal salts without producing any toxic by-product. Once the algal biomolecules are identified, the nanoparticles of desired shape or size may be fabricated. The metal and metal oxide nano...

  13. Preventing Bacterial Infections using Metal Oxides Nanocoatings on Bone Implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duceac, L. D.; Straticiuc, S.; Hanganu, E.; Stafie, L.; Calin, G.; Gavrilescu, S. L.

    2017-06-01

    Nowadays bone implant removal is caused by infection that occurs around it possibly acquired after surgery or during hospitalization. The purpose of this study was to reveal some metal oxides applied as coatings on bone implant thus limiting the usual antibiotics-resistant bacteria colonization. Therefore ZnO, TiO2 and CuO were synthesized and structurally and morphologically analized in order to use them as an alternative antimicrobial agents deposited on bone implant. XRD, SEM, and FTIR characterization techniques were used to identify structure and texture of these nanoscaled metal oxides. These metal oxides nanocoatings on implant surface play a big role in preventing bacterial infection and reducing surgical complications.

  14. Water Oxidation Mechanisms of Metal Oxide Catalysts by Vibrational Spectroscopy of Transient Intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Miao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Frei, Heinz [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-02-22

    Water oxidation is an essential reaction of an artificial photosystem for solar fuel generation because it provides electrons needed to reduce carbon dioxide or protons to a fuel. Earth-abundant metal oxides are among the most attractive catalytic materials for this reaction because of their robustness and scalability, but their efficiency poses a challenge. Knowledge of catalytic surface intermediates gained by vibrational spectroscopy under reaction conditions plays a key role in uncovering kinetic bottlenecks and provides a basis for catalyst design improvements. Recent dynamic infrared and Raman studies reveal the molecular identity of transient surface intermediates of water oxidation on metal oxides. In conclusion, combined with ultrafast infrared observations of how charges are delivered to active sites of the metal oxide catalyst and drive the multielectron reaction, spectroscopic advances are poised to play a key role in accelerating progress toward improved catalysts for artificial photosynthesis.

  15. Designing porous metallic glass compact enclosed with surface iron oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jae Young; Park, Hae Jin; Hong, Sung Hwan; Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Young Seok; Park, Jun-Young; Lee, Naesung [Hybrid Materials Center (HMC), Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Yongho [Graphene Research Institute (GRI) & HMC, Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Man, E-mail: jinman_park@hotmail.com [Global Technology Center, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd, 129 Samsung-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Buem, E-mail: kbkim@sejong.ac.kr [Hybrid Materials Center (HMC), Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-25

    Highlights: • Porous metallic glass compact was developed using electro-discharge sintering process. • Uniform PMGC can only be achieved when low electrical input energy was applied. • Functional iron-oxides were formed on the surface of PMGCs by hydrothermal technique. - Abstract: Porous metallic glass compact (PMGC) using electro-discharge sintering (EDS) process of gas atomized Zr{sub 41.2}Ti{sub 13.8}Cu{sub 12.5}Ni{sub 10}Be{sub 22.5} metallic glass powder was developed. The formation of uniform PMGC can only be achieved when low electrical input energy was applied. Functional iron-oxides were formed on the surface of PMGCs by hydrothermal technique. This finding suggests that PMGC can be applied in the new area such as catalyst via hydrothermal technique and offer a promising guideline for using the metallic glasses as a potential functional application.

  16. The mechanism of electroforming of metal oxide memristive switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua Yang, J.; Miao, Feng; Pickett, Matthew D.; Ohlberg, Douglas A. A.; Stewart, Duncan R.; Lau, Chun Ning; Williams, R. Stanley

    2009-05-01

    Metal and semiconductor oxides are ubiquitous electronic materials. Normally insulating, oxides can change behavior under high electric fields—through 'electroforming' or 'breakdown'—critically affecting CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) logic, DRAM (dynamic random access memory) and flash memory, and tunnel barrier oxides. An initial irreversible electroforming process has been invariably required for obtaining metal oxide resistance switches, which may open urgently needed new avenues for advanced computer memory and logic circuits including ultra-dense non-volatile random access memory (NVRAM) and adaptive neuromorphic logic circuits. This electrical switching arises from the coupled motion of electrons and ions within the oxide material, as one of the first recognized examples of a memristor (memory-resistor) device, the fourth fundamental passive circuit element originally predicted in 1971 by Chua. A lack of device repeatability has limited technological implementation of oxide switches, however. Here we explain the nature of the oxide electroforming as an electro-reduction and vacancy creation process caused by high electric fields and enhanced by electrical Joule heating with direct experimental evidence. Oxygen vacancies are created and drift towards the cathode, forming localized conducting channels in the oxide. Simultaneously, O2- ions drift towards the anode where they evolve O2 gas, causing physical deformation of the junction. The problematic gas eruption and physical deformation are mitigated by shrinking to the nanoscale and controlling the electroforming voltage polarity. Better yet, electroforming problems can be largely eliminated by engineering the device structure to remove 'bulk' oxide effects in favor of interface-controlled electronic switching.

  17. Large Lateral Photovoltaic Effect in Metal-(Oxide-Semiconductor Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongqi Yu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE can be used in position-sensitive detectors to detect very small displacements due to its output of lateral photovoltage changing linearly with light spot position. In this review, we will summarize some of our recent works regarding LPE in metal-semiconductor and metal-oxide-semiconductor structures, and give a theoretical model of LPE in these two structures.

  18. Large lateral photovoltaic effect in metal-(oxide-) semiconductor structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chongqi; Wang, Hui

    2010-01-01

    The lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) can be used in position-sensitive detectors to detect very small displacements due to its output of lateral photovoltage changing linearly with light spot position. In this review, we will summarize some of our recent works regarding LPE in metal-semiconductor and metal-oxide-semiconductor structures, and give a theoretical model of LPE in these two structures.

  19. Combustion Kinetics of Metal Oxide and Halide Radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-04

    often not obeyed. Particularly for exothermic and slightly endothermic reactions, order of magnitude errors can be made by extrap - 1olations based on the...schematic of the HTFFR, high-temperature fast-flow reactor , method we are using to generate the metallic radicals and measure their oxidation kinetics...TEMPERATURE INTERVALS. TECHNIQUE High-Temperature Fast-Flow Reactor FURNACE REACTION LENGTH-REACTION TIME SNA- LASER FLUORESCENCE OXIDANTIo CO2 METAL IN

  20. New Digital Metal-Oxide (MOx) Sensor Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüffer, Daniel; Hoehne, Felix; Bühler, Johannes

    2018-03-31

    The application of metal oxide gas sensors in Internet of Things (IoT) devices and mobile platforms like wearables and mobile phones offers new opportunities for sensing applications. Metal-oxide (MOx) sensors are promising candidates for such applications, thanks to the scientific progresses achieved in recent years. For the widespread application of MOx sensors, viable commercial offerings are required. In this publication, the authors show that with the new Sensirion Gas Platform (SGP) a milestone in the commercial application of MOx technology has been reached. The architecture of the new platform and its performance in selected applications are presented.

  1. Metal Oxide Nano structures: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, L. H.; Patil, D. S.; Yang, J.; Xiao, J.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, nano structured materials have attracted wide attention due to their fascinating optical and electrical properties, which make these materials potentially suitable for applications in electronics, optics, photonics, and sensors. Some metal oxides show a wide variety of morphologies such as nano wires, nano rods, nano tubes, nano rings, and nano belts. Synthesis and investigation of these metal-oxide nano structures are beneficial not only for understanding the fundamental phenomena in low dimensional systems, but also for developing new-generation nano devices with high performance.

  2. Microwave-assisted route for synthesis of nanosized metal oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunkumar Lagashetty et al

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-assisted route for the synthesis of nanomaterials has gained importance in the field of synthetic technology because of its faster, cleaner and cost effectiveness than the other conventional and wet chemical methods for the preparation of metal oxide nanoparticles. In the present work, synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles viz., γ-Fe2O3, NiO, ZnO, CuO and Co-γ-Fe2O3 were carried out by microwave-assisted route through the thermal decomposition of their respective metal oxalate precursors employing polyvinyl alcohol as a fuel. The metal oxide nanoparticles are then characterized for their size and γ to α (in γ-Fe2O3 transition and structure by employing powder X-ray diffraction (XRD pattern, high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD pattern and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectral studies. The morphology of the samples ranged from nanorods to irregular-shaped particles for different metal oxide samples on the basis of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images. Frequency-dependent dielectric study of the ferrite samples (γ-Fe2O3 and Co-Fe2O3 showed a similar behaviour, where the dielectric constant decreased rapidly with increase in frequency. Possible explanation for this behaviour is given.

  3. Global DNA methylation and oxidative stress biomarkers in workers exposed to metal oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing; Wu, Wei-Te; Liao, Hui-Yi [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli County, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chao-Yu; Tsai, Cheng-Yen; Jung, Wei-Ting [Department of Chemistry, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Lee, Hui-Ling, E-mail: huilinglee3573@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China)

    2017-06-05

    Highlights: • Global methylation and oxidative DNA damage levels in nanomaterial handling workers were assessed. • 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate of workers exposed to nanoparticles was higher. • 8-OHdG was negatively correlated with global methylation. • Exposure to metal oxide nanoparticles may lead to global methylation and DNA oxidative damage. - Abstract: This is the first study to assess global methylation, oxidative DNA damage, and lipid peroxidation in workers with occupational exposure to metal oxide nanomaterials (NMs). Urinary and white blood cell (WBC) 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) 8-isoprostane were measured as oxidative stress biomarkers. WBC global methylation was measured as an epigenetic alteration. Exposure to TiO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2,} and indium tin oxide (ITO) resulted in significantly higher oxidative biomarkers such as urinary 8-OHdG and EBC 8-isoprostane. However, significantly higher WBC 8-OHdG and lower global methylation were only observed in ITO handling workers. Significant positive correlations were noted between WBC and urinary 8-OHdG (Spearman correlation r = 0.256, p = 0.003). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation was found between WBC 8-OHdG and global methylation (r = −0.272, p = 0.002). These results suggest that exposure to metal oxide NMs may lead to global methylation, DNA oxidative damage, and lipid peroxidation.

  4. Metal Phosphate-Supported Pt Catalysts for CO Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaoshuang; Qin, Hongmei; Meng, Tao; Lin, Yi; Ma, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Oxides (such as SiO2, TiO2, ZrO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CeO2) have often been used to prepare supported Pt catalysts for CO oxidation and other reactions, whereas metal phosphate-supported Pt catalysts for CO oxidation were rarely reported. Metal phosphates are a family of metal salts with high thermal stability and acid-base properties. Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, denoted as Ca-P-O here) also has rich hydroxyls. Here we report a series of metal phosphate-supported Pt (Pt/M-P-O, M = Mg, Al, Ca, Fe, Co, Zn, La) catalysts for CO oxidation. Pt/Ca-P-O shows the highest activity. Relevant characterization was conducted using N2 adsorption-desorption, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) atomic emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), CO2 temperature-programmed desorption (CO2-TPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and H2 temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR). This work furnishes a new catalyst system for CO oxidation and other possible reactions. PMID:28788293

  5. Sonochemical water splitting in the presence of powdered metal oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morosini, Vincent; Chave, Tony; Virot, Matthieu; Moisy, Philippe; Nikitenko, Sergey I

    2016-03-01

    Kinetics of hydrogen formation was explored as a new chemical dosimeter allowing probing the sonochemical activity of argon-saturated water in the presence of micro- and nano-sized metal oxide particles exhibiting catalytic properties (ThO2, ZrO2, and TiO2). It was shown that the conventional sonochemical dosimeter based on H2O2 formation is hardly applicable in such systems due to catalytic degradation of H2O2 at oxide surface. The study of H2 generation revealed that at low-frequency ultrasound (20 kHz) the sonochemical water splitting is greatly improved for all studied metal oxides. The highest efficiency is observed for relatively large micrometric particles of ThO2 which is assigned to ultrasonically-driven particle fragmentation accompanied by mechanochemical water molecule splitting. The nanosized metal oxides do not exhibit particle size reduction under ultrasonic treatment but nevertheless yield higher quantities of H2. The enhancement of sonochemical water splitting in this case is most probably resulting from better bubble nucleation in heterogeneous systems. At high-frequency ultrasound (362 kHz), the effect of metal oxide particles results in a combination of nucleation and ultrasound attenuation. In contrast to 20 kHz, micrometric particles slowdown the sonolysis of water at 362 kHz due to stronger attenuation of ultrasonic waves while smaller particles show a relatively weak and various directional effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Metal Phosphate-Supported Pt Catalysts for CO Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoshuang Qian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxides (such as SiO2, TiO2, ZrO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CeO2 have often been used to prepare supported Pt catalysts for CO oxidation and other reactions, whereas metal phosphate-supported Pt catalysts for CO oxidation were rarely reported. Metal phosphates are a family of metal salts with high thermal stability and acid-base properties. Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO46(OH2, denoted as Ca-P-O here also has rich hydroxyls. Here we report a series of metal phosphate-supported Pt (Pt/M-P-O, M = Mg, Al, Ca, Fe, Co, Zn, La catalysts for CO oxidation. Pt/Ca-P-O shows the highest activity. Relevant characterization was conducted using N2 adsorption-desorption, inductively coupled plasma (ICP atomic emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, CO2 temperature-programmed desorption (CO2-TPD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and H2 temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR. This work furnishes a new catalyst system for CO oxidation and other possible reactions.

  7. Oxygen partial pressure: a key to alloying and discovery in metal oxide--metal eutectic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holder, J.D.; Clark, G.W.; Oliver, B.F.

    1978-01-01

    Control of oxygen partial pressure is essential in the directional solidification of oxide--metal eutectic composites by techniques involving gas-solid and gas-liquid interactions. The existence of end components in the eutectic composite is Po 2 sensitive as are melt stoichiometry, solid phase compositions, and vapor losses due to oxidation-volatilization. Simple criteria are postulated which can aid the experimentalist in selecting the proper gas mixture for oxide--metal eutectic composite growth. The Cr 2 O 3 --Mo--Cr systems was used to verify certain aspects of the proposed criteria

  8. Platinum redispersion on metal oxides in low temperature fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tripkovic, Vladimir; Cerri, Isotta; Nagami, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    We have analyzed the aptitude of several metal oxide supports (TiO2, SnO2, NbO2, ZrO2, SiO2, Ta2O5 and Nb2O5) to redisperse platinum under electrochemical conditions pertinent to the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) cathode. The redispersion on oxide supports in air has been studied in ...

  9. Improved adhesion of metal oxide layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to: a method of preparing a coating ink for forming a zinc oxide layer, which method comprises the steps of: a) mixing zinc acetate and AlOH (OAc)2 in water or methanol and b) filtering out solids; a coating ink comprising zinc acetate and AlOH (OAc)2 in aqueous or m...

  10. Graphene composites containing chemically bonded metal oxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (figure 7). We have also been able to bond Al2O3 to graphene by using AlCl3 as the reactant. The oxide film was amor- phous after calcination at 600. ◦. C. We have prepared chemically bonded magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles to graphene by functionalizing Fe3O4 by amine, then reacting it with graphene functionalized with.

  11. Application of metal oxide refractories for melting and casting reactive metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessen, N.C. Jr.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Townsend, A.B.

    1979-01-01

    Extensive investigations have been conducted to develop metal oxide refractories for containment of molten uranium and uranium alloys. Since uranium and uranium alloys are readily susceptable to the formation of complex oxides, carbides, nitrides, intermetallic compounds, and suboxide reactions, severe problems exist for the production of quality castings. These contamination reactions are dependent on temperature, pressure, and molten metal interfacial reactions. The need for high purity metals to meet specification repeatedly has resulted in the development of improved metal oxide refractories and sophisticated furnace controls. Applications of Y 2 O 3 for use as a crucible and mold coating, precision molds and cores, and high temperature castable ceramics are discussed. Experimental results on melt impurity levels, thermal controls during melting, surface interactions and casting quality are presented

  12. Flexible Metal Oxide/Graphene Oxide Hybrid Neuromorphic Devices on Flexible Conducting Graphene Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Chang Jin; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Li Qiang; Liu, Yang Hui; Feng, Ping; Liu, Zhao Ping; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Flexible metal oxide/graphene oxide hybrid multi-gate neuron transistors were fabricated on flexible graphene substrates. Dendritic integrations in both spatial and temporal modes were successfully emulated, and spatiotemporal correlated logics were obtained. A proof-of-principle visual system model for emulating lobula giant motion detector neuron was investigated. Our results are of great interest for flexible neuromorphic cognitive systems.

  13. Visible light sensitive cupric oxide metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, P. V.; Bhat, J. S.; Deshpande, N. G.

    2018-01-01

    The visible light response of Ag-CuO-Ag metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetector is presented. Electron beam deposited CuO thin films consisted of tightly packed nanocrystallites in monoclinic phase. The observed red-shifts in indirect band-gap from 1.09 eV to 0.99 eV and direct band-gap from 2.92 eV to 2.87 eV, with annealing temperature, is attributed to the weak quantum confinement effect. CuO thin films annealed at 500 °C have a p-type conductivity of 4.33 × 10-2 (ohm-cm)-1 and mobility of 13.2 cm2/V-s. Significant responsivities of 0.33 mA/W and 0.59 mA/W for blue and red lights, respectively, in Ag-CuO-Ag photodetector are illustrative for using it as visible light sensor.

  14. Structure formation upon reactive direct current magnetron sputtering of transition metal oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngaruiya, J.M.; Kappertz, O.; Mohamed, S.H.; Wuttig, M.

    2004-01-01

    A comparative study of reactive direct current magnetron sputtering for different transition metal oxides reveals crystalline films at room temperature for group 4 and amorphous films for groups 5 and 6. This observation cannot be explained by the known growth laws and is attributed to the impact of energetic particles, originating from the oxidized target, on the growing film. This scenario is supported by measured target characteristics, the evolution of deposition stress of the films, and the observed backsputtering

  15. All-alkoxide synthesis of strontium-containing metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Timothy J.

    2001-01-01

    A method for making strontium-containing metal-oxide ceramic thin films from a precursor liquid by mixing a strontium neo-pentoxide dissolved in an amine solvent and at least one metal alkoxide dissolved in a solvent, said at least one metal alkoxide selected from the group consisting of alkoxides of calcium, barium, bismuth, cadmium, lead, titanium, tantalum, hafnium, tungsten, niobium, zirconium, yttrium, lanthanum, antimony, chromium and thallium, depositing a thin film of the precursor liquid on a substrate, and heating the thin film in the presence of oxygen at between 550 and 700.degree. C.

  16. Single sheet metal oxides and hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lizhi

    The synthesis of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) provides a relatively easy and traditional way to build versatile chemical compounds with a rough control of the bulk structure. The delamination of LDHs to form their single host layers (2D nanosheets) and the capability to reassemble them offer ......) Delamination of the LDHs structure (oxGRC12) with the formation of single sheet iron (hydr)oxide (SSI). (3) Assembly of the new 2D nanosheets layer by layer to achieve desired functionalities....

  17. Oxidation kinetics of reaction products formed in uranium metal corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totemeier, T. C.

    1998-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of uranium metal ZPPR fuel corrosion products in environments of Ar-4%O 2 and Ar-20%O 2 were studied using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). These tests were performed to extend earlier work in this area specifically, to assess plate-to-plate variations in corrosion product properties and the effect of oxygen concentration on oxidation behavior. The corrosion products from two relatively severely corroded plates were similar, while the products from a relatively intact plate were not reactive. Oxygen concentration strongly affected the burning rate of reactive products, but had little effect on low-temperature oxidation rates

  18. Oxidation of limonene catalyzed by Metal(Salen) complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, L. F.; Corraza, M. L.; Cardozo-Filho, L.; Márquez-Alvarez, H.; Antunes, O. A. C.

    2006-01-01

    The compound R-(+)limonene is available and cheap than its oxidized products. Consequently, the selective oxidation of R(+)limonene has attracted attention as a promising process for the production of compounds with a higher market value, such as cis/trans-1,2-limoneneoxide, cis/trans-carveol and/or carvone. One of the these processes, described in the recent literature, is submission of R-(+)limonene to an oxidation reaction catalyzed by neutral or cationic Metal(Salen) complexes, in the pre...

  19. Carbon monoxide oxidation over three different states of copper: Development of a model metal oxide catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jernigan, Glenn Geoffrey [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-10-01

    Carbon monoxide oxidation was performed over the three different oxidation states of copper -- metallic (Cu), copper (I) oxide (Cu2O), and copper (II) oxide (CuO) as a test case for developing a model metal oxide catalyst amenable to study by the methods of modern surface science and catalysis. Copper was deposited and oxidized on oxidized supports of aluminum, silicon, molybdenum, tantalum, stainless steel, and iron as well as on graphite. The catalytic activity was found to decrease with increasing oxidation state (Cu > Cu2O > CuO) and the activation energy increased with increasing oxidation state (Cu, 9 kcal/mol < Cu2O, 14 kcal/mol < CuO, 17 kcal/mol). Reaction mechanisms were determined for the different oxidation states. Lastly, NO reduction by CO was studied. A Cu and CuO catalyst were exposed to an equal mixture of CO and NO at 300--350 C to observe the production of N2 and CO2. At the end of each reaction, the catalyst was found to be Cu2O. There is a need to study the kinetics of this reaction over the different oxidation states of copper.

  20. Adaptation of intertidal biofilm communities is driven by metal ion and oxidative stresses

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Weipeng

    2013-11-11

    Marine organisms in intertidal zones are subjected to periodical fluctuations and wave activities. To understand how microbes in intertidal biofilms adapt to the stresses, the microbial metagenomes of biofilms from intertidal and subtidal zones were compared. The genes responsible for resistance to metal ion and oxidative stresses were enriched in both 6-day and 12-day intertidal biofilms, including genes associated with secondary metabolism, inorganic ion transport and metabolism, signal transduction and extracellular polymeric substance metabolism. In addition, these genes were more enriched in 12-day than 6-day intertidal biofilms. We hypothesize that a complex signaling network is used for stress tolerance and propose a model illustrating the relationships between these functions and environmental metal ion concentrations and oxidative stresses. These findings show that bacteria use diverse mechanisms to adapt to intertidal zones and indicate that the community structures of intertidal biofilms are modulated by metal ion and oxidative stresses.

  1. Electrochemical activity of heavy metal oxides in the process of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alloys and Steels Volume 25 Issue 5 October 2002 pp 371-373 ... The influence of heavy metal oxides on the chloride induced corrosion of steel reinforcement in concrete was studied. ... Institute of Construction and Architecture of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 842 20 Bratislava, Slovak Republic ...

  2. Metal Oxides as Efficient Charge Transporters in Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Haque, Mohammed

    2017-07-10

    Over the past few years, hybrid halide perovskites have emerged as a highly promising class of materials for photovoltaic technology, and the power conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has accelerated at an unprecedented pace, reaching a record value of over 22%. In the context of PSC research, wide-bandgap semiconducting metal oxides have been extensively studied because of their exceptional performance for injection and extraction of photo-generated carriers. In this comprehensive review, we focus on the synthesis and applications of metal oxides as electron and hole transporters in efficient PSCs with both mesoporous and planar architectures. Metal oxides and their doped variants with proper energy band alignment with halide perovskites, in the form of nanostructured layers and compact thin films, can not only assist with charge transport but also improve the stability of PSCs under ambient conditions. Strategies for the implementation of metal oxides with tailored compositions and structures, and for the engineering of their interfaces with perovskites will be critical for the future development and commercialization of PSCs.

  3. Metal complexes of substituted Gable porphyrins as oxidation catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, James E.; Ellis, Jr., Paul E.; Wagner, Richard W.

    1996-01-01

    Transition metal complexes of Gable porphyrins having two porphyrin rings connected through a linking group, and having on the porphyrin rings electron-withdrawing groups, such as halogen, nitro or cyano. These complexes are useful as catalysts for the oxidation of organic compounds, e.g. alkanes.

  4. Metal-free oxidative coupling of thiols to disulfides using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 123; Issue 4. Metal-free oxidative coupling of thiols to disulfides using guanidinium nitrate or nitro urea in the presence of silica sulfuric acid. Arash Ghorbani-Choghamarani Mohsen Nikoorazm Hamid Goudarziafshar Alireza Shokr Hosein Almasi. Volume 123 Issue 4 ...

  5. Nanostructured Metal Oxides for Stoichiometric Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Janos, P.; Skoumal, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 236, č. 2016 (2016), s. 239-258 ISSN 0179-5953 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/1116 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : chemical warfare agent * metal nanoparticle * unique surface-chemistry * mesoporous manganese oxide Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.930, year: 2016

  6. A novel parameter estimation method for metal oxide surge arrester ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Accurate modelling and exact determination of Metal Oxide (MO) surge arrester parameters are very important for arrester allocation, insulation coordination studies and systems reliability calculations. In this paper, a new technique, which is the combination of Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization (APSO) and Ant Colony ...

  7. Metal oxide blended ZSM-5 nanocomposites as ethanol sensors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nano-ZSM-5 is synthesized without organic template via microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique. The synthesized nano-ZSM-5 zeolite is blended with metal oxides (ZnO and TiO 2 ) to have novel composites as ethanol sensors. The composites are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared ...

  8. Anti-Oxidative, Metal Chelating and Radical Scavenging Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate protein hydrolysates and membrane ultrafiltration fractions of blue-spotted stingray for metal chelating and radical scavenging activities, as well as protection against oxidative protein damage. Methods: Stingray protein isolates were hydrolysed with alcalase, papain and trypsin for 3 h. Alcalase.

  9. Metal oxide/polyaniline nanocomposites: Cluster size and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    report preliminary results on the magnetic properties of self standing sheets prepared using γ-Fe2O3 and. NiFe2O4 nanoparticles and conducting polymers. Keywords. Metal oxide/polyaniline nanocomposites; structural properties; magnetic properties. 1. Introduction. The diverse properties of magnetic nanoparticle systems.

  10. Single-photon imaging in complementary metal oxide semiconductor processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charbon, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the basics of single-photon counting in complementary metal oxide semiconductors, through single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs), and the making of miniaturized pixels with photon-counting capability based on SPADs. Some applications, which may take advantage of SPAD image

  11. A review of liquid metal anode solid oxide fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIYA TOLEUOVA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses recent advances in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC variant that uses liquid metal electrodes (anodes with the advantage of greater fuel tolerance and the ability to operate on solid fuel. Key features of the approach are discussed along with the technological and research challenges that need to be overcome for scale-up and commercialisation.

  12. Metal oxide blended ZSM-5 nanocomposites as ethanol sensors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ges quality monitoring, environmental monitoring, indoor air quality and breath analysis [16]. It is due to the great demand in diverse fields, that the search for new ethanol sensor mate- rials is still needed. Literature survey reveals the sparseness in research based on metal oxide blended zeolite gas sensors. Hence in this ...

  13. A comparative analysis of metal transportomes from metabolically versatile Pseudomonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigue Agnes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of complete genome sequences of versatile Pseudomonas occupying remarkably diverse ecological niches enabled to gain insights into their adaptative assets. The objective of this study was to analyze the complete genetic repertoires of metal transporters (metal transportomes from four representative Pseudomonas species and to identify metal transporters with "Genomic Island" associated features. Methods A comparative metal transporter inventory was built for the following four Pseudomonas species: P.putida (Ppu KT2440, P.aeruginosa (Pae PA01, P.fluorescens (Pfl Pf-5 and P.syringae (Psypv.tomato DC3000 using TIGR-CMR and Transport DB. Genomic analysis of essential and toxic metal ion transporters was accomplished from the above inventory. Metal transporters with "Genomic Island" associated features were identified using Islandpath analysis. Results Dataset cataloguing has been executed for 262 metal transporters from the four spp. Additional metal ion transporters belonging to NiCoT, Ca P-type ATPase, Cu P-type ATPases, ZIP and MgtC families were identified. In Psy DC3000, 48% of metal transporters showed strong GI features while it was 45% in Ppu KT2440. In Pfl Pf-5 and Pae PA01 only 26% of their metal transporters exhibited GI features. Conclusion Our comparative inventory of 262 metal transporters from four versatile Pseudomonas spp is the complete suite of metal transportomes analysed till date in a prokaryotic genus. This study identified differences in the basic composition of metal transportomes from Pseudomonas occupying diverse ecological niches and also elucidated their novel features. Based on this inventory we analysed the role of horizontal gene transfer in expansion and variability of metal transporter families.

  14. Experimental Investigations on the Influence of Adhesive Oxides on the Metal-Ceramic Bond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Enghardt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to test the influence of selected base metals, which act as oxide formers, on the metal-ceramic bond of dental veneer systems. Using ion implantation techniques, ions of Al, In and Cu were introduced into near-surface layers of a noble metal alloy containing no base metals. A noble metal alloy with base metals added for oxide formation was used as a reference. Both alloys were coated with a low-temperature fusing dental ceramic. Specimens without ion implantation or with Al2O3 air abrasion were used as controls. The test procedures comprised the Schwickerath shear bond strength test (ISO 9693-1, profile height (surface roughness measurements (ISO 4287; ISO 4288; ISO 25178, scanning electron microscopy (SEM imaging, auger electron spectroscopy (AES and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX. Ion implantation resulted in no increase in bond strength. The highest shear bond strengths were achieved after oxidation in air and air abrasion with Al2O3 (41.5 MPa and 47.8 MPa respectively. There was a positive correlation between shear bond strength and profile height. After air abrasion, a pronounced structuring of the surface occurred compared to ion implantation. The established concentration shifts in alloy and ceramic could be reproduced. However, their positive effects on shear bond strength were not confirmed. The mechanical bond appears to be of greater importance for metal-ceramic bonding.

  15. Actinomycetes-mediated biogenic synthesis of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles: progress and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimaran, M; Kannabiran, K

    2017-06-01

    Actinomycetes-mediated biogenic synthesis of metal nanoparticles and their antimicrobial activities are well documented. Actinomycetes facilitate both intracellular and extracellular metal nanoparticles synthesis and are efficient candidates for the production of polydispersed, stable and ultra-small size metal nanoparticles. Secondary metabolites and new chemical entities derived from Actinomycetes have not been extensively studied for the synthesis of metal/metal oxide nanoparticles. The present review focuses on biogenic synthesis of metal nanoparticles from Actinomycetes and the scope for exploring Actinomycetes-derived compounds (enzymes, organics acids and bioactive compounds) as metal and metal oxide reducing agents for the synthesis of desired nanoparticles. This review also focuses on challenges faced in the applications of nanoparticles and the methods to synthesize biogenic metal nanoparticles with desired physiochemical properties such as ultra-small size, large surface to mass ratio, high reactivity etc. Methods to evade their toxicity and unique interactions with biological systems to improve their chance as an alternative therapeutic agent in medical and pharmaceutical industry are also discussed. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors for flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Luisa; Münzenrieder, Niko; Vogt, Christian; Faber, Hendrik; Büthe, Lars; Cantarella, Giuseppe; Bottacchi, Francesca; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.; Tröster, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    The field of flexible electronics has rapidly expanded over the last decades, pioneering novel applications, such as wearable and textile integrated devices, seamless and embedded patch-like systems, soft electronic skins, as well as imperceptible and transient implants. The possibility to revolutionize our daily life with such disruptive appliances has fueled the quest for electronic devices which yield good electrical and mechanical performance and are at the same time light-weight, transparent, conformable, stretchable, and even biodegradable. Flexible metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors (TFTs) can fulfill all these requirements and are therefore considered the most promising technology for tomorrow's electronics. This review reflects the establishment of flexible metal oxide semiconductor TFTs, from the development of single devices, large-area circuits, up to entirely integrated systems. First, an introduction on metal oxide semiconductor TFTs is given, where the history of the field is revisited, the TFT configurations and operating principles are presented, and the main issues and technological challenges faced in the area are analyzed. Then, the recent advances achieved for flexible n-type metal oxide semiconductor TFTs manufactured by physical vapor deposition methods and solution-processing techniques are summarized. In particular, the ability of flexible metal oxide semiconductor TFTs to combine low temperature fabrication, high carrier mobility, large frequency operation, extreme mechanical bendability, together with transparency, conformability, stretchability, and water dissolubility is shown. Afterward, a detailed analysis of the most promising metal oxide semiconducting materials developed to realize the state-of-the-art flexible p-type TFTs is given. Next, the recent progresses obtained for flexible metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic circuits, realized with both unipolar and complementary technology, are reported. In particular

  17. Metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors for flexible electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, Luisa; Vogt, Christian; Büthe, Lars; Cantarella, Giuseppe; Tröster, Gerhard [Electronics Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich (Switzerland); Münzenrieder, Niko [Electronics Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich (Switzerland); Sensor Technology Research Centre, University of Sussex, Falmer (United Kingdom); Faber, Hendrik; Bottacchi, Francesca; Anthopoulos, Thomas D. [Department of Physics and Centre for Plastic Electronics, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    The field of flexible electronics has rapidly expanded over the last decades, pioneering novel applications, such as wearable and textile integrated devices, seamless and embedded patch-like systems, soft electronic skins, as well as imperceptible and transient implants. The possibility to revolutionize our daily life with such disruptive appliances has fueled the quest for electronic devices which yield good electrical and mechanical performance and are at the same time light-weight, transparent, conformable, stretchable, and even biodegradable. Flexible metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors (TFTs) can fulfill all these requirements and are therefore considered the most promising technology for tomorrow's electronics. This review reflects the establishment of flexible metal oxide semiconductor TFTs, from the development of single devices, large-area circuits, up to entirely integrated systems. First, an introduction on metal oxide semiconductor TFTs is given, where the history of the field is revisited, the TFT configurations and operating principles are presented, and the main issues and technological challenges faced in the area are analyzed. Then, the recent advances achieved for flexible n-type metal oxide semiconductor TFTs manufactured by physical vapor deposition methods and solution-processing techniques are summarized. In particular, the ability of flexible metal oxide semiconductor TFTs to combine low temperature fabrication, high carrier mobility, large frequency operation, extreme mechanical bendability, together with transparency, conformability, stretchability, and water dissolubility is shown. Afterward, a detailed analysis of the most promising metal oxide semiconducting materials developed to realize the state-of-the-art flexible p-type TFTs is given. Next, the recent progresses obtained for flexible metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic circuits, realized with both unipolar and complementary technology, are reported. In

  18. Platinum redispersion on metal oxides in low temperature fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripković, Vladimir; Cerri, Isotta; Nagami, Tetsuo; Bligaard, Thomas; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2013-03-07

    We have analyzed the aptitude of several metal oxide supports (TiO(2), SnO(2), NbO(2), ZrO(2), SiO(2), Ta(2)O(5) and Nb(2)O(5)) to redisperse platinum under electrochemical conditions pertinent to the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) cathode. The redispersion on oxide supports in air has been studied in detail; however, due to different operating conditions it is not straightforward to link the chemical and the electrochemical environment. The largest differences reflect in (1) the oxidation state of the surface (the oxygen species coverage), (2) temperature and (3) the possibility of platinum dissolution at high potentials and the interference of redispersion with normal working potential of the PEMFC cathode. We have calculated the PtO(x) (x = 0, 1, 2) adsorption energies on different metal oxides' surface terminations as well as inside the metal oxides' bulk, and we have concluded that NbO(2) might be a good support for platinum redispersion at PEMFC cathodes.

  19. Adhesive, abrasive and oxidative wear in ion-implanted metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1985-01-01

    Ion implantation is increasingly being used to provide wear resistance in metals and cemented tungsten carbides. Field trials and laboratory tests indicate that the best performance is achieved in mild abrasive wear. This can be understood in terms of the classification of wear modes (adhesive, abrasive, oxidative etc.) introduced by Burwell. Surface hardening and work hardenability are the major properties to be enhanced by ion implantation. The implantation of nitrogen or dual implants of metallic and interstitial species are effective. Recently developed techniques of ion-beam-enhanced deposition of coatings can further improve wear resistance by lessening adhesion and oxidation. In order to support such hard coatings, ion implantation of nitrogen can be used as a preliminary treatment. There is thus emerging a versatile group of related hard vacuum treatments involving intense beams of nitrogen ions for the purpose of tailoring metal surfaces to resist wear. (Auth.)

  20. Electrocatalytic Applications of Graphene–Metal Oxide Nanohybrid Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halder, Arnab; Zhang, Minwei; Chi, Qijin

    2016-01-01

    of cutting-edge developments in graphene–metal oxide nanohybrid materials, with the recently reported results from worldwide research groups. This chapter is presented first with an introduction, followed by synthetic meth‐ ods and structural characterization of nanocomposites, an emphasis......Development of state-of-the-art electrocatalysts using commercially available precursors with low cost is an essential step in the advancement of next-generation electrochemical energy storage/conversion systems. In this regard, noble metal-free and graphene-sup‐ ported nanocomposites...... of graphenebased composite materials, graphene–metal oxide nanohybrids hold great promise to‐ ward engineering efficient electrocatalysts and have attracted increasing interest in both scientific communities and industrial partners around the world. The goal of this chapter is primarily set on an overview...

  1. Low-Temperature UV-Assisted Fabrication of Metal Oxide Thin Film Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuanglin

    Solution processed metal oxide semiconductors have attracted intensive attention in the last several decades and have emerged as a promising candidate for the application of thin film transistor (TFT) due to their nature of transparency, flexibility, high mobility, simple processing technique and potential low manufacturing cost. However, metal oxide thin film fabricated by solution process usually requires a high temperature (over 300 °C), which is above the glass transition temperature of some conventional polymer substrates. In order to fabricate the flexible electronic device on polymer substrates, it is necessary to find a facile approach to lower the fabrication temperature and minimize defects in metal oxide thin film. In this thesis, the electrical properties dependency on temperature is discussed and an UV-assisted annealing method incorporating Deep ultraviolet (DUV)-decomposable additives is demonstrated, which can effectively improve electrical properties solution processed metal oxide semiconductors processed at temperature as low as 220 °C. By studying a widely used indium oxide (In2O3) TFT as a model system, it is worth noted that compared with the sample without UV treatment, the linear mobility and saturation mobility of UV-annealing sample are improved by 56% and 40% respectively. Meanwhile, the subthreshold swing is decreased by 32%, indicating UV-treated device could turn on and off more efficiently. In addition to pure In2O3 film, the similar phenomena have also been observed in indium oxide based Indium-Gallium-Zinc Oxide (IGZO) system. These finding presented in this thesis suggest that the UV assisted annealing process open a new route to fabricate high performance metal oxide semiconductors under low temperatures.

  2. Volatile organometallic complexes suitable for use in chemical vapor depositions on metal oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giolando, Dean M.

    2003-09-30

    Novel ligated compounds of tin, titanium, and zinc are useful as metal oxide CVD precursor compounds without the detriments of extreme reactivity yet maintaining the ability to produce high quality metal oxide coating by contact with heated substrates.

  3. Propane Dehydrogenation on Metal and Metal Oxide Catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sattler, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    In this PhD thesis, the catalytic performance and deactivation of various propane dehydrogenation catalysts is studied. First of all, a literature study is performed, where the three most commonly used formulations, namely Pt-, CrOx- and GaOx-based catalysts are compared in terms of yield relative

  4. Biomarkers of oxidative stress in the land snail, Theba pisana for assessing ecotoxicological effects of urban metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, M A; El-Gendy, K S; Gad, A F

    2010-03-01

    This study investigates the biomarkers of oxidative stress and heavy metal accumulation for assessing ecotoxicological effects of urban metal pollution in Alexandria city, Egypt. This investigation was performed in the digestive gland of roadside Theba pisana snails obtained from six different sites in the city. Relationships between heavy metal (Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd) concentrations and oxidative stress indicators were also examined. The results showed that mean concentrations of the measured elements (mugg(-1) dry weight) were higher in polluted sites when compared to the background levels of the reference site. The pattern of metals accumulation at all sites was Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd. In the metal polluted sites, snails displayed higher mean of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, lower reduced glutathione (GSH) content and higher levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) compared to snails from the reference site. All oxidative stress parameters were positively correlated to heavy metal concentrations except GSH content which exhibits negative correlation with the concentrations of these metals. Our results suggest that the tested antioxidant defenses are sensitive parameters that could be useful as oxidative stress biomarkers in snails exposed to the actual metals in the environment. These biomarkers when complemented with metal accumulation in the digestive gland of snails may provide a powerful biomonitor for the assessment of environmental metal pollution. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of temperature, solvent and nature of metal cations on the potentiometric titration S of iron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasleem, S.; Ishrat, B.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the potentiometric titrations of iron oxide in the presence of CU/sub 2/ and Mg/sup 2/ were under taken under different experimental conditions of temperature and concentration of metal ions in aqueous and aqueous/organic mixed solvent. The adsorption of both the metal ions were observed to increase with the increase in pH and temperature of the system. The adsorbent iron oxide preferentially adsorbs transition metal as compared to alkaline earth metal ion. (author)

  6. Insertion compounds of transition-metal and uranium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chippindale, A.M.; Dickens, P.G.; Powell, A.V.

    1991-01-01

    Several transition-metal and actinide oxides, in which the metal occurs in a high oxidation state, have open covalent structures and are capable of incorporating alkali and other electropositive metals under mild conditions to form insertion compounds A x MO n . These are solids which have several features in common: Over a range of compositions, A x MO n exists as one or more stable or metastable phases in which the structure of the parent oxide MO n is largely retained and the insertion element A is accommodated interstitially. Insertion is accompanied by a redox process A=A i . + e - M in which M is reduced and the electronic properties of the parent oxide change to those typical of a mixed-valence compound. The insertion process xA + MO n = A x MO n can be reversed, at least to some extent, by chemical or electrochemical reaction, with retention of structure (topotactic reaction). This review concentrates on methods of synthesis, characterisation, crystal structure and thermochemistry of these insertion compounds. It updates and extends previous work. (author)

  7. Environment-dependent photochromism of silver nanoparticles interfaced with metal-oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Shencheng; Sun, Shiyu; Zhang, Xintong; Zhang, Cen; Zhao, Xiaoning; Liu, Yichun

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We prepared silver/mental-oxide nanocomposite films by physical sputtering technology to investigate the environment-dependent photo-dissolution of silver nanoparticles. • We built up an airtight and in situ monitorable system to measure photochromism of different films in various atmospheres. • Silver nanoparticles were found to be more easily photo-dissolved on the n-type metal oxide films compared with that on the p-type one, conductor and insulator. • Oxygen and humidity were verified to accelerate the photochromism of silver nanoparticles. - Abstract: Different metal-oxide films were fabricated by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Further, a layer of silver nanoparticles (NPs) was deposited on the surface of the substrate by physical sputtering. Photochromism of the silver/metal-oxide nanocomposite films were investigated in situ under the irradiation of a linearly-polarized green laser beam (532 nm). Silver NPs were found to be easily photo-dissolved on the n-type metal-oxide films. By changing experimental conditions, it was also verified that both oxygen and humidity accelerate the photochromism of silver NPs. The corresponding micro-mechanism on charge separation and Ag + -ions mobility was also discussed. These results provided theoretical basis for the application of silver NPs in biological, chemical and medical areas.

  8. Increasing the solar cell power output by coating with transition metal-oxide nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, I.A.; Greenfield, M.J.; Mehta, Y.U.; Merchan-Merchan, W.; Salkar, G.; Saveliev, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Nanoparticles enhance solar cell efficiency. → Solar cell power increase by nanorod coating. → Metal-oxide nanorods are prepared in flames. → Molybdenum oxide nanorods effectively scatter light on solar cell surface. → Scattering efficiency depends on coating density. -- Abstract: Photovoltaic cells produce electric current through interactions among photons from an ambient light source and electrons in the semiconductor layer of the cell. However, much of the light incident on the panel is reflected or absorbed without inducing the photovoltaic effect. Transition metal-oxide nanoparticles, an inexpensive product of a process called flame synthesis, can cause scattering of light. Scattering can redirect photon flux, increasing the fraction of light absorbed in the thin active layer of silicon solar cells. This research aims to demonstrate that the application of transition metal-oxide nanorods to the surface of silicon solar panels can enhance the power output of the panels. Several solar panels were coated with a nanoparticle-methanol suspension, and the power outputs of the panels before and after the treatment were compared. The results demonstrate an increase in power output of up to 5% after the treatment. The presence of metal-oxide nanorods on the surface of the coated solar cells is confirmed by electron microscopy.

  9. Chemically synthesized metal-oxide-metal segmented nanowires with high ferroelectric response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herderick, Edward D; Padture, Nitin P [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Center for Emergent Materials, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Polomoff, Nicholas A; Huey, Bryan D, E-mail: padture.1@osu.edu [Department of Chemical, Materials, and Biomolecular Engineering, Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

    2010-08-20

    A chemical synthesis method is presented for the fabrication of high-definition segmented metal-oxide-metal (MOM) nanowires in two different ferroelectric oxide systems: Au-BaTiO{sub 3}-Au and Au-PbTiO{sub 3}-Au. This method entails electrodeposition of segmented nanowires of Au-TiO{sub 2}-Au inside anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, followed by topotactic hydrothermal conversion of the TiO{sub 2} segments into BaTiO{sub 3} or PbTiO{sub 3} segments. Two-terminal devices from individual MOM nanowires are fabricated, and their ferroelectric properties are measured directly, without the aid of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) methods. The MOM nanowire architecture provides high-quality end-on electrical contacts to the oxide segments, and allows direct measurement of properties of nanoscale volume, strain-free oxide segments. Unusually high ferroelectric responses, for chemically synthesized oxides, in these MOM nanowires are reported, and are attributed to the lack of residual strain in the oxides. The ability to measure directly the active properties of nanoscale volume, strain-free oxides afforded by the MOM nanowire architecture has important implications for fundamental studies of not only ferroelectric nanostructures but also nanostructures in the emerging field of multiferroics.

  10. Study of the tunnelling initiated leakage current through the carbon nanotube embedded gate oxide in metal oxide semiconductor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Gargi; Sarkar, C K; Lu, X B; Dai, J Y

    2008-01-01

    The tunnelling currents through the gate dielectric partly embedded with semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes in a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure have been investigated. The application of the gate voltage to such an MOS device results in the band bending at the interface of the partly embedded oxide dielectric and the surface of the silicon, initiating tunnelling through the gate oxide responsible for the gate leakage current whenever the thickness of the oxide is scaled. A model for silicon MOS structures, where carbon nanotubes are confined in a narrow layer embedded in the gate dielectric, is proposed to investigate the direct and the Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunnelling currents of such systems. The idea of embedding such elements in the gate oxide is to assess the possibility for charge storage for memory device applications. Comparing the FN tunnelling onset voltage between the pure gate oxide and the gate oxide embedded with carbon nanotubes, it is found that the onset voltage decreases with the introduction of the nanotubes. The direct tunnelling current has also been studied at very low gate bias, for the thin oxide MOS structure which plays an important role in scaling down the MOS transistors. The FN tunnelling current has also been studied with varying nanotube diameter

  11. Study of the tunnelling initiated leakage current through the carbon nanotube embedded gate oxide in metal oxide semiconductor structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Gargi; Sarkar, C K; Lu, X B; Dai, J Y

    2008-06-25

    The tunnelling currents through the gate dielectric partly embedded with semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes in a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure have been investigated. The application of the gate voltage to such an MOS device results in the band bending at the interface of the partly embedded oxide dielectric and the surface of the silicon, initiating tunnelling through the gate oxide responsible for the gate leakage current whenever the thickness of the oxide is scaled. A model for silicon MOS structures, where carbon nanotubes are confined in a narrow layer embedded in the gate dielectric, is proposed to investigate the direct and the Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunnelling currents of such systems. The idea of embedding such elements in the gate oxide is to assess the possibility for charge storage for memory device applications. Comparing the FN tunnelling onset voltage between the pure gate oxide and the gate oxide embedded with carbon nanotubes, it is found that the onset voltage decreases with the introduction of the nanotubes. The direct tunnelling current has also been studied at very low gate bias, for the thin oxide MOS structure which plays an important role in scaling down the MOS transistors. The FN tunnelling current has also been studied with varying nanotube diameter.

  12. 40 CFR 721.5315 - Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5315 Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance... nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide. (PMN P-02-90) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  13. Conductive transition metal oxide nanostructured electrochromic material and optical switching devices constructed thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattox, Tracy M.; Koo, Bonil; Garcia, Guillermo; Milliron, Delia J.; Trizio, Luca De; Dahlman, Clayton

    2017-10-10

    An electrochromic device includes a nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze layer that includes one or more transition metal oxide and one or more dopant, a solid state electrolyte, and a counter electrode. The nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze selectively modulates transmittance of near-infrared (NIR) spectrum and visible spectrum radiation as a function of an applied voltage to the device.

  14. The nature of transition-metal-oxide surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, V. E.

    The surfaces of the 3d-transition-metal oxides form a rich and important system in which to study the effects of atomic geometry, ligand coordination and d-orbital population on surface electronic structure and chemisorption. This article considers the properties of those surfaces in terms of the types of surface structures that can exist, including steps and point defects, and their relation to the experimental data that is available for well characterized, single-crystal surfaces. The electronic structure of nearly perfect surfaces is very similar to that of the bulk for many of the oxides that have been studied; atoms at step sites also appear to have properties similar to those of atoms on terraces. Point defects are often associated with surfaces 0 vacancies and attendant transfer of electrons to adjacent metal cations. Those cations are poorly screened from each other, and the excess charge is presumably shared between two or more cations having reduced ligand coordination. Point defects are generally more active for chemisorption than are perfect surfaces, however for Ti 2O 3 and V 2O 3, whose cations have 3d 1 and 3d 2 electronic configurations respectively, the cleaved (047) surface is more active than are surfaces having a high density of defects. The chemisorption behavior of both nearly perfect and defect surfaces of 3d-transition-metal oxides varies widely from one material to another, and it is suggestive to correlate this with cation d-orbital population. However, too few oxides have yet been studied to draw any firm conclusions. Additional theoretical work on perfect surfaces, defects and chemisorption is also necessary in order to gain a more complete understanding of transition-metal-oxide surfaces.

  15. Influence of uranium hydride oxidation on uranium metal behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, N.; Hambley, D.; Clarke, S.A.; Simpson, K.

    2013-01-01

    This work addresses concerns that the rapid, exothermic oxidation of active uranium hydride in air could stimulate an exothermic reaction (burning) involving any adjacent uranium metal, so as to increase the potential hazard arising from a hydride reaction. The effect of the thermal reaction of active uranium hydride, especially in contact with uranium metal, does not increase in proportion with hydride mass, particularly when considering large quantities of hydride. Whether uranium metal continues to burn in the long term is a function of the uranium metal and its surroundings. The source of the initial heat input to the uranium, if sufficient to cause ignition, is not important. Sustained burning of uranium requires the rate of heat generation to be sufficient to offset the total rate of heat loss so as to maintain an elevated temperature. For dense uranium, this is very difficult to achieve in naturally occurring circumstances. Areas of the uranium surface can lose heat but not generate heat. Heat can be lost by conduction, through contact with other materials, and by convection and radiation, e.g. from areas where the uranium surface is covered with a layer of oxidised material, such as burned-out hydride or from fuel cladding. These rates of heat loss are highly significant in relation to the rate of heat generation by sustained oxidation of uranium in air. Finite volume modelling has been used to examine the behaviour of a magnesium-clad uranium metal fuel element within a bottle surrounded by other un-bottled fuel elements. In the event that the bottle is breached, suddenly, in air, it can be concluded that the bulk uranium metal oxidation reaction will not reach a self-sustaining level and the mass of uranium oxidised will likely to be small in relation to mass of uranium hydride oxidised. (authors)

  16. PHENOL OXIDATION USING NATURAL ZEOLITE SUPPORTED METAL ION CATALYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wardhani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Phenol which contained in waste water has to be reduced and it could be done by oxygen oxidation.  In order to increase the rate of reaction it was needed a catalyst. In this research the capability of various catalysts, namely zeolite-Zn(II, zeolite-Cu(II and zeolite-Co(IIin oxidation of phenol has been investigated. The aim of this research was to study the type of metal ion catalyst towards the percentage of oxidated phenol. The oxidation process were carried out in an aqueous phenol of 100 ppm with oxygen flow rate of 200 mL/min. in the presence of catalysts with 0.2M of initial impregnation concentration. The capabilities of catalysts were performed by calculating the activation energy and it was done at two different temperatures, i.e. 70 and 90 oC. The percentage of oxidated phenol was determinated by measuring its concentration using UV-VIS spectrophotometer. In addition, the impregnated metal was calculated by measuring the ion concentration remains in the filtrate solution and it was determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results showed that metal ion types affected the catalytic activity. The order of phenol oxidationactivity decreased as Co(II > Cu(II > Zn(II. The surface characteristics of catalysts were supported by pore volume and pore diameter i.e 0.009 cm3/g and 16.59 Å for Zn(II whereas specific surface area was 10.32 m2/g for Zn(II, 0.004 cm3/g and 24.37 Å for Cu(II whereas specific surface area was 3.57 m2/g for Cu(II, 0.001 cm3/g and 19.63 Å for Co(II whereas specific surface area was 10.26m2/g for Co(II.   Keywords: phenol,natural zeolite, catalyst, oxidation

  17. Ceria doped mixed metal oxide nanoparticles as oxidation catalysts: Synthesis and their characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Sultana, S.S.P.; Kishore, D.H.V.; Kuniyil, Mufsir; Khan, Mujeeb; Alwarthan, Abdulrahman; Prasad, K.R.S.; Labis, Joselito P.; Adil, S.F.

    2015-01-01

    Mixed metal nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted significant attention as catalysts for various organic transformations. In this study, we have demonstrated the preparation of nickel–manganese mixed metal oxide NPs doped with X% nano cerium oxide (X = 1, 3, 5 mol%) by a facile co-precipitation technique using surfactant and surfactant free methodologies. The as-synthesized materials were calcined at different temperatures (300 °C, 400 °C, and 500 °C), and were characterized using various spectr...

  18. Ball lightning from atmospheric discharges via metal nanosphere oxidation: from soils, wood or metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, John

    2002-01-15

    The slow (diffusion-limited) oxidation of metal nanoparticles has previously been proposed as the mechanism for ball lightning energy release, and argued to be the result of a normal lightning strike on soil. Here this basic model of networked nanoparticles is detailed further, and extended to lightning strikes on metal structures, and also to the action of other storm-related discharges or man-made discharges. The basic model predicted the important properties of "average" observed ball lightning, and the extension in this paper also covers high-energy examples of ball lightning. Laboratory checks of the theory are described, and predictions given of what conditions are necessary for observing ball lightning in the laboratory. Key requirements of the model are a sheltered region near the strike foot and starting materials which can generate a metal vapour under intensive heating, including soil, wood or a metal structure. The evolution of hydrocarbons (often plastics) along with metal vapour can ensure the local survival of the metal vapour even in an oxidizing atmosphere. Subsequent condensation of this vapour to metallic nanoparticles in networks provides the coherence of a ball structure, which also releases light over an extended time. Also discussed is the passage of ball lightning through a sheet of building material, including glass, and its occasional charring of flesh on close contact.

  19. Structure-Reactivity Relationships in Multi-Component Transition Metal Oxide Catalysts FINAL Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, Eric I. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2015-10-06

    The focus of the project was on developing an atomic-level understanding of how transition metal oxide catalysts function. Over the course of several renewals the specific emphases shifted from understanding how local structure and oxidation state affect how molecules adsorb and react on the surfaces of binary oxide crystals to more complex systems where interactions between different transition metal oxide cations in an oxide catalyst can affect reactivity, and finally to the impact of cluster size on oxide stability and reactivity. Hallmarks of the work were the use of epitaxial growth methods to create surfaces relevant to catalysis yet tractable for fundamental surface science approaches, and the use of scanning tunneling microscopy to follow structural changes induced by reactions and to pinpoint adsorption sites. Key early findings included the identification of oxidation and reduction mechanisms on a tungsten oxide catalyst surface that determine the sites available for reaction, identification of C-O bond cleavage as the rate limiting step in alcohol dehydration reactions on the tungsten oxide surface, and demonstration that reduction does not change the favored reaction pathway but rather eases C-O bond cleavage and thus reduces the reaction barrier. Subsequently, a new reconstruction on the anatase phase of TiO2 relevant to catalysis was discovered and shown to create sites with distinct reactivity compared to other TiO2 surfaces. Building on this work on anatase, the mechanism by which TiO2 enhances the reactivity of vanadium oxide layers was characterized and it was found that the TiO2 substrate can force thin vanadia layers to adopt structures they would not ordinarily form in the bulk which in turn creates differences in reactivity between supported layers and bulk samples. From there, the work progressed to studying well-defined ternary oxides where synergistic effects between the two cations can induce

  20. Magnetic preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Donald W.; Dunlap, Bobby D.; Veal, Boyd W.

    1990-01-01

    A superconductor comprised of a polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-X (where 0material permits the use of an applied magnetic field to orient the individual crystals when in the superconducting state to substantially increase current transport between adjacent grains. In another embodiment, the anisotropic paramagnetic susceptibility of rare-earth ions substituted into the oxide material is made use of as an applied magnetic field orients the particles in a preferential direction. This latter operation can be performed with the material in the normal (non-superconducting) state.

  1. Transport phenomena of aluminium oxide in metal halide lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, S; Markus, T [Institute for Energy Research, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Niemann, U [Philips GmbH, Research Laboratories, PO Box 500145, Aachen, D-52085 (Germany)], E-mail: s.fischer@fz-juelich.de

    2008-07-21

    A better understanding of the transport phenomena observed in metal halide lamps can be achieved using computer-based model calculations. The chemical transport of aluminium oxide in advanced high-pressure discharge vessels was calculated as a function of temperature and composition of the salt mixture relevant to the lamp. Below 1773 K chemical transport is the prevailing process; above this temperature the vaporization and condensation of the envelope material-aluminium oxide-become more important. The results of the calculations show that the amount of transported alumina increases linearly with the number of iteration cycles and exponentially with the temperature gradient.

  2. Converged G W quasiparticle energies for transition metal oxide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergönenc, Zeynep; Kim, Bongjae; Liu, Peitao; Kresse, Georg; Franchini, Cesare

    2018-02-01

    The ab initio calculation of quasiparticle (QP) energies is a technically and computationally challenging problem. In condensed matter physics, the most widely used approach to determine QP energies is the G W approximation. Although the G W method has been widely applied to many typical semiconductors and insulators, its application to more complex compounds such as transition metal oxide perovskites has been comparatively rare, and its proper use is not well established from a technical point of view. In this work, we have applied the single-shot G0W0 method to a representative set of transition metal oxide perovskites including 3 d (SrTiO3, LaScO3, SrMnO3, LaTiO3, LaVO3, LaCrO3, LaMnO3, and LaFeO3), 4 d (SrZrO3, SrTcO3, and Ca2RuO4 ), and 5 d (SrHfO3, KTaO3, and NaOsO3) compounds with different electronic configurations, magnetic orderings, structural characteristics, and band gaps ranging from 0.1 to 6.1 eV. We discuss the proper procedure to obtain well-converged QP energies and accurate band gaps within single-shot G0W0 by comparing the conventional approach based on an incremental variation of a specific set of parameters (number of bands, energy cutoff for the plane-wave expansion and number of k points) and the basis-set extrapolation scheme [J. Klimeš et al., Phys. Rev. B 90, 075125 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.075125]. Although the conventional scheme is not supported by a formal proof of convergence, for most cases it delivers QP energies in reasonably good agreement with those obtained by the basis-set correction procedure and it is by construction more useful for calculating band structures. In addition, we have inspected the difference between the adoption of norm-conserving and ultrasoft potentials in G W calculations and found that the norm violation for the d shell can lead to less accurate results in particular for charge-transfer systems and late transition metals. A minimal statistical analysis indicates that the correlation of the G W data

  3. Photocatalytic degradation and sorption of methylene blue on the surface of metal oxides in aqueous solutions of the dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, V. M.; Evstrop'ev, S. K.; Starodubtsev, A. M.

    2017-11-01

    The photocatalytic activity of some metal oxides and sulfides, as well of C60 fullerene, is compared using the method of photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue simultaneously with comparison of the efficiency of methylene blue adsorption on solid-phase powders of these oxides, sulfides, and fullerene in aqueous solution of the dye in the absence of irradiation.

  4. Antimicrobial Activity of Nitric Oxide-Releasing Ti-6Al-4V Metal Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reger, Nina A.; Meng, Wilson S.; Gawalt, Ellen S.

    2017-01-01

    Titanium and titanium alloy materials are commonly used in joint replacements, due to the high strength of the materials. Pathogenic microorganisms can easily adhere to the surface of the metal implant, leading to an increased potential for implant failure. The surface of a titanium-aluminum-vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V) metal oxide implant material was functionalized to deliver an small antibacterial molecule, nitric oxide. S-nitroso-penicillamine, a S-nitrosothiol nitric oxide donor, was covalently immobilized on the metal oxide surface using self-assembled monolayers. Infrared spectroscopy was used to confirm the attachment of the S-nitrosothiol donor to the Ti-Al-4V surface. Attachment of S-nitroso-penicillamine resulted in a nitric oxide (NO) release of 89.6 ± 4.8 nmol/cm2 under physiological conditions. This low concentration of nitric oxide reduced Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis growth by 41.5 ± 1.2% and 25.3 ± 0.6%, respectively. Combining the S-nitrosothiol releasing Ti-6Al-4V with tetracycline, a commonly-prescribed antibiotic, increased the effectiveness of the antibiotic by 35.4 ± 1.3%, which allows for lower doses of antibiotics to be used. A synergistic effect of ampicillin with S-nitroso-penicillamine-modified Ti-6Al-4V against S. epidermidis was not observed. The functionalized Ti-6Al-4V surface was not cytotoxic to mouse fibroblasts. PMID:28635681

  5. Efficient photocarrier injection in a transition metal oxide heterostructure

    CERN Document Server

    Muraoka, Y; Ueda, Y; Hiroi, Z

    2002-01-01

    An efficient method for doping a transition metal oxide (TMO) with hole carriers is presented: photocarrier injection (PCI) in an oxide heterostructure. It is shown that an insulating vanadium dioxide (VO sub 2) film is rendered metallic under light irradiation by PCI from an n-type titanium dioxide (TiO sub 2) substrate doped with Nb. Consequently, a large photoconductivity, which is exceptional for TMOs, is found in the VO sub 2 /TiO sub 2 :Nb heterostructure. We propose an electronic band structure where photoinduced holes created in TiO sub 2 :Nb can be transferred into the filled V 3d band via the low-lying O 2p band of VO sub 2. (letter to the editor)

  6. Synthesis of metal-metal oxide catalysts and electrocatalysts using a metal cation adsorption/reduction and adatom replacement by more noble ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzic, Radoslav; Vukmirovic, Miomir; Sasaki, Kotaro

    2010-04-27

    The invention relates to platinum-metal oxide composite particles and their use as electrocatalysts in oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells. The invention particularly relates to methods for preventing the oxidation of the platinum electrocatalyst in the cathodes of fuel cells by use of these platinum-metal oxide composite particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for producing electrical energy by supplying such a fuel cell with an oxidant, such as oxygen, and a fuel source, such as hydrogen. The invention also relates to methods of making the metal-metal oxide composites.

  7. Oxidation behavior of metallic interconnect in solid oxide fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhang, Wenying; Yang, Jiajun; Yan, Dong; Pu, Jian; Chi, Bo; Jian, Li

    2017-06-01

    Oxidation behavior of integrated interconnect with bipolar plate and corrugated sheet made by ferrite steel SUS430 is investigated and compared in simulated environment and in a realistic stack. Electrical current is found to have a direction-related impact on the thickness of the Cr2O3/MnCr2O4 composite oxide scale. Oxide scale of the interconnect aged in the stack exhibits a dual-layered structure of a complex Mn-Cr oxide layer covered by iron oxide. The oxidation rates vary greatly depending on its local environment, with different thermal, electrical density, as well as gas composition conditions. By analyzing the thickness distribution of oxide scale and comparing them with the simulated test result, the oxidation behavior of interconnect in stack is described in high definition. ASR distribution is also conducted by calculation, which could help further understanding the behavior of stack degradation.

  8. High voltage measurements on metal-oxide surge arresters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yli-Aeyhoe, S. [Tampere University of Technology (Finland). High Voltage Laboratory

    2000-07-01

    Metal-oxide surge arresters (MOA) are used to prevent damages caused by overvoltages and currents. Because of the function of MOAs they have to be tested with high voltage and with high current. The aim of this seminar paper is to give some information how MOAs can be tested in laboratory circumstances and on- site. Few new test methods are introduced as well. (orig.)

  9. Methanol Oxidation on Model Elemental and Bimetallic Transition Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tritsaris, G. A.; Rossmeisl, J.

    2012-01-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells are a key enabling technology for clean energy conversion. Using density functional theory calculations, we study the methanol oxidation reaction on model electrodes. We discuss trends in reactivity for a set of monometallic and bimetallic transition metal surfaces, flat...... sites on the surface and to screen for novel bimetallic surfaces of enhanced activity. We suggest platinum copper surfaces as promising anode catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells....

  10. Metal oxide-encapsulated dye-sensitized photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Joseph T.; Son, Ho-Jin

    2016-01-12

    Dye-sensitized semiconducting metal oxide films for photoanodes, photoanodes incorporating the films and DSCs incorporating the photoanodes are provided. Also provided are methods for making the dye sensitized semiconducting metal oxide films. The methods of making the films are based on the deposition of an encapsulating layer of a semiconducting metal oxide around the molecular anchoring groups of photosensitizing dye molecules adsorbed to a porous film of the semiconducting metal oxide. The encapsulating layer of semiconducting metal oxide is formed in such a way that it is not coated over the chromophores of the adsorbed dye molecules and, therefore, allows the dye molecules to remain electrochemically addressable.

  11. High performance supercapacitors using metal oxide anchored graphene nanosheet electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan

    2011-01-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles were chemically anchored onto graphene nanosheets (GNs) and the resultant composites - SnO2/GNs, MnO2/GNs and RuO2/GNs (58% of GNs loading) - coated over conductive carbon fabric substrates were successfully used as supercapacitor electrodes. The results showed that the incorporation of metal oxide nanoparticles improved the capacitive performance of GNs due to a combination of the effect of spacers and redox reactions. The specific capacitance values (with respect to the composite mass) obtained for SnO2/GNs (195 F g-1) and RuO 2/GNs (365 F g-1) composites at a scan rate of 20 mV s-1 in the present study are the best ones reported to date for a two electrode configuration. The resultant supercapacitors also exhibited high values for maximum energy (27.6, 33.1 and 50.6 W h kg-1) and power densities (15.9, 20.4 and 31.2 kW kg-1) for SnO2/GNs, MnO2/GNs and RuO2/GNs respectively. These findings demonstrate the importance and great potential of metal oxide/GNs based composite coated carbon fabric in the development of high-performance energy-storage systems. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Metal inhibition on the reactivity of manganese dioxide toward organic contaminant oxidation in relation to metal adsorption and ionic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Wang, Zhuopu; Chen, Yang; He, Anfei; Li, Jianliang; Sheng, G Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Coexisting metal ions may significantly inhibit the oxidative reactivity of manganese oxides toward organic contaminants in metal-organic multi-pollutant waters. While the metal inhibition on the oxidation of organic contaminants by manganese oxides has previously been reported, the extent of the inhibition in relation to metal properties has not been established. Six alkali, alkaline, and transition metals, as well as two testing metals were evaluated for their abilities to inhibit the reactivity of birnessite. Regardless of the pathways of phenol and diuron oxidation (polymerization vs. breakdown), the extent of metal inhibition depended mainly on the metal itself and its concentration. The observed metal inhibition efficiency followed the order of Mn 2+  > Co 2+  > Cu 2+  > Al 3+  > Mg 2+  > K + , consistent with metal adsorption on birnessite. The first-order organic oxidation rate constant (k obs ) was linearly negatively correlated with metal adsorption (q e ) on birnessite. These observations demonstrated that the metal inhibition efficiency was determined by metal adsorption on birnessite. The slopes of the k obs -q e varied among metals and followed the order of K +  > Ca 2+  > Mg 2+  > Mn 2+  > Cd 2+  > Co 2+  > Cu 2+  > Al 3+ . These slopes defined intrinsic inhibitory abilities of metals. As metals were adsorbed hydrated on birnessite, the intrinsic inhibitory ability was significantly linearly correlated with ionic potentials of metals, leading to a single straight line. Metals with multiple d electrons in the outermost orbit with polarizing energy that promotes hydrolysis sat slightly below the line, and vice versa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Oxidation of limonene catalyzed by Metal(Salen complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Lima

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The compound R-(+limonene is available and cheap than its oxidized products. Consequently, the selective oxidation of R(+limonene has attracted attention as a promising process for the production of compounds with a higher market value, such as cis/trans-1,2-limoneneoxide, cis/trans-carveol and/or carvone. One of the these processes, described in the recent literature, is submission of R-(+limonene to an oxidation reaction catalyzed by neutral or cationic Metal(Salen complexes, in the presence of effective terminal oxidants such as NaOCl or PhIO. These reactions are commonly carried out in organic solvents (dichromethane, ethyl acetate, acetonitrile or acetone. Thus, the main objective of the present work was to study the effect of several factors (type of oxidant, catalyst, solvent and time on reaction selectivity for the high-priced compounds referred to above. For this purposes, experimental statistical multivariate analysis was used in conjunction with a complete experimental design. From the results it was observed that for the three targeted products (1,2-limoneneoxide, carveol or carvone some factors, including the nature of the terminal oxidant and the catalyst, were significant for product selectivity (with a confidence level of 95%. Therefore, this statistical analysis proved to be suitable for choosing of the best reaction conditions for a specific desired product.

  14. Hydrocracking and hydroisomerization of long-chain alkanes and polyolefins over metal-promoted anion-modified transition metal oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesh, Koppampatti R.; Hu, Jianli; Tierney, John W.; Wender, Irving

    1996-12-01

    A method is described for cracking a feedstock by contacting the feedstock with a metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst in the presence of hydrogen gas. The metal oxide of the catalyst is one or more of ZrO{sub 2}, HfO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2}, and the feedstock is principally chains of at least 20 carbon atoms. The metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst contains one or more of Pt, Ni, Pd, Rh, Ir, Ru, (Mn and Fe) or mixtures of them present between about 0.2% to about 15% by weight of the catalyst. The metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst contains one or more of SO{sub 4}, WO{sub 3}, or mixtures of them present between about 0.5% to about 20% by weight of the catalyst.

  15. Metal oxide semiconductors for dye degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikari, Sangeeta; Sarkar, Debasish, E-mail: dsarkar@nitrkl.ac.in

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Hydrothermal synthesis of monoclinic and hexagonal WO{sub 3} nanostructures. • Nanocuboid and nanofiber growth using different structure directing agents. • WO{sub 3}–ZnO nanocomposites for dye degradation under UV and visible light. • High photocatalytic efficiency is achieved by 10 wt% monoclinic WO{sub 3}. • WO{sub 3} assists to trap hole in UV and arrests electron in visible light irradiation. - Abstract: Organic contaminants are a growing threat to the environment that widely demands their degradation by high efficient photocatalysts. Thus, the proposed research work primely focuses on the efficient degradation of methyl orange using designed WO{sub 3}–ZnO photocatalysts under both UV and visible light irradiation. Two different sets of WO{sub 3} nanostructures namely, monoclinic WO{sub 3} (m-WO{sub 3}) and hexagonal WO{sub 3} (h-WO{sub 3}) synthesizes in presence of a different structure directing agents. A specific dispersion technique allows the intimate contact of as-synthesized WO{sub 3} and ultra-violet active commercial ZnO photocatalyst in different weight variations. ZnO nanocrystal in presence of an optimum 10 wt% m-WO{sub 3} shows a high degree of photocatalytic activity under both UV and visible light irradiation compared to counterpart h-WO{sub 3}. Symmetrical monoclinic WO{sub 3} assists to trap hole in UV, but electron arresting mechanism predominates in visible irradiation. Coupling of monoclinic nanocuboid WO{sub 3} with ZnO proves to be a promising photocatalyst in both wavelengths.

  16. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy of transition metal based water oxidation catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oversteeg, Christina H M; Doan, Hoang Q; de Groot, Frank M F; Cuk, Tanja

    2017-01-03

    X-ray absorption studies of the geometric and electronic structure of primarily heterogeneous Co, Ni, and Mn based water oxidation catalysts are reviewed. The X-ray absorption near edge and extended X-ray absorption fine structure studies of the metal K-edge, characterize the metal oxidation state, metal-oxygen bond distance, metal-metal distance, and degree of disorder of the catalysts. These properties guide the coordination environment of the transition metal oxide radical that localizes surface holes and is required to oxidize water. The catalysts are investigated both as-prepared, in their native state, and under reaction conditions, while transition metal oxide radicals are generated. The findings of many experiments are summarized in tables. The advantages of future X-ray experiments on water oxidation catalysts, which include the limited data available of the oxygen K-edge, metal L-edge, and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering, are discussed.

  17. Thermodynamic properties of some metal oxide-zirconia systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.

    1989-01-01

    Metal oxide-zirconia systems are a potential class of materials for use as structural materials at temperatures above 1900 K. These materials must have no destructive phase changes and low vapor pressures. Both alkaline earth oxide (MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO)-zirconia and some rare earth oxide (Y2O3, Sc2O3, La2O3, CeO2, Sm2O3, Gd2O3, Yb2O3, Dy2O3, Ho2O3, and Er2O3)-zirconia system are examined. For each system, the phase diagram is discussed and the vapor pressure for each vapor species is calculated via a free energy minimization procedure. The available thermodynamic literature on each system is also surveyed. Some of the systems look promising for high temperature structural materials.

  18. Ceria doped mixed metal oxide nanoparticles as oxidation catalysts: Synthesis and their characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S.P. Sultana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mixed metal nanoparticles (NPs have attracted significant attention as catalysts for various organic transformations. In this study, we have demonstrated the preparation of nickel–manganese mixed metal oxide NPs doped with X% nano cerium oxide (X = 1, 3, 5 mol% by a facile co-precipitation technique using surfactant and surfactant free methodologies. The as-synthesized materials were calcined at different temperatures (300 °C, 400 °C, and 500 °C, and were characterized using various spectroscopic techniques, including, FTIR and XRD. SEM analysis, TEM analysis and TGA were employed to evaluate the structural properties of the as-prepared catalyst. These were evaluated for their catalytic behaviour towards the conversion of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde, which was used as a model reaction with molecular oxygen as oxidant. Furthermore, the effect of the variation of the percentage of nano ceria doping and the calcination temperature on the performance of as-prepared mixed metal catalysts was also evaluated. The kinetic studies of the reactions performed employing gas chromatographic technique have revealed that the mixed metal oxide catalyst doped with 5% nano ceria displayed excellent catalytc activity, among various catalysts synthesized.

  19. Biogenic precipitation of manganese oxides and enrichment of heavy metals at acidic soil pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayanna, Sathish; Peacock, Caroline L.; Schäffner, Franziska; Grawunder, Anja; Merten, Dirk; Kothe, Erika; Büchel, Georg

    2014-05-01

    The precipitation of biogenic Mn oxides at acidic pH is rarely reported and poorly understood, compared to biogenic Mn oxide precipitation at near neutral conditions. Here we identified and investigated the precipitation of biogenic Mn oxides in acidic soil, and studied their role in the retention of heavy metals, at the former uranium mining site of Ronneburg, Germany. The site is characterized by acidic pH, low carbon content and high heavy metal loads including rare earth elements. Specifically, the Mn oxides were present in layers identified by detailed soil profiling and within these layers pH varied from 4.7 to 5.1, Eh varied from 640 to 660 mV and there were enriched total metal contents for Ba, Ni, Co, Cd and Zn in addition to high Mn levels. Using electron microprobe analysis, synchrotron X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we identified poorly crystalline birnessite (δ-MnO2) as the dominant Mn oxide in the Mn layers, present as coatings covering and cementing quartz grains. With geochemical modelling we found that the environmental conditions at the site were not favourable for chemical oxidation of Mn(II), and thus we performed 16S rDNA sequencing to isolate the bacterial strains present in the Mn layers. Bacterial phyla present in the Mn layers belonged to Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, and from these phyla we isolated six strains of Mn(II) oxidizing bacteria and confirmed their ability to oxidise Mn(II) in the laboratory. The biogenic Mn oxide layers act as a sink for metals and the bioavailability of these metals was much lower in the Mn layers than in adjacent layers, reflecting their preferential sorption to the biogenic Mn oxide. In this presentation we will report our findings, concluding that the formation of natural biogenic poorly crystalline birnessite can occur at acidic pH, resulting in the formation of a biogeochemical barrier which, in turn, can control the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals in

  20. Metal oxides modified NiO catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane to ethylene

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Haibo

    2014-06-01

    The sol-gel method was applied to the synthesis of Zr, Ti, Mo, W, and V modified NiO based catalysts for the ethane oxidative dehydrogenation reaction. The synthesized catalysts were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption, SEM and TPR techniques. The results showed that the doping metals could be highly dispersed into NiO domains without the formation of large amount of other bulk metal oxide. The modified NiO materials have small particle size, larger surface area, and higher reduction temperature in contrast to pure NiO. The introduction of group IV, V and VI transition metals into NiO decreases the catalytic activity in ethane ODH. However, the ethylene selectivity is enhanced with the highest level for the Ni-W-O and Ni-Ti-O catalysts. As a result, these two catalysts show improved efficiency of ethylene production in the ethane ODH reaction. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A General Route for Growing Metal Sulfides onto Graphene Oxide and Exfoliated Graphite Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Joana L; Estrada, Ana C; Fateixa, Sara; Ferro, Marta; Trindade, Tito

    2017-08-31

    Graphene-based materials are elective materials for a number of technologies due to their unique properties. Also, semiconductor nanocrystals have been extensively explored due to their size-dependent properties that make them useful for several applications. By coupling both types of materials, new applications are envisaged that explore the synergistic properties in such hybrid nanostructures. This research reports a general wet chemistry method to prepare graphene oxide (GO) sheets decorated with nanophases of semiconductor metal sulfides. This method allows the in situ growth of metal sulfides onto GO by using metal dialkyldithiocarbamate complexes as single-molecule precursors. In particular, the role of GO as heterogeneous substrate for the growth of semiconductor nanocrystals was investigated by using Raman spectroscopic and imaging methods. The method was further extended to other graphene-based materials, which are easily prepared in a larger scale, such as exfoliated graphite oxide (EGO).

  2. Solution combustion synthesis of metal oxide nanomaterials for energy storage and conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fa-tang; Ran, Jingrun; Jaroniec, Mietek; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2015-11-14

    The design and synthesis of metal oxide nanomaterials is one of the key steps for achieving highly efficient energy conversion and storage on an industrial scale. Solution combustion synthesis (SCS) is a time- and energy-saving method as compared with other routes, especially for the preparation of complex oxides which can be easily adapted for scale-up applications. This review summarizes the synthesis of various metal oxide nanomaterials and their applications for energy conversion and storage, including lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen and methane production, fuel cells and solar cells. In particular, some novel concepts such as reverse support combustion, self-combustion of ionic liquids, and creation of oxygen vacancies are presented. SCS has some unique advantages such as its capability for in situ doping of oxides and construction of heterojunctions. The well-developed porosity and large specific surface area caused by gas evolution during the combustion process endow the resulting materials with exceptional properties. The relationship between the structural properties of the metal oxides studied and their performance is discussed. Finally, the conclusions and perspectives are briefly presented.

  3. Metal/metal oxide doped oxide catalysts having high deNOx selectivity for lean NOx exhaust aftertreatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Paul W.

    2004-03-16

    A lean NOx catalyst and method of preparing the same is disclosed. The lean NOx catalyst includes a ceramic substrate, an oxide support material, preferably .gamma.-alumina, deposited on the substrate and a metal promoter or dopant introduced into the oxide support material. The metal promoters or dopants are selected from the group consisting of indium, gallium, tin, silver, germanium, gold, nickel, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chromium, cerium, vanadium, oxides thereof, and combinations thereof. The .gamma.-alumina preferably has a pore volume of from about 0.5 to about 2.0 cc/g; a surface area of between about 80 to 350 m.sup.2 /g; an average pore size diameter of between about 3 to 30 nm; and an impurity level of less than or equal to 0.2 weight percent. In a preferred embodiment the .gamma.-alumina is prepared by a sol-gel method, with the metal doping of the .gamma.-alumina preferably accomplished using an incipient wetness impregnation technique.

  4. The crystal chemistry of inorganic metal borohydrides and their relation to metal oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černý, Radovan; Schouwink, Pascal

    2015-12-01

    The crystal structures of inorganic homoleptic metal borohydrides are analysed with respect to their structural prototypes found amongst metal oxides in the inorganic databases such as Pearson's Crystal Data [Villars & Cenzual (2015). Pearson's Crystal Data. Crystal Structure Database for Inorganic Compounds, Release 2014/2015, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, USA]. The coordination polyhedra around the cations and the borohydride anion are determined, and constitute the basis of the structural systematics underlying metal borohydride chemistry in various frameworks and variants of ionic packing, including complex anions and the packing of neutral molecules in the crystal. Underlying nets are determined by topology analysis using the program TOPOS [Blatov (2006). IUCr CompComm. Newsl. 7, 4-38]. It is found that the Pauling rules for ionic crystals apply to all non-molecular borohydride crystal structures, and that the latter can often be derived by simple deformation of the close-packed anionic lattices c.c.p. and h.c.p., by partially removing anions and filling tetrahedral or octahedral sites. The deviation from an ideal close packing is facilitated in metal borohydrides with respect to the oxide due to geometrical and electronic considerations of the BH4(-) anion (tetrahedral shape, polarizability). This review on crystal chemistry of borohydrides and their similarity to oxides is a contribution which should serve materials engineers as a roadmap to design new materials, synthetic chemists in their search for promising compounds to be prepared, and materials scientists in understanding the properties of novel materials.

  5. Metal and Metal Oxide Interactions and Their Catalytic Consequences for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Qingying; Ghoshal, Shraboni; Li, Jingkun; Liang, Wentao; Meng, Guangnan [ULVAC Technologies, Inc., 401; Che, Haiying [Shanghai; Zhang, Shiming [Shanghai; Ma, Zi-Feng [Shanghai; Mukerjee, Sanjeev

    2017-06-01

    Many industrial catalysts are composed of metal particles supported on metal oxides (MMO). It is known that the catalytic activity of MMO materials is governed by metal and metal oxide interactions (MMOI), but how to optimize MMO systems via manipulation of MMOI remains unclear, due primarily to the ambiguous nature of MMOI. Herein, we develop a Pt/NbOx/C system with tunable structural and electronic properties via a modified arc plasma deposition method. We unravel the nature of MMOI by characterizing this system under reactive conditions utilizing combined electrochemical, microscopy, and in situ spectroscopy. We show that Pt interacts with the Nb in unsaturated NbOx owing to the oxygen deficiency in the MMO interface, whereas Pt interacts with the O in nearly saturated NbOx, and further interacts with Nb when the oxygen atoms penetrate into the Pt cluster at elevated potentials. While the Pt–Nb interactions do not benefit the inherent activity of Pt toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), the Pt–O interactions improve the ORR activity by shortening the Pt–Pt bond distance. Pt donates electrons to NbOx in both Pt–Nb and Pt–O cases. The resultant electron efficiency stabilizes low-coordinated Pt sites, hereby stabilizing small Pt particles. This determines the two characteristic features of MMO systems: dispersion of small metal particles and high catalytic durability. These findings contribute to our understandings of MMO catalytic systems.

  6. Rational synthesis of multifunctional mixed metal oxides by hydrothermal techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampler, Evan Scott

    Low temperature (oxide chalcogenides, hexagonal rare-earth manganites, and silver delafossites with mixed cations on the B-site. These materials are of particular interest because they combine multiple functional properties, such as transparency and conductivity, or magnetism and ferroelectricity, in a single-phase material, thus enabling innovative technological applications. Phase-pure products were achieved by the appropriate combination of starting reagents, pH, and reaction temperature to control the solubility of the reactants. Phase-pure BiCuOS and BiCuOSe have been synthesized in high yield by a single-step hydrothermal reaction at low temperature (250°C) and pressure (oxidation of sulfide and selenide. BiCuOS (Eg = 1.09 eV) and BiCuOSe (Eg = 0.75 eV) have smaller band gaps compared to the p-type transparent conductor LaCuOS (Eg = 3.1 eV) but have significantly higher room temperature conductivities (sigma ≈ 0.08 S cm-1 and 3.3 S cm-1, respectively). The high molar solubility of Mn2O3 ([Mn 3+] ≈ 10-3 M) and the slightly amphoteric character of the late rare-earth sesquioxides were exploited in the hydrothermal synthesis of rare-earth manganites, LnMnO3 (Ln=Ho-Lu and Y). While alkaline conditions were necessary for the solubilization of manganese, a reaction temperature approximately 50°C above the transition temperature of the respective rare-earth trihydroxide (100-300°C) accelerated the transition to the more reactive and soluble rare-earth oxide hydroxide and the subsequent reaction to yield the LnMnO3 phase. The high solubility of Ag2O, [Ag+] ≈ 10 -2.5 M, enabled the synthesis of two new silver delafossite solid solutions with the formulae AgAl1-xGaxO2 and AgSc1-xInxO2 and five mixed B-site silver delafossites with the formulae AgBe0.5Ti0.5O2, AgMg0.5Ti0.5O2, AgNi0.5Ti 0.5O2, AgCu0.5Ti0.5O2, and AgZn0.5Ti0.5O2 at a reaction temperature of 210°C. The former were observed when the solubilities of both B-site trivalent cations were ≥ 10-5 M and

  7. [Synthesis and characterization of mixed metal oxide pigments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jie; Yue, Shi-juan; Liu, Cui-ge; Wei, Yong-ju; Meng, Tao; Jiang, Han-jie; Shi, Yong-zheng; Xu, Yi-zhuang; Yu, Jiang; Wu, Jin-guang

    2012-03-01

    In the present work, aluminum chloride and various soluble salts of doping ions were dissolved in water. In addition, urea and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) were also dissolved in the above aqueous solution under supersonic treatments. Then the solutions were heated to induce the hydrolysis of urea so that soluble aluminum and doping ions convert into insoluble hydroxide or carbonate gels. After calcinations, the obtained gels change to mixed metal oxide pigments whose color is related to type and concentrations of the doping ions. XRD characterization demonstrates that the diffraction patterns of the products are the same as that of alpha-alumina. Diffuse reflectance spectra of samples of the samples in UV-Vis regions show that the absorption bands for d-d transitions of the doping ions undergo considerable change as the coordinate environments change. In addition, L*, a* and b* values of the pigments were measured by using UV-Vis densitometer. SEM results indicate that the size of the pigment powders is in the range 200-300 nm. The pigments are quite stable since no evidence of dissolution was observed after the synthesized pigment is soaked for 24 hours. ICP test shows that very little amount of doped metal occurs in the corresponding filtrate. The above results suggest that these new kinds of mixed metal oxide pigments are stable, non-toxic, environmental friendly and they may be applicable in molten spinning process and provide a new chance for non-aqueous printing and dyeing industry.

  8. Metal oxide multilayer hard mask system for 3D nanofabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhongmei; Salmi, Emma; Vehkamäki, Marko; Leskelä, Markku; Ritala, Mikko

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate the preparation and exploitation of multilayer metal oxide hard masks for lithography and 3D nanofabrication. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) and focused ion beam (FIB) technologies are applied for mask deposition and mask patterning, respectively. A combination of ALD and FIB was used and a patterning procedure was developed to avoid the ion beam defects commonly met when using FIB alone for microfabrication. ALD grown Al2O3/Ta2O5/Al2O3 thin film stacks were FIB milled with 30 keV gallium ions and chemically etched in 5% tetramethylammonium hydroxide at 50 °C. With metal evaporation, multilayers consisting of amorphous oxides Al2O3 and Ta2O5 can be tailored for use in 2D lift-off processing, in preparation of embedded sub-100 nm metal lines and for multilevel electrical contacts. Good pattern transfer was achieved by lift-off process from the 2D hard mask for micro- and nano-scaled fabrication. As a demonstration of the applicability of this method to 3D structures, self-supporting 3D Ta2O5 masks were made from a film stack on gold particles. Finally, thin film resistors were fabricated by utilizing controlled stiction of suspended Ta2O5 structures.

  9. Process for producing metal oxide kernels and kernels so obtained

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelievre, Bernard; Feugier, Andre.

    1974-01-01

    The process desbribed is for producing fissile or fertile metal oxide kernels used in the fabrication of fuels for high temperature nuclear reactors. This process consists in adding to an aqueous solution of at least one metallic salt, particularly actinide nitrates, at least one chemical compound capable of releasing ammonia, in dispersing drop by drop the solution thus obtained into a hot organic phase to gel the drops and transform them into solid particles. These particles are then washed, dried and treated to turn them into oxide kernels. The organic phase used for the gel reaction is formed of a mixture composed of two organic liquids, one acting as solvent and the other being a product capable of extracting the anions from the metallic salt of the drop at the time of gelling. Preferably an amine is used as product capable of extracting the anions. Additionally, an alcohol that causes a part dehydration of the drops can be employed as solvent, thus helping to increase the resistance of the particles [fr

  10. Metal oxide films on glass and steel substrates

    CERN Document Server

    Sohi, A M

    1987-01-01

    in the pH8 electrolyte supports the view that the rate limiting reduction reaction is possibly oxygen (or water) reduction although some contribution from an organic 'impurity' cannot be ruled out. Coatings of Fe sub 3 O sub 4 on mild steel have been prepared by CVD using pneumatic spraying techniques and the corrosion behaviour of coated electrodes in organic-phosphate electrolyte (pH8) has been examined. A variety of thin (10-1000nm) metal oxide films have been deposited on flat glass substrates by the pyrolysis of an aerosol of metal acetylacetonates in a suitable carrier. The optical characteristics and thickness of the films have been measured and particular interest has centered on the use of a novel pin on disc apparatus to measure the physical durability of such thin films. Characteristic friction/penetration force traces have been established for 1st Series transition metal oxide films and some ranking in terms of 'hardness' established. The use of SnO sub 2 - coated glass for electrodes in a light m...

  11. Vanadium removal by metal (hydr)oxide adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, A; Westerhoff, P; Mustafa, S

    2007-04-01

    Vanadium is listed on the United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) candidate contaminant list # 2 (CCL2), and regulatory guidelines for vanadium exist in some US states. The USEPA requires treatability studies before making regulatory decisions on CCL2 contaminants. Previous studies have examined vanadium adsorption onto some metal hydroxides but not onto commercially available adsorbents. This paper briefly summarizes known vanadium occurrence in North American groundwater and assesses vanadium removal by three commercially available metal oxide adsorbents with different mineralogies. GTO (Dow) is TiO2 based and E-33 (Seven Trents) and GFH (US Filter) are iron based. Preliminary vanadate adsorption kinetics onto GFH, E-33 and GTO has been studied and the homogenous surface diffusion model (HSDM) is used to describe the adsorption kinetics data. The effects of pH, vanadium concentration, and volume/mass ratio are assessed. Vanadium adsorption decreases with increasing pH, with maximum adsorption capacities achieved in at pH 3-4. Results indicate that all adsorbents remove vanadium; GFH has the highest adsorption capacity, followed by GTO and E-33. Data are best fit with the Langmuir model rather than Freundlich isotherms. Both the sorption maxima (Xm) and binding energy constant (b) follow the trend GFH>GTO>E-33. Naturally occurring vanadium is also removed from Arizona ground water in rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCTs). Metal oxide adsorption technologies currently used for arsenic removal may also remove vanadium but not always with the same effectiveness.

  12. Study on uranium metallization yield of spent Pressurized Water Reactor fuels and oxidation behavior of fission products in uranium metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ke Chon; Lee, Chang Heon; Kim, Won Ho

    2003-01-01

    Metallization yield of uranium oxide to uranium metal from lithium reduction process of spent Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuels was measured using thermogravimetric analyzer. A reduced metal produced in the process was divided into a solid and a powder part, and each metallization yield was measured. Metallization yield of the solid part was 90.7∼95.9 wt%, and the powder being 77.8∼71.5 wt% individually. Oxidation behaviour of the quarternary alloy was investigated to take data on the thermal oxidation stability necessary for the study on dry storage of the reduced metal. At 600∼700 .deg. C, weight increments of allow of No, Ru, Rh and Pd was 0.40∼0.55 wt%. Phase change on the surface of the allow was started at 750 .deg. C. In particular, Mo was rapidly oxidized and then the alloy lost 0.76∼25.22 wt% in weight

  13. Systematic study of ligand structures of metal oxide EUV nanoparticle photoresists

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Jing

    2015-03-19

    Ligand stabilized metal oxide nanoparticle resists are promising candidates for EUV lithography due to their high sensitivity for high-resolution patterning and high etching resistance. As ligand exchange is responsible for the patterning mechanism, we systematically studied the influence of ligand structures of metal oxide EUV nanoparticles on their sensitivity and dissolution behavior. ZrO2 nanoparticles were protected with various aromatic ligands with electron withdrawing and electron donating groups. These nanoparticles have lower sensitivity compared to those with aliphatic ligands suggesting the structures of these ligands is more important than their pka on resist sensitivity. The influence of ligand structure was further studied by comparing the nanoparticles’ solubility for a single type ligand to mixtures of ligands. The mixture of nanoparticles showed improved pattern quality. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  14. High performance metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells with Gd-doped ceria barrier layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemensø, Trine; Nielsen, Jimmi; Blennow Tullmar, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells are believed to have commercial advantages compared to conventional anode (Ni–YSZ) supported cells, with the metal-supported cells having lower material costs, increased tolerance to mechanical and thermal stresses, and lower operational temperatures...... at 650 °C and 0.6 V, were obtained on cells with barrier layers fabricated by magnetron sputtering. The performance is dependent on the density of the barrier layer, indicating Sr2+ diffusion is occurring at the intermediate SOFC temperatures. The optimized design further demonstrate improved durability...

  15. High temperature oxidation of metals: vacancy injection and consequences on the mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perusin, S.

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this work is to account for the effects of the high temperature oxidation of metals on their microstructure and their mechanical properties. 'Model' materials like pure nickel, pure iron and the Ni-20Cr alloy are studied. Nickel foils have been oxidised at 1000 C on one side only in laboratory air, the other side being protected from oxidation by a reducing atmosphere. After the oxidation treatment, the unoxidized face was carefully examined by using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). Grain boundaries grooves were characterised and their depth were compared to the ones obtained on the same sample heat treated in the reducing atmosphere during the same time. They are found to be much deeper in the case of the single side oxidised samples. It is shown that this additional grooving is directly linked to the growth of the oxide scale on the opposite side and that it can be explained by the diffusion of the vacancies produced at the oxide scale - metal interface, across the entire sample through grain boundaries. Moreover, the comparison between single side oxidised samples and samples oxidised on both sides points out that voids in grain boundaries are only observed in this latter case proving the vacancies condensation in the metal when the two faces are oxidised. The role of the carbon content and the sample's geometry on this phenomenon is examined in detail. The diffusion of vacancies is coupled with the transport of oxygen so that a mechanism of oxygen transport by vacancies is suggested. The tensile tests realised at room temperature on nickel foils (bamboo microstructure) show that the oxide scale can constitute a barrier to the emergence of dislocations at the metal surface. Finally, the Ni-20Cr alloy is tested in tensile and creep tests between 25 and 825 C in oxidising or reducing atmospheres. (author)

  16. Microwave-assisted one-pot synthesis of metal/metal oxide nanoparticles on graphene and their electrochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuangyin; Jiang San Ping; Wang Xin

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: → Microwave polyol method is efficient to deposit nanoparticles on graphene. → SnO 2 /graphene is more efficient than graphene for supercapacitor. → PtRu/graphene is more active than commercial PtRu/C for methanol oxidation. - Abstract: An effective synthesis strategy of hybrid metal (PtRu)/metal oxide (SnO 2 ) nanoparticles on graphene nanocomposites is developed using a microwave-assisted one-pot reaction process. The mixture of ethylene glycol (EG) and water is used as both solvent and reactant. In the reaction system for the synthesis of SnO 2 /graphene nanocomposite, EG not only reduces graphene oxide (GO) to graphene, but also results in the formation of SnO 2 facilitated by the presence of a small amount of water. On the other hand, in the reaction system for preparation of PtRu/graphene nanocomposites, EG acts as solvent and reducing agent for reduction of PtRu nanoparticles from their precursors and reduction of graphene from graphene oxide. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterizations confirm the feasibility of the microwave-assisted reaction system to simultaneously reduce graphene oxide and to form SnO 2 or PtRu nanoparticles. The as-synthesized SnO 2 /graphene hybrid composites show a much higher supercapacitance than the pure graphene, and the as-prepared PtRu/graphene show much better electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation compared to the commercial E-TEK PtRu/C electrocatalysts.

  17. Pure and multi metal oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, antibacterial and cytotoxic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankic, Slavica; Suman, Sneha; Haque, Francia; Vidic, Jasmina

    2016-10-24

    Th antibacterial activity of metal oxide nanoparticles has received marked global attention as they can be specifically synthesized to exhibit significant toxicity to bacteria. The importance of their application as antibacterial agents is evident keeping in mind the limited range and effectiveness of antibiotics, on one hand, and the plethora of metal oxides, on the other, along with the propensity of nanoparticles to induce resistance being much lower than that of antibiotics. Effective inhibition against a wide range of bacteria is well known for several nano oxides consisting of one metal (Fe 3 O 4 , TiO 2 , CuO, ZnO), whereas, research in the field of multi-metal oxides still demands extensive exploration. This is understandable given that the relationship between physicochemical properties and biological activity seems to be complex and difficult to generalize even for metal oxide nanoparticles consisting of only one metal component. Also, despite the broad scope that metal oxide nanoparticles have as antibacterial agents, there arise problems in practical applications taking into account the cytotoxic effects. In this respect, the consideration of polymetallic oxides for biological applications becomes even greater since these can provide synergetic effects and unify the best physicochemical properties of their components. For instance, strong antibacterial efficiency specific of one metal oxide can be complemented by non-cytotoxicity of another. This review presents the main methods and technological advances in fabrication of nanostructured metal oxides with a particular emphasis to multi-metal oxide nanoparticles, their antibacterial effects and cytotoxicity.

  18. Planar Indium Tin Oxide Heater for Improved Thermal Distribution for Metal Oxide Micromachined Gas Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, M Cihan; Çalışkan, Deniz; Bütün, Bayram; Özbay, Ekmel

    2016-09-29

    Metal oxide gas sensors with integrated micro-hotplate structures are widely used in the industry and they are still being investigated and developed. Metal oxide gas sensors have the advantage of being sensitive to a wide range of organic and inorganic volatile compounds, although they lack selectivity. To introduce selectivity, the operating temperature of a single sensor is swept, and the measurements are fed to a discriminating algorithm. The efficiency of those data processing methods strongly depends on temperature uniformity across the active area of the sensor. To achieve this, hot plate structures with complex resistor geometries have been designed and additional heat-spreading structures have been introduced. In this work we designed and fabricated a metal oxide gas sensor integrated with a simple square planar indium tin oxide (ITO) heating element, by using conventional micromachining and thin-film deposition techniques. Power consumption-dependent surface temperature measurements were performed. A 420 °C working temperature was achieved at 120 mW power consumption. Temperature distribution uniformity was measured and a 17 °C difference between the hottest and the coldest points of the sensor at an operating temperature of 290 °C was achieved. Transient heat-up and cool-down cycle durations are measured as 40 ms and 20 ms, respectively.

  19. Planar Indium Tin Oxide Heater for Improved Thermal Distribution for Metal Oxide Micromachined Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cihan Çakır

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Metal oxide gas sensors with integrated micro-hotplate structures are widely used in the industry and they are still being investigated and developed. Metal oxide gas sensors have the advantage of being sensitive to a wide range of organic and inorganic volatile compounds, although they lack selectivity. To introduce selectivity, the operating temperature of a single sensor is swept, and the measurements are fed to a discriminating algorithm. The efficiency of those data processing methods strongly depends on temperature uniformity across the active area of the sensor. To achieve this, hot plate structures with complex resistor geometries have been designed and additional heat-spreading structures have been introduced. In this work we designed and fabricated a metal oxide gas sensor integrated with a simple square planar indium tin oxide (ITO heating element, by using conventional micromachining and thin-film deposition techniques. Power consumption–dependent surface temperature measurements were performed. A 420 °C working temperature was achieved at 120 mW power consumption. Temperature distribution uniformity was measured and a 17 °C difference between the hottest and the coldest points of the sensor at an operating temperature of 290 °C was achieved. Transient heat-up and cool-down cycle durations are measured as 40 ms and 20 ms, respectively.

  20. Magnetotransport investigations of the two-dimensional metallic state in silicon metal-oxid-semiconductor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prinz, A.

    2002-03-01

    For more than two decades it was the predominant view among the physical community that the every two-dimensional (2D) disordered electron system becomes insulating as the temperature approaches the absolute zero temperature (0 Kelvin or -273.15 o C). Two-dimensional means that the movement of the charge carriers is confined in one direction by a potential so that the carriers can move freely only perpendicular to the confinement. The most famous physical realization of a 2D system is the silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (Si-MOSFET). It is one of the basic elements of most electronic devices in our daily life. The working principle is very simple. Charges are attracted to the semiconductor-oxide interface by an electric field applied between the metallic gate and the semiconductor, so that a 2D conductive channel is formed. The charge density can be adjusted by the voltage from zero up to 10 13 cm -2 . In 1994 Kravchenko and coworkers made a very important discovery. They studied high mobility Si-MOSFETs and found that for densities below a certain critical value, nc, the resistivity increases as the temperature is decreased below 2 K, whereas for densities above $n c $ the resistivity decreases unexpectedly. The transition from insulating to metallic behavior, known as metal-insulator transition (MIT), was obviously a contradiction to the commonly accepted theories which predict insulating behavior for any density. The insulating behavior is a consequence of the wave properties of electrons which leads to interference in disordered media and thus to enhanced backscattering. In the subsequent years, experimental studies were performed on a variety of 2D systems, which qualitatively showed a similar behavior. All the investigated samples had one thing in common. The interaction energy between the carriers was considerable higher than their mean kinetic energy due to their movement in the 2D plane. Since the electron-electron interaction was

  1. Role of carboxylate ion and metal oxidation state on the morphology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These precursors are an excellent source for the synthesis of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles. Cubes of (edge length ∼ 150 nm) Fe3O4 and elongated particles of Fe2O3 (∼ diameter of 200 nm) were obtained. The role of oxidation state of the metal ion in controlling the morphology of the nanostructured dicarboxylates ...

  2. The effect of metals and metal oxides on biodiesel oxidative stability from promotion to inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel, usually the methyl esters of plant oils or other triacylglycerol-containing materials, has become an established alternative to conventional, petroleum-derived diesel fuel. Several technical problems persist when using biodiesel, one of which is oxidation stability upon exposure to oxygen...

  3. Rare-earth metal oxide doped transparent mesoporous silica plates under non-aqueous condition as a potential UV sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Joon; Park, Sung Soo; Lee, Sang Hyun; Hong, Sang-Hyun; Ha, Chang-Sik

    2013-11-01

    Transparent mesoporous silica plates doped with rare-earth metal oxide were prepared using solvent-evaporation method based on the self-organization between structure-directing agent and silicate in a non-aqueous solvent. A triblock copolymer, Pluronic (F127 or P123), was used as the structure-directing agent, while tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) was used as a silica source. The pore diameter and the surface area of the mesoporous silica plate prepared with the optimized conditions were ca 40 A and 600 m2 g(-1), respectively, for both structure-directing agent. Rare-earth metal oxides (Eu, Tb, Tm oxide) in mesochannel were formed via one-step synthetic route based on the preparation method of a silica plate. Optical properties of rare-earth metal oxide-doped mesoporous silica plates were investigated by UV irradiation and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Under the exitation wavelength of 254 nm, the doped mesoporous silica plates emitted red, green and blue for Eu, Tb and Tm oxides, respectively. Rare-earth metal oxide-doped mesoporous silica plates showed enhanced PL intensity compared to that of the bulk rare-earth metal oxide.

  4. Direct reduction of uranium dioxide and few other metal oxides to corresponding metals by high temperature molten salt electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohandas, K.S.

    2017-01-01

    Molten salt based electro-reduction processes, capable of directly converting solid metal oxides to metals with minimum intermediate steps, are being studied worldwide. Production of metals apart, the process assumes importance in nuclear technology in the context of pyrochemical reprocessing of spent oxide fuels, for it serves as an intermediate step to convert spent oxide fuel to a metal alloy, which in turn can be processed by molten salt electro-refining method to gain the actinides present in it. In the context of future metal fuel fast reactor programme, the electrochemical process was studied for conversion of solid UO 2 to U metal in LiCl-1wt.% Li 2 O melt at 650 °C with platinum anode at the Metal Processing Studies Section, PMPD, IGCAR. A brief overview of the work is presented in the paper

  5. Electron momentum spectroscopy of the group I and Il metal and oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, M.J.; Dorsett, H.E.; Sashin, V.A.; Bolorizadeh, M.A.; Mikajlo, E.A.; Soule de Bas, B.; Nixon, K.L.; Coleman, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The group I and Il metals and oxides are relatively simple condensed phase systems that are easily accessible to theoretical studies. For this reason they have been the subject of a number of studies using a range of theoretical techniques. Calculated electronic band structures have traditionally been compared with optical, X-ray and photo emissions measurements. While these techniques provide excellent data for testing theoretical predictions they generally probe certain aspects of the electronic structure, such as special point energies or densities of states, or require considerable theoretical input for their interpretation. In this paper we present our electron momentum spectroscopy (EMS) measurements for the lighter group Il metals and oxides and group I oxides. EMS can measure directly the full band dispersions and intensities and provides a sensitive test of theoretical predictions. We compare our measurements with Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations carried out within the linear combination of atomic orbitals approximation. As expected HF significantly overestimates the bandwidths and bandgaps. DFT gives reasonable overall agreement, albeit with slight overestimation of bandwidths for the oxides. The intensity distribution for the oxides show a systematic difference from all the calculations which cannot easily be explained by experimental effects such as multiple scattering in the target. This work was funded by the Australian Research Council and Flinders University. EA Mikajlo and K L Nixon acknowledge receipt of SENRAC and Ferry scholarships respectively

  6. Biofouling of various metal oxides in marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougo, T.; Kuroda, D.; Wada, N.; Ikegai, H.; Kanematsu, H.

    2012-03-01

    Biofouling has induced serious problems in various industrial fields such as marine structures, bio materials, microbially induced corrosion (MIC) etc. The effects of various metals on biofouling have been investigated so far and the mechanism has been clarified to some extent(1,2), and we proposed that Fe ion attracted lots of bacteria and formed biofilm very easily(3). In this study, we investigated the possibility for biofouling of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on various metal oxides such as Fe2O3, TiO2, WO3, AgO, Cr2O3 etc. And in addition of such a model experiment on laboratory scale, they were immersed into actual sea water as well as artificial sea water. As for the preparation of metal oxides, commercial oxide powders were used as starting material and those whose particle sizes were under 100 micrometers were formed into pellets by a press. Some of them were heated to 700 °C and sintered for 10 hours at the temperatures. After the calcinations, they were immersed into the culture of P. aeruginosa at 35 °C in about one week. After the immersion, they were taken out of the culture and the biofouling behaviors were observed by optical microscopy, low pressure scanning electron microscopy (low pressure SEM) etc. Biofouling is generally classified into several steps. Firstly, conditioning films composed of organic matters were formed on specimens. Then bacterial were attached to the specimen's surfaces, seeking for conditioning films as nutrition. Then bacteria formed biofilm on the specimens. In marine environment, more larger living matters such as shells etc would be attached to biofilms. However, in the culture media, only biofilms were formed.

  7. Oxide-metal corium-concrete interaction test in the Vulcano facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Journeau, Ch.; Piluso, P.; Haquet, J.F.; Saretta, S.; Boccaccio, E.; Bonnet, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Corium is likely to melt through the vessel and interact with the reactor pit concrete. Corium is made of a UO 2 -rich oxidic part, in which most of the decay heat is dissipated, and of a metallic part, mainly molten steel. An experiment has been set up in the Vulcano facility in which oxidic and metallic mixtures are molten in separate furnaces and poured in a concrete cavity. Induction heating is provided to the pool upper part thanks to shielding coils, so that, in case of stratification, the lighter oxidic corium-concrete mixture receives most of the power. Pre-calculations with the TOLBIAC-ICB corium-concrete interaction code based on the phase segregation model have provided valuable information for the dimensioning of this test: a thick metallic layer (>10 kg or 4 cm) has been chosen in order to obtain significant cavity ablation profiles depending on the selected heat transfer and stratification models. Stratification of the two liquid phases is predicted to occur in less than 10 minutes. In September 2006, the experiment was performed in the Vulcano facility. The corium was made of about 15 kg of steel at 1700 C and 30 kg of oxides (70% UO 2 , 16 % ZrO 2 and 14% concrete load) above 2000 C. It was poured in a limestone-rich concrete. This concrete type was selected for the first test, since the ablation is isotropic except for the initial transient, during oxidic corium-concrete interaction tests. 32 kW of induction power have been provided to the pool during the 4-hour test. The destruction of in-concrete thermocouples indicates that ablation was first mainly radial then became isotropic. This is quite similar to the ablation progression observed during previous tests with oxidic corium interacting with this type of concrete. Important 'volcanic activity' has been observed at the corium pool surface, compared to the previous oxidic corium experiments at Vulcano. (authors)

  8. Fabrication of arrays of metal and metal oxide nanotubes by shadow evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Michael D; Weiss, Emily A; Smythe, Elizabeth J; Chiechi, Ryan C; Capasso, Federico; Whitesides, George M

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes a simple technique for fabricating uniform arrays of metal and metal oxide nanotubes with controlled heights and diameters. The technique involves depositing material onto an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane template using a collimated electron beam evaporation source. The evaporating material enters the porous openings of the AAO membrane and deposits onto the walls of the pores. The membrane is tilted with respect to the column of evaporating material, so the shadows cast by the openings of the pores onto the inside walls of the pores define the geometry of the tubes. Rotation of the membrane during evaporation ensures uniform deposition inside the pores. After evaporation, dissolution of the AAO in base easily removes the template to yield an array of nanotubes connected by a thin backing of the same metal or metal oxide. The diameter of the pores dictates the diameter of the tubes, and the incident angle of evaporation determines the height of the tubes. Tubes up to approximately 1.5 mum in height and 20-200 nm in diameter were fabricated. This method is adaptable to any material that can be vapor-deposited, including indium-tin oxide (ITO), a conductive, transparent material that is useful for many opto-electronic applications. An array of gold nanotubes produced by this technique served as a substrate for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: the Raman signal (per molecule) from a monolayer of benzenethiolate was a factor of approximately 5 x 10(5) greater than that obtained using bulk liquid benzenethiol.

  9. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide on post-transition metal and metal oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James L.

    The electroreduction of carbon dioxide to liquid products is an important component in the utilization of CO2 and in the high-density storage of intermittent renewable energy in the form of chemical bonds. Materials based on indium and tin, which yield predominantly formic acid, have been investigated in order to gain a greater understanding of the electrochemically active species and the mechanism of CO2 reduction on these heavy post-transition metals, since prior studies on the bulk metals did not provide thermodynamically sensible reaction pathways. Nanoparticles of the oxides and hydroxides of tin and indium have been prepared and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and various electrochemical methods in order to obtain structural information and analyze the role of various surface species on the CO2 reduction pathway. On both indium and tin, metastable surface-bound hydroxides bound CO2 and formed metal carbonates, which can then be reduced electrochemically. The relevant oxidation state of tin was suggested to be SnII rather than SnIV, necessitating a pre reduction to generate the CO2-binding species. Metallic indium nanoparticles partially oxidized in air and became highly efficient CO2 reduction electrocatalysts. Unit Faradaic efficiencies for formate, much higher than on bulk indium, were achieved with only 300 mV of overpotential on these particles, which possessed an oxyhydroxide shell surrounding a conductive metallic core. Alloys and mixed-metal oxide and hydroxide particles of tin and indium have also been studied for their carbon dioxide electrocatalytic capabilities, especially in comparison to the pure metal species. Additionally, a solar-driven indium-based CO2 electrolyzer was developed to investigate the overall efficiency for intermittent energy storage. The three flow cells were powered by a commercial photovoltaic array and had a maximum conversion efficiency of incident

  10. In Vitro Pulmonary Toxicity of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cupi, Denisa; Dreher, Kevin

    Nanomaterials (NMs) encompass a diversity of materials with unique physicochemical characteristics which raise concerns about their potential risk to human health. Rapid predictive testing methods are needed to characterize NMs health effects as well as to screen and prioritize NMs for comprehens......Nanomaterials (NMs) encompass a diversity of materials with unique physicochemical characteristics which raise concerns about their potential risk to human health. Rapid predictive testing methods are needed to characterize NMs health effects as well as to screen and prioritize NMs...... particles induced similar increases in HO-1 mRNA levels at 6hr and 24hr post-exposure, respectively. The pattern of HO-1 gene induction was inconsistent with a role of oxidative stress in metal oxide induced BEAS2B cytokine gene expression. Pretreatment of BEAS2B cells with IKK inhibitor III BMS-345541...

  11. Electrically Induced Multiple Metal-Insulator Transitions in Oxide Nanodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Valle, Javier; Kalcheim, Yoav; Trastoy, Juan; Charnukha, Aliaksei; Basov, Dimitri N.; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2017-11-01

    We show that electrical resistive switching can trigger the appearance of multiple metal-insulator transitions (MITs) in VO2 and V2O3 planar nanodevices. We have fabricated planar devices to electrically induce oxygen vacancy drift and filament formation. We show that oxygen migration can create ordered vanadium-oxide phases of varying stoichiometry with an intrinsic MIT, resulting in well-defined hysteresis loops in the R vs T characteristics of the device. We also show that oxygen migration induces oxide phases displaying correlated behaviors. Our results open up the possibility to electrically control the MIT, enabling alternative functionalities in memristive devices and allowing for alternative paradigms in neuromorphic computing or memory applications.

  12. Biomedical application of hierarchically built structures based on metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korovin, M. S.; Fomenko, A. N.

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, the use of hierarchically built structures in biology and medicine arouses much interest. The aim of this work is to review and summarize the available literature data about hierarchically organized structures in biomedical application. Nanoparticles can serve as an example of such structures. Medicine holds a special place among various application methods of similar systems. Special attention is paid to inorganic nanoparticles based on different metal oxides and hydroxides, such as iron, zinc, copper, and aluminum. Our investigations show that low-dimensional nanostructures based on aluminum oxides and hydroxides have an inhibitory effect on tumor cells and possess an antimicrobial activity. At the same time, it is obvious that the large-scale use of nanoparticles by humans needs to thoroughly study their properties. Special attention should be paid to the study of nanoparticle interaction with living biological objects. The numerous data show that there is no clear understanding of interaction mechanisms between nanoparticles and various cell types.

  13. Ozone Decomposition on the Surface of Metal Oxide Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batakliev Todor Todorov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic decomposition of ozone to molecular oxygen over catalytic mixture containing manganese, copper and nickel oxides was investigated in the present work. The catalytic activity was evaluated on the basis of the decomposition coefficient which is proportional to ozone decomposition rate, and it has been already used in other studies for catalytic activity estimation. The reaction was studied in the presence of thermally modified catalytic samples operating at different temperatures and ozone flow rates. The catalyst changes were followed by kinetic methods, surface measurements, temperature programmed reduction and IR-spectroscopy. The phase composition of the metal oxide catalyst was determined by X-ray diffraction. The catalyst mixture has shown high activity in ozone decomposition at wet and dry O3/O2 gas mixtures. The mechanism of catalytic ozone degradation was suggested.

  14. Metal (Hydr)oxides@Polymer Core-Shell Strategy to Metal Single-Atom Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Maolin; Wang, Yang-Gang; Chen, Wenxing; Dong, Juncai; Zheng, Lirong; Luo, Jun; Wan, Jiawei; Tian, Shubo; Cheong, Weng-Chon; Wang, Dingsheng; Li, Yadong

    2017-08-16

    Preparing metal single-atom materials is currently attracting tremendous attention and remains a significant challenge. Herein, we report a novel core-shell strategy to synthesize single-atom materials. In this strategy, metal hydroxides or oxides are coated with polymers, followed by high-temperature pyrolysis and acid leaching, metal single atoms are anchored on the inner wall of hollow nitrogen-doped carbon (CN) materials. By changing metal precursors or polymers, we demonstrate the successful synthesis of different metal single atoms dispersed on CN materials (SA-M/CN, M = Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, FeCo, FeNi, etc.). Interestingly, the obtained SA-Fe/CN exhibits much higher catalytic activity for hydroxylation of benzene to phenol than Fe nanoparticles/CN (45% vs 5% benzene conversion). First-principle calculations further reveal that the high reactivity originates from the easier formation of activated oxygen species at the single Fe site. Our methodology provides a convenient route to prepare a variety of metal single-atom materials representing a new class of catalysts.

  15. Nanostructured metal oxides as electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, Konstantin; Wang, Guoxiu; Lao, Zhuo Jin; Liu, Hua Kun; Devers, T

    2009-02-01

    In this study, nanostructured transition metal oxides, such as Co3O4, NiO and MnO2 were comprehensively studied and reported as promising electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors. The materials have been obtained by solution or spray solution techniques, which are cost-effective and promising for industry application. All materials feature a large specific surface area, which can reach up to 270 m2/g. The high surface area is a compulsory condition for high capacitance. The best MnO2 materials yielded up to 406 F/g.

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Healthy Control in Pakistani Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    IRFAN, Shazia; RANI, Asima; RIAZ, Naila; ARSHAD, Muhammad; KASHIF NAWAZ, Syed

    2017-01-01

    Background: Exposure to heavy metals in development of many diseases has been investigated previously, specially created by oxidative stress. The etiology of Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is still not fully understood but oxidative stress created by heavy metals may have role in development of RA. The aim of present study was to compare serum level of heavy metals in RA and healthy control individuals. Methods: Blood samples of 100 RA patients were collected from different hospitals in district Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan and 100 control individuals from Dec 2013 to May 2014.The serum samples were analyzed for determination of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni through Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA 6600 Shimadzu). Results: Statistically highly significant difference was observed between RA patients and healthy control individuals for Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni level (P0.01). For Cr the difference between the means of both sexes was statistically not significant in RA +ve patients and highly significant difference was observed between both sexes in healthy control group (P0.01). Conclusion: Concentration of heavy metals in serum samples of RA patients and healthy control individuals differ significantly, which shows that heavy metals may contributes towards development of RA. PMID:28560193

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Healthy Control in Pakistani Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Shazia; Rani, Asima; Riaz, Naila; Arshad, Muhammad; Kashif Nawaz, Syed

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to heavy metals in development of many diseases has been investigated previously, specially created by oxidative stress. The etiology of Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is still not fully understood but oxidative stress created by heavy metals may have role in development of RA. The aim of present study was to compare serum level of heavy metals in RA and healthy control individuals. Blood samples of 100 RA patients were collected from different hospitals in district Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan and 100 control individuals from Dec 2013 to May 2014.The serum samples were analyzed for determination of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni through Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA 6600 Shimadzu). Statistically highly significant difference was observed between RA patients and healthy control individuals for Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni level ( P 0.01). For Cr the difference between the means of both sexes was statistically not significant in RA +ve patients and highly significant difference was observed between both sexes in healthy control group ( P 0.01). Concentration of heavy metals in serum samples of RA patients and healthy control individuals differ significantly, which shows that heavy metals may contributes towards development of RA.

  18. Synthesis of Mesoporous Metal Oxides by Structure Replication: Thermal Analysis of Metal Nitrates in Porous Carbon Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Weinberger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A variety of metal nitrates were filled into the pores of an ordered mesoporous CMK-3 carbon matrix by solution-based impregnation. Thermal conversion of the metal nitrates into the respective metal oxides, and subsequent removal of the carbon matrix by thermal combustion, provides a versatile means to prepare mesoporous metal oxides (so-called nanocasting. This study aims to monitor the thermally induced processes by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, coupled with mass ion detection (MS. The highly dispersed metal nitrates in the pores of the carbon matrix tend to react to the respective metal oxides at lower temperature than reported in the literature for pure, i.e., carbon-free, metal nitrates. The subsequent thermal combustion of the CMK-3 carbon matrix also occurs at lower temperature, which is explained by a catalytic effect of the metal oxides present in the pores. This catalytic effect is particularly strong for oxides of redox active metals, such as transition group VII and VIII metals (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Ce.

  19. Comparative study of Heavy Metals Distribution in a Mechanic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of heavy metals; Lead, Chromium, Arsenic, Nickel, Cadmium and Mercury distribution was carried out in Oluku and Otofure both in Metropolitan Benin City, Edo State Nigeria with the view to determine the level of concentration and contribution of each site investigated. Thirty eight (38) soil samples were ...

  20. Neutron radiation effects on metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul Amir, Haider F. [School of Science and Technology, University Malaysia Sabah, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia)], E-mail: haider@ums.edu.my; Chik, Abdulah [School of Science and Technology, University Malaysia Sabah, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia)

    2009-09-15

    The main purpose of this study is to provide the knowledge and data on Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) fusion neutron induced damage in MOS devices. Silicon metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices are currently the cornerstone of the modern microelectronics industry. However, when a MOS device is exposed to a flux of energetic radiation or particles, the resulting effects from this radiation can cause several degradation of the device performance and of its operating life. The part of MOS structure (metal oxide semiconductor) most sensitive to neutron radiation is the oxide insulating layer (SiO{sub 2}). When ionizing radiation passes through the oxide, the energy deposited creates electron-hole pairs. These electron-hole pairs have been seriously hazardous to the performance of these electronic components. The degradation of the current gain of the dual n-channel depletion mode MOS caused by neutron displacement defects, was measured using in situ method during neutron irradiation. The average degradation of the gain of the current is about 35 mA, and the change in channel current gain increased proportionally with neutron fluence. The total fusion neutron displacement damage was found to be 4.8 x 10{sup -21} dpa per n/cm{sup 2}, while the average fraction of damage in the crystal of silicon was found to be 1.24 x 10{sup -12}. All the MOS devices tested were found to be controllable after neutron irradiation and no permanent damage was caused by neutron fluence irradiation below 10{sup 10}n/cm{sup 2}. The calculation results shows that (n,{alpha}) reaction induced soft-error cross-section about 8.7 x 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2}, and for recoil atoms about 2.9 x 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2}, respectively.

  1. Neutron radiation effects on metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Amir, Haider F.; Chik, Abdulah

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to provide the knowledge and data on Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) fusion neutron induced damage in MOS devices. Silicon metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices are currently the cornerstone of the modern microelectronics industry. However, when a MOS device is exposed to a flux of energetic radiation or particles, the resulting effects from this radiation can cause several degradation of the device performance and of its operating life. The part of MOS structure (metal oxide semiconductor) most sensitive to neutron radiation is the oxide insulating layer (SiO 2 ). When ionizing radiation passes through the oxide, the energy deposited creates electron-hole pairs. These electron-hole pairs have been seriously hazardous to the performance of these electronic components. The degradation of the current gain of the dual n-channel depletion mode MOS caused by neutron displacement defects, was measured using in situ method during neutron irradiation. The average degradation of the gain of the current is about 35 mA, and the change in channel current gain increased proportionally with neutron fluence. The total fusion neutron displacement damage was found to be 4.8 x 10 -21 dpa per n/cm 2 , while the average fraction of damage in the crystal of silicon was found to be 1.24 x 10 -12 . All the MOS devices tested were found to be controllable after neutron irradiation and no permanent damage was caused by neutron fluence irradiation below 10 10 n/cm 2 . The calculation results shows that (n,α) reaction induced soft-error cross-section about 8.7 x 10 -14 cm 2 , and for recoil atoms about 2.9 x 10 -15 cm 2 , respectively.

  2. Influence of Surface Morphology on the Antimicrobial Effect of Transition Metal Oxides in Polymer Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yoo Jin; Hubauer-Brenner, Michael; Hinterdorfer, Peter

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the physical properties of transition metal oxide surfaces were examined using scanning probe microscopic (SPM) techniques for elucidating the antimicrobial activity of molybdenum trioxide (MoO3), tungsten trioxide (WO3), and zinc oxide (ZnO) embedded into the polymers thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and polypropylene (PP). We utilized atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the contact imaging mode and its derivative single-pass Kelvin probe force microscopy for investigating samples that were presumably identical in their compositions, but showed different antimicrobial activity in bacterial adhesion tests. Our results revealed that surfaces with larger roughness and higher surface potential variation showed stronger antimicrobial activities compared to smoother and homogeneously charge-distributed surfaces. In addition, capacitance gradient (dC/dZ) measurements were performed to elucidate the antimicrobial activity arising from the different dielectric behavior of the transition metal oxides in this heterogeneous polymer surface. We found that the nano-scale exposure of transition metal oxides on polymer surfaces provided strong antimicrobial effects. Applications arising from our studies will be useful for public and healthcare environments.

  3. Atomic-layer-deposition-assisted formation of carbon nanoflakes on metal oxides and energy storage application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Cao; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Li, Xianglin; Cao, Xiehong; Fan, Yu; Xia, Xinhui; Pan, Guoxiang; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Hong Jin

    2014-01-29

    Nanostructured carbon is widely used in energy storage devices (e.g., Li-ion and Li-air batteries and supercapacitors). A new method is developed for the generation of carbon nanoflakes on various metal oxide nanostructures by combining atomic layer deposition (ALD) and glucose carbonization. Various metal oxide@nanoflake carbon (MO@f-C) core-branch nanostructures are obtained. For the mechanism, it is proposed that the ALD Al2 O3 and glucose form a composite layer. Upon thermal annealing, the composite layer becomes fragmented and moves outward, accompanied by carbon deposition on the alumina skeleton. When tested as electrochemical supercapacitor electrode, the hierarchical MO@f-C nanostructures exhibit better properties compared with the pristine metal oxides or the carbon coating without ALD. The enhancement can be ascribed to increased specific surface areas and electric conductivity due to the carbon flake coating. This peculiar carbon coating method with the unique hierarchical nanostructure may provide a new insight into the preparation of 'oxides + carbon' hybrid electrode materials for energy storage applications. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Novel method to deposit metal particles on transition metal oxide films and its application in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Qinmin; Wang Min; Wang Hongbo; Zhao Jianwei; Yin Geping

    2008-01-01

    A novel method to modify the surfaces of transition metal oxides (MO) film-electrode was proposed in this study. At first, a monolayer of terephthalic acid was covalently bonded to the surfaces of Cu 2 O films. Then silver (Ag) particles were electrodeposited on the monolayer-grafted films by a potential-step process. The resulting Ag-Cu 2 O films exhibited improved electrochemical performance as negative electrodes in lithium-ion batteries compared to the original Cu 2 O films. An increase in electrical contact between Cu 2 O particles was considered to be responsible for the improvement in the electrochemical properties

  5. Comparative study of synthesis and reduction methods for graphene oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Alazmi, Amira

    2016-05-14

    Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have congregated much interest as promising active materials for a variety of applications such as electrodes for supercapacitors. Yet, partially given the absence of comparative studies in synthesis methodologies, a lack of understanding persists on how to best tailor these materials. In this work, the effect of using different graphene oxidation-reduction strategies in the structure and chemistry of rGOs is systematically discussed. Two of the most popular oxidation routes in the literature were used to obtain GO. Subsequently, two sets of rGO powders were synthesised employing three different reduction routes, totalling six separate products. It is shown that the extension of the structural rearrangement in rGOs is not just dependent on the reduction step but also on the approach followed for the initial graphite oxidation.

  6. Interaction of Model Inhibitor Compounds with Minimalist Cluster Representations of Hydroxyl Terminated Metal Oxide Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Taylor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The computational modeling of corrosion inhibitors at the level of molecular interactions has been pursued for decades, and recent developments are allowing increasingly realistic models to be developed for inhibitor–inhibitor, inhibitor–solvent and inhibitor–metal interactions. At the same time, there remains a need for simplistic models to be used for the purpose of screening molecules for proposed inhibitor performance. Herein, we apply a reductionist model for metal surfaces consisting of a metal cation with hydroxide ligands and use quantum chemical modeling to approximate the free energy of adsorption for several imidazoline class candidate corrosion inhibitors. The approximation is made using the binding energy and the partition coefficient. As in some previous work, we consider different methods for incorporating solvent and reference systems for the partition coefficient. We compare the findings from this short study with some previous theoretical work on similar systems. The binding energies for the inhibitors to the metal hydroxide clusters are found to be intermediate to the binding energies calculated in other work for bare metal vs. metal oxide surfaces. The method is applied to copper, iron, aluminum and nickel metal systems.

  7. Polydopamine-mediated surface-functionalization of graphene oxide for heavy metal ions removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Zhihui; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Dong; Liu, Xia; Jin, Jian

    2015-01-01

    By utilizing polydopamine (PD) nano-thick interlayer as mediator, polyethylenimine (PEI) brushes with abundant amine groups were grafted onto the surface of PD coated graphene oxide (GO) uniformly via a Michael-Addition reaction and produced a PEI–PD/GO composite nanosheets. The PEI–PD/GO composite exhibited an improved performance for adsorption of heavy metal ions as compared to PEI-coated GO and pure GO. The adsorption capacities for Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ , Pb 2+ , Hg 2+ are up to 87, 106, 197, and 110 mg/g, respectively. To further make the GO based composite operable, PEI–PD/RGO aerogel was prepared through hydrothermal and achieved a high surface area up to 373 m 2 /g. Although the adsorption capacity of PEI–PD/RGO aerogel for heavy metal ions decreases a little as compared to PEI–PD/GO composite dispersion (38, 32, 95, 113 mg/g corresponding to Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ , Pb 2+ , and Hg 2+ , respectively), it could be recycled several times in a simple way by releasing adsorbed metal ions, indicating its potential application for cleaning wastewater. - Graphical abstract: Polyethylenimine (PEI) brushes were grafted onto the surface of graphene oxide (GO) uniformly via a Michael-Addition reaction between the PEI and polydopamine interlayer coated on GO surface. The PEI–PD/GO composite exhibited an improved performance for adsorption of heavy metal ions compared to PEI-coated GO and pure GO. - Highlights: • We prepared polyethylenimine grafted polydopamine-mediated graphene oxide composites. • Introduction of PD layer increases metal ions adsorption capacity. • PEI–PD/RGO aerogel exhibited a superior adsorption performance. • PEI–PD/RGO aerogel can be recycled several times in a simple way

  8. Polydopamine-mediated surface-functionalization of graphene oxide for heavy metal ions removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Zhihui [Nano-Bionics Division and i-LAB, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Feng; Wang, Dong; Liu, Xia [Nano-Bionics Division and i-LAB, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Jin, Jian, E-mail: jjin2009@sinano.ac.cn [Nano-Bionics Division and i-LAB, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2015-04-15

    By utilizing polydopamine (PD) nano-thick interlayer as mediator, polyethylenimine (PEI) brushes with abundant amine groups were grafted onto the surface of PD coated graphene oxide (GO) uniformly via a Michael-Addition reaction and produced a PEI–PD/GO composite nanosheets. The PEI–PD/GO composite exhibited an improved performance for adsorption of heavy metal ions as compared to PEI-coated GO and pure GO. The adsorption capacities for Cu{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+} are up to 87, 106, 197, and 110 mg/g, respectively. To further make the GO based composite operable, PEI–PD/RGO aerogel was prepared through hydrothermal and achieved a high surface area up to 373 m{sup 2}/g. Although the adsorption capacity of PEI–PD/RGO aerogel for heavy metal ions decreases a little as compared to PEI–PD/GO composite dispersion (38, 32, 95, 113 mg/g corresponding to Cu{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, and Hg{sup 2+}, respectively), it could be recycled several times in a simple way by releasing adsorbed metal ions, indicating its potential application for cleaning wastewater. - Graphical abstract: Polyethylenimine (PEI) brushes were grafted onto the surface of graphene oxide (GO) uniformly via a Michael-Addition reaction between the PEI and polydopamine interlayer coated on GO surface. The PEI–PD/GO composite exhibited an improved performance for adsorption of heavy metal ions compared to PEI-coated GO and pure GO. - Highlights: • We prepared polyethylenimine grafted polydopamine-mediated graphene oxide composites. • Introduction of PD layer increases metal ions adsorption capacity. • PEI–PD/RGO aerogel exhibited a superior adsorption performance. • PEI–PD/RGO aerogel can be recycled several times in a simple way.

  9. Metal Oxide Nanomaterial QNAR Models: Available Structural Descriptors and Understanding of Toxicity Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiali Ying

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Metal oxide nanomaterials are widely used in various areas; however, the divergent published toxicology data makes it difficult to determine whether there is a risk associated with exposure to metal oxide nanomaterials. The application of quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR modeling in metal oxide nanomaterials toxicity studies can reduce the need for time-consuming and resource-intensive nanotoxicity tests. The nanostructure and inorganic composition of metal oxide nanomaterials makes this approach different from classical QSAR study; this review lists and classifies some structural descriptors, such as size, cation charge, and band gap energy, in recent metal oxide nanomaterials quantitative nanostructure activity relationship (QNAR studies and discusses the mechanism of metal oxide nanomaterials toxicity based on these descriptors and traditional nanotoxicity tests.

  10. Reaction pathways for catalytic gas-phase oxidation of glycerol over mixed metal oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suprun, W.; Glaeser, R.; Papp, H. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Chemical Technology

    2011-07-01

    Glycerol as a main by-product from bio-diesel manufacture is a cheap raw material with large potential for chemical or biochemical transformations to value-added C3-chemicals. One possible way of glycerol utilization involves its catalytic oxidation to acrylic acid as an alternative to petrochemical routes. However, this catalytic conversion exhibits various problems such as harsh reaction conditions, severe catalyst coking and large amounts of undesired by-products. In this study, the reaction pathways for gas-phase conversion of glycerol over transition metal oxides (Mo, V und W) supported on TiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} were investigated by two methods: (i) steady state experiments of glycerol oxidation and possible reactions intermediates, i.e., acrolein, 3-hydroxy propionaldehyde and acetaldehyde, and (ii) temperature-programmed surface reaction (TPSR) studies of glycerol conversion in the presence and in the absence of gas-phase oxygen. It is shown that the supported W-, V and Mo-oxides possess an ability to catalyze the oxidation of glycerol to acrylic acid. These investigations allowed us to gain a deeper insight into the reaction mechanism. Thus, based on the obtained results, three possible reactions pathways for the selective oxidation of glycerol to acrylic acid on the transition metal-containing catalysts are proposed. The major pathways in presence of molecular oxygen are a fast successive destructive oxidation of glycerol to CO{sub x} and the dehydration of glycerol to acrolein which is a rate-limiting step. (orig.)

  11. Uranium metal oxidation, grinding, and encapsulation in BorobondR: TRU waste management - 59279

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, Kevin S.; Addington, Larry A.; Utley, Beth

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen generation mitigation for K Basin sludge was examined by encapsulation of uranium metal in BoroBond R , pre-oxidation of uranium metal with Fenton's reagent and grinding of Densalloy SD170, an irradiated uranium metal surrogate. Encapsulation in BoroBond R resulted in pressure increase rates at 60 deg. C ranging from 0.116 torr/h to 0.186 torr/h compared to 0.240 torr/h for a uranium metal in water standard. Samples cast with higher water content led to increased rates. A Fenton's reagent system consisting of a simple reagent mix of FeSO 4 .7H 2 O, H 2 O 2 and HCl effectively oxidized 1/4'' cubes of uranium metal in under four days at room temperature. Increased peroxide addition rate, increased FeSO 4 .7H 2 O concentration and low pH all increase the corrosion rate. Densalloy SD170 with an average particle size of 581 μm with 7.63 % of particles less than 90 μm was milled so that over 90 % of the Densalloy mass measured less than 90 μm in 6 hours of milling. Acceptable wear rates were seen on wear components that were from standard materials (Nitronic SS and 440SS). (authors)

  12. Comparative toxicity of metals to freshwater life in tropical Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markich, S.J. [ANSTO, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia). Environmental Science Program; Camilleri, C. [ERISS, Jabiru (Australia); Baird, D.J. [Univ. of Stirling (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    At present, there is a paucity of internally consistent datasets on the toxicity of metals (and other contaminants) in the tropics, relative to the cool and warm temperate regions of the world. Such information is considered mandatory before a proper comparison of the toxicity of metals to aquatic life between tropical and temperate regions is possible. As part of a larger study to investigate whether the toxicity of metals to aquatic life differs between the tropical and temperate regions of Australia, several species of tropical freshwater organisms, comprising a molluscs, fish, hydra, Daphnia and an alga were employed to obtain an internally consistent data set on the comparative toxicity of selected metals, such as U and Cu, that are of potential concern in the wet-dry tropics of Australia as a result of man`s activities. Both acute and chronic ecologically relevant sublethal endpoints, such as growth and reproduction (EC{sub 50}, BEC{sub 10}) were measured for the five species, which cover a variety of trophic levels. A synthetic water quality that closely resembled the inorganic composition of the natural waters in which the organisms inhabit, was used in all experiments. This facilitated the use of the geochemical modelling code, HARPHRQ, to predict the speciation, and hence, bioavailability of the selected metals. A knowledge of the bioavailable fraction of a metal is necessary for setting up national water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. The results from this study are discussed and related to the derivation of both site-specific and national water quality-guidelines for metals.

  13. Characteristics and possibilities of software tool for metal-oxide surge arresters selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Dragan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a procedure for the selection of metal-oxide surge arresters based on the instructions given in the Siemens and ABB catalogues, respecting their differences and the characteristics and possibilities of the software tool. The software tool was developed during the preparation of a Master's thesis titled, 'Automation of Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters Selection'. An example is presented of the selection of metal-oxide surge arresters using the developed software tool.

  14. Non-Noble Metal Oxide Catalysts for Methane Catalytic Combustion: Sonochemical Synthesis and Characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodłowski, Przemysław J; Jędrzejczyk, Roman J; Chlebda, Damian K; Dziedzicka, Anna; Kuterasiński, Łukasz; Gancarczyk, Anna; Sitarz, Maciej

    2017-07-07

    The aim of this study was to obtain nanocrystalline mixed metal-oxide-ZrO₂ catalysts via a sonochemically-induced preparation method. The effect of a stabiliser's addition on the catalyst parameters was investigated by several characterisation methods including X-ray Diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and µRaman. The sonochemical preparation method allowed us to manufacture the catalysts with uniformly dispersed metal-oxide nanoparticles at the support surface. The catalytic activity was tested in a methane combustion reaction. The activity of the catalysts prepared by the sonochemical method was higher than that of the reference catalysts prepared by the incipient wetness method without ultrasonic irradiation. The cobalt and chromium mixed zirconia catalysts revealed their high activities, which are comparable with those presented in the literature.

  15. Adjusting the Parameters of Metal Oxide Gapless Surge Arresters’ Equivalent Circuits Using the Harmony Search Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Christodoulou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate circuit modeling of metal oxide gapless surge arresters is critical for insulation coordination studies. Metal oxide arresters present a dynamic behavior for fast front surges; namely, their residual voltage is dependent on the peak value, as well as the duration of the injected impulse current, and should therefore not only be represented by non-linear elements. The aim of the current work is to adjust the parameters of the most frequently used surge arresters’ circuit models by considering the magnitude of the residual voltage, as well as the dissipated energy for given pulses. In this aim, the harmony search method is implemented to adjust parameter values of the arrester equivalent circuit models. This functions by minimizing a defined objective function that compares the simulation outcomes with the manufacturer’s data and the results obtained from previous methodologies.

  16. Synthesis of self-detached nanoporous titanium-based metal oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, F. [Advanced Manufacturing Technology Research Center, Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong); Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramic Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, Jiangxi 343001 (China); Wen, Y. [Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramic Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, Jiangxi 343001 (China); Chan, K.C., E-mail: mfkcchan@inet.polyu.edu.hk [Advanced Manufacturing Technology Research Center, Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong); Yue, T.M. [Advanced Manufacturing Technology Research Center, Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong); Zhou, Y.Z. [Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramic Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, Jiangxi 343001 (China); Zhu, S.L.; Yang, X.J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-09-15

    In this study, self-detached nanoporous titanium-based metal oxide was synthesized for the first time by ultrafast anodization in a fluoride-free electrolyte containing 10% HNO{sub 3}. The nanoporous oxide has through-holes with diameters ranging from 10 to 60 nm. The as-formed oxides are amorphous, and were transformed to crystalline structures by annealing. The performance of a dye sensitized solar cell using nanoporpous Ti–10Zr oxide (TZ10) was further studied. It was found that the TZ10 film could increase both the short-circuit current and the open-circuit photovoltage of the solar cell. The overall efficiency of the solar cell was 6.99%, an increase of 20.7% as compared to that using a pure TiO{sub 2} (P25) film. - Graphical abstract: The nanoporous Ti–xZr(x=10, 30) oxide layers are fabricated by anodizing in a dilute nitric acid solvent. The power conversion efficiency of the DSSC by a covering of a Ti–10Zr thin film is increased by 20.7%, with an η of 7.69% , a short circuit current of 12.4 mA/cm{sup 2}, a open circuit voltage of 0.833 V, and a fill factor of 0.679. - Highlights: • Self-detached nanoporous titanium-based metal (TiZr) oxide was synthesized. • The TiZr oxides have through-hole nanopores with diameters ranging from 10 to 60 nm. • The nanoporous Ti–10Zr oxide can improve the power conversion efficiency of a DSSC.

  17. Resistive switching in ZrO2 based metal-oxide-metal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaerkkaenen, Irina

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this work is a deeper understanding of the influence of the (i) metal-oxide-metal (MOM) layer stacks configuration, (ii) the oxide films microstructure, (iii) and their defect structure on the appearance of different switching modes, i.e. unipolar (UP) and bipolar (BP). The first part deals with the fabrication of ZrO 2 thin films by an industrial compatible atomic layer deposition (ALD) process, the chemical, structural and morphological characterization of the films, the growth of ZrO 2 /TiO 2 bilayers, the integration of the layers into metal-oxide-metal (MOM) devices and the electrical characterization with focus on the RS behavior. In the second part the effect of the device structure, in particular the thickness of the electrochemical active electrode (EAE) and the ZrO 2 film morphology, on the RS switching polarity of Pt/ZrO 2 /(EAE) cells is discussed. ZrO 2 films and ZrO 2 /TiO 2 bilayers were grown by ALD and were carefully structurally and electrically characterized. The ZrO 2 films grown from Zr[N(CH 3 )C 2 H 5 ] 4 (TEMA-Zr) at 240 C were polycrystalline with a mixture of cubic/tetragonal phases. ALD/H 2 O-ZrO 2 films exhibited a random oriented polycrystalline structure, whereas the ALD/O 3 -ZrO 2 films consisted of preferably oriented cubic shaped grains. Pt/ZrO 2 /Ti/Pt structures with a Ti top electrode (TE) thickness of 5 to 20 nm showed unipolar type RS behavior, while by increasing the Ti TE thickness a gradual change of switching polarity from unipolar to bipolar with a completely bipolar type RS behavior for a Ti TE thickness of 40 nm is found. The switching in Pt/ZrO 2 /TiO 2 /Ti/Pt devices was unipolar, comparable to Pt/ZrO 2 /Ti/Pt cells. In contrast, bilayers with the reverse structure, Pt/TiO 2 /ZrO 2 /Ti/Pt, showed non-switching behavior. The effect of the cells stack structure on the polarity of the RS behavior was studied in detail for 20 nm thick ZrO 2 films grown by an ozone based ALD process and integrated into Pt/ZrO 2

  18. Polymer derived non-oxide ceramics modified with late transition metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer, Muhammad; Schmalz, Thomas; Motz, Günter; Kempe, Rhett

    2012-08-07

    This tutorial review highlights the methods for the preparation of metal modified precursor derived ceramics (PDCs) and concentrates on the rare non-oxide systems enhanced with late transition metals. In addition to the main synthetic strategies for modified SiC and SiCN ceramics, an overview of the morphologies, structures and compositions of both, ceramic materials and metal (nano) particles, is presented. Potential magnetic and catalytic applications have been discussed for the so manufactured metal containing non-oxide ceramics.

  19. Pulsed-laser-induced nanoscale island formation in thin metal-on-oxide films

    OpenAIRE

    Henley, SJ; Carey, JD; Silva, SRP

    2005-01-01

    he mechanisms controlling the nanostructuring of thin metal-on-oxide films by nanosecond pulsed excimer lasers are investigated. When permitted by the interfacial energetics, the breakup of the metal film into nanoscale islands is observed. A range of metals (Au, Ag, Mo, Ni, Ti, and Zn) with differing physical and thermodynamic properties, and differing tendencies for oxide formation, are investigated. The nature of the interfacial metal-substrate interaction, the thermal conductivity of the ...

  20. Metal Oxide-Carbon Nanocomposites for Aqueous and Nonaqueous Supercapacitors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I effort focuses on development of novel metal-oxide-carbon nanocomposites for application in pseudocapacitive...

  1. Optical and electrical experiments at some transition-metal oxide foil-electrolyte interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari, S.O.; Ahlgren, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    Metal-oxide layers formed from transition-metal foils oxidized by heating in air have been examined for their photoelectrolytic response. The metals examined are Y, Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Mo, W, and Pt. Weak photoeffects are observed for oxide layers of all of these metals. Sizable light-dependent oxygen gas evolution rates are found in Ti and also in W oxides. The spectral dependence of the oxygen response in these compounds is investigated, and interpretation is given of these experiments

  2. Comparative evaluation of short-term leach tests for heavy metal release from mineral processing waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abed, S. R.; Hageman, P.L.; Jegadeesan, G.; Madhavan, N.; Allen, D.

    2006-01-01

    Evaluation of metal leaching using a single leach test such as the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) is often questionable. The pH, redox potential (Eh), particle size and contact time are critical variables in controlling metal stability, not accounted for in the TCLP. This paper compares the leaching behavior of metals in mineral processing waste via short-term extraction tests such as TCLP, Field Leach Test (FLT) used by USGS and deionized water extraction tests. Variation in the extracted amounts was attributed to the use of different particle sizes, extraction fluid and contact time. In the controlled pH experiments, maximum metal extraction was obtained at acidic pH for cationic heavy metals such as Cu, Pb and Zn, while desorption of Se from the waste resulted in high extract concentrations in the alkaline region. Precipitation of iron, caused by a pH increase, probably resulted in co-precipitation and immobilization of Cu, Pb and Zn in the alkaline pH region. A sequential extraction procedure was performed on the original waste and the solid residue from the Eh-pH experiments to determine the chemical speciation and distribution of the heavy metals. In the as-received waste, Cu existed predominantly in water soluble or sulfidic phases, with no binding to carbonates or iron oxides. Similar characteristics were observed for Pb and Zn, while Se existed mostly associated with iron oxides or sulfides. Adsorption/co-precipitation of Cu, Se and Pb on precipitated iron hydroxides was observed in the experimental solid residues, resulting in metal immobilization above pH 7.

  3. Fast reactors with axial arrangement of oxide and metal fuels in the core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyanov, M.F.; Ilyunin, V.G.; Matveev, V.I.; Murogov, V.M.; Proshkin, A.A.; Rudneva, V.Ya.; Shmelev, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    Problems of using metal fuel in fast reactor (FR) core are discussed Results are given of the calculation of two-dimentional (R-Z) FR version having a composed core with the combined usage of oxide and metal fuels having parameters close to optimal from the point of view of fuel breeding rate, an oxide subzone having increased enrichment and a decreased proper conversion ratio. A reactor is considered where metallic fuel elements are placed from the side of ''cold'' coolant inlet (400-480 deg C), and oxide fuel elements - in the region where the coolant has a higher temperature (500-560 deg C). It is shown that the new fuel breeding rate in such a reactor can be increased by 20-30% as compared with an oxide fuel reactor. Growth of the total conversion ratio is mainly stipulated with the increase of the inner conversion ratio of the core (CRC) which is important not only from the point of view of nuclear fuel breeding rate but also the optimization of the mode of powerful fast reactor operation with provision for the change in reactivity in the process of its continuous operation. The fact, that the core version under investigation has a CRC value slightly exceeding unit, stipulates considerably less reactivity change as compared with the oxide version in the process of the reactor operation and permits at a constant reactor control system power to significantly increase the time between reloadings and, therefore, to increase the NPP load factor which is of great importance both from the point of view of economy and the improvement of operation conditions as well as of reactor operation reliability. It is concluded on the base of the analysis of the results obtained that FRs with the combined usage of oxide and metal fuels having an increased specific load and increased conversion ratio as compared with the oxide fuel FRs provide a higher rate of development of the whole nuclear power balanced with respect to the fuel [ru

  4. Comparison of metal oxide absorbents for regenerative carbon dioxide and water vapor removal for advanced portable life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonesifer, Greg T.; Chang, Craig H.; Cusick, Robert J.; Hart, Joan M.

    1991-01-01

    Metal-oxide absorbents (MOAs) have a demonstrated capability for removal of both metabolic CO2 and H2O from breathing atmospheres, simplifying portable life support system (PLSS) design and affording reversible operation for regeneration. Attention is presently given to the comparative performance levels obtained by silver-oxide-based and silver/zinc-oxide-based systems, which also proved to be longer-lasting than the silver oxide-absorber system. The silver/zinc system is found to substantially simplify the ventilation loop of a prospective Space Station Freedom PLSS.

  5. Plasmonic nanostructured metal-oxide-semiconductor reflection modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Anthony; Chen, Chengkun; Hassan, Sa'ad; Lisicka-Skrzek, Ewa; Tait, R Niall; Berini, Pierre

    2015-04-08

    We propose a plasmonic surface that produces an electrically controlled reflectance as a high-speed intensity modulator. The device is conceived as a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor on silicon with its metal structured as a thin patch bearing a contiguous nanoscale grating. The metal structure serves multiple functions as a driving electrode and as a grating coupler for perpendicularly incident p-polarized light to surface plasmons supported by the patch. Modulation is produced by charging and discharging the capacitor and exploiting the carrier refraction effect in silicon along with the high sensitivity of strongly confined surface plasmons to index perturbations. The area of the modulator is set by the area of the incident beam, leading to a very compact device for a strongly focused beam (∼2.5 μm in diameter). Theoretically, the modulator can operate over a broad electrical bandwidth (tens of gigahertz) with a modulation depth of 3 to 6%, a loss of 3 to 4 dB, and an optical bandwidth of about 50 nm. About 1000 modulators can be integrated over a 50 mm(2) area producing an aggregate electro-optic modulation rate in excess of 1 Tb/s. We demonstrate experimentally modulators operating at telecommunications wavelengths, fabricated as nanostructured Au/HfO2/p-Si capacitors. The modulators break conceptually from waveguide-based devices and belong to the same class of devices as surface photodetectors and vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers.

  6. Differential plasma protein binding to metal oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Zhou J; Mortimer, Gysell; Minchin, Rodney F; Schiller, Tara; Musumeci, Anthony; Martin, Darren

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticles rapidly interact with the proteins present in biological fluids, such as blood. The proteins that are adsorbed onto the surface potentially dictate the biokinetics of the nanomaterials and their fate in vivo. Using nanoparticles with different sizes and surface characteristics, studies have reported the effects of physicochemical properties on the composition of adsorbed plasma proteins. However, to date, few studies have been conducted focusing on the nanoparticles that are commonly exposed to the general public, such as the metal oxides. Using previously established ultracentrifugation approaches, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, the current study investigated the binding of human plasma proteins to commercially available titanium dioxide, silicon dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles. We found that, despite these particles having similar surface charges in buffer, they bound different plasma proteins. For TiO 2 , the shape of the nanoparticles was also an important determinant of protein binding. Agglomeration in water was observed for all of the nanoparticles and both TiO 2 and ZnO further agglomerated in biological media. This led to an increase in the amount and number of different proteins bound to these nanoparticles. Proteins with important biological functions were identified, including immunoglobulins, lipoproteins, acute-phase proteins and proteins involved in complement pathways and coagulation. These results provide important insights into which human plasma proteins bind to particular metal oxide nanoparticles. Because protein absorption to nanoparticles may determine their interaction with cells and tissues in vivo, understanding how and why plasma proteins are adsorbed to these particles may be important for understanding their biological responses.

  7. Electrosprayed Metal Oxide Semiconductor Films for Sensitive and Selective Detection of Hydrogen Sulfide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghimbeu, C.M.; Lumbreras, M.; Schoonman, J.; Siadat, M.

    2009-01-01

    Semiconductor metal oxide films of copper-doped tin oxide (Cu-SnO2), tungsten oxide (WO3) and indium oxide (In2O3) were deposited on a platinum coated alumina substrate employing the electrostatic spray deposition technique (ESD). The morphology studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and

  8. Environmental and energy gains from using molten magnesium–sodium–potassium chlorides for electro-metallisation of refractory metal oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The molten eutectic mixture of magnesium, sodium and potassium chlorides (MgCl2–NaCl–KCl has inappreciable solubility for oxide ions, and can help disengage a carbon anode from the oxide ions generated at a metal oxide cathode, and effectively avoid carbon dioxide formation. This “disengaging strategy” was successfully demonstrated in electro-reduction of solid oxides of zirconium and tantalum. It has led to significantly higher current efficiency (93%, and lower energy consumption (1.4 kW h kg−1 in electrolysis of tantalum oxide to tantalum metal compared to the conventional electrolysis in molten calcium chloride (e.g. 78% and 2.4 kW h/kg-Ta.

  9. Oxidation kinetics of hydride-bearing uranium metal corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totemeier, T.C.; Pahl, R.G.; Frank, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of hydride-bearing uranium metal corrosion products from zero power physics reactor (ZPPR) fuel plates was studied using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) in environments of Ar-4%O 2 , Ar-9%O 2 , and Ar-20%O 2 . Ignition of corrosion product samples from two moderately corroded plates was observed between 125 C and 150 C in all environments. The rate of oxidation above the ignition temperature was found to be dependent only on the net flow rate of oxygen in the reacting gas. Due to the higher net oxygen flow rate, burning rates increased with increasing oxygen concentration. Oxidation rates below the ignition temperature were much slower and decreased with increasing test time. The hydride contents of the TGA samples from the two moderately corroded plates, determined from the total weight gain achieved during burning, were 47-61 wt% and 29-39 wt%. Samples from a lightly corroded plate were not reactive; X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed that they contained little hydride. (orig.)

  10. Oxidation kinetics of hydride-bearing uranium metal corrosion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totemeier, Terry C.; Pahl, Robert G.; Frank, Steven M.

    The oxidation behavior of hydride-bearing uranium metal corrosion products from Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) fuel plates was studied using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) in environments of Ar-4%O 2, Ar-9%O 2, and Ar-20%O 2. Ignition of corrosion product samples from two moderately corroded plates was observed between 125°C and 150°C in all environments. The rate of oxidation above the ignition temperature was found to be dependent only on the net flow rate of oxygen in the reacting gas. Due to the higher net oxygen flow rate, burning rates increased with increasing oxygen concentration. Oxidation rates below the ignition temperature were much slower and decreased with increasing test time. The hydride contents of the TGA samples from the two moderately corroded plates, determined from the total weight gain achieved during burning, were 47-61 wt% and 29-39 wt%. Samples from a lightly corroded plate were not reactive; X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed that they contained little hydride.

  11. Facile and large-scale preparation of sandwich-structured graphene-metal oxide composites as anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Hongmei; Zhao, Li; Yue, Wenbo; Wang, Yuan; Jiang, Yang; Zhang, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Graphene-based metal oxides are desirable as potential anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) owing to their superior electrochemical properties. In this work, sandwich-structured graphene-metal oxide (ZnO, NiO) composites are facilely synthesized on a large scale through self-assembly of graphene oxide nanosheets and metal ammine complexes, and then thermal decomposition of the self-assembled products. ZnO or NiO nanoparticles with diameters of 5∼10 nm are immobilized between the layers of graphene nanosheets, which may provide the space for accommodating the volume change of metal oxides during cycles, and highly improve the electronic conductivity of the composites. Accordingly, these sandwich-structured composites exhibit enhanced electrochemical performances compared to metal oxide particles or stacked graphene nanosheets. This facile synthesis method is very suitable for the large-scale production of three-dimensional graphene-based composites as high-performance anodes for LIBs.

  12. A Universal Method to Engineer Metal Oxide-Metal-Carbon Interface for Highly Efficient Oxygen Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Lin; Zha, Dace; Ruan, Yunjun; Li, Zhishan; Ao, Xiang; Zheng, Jie; Jiang, Jianjun; Chen, Hao Ming; Chiang, Wei-Hung; Chen, Jun; Wang, Chundong

    2018-03-27

    Oxygen is the most abundant element in the Earth's crust. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is also the most important reaction in life processes and energy converting/storage systems. Developing techniques toward high-efficiency ORR remains highly desired and a challenge. Here, we report a N-doped carbon (NC) encapsulated CeO 2 /Co interfacial hollow structure (CeO 2 -Co-NC) via a generalized strategy for largely increased oxygen species adsorption and improved ORR activities. First, the metallic Co nanoparticles not only provide high conductivity but also serve as electron donors to largely create oxygen vacancies in CeO 2 . Second, the outer carbon layer can effectively protect cobalt from oxidation and dissociation in alkaline media and as well imparts its higher ORR activity. In the meanwhile, the electronic interactions between CeO 2 and Co in the CeO 2 /Co interface are unveiled theoretically by density functional theory calculations to justify the increased oxygen absorption for ORR activity improvement. The reported CeO 2 -Co-NC hollow nanospheres not only exhibit decent ORR performance with a high onset potential (922 mV vs RHE), half-wave potential (797 mV vs RHE), and small Tafel slope (60 mV dec -1 ) comparable to those of the state-of-the-art Pt/C catalysts but also possess long-term stability with a negative shift of only 7 mV of the half-wave potential after 2000 cycles and strong tolerance against methanol. This work represents a solid step toward high-efficient oxygen reduction.

  13. GRAPHENE BASED METAL AND METAL OXIDE NANOCOMPOSITES: SYNTHESIS, PROPERTIES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mujeeb

    2015-06-11

    Graphene, an atomically thin two-dimensional carbonaceous material, has attracted tremendous attention in the scientific community, due to its exceptional electronic, electrical, and mechanical properties. Indeed, with the recent explosion of methods for a large-scale synthesis of graphene, the number of publications related to graphene and other graphene based materials have increased exponentially. Particularly the easy preparation of graphene like materials, such as, highly reduced graphene oxide (HRG) via reduction of graphite oxide (GO), offers a wide range of possibilities for the preparation of graphene based inorganic nanocomposites by the incorporation of various functional nanomaterials for a variety of applications. In this review, we discuss the current development of graphene based metal and metal oxide nanocomposites, with a detailed account of their synthesis and properties. Specifically, much attention has been given to their wide range of applications in various fields, including, electronics, electrochemical and electrical fields. Overall, by the inclusion of various references, this review covers in detail aspects of the graphene-based inorganic nanocomposites.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of hierarchically porous metal, metal oxide, and carbon monoliths with highly ordered nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grano, Amy Janine

    Hierarchically porous materials are of great interest in such applications as catalysis, separations, fuel cells, and advanced batteries. One such way of producing these materials is through the process of nanocasting, in which a sacrificial template is replicated and then removed to form a monolithic replica. This replica consists of mesopores, which can be ordered or disordered, and bicontinuous macropores, which allow flow throughout the length of the monolith. Hierarchically porous metal oxide and carbon monoliths with an ordered mesopores system are synthesized for the first time via nanocasting. These replicas were used as supports for the deposition of silver particles and the catalytic efficiency was evaluated. The ordered silica template used in producing these monoliths was also used for an in-situ TEM study involving metal nanocasting, and an observation of the destruction of the silica template during nanocasting made. Two new methods of removing the silica template were developed and applied to the synthesis of copper, nickel oxide, and zinc oxide monoliths. Finally, hollow fiber membrane monoliths were examined via x-ray tomography in an attempt to establish the presence of this structure throughout the monolith.

  15. Fabrication of nanostructured metal oxide films with supercritical carbon dioxide: Processing and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Eunyoung

    Nanostructured metal oxide films have many applications in catalysis, microelectronics, microfluidics, photovoltaics and other fields. Since the performance of a device depends greatly on the structure of the material, the development of methodologies that enable prescriptive control of morphology are of great interest. The focus of this work is to control the structure and properties of the nanostructured metal oxide films using novel synthetic schemes in supercritical fluids and to use those films as key building components in alternative energy applications. A supercritical fluid is a substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point. It typically exhibits gas-like transport properties and liquid-like densities. Supercritical fluid deposition (SFD) utilizes these properties of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) to deposit chemically pure metal, oxides and alloys of metal films. SFD is a chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-like process in the sense that it uses similar metal organic precursors and deposits films at elevated temperatures. Instead of vaporizing or subliming the precursors, they are dissolved in supercritical fluids. SFD has typically shown to exhibit higher precursor concentrations, lower deposition temperatures, conformal deposition of films on high aspect ratio features as compared to CVD. In2 O3, ZnO and SnO2 are attractive materials because they are used in transparent conductors. SFD of these materials were studied and In2 O3 deposition kinetics using tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato) In (III) as precursor were determined. Growth rate dependence on the deposition temperature and the precursor concentrations were studied and the physicochemical and optical properties of In2 O3 films were characterized. Metal oxide nanochannels that can potentially be used for microfluidics have been fabricated by sequentially performing nanoimprint lithography (NIL) and SFD. NIL was used to pattern photoresist grating on substrates and SFD of TiO2

  16. Morphology evolution and nanostructure of chemical looping transition metal oxide materials upon redox processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Lang; Cheng, Zhuo; Guo, Mengqing; Fan, Jonathan A.; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2017-01-01

    Transition metal are heavily used in chemical looping technologies because of their high oxygen carrying capacity and high thermal reactivity. These oxygen activities result in the oxide formation and oxygen vacancy formation that affect the nanoscale crystal phase and morphology within these materials and their subsequent bulk chemical behavior. In this study, two selected earlier transition metals manganese and cobalt as well as two selected later transition metals copper and nickel that are important to chemical looping reactions are investigated when they undergo cyclic redox reactions. We found Co microparticles exhibited increased CoO impurity presence when oxidized to Co 3 O 4 upon cyclic oxidation; CuO redox cycles prefer to be limited to a reduced form of Cu 2 O and an oxidized form of CuO; Mn microparticles were oxidized to a mixed phases of MnO and Mn 3 O 4 , which causes delamination during oxidation. For Ni microparticles, a dense surface were observed during the redox reaction. The atomistic thermodynamics methods and density functional theory (DFT) calculations are carried out to elucidate the effect of oxygen dissociation and migration on the morphological evolution of nanostructures during the redox processes. Our results indicate that the earlier transition metals (Mn and Co) tend to have stronger interaction with O 2 than the later transition metals (Ni and Cu). Also, our modified Brønsted−Evans−Polanyi (BEP) relationship for reaction energies and total reaction barriers reveals that reactions of earlier transition metals are more exergonic and have lower oxygen dissociation barriers than those of later transition metals. In addition, it was found that for these transition metal oxides the oxygen vacancy formation energies increase with the depth. The oxide in the higher oxidation state of transition metal has lower vacancy formation energy, which can facilitate forming the defective nanostructures. The fundamental understanding of these

  17. Effect of Element Diffusion Through Metallic Networks During Oxidation of Type 321 Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Z.; Natesan, K.; Cai, Z.; Gosztola, D.; Cook, R.; Hiller, J.

    2014-04-01

    A detailed study was conducted on localized oxidation on Type 321 stainless steel (321ss) using synchrotron x-ray nanobeam analysis along with Raman microscopy. The results showed the presence of metallic nanonetworks in the oxide scales, which plays an important role in the continued oxidation of the alloy at 750 °C. A mechanism is proposed to explain the rapid oxidation of 321ss in complex gaseous environments at elevated temperature. Neutral metal atoms could diffuse outward, and carbon atoms could diffuse inward through the metallic nanonetworks in oxide layers. Alternately, diffusion tunnels can dramatically affect the phase composition of the oxide scales. Since the diffusion rate of neutral metal and carbon atoms through the metallic nanonetworks can be much faster than the diffusion of cations through Cr2O3, the metallic nanonetwork provides a path through the protective Cr2O3 layer for the rapid outward diffusion of metallic chromium and iron atoms to the nonprotective spinel layer. This diffusion process affects the solid-state reaction near the alloy-oxide boundary, and a dense Cr2O3 protective layer does not form. The classic stable structure of the oxide scales, with a dense Cr2O3 layer at the bottom, is damaged by the rapid diffusion through the tunnel at the reaction front, resulting in locally accelerated oxidation. This process can subsequently lead to "breakaway" oxidation and catastrophic failure of the alloy.

  18. Transformations of highly enriched uranium into metal or oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nollet, P.; Sarrat, P.

    1964-01-01

    The enriched uranium workshops in Cadarache have a double purpose on the one hand to convert uranium hexafluoride into metal or oxide, and on the other hand to recover the uranium contained in scrap materials produced in the different metallurgical transformations. The principles that have been adopted for the design and safety of these workshops are reported. The nuclear safety is based on the geometrical limitations of the processing vessels. To establish the processes and the technology of these workshops, many studies have been made since 1960, some of which have led to original achievements. The uranium hexafluoride of high isotopic enrichment is converted either by injection of the gas into ammonia or by an original process of direct hydrogen reduction to uranium tetrafluoride. The uranium contained m uranium-zirconium metal scrap can be recovered by combustion with hydrogen chloride followed treatment of the uranium chloride by fluorine in order to obtain the uranium in the hexafluoride state. Recovery of the uranium contained m various scrap materials is obtained by a conventional refining process combustion of metallic scrap, nitric acid dissolution of the oxide, solvent purification by tributyl phosphate, ammonium diuranate precipitation, calcining, reduction and hydro fluorination into uranium tetrafluoride, bomb reduction by calcium and slag treatment. Two separate workshops operate along these lines one takes care of the uranium with an isotopic enrichment of up to 3 p. 100, the other handles the high enrichments. The handling of each step of this process, bearing in mind the necessity for nuclear safety, has raised some special technological problems and has led to the conception of new apparatus, in particular the roasting furnace for metal turnings, the nitric acid dissolution unit, the continuous precipitator and ever safe filter and dryer for ammonium diuranate, the reduction and hydro fluorination furnace and the slag recovery apparatus These are

  19. Microarray study of temperature-dependent sensitivity and selectivity of metal/oxide sensing interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffany, Jason; Cavicchi, Richard E.; Semancik, Stephen

    2001-02-01

    Conductometric gas microsensors offer the benefits of ppm-level sensitivity, real-time data, simple interfacing to electronics hardware, and low power consumption. The type of device we have been exploring consists of a sensor film deposited on a "microhotplate"- a 100 micron platform with built-in heating (to activate reactions on the sensing surface) and thermometry. We have been using combinatorial studies of 36-element arrays to characterize the relationship between sensor film composition, operating temperature, and response, as measured by the device's sensitivity and selectivity. Gases that have been tested on these arrays include methanol, ethanol, dichloromethane, propane, methane, acetone, benzene, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide, and are of interest in the management of environmental waste sites. These experiments compare tin oxide films modified by catalyst overlayers, and ultrathin metal seed layers. The seed layers are used as part of a chemical vapor deposition process that uses each array element's microheater to activate the deposition of SnO2, and control its microstructure. Low coverage (20 Ê) catalytic metals (Pd, Cu, Cr, In, Au) are deposited on the oxides by masked evaporation or sputtering. This presentation demonstrates the value of an array-based approach for developing film processing methods, measuring performance characteristics, and establishing reproducibility. It also illustrates how temperature-dependent response data for varied metal/oxide compositions can be used to tailor a microsensor array for a given application.

  20. Cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by different metallic nanoparticles on human kidney cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohayon-Courtès Céline

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some manufactured nanoparticles are metal-based and have a wide variety of applications in electronic, engineering and medicine. Until now, many studies have described the potential toxicity of NPs on pulmonary target, while little attention has been paid to kidney which is considered to be a secondary target organ. The objective of this study, on human renal culture cells, was to assess the toxicity profile of metallic nanoparticles (TiO2, ZnO and CdS usable in industrial production. Comparative studies were conducted, to identify whether particle properties impact cytotoxicity by altering the intracellular oxidative status. Results Nanoparticles were first characterized by size, surface charge, dispersion and solubility. Cytotoxicity of NPs was then evaluated in IP15 (glomerular mesangial and HK-2 (epithelial proximal cell lines. ZnO and CdS NPs significantly increased the cell mortality, in a dose-dependent manner. Cytotoxic effects were correlated with the physicochemical properties of NPs tested and the cell type used. Analysis of reactive oxygen species and intracellular levels of reduced and oxidized glutathione revealed that particles induced stress according to their composition, size and solubility. Protein involved in oxidative stress such as NF-κb was activated with ZnO and CdS nanoparticles. Such effects were not observed with TiO2 nanoparticles. Conclusion On glomerular and tubular human renal cells, ZnO and CdS nanoparticles exerted cytotoxic effects that were correlated with metal composition, particle scale and metal solubility. ROS production and oxidative stress induction clearly indicated their nephrotoxic potential.

  1. Absorbed dose assessment in particle-beam irradiated metal-oxide and metal-nonmetal memristors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Ivan D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Absorbed dose was estimated after Monte Carlo simulation of proton and ion beam irradiation on metal-oxide and metal-nonmetal memristors. A memristive device comprises two electrodes, each of a nanoscale width, and a double-layer active region disposed between and in electrical contact with electrodes. Following materials were considered for the active region: titanium dioxide, zirconium dioxide, hafnium dioxide, strontium titanium trioxide and galium nitride. Obtained results show that significant amount of oxygen ion - oxygen and nonmetal ion - nonmetal vacancy pairs is to be generated. The loss of such vacancies from the device is believed to deteriorate the device performance over time. Estimated absorbed dose values in the memristor for different constituting materials are of the same order of magnitude because of the close values of treshold displacement energies for the investigated materials.

  2. Surface Preparation and Deposited Gate Oxides for Gallium Nitride Based Metal Oxide Semiconductor Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Rathnait D.; McIntyre, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    The literature on polar Gallium Nitride (GaN) surfaces, surface treatments and gate dielectrics relevant to metal oxide semiconductor devices is reviewed. The significance of the GaN growth technique and growth parameters on the properties of GaN epilayers, the ability to modify GaN surface properties using in situ and ex situ processes and progress on the understanding and performance of GaN metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices are presented and discussed. Although a reasonably consistent picture is emerging from focused studies on issues covered in each of these topics, future research can achieve a better understanding of the critical oxide-semiconductor interface by probing the connections between these topics. The challenges in analyzing defect concentrations and energies in GaN MOS gate stacks are discussed. Promising gate dielectric deposition techniques such as atomic layer deposition, which is already accepted by the semiconductor industry for silicon CMOS device fabrication, coupled with more advanced physical and electrical characterization methods will likely accelerate the pace of learning required to develop future GaN-based MOS technology.

  3. Effect of biomolecules adsorption on oxide layers developed on metallic materials used in cooling water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Bautista, Blanca-Estela

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was carried out in the frame of the BIOCOR ITN European project, in collaboration with the industrial partner RSE S.p.A. (Italy). Metallic materials commonly used in cooling systems of power plants may be affected by bio-corrosion induced by biofilm formation. The objective of this work was to study the influence of biomolecules adsorption, which is the initial stage of biofilm formation, on the electrochemical behaviour and the surface chemical composition of three metallic materials (70Cu-30Ni alloy, 304L stainless steel and titanium) in seawater environments. In a first step, the interactions between a model protein, the bovine serum albumin (BSA), and the surface of these materials were investigated. Secondly, tightly bound (TB) and loosely bound (LB) extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), that play a fundamental role in the different stages of biofilm formation, maturation and maintenance, were extracted from Pseudomonas NCIMB 2021 marine strain, and their effects on oxide layers were also evaluated. For that purpose, electrochemical measurements (corrosion potential E(corr) vs time, polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)) performed during the very first steps of oxide layers formation (1 h immersion time) were combined to surface analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ions mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Compared to 70Cu-30Ni alloy in static artificial seawater (ASW) without biomolecules, for which a thick duplex oxide layer (outer redeposited Cu 2 O layer and inner oxidized nickel layer) is shown, the presence of BSA, TB EPS and LB EPS leads to a mixed oxide layer (oxidized copper and nickel) with a lower thickness. In the biomolecules-containing solutions, this oxide layer is covered by an adsorbed organic layer, mainly composed of proteins. A model is proposed to analyse impedance data obtained at E(corr). The results show a slow-down of the anodic reaction in the presence

  4. Oxidation catalysts comprising metal exchanged hexaaluminate wherein the metal is Sr, Pd, La, and/or Mn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, David [Boulder, CO; Cook, Ronald [Lakewood, CO

    2008-10-28

    The present invention provides metal-exchanged hexaaluminate catalysts that exhibit good catalytic activity and/or stability at high temperatures for extended periods with retention of activity as combustion catalysts, and more generally as oxidation catalysts, that make them eminently suitable for use in methane combustion, particularly for use in natural gas fired gas turbines. The hexaaluminate catalysts of this invention are of particular interest for methane combustion processes for minimization of the generation of undesired levels (less than about 10 ppm) of NOx species. Metal exchanged hexaaluminate oxidation catalysts are also useful for oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOC), particularly hydrocarbons. Metal exchanged hexaaluminate oxidation catalysts are further useful for partial oxidation, particularly at high temperatures, of reduced species, particularly hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes).

  5. Heterogeneous Catalytic Oxidation of Simple Alcohols by Transition Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobse, Leon; Vink, Sebastiaan O; Wijngaarden, Sven; Juurlink, Ludo B F

    2017-09-12

    The "exploding" flask demonstration presents a well-known illustration of heterogeneous catalyzed methanol oxidation. We find that for the same vapor pressure, the demonstration also works for all primary and secondary alcohols up to butanol but not for a tertiary alcohol. Also, we show that the demonstration works for a large range of transition metal catalysts. Hence, this demonstration, which is often applied for the repetitive explosions when methanol is used, may also be used to argue the requirement of initial dehydrogenation of the alcohol to an aldehyde in the catalytic reaction mechanism to support the general insensitivity to reactant molecules in heterogeneous catalysis in contrast to biological catalysis and to provide proof for activity trends as often depicted by volcano plots.

  6. Energetic Surface Smoothing of Complex Metal-Oxide Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willmott, P.R.; Herger, R.; Schlepuetz, C.M.; Martoccia, D.; Patterson, B.D.

    2006-01-01

    A novel energetic smoothing mechanism in the growth of complex metal-oxide thin films is reported from in situ kinetic studies of pulsed laser deposition of La 1-x Sr x MnO 3 on SrTiO 3 , using x-ray reflectivity. Below 50% monolayer coverage, prompt insertion of energetic impinging species into small-diameter islands causes them to break up to form daughter islands. This smoothing mechanism therefore inhibits the formation of large-diameter 2D islands and the seeding of 3D growth. Above 50% coverage, islands begin to coalesce and their breakup is thereby suppressed. The energy of the incident flux is instead rechanneled into enhanced surface diffusion, which leads to an increase in the effective surface temperature of ΔT≅500 K. These results have important implications on optimal conditions for nanoscale device fabrication using these materials

  7. Bicarbonate-induced activation of H₂O₂ for metal-free oxidative desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokare, Alok D; Choi, Wonyong

    2016-03-05

    Efficient oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of model oil containing dibenzothiophene (DBT) and aromatic thiophenic derivatives has been achieved at room temperature using hydrogen peroxide activation by inorganic bicarbonate (HCO3(-)). Using in-situ formation of peroxymonocarbonate as oxidant, the transformation of main model substrate DBT to corresponding DBT-sulfone was easily accomplished in biphasic reaction conditions. In the presence of water-acetonitrile polar phase, increasing the water content upto 50% decreased the extraction capacity more than 3 times, but ∼ 90% DBT oxidation was still achieved. The oxidizing capacity of bicarbonate catalyst was maintained during repeated ODS cycles, but DBT removal efficiency was critically dependent on the extraction capacity of the polar phase. Under heterogeneous reaction conditions, bicarbonate-modified ion-exchange resin achieved similar ODS activity compared to the homogeneous catalytic system. Additionally, the efficient formation of peroxymonocarbonate using gaseous CO2 precursor in alkaline conditions was also utilized for DBT oxidation. The present study proposes the NaHCO3/H2O2 catalytic system as an efficient and cheap metal-free alternative for the oxidative removal of aromatic sulfur compounds from fuel oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Optical excitations of transition-metal oxides under the orbital multiplicity effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J S; Kim, M W; Noh, T W

    2005-01-01

    We investigated optical excitations of transition-metal (TM) oxides with metal oxygen octahedra taking account of the orbital multiplicity effects. We predicted excitation energies of intersite d-d transitions and p-d transitions of TM oxides. We compared the evaluated excitation energies with reported experimental data, and found that they are in good agreement with each other. Moreover, we could demonstrate possible answers for a few long-standing problems of the low-frequency spectral features in some early 3d TM oxides: (i) the broad and multi-peak structures of the d-d transitions (ii) the low values (around 2 eV) of the d-d transition energies for some t 2g 1 and t 2g 2 systems, and (iii) the lack of the d-d transition below 4.0 eV region for LaCrO 3 , one of the t 2g 3 systems. These indicate that our approach considering the orbital multiplicity effects could provide good explanations of intriguing features in the optical spectra of some early TM oxides. In addition, we showed that optical spectroscopy can be useful as a powerful tool to investigate spin and/or orbital correlations in the TM ions. Finally, we discussed the implications of the orbital multiplicity in the Zannen-Sawatzky-Allen scheme, which has been used successfully to classify correlated electron systems

  9. Comparative Evaluation of Some Properties of Native and Oxidized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to produce native starches from cassava, yam and rice, and to modify a portion of the native starches by oxidation and compare their properties. The modification process was carried out by treating the native starches with food grade sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The proximate, swelling index and ...

  10. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at transition metal/oxide interfaces and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieny, B.; Chshiev, M.

    2017-04-01

    Spin electronics is a rapidly expanding field stimulated by a strong synergy between breakthrough basic research discoveries and industrial applications in the fields of magnetic recording, magnetic field sensors, nonvolatile memories [magnetic random access memories (MRAM) and especially spin-transfer-torque MRAM (STT-MRAM)]. In addition to the discovery of several physical phenomena (giant magnetoresistance, tunnel magnetoresistance, spin-transfer torque, spin-orbit torque, spin Hall effect, spin Seebeck effect, etc.), outstanding progress has been made on the growth and nanopatterning of magnetic multilayered films and nanostructures in which these phenomena are observed. Magnetic anisotropy is usually observed in materials that have large spin-orbit interactions. However, in 2002 perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) was discovered to exist at magnetic metal/oxide interfaces [for instance Co (Fe )/alumina ]. Surprisingly, this PMA is observed in systems where spin-orbit interactions are quite weak, but its amplitude is remarkably large—comparable to that measured at Co /Pt interfaces, a reference for large interfacial anisotropy (anisotropy˜1.4 erg /cm2=1.4 mJ /m2 ). Actually, this PMA was found to be very common at magnetic metal/oxide interfaces since it has been observed with a large variety of amorphous or crystalline oxides, including AlOx, MgO, TaOx, HfOx, etc. This PMA is thought to be the result of electronic hybridization between the oxygen and the magnetic transition metal orbit across the interface, a hypothesis supported by ab initio calculations. Interest in this phenomenon was sparked in 2010 when it was demonstrated that the PMA at magnetic transition metal/oxide interfaces could be used to build out-of-plane magnetized magnetic tunnel junctions for STT-MRAM cells. In these systems, the PMA at the CoFeB /MgO interface can be used to simultaneously obtain good memory retention, thanks to the large PMA amplitude, and a low write current

  11. Development of Mixed Ion-Electron Conducting Metal Oxides for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Wang Hay

    A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is an energy conversion device, which directly converts chemical fuels (e.g., H2, C xHy) into electricity and heat with high efficiency up to 90%. The by-product of CO2 can be safely sequestrated or subsequently chemically transformed back into fuels (e.g., CO, CH 4) by electrolysis using renewable energy sources such as solar and wind. The state-of-the-art Ni-YSZ anode is de-activated in the presence of ppm level of H2S and forming coke in hydrocarbons. Currently, mixed ion and electron conductors (MIECs) are considered as alternatives for Ni-YSZ in SOFCs. The key goal of the research was to develop mixed ion-electron conducting metal oxides based on B-site disordered perovskite-type Ba(Ca,Nb)1-x MxO3-delta (M = Mn, Fe, Co), the B-site 1:1 ordered perovskite-type (M = Mn, Fe, Co) and the Sr2PbO4-type Sr2Ce1-xPrxO4 for SOFCs. Ba2(Ca,Nb)2-xMxO6-delta was chemically stable in 30 ppm levels of H2S at 600 °C for 24 h and in pure CO2 at 800 °C for 24 h. The thermal expansion coefficients (TEC) of the as-prepared ordered perovskites was found to be comparable to Zr0.84Y0.16O1.92 (YSZ). The near-surface concentration of Fe2+ in Ba2Ca 0.67Fe0.33NbO6-delta was found to be about 3 times higher than that in the bulk sample. The electrochemical performance of Ba2Ca0.67M0.33NbO6-delta was assessed by ac impedance spectroscopy using a YSZ supported half-cell. The area specific polarization resistance (ASR) of all samples was found to decrease with increasing temperature. The ASR for H2 gas oxidation can be correlated to the higher concentration of low valence Fe2+ species near-surface (nano-scale). BaCa0.335M0.165Nb0.5O3-delta crystallizes in the B-site disordered primitive perovskite (space group Pm-3m) at 900 °C in air, which can be converted into the B-site 1:2 ordered perovskite (space group P-3m1) at 1200 °C and the B-site 1:1 ordered double perovskite phase (space group Fm-3m ) at 1300 °C. The chemical stability of the perovskites in CO

  12. Comparative study of aqueous and solvent methods for cleaning metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, J.L.; Goad, H.A.

    1976-01-01

    Studies were performed to determine the comparative effectiveness of solvent and aqueous detergent methods for cleaning various metals. The metals investigated included 304L stainless steel, beryllium, uranium-6.5 wt percent niobium alloy, and unalloyed uranium ( 238 U). The studies were initiated in response to governmental regulations restricting the use of some chlorinated solvents. Results showed that aqueous detergent cleaning was more effective than solvents, i.e. trichloroethylene and methyl chloroform, for the removal of light industrial soils. The subsequent adoption of aqueous cleaning at this plant has facilitated waste disposal, which contributed to recorded economic savings. The controlled use of aqueous detergents is environmentally acceptable and has decreased the hazards of fire and toxicity that are generally associated with solvents. 8 tables, 15 figures

  13. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy of transition metal based water oxidation catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oversteeg, Christina H M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413490483; Doan, Hoang Q; de Groot, Frank M F|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08747610X; Cuk, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    X-ray absorption studies of the geometric and electronic structure of primarily heterogeneous Co, Ni, and Mn based water oxidation catalysts are reviewed. The X-ray absorption near edge and extended X-ray absorption fine structure studies of the metal K-edge, characterize the metal oxidation state,

  14. High resolution electron microscopy of misfit dislocations at metal-oxide interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, HB; Kooi, BJ; Vellinga, WP; De Hosson, JTM; Lejcek, P; Paidar,

    1999-01-01

    Misfit dislocations at metal-oxide interfaces are studied using HRTEM. By observing misfit dislocations the bonding across the metal-oxide interface can be studied. This is done for two cases, a parallel Cu-MgO {111} interface and tilted interfaces in Pd-ZnO and Ag-ZnO. From the Cu-MgO micrographs

  15. Effect of Different Binders on the Electrochemical Performance of Metal Oxide Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Feng, Lili; Yang, Wenrong; Zhang, Yinyin; Zhang, Yanli; Bai, Wei; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Wei; Chuan, Yongming; Zheng, Ziguang; Guan, Hongjin

    2017-10-30

    When testing the electrochemical performance of metal oxide anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), binder played important role on the electrochemical performance. Which binder was more suitable for preparing transition metal oxides anodes of LIBs has not been systematically researched. Herein, five different binders such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) HSV900, PVDF 301F, PVDF Solvay5130, the mixture of styrene butadiene rubber and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SBR+CMC), and polyacrylonitrile (LA133) were studied to make anode electrodes (compared to the full battery). The electrochemical tests show that using SBR+CMC and LA133 binder which use water as solution were significantly better than PVDF. The SBR+CMC binder remarkably improve the bonding capacity, cycle stability, and rate performance of battery anode, and the capacity retention was about 87% after 50th cycle relative to the second cycle. SBR+CMC binder was more suitable for making transition metal oxides anodes of LIBs.

  16. Hydrogen chemisorption and oxidation of transition metal carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethin, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    A study was made of the catalytic activity of WC, focusing on the possible influence of point defects. The chemisorption of H on WC and titanium oxycarbides was studied with differential scanning calorimetry. The catalytic activity of these materials for oxidation of H was determined by potentiostatic steady-state and potentiodynamic measurements in acid electrolyte. Compositions of WC surfaces were determined by x-ray photoemission and related to the catalytic behavior. Titanium oxycarbide surfaces were analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy. Of the carbides tested only one WC preparation was able to chemisorb H. Both WC powders investigated catalyzed H oxidation with similar specific activities. Spectroscopic studies showed that the active surface of WC was a mixture of WO 3 and a carbon-deficient WC phase. This result indicates that carbon vacancies are the active sites in tungsten carbide. Theoretical models of a carbon vacancy surrounded by metal atoms suggested by calculations by other workers support this assignment and identify the important role of the W6s level. The measured value of the heat of chemisorption is consistent with the proposed model

  17. Novel metal oxides prepared by ingenious synthetic routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, C.N.R.; Gopalakrishnan, J.; Vidyasagar, K.; Ganguli, A.K.; Ramanan, A.; Ganapathi, L.

    1986-01-01

    Several novel oxides have been prepared by the decomposition of carbonate precursors of calcite structure of the general formulas Mn/sub 1-x/M/sub x/CO 3 (M = Mg,Co,Cd), Ca/sub 1-x/M/sup prime//sub x/CO 3 , and Ca/sub 1-x/-yM/sup //sub x/M/sup double-prime//sub y/CO 3 (M',M'' = Mn,Fe,Co). Typical of the oxides synthesized are a variety of monoxides, Mn/sub 1-x/M/sub x/O, of rocksalt structure and perovskite-related oxides such as Ca 2 FeCoO 5 , Ca 2 Co 2 O 5 , and Ca 3 Fe 2 MnO 8 , many of them exhibiting novel anion-vacancy-ordered superstructures. An interesting series of oxides prepared by the topotactic reduction of Ca 2 Fe/sub 2-x/Mn/sub x/O/sub 6-y/ (synthesized by the decomposition of the corresponding carbonate precursors) is Ca 2 Fe/sub 2-x/Mn/sub x/O 5 where three different coordination polyhedra (octahedra, tetrahedra, and square pyramids) of the transition metals coexist. Topotactic reduction of LaCoO 3 and LaNiO 3 yields new oxides, La 2 Co 2 O 5 and La 2 Ni 2 O 5 , possessing anion-vacancy-ordered superstructures. While La 2 Co 2 O 5 adopts the brownmillerite structure, La 2 Ni 2 O 5 exhibits a new type of vacancy ordering with octahedral and square-planar coordination of Ni 2+ . Slightly reduced LaNiO 3 seem to exhibit crystallographic shear (CS) planes similar to WO/sub 3-x/. Topotactic dehydration of isostructural Mo/sub 1-x/W/sub x/O 3 x H 2 O provides a convenient route for the synthesis of Mo/sub 1-x/W/sub x/O 3 (0 3 -related structure

  18. All-optical bit magnitude comparator device using metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Lokendra; Chen, Nan-Kuang

    2017-12-01

    A plasmonic metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide has great success in confining the surface plasmon up to a deep subwavelength scale. The structure of a nonlinear Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) using a plasmonic MIM waveguide has been analyzed. A one-bit magnitude comparator has been designed using an MZI and two linear control waveguides. The device works on the Kerr effect inside the plasmonics waveguide. The mathematical description of the device is explained. The simulation of the device is done using MATLAB® and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method.

  19. Application of Iron Oxide Nano materials for the Removal of Heavy Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, P.N.; Chopda, L.V.

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century water polluted by heavy metal is one of the environment problems. Various methods for removal of the heavy metal ions from the water have extensively been studied. Application of iron oxide nana particles based nano materials for removal of heavy metals is well-known adsorbents for remediation of water. Due to its important physiochemical property, inexpensive method and easy regeneration in the presence of external magnetic field make them more attractive toward water purification. Surface modification strategy of iron oxide nanoparticles is also used for the remediation of water increases the efficiency of iron oxide for the removal of the heavy metal ions from the aqueous system.

  20. Enhanced metal recovery through oxidation in liquid and/or supercritical carbon dioxide

    KAUST Repository

    Blanco, Mario

    2017-08-24

    Process for enhanced metal recovery from, for example, metal-containing feedstock using liquid and/or supercritical fluid carbon dioxide and a source of oxidation. The oxidation agent can be free of complexing agent. The metal-containing feedstock can be a mineral such as a refractory mineral. The mineral can be an ore with high sulfide content or an ore rich in carbonaceous material. Waste can also be used as the metal-containing feedstock. The metal-containing feedstock can be used which is not subjected to ultrafine grinding. Relatively low temperatures and pressures can be used. The metal-containing feedstock can be fed into the reactor at a temperature below the critical temperature of the carbon dioxide, and an exotherm from the oxidation reaction can provide the supercritical temperature. The oxidant can be added to the reactor at a rate to maintain isothermal conditions in the reactor. Minimal amounts of water can be used as an extractive medium.

  1. Catalytic role of transition metals supported on niobium oxide in O2 activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, Akbar

    2018-03-01

    Metal particles supported on metal oxides (MMO) are promising materials with versatile applications such as catalyst in fuel cell technologies. As one of the transition metal oxides, niobium oxide (NbO) demonstrates a wide interesting properties that make it a potentially applicable in MMO materials. Here, the catalytic activity for the O2 activation of transition metals (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Rh, Pd, Ag, Ir, Pt, and Au) supported on the NbO has been studied theoretically using density functional theory (DFT). The activation of O2 molecule and yielding two separated O atoms is an essential step for the oxygen reduction reaction. Our study demonstrates that the transition metals supported on the NbO can act as driving force for O2 dissociation. Consistent with the prediction of reactivity descriptors, the maximum catalytic activity toward O2 activation is related to the Pt-supported on the NbO metal oxide.

  2. Sputter fabricated Nb-oxide-Nb josephson junctions incorporating post-oxidation noble metal layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bain, R.J.P.; Donaldson, G.B.

    1985-01-01

    We present an extension, involving other metals, of the work of Hawkins and Clarke, who found that a thin layer of copper prevented the formation of the superconductive shorts which are an inevitable consequence of sputtering niobium counter-electrodes directly on top of niobium oxide. We find gold to be the most satisfactory, and that 0.3 nm is sufficient to guarantee short-free junctions of excellent electrical and mechanical stability, though high excess conductance means they are best suited to shunted-junction applications, as in SQUIDs. We present results for critical current dependence on oxide thickness and on gold thickness. Our data shows that thermal oxide growth is described by the Cabrera-Mott mechanism. We show that the protective effect of the gold layer can be understood in terms of the electro-chemistry of the Nb-oxide-Au structure, and that the reduced quasi-particle resistance of the junctions relative to goldfree junctions with evaporated counterelectrodes can be explained in terms of barrier shape modification, and not by proximity effect mechanisms. The performance of a DC SQUID based on these junctions is described

  3. Continuous Polyol Synthesis of Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Using a Segmented Flow Tubular Reactor (SFTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Testino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years a new type of tubular plug flow reactor, the segmented flow tubular reactor (SFTR, has proven its versatility and robustness through the water-based synthesis of precipitates as varied as CaCO3, BaTiO3, Mn(1−xNixC2O4·2H2O, YBa oxalates, copper oxalate, ZnS, ZnO, iron oxides, and TiO2 produced with a high powder quality (phase composition, particle size, and shape and high reproducibility. The SFTR has been developed to overcome the classical problems of powder production scale-up from batch processes, which are mainly linked with mass and heat transfer. Recently, the SFTR concept has been further developed and applied for the synthesis of metals, metal oxides, and salts in form of nano- or micro-particles in organic solvents. This has been done by increasing the working temperature and modifying the particle carrying solvent. In this paper we summarize the experimental results for four materials prepared according to the polyol synthesis route combined with the SFTR. CeO2, Ni, Ag, and Ca3(PO42 nanoparticles (NPs can be obtained with a production rate of about 1–10 g per h. The production was carried out for several hours with constant product quality. These findings further corroborate the reliability and versatility of the SFTR for high throughput powder production.

  4. The Biomechanisms of Metal and Metal-Oxide Nanoparticles’ Interactions with Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sondra S. Teske

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans are increasingly exposed to nanoparticles (NPs in medicine and in industrial settings, where significant concentrations of NPs are common. However, NP interactions with and effects on biomolecules and organisms have only recently been addressed. Within we review the literature regarding proposed modes of action for metal and metal-oxide NPs, two of the most prevalent types manufactured. Iron-oxide NPs, for instance, are used as tracers for magnetic resonance imaging of oncological tumors and as vehicles for therapeutic drug delivery. Factors and theories that determine the physicochemical and biokinetic behaviors of NPs are discussed, along with the observed toxicological effects of NPs on cells. Key thermodynamic and kinetic models that explain the sources of energy transfer from NPs to biological targets are summarized, in addition to quantitative structural activity relationship (QSAR modeling efforts. Future challenges for nanotoxicological research are discussed. We conclude that NP studies based on cell culture are often inconsistent and underestimate the toxicity of NPs. Thus, the effect of NPs needs to be examined in whole animal systems.

  5. Continuous Polyol Synthesis of Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Using a Segmented Flow Tubular Reactor (SFTR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testino, Andrea; Pilger, Frank; Lucchini, Mattia Alberto; Quinsaat, Jose Enrico Q; Stähli, Christoph; Bowen, Paul

    2015-06-08

    Over the last years a new type of tubular plug flow reactor, the segmented flow tubular reactor (SFTR), has proven its versatility and robustness through the water-based synthesis of precipitates as varied as CaCO3, BaTiO3, Mn(1-x)NixC2O4·2H2O, YBa oxalates, copper oxalate, ZnS, ZnO, iron oxides, and TiO2 produced with a high powder quality (phase composition, particle size, and shape) and high reproducibility. The SFTR has been developed to overcome the classical problems of powder production scale-up from batch processes, which are mainly linked with mass and heat transfer. Recently, the SFTR concept has been further developed and applied for the synthesis of metals, metal oxides, and salts in form of nano- or micro-particles in organic solvents. This has been done by increasing the working temperature and modifying the particle carrying solvent. In this paper we summarize the experimental results for four materials prepared according to the polyol synthesis route combined with the SFTR. CeO2, Ni, Ag, and Ca3(PO4)2 nanoparticles (NPs) can be obtained with a production rate of about 1-10 g per h. The production was carried out for several hours with constant product quality. These findings further corroborate the reliability and versatility of the SFTR for high throughput powder production.

  6. The growth of thin film epitaxial oxide-metal heterostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, C

    1998-01-01

    films with lowest IR emissivity are those made from the purest targets despite their having comparable roughnesses to films from lower purity targets. The lowest emissivity achieved was in the range of 1.64% to 1.72% measured at 3.8 mu m for 1.5 to 1.8 mu m thick films. Modifications to standard idealized Drude theory have been made which, in a phenomenological way, take account of imperfections in the sputtered Al film, oxidation state and roughness. in electric properties of the Nb film and the reduction in crystalline quality of the MgO layer. The reduction of transition temperature to the superconducting state, Tc, and the similarly systematic increase in the Nb lattice parameter were observed consistent with oxygen content data reported in the literature, as the Nb became heavily oxidized. Examination of the surface of clean and oxidized Nb by atomic force microscopy, and deposition of MgO in UHV onto a previously oxidized Nb surface, suggested that the decrease in crystalline quality of the MgO can be a...

  7. New Perspectives on Oxidized Genome Damage and Repair Inhibition by Pro-Oxidant Metals in Neurological Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Joy; Guerrero, Erika N.; Hegde, Pavana M.; Wang, Haibo; Boldogh, Istvan; Rao, Kosagi Sharaf; Mitra, Sankar; Hegde, Muralidhar L.

    2014-01-01

    The primary cause(s) of neuronal death in most cases of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, are still unknown. However, the association of certain etiological factors, e.g., oxidative stress, protein misfolding/aggregation, redox metal accumulation and various types of damage to the genome, to pathological changes in the affected brain region(s) have been consistently observed. While redox metal toxicity received major attention in the last decade, its potential as a therapeutic target is still at a cross-roads, mostly because of the lack of mechanistic understanding of metal dyshomeostasis in affected neurons. Furthermore, previous studies have established the role of metals in causing genome damage, both directly and via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but little was known about their impact on genome repair. Our recent studies demonstrated that excess levels of iron and copper observed in neurodegenerative disease-affected brain neurons could not only induce genome damage in neurons, but also affect their repair by oxidatively inhibiting NEIL DNA glycosylases, which initiate the repair of oxidized DNA bases. The inhibitory effect was reversed by a combination of metal chelators and reducing agents, which underscore the need for elucidating the molecular basis for the neuronal toxicity of metals in order to develop effective therapeutic approaches. In this review, we have focused on the oxidative genome damage repair pathway as a potential target for reducing pro-oxidant metal toxicity in neurological diseases. PMID:25036887

  8. New Perspectives on Oxidized Genome Damage and Repair Inhibition by Pro-Oxidant Metals in Neurological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Mitra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The primary cause(s of neuronal death in most cases of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, are still unknown. However, the association of certain etiological factors, e.g., oxidative stress, protein misfolding/aggregation, redox metal accumulation and various types of damage to the genome, to pathological changes in the affected brain region(s have been consistently observed. While redox metal toxicity received major attention in the last decade, its potential as a therapeutic target is still at a cross-roads, mostly because of the lack of mechanistic understanding of metal dyshomeostasis in affected neurons. Furthermore, previous studies have established the role of metals in causing genome damage, both directly and via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, but little was known about their impact on genome repair. Our recent studies demonstrated that excess levels of iron and copper observed in neurodegenerative disease-affected brain neurons could not only induce genome damage in neurons, but also affect their repair by oxidatively inhibiting NEIL DNA glycosylases, which initiate the repair of oxidized DNA bases. The inhibitory effect was reversed by a combination of metal chelators and reducing agents, which underscore the need for elucidating the molecular basis for the neuronal toxicity of metals in order to develop effective therapeutic approaches. In this review, we have focused on the oxidative genome damage repair pathway as a potential target for reducing pro-oxidant metal toxicity in neurological diseases.

  9. New perspectives on oxidized genome damage and repair inhibition by pro-oxidant metals in neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Joy; Guerrero, Erika N; Hegde, Pavana M; Wang, Haibo; Boldogh, Istvan; Rao, Kosagi Sharaf; Mitra, Sankar; Hegde, Muralidhar L

    2014-07-17

    The primary cause(s) of neuronal death in most cases of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, are still unknown. However, the association of certain etiological factors, e.g., oxidative stress, protein misfolding/aggregation, redox metal accumulation and various types of damage to the genome, to pathological changes in the affected brain region(s) have been consistently observed. While redox metal toxicity received major attention in the last decade, its potential as a therapeutic target is still at a cross-roads, mostly because of the lack of mechanistic understanding of metal dyshomeostasis in affected neurons. Furthermore, previous studies have established the role of metals in causing genome damage, both directly and via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but little was known about their impact on genome repair. Our recent studies demonstrated that excess levels of iron and copper observed in neurodegenerative disease-affected brain neurons could not only induce genome damage in neurons, but also affect their repair by oxidatively inhibiting NEIL DNA glycosylases, which initiate the repair of oxidized DNA bases. The inhibitory effect was reversed by a combination of metal chelators and reducing agents, which underscore the need for elucidating the molecular basis for the neuronal toxicity of metals in order to develop effective therapeutic approaches. In this review, we have focused on the oxidative genome damage repair pathway as a potential target for reducing pro-oxidant metal toxicity in neurological diseases.

  10. A Comprehensive Review of Glucose Biosensors Based on Nanostructured Metal-Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Mahbubur; Saleh Ahammad, A. J.; Jin, Joon-Hyung; Ahn, Sang Jung; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology has opened new and exhilarating opportunities for exploring glucose biosensing applications of the newly prepared nanostructured materials. Nanostructured metal-oxides have been extensively explored to develop biosensors with high sensitivity, fast response times, and stability for the determination of glucose by electrochemical oxidation. This article concentrates mainly on the development of different nanostructured metal-oxide [such as ZnO, Cu(I)/(II) oxides, MnO2, TiO2, CeO2, SiO2, ZrO2, and other metal-oxides] based glucose biosensors. Additionally, we devote our attention to the operating principles (i.e., potentiometric, amperometric, impedimetric and conductometric) of these nanostructured metal-oxide based glucose sensors. Finally, this review concludes with a personal prospective and some challenges of these nanoscaled sensors. PMID:22399911

  11. The crystallographic structure of the air-grown oxide on depleted uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Christopher P.; Petherbridge, James R.; Davis, Sean A.; Jones, Jonathon A.; Scott, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Oxidation of depleted uranium coupons under ambient conditions and 150 °C. • Oxide characterised using SEM, TEM and electron backscatter diffraction analysis, • Layer comprises of UO 2 crystallites 12 nm in diameter. • Preferred [110] growth direction normal to the surface of the metal. • Oxide growth direction is independent of the underlying crystal orientation. - Abstract: Oxide formation on depleted uranium metal was investigated using a combination of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterisation. Diffraction analysis of the oxide revealed an FCC crystalline formation of UO 2 crystallites whilst TEM data indicated an average grain size of 12 nm with a standard deviation of 3.8 nm. EBSD analysis revealed a preferential texture of [110] normal to the surface of the metal. This data implied that lattice matching between the oxide and the underlying metal did not occur, therefore, the observed preferential growth direction is independent of the underlying crystal orientation.

  12. TiO2 Photocatalyzed Oxidation of Free and Complex Metallic Cyanides.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valladares, J. E.; Esteghamatdarsthad, B.; Renteria, J.

    2006-07-01

    The TiO2 photo catalyzed oxidation of free cyanide and transition metal cyanide complexes often found in industrial mining wastes were studied. The photoreactor system used was a UV illuminated and stirred tank with suspended particles of TiO2. After to determine the optimization parameters such as light intensity, concentration of complex and free cyanides, in ideal conditions, the effect of the presence of different type of anions was also studied. The model substances chosen were potassium cyanide and cyanides complexes of Iron, Cobalt and Copper in a strong alkaline solution (pH = 11.0 - 12.0). The experimental results indicate that in the case of the hexaferricyanide complex Fe(CN)6 3, the reaction occur in two steps. The first step is the breakdown of the metal-cyanide bond (photo-dissociation) forming free cyanide (CN-) and Fe3+ ions. The second step is the photo-oxidation of the free cyanides formed before. The ions Fe3+ and OH- present in the alkaline solution, precipitate as iron hydroxide Fe(OH)3. During the photo-dissociation step of the iron complex, free CN- ions produced reaches a maximum concentration before it is eliminated by photo-oxidation. The free cyanide produced from the hexaferricyanide complex disappears rapidly at a velocity of 64.6 + - 5.0 ?M/min. This rate of photo-oxidation is comparable with the experiments using just alkaline solutions of potassium cyanide ('free cyanides'). In contrast, in alkaline solutions of cyanide complexes of Cu and Co the rate of photo-oxidation was substantially reduced (6.17+ - 0.80 ?M/min and 0.04 + - 0.010 ?M/min, respectively) and do not show any initial increase of free cyanides in the suspension. The slower rate of photo-oxidation suggests the formation of very stable hydroxyl-cyanide polymeric metallic complexes in the reaction mix. The photo-oxidation pathway of the nitrogen oxide products was also investigated and found that the final product consists mainly of nitrate ions. (Author)

  13. Evidence for Single Metal Two Electron Oxidative Addition and Reductive Elimination at Uranium

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Benedict M; Kefalidis, Christos E; Lu, Erli; Patel, Dipti; Mcinnes, Eric; Tuna, Floriana; Wooles, Ashley; Maron, Laurent; Liddle, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Reversible single-metal two-electron oxidative addition and reductive elimination are common fundamental reactions for transition metals that underpin major catalytic transformations. However, these reactions have never been observed together in the f-block because these metals exhibit irreversible one- or multi-electron oxidation or reduction reactions. Here, we report that azobenzene oxidises sterically and electronically unsaturated uranium(III) complexes to afford a uranium(V)-imido compl...

  14. The 1s x-ray absorption pre-edge structures in transition metal oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Frank|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08747610X; Vanko, Gyoergy; Glatzel, Pieter

    2009-01-01

    We develop a general procedure to analyse the pre-edges in 1s x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) of transition metal oxides and coordination complexes. Transition metal coordination complexes can be described from a local model with one metal ion. The 1s 3d quadrupole transitions are

  15. Mechanochemical synthesis of graphene oxide-supported transition metal catalysts for the oxidation of isoeugenol to vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ana; De, Sudipta; Balu, Alina M; Garcia, Araceli; Luque, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Vanillin is one of the most commonly used natural products, which can also be produced from lignin-derived feedstocks. The chemical synthesis of vanillin is well-established in large-scale production from petrochemical-based starting materials. To overcome this problem, lignin-derived monomers (such as eugenol, isoeugenol, ferulic acid etc.) have been effectively used in the past few years. However, selective and efficient production of vanillin from these feedstocks still remains an issue to replace the existing process. In this work, new transition metal-based catalysts were proposed to investigate their efficiency in vanillin production. Reduced graphene oxide supported Fe and Co catalysts showed high conversion of isoeugenol under mild reaction conditions using H 2 O 2 as oxidizing agent. Fe catalysts were more selective as compared to Co catalysts, providing a 63% vanillin selectivity at 61% conversion in 2 h. The mechanochemical process was demonstrated as an effective approach to prepare supported metal catalysts that exhibited high activity for the production of vanillin from isoeugenol.

  16. Mechanochemical synthesis of graphene oxide-supported transition metal catalysts for the oxidation of isoeugenol to vanillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Franco

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vanillin is one of the most commonly used natural products, which can also be produced from lignin-derived feedstocks. The chemical synthesis of vanillin is well-established in large-scale production from petrochemical-based starting materials. To overcome this problem, lignin-derived monomers (such as eugenol, isoeugenol, ferulic acid etc. have been effectively used in the past few years. However, selective and efficient production of vanillin from these feedstocks still remains an issue to replace the existing process. In this work, new transition metal-based catalysts were proposed to investigate their efficiency in vanillin production. Reduced graphene oxide supported Fe and Co catalysts showed high conversion of isoeugenol under mild reaction conditions using H2O2 as oxidizing agent. Fe catalysts were more selective as compared to Co catalysts, providing a 63% vanillin selectivity at 61% conversion in 2 h. The mechanochemical process was demonstrated as an effective approach to prepare supported metal catalysts that exhibited high activity for the production of vanillin from isoeugenol.

  17. Heavy metal ion removal by thiol functionalized aluminum oxide hydroxide nanowhiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhiyong; Baird, Lance; Zimmerman, Natasha; Yeager, Matthew

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we developed a cost effective method of using thiol functionalized γ-aluminum oxide hydroxide (γ-AlOOH) filters for removing three key heavy metals from water: mercury, lead, and cadmium under non-concomitant conditions. Compared to non-thiol treated γ-AlOOH filters, the introduction of thiol functional groups greatly improved the heavy metal removal efficiency under both static and dynamic filtration conditions. The adsorption kinetics of thiol functionalized γ-AlOOH were investigated using the Lagergren first order and pseudo-second order kinetics models; whereas the isothermal adsorption behavior of these membranes was revealed through the Langmuir and Freundlich models. Heavy metal concentration was quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy, and the thiol level on γ-AlOOH surface was measured by a colorimetric assay using Ellman's reagent. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to further address the surface sulfur state on the membranes after heavy metal exposure. Mechanisms for heavy metal adsorption were also discussed.

  18. In vitro effects of metal oxide nanoparticles on barley oxalate oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Nidhi [M. D. University, Department of Biochemistry (India); Hooda, Vinita [M. D. University, Department of Botany (India); Pundir, C. S., E-mail: pundircs@rediffmail.com [M. D. University, Department of Biochemistry (India)

    2013-03-15

    Barley oxalate oxidase (OxO), a manganese-containing protein, is largely employed for determination of oxalate in various biologic materials. The present report describes in vitro effects of nanoparticles (NPs) of three metal oxides, i.e., zinc oxide (ZnO), copper oxide (CuO), and manganese oxide (MnO{sub 2}), on the activity and stability of OxO purified from barley roots. The transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies of these NPs revealed their very fine crystalline structure with the dimeter in the range 30-70, 50-60, and 20-60 nm for ZnO NPs, CuO NPs, and MnO{sub 2} NPs, respectively. The addition of suspension of these three NPs into assay mixture of enzyme individually, led to the adsorption of OxO over their surface, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectra and UV-Vis spectroscopic studies. Compared to free enzyme, MnO{sub 2} NPs-bound enzyme showed improved activity (35 % stimulation at 2.5 mg/ml concentration), while ZnO NPs- and CuO NPs-bound enzyme had no substantial improvement. The kinetic properties of individually NPs-bound enzyme were studied and compared with those of free enzyme. The MnO{sub 2} NPs-bound enzyme also showed marked improvement in its storage and thermal stability compared to free enzyme.

  19. In vitro effects of metal oxide nanoparticles on barley oxalate oxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Nidhi; Hooda, Vinita; Pundir, C. S.

    2013-03-01

    Barley oxalate oxidase (OxO), a manganese-containing protein, is largely employed for determination of oxalate in various biologic materials. The present report describes in vitro effects of nanoparticles (NPs) of three metal oxides, i.e., zinc oxide (ZnO), copper oxide (CuO), and manganese oxide (MnO2), on the activity and stability of OxO purified from barley roots. The transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies of these NPs revealed their very fine crystalline structure with the dimeter in the range 30-70, 50-60, and 20-60 nm for ZnO NPs, CuO NPs, and MnO2 NPs, respectively. The addition of suspension of these three NPs into assay mixture of enzyme individually, led to the adsorption of OxO over their surface, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectra and UV-Vis spectroscopic studies. Compared to free enzyme, MnO2 NPs-bound enzyme showed improved activity (35 % stimulation at 2.5 mg/ml concentration), while ZnO NPs- and CuO NPs-bound enzyme had no substantial improvement. The kinetic properties of individually NPs-bound enzyme were studied and compared with those of free enzyme. The MnO2 NPs-bound enzyme also showed marked improvement in its storage and thermal stability compared to free enzyme.

  20. Fabrication of Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles by Algae and their Toxic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Khwaja Salahuddin; Husen, Azamal

    2016-08-01

    Of all the aquatic organisms, algae are a good source of biomolecules. Since algae contain pigments, proteins, carbohydrates, fats, nucleic acids and secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, some aromatic compounds, macrolides, peptides and terpenes, they act as reducing agents to produce nanoparticles from metal salts without producing any toxic by-product. Once the algal biomolecules are identified, the nanoparticles of desired shape or size may be fabricated. The metal and metal oxide nanoparticles thus synthesized have been investigated for their antimicrobial activity against several gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains and fungi. Their dimension is controlled by temperature, incubation time, pH and concentration of the solution. In this review, we have attempted to update the procedure of nanoparticle synthesis from algae, their characterization by UV-vis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and application in cutting-edge areas.

  1. Selective oxidation of methanol to hydrogen over gold catalysts promoted by alkaline-earth-metal and lanthanum oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hereijgers, B.P.C.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2009-01-01

    A series of alumina-supported gold catalysts was investigated for the CO-free production of hydrogen by partial oxidation of methanol. The addition of alkaline-earth metal oxide promoters resulted in a significant improvement of the catalytic performance. The methanol conversion was ca. 85 % with

  2. Protein carbonylation and metal-catalyzed protein oxidation in a cellular perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian Max; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Rao, Shyama Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Proteins can become oxidatively modified in many different ways, either by direct oxidation of amino acid side chains and protein backbone or indirectly by conjugation with oxidation products of polyunsaturated fatty acids and carbohydrates. While reversible oxidative modifications are thought...... to be relevant in physiological processes, irreversible oxidative modifications are known to contribute to cellular damage and disease. The most well-studied irreversible protein oxidation is carbonylation. In this work we first examine how protein carbonylation occurs via metal-catalyzed oxidation (MCO) in vivo...... and in vitro with an emphasis on cellular metal ion homeostasis and metal binding. We then review proteomic methods currently used for identifying carbonylated proteins and their sites of modification. Finally, we discuss the identified carbonylated proteins and the pattern of carbonylation sites in relation...

  3. Nanoarchitectures in dye-sensitized solar cells: metal oxides, oxide perovskites and carbon-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Jasmin S; Shaikh, Navajsharif S; Mali, Sawanta S; Patil, Jyoti V; Pawar, Krishna K; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Hong, Chang Kook; Kim, J H; Patil, Pramod S

    2018-03-15

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have aroused great interest and been regarded as a potential renewable energy resource among the third-generation solar cell technologies to fulfill the 21 st century global energy demand. DSSCs have notable advantages such as low cost, easy fabrication process and being eco-friendly in nature. The progress of DSSCs over the last 20 years has been nearly constant due to some limitations, like poor long-term stability, narrow absorption spectrum, charge carrier transportation and collection losses and poor charge transfer mechanism for regeneration of dye molecules. The main challenge for the scientific community is to improve the performance of DSSCs by using different approaches, like finding new electrode materials with suitable nanoarchitectures, dyes in composition with promising semiconductors and metal quantum dot fluorescent dyes, and cost-effective hole transporting materials (HTMs). This review focuses on DSSC photo-physics, which includes charge separation, effective transportation, collection and recombination processes. Different nanostructured materials, including metal oxides, oxide perovskites and carbon-based composites, have been studied for photoanodes, and counter electrodes, which are crucial to achieve DSSC devices with higher efficiency and better stability.

  4. On the behavior of Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi relations for transition metal oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vojvodic, Aleksandra; Vallejo, Federico Calle; Guo, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Versatile Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relations are found from density functional theory for a wide range of transition metal oxides including rutiles and perovskites. For oxides, the relation depends on the type of oxide, the active site, and the dissociating molecule. The slope of the BEP...

  5. Oxidation in ceria infiltrated metal supported SOFCs – A TEM investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knibbe, Ruth; Wang, Hsiang-Jen; Blennow Tullmar, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The oxidation resistance of the Fe–Cr alloy backbone structure of metal supported solid oxide fuel cells is significantly improved when infiltrated with gadolinium doped ceria (CGO) particles. The mechanism for the improved oxidation behaviour is elucidated using various analytical transmission e...

  6. Crucible cast from beryllium oxide and refractory cement is impervious to flux and molten metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebski, Z. D.

    1966-01-01

    Crucible from a mixture of a beryllium oxide aggregate and hydraulic refractory cement, and coated with an impervious refractory oxide will not deteriorate in the presence of fused salt- molten metal mixtures such as uranium- magnesium-zinc-halide salt systems. Vessels cast by this process are used in the flux reduction of oxides of thorium and uranium.

  7. Synthesis of graphene oxide-intercalated alpha-hydroxides by metathesis and their decomposition to graphene/metal oxide composites

    OpenAIRE

    Nethravathi, C; Rajamathi, Michael; Ravishankar, N; Basit, Lubna; Felser, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Graphene oxide-intercalated alpha-metal hydroxides were prepared using layers from the delaminated colloidal dispersions of cetyltrimethylammonium-intercalated graphene oxide and dodecylsulfate-intercalated alpha-hydroxide of nickel/cobalt as precursors. The reaction of the two dispersions leads to de-intercalation of the interlayer ions from both the layered solids and the intercalation of the negatively charged graphene oxide sheets between the positively charged layers of the alpha-hydroxi...

  8. Noble-metal-based catalysts supported on zeolites and macro-mesoporous metal oxide supports for the total oxidation of volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Tarek; Rooke, Joanna C; Tidahy, Haingomalala Lucette; Hosseini, Mahsa; Cousin, Renaud; Lamonier, Jean-François; Giraudon, Jean-Marc; De Weireld, Guy; Su, Bao-Lian; Siffert, Stéphane

    2011-10-17

    The use of porous materials to eliminate volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has proven very effective towards achieving sustainability and environmental protection goals. The activity of zeolites and macro-mesoporous metal-oxide supports in the total oxidation of VOCs has been investigated, with and without noble-metal deposition, to develop highly active catalyst systems where the formation of by-products was minimal. The first catalysts employed were zeolites, which offered a good activity in the oxidation of VOCs, but were rapidly deactivated by coke deposition. The effects of the acido-basicity and ionic exchange of these zeolites showed that a higher basicity was related to exchanged ions with lower electronegativities, resulting in better catalytic performances in the elimination of VOCs. Following on from this work, noble metals were deposited onto macro-mesoporous metal-oxide supports to form mono and bimetallic catalysts. These were then tested in the oxidation of toluene to study their catalytic performance and their deactivation process. PdAu/TiO(2) and PdAu/TiO(2) -ZrO(2) 80/20 catalysts demonstrated the best activity and life span in the oxidation of toluene and propene and offered the lowest temperatures for a 50 % conversion of VOCs and the lowest coke content after catalytic testing. Different characterization techniques were employed to explain the changes occurring in catalyst structure during the oxidation of toluene and propene. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Bulk oxide traps and border traps in metal endash oxide endash semiconductor capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleetwood, D.M.; Winokur, P.S.; Riewe, L.C.; Reber, R.A. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Thermally stimulated current (TSC) and capacitance endash voltage measurements are combined via a newly developed analysis technique to estimate positive and negative oxide-trap charge densities for metal endash oxide endash semiconductor (MOS) capacitors exposed to ionizing radiation or subjected to high-field stress. Significantly greater hole trapping than electron trapping is observed in 3% borosilicate glass (BSG) insulators. Two prominent TSC peaks are observed in these BSG films. A high-temperature peak near 250 degree C is attributed to the E γ ' defect, which is a trivalent Si center in SiO 2 associated with an O vacancy. A lower temperature positive charge center near 100 degree C in these films is likely to be impurity related. The higher temperature E γ ' peak is also observed in 10, 17, and 98 nm thermal oxides. A much weaker secondary peak is observed near ∼60 degree C in some devices, which likely is due to metastably trapped holes in the bulk of the SiO 2 . Negative charge densities in these thermal oxides are primarily associated with electrons in border traps, which do not contribute to TSC, as opposed to bulk electron traps, which can contribute to TSC. Ratios of electron to hole trap densities in the thermal oxides range from ∼30% for radiation exposure to greater than 80% for high-field stress. It is suggested that the large densities of border traps associated with trapped holes in these devices may be due to high space-charge induced electric fields near the Si/SiO 2 interface. In some instances, border traps can reduce near-interfacial electric fields by local compensation of trapped positive charge. This may provide a natural explanation for the large densities of border traps often observed in irradiated or electrically stressed MOS capacitors. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  10. A general melt-injection-decomposition route to oriented metal oxide nanowire arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dongqiang; Zhang, Xinwei; Hua, Zhenghe; Yang, Shaoguang, E-mail: sgyang@nju.edu.cn

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • A general melt-injection-decomposition (MID) route is proposed for the fabrication of oriented metal oxide nanowire arrays. • Four kinds of metal oxide (CuO, Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanowire arrays have been realized as examples through the developed MID route. • The mechanism of the developed MID route is discussed using Thermogravimetry and Differential Thermal Analysis technique. • The MID route is a versatile, simple, facile and effective way to prepare different kinds of oriented metal oxide nanowire arrays in the future. - Abstract: In this manuscript, a general melt-injection-decomposition (MID) route has been proposed and realized for the fabrication of oriented metal oxide nanowire arrays. Nitrate was used as the starting materials, which was injected into the nanopores of the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane through the capillarity action in its liquid state. At higher temperature, the nitrate decomposed into corresponding metal oxide within the nanopores of the AAO membrane. Oriented metal oxide nanowire arrays were formed within the AAO membrane as a result of the confinement of the nanopores. Four kinds of metal oxide (CuO, Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanowire arrays are presented here as examples fabricated by this newly developed process. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies showed clear evidence of the formations of the oriented metal oxide nanowire arrays. Formation mechanism of the metal oxide nanowire arrays is discussed based on the Thermogravimetry and Differential Thermal Analysis measurement results.

  11. Excited state interactions in graphene oxide-semiconductor/metal nanoparticle architectures for sensing and energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightcap, Ian V.

    The recent emergence of graphene, along with its unique and impressive set of properties, has resulted in a concerted effort to incorporate the material into electronic devices and composite materials. Graphene oxide, a chemically modified form of graphene which can be produced economically and in large scale, is one of the most common starting materials for making graphene composite materials with improved conductivity, photovoltaic performance, and photocatalytic activity, to name a few examples. This dissertation describes progress made in understanding and quantifying the electronic properties of graphene oxide as they relate to electron storage and shuttling in composite materials. A more complete understanding of the nature of electronic interactions in graphene composites was achieved through two processes: 1) A dual electron-titration showing storage and shuttling of electrons in reduced graphene oxide. 2) A method developed to isolate the energy and electron transfer pathways involved in the deactivation of excited CdSe quantum dots by RGO. The results obtained from these two processes provide insight into the electronic interactions between graphene, semiconductors, and metals. Additionally, composite films were constructed to demonstrate the electron transfer properties of reduced graphene oxide. TiO2-reduced graphene oxide films were made via a simple drop-cast technique. The films show enhanced photovoltaic and photocatalytic characteristics when compared to TiO2-only films. A stacked architecture incorporating single-layer reduced graphene oxide on thin TiO2 nanoparticle films was developed as a method for illumination-controlled deposition of metal nanoparticles. Films of metal nanoparticles made using this technique were employed as Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman (SERRS) sensors and show nano-molar sensitivity. Finally, quantum dot-reduced graphene oxide composites were made via an electrophoretic deposition process. The resulting films were used

  12. Electrical characteristic of metal-oxide-semiconductor with NiSi2 nanocrystals embedded in oxide layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jenn-Kai; Lo, Ikai; Gau, M. H.; Chen, Y. L.; Yeh, P. H.; Chang, T. C.

    2006-03-01

    The nano-structured electronic devices have received more attention recently. Metal-oxide-semiconductor structure with NiSi2 nanocrystals embedded in the oxide layer, HfO2/SiO2, has been fabricated. Comparing with conventional ones, it could be operated under lower voltage and faster program/erase speed and has better endurance and retention. We have measured the temperature-dependent tunneling V-I curve on these HfO2/SiO2 nano-structured devices for the temperature from 1.2K to 300K. The results show an abnormal electrical characteristic. The tunneling V-I characteristics appear a new threshold voltage in the low temperature region, from 30K to 100K, while applied a negative voltage. The abnormal threshold voltage disappears when the temperature higher than 150K or lower than 30K. We attribute the new threshold voltage to the discrete quantum states of NiSi2 nanocrystals in the oxide layer.

  13. Electrochemical investigation of mixed metal oxide nanocomposite electrode for low temperature solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ghazanfar; Raza, Rizwan; Ashfaq Ahmad, M.; Ajmal Khan, M.; Jafar Hussain, M.; Ahmad, Mukhtar; Aziz, Hammad; Ahmad, Imran; Batool, Rida; Altaf, Faizah; Zhu, Bin

    2017-10-01

    Zinc-based nanostructured nickel (Ni) free metal oxide electrode material Zn0.60/Cu0.20Mn0.20 oxide (CMZO) was synthesized by solid state reaction and investigated for low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LTSOFC) applications. The crystal structure and surface morphology of the synthesized electrode material were examined by XRD and SEM techniques respectively. The particle size of ZnO phase estimated by Scherer’s equation was 31.50 nm. The maximum electrical conductivity was found to be 12.567 S/cm and 5.846 S/cm in hydrogen and air atmosphere, respectively at 600∘C. The activation energy of the CMZO material was also calculated from the DC conductivity data using Arrhenius plots and it was found to be 0.060 and 0.075 eV in hydrogen and air atmosphere, respectively. The CMZO electrode-based fuel cell was tested using carbonated samarium doped ceria composite (NSDC) electrolyte. The three layers 13 mm in diameter and 1 mm thickness of the symmetric fuel cell were fabricated by dry pressing. The maximum power density of 728.86 mW/cm2 was measured at 550∘C.

  14. Graphene-Metal Oxide Hybrid Nanostructured Materials for Electrocatalytic Sensing and Sustainable Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halder, Arnab; Zhang, Minwei; Chi, Qijin

    2016-01-01

    with specific metal oxide nanostructures, resulting nanohybrid materials can play a significant role in the cutting-edge development of state-of-the-art electrocatalysts using commercially available and low-cost precursors. Herein, we review the mostly recent advances in the development of noble metal free...... technology and sensor applications. In particular, graphene-metal oxide nanohybrid materials have been introduced as a new basis for preparation of low cost and highly efficient electrocatalysts for energy storage and conversion as well as for electrochemical sensing applications. By combining graphene...... graphene supported electrocatalysts. This review includes an introduction to graphene-metal oxide based nanohybrid materials, different synthetic strategies for the preparation of graphene/metal oxide nanocomposites and their structural characterization, and an overview of various electrochemical...

  15. First-Principles Study of Structure Property Relationships of Monolayer (Hydroxy)Oxide-Metal Bifunctional Electrocatalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Zhenhua; Kubal, Joseph; Greeley, Jeffrey Philip

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, on the basis of detailed density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and using Ni hydroxy(oxide) films on Pt(111) and Au(111) electrodes as model systems, we describe a detailed structural and electrocatalytic analysis of hydrogen evolution (HER) at three-phase boundaries...... of information that is inaccessible by purely experimental means, and these structures, in turn, strongly suggest that a bifunctional reaction mechanism for alkaline HER will be operative at the interface between the films, the metal substrates, and the surrounding aqueous medium. This bifunctionality produces...... important changes in the calculated barriers of key elementary reaction steps, including water activation and dissociation, as compared to traditional monofunctional Pt surfaces. The successful identification of the structures of thin metal films and three-phase boundary catalysts is not only an important...

  16. First-Principles Study of Structure Property Relationships of Monolayer (Hydroxy)Oxide-Metal Bifunctional Electrocatalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Zhenhua; Kubal, Joseph; Greeley, Jeffrey Philip

    2015-01-01

    under alkaline electrochemical conditions. We demonstrate that the structure and oxidation state of the films can be systematically tuned by changing the applied electrode potential and/or the nature of substrates. Structural features determined from the theoretical calculations provide a wealth...... of information that is inaccessible by purely experimental means, and these structures, in turn, strongly suggest that a bifunctional reaction mechanism for alkaline HER will be operative at the interface between the films, the metal substrates, and the surrounding aqueous medium. This bifunctionality produces...... important changes in the calculated barriers of key elementary reaction steps, including water activation and dissociation, as compared to traditional monofunctional Pt surfaces. The successful identification of the structures of thin metal films and three-phase boundary catalysts is not only an important...

  17. Training and operation of an integrated neuromorphic network based on metal-oxide memristors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezioso, M.; Merrikh-Bayat, F.; Hoskins, B. D.; Adam, G. C.; Likharev, K. K.; Strukov, D. B.

    2015-05-01

    Despite much progress in semiconductor integrated circuit technology, the extreme complexity of the human cerebral cortex, with its approximately 1014 synapses, makes the hardware implementation of neuromorphic networks with a comparable number of devices exceptionally challenging. To provide comparable complexity while operating much faster and with manageable power dissipation, networks based on circuits combining complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOSs) and adjustable two-terminal resistive devices (memristors) have been developed. In such circuits, the usual CMOS stack is augmented with one or several crossbar layers, with memristors at each crosspoint. There have recently been notable improvements in the fabrication of such memristive crossbars and their integration with CMOS circuits, including first demonstrations of their vertical integration. Separately, discrete memristors have been used as artificial synapses in neuromorphic networks. Very recently, such experiments have been extended to crossbar arrays of phase-change memristive devices. The adjustment of such devices, however, requires an additional transistor at each crosspoint, and hence these devices are much harder to scale than metal-oxide memristors, whose nonlinear current-voltage curves enable transistor-free operation. Here we report the experimental implementation of transistor-free metal-oxide memristor crossbars, with device variability sufficiently low to allow operation of integrated neural networks, in a simple network: a single-layer perceptron (an algorithm for linear classification). The network can be taught in situ using a coarse-grain variety of the delta rule algorithm to perform the perfect classification of 3 × 3-pixel black/white images into three classes (representing letters). This demonstration is an important step towards much larger and more complex memristive neuromorphic networks.

  18. Metal Fluorides, Metal Chlorides and Halogenated Metal Oxides as Lewis Acidic Heterogeneous Catalysts. Providing Some Context for Nanostructured Metal Fluorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, David; Winfield, John M

    2017-01-28

    Aspects of the chemistry of selected metal fluorides, which are pertinent to their real or potential use as Lewis acidic, heterogeneous catalysts, are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to β-aluminum trifluoride, aluminum chlorofluoride and aluminas γ and η, whose surfaces become partially fluorinated or chlorinated, through pre-treatment with halogenating reagents or during a catalytic reaction. In these cases, direct comparisons with nanostructured metal fluorides are possible. In the second part of the review, attention is directed to iron(III) and copper(II) metal chlorides, whose Lewis acidity and potential redox function have had important catalytic implications in large-scale chlorohydrocarbons chemistry. Recent work, which highlights the complexity of reactions that can occur in the presence of supported copper(II) chloride as an oxychlorination catalyst, is featured. Although direct comparisons with nanostructured fluorides are not currently possible, the work could be relevant to possible future catalytic developments in nanostructured materials.

  19. THE ROLE OF METAL METABOLISM IN OXIDATIVE STRESS

    OpenAIRE

    KARTAL, Yasemin; BALCIOĞLU, Esra; KAYAALTI, Zeliha

    2018-01-01

    Metals aredivided into two groups including essential and nonessential, play important rolesin biological processes. Changes in metal ion homeostasis can lead to oxidativestress. This instance provides information that gene polymorphisms of enzymesand proteins involved in metal toxicokinetics causes possibly symptomaticeffects for numerous diseases including cancer due to playing an important rolein metal ion homeostasis. Therefore, there is an important relationship betweenmetal-induced geno...

  20. Nanostructured metal oxide-based materials as advanced anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao Bin; Chen, Jun Song; Hng, Huey Hoon; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2012-04-21

    The search for new electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has been an important way to satisfy the ever-growing demands for better performance with higher energy/power densities, improved safety and longer cycle life. Nanostructured metal oxides exhibit good electrochemical properties, and they are regarded as promising anode materials for high-performance LIBs. In this feature article, we will focus on three different categories of metal oxides with distinct lithium storage mechanisms: tin dioxide (SnO(2)), which utilizes alloying/dealloying processes to reversibly store/release lithium ions during charge/discharge; titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), where lithium ions are inserted/deinserted into/out of the TiO(2) crystal framework; and transition metal oxides including iron oxide and cobalt oxide, which react with lithium ions via an unusual conversion reaction. For all three systems, we will emphasize that creating nanomaterials with unique structures could effectively improve the lithium storage properties of these metal oxides. We will also highlight that the lithium storage capability can be further enhanced through designing advanced nanocomposite materials containing metal oxides and other carbonaceous supports. By providing such a rather systematic survey, we aim to stress the importance of proper nanostructuring and advanced compositing that would result in improved physicochemical properties of metal oxides, thus making them promising negative electrodes for next-generation LIBs.

  1. The electronic conduction of glass and glass ceramics containing various transition metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, T.; Matsuno, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Nb 2 O 5 -V 2 O 5 -P 2 O 5 glasses containing only Group Va oxides have been investigated to elucidate their electronic conduction and structure, as compared with other glasses obtained by the addition of various transition metal oxides to vanadium phosphate. The P 2 O 5 introduction for Nb 2 O 5 in this glass with the same amount of V 2 O 5 increased the conductivity about two times. Glass ceramics having high conductivity increased by two orders of magnitude and the activation energy for conduction decreased from about 0.5 to 0.2 eV. The crystals were confirmed to be (V,Nb) 2 O 5 and Nb phosphate, one of which was highly conductive and developed a pillar-like shape with a length of more than 20 μm. (orig.)

  2. Synthesis methods, microscopy characterization and device integration of nanoscale metal oxide semiconductors for gas sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Wal, Randy L; Berger, Gordon M; Kulis, Michael J; Hunter, Gary W; Xu, Jennifer C; Evans, Laura

    2009-01-01

    A comparison is made between SnO(2), ZnO, and TiO(2) single-crystal nanowires and SnO(2) polycrystalline nanofibers for gas sensing. Both nanostructures possess a one-dimensional morphology. Different synthesis methods are used to produce these materials: thermal evaporation-condensation (TEC), controlled oxidation, and electrospinning. Advantages and limitations of each technique are listed. Practical issues associated with harvesting, purification, and integration of these materials into sensing devices are detailed. For comparison to the nascent form, these sensing materials are surface coated with Pd and Pt nanoparticles. Gas sensing tests, with respect to H(2), are conducted at ambient and elevated temperatures. Comparative normalized responses and time constants for the catalyst and noncatalyst systems provide a basis for identification of the superior metal-oxide nanostructure and catalyst combination. With temperature-dependent data, Arrhenius analyses are made to determine activation energies for the catalyst-assisted systems.

  3. Sn-Mn binary metal oxides as non-carbon sorbent for mercury removal in a wide-temperature window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiangkun; Xu, Haomiao; Qu, Zan; Huang, Wenjun; Chen, Wanmiao; Ma, Yongpeng; Zhao, Songjian; Liu, Ping; Yan, Naiqiang

    2014-08-15

    A series of Sn-Mn binary metal oxides were prepared through co-precipitation method. The sorbents were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (powder XRD), transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), H2-temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR) and NH3-temperature-programmed desorption (NH3-TPD) methods. The capability of the prepared sorbents for mercury adsorption from simulated flue gas was investigated by fixed-bed experiments. Results showed that mercury adsorption on pure SnO2 particles was negligible in the test temperature range, comparatively, mercury capacity on MnOx at low temperature was relative high, but the capacity would decrease significantly when the temperature was elevated. Interestingly, for Sn-Mn binary metal oxide, mercury capacity increased not only at low temperature but also at high temperature. Furthermore, the impact of SO2 on mercury adsorption capability of Sn-Mn binary metal oxides was also investigated and it was noted that the effect at low temperature was different comparing with that of high temperature. The mechanism was investigated by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTs). Moreover, a mathematic model was built to calculate mercury desorption activation energy from Sn to Mn binary metal oxides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Metal-Oxide Film Conversions Involving Large Anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretty, S.; Zhang, X.; Shoesmith, D.W.; Wren, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of my research is to establish the mechanism and kinetics of metal-oxide film conversions involving large anions (I - , Br - , S 2- ). Within a given group, the anions will provide insight on the effect of anion size on the film conversion, while comparison of Group 6 and Group 7 anions will provide insight on the effect of anion charge. This research has a range of industrial applications, for example, hazardous radioiodine can be immobilized by reaction with Ag to yield AgI. From the perspective of public safety, radioiodine is one of the most important fission products from the uranium fuel because of its large fuel inventory, high volatility, and radiological hazard. Additionally, because of its mobility, the gaseous iodine concentration is a critical parameter for safety assessment and post-accident management. A full kinetic analysis using electrochemical techniques has been performed on the conversion of Ag 2 O to (1) AgI and (2) AgBr. (authors)

  5. Behavior of metal oxide nanoparticles in natural aqueous matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, A. A.; Zhou, D.; Wang, H.

    2009-12-01

    The increasing use of nanomaterials in consumer products that are exposed to environmental media has led to a need to understand their fate and transport. In particular, metal oxide (MeO) nanoparticles, such as TiO2, ZnO and CeO2, are increasingly incorporated into a wide range of products, from sunscreens to paints and other coatings, and catalysts. With regard to their transport, it is important to determine how far these nanoparticles will travel in different ambient waters, such as rivers, lakes and seawater. There have been a number of studies that have addressed the aggregation of different nanoparticles in simpler aqueous solutions. However, it is important to understand the combined effect of pH, ionic strength, ionic composition, NOM and other characteristics of the aqueous media in which the nanoparticles will be dispersed, which may result in either aggregation and settling, or stabilization and transport. This also affects the bioavailability of the nanomaterials, and the phase (water column or sediments) in which the bulk of the particles are likely to reside. For this study we considered several natural aqueous matrices, including seawater, freshwater, groundwater, rainwater and treated wastewater, as well as two different water matrices used in micro- and mesocosm studies of nanoparticle toxicity. We determined that the two most important water quality characteristics controlling the rate of aggregation, relatively independent of particle composition, are [NOM] and ionic strength.

  6. Single-photon imaging in complementary metal oxide semiconductor processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbon, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the basics of single-photon counting in complementary metal oxide semiconductors, through single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs), and the making of miniaturized pixels with photon-counting capability based on SPADs. Some applications, which may take advantage of SPAD image sensors, are outlined, such as fluorescence-based microscopy, three-dimensional time-of-flight imaging and biomedical imaging, to name just a few. The paper focuses on architectures that are best suited to those applications and the trade-offs they generate. In this context, architectures are described that efficiently collect the output of single pixels when designed in large arrays. Off-chip readout circuit requirements are described for a variety of applications in physics, medicine and the life sciences. Owing to the dynamic nature of SPADs, designs featuring a large number of SPADs require careful analysis of the target application for an optimal use of silicon real estate and of limited readout bandwidth. The paper also describes the main trade-offs involved in architecting such chips and the solutions adopted with focus on scalability and miniaturization. PMID:24567470

  7. Photoconductivity in Transition Metal Doped Bismuth Germanium Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newkirk, Nolan M.; McCullough, J. S.; Martin, J. J.

    1999-10-01

    Bismuth germanium oxide (BGO) is a photorefractive material that has potential for a number of applications. We are investigating the possibility of tailoring it for specific uses by doping with 3d-ions. . Anti-site bismuth is a native defect in melt-grown BGO. This amphoteric defect dominates the photo-response of undoped BGO and plays a role in transition metal doped samples. The majority of the 3d-ions go into the tetrahedrally bonded Ge-site; thus, Cr would be expected to be in a 4+ state. Instead, it gives up an electron to the anti-site Bi and is in a 5+ state. Strongly persistent photorefractive gratings are observed in BGO:Cr. Photoconductivity measurements were performed on undoped BGO, BGO:V, and BGO:Cr before and after the samples were exposed to 442 nm light. The photoconductivity response roughly matched the optical absorption spectra of the samples. The exposed samples showed additional photo-induced absorption bands and much stronger photocurrents in the same spectral regions. The exposure to blue light appears to convert Cr from the 5+ state to the 4+state.

  8. Artificial ionospheric modification: The Metal Oxide Space Cloud experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, Ronald G.; Pedersen, Todd R.; Groves, Keith M.; Hines, Jack; Cannon, Paul S.; Jackson-Booth, Natasha; Parris, Richard T.; Holmes, Jeffrey M.; Su, Yi-Jiun; Mishin, Evgeny V.; Roddy, Patrick A.; Viggiano, Albert A.; Shuman, Nicholas S.; Ard, Shaun G.; Bernhardt, Paul A.; Siefring, Carl L.; Retterer, John; Kudeki, Erhan; Reyes, Pablo M.

    2017-05-01

    Clouds of vaporized samarium (Sm) were released during sounding rocket flights from the Reagan Test Site, Kwajalein Atoll in May 2013 as part of the Metal Oxide Space Cloud (MOSC) experiment. A network of ground-based sensors observed the resulting clouds from five locations in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Of primary interest was an examination of the extent to which a tailored radio frequency (RF) propagation environment could be generated through artificial ionospheric modification. The MOSC experiment consisted of launches near dusk on two separate evenings each releasing 6 kg of Sm vapor at altitudes near 170 km and 180 km. Localized plasma clouds were generated through a combination of photoionization and chemi-ionization (Sm + O → SmO+ + e-) processes producing signatures visible in optical sensors, incoherent scatter radar, and in high-frequency (HF) diagnostics. Here we present an overview of the experiment payloads, document the flight characteristics, and describe the experimental measurements conducted throughout the 2 week launch window. Multi-instrument analysis including incoherent scatter observations, HF soundings, RF beacon measurements, and optical data provided the opportunity for a comprehensive characterization of the physical, spectral, and plasma density composition of the artificial plasma clouds as a function of space and time. A series of companion papers submitted along with this experimental overview provide more detail on the individual elements for interested readers.

  9. Photoluminescent properties of complex metal oxide nanopowders for gas sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovhyra, R. V.; Mudry, S. I.; Popovych, D. I.; Savka, S. S.; Serednytski, A. S.; Venhryn, Yu. I.

    2018-03-01

    This work carried out research on the features of photoluminescence of the mixed and complex metal oxide nanopowders (ZnO/TiO2, ZnO/SnO2, Zn2SiO4) in vacuum and gaseous ambient. The nanopowders were obtained using pulsed laser reactive technology. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy analysis for their sizes, shapes and collocation. The influence of gas environment on the photoluminescence intensity was investigated. A change of ambient gas composition leads to a rather significant change in the intensity of the photoluminescence spectrum and its deformation. The most significant changes in the photoluminescent spectrum were observed for mixed ZnO/TiO2 nanopowders. This obviously is the result of a redistribution of existing centers of luminescence and the appearance of new adsorption centers of luminescence on the surface of nanopowders. The investigated nanopowders can be effectively used as sensing materials for the construction of the multi-component photoluminescent sensing matrix.

  10. Study on the surface oxidation resistance of uranium metal in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaolin; Fu Yibei; Xie Renshou

    1999-01-01

    The surface reactions of different layers on uranium metal with carbon monoxide at 25, 80 and 200 degree C are studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The experimental results show that the carbon monoxide is adsorbed on the surface oxide layer of uranium and interacted each other. The content of oxygen in the surface oxide and O/U ratio are decreased with increasing the exposure of carbon monoxide to the surface layer. The effect of reduction on the metal surface is more obviously with a higher temperature and increasing of layer thickness. The investigation indicates the uranium metal has resistance to further oxidation in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide

  11. Advances in Homogeneous Catalysis Using Secondary Phosphine Oxides (SPOs): Pre-ligands for Metal Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achard, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The secondary phosphine oxides are known to exist in equilibrium between the pentavalent phosphine oxides (SPO) and the trivalent phosphinous acids (PA). This equilibrium can be displaced in favour of the trivalent tautomeric form upon coordination to late transition metals. This tutorial review provides the state of the art of the use of secondary phosphine oxides as pre-ligands in transition metal-catalysed reactions. Using a combination of SPOs and several metals such as Pd, Pt, Ru, Rh and Au, a series of effective and original transformations have been obtained and will be discussed here.

  12. Surface interactions affect the toxicity of engineered metal oxide nanoparticles toward Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kungang; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Wen; Pu, Zhichao; Jiang, Lin; Chen, Yongsheng

    2012-08-20

    To better understand the potential impacts of engineered metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in the ecosystem, we investigated the acute toxicity of seven different types of engineered metal oxide NPs against Paramecium multimicronucleatum, a ciliated protozoan, using the 48 h LC(50) (lethal concentration, 50%) test. Our results showed that the 48 h LC(50) values of these NPs to Paramecium ranged from 0.81 (Fe(2)O(3) NPs) to 9269 mg/L (Al(2)O(3) NPs); their toxicity to Paramecium increased as follows: Al(2)O(3) Paramecium; this implies that metal oxide NPs with strong association with the cell surface might induce more severe cytotoxicity in unicellular organisms.

  13. Influence of carbon monoxide to the surface layer of uranium metal and its oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoling; Fu Yibei; Xie Renshou; Huang Ruiliang

    1996-09-01

    The surface structures of uranium metal and triuranium octaoxide (U 3 O 8 ) and the influence of carbon monoxide to the surface layers have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). After exposure to carbon monoxide, contents of oxygen in the surface oxides of uranium metal and U 3 O 8 are decreased and O/U ratios decrease 7.2%, 8.0% respectively. The investigation indicated the surface layers of uranium metal and its oxides were forbidden to further oxidation in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide. (11 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.)

  14. Treatment of heavy metals by iron oxide coated and natural gravel media in Sustainable urban Drainage Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, M J; Pulford, I D; Haynes, H; Dorea, C C; Phoenix, V R

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable urban Drainage Systems (SuDS) filter drains are simple, low-cost systems utilized as a first defence to treat road runoff by employing biogeochemical processes to reduce pollutants. However, the mechanisms involved in pollution attenuation are poorly understood. This work aims to develop a better understanding of these mechanisms to facilitate improved SuDS design. Since heavy metals are a large fraction of pollution in road runoff, this study aimed to enhance heavy metal removal of filter drain gravel with an iron oxide mineral amendment to increase surface area for heavy metal scavenging. Experiments showed that amendment-coated and uncoated (control) gravel removed similar quantities of heavy metals. Moreover, when normalized to surface area, iron oxide coated gravels (IOCGs) showed poorer metal removal capacities than uncoated gravel. Inspection of the uncoated microgabbro gravel indicated that clay particulates on the surface (a natural product of weathering of this material) augmented heavy metal removal, generating metal sequestration capacities that were competitive compared with IOCGs. Furthermore, when the weathered surface was scrubbed and removed, metal removal capacities were reduced by 20%. When compared with other lithologies, adsorption of heavy metals by microgabbro was 10-70% higher, indicating that both the lithology of the gravel, and the presence of a weathered surface, considerably influence its ability to immobilize heavy metals. These results contradict previous assumptions which suggest that gravel lithology is not a significant factor in SuDS design. Based upon these results, weathered microgabbro is suggested to be an ideal lithology for use in SuDS.

  15. Ordering phenomena in transition-metal-oxide heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frano Pereira, Alex Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This doctoral work presents a study of ordered ground states of transition metal oxide compounds and multilayers using resonant elastic soft x-ray scattering. The technique has developed over the last decades and become especially useful when sample sizes are limited like the case of nanometer-scale films and superlattices. By scattering with photon energies on resonance with the element's electronic transitions, it is an element-specific, sensitive tool providing a combination of spectroscopic and spatial information. The thesis is divided into two central topics. The first part focuses on the investigation of perovskite-type, rare-earth nickelate heterostructures. X-rays tuned to the Ni L 3 -edge were used to unveil unprecedented diffraction evidence of long range magnetic order in LaNiO 3 -RXO 3 (RXO 3 = LaAlO 3 , DyScO 3 ) superlattices. We report on the appearance of magnetic order in such systems with a propagation vector of Q SDW = ((1)/(4),(1)/(4),l) in pseudocubic notation, similar to bulk rare earth nickelates with R ≠ La. With LaNiO 3 being paramagnetic in its bulk form, the magnetic Bragg peak is only present in superlattices where the thickness of the LaNiO 3 layers approaches the 2-dimensional limit. Besides the thickness dependence, the magnetic order was probed on samples grown on varying strain-inducing substrates. Azimuthal scans around Q SDW were done to determine the orientation of the spin spiral under these different conditions. We will explain how the reorientation of the spins can be understood by the magneto-crystalline anisotropy which is determined by the relative occupation of the Ni d-orbitals via spin-orbit coupling. First steps towards control of the spin spiral's orientation will be outlined, and along with the high remanent conductivity found in the magnetic spiral state, an outlook for metallic antiferromagnetic spintronics will be discussed. The second part of this thesis will address the observation of charge density

  16. Electrical analysis of high dielectric constant insulator and metal gate metal oxide semiconductor capacitors on flexible bulk mono-crystalline silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2015-06-01

    We report on the electrical study of high dielectric constant insulator and metal gate metal oxide semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) on a flexible ultra-thin (25 μm) silicon fabric which is peeled off using a CMOS compatible process from a standard bulk mono-crystalline silicon substrate. A lifetime projection is extracted using statistical analysis of the ramping voltage (Vramp) breakdown and time dependent dielectric breakdown data. The obtained flexible MOSCAPs operational voltages satisfying the 10 years lifetime benchmark are compared to those of the control MOSCAPs, which are not peeled off from the silicon wafer. © 2014 IEEE.

  17. The electronic structure and metal-insulator transitions in vanadium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossanek, Rodrigo Jose Ochekoski

    2010-01-01

    The electronic structure and metal-insulator transitions in vanadium oxides (SrVO 3 , CaVO 3 , LaVO 3 and YVO 3 ) are studied here. The purpose is to show a new interpretation to the spectra which is coherent with the changes across the metal-insulator transition. The main experimental techniques are the X-ray photoemission (PES) and X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopies. The spectra are interpreted with cluster model, band structure and atomic multiplet calculations. The presence of charge-transfer satellites in the core-level PES spectra showed that these vanadium oxides cannot be classified in the Mott-Hubbard regime. Further, the valence band and core-level spectra presented a similar behavior across the metal insulator transition. In fact, the structures in the spectra and their changes are determined by the different screening channels present in the metallic or insulating phases. The calculated spectral weight showed that the coherent fluctuations dominate the spectra at the Fermi level and give the metallic character to the SrVO 3 and CaVO 3 compounds. The vanishing of this charge fluctuation and the replacement by the Mott-Hubbard screening in the LaVO 3 and YVO 3 systems is ultimately responsible for the opening of a band gap and the insulating character. Further, the correlation effects are, indeed, important to the occupied electronic structure (coherent and incoherent peaks). On the other hand, the unoccupied electronic structure is dominated by exchange and crystal field effects (t2g and eg sub-bands of majority and minority spins). The optical conductivity spectrum was obtained by convoluting the removal and addition states. It showed that the oxygen states, as well as the crystal field and exchange effects are necessary to correctly compare and interpret the experimental results. Further, a correlation at the charge-transfer region of the core-level and valence band optical spectra was observed, which could be extended to other transition metal

  18. Monitoring the Electrolytic Reduction Process of Metal Oxide in the LiCl Molten Salt at 650 . deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In kyu; Hong, Soon Seok; Jung, Myoung Soo; Hur, Jin Mok; Lee, Han Soo

    2010-01-01

    During the electrolytic reduction process of metal oxides, metal oxides are reduced in the cathode basket and oxide ions are oxidized at a platinum anode. Basically the oxide concentration in the bulk should be maintained to be constant during the reduction process, but slow diffusion rate of oxide ions from metal oxide particles to the salt medium results in decreasing the oxide ion concentration. When a high current density is applied for the reduction, lowered lithium oxide concentration causes the platinum anode to be dissolved. To accomplish the reduction of metal oxides without serious damage of platinum anode, monitoring the lithium oxide concentration is very important. For in-situ monitoring the oxide concentration during the reduction, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry(CA) were applied

  19. On dithiothreitol (DTT) as a measure of oxidative potential for ambient particles: evidence for the importance of soluble transition metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, J G; Anastasio, C

    2012-05-03

    The rate of consumption of dithiothreitol (DTT) is increasingly used to measure the oxidative potential of particulate matter (PM), which has been linked to the adverse health effects of PM. While several quinones are known to be very reactive in the DTT assay, it is unclear what other chemical species might contribute to the loss of DTT in PM extracts. To address this question, we quantify the rate of DTT loss from individual redox-active species that are common in ambient particulate matter. While most past research has indicated that the DTT assay is not sensitive to metals, our results show that seven out of the ten transition metals tested do oxidize DTT, as do three out of the five quinones tested. While metals are less efficient at oxidizing DTT compared to the most reactive quinones, concentrations of soluble transition metals in fine particulate matter are generally much higher than those of quinones. The net result is that metals appear to dominate the DTT response for typical ambient PM(2.5) samples. Based on particulate concentrations of quinones and soluble metals from the literature, and our measured DTT responses for these species, we estimate that for typical PM(2.5) samples approximately 80 % of DTT loss is from transition metals (especially copper and manganese), while quinones account for approximately 20 %. We find a similar result for DTT loss measured in a small set of PM(2.5) samples from the San Joaquin Valley of California. Because of the important contribution from metals, we also tested how the DTT assay is affected by EDTA, a chelator that is sometimes used in the assay. EDTA significantly suppresses the response from both metals and quinones; we therefore recommend that EDTA should not be included in the DTT assay.

  20. High performance high-κ/metal gate complementary metal oxide semiconductor circuit element on flexible silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2016-02-29

    Thinned silicon based complementary metal oxide semiconductor(CMOS)electronics can be physically flexible. To overcome challenges of limited thinning and damaging of devices originated from back grinding process, we show sequential reactive ion etching of silicon with the assistance from soft polymeric materials to efficiently achieve thinned (40 μm) and flexible (1.5 cm bending radius) silicon based functional CMOSinverters with high-κ/metal gate transistors. Notable advances through this study shows large area of silicon thinning with pre-fabricated high performance elements with ultra-large-scale-integration density (using 90 nm node technology) and then dicing of such large and thinned (seemingly fragile) pieces into smaller pieces using excimer laser. The impact of various mechanical bending and bending cycles show undeterred high performance of flexible siliconCMOSinverters. Future work will include transfer of diced silicon chips to destination site, interconnects, and packaging to obtain fully flexible electronic systems in CMOS compatible way.

  1. Porous, rigid metal(III)-carboxylate metal-organic frameworks for the delivery of nitric oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubank, Jarrod F.; Wheatley, Paul S.; Lebars, Gaëlle; McKinlay, Alistair C.; Leclerc, Hervé; Horcajada, Patricia; Daturi, Marco; Vimont, Alexandre; Morris, Russell E.; Serre, Christian

    2014-12-01

    The room temperature sorption properties of the biological gas nitric oxide (NO) have been investigated on the highly porous and rigid iron or chromium carboxylate based metal-organic frameworks Material Institut Lavoisier (MIL)-100(Fe or Cr) and MIL-127(Fe). In all cases, a significant amount of NO is chemisorbed at 298 K with a loading capacity that depends both on the nature of the metal cation, the structure and the presence of additional iron(II) Lewis acid sites. In a second step, the release of NO triggered by wet nitrogen gas has been studied by chemiluminescence and indicates that only a partial release of NO occurs as well as a prolonged delivery at the biological level. Finally, an in situ infrared spectroscopy study confirms not only the coordination of NO over the Lewis acid sites and the stronger binding of NO on the additional iron(II) sites, providing further insights over the partial release of NO only in the presence of water at room temperature.

  2. Porous, rigid metal(III-carboxylate metal-organic frameworks for the delivery of nitric oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarrod F. Eubank

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The room temperature sorption properties of the biological gas nitric oxide (NO have been investigated on the highly porous and rigid iron or chromium carboxylate based metal-organic frameworks Material Institut Lavoisier (MIL-100(Fe or Cr and MIL-127(Fe. In all cases, a significant amount of NO is chemisorbed at 298 K with a loading capacity that depends both on the nature of the metal cation, the structure and the presence of additional iron(II Lewis acid sites. In a second step, the release of NO triggered by wet nitrogen gas has been studied by chemiluminescence and indicates that only a partial release of NO occurs as well as a prolonged delivery at the biological level. Finally, an in situ infrared spectroscopy study confirms not only the coordination of NO over the Lewis acid sites and the stronger binding of NO on the additional iron(II sites, providing further insights over the partial release of NO only in the presence of water at room temperature.

  3. Microbially catalyzed nitrate-dependent metal/radionuclide oxidation in shallow subsurface sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, K.; Healy, O.; Spanbauer, T. L.; Snow, D. D.

    2011-12-01

    Anaerobic, microbially catalyzed nitrate-dependent metal/radionuclide oxidation has been demonstrated in a variety of sediments, soils, and groundwater. To date, studies evaluating U bio-oxidation and mobilization have primarily focused on anthropogenically U contaminated sites. In the Platte River Basin U originating from weathering of uranium-rich igneous rocks in the Rocky Mountains was deposited in shallow alluvial sediments as insoluble reduced uranium minerals. These reduced U minerals are subject to reoxidation by available oxidants, such nitrate, in situ. Soluble uranium (U) from natural sources is a recognized contaminant in public water supplies throughout the state of Nebraska and Colorado. Here we evaluate the potential of anaerobic, nitrate-dependent microbially catalyzed metal/radionuclide oxidation in subsurface sediments near Alda, NE. Subsurface sediments and groundwater (20-64ft.) were collected from a shallow aquifer containing nitrate (from fertilizer) and natural iron and uranium. The reduction potential revealed a reduced environment and was confirmed by the presence of Fe(II) and U(IV) in sediments. Although sediments were reduced, nitrate persisted in the groundwater. Nitrate concentrations decreased, 38 mg/L to 30 mg/L, with increasing concentrations of Fe(II) and U(IV). Dissolved U, primarily as U(VI), increased with depth, 30.3 μg/L to 302 μg/L. Analysis of sequentially extracted U(VI) and U(IV) revealed that virtually all U in sediments existed as U(IV). The presence of U(IV) is consistent with reduced Fe (Fe(II)) and low reduction potential. The increase in aqueous U concentrations with depth suggests active U cycling may occur at this site. Tetravalent U (U(IV)) phases are stable in reduced environments, however the input of an oxidant such as oxygen or nitrate into these systems would result in oxidation. Thus co-occurrence of nitrate suggests that nitrate could be used by bacteria as a U(IV) oxidant. Most probable number

  4. Kinetic study of the alkaline metals oxidation by dry oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzain, Ph.

    1967-06-01

    The oxidation of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium and sodium-potassium alloys by dry oxygen is studied at several temperatures and in the oxygen pressure range 40 to 400 mmHg. One distinguishes three different oxidation behaviours (inflammation, ignition and slow combustion) whose zones are precised in function of the temperature. The slow oxidation kinetic laws, the composition of oxides and the motive of oxides colorations are determined. At least, the experimental data are construed theoretically. (author) [fr

  5. Reactivity of biogenic manganese oxide for metal sequestration and photochemistry: Computational solid state physics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, K.D.; Sposito, G.

    2010-02-01

    Many microbes, including both bacteria and fungi, produce manganese (Mn) oxides by oxidizing soluble Mn(II) to form insoluble Mn(IV) oxide minerals, a kinetically much faster process than abiotic oxidation. These biogenic Mn oxides drive the Mn cycle, coupling it with diverse biogeochemical cycles and determining the bioavailability of environmental contaminants, mainly through strong adsorption and redox reactions. This mini review introduces recent findings based on quantum mechanical density functional theory that reveal the detailed mechanisms of toxic metal adsorption at Mn oxide surfaces and the remarkable role of Mn vacancies in the photochemistry of these minerals.

  6. Redox and electrochemical water splitting catalytic properties of hydrated metal oxide modified electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Richard L; Godwin, Ian J; Brandon, Michael P; Lyons, Michael E G

    2013-09-07

    This paper presents a review of the redox and electrocatalytic properties of transition metal oxide electrodes, paying particular attention to the oxygen evolution reaction. Metal oxide materials may be prepared using a variety of methods, resulting in a diverse range of redox and electrocatalytic properties. Here we describe the most common synthetic routes and the important factors relevant to their preparation. The redox and electrocatalytic properties of the resulting oxide layers are ascribed to the presence of extended networks of hydrated surface bound oxymetal complexes termed surfaquo groups. This interpretation presents a possible unifying concept in water oxidation catalysis - bridging the fields of heterogeneous electrocatalysis and homogeneous molecular catalysis.

  7. Study on the influence of carbon monoxide to the surface oxide layer of uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaolin; Duan Rongliang; Fu Yibei; Xie Renshou; Zuo Changming; Zhao Chunpei; Chen Hong

    1997-01-01

    The influence of carbon monoxide to the surface oxide layer of uranium metal has been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and gas chromatography (GC). Carbon monoxide adsorption on the oxide layer resulted in U4f peak shifting to the lower binding energy. The content of oxygen in the oxide is decreased and the atomic ratio (O/U) is decreased by 7.2%. The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere after the surface reaction is increased by 11.0%. The investigation indicates that the surface layer can prevent the further oxidation uranium metal in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide

  8. Metal Oxide Supported Vanadium Substituted Keggin Type Polyoxometalates as Catalyst For Oxidation of Dibenzothiophene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesbani, Aldes; Novri Meilyana, Sarah; Karim, Nofi; Hidayati, Nurlisa; Said, Muhammad; Mohadi, Risfidian; Miksusanti

    2018-01-01

    Supported polyoxometalatate H4[γ-H2SiV2W10O40]·nH2O with metal oxide i.e. silica, titanium, and tantalum was successfully synthesized via wet impregnation method to form H4[γ-H2SiV2W10O40]·nH2O-Si, H4[γ-H2SiV2W10O40]·nH2O-Ti, and H4[γ-H2SiV2W10O40]·nH2O-Ta. Characterization was performed using FTIR spectroscopy, X-Ray analyses, and morphology analyses using SEM. All compounds were used as the catalyst for desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT). Silica and titanium supported polyoxometalate H4[γ-H2SiV2W10O40]·nH2O better than tantalum due to retaining crystallinity after impregnation process. On the other hand, compound H H4[γ-H2SiV2W10O40]·nH2O-Ta showed high catalytic activity than other supported metal oxides for desulfurization of DBT. Optimization desulfurization process resulted in 99% conversion of DBT under a mild condition at 70 °C, 0.1 g catalyst, and reaction for 3 hours. Regeneration studies showed catalyst H4[γ-H2SiV2W10O40]·nH2O-Ti was remaining catalytic activity for desulfurization of DBT.

  9. Oxygen-assisted conversion of propane over metal and metal oxide catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laate, Leiv

    2002-07-01

    An experimental set-up has been build and applied in activity/selectivity studies of the oxygen-assisted conversion of propane over metals and metal oxide catalysts. The apparatus has been used in order to achieve an improved understanding of the reactions between alkanes/alkenes and oxygen. Processes that have been studied arc the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane over a VMgO catalyst and the selective combustion of hydrogen in the presence of hydrocarbons over Pt-based catalysts and metal oxide catalysts. From the experiments, the following conclusions are drawn: A study of the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane over a vanadium-magnesium-oxide catalyst confirmed that the main problem with this system is the lack of selectivity due to complete combustion. Selectivity to propene up to about 60% was obtained at 10% conversion at 500{sup o}C, but the selectivity decreased with increasing conversion. No oxygenates were detected, the only by- products were CO and CO{sub 2}. The selectivity to propene is a strong function of the conversion of propane. The reaction rate of propane was found to be 1.0 {+-} 0.1 order in propane and 0.07 {+-} 0.02 order in oxygen. The kinetic results are in agreement with a Mars van Krevelen mechanism with the activation of the hydrocarbons as the slow step. The rate of propene oxidation to CO{sub 2} was studied and found to be significantly higher than that of propane. Another possible process involves the simultaneous equilibrium dehydrogenation of alkanes to alkenes and combustion of the hydrogen formed to shift the equilibrium dehydrogenation reaction further to the product alkenes. A study of the selective combustion of hydrogen in the presence of propane/propene was found to be possible under certain reaction conditions over some metal oxide catalysts. In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2}, unsupported Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZSM-5 show the ability to combust hydrogen in a gas mixture with propane and oxygen with good selectivity. Bi{sub 2

  10. Holey two-dimensional transition metal oxide nanosheets for efficient energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lele; Xiong, Pan; Ma, Lu; Yuan, Yifei; Zhu, Yue; Chen, Dahong; Luo, Xiangyi; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Yu, Guihua

    2017-04-01

    Transition metal oxide nanomaterials are promising electrodes for alkali-ion batteries owing to their distinct reaction mechanism, abundant active sites and shortened ion diffusion distance. However, detailed conversion reaction processes in terms of the oxidation state evolution and chemical/mechanical stability of the electrodes are still poorly understood. Herein we explore a general synthetic strategy for versatile synthesis of various holey transition metal oxide nanosheets with adjustable hole sizes that enable greatly enhanced alkali-ion storage properties. We employ in-situ transmission electron microscopy and operando X-ray absorption structures to study the mechanical properties, morphology evolution and oxidation state changes during electrochemical processes. We find that these holey oxide nanosheets exhibit strong mechanical stability inherited from graphene oxide, displaying minimal structural changes during lithiation/delithiation processes. These holey oxide nanosheets represent a promising material platform for in-situ probing the electrochemical processes, and could open up opportunities in many energy storage and conversion systems.

  11. Long-term research in Japan: amorphous metals, metal oxide varistors, high-power semiconductors and superconducting generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hane, G.J.; Yorozu, M.; Sogabe, T.; Suzuki, S.

    1985-04-01

    The review revealed that significant activity is under way in the research of amorphous metals, but that little fundamental work is being pursued on metal oxide varistors and high-power semiconductors. Also, the investigation of long-term research program plans for superconducting generators reveals that activity is at a low level, pending the recommendations of a study currently being conducted through Japan's Central Electric Power Council.

  12. Hard X-ray PhotoElectron Spectroscopy of transition metal oxides: Bulk compounds and device-ready metal-oxide interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgatti, F.; Torelli, P.; Panaccione, G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hard X-ray PhotoElectron Spectroscopy (HAXPES) applied to buried interfaces of systems involving Transition Metal Oxides. • Enhanced contribution of the s states at high kinetic energies both for valence and core level spectra. • Sensitivity to chemical changes promoted by electric field across metal-oxide interfaces in resistive switching devices. - Abstract: Photoelectron spectroscopy is one of the most powerful tool to unravel the electronic structure of strongly correlated materials also thanks to the extremely large dynamic range in energy, coupled to high energy resolution that this form of spectroscopy covers. The kinetic energy range typically used for photoelectron experiments corresponds often to a strong surface sensitivity, and this turns out to be a disadvantage for the study of transition metal oxides, systems where structural and electronic reconstruction, different oxidation state, and electronic correlation may significantly vary at the surface. We report here selected Hard X-ray PhotoElectron Spectroscopy (HAXPES) results from transition metal oxides, and from buried interfaces, where we highlight some of the important features that such bulk sensitive technique brings in the analysis of electronic properties of the solids.

  13. MIS High-Purity Plutonium Oxide Metal Oxidation Product TS707001 (SSR123): Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stroud, Mary Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Narlesky, Joshua Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Worl, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez, Max A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carillo, Alex [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-09

    A high-purity plutonium dioxide material from the Material Identification and Surveillance (MIS) Program inventory has been studied with regard to gas generation and corrosion in a storage environment. Sample TS707001 represents process plutonium oxides from several metal oxidation operations as well as impure and scrap plutonium from Hanford that are currently stored in 3013 containers. After calcination to 950°C, the material contained 86.98% plutonium with no major impurities. This study followed over time, the gas pressure of a sample with nominally 0.5 wt% water in a sealed container with an internal volume scaled to 1/500th of the volume of a 3013 container. Gas compositions were measured periodically over a six year period. The maximum observed gas pressure was 138 kPa. The increase over the initial pressure of 80 kPa was primarily due to generation of nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas in the first six months. Hydrogen and oxygen were minor components of the headspace gas. At the completion of the study, the internal components of the sealed container showed signs of corrosion, including pitting.

  14. Electrochemical oxidation of organic carbonate based electrolyte solutions at lithium metal oxide electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhof, R.; Novak, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The oxidative decomposition of carbonate based electrolyte solutions at practical lithium metal oxide composite electrodes was studied by differential electrochemical mass spectrometry. For propylene carbonate (PC), CO{sub 2} evolution was detected at LiNiO{sub 2}, LiCoO{sub 2}, and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} composite electrodes. The starting point of gas evolution was 4.2 V vs. Li/Li{sup +} at LiNiO{sub 2}, whereas at LiCoO{sub 2} and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} evolution was only observed above 4.8 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. In addition, various other volatile electrolyte decomposition products of PC were detected when using LiCoO{sub 2}, LiMn{sub 2}O4, and carbon black electrodes. In ethylene carbonate / dimethyl carbonate, CO{sub 2} evolution was only detected at LiNiO{sub 2} electrodes, again starting at about 4.2 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. (author) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  15. Single crystal particles of a mesoporous mixed transition metal oxide with a wormhole structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B; Lu, D; Kondo, J N; Domen, K

    2001-10-21

    A new type of mesoporous mixed transition metal oxide of Nb and Ta (NbTa-TIT-1) has been prepared through a two-step calcination, which consists of single crystal particles with wormhole mesoporous structure.

  16. Thermal and Physical Properties of Plutonium Dioxide Produced from the Oxidation of Metal: a Data Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne, David M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-13

    The ARIES Program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory removes plutonium metal from decommissioned nuclear weapons, and converts it to plutonium dioxide in a specially-designed Direct Metal Oxidation furnace. The plutonium dioxide is analyzed for specific surface area, particle size distribution, and moisture content. The purpose of these analyses is to certify that the plutonium dioxide powder meets or exceeds the specifications of the end-user, and the specifications for the packaging and transport of nuclear materials. Analytical results from plutonium dioxide from ARIES development activities, from ARIES production activities, from muffle furnace oxidation of metal, and from metal that was oxidized over a lengthy time interval in air at room temperature, are presented. The processes studied produce plutonium dioxide powder with distinct differences in measured properties, indicating the significant influence of oxidation conditions on physical properties.

  17. In vitro screening of metal oxide nanoparticles for effects on neural function using cortical networks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data describe the effects of metal oxide nanoparticles on total spikes and active electrodes after exposure to various concentrations for 1, 24 and 48 hrs, or after...

  18. Metal Oxide-Carbon Nanocomposites for Aqueous and Nonaqueous Supercapacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Technology Transfer Phase 2 effort focuses on development of a supercapacitor energy storage device based on novel metal oxide-carbon...

  19. Self-Assembly of Mono- and Dinuclear Metal Complexes; Oxidation Catalysis and Metalloenzyme Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelling, Onko-Jan; Rispens, Minze T.; Lubben, Marcel; Feringa, Bernard

    1994-01-01

    In this chapter several approaches to achieve assembly of mono- and dinuclear metal complexes, which can be considered structural and functional models for metalloenzymes, are described. The emphasis lies on oxidation chemistry, summarizing O2 binding, hydroxylation, demethylation, dehalogenation

  20. Surface chemistry of metals and their oxides in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomlinson, M.

    1975-01-01

    Examination of oxide and metal surfaces in water at high temperature by a broad spectrum of techniques is bringing understanding of corrosion product movement and alleviation of activity transport in CANDU-type reactor primary coolant circuits. (Author)

  1. Aging of iron (hydr)oxides by heat treatment and effects on heavy metal binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard; Starckpoole, M. M.; Frenkel, A. I.

    2000-01-01

    Amorphous iron (hydr)oxides are used to remove heavy metals from wastewater and in the treatment of air pollution control residues generated in waste incineration. In this study, iron oxides containing heavy metals (e.g., Pb, Hg, Cr, and Cd) were treated at 50, 600, and 900 °C to simulate...... oxides were transformed to hematite, which had a greater thermodynamic stability but less surface area than the initial products. Heat treatment also caused some volatilization of heavy metals (most notably, Hg). Leaching with water at pH 9 (L/S 10, 24 h) and weak acid extraction showed that heat...... of iron oxides may be advantageous to improve the thermodynamic stability of the product but that thermal treatment at both 600 and 900 °C significantly reduced the binding capacity for heavy metals....

  2. Metal oxide-resistive memory using graphene-edge electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Sohn, Joon; Jiang, Zizhen; Chen, Hong-Yu; Philip Wong, H.-S.

    2015-09-01

    The emerging paradigm of `abundant-data' computing requires real-time analytics on enormous quantities of data collected by a mushrooming network of sensors. Todays computing technology, however, cannot scale to satisfy such big data applications with the required throughput and energy efficiency. The next technology frontier will be monolithically integrated chips with three-dimensionally interleaved memory and logic for unprecedented data bandwidth with reduced energy consumption. In this work, we exploit the atomically thin nature of the graphene edge to assemble a resistive memory (~3 Å thick) stacked in a vertical three-dimensional structure. We report some of the lowest power and energy consumption among the emerging non-volatile memories due to an extremely thin electrode with unique properties, low programming voltages, and low current. Circuit analysis of the three-dimensional architecture using experimentally measured device properties show higher storage potential for graphene devices compared that of metal based devices.

  3. Metal oxide-resistive memory using graphene-edge electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Sohn, Joon; Jiang, Zizhen; Chen, Hong-Yu; Philip Wong, H-S

    2015-09-25

    The emerging paradigm of 'abundant-data' computing requires real-time analytics on enormous quantities of data collected by a mushrooming network of sensors. Todays computing technology, however, cannot scale to satisfy such big data applications with the required throughput and energy efficiency. The next technology frontier will be monolithically integrated chips with three-dimensionally interleaved memory and logic for unprecedented data bandwidth with reduced energy consumption. In this work, we exploit the atomically thin nature of the graphene edge to assemble a resistive memory (∼ 3 Å thick) stacked in a vertical three-dimensional structure. We report some of the lowest power and energy consumption among the emerging non-volatile memories due to an extremely thin electrode with unique properties, low programming voltages, and low current. Circuit analysis of the three-dimensional architecture using experimentally measured device properties show higher storage potential for graphene devices compared that of metal based devices.

  4. Revisiting the electrochemical oxidation of ammonia on carbon-supported metal nanoparticle catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhe-Fei; Wang, Yuxuan; Botte, Gerardine G.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A procedure to pretreat electrocatalysts to study the ammonia oxidation is provided. • N ads and O/OH ads were identified as the major deactivation species that prevent ammonia oxidatoin. • The electrocatalytic activity, thermodynamics, and possible deactivation mechanisms for ammonia oxidation were elucidated. • The onset potential for ammonia oxidation is related to the hydrogen binding energy of the catalyst. • Ammonia electro-oxidation involves a complex decoupled electron and proton transfer process. - Abstract: The ammonia electro-oxidation reaction (AOR) has been studied due to its promising applications in ammonia electrolysis, wastewater remediation, direct ammonia fuel cells, and sensors. However, it is difficult to compare and analyze the reported electrocatalytic activity of AOR reliably, likely due to the variation in catalyst synthesis, electrode composition, electrode morphology, and testing protocol. In this paper, the electro-oxidation of ammonia on different carbon-supported precious metal nanoparticle catalysts was revisited. The effect of experimental conditions, electrochemical test parameters, electrocatalytic activity, thermodynamics, and possible deactivation mechanism of the catalysts were investigated. Pt/C catalyst possesses the highest electrocatalytic activity, while Ir/C and Rh/C show lower overpotential. The onset potential of the AOR is related to the hydrogen binding energy of the catalyst. N ads is one major cause of deactivation accompanied with the formation of surface O/OH ads at high potentials. The coulombic efficiency of N ads formation on Pt is about 1% initially and gradually decreases with reaction time. Increase in ammonia concentration leads to increase in current density, while increase in hydroxyl ions concentration can enhance the current density and reduce the overpotential simultaneously. The slopes of AOR onset potential and hydrogen adsorption/desorption potential of Pt/C as a function of p

  5. AMOchar: Amorphous manganese oxide coating of biochar improves its efficiency at removing metal(loid)s from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakal, Lukáš; Michálková, Zuzana; Beesley, Luke; Vítková, Martina; Ouředníček, Petr; Barceló, Andreu Piqueras; Ettler, Vojtěch; Číhalová, Sylva; Komárek, Michael

    2018-06-01

    A novel sorbent made from biochar modified with an amorphous Mn oxide (AMOchar) was compared with pure biochar, pure AMO, AMO+biochar mixtures and biochar+birnessite composite for the removal of various metal(loid)s from aqueous solutions using adsorption and solid-state analyses. In comparison with the pristine biochar, both Mn oxide-biochar composites were able to remove significantly greater quantities of various metal(loid)s from the aqueous solutions, especially at a ratio 2:1 (AMO:biochar). The AMOchar proved most efficient, removing almost 99, 91 and 51% of Pb, As and Cd, respectively. Additionally, AMOchar and AMO+biochar mixture exhibited reduced Mn leaching, compared to pure AMO. Therefore, it is concluded that the synthesis of AMO and biochar is able to produce a double acting sorbent ('dorbent') of enhanced efficiency, compared with the individual deployment of their component materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Mitigation of hydrogen by oxidation using nitrous oxide and noble metal catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    This test studied the ability of a blend of nuclear-grade, noble-metal catalysts to catalyze a hydrogen/nitrous oxide reaction in an effort to mitigate a potential hydrogen (H 2 ) gas buildup in the Hanford Site Grout Disposal Facility. For gases having H 2 and a stoichiometric excess of either nitrous oxide or oxygen, the catalyst blend can effectively catalyze the H 2 oxidation reaction at a rate exceeding 380 μmoles of H 2 per hour per gram of catalyst (μmol/h/g) and leave the gas with less than a 0.15 residual H 2 Concentration. This holds true in gases with up to 2.25% water vapor and 0.1% methane. This should also hold true for gases with up to 0.1% carbon monoxide (CO) but only until the catalyst is exposed to enough CO to block the catalytic sites and stop the reaction. Gases with ammonia up to 1% may be slightly inhibited but can have reaction rates greater than 250 μmol/h/g with less than a 0.20% residual H 2 concentration. The mechanism for CO poisoning of the catalyst is the chemisorption of CO to the active catalyst sites. The CO sorption capacity (SC) of the catalyst is the total amount of CO that the catalyst will chemisorb. The average SC for virgin catalyst was determined to be 19.3 ± 2.0 μmoles of CO chemisorbed to each gram of catalyst (μmol/g). The average SC for catalyst regenerated with air was 17.3 ± 1.9 μmol/g

  7. Metal Ions Removal Using Nano Oxide Pyrolox™ Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gładysz-Płaska, A.; Skwarek, E.; Budnyak, T. M.; Kołodyńska, D.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents the use of Pyrolox™ containing manganese nano oxides used for the removal of Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) as well as U(VI) ions. Their concentrations were analyzed using the atomic absorption spectrometer SpectrAA 240 FS (Varian) as well as UV-vis method. For this purpose the static kinetic and equilibrium studies were carried out using the batch technique. The effect of solution pH, shaking time, initial metal ion concentrations, sorbent dosage, and temperature was investigated. The equilibrium data were analyzed using the sorption isotherm models proposed by Freundlich, Langmuir-Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich. The kinetic results showed that the pseudo second order kinetic model was found to correlate the experimental data well. The results indicate that adsorption of Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) as well as U(VI) ions is strongly dependent on pH. The value of pH 4-7 was optimal adsorption. The time to reach the equilibrium was found to be 24 h, and after this time, the sorption percentage reached about 70%. Kinetics of Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), and U(VI) adsorption on the adsorbent can be described by the pseudo second order rate equation. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements for adsorbent characterization were performed. Characteristic points of the double layer determined for the studied Pyrolox™ sample in 0.001 mol/dm3 NaCl solution are pHPZC = 4 and pHIEP < 2.

  8. Hydrogen-water deuterium exchange over metal oxide promoted nickel catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagert, N.H.; Shaw-Wood, P.E.; Pouteau, R.M.L.

    1975-01-01

    Specific rates have been measured for hydrogen-water deuterium isotope exchange over unsupported nickel promoted with about 20 percent of various metal oxides. The oxides used were Cr 2 O 3 , MoO 2 , MnO, WO 2 -WO 3 , and UO 2 . Nickel surface areas, which are required to measure the specific rates, were determined by hydrogen chemisorption. Specific rates were measured as a function of temperature in the range 353 to 573 K and as a function of the partial pressure of hydrogen and water over a 10-fold range of partial pressure. The molybdenum and tungsten oxides gave the highest specific rates, and manganese and uranium oxides the lowest. Chromium oxide was intermediate, although it gave the highest rate per gram of catalyst. The orders with respect to hydrogen and water over molybdenum oxide and tungsten oxide promoted nickel were consistent with a mechanism in which nickel oxide is formed from the reaction of water with the catalyst, and then is reduced by hydrogen. Over manganese and uranium oxide promoted catalysts, these orders are consistent with a mechanism in which adsorbed water exchanges with chemisorbed hydrogen atoms on the nickel surface. Chromium oxide is intermediate. It was noted that those oxides which favored the nickel oxide route had electronic work functions closest to those of metallic nickel and nickel oxide. (author)

  9. The Role of Metal Oxides in Nanothermite Reactions: Evidence of Condensed Phase Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    1-5] Given the central role that nanoaluminum plays, much attention has been given to understanding the transport of aluminum with respect to its...Piekiel, S. Chowdhury, M.R. Zachariah, Time Resolved Mass Spectrometry of the Exothermic Reaction between Nanoaluminum and Metal Oxides: The Role of... Nanoaluminum and Metal Oxides: The Role of Oxygen Release, Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 114 (2010) 14269-14275. [15] R. Siriwardane, H.J. Tian, D

  10. Experimental Methodology for Determining Optimum Process Parameters for Production of Hydrous Metal Oxides by Internal Gelation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J.L.

    2005-10-28

    The objective of this report is to describe a simple but very useful experimental methodology that was used to determine optimum process parameters for preparing several hydrous metal-oxide gel spheres by the internal gelation process. The method is inexpensive and very effective in collection of key gel-forming data that are needed to prepare the hydrous metal-oxide microspheres of the best quality for a number of elements.

  11. Biomedical Detection via Macro- and Nano-Sensors Fabricated with Metallic and Semiconducting Oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Hahm, Jong-In

    2013-01-01

    Originally developed as gas sensors, the benefits of metallic and semiconducting oxide materials are now being realized in other areas of sensing, such as chemical, environmental, and biomedical monitoring and detection. Metallic and semiconducting oxides have continuously expanded their roles to date, and have also established their significance in biosensing by utilizing a variety of modes for signal generation and detection mechanism. These sensors are typically based either on their optic...

  12. Gas phase infrared photodissociation spectroscopy of mass-selected ionic clusters: metal oxides and microhydrated anions

    OpenAIRE

    Wende, T.

    2012-01-01

    The central goal of the present thesis is the structural characterization of metal oxide clusters in the framework of the Dedicated Research Center “Structure, Dynamics and Reactivity of Transition Metal Oxide Aggregates” (SFB 546), funded by the German Research Foundation. The SFB 546 aimed at developing a detailed understanding of the relationships between structure and reactivity in catalytic systems. A second goal of this thesis is the characterization of the solvation behavior of anions ...

  13. Metal oxide regenerable carbon dioxide removal system for an advanced portable life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacheff, Maurena S.; Chang, Craig H.; Colombo, Gerald V.; Cusick, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a CO2 removal system for an astronaut portable life support system to meet the EVA requirements for the Space Station is discussed, focusing on the factors important in the selection of the metal oxide absorbent for CO2 removal. Results from laboratory tests on metal oxide absorbent materials are given, including characterization studies and dynamic CO2 uptake and regeneration measurements. The preliminary design of the breadboard system to perform both the absorption and regeneration functions is presented.

  14. Influence of Fe(2+)-catalysed iron oxide recrystallization on metal cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latta, Drew E; Gorski, Christopher A; Scherer, Michelle M

    2012-12-01

    Recent work has indicated that iron (oxyhydr-)oxides are capable of structurally incorporating and releasing metals and nutrients as a result of Fe2+-induced iron oxide recrystallization. In the present paper, we briefly review the current literature examining the mechanisms by which iron oxides recrystallize and summarize how recrystallization affects metal incorporation and release. We also provide new experimental evidence for the Fe2+-induced release of structural manganese from manganese-doped goethite. Currently, the exact mechanism(s) for Fe2+-induced recrystallization remain elusive, although they are likely to be both oxide-and metal-dependent. We conclude by discussing some future research directions for Fe2+-catalysed iron oxide recrystallization.

  15. Differential pulmonary effects of CoO and La2O3metal oxide nanoparticle responses during aerosolized inhalation in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sisler, JD; Li, R; McKinney, W; Mercer, RR; Ji, Z; Xia, T; Wang, X; Shaffer, J; Orandle, M; Mihalchik, AL; Battelli, L; Chen, BT; Wolfarth, M; Andrew, ME; Schwegler-Berry, D

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 The Author(s). Background: Although classified as metal oxides, cobalt monoxide (CoO) and lanthanum oxide (La 2 O 3 ) nanoparticles, as representative transition and rare earth oxides, exhibit distinct material properties that may result in different hazardous potential in the lung. The current study was undertaken to compare the pulmonary effects of aerosolized whole body inhalation of these nanoparticles in mice. Results: Mice were exposed to filtered air (control) and 10 or 30 mg/m ...

  16. Validation of KENO, ANISN and Hansen-Roach cross-section set on plutonium oxide and metal fuel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Tadakuni; Yumoto, Ryozo; Nakano, Koh.

    1980-01-01

    In the previous report, the authors discussed the validity of KENO, ANISN and Hansen-Roach 16 group cross-section set on the critical plutonium nitrate solution systems with various geometries, absorbers and neutron interactions. The purpose of the present report is to examine the validity of the same calculation systems on the homogeneous plutonium oxide and plutonium-uranium mixed oxide fuels with various density values. Eleven experiments adopted for validation are summarized. First six experiments were performed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory of Battelle Memorial Institute, and the remaining five at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The characteristics of core fuel are given, and the isotopic composition of plutonium, the relation between H/(Pu + U) atomic ratio and fuel density as compared with the atomic ratios of PuO 2 and mixed oxides in powder storage and pellet fabrication processes, and critical core dimensions and reflector conditions are shown. The effective multiplication factors were calculated with the KENO code. In case of the metal fuels with simple sphere geometry, additional calculations with the ANISN code were performed. The criticality calculation system composed of KENO, ANISN and Hansen-Roach cross-section set was found to be valid for calculating the criticality on plutonium oxide, plutonium-uranium mixed oxide, plutonium metal and uranium metal fuel systems as well as on plutonium solution systems with various geometries, absorbers and neutron interactions. There seems to remain some problems in the method for evaluating experimental correction. Some discussions foloow. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  17. The role of metallic impurities in oxide semiconductors: first-principles calculations and PAC experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errico, L.A.; Fabricius, G.; Renteria, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2004-08-01

    We report an ab-initio comparative study of the electric-field-gradient tensor (EFG) and structural relaxations introduced by acceptor (Cd) and donor (Ta) impurities when they replace cations in a series of binary oxides: TiO{sub 2}, SnO{sub 2}, and In{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Calculations were performed with the Full-Potential Linearized-Augmented Plane Waves method that allows us to treat the electronic structure and the atomic relaxations in a fully self-consistent way. We considered different charge states for each impurity and studied the dependence on these charge states of the electronic properties and the structural relaxations. Our results are compared with available data coming from PAC experiments and previous calculations, allowing us to obtain a new insight on the role that metal impurities play in oxide semiconductors. It is clear from our results that simple models can not describe the measured EFGs at impurities in oxides even approximately. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Heavy Metal-Induced Oxidative DNA Damage in Earthworms: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Hirano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms can be used as a bio-indicator of metal contamination in soil, Earlier reports claimed the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in earthworm tissues, while the metal-induced mutagenicity reared in contaminated soils for long duration. But we examined the metal-induced mutagenicity in earthworms reared in metal containing culture beddings. In this experiment we observed the generation of 8-oxoguanine (8-oxo-Gua in earthworms exposed to cadmium and nickel in soil. 8-oxo-Gua is a major premutagenic form of oxidative DNA damage that induces GC-to-TA point mutations, leading to carcinogenesis.

  19. Metal Oxide Nanosensors Using Polymeric Membranes, Enzymes and Antibody Receptors as Ion and Molecular Recognition Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Willander

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of recognition and biofunctionality has attracted increasing interest in the fields of chemistry and material sciences. Advances in the field of nanotechnology for the synthesis of desired metal oxide nanostructures have provided a solid platform for the integration of nanoelectronic devices. These nanoelectronics-based devices have the ability to recognize molecular species of living organisms, and they have created the possibility for advanced chemical sensing functionalities with low limits of detection in the nanomolar range. In this review, various metal oxides, such as ZnO-, CuO-, and NiO-based nanosensors, are described using different methods (receptors of functionalization for molecular and ion recognition. These functionalized metal oxide surfaces with a specific receptor involve either a complex formation between the receptor and the analyte or an electrostatic interaction during the chemical sensing of analytes. Metal oxide nanostructures are considered revolutionary nanomaterials that have a specific surface for the immobilization of biomolecules with much needed orientation, good conformation and enhanced biological activity which further improve the sensing properties of nanosensors. Metal oxide nanostructures are associated with certain unique optical, electrical and molecular characteristics in addition to unique functionalities and surface charge features which shows attractive platforms for interfacing biorecognition elements with effective transducing properties for signal amplification. There is a great opportunity in the near future for metal oxide nanostructure-based miniaturization and the development of engineering sensor devices.

  20. Oxidation Behavior of Simudated Metallic U-Nb Alloys in Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Pyo; Ju, June Sik; You, Gil Sung; Cho, Il Je; Kook, Dong Hak; Kim, Ho Dong

    2004-01-01

    In order to enhance an oxidation resistance of the pure uranium metal under air condition, a small quantity of niobium(Nb) which is known to mitigate metal oxidation is added into uranium metal as an alloying element. A simulated metallic uranium alloy, U-Nb has been fabricated and then oxidized in the range of 200 to under the environment of the pure oxygen gas. The oxidized quantity in terms of the weight gain (wt%) has been measured with the help of a thermogravimetric analyzer. The results show that the oxidation resistance of the U-Nb alloy is considerably enhanced in comparison with that of the pure uranium metal. It is revealed that the oxidation resistance of the former with the niobium content of 1, 2, 3, and 4 wt% is : 1) 1.61, 7.78, 11.76 and 20.14 times at the temperature of 200 .deg. C; 2) 1.45, 5.98, 10.08 and 11.15 times at 250 .deg. C; and 3) 1.33, 4.82, 8.87 and 6.84 times at 300 .deg. C higher than that of the latter, respectively. Besides, it is shown that the activation energy attributable to the oxidation is 17.13-21.92 kcal/mol.

  1. Comparative assessment of button cells using a normalized index for potential pollution by heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Merino, Luis; Jiménez-Hernández, Maria Emilia; de la Losa, Almudena; Huerta-Muñoz, Virginia

    2015-09-01

    Many household batteries worldwide still end up in landfills or are incinerated due to inefficient collection and recycling schemes. Toxic heavy metals from improperly discarded button cells pose a serious risk to human health and the environment, as they can pollute air, soil and water. This paper analyses a series of button cells selected from batteries available on the retail market, and compares their polluting potential. A total of 64 batteries were subjected to chemical analyses of 19 elements - including metals and metalloids - , and energy density measurements. The samples were from four different brands of each of the four most common button cell technologies (alkaline, zinc-air, silver oxide and lithium). An energy-normalized index - the Weighted Potential Pollution Index (WPPI) - was proposed to compare the polluting potential of the different batteries. The higher the battery WPPI score, the greater the content in toxic elements and the lower the energy output. The results of the chemical composition and energy density varied depending on the construction technology of the button cells. However, significant differences in both variables were also found when comparing different brands within the same technology. The differences in WPPI values confirmed the existence of a significant margin to reduce the environmental impact of discarded button cells simply by avoiding the most polluting options. The choice of the battery with the most favourable WPPI produced a reduction in potential pollution of 3-53% for silver oxide batteries, 4-39% for alkaline, 20-28% for zinc-air and 12-26% for lithium. Comparative potential pollution could be assessed when selecting batteries using an energy-normalized index such as WPPI to reduce the environmental impact of improperly disposed button cells. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Covalency, Excitons, Double Counting and the Metal-Insulator Transition in Transition Metal Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin

    2012-02-01

    We present single-site dynamical mean-field studies of realistic models of transition metal oxides, including the cuprate superconductors and rare earth nickelates (in bulk and superlattice form). We include orbital multiplet effects and hybridization to ligands. We explicitly calculate the d-d exciton spectra for cuprates, finding sharp exciton lines in both metallic and insulating phases, which should be visible in experiments. We also find that the additional d3z^2-r^2 orbital does not contribute to an additional Fermi surface at any reasonable doping, in contradiction to previous slave-boson studies. The hybridization to ligands is shown to have crucial effects, for example suppressing the ferro-orbital order previously found in Hubbard model studies of nickelates. Hybridization to ligands is shown to be most naturally parametrized by the d-orbital occupancy. For cuprates and nickelates, insulating behavior is found to be present only for a very narrow range of d-occupancy, irrespective of the Coulomb repulsion. The d-occupancy predicted by standard band calculations is found to be very far from the values required to obtain an insulating phase, calling into question the interpretation of these materials as charge transfer insulators. [4pt] This work is done in collaboration with A.J. Millis, M.J. Han, C.A. Marianetti, L. de' Medici, and H.T. Dang, and is supported by NSF-DMR-1006282, the Army Office of Scientific Research, and the Condensed Matter Theory Center and CNAM at University of Maryland. [4pt] [1] X. Wang, H. T. Dang, and A. J. Millis, Phys. Rev. B 84, 014530 (2011).[0pt] [2] X. Wang, M. J. Han, L. de' Medici, C. A. Marianetti, and A. J. Millis, arXiv:1110.2782.[0pt] [3] M. J. Han, X. Wang, C. A. Marianetti, and A. J. Millis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 206804 (2011).

  3. Marine Bacillus spores as catalysts for oxidative precipitation and sorption of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, C A; Tebo, B M

    1999-08-01

    The oxidation of soluble manganese(II) to insoluble Mn(III,IV) oxide precipitates plays an important role in the environment. These Mn oxides are known to oxidize numerous organic and inorganic compounds, scavenge a variety of other metals on their highly charged surfaces, and serve as electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration. Although the oxidation of Mn(II) in most environments is believed to be bacterially-mediated, the underlying mechanisms of catalysis are not well understood. In recent years, however, the application of molecular biological approaches has provided new insights into these mechanisms. Genes involved in Mn oxidation were first identified in our model organism, the marine Bacillus sp. strain SG-1, and subsequently have been identified in two other phylogenetically distinct organisms, Leptothrix discophora and Pseudomonas putida. In all three cases, enzymes related to multicopper oxidases appear to be involved, suggesting that copper may play a universal role in Mn(II) oxidation. In addition to catalyzing an environmentally important process, organisms capable of Mn(II) oxidation are potential candidates for the removal, detoxification, and recovery of metals from the environment. The Mn(II)-oxidizing spores of the marine Bacillus sp. strain SG-1 show particular promise, due to their inherent physically tough nature and unique capacity to bind and oxidatively precipitate metals without having to sustain growth.

  4. Oxidation of sulfur (IV by oxygen in aqueous solution: role of some metal ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Claudia R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic effect of metal ions: Cr(VI, Cr(III, Cd(II, V(V and chloride anion, on the oxidation of S(IV in aqueous solution, at concentrations of metal ions and S(IV usually found in urban atmospheres, were studied under controlled experimental conditions (pH (2.1 - 4,5, T (25.0 - 35.0 °C, air flow rate, concentration of reactants, etc.... The kinetic constant determined at 25.0 °C and pH range (2.1 - 4.5, using ultra pure water was 8.0 ± 0.5 x 10-4 s-1. This value was considered as a reference for the oxidation reaction rate. The kinetic constants determined in the presence of Cr(VI revealed that the oxidation reaction of S(IV is quite influenced by the acidity. At pH = 2.1 (K = 2.3 x 10-2 mg-1 L s-1 the reaction is carried out with a rate five times greater when compared to pH = 2.6 (K = 4.3 x 10-3 mg-1 L s-1 and thirty times greater when compared to pH = 3.4 (K= 8.0 x 10 -4 mg-1 L s-1. The following rate expression was obtained at pH = 2.6: -r(S(IV =K [Cr(VI] [S(IV] and the activation energy found was: Ea =70.3KJ/mol. No catalytic effects were observed for Cd(II or chloride ion, while inhibitory effects were observed for Cr(III and V(V ions.

  5. Role of carboxylate ion and metal oxidation state on the morphology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sub-micron rods and spheres of cobalt succinate sesquihydrate and iron succinate trihydrate/pentahydrate respectively have been synthesized by the reverse micellar route. These precursors are an excellent source for the synthesis of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles. Cubes of (edge length ∼ 150 nm) Fe3O4 and ...

  6. Magnetron sputtered gadolinia-doped ceria diffusion barriers for metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Steffen; Klemensø, Trine; Christensen, Bjarke H.

    2014-01-01

    Gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC) thin films are deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering in an industrial-scale setup and implemented as barrier layers between the cathode and electrolyte in metal-based solid oxide fuel cells consisting of a metal support, an electrolyte of ZrO2 co-doped with Sc2O3 ...

  7. Using Metal Complex Reduced States to Monitor the Oxidation of DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmon, Eric D.; Hill, Michael G.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2011-01-01

    Metallointercalating photooxidants interact intimately with the base stack of double-stranded DNA and exhibit rich photophysical and electrochemical properties, making them ideal probes for the study of DNA-mediated charge transport (CT). The complexes [Rh(phi)2(bpy′)]3+ (phi = 9,10-phenanthrenequinone diimine; bpy′ = 4-methyl-4′-(butyric acid)-2,2′-bipyridine), [Ir(ppy)2(dppz′)]+ (ppy = 2-phenylpyridine; dppz′ = 6-(dipyrido[3,2-a:2′,3′-c]phenazin-11-yl)hex-5-ynoic acid), and [Re(CO)3(dppz)(py′)]+ (dppz = dipyrido[2,3-a:2′,3′-c]phenazine; py′ = 3-(pyridin-4-yl)-propanoic acid) were each covalently tethered to DNA in order to compare their photooxidation efficiencies. Biochemical studies show that upon irradiation, the three complexes oxidize guanine by long-range DNA-mediated CT with the efficiency: Rh > Re > Ir. Comparison of spectra obtained by spectroelectrochemistry after bulk reduction of the free metal complexes with those obtained by transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy of the conjugates suggests that the reduced metal states form following excitation of the conjugates at 355 nm. Electrochemical experiments and kinetic analysis of the TA decays indicate that the thermodynamic driving force for CT, variations in the efficiency of back electron transfer, and coupling to DNA are the primary factors responsible for the trend observed in the guanine oxidation yield of the three complexes. PMID:22043853

  8. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS FOR METAL BINDING CAPACITY OF CYSTEINE BY USING UV-VIS SPECTROPHOTOMETER

    OpenAIRE

    Shivendu Ranjan; Nandita Dasgupta; Gyanendra Gour; Rashmi Dubey; Kumari Amrita

    2012-01-01

    The metal binding capacity of cysteine with three different metals Nickel, Copper and Lead was studied using UV-Vis spectrophotometer for which absorbance values were taken after interaction of cysteine with metal salt solutions (10ppm and 100ppm). Before taking above absorbance dilution factor was set using cysteine stock. The increase in peak intensity was observed when metal salt solution and metal saltcysteine solution were compared. Based on peak shift and peak intensity finally it can b...

  9. Giant and switchable surface activity of liquid metal via surface oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Mohammad Rashed; Eaker, Collin B.; Bowden, Edmond F.; Dickey, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    We present a method to control the interfacial energy of a liquid metal via electrochemical deposition (or removal) of an oxide layer on its surface. Unlike conventional surfactants, this approach can tune the interfacial tension of a metal significantly (from ∼7× that of water to near zero), rapidly, and reversibly using only modest voltages. These properties can be harnessed to induce previously unidentified electrohydrodynamic phenomena for manipulating liquid metal alloys based on gallium...

  10. Oxidation of Group 8 transition-Metal Hydrides and Ionic Hydrogenation of Ketones and Aldehydes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kjell-Tore

    1996-08-01

    Transition-metal hydrides have received considerable attention during the last decades because of their unusual reactivity and their potential as homogeneous catalysts for hydrogenation and other reactions of organic substrates. An important class of catalytic processes where transition-metal hydrides are involved is the homogeneous hydrogenation of alkenes, alkynes, ketones, aldehydes, arenes and nitro compounds. This thesis studies the oxidation of Group 8 transition-metal hydrides and the ionic hydrogenation of ketones and aldehydes.

  11. Thermal oxidation of Zr–Cu–Al–Ni amorphous metal thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleksak, R.P.; Hostetler, E.B.; Flynn, B.T. [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); McGlone, J.M.; Landau, N.P.; Wager, J.F. [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Stickle, W.F. [Hewlett-Packard Company, Corvallis, OR 97333 (United States); Herman, G.S., E-mail: greg.herman@oregonstate.edu [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2015-11-30

    The initial stages of thermal oxidation for Zr–Cu–Al–Ni amorphous metal thin films were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The as-deposited films had oxygen incorporated during sputter deposition, which helped to stabilize the amorphous phase. After annealing in air at 300 °C for short times (5 min) this oxygen was found to segregate to the surface or buried interface. Annealing at 300 °C for longer times leads to significant composition variation in both vertical and lateral directions, and formation of a surface oxide layer that consists primarily of Zr and Al oxides. Surface oxide formation was initially limited by back-diffusion of Cu and Ni (< 30 min), and then by outward diffusion of Zr (> 30 min). The oxidation properties are largely consistent with previous observations of Zr–Cu–Al–Ni metallic glasses, however some discrepancies were observed which could be explained by the unique sample geometry of the amorphous metal thin films. - Highlights: • Thermal oxidation of amorphous Zr–Cu–Al–Ni thin films was investigated. • Significant short-range inhomogeneities were observed in the amorphous films. • An accumulation of Cu and Ni occurs at the oxide/metal interface. • Diffusion of Zr was found to limit oxide film growth.

  12. NRF2 Oxidative Stress Induced by Heavy Metals is Cell Type Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to metallic environmental toxicants has been demonstrated to induce a variety of oxidative stress responses in mammalian cells. The transcription factor Nrf2 is activated in response to oxidative stress and coordinates the expression of antioxidant gene products. In this...

  13. Metal Oxide-Supported Platinum Overlayers as Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Cathodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tripkovic, Vladimir; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Studt, Felix

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the activity and stability of n=(1, 2, 3) platinum layers supported on a number of rutile metal oxides (MO2; M=Ti, Sn, Ta, Nb, Hf and Zr). A suitable oxide support can alleviate the problem of carbon corrosion and platinum dissolution in Pt/C catalysts. Moreover, it can increase t...

  14. Impact of metal-ion contaminated silica particles on gate oxide integrity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rink, Ingrid; Wali, F.; Knotter, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of metal-ion contamination (present on wafer surface before oxidation) on gate oxide integrity (GOI) is well known in literature, which is not the case for clean silica particles [1, 2]. However, it is known that particles present in ultra-pure water (UPW) decrease the random yield in

  15. Tetrathiafulvalene S-oxide: a Potential Donor Impurity in the Organic Metal TTF-TCNQ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars; Bechgaard, Klaus; Jacobsen, Claus Schelde

    1979-01-01

    Tetrathiafulvalene S-oxide, which because of its size similarity with tetrathiafulvalene is a potential ‘donor impurity’ in the organic metal TTF–TCNQ, was prepared and characterized spectroscopically. Experiments in which tetrathiafulvalene S-oxide was purposely doped into TTF–TCNQ indicate...

  16. Base-oxidant promoted metal-free N-demethylation of arylamines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A metal-free oxidative N-demethylation of arylamines with triethylamine as a base and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as oxidant is reported in this paper. The reaction is general, practical, inexpensive, non-toxic, and the method followed is environmentally benign, with moderate to good yields.

  17. Comparative assessment of heavy metal removal by immobilized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Microorganisms play a vital role in heavy metal contaminated soil and wastewater by the mechanisms of biosorption. In this study, heavy ... Key words: Biosorption, bacteria, heavy metal, dead bacterial cells, immobilization. INTRODUCTION. The current ..... Uranium uptake by immobilized cells of. Pseudomonas sp. strains ...

  18. Comparative assessment of heavy metal removal by immobilized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microorganisms play a vital role in heavy metal contaminated soil and wastewater by the mechanisms of biosorption. In this study, heavy metal resistant bacteria were isolated from an electroplating industrial effluent samples that uses copper, cadmium and lead for plating. These isolates were characterized to evaluate their ...

  19. Comparative Studies on Mosses for Heavy Metals Pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sources of these heavy metals were discovered to include: vehicular emission and incineration of domestic wastes and the heavy metals from these sources were discovered to pose severe toxicological risks to the environment and human health. Samples of mosses were collected at eight different locations in each ...

  20. Combining Raman Microprobe and XPS to Study High Temperature Oxidation of Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windisch, Charles F.; Henager, Charles H.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bennett, Wendy D.

    2011-01-01

    Raman microprobe spectroscopy was applied in studies of high-temperature air oxidation of a ferritic alloy (HT-9) in the absence and presence of zirconia coatings with the objective of evaluating the technique as a way to quickly screen candidate cladding materials and actinide-based mixed oxide fuel mixtures for advanced nuclear reactors. When oxidation was relatively uniform, Raman spectra collected using microscope optics with low spatial resolution were found to be similar to those collected with conventional Raman spectroscopy. These spectra could be used to identify major oxide corrosion products and follow changes in the composition of the oxides due to heating. However, when the oxidation films were comprised of multiple layers of varying composition, or with layers containing metallic phases, techniques with higher depth resolution and sensitivity to zero-valence metals were necessary. The requirements were met by combining Raman microprobe using different optical configurations and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  1. Subnanometer to nanometer transition metal CO oxidation catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajda, Stefan; Fortunelli, Alessandro; Yasumatsu, Hisato

    2017-12-26

    The present invention provides a catalyst defined in part by a conductive substrate; a film overlaying a surface of the substrate; and a plurality of metal clusters supported by the layer, wherein each cluster comprises between 8 and 11 atoms. Further provided is a catalyst defined in part by a conductive substrate; a layer overlaying a surface of the substrate; and a plurality of metal clusters supported by the layer, wherein each cluster comprises at least two metals.

  2. Breakdown resistance of refractory metals compared to copper

    CERN Document Server

    Taborelli, M; Kildemo, M

    2004-01-01

    The behaviour of Mo, W and Cu with respect to electrical breakdown in ultra high vacuum has been investigated by means of a capacitor discharge method. The maximum stable electric field without breakdown and the field enhancement factor, beta have been measured between electrodes of the same material in a sphere/plane geometry for anode and cathode, respectively. The maximum stable field increases as a function of the number of breakdown events for W and Mo. In contrast, no systematic increase is observed for Cu. The highest values obtained are typically 500 MV/m for W, 350 MV/m for Mo and only 180 MV/m for Cu. This conditioning, found for the refractory metals, corresponds to a simultaneous decrease of beta and is therefore related to the field emission properties of the surface and their modification upon sparking. Accordingly, high beta values and no applicable field increase occur for Cu even after repeated breakdown. The results are compared with RF breakdown experiments [1] performed on prototype 30 GHz...

  3. Volcano Relation for the Deacon Process over Transition-Metal Oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studt, Felix; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Hansen, Heine Anton

    2010-01-01

    We establish an activity relation for the heterogeneous catalytic oxidation of HCI (the Deacon Process) over rutile transition-metal oxide catalysts by combining density functional theory calculations (DFT) with microkinetic modeling. Linear energy relations for the elementary reaction steps...... for improvements. The analysis suggests that oxide surfaces which offer slightly weaker bonding of oxygen should exhibit a superior activity to that of RuO2....

  4. Isothermal oxidation of metallic coatings deposited by a water-stabilized plasma gun

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Voleník, Karel; Nop, P.; Kopřiva, P.; Kolman, Blahoslav Jan; Dubský, Jiří

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2006), s. 41-48 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/03/0710 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : plasma spraying * metallic coatings * oxidation tests * oxidation kinetics * oxide structure * element distribution Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 1.138, year: 2006

  5. Adsorptive kinetic mechanism of heavy metal cations on the surface of graphite oxide and its SiO2 composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheet, Imtithal; Kabbani, Ahmad; Holail, Hanafy

    2017-02-01

    Nanomaterials have gained great attention because of their novel size- and shape-dependent properties, large specific surface area and high reaction activity. Moreover, nanomaterials have a wide range of applications, as in the technological and environmental challenges in the areas of solar energy conversion, catalysis, medicine, and water treatments. In the present study, nanostructured graphite oxide, silica/graphite oxide composites and silica nanoparticles were used for the removal of the heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions by a batch adsorption method and the adsorptive kinetic mechanism of heavy metal cations on the surface of graphite oxide and its SiO2 composite was evaluated. The experimental results revealed a strong adsorption of the metal cations on the surface of graphite oxide, this is reflected in the shifts in wave numbers after adsorption with nanostructured graphite oxide and the big shift in wave numbers (Δv¯) for nickel ions reflects chemosorption type of adsorption. This is confirmed by the coherence between Δv¯, removal percentage and crystal field stabilization energy (CFSE). Silica/ GO (2:3) composite showed the greatest removal percentage at different concentrations compared to pure graphite oxide and silica nanoparticles. The higher removal percentage of nickel ions by silica /GO composite (2:3) was observed at 180 min contact time and basic pH. The kinetic studies showed that silica/ GO (2:3) composite had rapid adsorption rate and efficiency and it was found to follow first order rate expression or an exponential decay of the metal cations from water study.

  6. Chemoselective Oxidation of Bio-Glycerol with Nano-Sized Metal Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hu; Kotni, Ramakrishna; Zhang, Qiuyun

    2015-01-01

    to selectively oxidize glycerol and yield products with good selectivity is the use of nano-sized metal particles as heterogeneous catalysts. In this short review, recent developments in chemoselective oxidation of glycerol to specific products over nano-sized metal catalysts are described. Attention is drawn...... to various reaction parameters such as the type of the support, the size of the metal particles, and the acid/base properties of the reaction medium which were illustrated to largely influence the activity of the nanocatalyst and selectivity to the target product. - See more at: http...

  7. Effective alkaline metal-catalyzed oxidative delignification of hybrid poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Aditya; Bansal, Namita; Stoklosa, Ryan J; Fountain, Mackenzie; Ralph, John; Hodge, David B; Hegg, Eric L

    2016-01-01

    Strategies to improve copper-catalyzed alkaline hydrogen peroxide (Cu-AHP) pretreatment of hybrid poplar were investigated. These improvements included a combination of increasing hydrolysis yields, while simultaneously decreasing process inputs through (i) more efficient utilization of H2O2 and (ii) the addition of an alkaline extraction step prior to the metal-catalyzed AHP pretreatment. We hypothesized that utilizing this improved process could substantially lower the chemical inputs needed during pretreatment. Hybrid poplar was pretreated utilizing a modified process in which an alkaline extraction step was incorporated prior to the Cu-AHP treatment step and H2O2 was added batch-wise over the course of 10 h. Our results revealed that the alkaline pre-extraction step improved both lignin and xylan solubilization, which ultimately led to improved glucose (86 %) and xylose (95 %) yields following enzymatic hydrolysis. An increase in the lignin solubilization was also observed with fed-batch H2O2 addition relative to batch-only addition, which again resulted in increased glucose and xylose yields (77 and 93 % versus 63 and 74 %, respectively). Importantly, combining these strategies led to significantly improved sugar yields (96 % glucose and 94 % xylose) following enzymatic hydrolysis. In addition, we found that we could substantially lower the chemical inputs (enzyme, H2O2, and catalyst), while still maintaining high product yields utilizing the improved Cu-AHP process. This pretreatment also provided a relatively pure lignin stream consisting of ≥90 % Klason lignin and only 3 % xylan and 2 % ash following precipitation. Two-dimensional heteronuclear single-quantum coherence (2D HSQC) NMR and size-exclusion chromatography demonstrated that the solubilized lignin was high molecular weight (Mw ≈ 22,000 Da) and only slightly oxidized relative to lignin from untreated poplar. This study demonstrated that the fed-batch, two-stage Cu-AHP pretreatment

  8. Thermochemistry of uranium(VI), arsenic, and alkali metal triple oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karyakin, N.V.; Chernorukov, G.N.

    1994-01-01

    The standard enthalpies of reactions of stoichiometric mixtures of potassium dyhydrogen orthoarsenate, uranium(VI) oxide, alkali metal nitrates, and of mixtures of triple oxides with the general formula M I AsUO 6 (M I =Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs) and potassium nitrate with aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid were determined an an adiabatic calorimeter at 298.15 K. The standard enthalpies of formation of uranium(VI), arsenic, and alkali metal triple oxides at 298.15 K were calculated form the data obtained. 8 refs., 1 tab

  9. Metal oxide targets produced by the polymer-assisted deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Mitch A., E-mail: mitch@berkeley.ed [Department of Chemistry, Room 446 Latimer Hall, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1460 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ali, Mazhar N.; Chang, Noel N.; Parsons-Moss, T. [Department of Chemistry, Room 446 Latimer Hall, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1460 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ashby, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gates, Jacklyn M. [Department of Chemistry, Room 446 Latimer Hall, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1460 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Stavsetra, Liv [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gregorich, Kenneth E.; Nitsche, Heino [Department of Chemistry, Room 446 Latimer Hall, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1460 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-02-11

    The polymer-assisted deposition (PAD) method was used to create crack-free homogenous metal oxide films for use as targets in nuclear science applications. Metal oxide films of europium, thulium, and hafnium were prepared as models for actinide oxides. Films produced by a single application of PAD were homogenous and uniform and ranged in thickness from 30 to 320 nm. Reapplication of the PAD method (six times) with a 10% by weight hafnium(IV) solution resulted in an equally homogeneous and uniform film with a total thickness of 600 nm.

  10. Metal oxide targets produced by the polymer-assisted deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Mitch A.; Ali, Mazhar N.; Chang, Noel N.; Parsons-Moss, T.; Ashby, Paul D.; Gates, Jacklyn M.; Stavsetra, Liv; Gregorich, Kenneth E.; Nitsche, Heino

    2010-01-01

    The polymer-assisted deposition (PAD) method was used to create crack-free homogenous metal oxide films for use as targets in nuclear science applications. Metal oxide films of europium, thulium, and hafnium were prepared as models for actinide oxides. Films produced by a single application of PAD were homogenous and uniform and ranged in thickness from 30 to 320 nm. Reapplication of the PAD method (six times) with a 10% by weight hafnium(IV) solution resulted in an equally homogeneous and uniform film with a total thickness of 600 nm.

  11. Electrochemical oxidation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid by metal-oxide-coated Ti electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharana, Dusmant; Xu, Zesheng; Niu, Junfeng; Rao, Neti Nageswara

    2015-10-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) over metal-oxide-coated Ti anodes, i.e., Ti/SnO2-Sb/Ce-PbO2, Ti/SnO2-Sb and Ti/RuO2, was examined. The degradation efficiency of over 90% was attained at 20 min at different initial concentrations (0.5-20 mg L(-1)) and initial pH values (3.1-11.2). The degradation efficiencies of 2,4,5-T on Ti/SnO2-Sb/Ce-PbO2, Ti/SnO2-Sb and Ti/RuO2 anodes were higher than 99.9%, 97.2% and 91.5% at 30 min, respectively, and the respective total organic carbon removal ratios were 65.7%, 54.6% and 37.2%. The electrochemical degradation of 2,4,5-T in aqueous solution followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The compounds, i.e., 2,5-dichlorohydroquinone and 2,5-dihydroxy-p-benzoquinone, have been identified as the main aromatic intermediates by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that the energy efficiencies of 2,4,5-T (20 mg L(-1)) degradation with Ti/SnO2-Sb/Ce-PbO2 anode at the optimal current densities from 2 to 16 mA cm(-2) ranged from 8.21 to 18.73 kWh m(-3). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A study on oxidation treatment of uranium metal chip under controlling atmosphere for safe storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Kyu; Ji, Chul Goo; Bae, Sang Oh; Woo, Yoon Myeoung; Kim, Jong Goo; Ha, Yeong Keong

    2011-01-01

    The U metal chips generated in developing nuclear fuel and a gamma radioisotope shield have been stored under immersion of water in KAERI. When the water of the storing vessels vaporizes or drains due to unexpected leaking, the U metal chips are able to open to air. A new oxidation treatment process was raised for a long time safe storage with concepts of drying under vacuum, evaporating the containing water and organic material with elevating temperature, and oxidizing the uranium metal chips at an appropriate high temperature under conditions of controlling the feeding rate of oxygen gas. In order to optimize the oxidation process the uranium metal chips were completely dried at higher temperature than 300 .deg. C and tested for oxidation at various temperatures, which are 300 .deg. C, 400 .deg. C, and 500 .deg. C. When the oxidation temperature was 400 .deg. C, the oxidized sample for 7 hours showed a temperature rise of 60 .deg. C in the self-ignition test. But the oxidized sample for 14 hours revealed a slight temperature rise of 7 .deg. C representing a stable behavior in the self-ignition test. When the temperature was 500 .deg. C, the shorter oxidation for 7 hours appeared to be enough because the self-ignition test represented no temperature rise. By using several chemical analyses such as carbon content determination, X-ray deflection (XRD), Infrared spectra (IR) and Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) on the oxidation treated samples, the results of self-ignition test of new oxidation treatment process for U metal chip were interpreted and supported

  13. Synthesis of high T.sub.C superconducting coatings and patterns by melt writing and oxidation of metallic precursor alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Vander Sande, John B.

    1998-01-01

    A method is provided for fabrication of superconducting oxides and superconducting oxide composites and for joining superconductors to other materials. A coating of a molten alloy containing the metallic elements of the oxide is applied to a substrate surface and oxidized to form the superconducting oxide. A material can be contacted to the molten alloy which is subsequently oxidized joining the material to the resulting superconducting oxide coating. Substrates of varied composition and shape can be coated or joined by this method.

  14. Removal of oxides from alkali metal melts by reductive titration to electrical resistance-change end points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Floris Y.

    1980-01-01

    Alkali metal oxides dissolved in alkali metal melts are reduced with soluble metals which are converted to insoluble oxides. The end points of the reduction is detected as an increase in electrical resistance across an alkali metal ion-conductive membrane interposed between the oxide-containing melt and a material capable of accepting the alkali metal ions from the membrane when a difference in electrical potential, of the appropriate polarity, is established across it. The resistance increase results from blocking of the membrane face by ions of the excess reductant metal, to which the membrane is essentially non-conductive.

  15. Analysis of Carrier Traps in Si3N4 in Oxide/Nitride/Oxide for Metal/Oxide/Nitride/Oxide/Silicon Nonvolatile Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aozasa, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Ichiro; AkihiroNakamura, AkihiroNakamura; Komatsu, Yasutoshi

    1999-03-01

    The energy level, density and attempt to escape frequency ofcarrier traps in an Si3N4 film in tunnel oxide/nitride/oxide(ONO) multilayer for metal/oxide/nitride/oxide/silicon (MONOS)nonvolatile memory are investigated by discharging current transientspectroscopy (DCTS). To analyze the electrical properties of carriertraps observed through DCTS, a new model including the tunnelingprobability of the tunnel oxide film between the Si3N4 filmand an Si substrate was proposed. As a result, the electron traps inthe Si3N4 film, which are assumed to be related to thethreshold voltage decay, i.e. data retention, were found for the firsttime. The energy level of the electron traps in the Si3N4film in the ONO multilayer was 0.8 0.9 eV from the conduction bandand the density was 1 5×1018 cm-3. Theattempt to escape frequency of 2×1014 s-1 was alsoobtained. The energy level of the hole traps and its density were0.8 0.9 eV from the top of the valence band and 1 4×1018 cm-3, respectively. The magnitude of the trap density obtained from DCTS shows good agreement with that obtained from memory hysteresis characteristics. These results indicate that their carrier traps are amphoteric traps.

  16. Aerosol synthesis and electrochemical analysis of niobium mixed-metal oxides for the ethanol oxidation reaction in acid and alkaline electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Daniel A.

    Direct ethanol fuel cells are especially important among emerging electrochemical power systems with the potential to offset a great deal of the energy demand currently met through the use of fossil fuels. Ethanol can be refined from petroleum sources or attained from renewable biomass, and is more easily and safely stored and transported than hydrogen, methanol or gasoline. The full energy potential of ethanol in fuel cells can only be realized if the reaction follows a total oxidation pathway to produce CO2. This must be achieved by the development of advanced catalysts that are electrically conductive, stable in corrosive environments, contain a high surface area on which the reaction can occur, and exhibit a bi-functional effect for the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). The latter criterion is achievable in mixed-metal systems. Platinum is an effective metal for catalyzing surface reactions of many adsorbates and is usually implemented in the form of Pt nanoparticles supported on inexpensive carbon. This carbon is believed to be neutral in the catalysis of Pt. Instead, carbon can be replaced with carefully designed metals and metal oxides as co-catalysis or support structures that favorably alter the electronic structure of Pt slightly through a strong metal support interaction, while also acting as an oxygen source near adsorbates to facilitate the total oxidation pathway. Niobium mixed-metal-oxides were explored in this study as bi-functional catalyst supports to Pt nanoparticles. We developed a thermal aerosol synthesis process by which mesoporous powders of mixed-metal-oxides decorated with Pt nanoparticles could be obtained from liquid precursors within ˜5 seconds or less, followed by carefully refined chemical and thermal post-treatments. Exceptionally high surface areas of 170--180m2/g were achieved via a surfactant-templated 3D wormhole-type porosity, comparable on a per volume basis to commercial carbon blacks and high surface area silica supports

  17. Effect of the Noble Metals Addition on the Oxidation Behavior of Ni3Al

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Ramos-Hernandez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the effect of the addition of noble metals on the microstructure, mechanism, and oxidation kinetics of the Ni3Al intermetallic alloy. Ni3Al was doped with 1% (atomic percent of Au, Ag, Pd, and Pt. Oxidation behavior of the alloys was evaluated at 900, 1000, and 1100°C in O2 for 24 hours. XRD analysis showed that the addition of noble metals favored the oxide growth on preferential crystallographic planes. In addition, the preferential substitution of the noble metals in the Ni3Al structure modifies the surface composition by increasing the Al/Ni ratio. It was observed that most of the alloys showed a subparabolic behavior, and only the intermetallic base and the alloy doped with Ag show a parabolic behavior at 900°C. The developed oxides were analyzed both superficially and in cross section by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA. It was evident that only the intermetallic base showed the formation of a duplex oxide scale (Al2O3/NiO. The alloys doped with noble metals showed the oxide growth practically of pure Al2O3. This was due to a decrease in the diffusion of the Ni cations because of the presence of the noble metals in the crystalline structure.

  18. Research Update: Strategies for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting using metal oxide photoanodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungho Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photoelectrochemical (PEC water splitting to hydrogen is an attractive method for capturing and storing the solar energy in the form of chemical energy. Metal oxides are promising photoanode materials due to their low-cost synthetic routes and higher stability than other semiconductors. In this paper, we provide an overview of recent efforts to improve PEC efficiencies via applying a variety of fabrication strategies to metal oxide photoanodes including (i size and morphology-control, (ii metal oxide heterostructuring, (iii dopant incorporation, (iv attachments of quantum dots as sensitizer, (v attachments of plasmonic metal nanoparticles, and (vi co-catalyst coupling. Each strategy highlights the underlying principles and mechanisms for the performance enhancements.

  19. Oxide nanostructures hyperbranched with thin and hollow metal shells for high-performance nanostructured battery electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xinhui; Xiong, Qinqin; Zhang, Yongqi; Tu, Jiangping; Ng, Chin Fan; Fan, Hong Jin

    2014-06-25

    High-performance electrochemical energy storage (EES) devices require the ability to modify and assemble electrode materials with superior reactivity and structural stability. The fabrication of different oxide/metal core-branch nanoarrays with adjustable components and morphologies (e.g., nanowire and nanoflake) is reported on different conductive substrates. Hollow metal branches (or shells) wrapped around oxide cores are realized by electrodeposition using ZnO nanorods as a sacrificial template. In battery electrode application, the thin hollow metal branches can provide a mechanical protection of the oxide core and a highly conductive path for charges. As a demonstration, arrays of Co3O4/Ni core-branch nanowires are evaluated as the anode for lithium ion batteries. The thin metal branches evidently improve the electrochemical performance with higher specific capacity, rate capability, and capacity retention than the unmodified Co3O4 counterparts. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Application of Iron Oxide Nanomaterials for the Removal of Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragnesh N. Dave

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st century water polluted by heavy metal is one of the environment problems. Various methods for removal of the heavy metal ions from the water have extensively been studied. Application of iron oxide nanaparticles based nanomaterials for removal of heavy metals is well-known adsorbents for remediation of water. Due to its important physiochemical property, inexpensive method and easy regeneration in the presence of external magnetic field make them more attractive toward water purification. Surface modification strategy of iron oxide nanoparticles is also used for the remediation of water increases the efficiency of iron oxide for the removal of the heavy metal ions from the aqueous system.