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Sample records for metal oxide-based olfactory

  1. Device-independent, real-time identification of bacterial pathogens with a metal oxide-based olfactory sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Bruins (Marcel); A.N.R. Bos (Albert); P.L. Petit (Pieter); K. Eadie (Kimberley); A. Rog; R. Bos (Rens); G.H. van Ramshorst (Gabrielle); A.F. van Belkum (Alex)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractA novel olfactory method for bacterial species identification using an electronic nose device called the MonoNose was developed. Differential speciation of micro-organisms present in primary cultures of clinical samples could be performed by real-time identification of volatile organic

  2. Cadmium-induced olfactory dysfunction in rainbow trout: Effects of binary and quaternary metal mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dew, William A. [Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1 K 3M4 (Canada); Department of Biology, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario K9 J 7B8 (Canada); Veldhoen, Nik; Carew, Amanda C.; Helbing, Caren C. [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8 P 5C2 Canada (Canada); Pyle, Greg G., E-mail: gregory.pyle@uleth.ca [Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1 K 3M4 (Canada)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Cadmium impairs the olfactory response of rainbow trout. • Nickel and zinc, but not copper, protect against Cd-induced olfactory dysfunction. • Calcium, sodium, and magnesium also protect against the effect of cadmium. • Protection from cadmium is most likely not due to metallothionein expression. - Abstract: A functioning olfactory response is essential for fish to be able to undertake essential behaviors. The majority of work investigating the effects of metals on the olfactory response of fish has focused on single-metal exposures. In this study we exposed rainbow trout to cadmium, copper, nickel, zinc, or a mixture of these four metals at or below the current Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. Measurement of olfactory acuity using an electro-olfactogram demonstrated that cadmium causes significant impairment of the entire olfactory system, while the other three metals or the mixture of all four metals did not. Binary mixtures with cadmium and each of the other metals demonstrated that nickel and zinc, but not copper, protect against cadmium-induced olfactory dysfunction. Testing was done to determine if the protection from cadmium-induced olfactory dysfunction could be explained by binding competition between cadmium and the other metals at the cell surface, or if the protection could be explained by an up-regulation of an intracellular detoxification pathway, namely metallothionein. This study is the first to measure the effects of binary and quaternary metal mixtures on the olfactory response of fish, something that will aid in future assessments of the effects of metals on the environment.

  3. Metal-oxide based nanoobjects: reactivity, building blocks for polymeric structures and structural variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.; Roy, S.

    2002-01-01

    The latest achievements in the new field of nanochemistry, i.e. investigation of reactions proceeding at selected sites of well-characterized metal-oxide based nanoobjects are reviewed. It is demonstrated that from the unique library of molybdenum-oxide based building blocks/fragments under reducing conditions in aqueous solution a huge variety of nanoobjects can be generated. Examples include the well-known molecular big-wheel of the type { Mo 176 } and big-ball of the type { Mo 132 } including their derivatives which are considered here. In addition, the by far largest structurally well-characterized cluster having 368 molybdenum atoms with the shape of a lemon is outlines and discussed [ru

  4. Metal oxide-based nanoparticles: revealing their potential to enhance oil recovery in different wettability systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendraningrat, Luky; Torsæter, Ole

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents systematic studies of hydrophilic metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) dispersed in brine intended to reveal their potential to enhance oil recovery (EOR) in various rock wettability systems. The stability in suspension (nanofluid) of the NPs has been identified as a key factor related to their use as an EOR agent. Experimental techniques have been developed for nanofluid stability using three coupled methods: direct visual observation, surface conductivity and particle size measurements. The use of a dispersant has been investigated and has been shown to successfully improve metal oxide nanofluid stability as a function of its concentration. The dispersant alters the nanofluid properties, i.e. surface conductivity, pH and particle size distribution. A two-phase coreflood experiment was conducted by injecting the stable nanofluids as a tertiary process (nano-EOR) through core plugs with various wettabilities ranging from water-wet to oil-wet. The combination of metal oxide nanofluid and dispersant improved the oil recovery to a greater extent than either silica-based nanofluid or dispersant alone in all wettability systems. The contact angle, interfacial tension (IFT) and effluent were also measured. It was observed that metal oxide-based nanofluids altered the quartz plates to become more water-wet, and the results are consistent with those of the coreflood experiment. The particle adsorption during the transport process was identified from effluent analysis. The presence of NPs and dispersant reduced the IFT, but its reduction is sufficient to yield significant additional oil recovery. Hence, wettability alteration plays a dominant role in the oil displacement mechanism using nano-EOR.

  5. Recent advances in metal oxide-based electrode architecture design for electrochemical energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jian; Liu, Jinping; Huang, Xintang [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Department of Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Li, Yuanyuan [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Yuan, Changzhou; Lou, Xiong Wen [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (China)

    2012-10-02

    Metal oxide nanostructures are promising electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors because of their high specific capacity/capacitance, typically 2-3 times higher than that of the carbon/graphite-based materials. However, their cycling stability and rate performance still can not meet the requirements of practical applications. It is therefore urgent to improve their overall device performance, which depends on not only the development of advanced electrode materials but also in a large part ''how to design superior electrode architectures''. In the article, we will review recent advances in strategies for advanced metal oxide-based hybrid nanostructure design, with the focus on the binder-free film/array electrodes. These binder-free electrodes, with the integration of unique merits of each component, can provide larger electrochemically active surface area, faster electron transport and superior ion diffusion, thus leading to substantially improved cycling and rate performance. Several recently emerged concepts of using ordered nanostructure arrays, synergetic core-shell structures, nanostructured current collectors, and flexible paper/textile electrodes will be highlighted, pointing out advantages and challenges where appropriate. Some future electrode design trends and directions are also discussed. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Recent advances in metal oxide-based electrode architecture design for electrochemical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jian; Li, Yuanyuan; Liu, Jinping; Huang, Xintang; Yuan, Changzhou; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2012-10-02

    Metal oxide nanostructures are promising electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors because of their high specific capacity/capacitance, typically 2-3 times higher than that of the carbon/graphite-based materials. However, their cycling stability and rate performance still can not meet the requirements of practical applications. It is therefore urgent to improve their overall device performance, which depends on not only the development of advanced electrode materials but also in a large part "how to design superior electrode architectures". In the article, we will review recent advances in strategies for advanced metal oxide-based hybrid nanostructure design, with the focus on the binder-free film/array electrodes. These binder-free electrodes, with the integration of unique merits of each component, can provide larger electrochemically active surface area, faster electron transport and superior ion diffusion, thus leading to substantially improved cycling and rate performance. Several recently emerged concepts of using ordered nanostructure arrays, synergetic core-shell structures, nanostructured current collectors, and flexible paper/textile electrodes will be highlighted, pointing out advantages and challenges where appropriate. Some future electrode design trends and directions are also discussed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Geographical origin of Sauvignon Blanc wines predicted by mass spectrometry and metal oxide based electronic nose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berna, Amalia Z.; Trowell, Stephen; Clifford, David; Cynkar, Wies; Cozzolino, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of 34 Sauvignon Blanc wine samples from three different countries and six regions was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) showed that there were three distinct clusters or classes of wines with different aroma profiles. Wines from the Loire region in France and Australian wines from Tasmania and Western Australia were found to have similar aroma patterns. New Zealand wines from the Marlborough region as well as the Australian ones from Victoria were grouped together based on the volatile composition. Wines from South Australia region formed one discrete class. Seven analytes, most of them esters, were found to be the relevant chemical compounds that characterized the classes. The grouping information obtained by GC-MS, was used to train metal oxide based electronic (MOS-Enose) and mass spectrometry based electronic (MS-Enose) noses. The combined use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and ethanol removal prior to MOS-Enose analysis, allowed an average error of prediction of the regional origins of Sauvignon Blanc wines of 6.5% compared to 24% when static headspace (SHS) was employed. For MS-Enose, the misclassification rate was higher probably due to the requirement to delimit the m/z range considered.

  8. A study on optical properties of poly (ethylene oxide) based polymer electrolyte with different alkali metal iodides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B. Narasimha; Suvarna, R. Padma

    2016-05-01

    Polymer electrolytes were prepared by adding poly (ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (PEGDME), TiO2 (nano filler), different alkali metal iodide salts RI (R+=Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+) and I2 into Acetonitrile gelated with Poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO). Optical properties of poly (ethylene oxide) based polymer electrolytes were studied by FTIR, UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. FTIR spectrum reveals that the alkali metal cations were coordinated to ether oxygen of PEO. The optical absorption studies were made in the wavelength range 200-800 nm. It is observed that the optical absorption increases with increase in the radius of alkali metal cation. The optical band gap for allowed direct transitions was evaluated using Urbach-edges method. The optical properties such as optical band gap, refractive index and extinction coefficient were determined. The studied polymer materials are useful for solar cells, super capacitors, fuel cells, gas sensors etc.

  9. Nanostructured metal oxide-based materials as advanced anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao Bin; Chen, Jun Song; Hng, Huey Hoon; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2012-04-21

    The search for new electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has been an important way to satisfy the ever-growing demands for better performance with higher energy/power densities, improved safety and longer cycle life. Nanostructured metal oxides exhibit good electrochemical properties, and they are regarded as promising anode materials for high-performance LIBs. In this feature article, we will focus on three different categories of metal oxides with distinct lithium storage mechanisms: tin dioxide (SnO(2)), which utilizes alloying/dealloying processes to reversibly store/release lithium ions during charge/discharge; titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), where lithium ions are inserted/deinserted into/out of the TiO(2) crystal framework; and transition metal oxides including iron oxide and cobalt oxide, which react with lithium ions via an unusual conversion reaction. For all three systems, we will emphasize that creating nanomaterials with unique structures could effectively improve the lithium storage properties of these metal oxides. We will also highlight that the lithium storage capability can be further enhanced through designing advanced nanocomposite materials containing metal oxides and other carbonaceous supports. By providing such a rather systematic survey, we aim to stress the importance of proper nanostructuring and advanced compositing that would result in improved physicochemical properties of metal oxides, thus making them promising negative electrodes for next-generation LIBs.

  10. Inkjet printing of metal-oxide-based transparent thin-film capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matavž, A.; Malič, B.; Bobnar, V.

    2017-12-01

    We report on the inkjet printing of transparent, thin-film capacitors (TTFCs) composed of indium-zinc-oxide electrodes and a tantalum-oxide-based dielectric on glass substrates. The printing parameters were adapted for the sequential deposition of functional layers, resulting in approximately 100-nm-thick transparent capacitors with a uniform thickness. The relatively high electrical resistivity of the electrodes is reflected in the frequency dispersive dielectric behaviour, which is explained in terms of an equivalent circuit. The resistivity of the electrode strongly decreases with the number of printing passes; consequently, any misalignment of the printed layers is detected in the measured response. At low frequency, the TTFCs show a stable intrinsic dielectric response and a high capacitance density of ˜280 nF/cm2. The good dielectric performance as well as the low leakage-current density (8 × 10-7 A/cm2 at 1 MV cm-1) of our capacitors indicates that inkjet printing can be used to produce all-printed, high-quality electrical devices.

  11. Alternative Processes for Manufacturing of Metal Oxide-based Potentiometric Chemosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfried VONAU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available New possibilities for the preparation of partially selective redox electrodes based on passivated metals of the subgroups IV to VI of the periodic system are presented by the example of vanadium. The gas phase oxidation at controlled oxygen partial pressures (CPO and the pulsed laser deposition (PLD as an high-vacuum method are utilised as alternative methods beside the well- established chemical and electrochemical passivation which usually lead to the highest possible oxidation state of the passivated metal. These newly available methods enable in principle the tailoring of oxidation states in the sensitive layer and therefore the optimisation of the electrochemical sensitivity and selectivity of sensors equipped with it. The use of vanadium as basic electrode material is crucial because it shows in several matrices a remarkable corrosion susceptibility. This problem can be solved by the introduction of stable alloys with high vanadium contents. These materials can be efficiently produced by pulsed laser deposition (PLD.

  12. Magnetic Properties and Oxygen Defects of Dilute Metal Doped Tin Oxide Based Semiconductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Nomura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and magnetic states of iron doped tin oxide (SnO2 as a diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS at room temperature have been investigated using 57Fe Mössbauer spectrometry, XRD and magnetometery. The influence of the doping conditions of SnO2 with iron on the generation of oxygen defects was reviewed and discussed on the basis of ab initio calculations. The magnetic properties depended on preparation conditions, such as thermal decomposition and sol-gel processing as well as 57Fe and super-dilute 57Mn implantation. It was shown that Sb codoping in Fe doped SnO2 increases the saturation magnetization. Doping of Fe(Sb-SnO2 with nonmagnetic Zn ions up to 7 % also increases the magnetization although there is no precipitation of crystalline magnetic phases. The co-doping of two transition metal ions (Fe-Co, Fe-Mn, Fe-Ni and Fe-V in SnO2 matrix enhanced the magnetization as compared with that of single metal ion doped samples. It is suggested from different valence states of doped metal ions that double exchange interactions occur through or near the oxygen vacancies in SnO2. The SnO2 doped with dilute 57Fe may show the intrinsic and/or extrinsic DMS properties. Oxygen vacancies play an important role in the intrinsic DMS. The intrinsic nature of DMS is supported by both, experimental results and ab initio calculations. The long range interactions between diluted magnetic ions are considered to occur through electrons produced by oxygen vacancies or electrons induced by Sb5+ doping.

  13. Flexible pores of a metal oxide-based capsule permit entry of comparatively larger organic guests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Ayala; Grego, Alina; Kopilevich, Sivil; Zeiri, Leila; Miro, Pere; Bo, Carles; Müller, Achim; Weinstock, Ira A

    2009-05-13

    In zeolites and other rigid solid-state oxides, substrates whose sizes exceed the pore dimensions of the material are rigorously excluded. Now, using a porous 3 nm diameter capsule-like oxomolybdate complex [{Mo(VI)(6)O(21)(H(2)O)(6)}(12){(Mo(V)(2)O(4))(30)(OAc)(21)(H(2)O)(18)}](33-) as a water-soluble analogue of solid-state oxides (e.g., as a soluble analogue of 3 A molecular sieves), we show that carboxylates (RCO(2)(-)) can negotiate passage through flexible Mo(9)O(9) pores in the surface of the capsule and that the rates follow the general trend R = 1 degree > 2 degrees > 3 degrees > phenyl (no reaction). Surprisingly, the branched alkanes (R = iso-Pr and tert-Bu) enter the capsule even though they are larger than the crystallographic dimensions of the Mo(9)O(9) pores. Four independent lines of spectroscopic and kinetic evidence demonstrate that these organic guests enter the interior of the capsule through its Mo(9)O(9) apertures and that no irreversible changes in the metal oxide framework are involved. This unexpected phenomenon likely reflects the greater flexibility of molecular versus solid-state structures and represents a sharp departure from traditional models for diffusion through porous solid-state (rigid) oxides.

  14. Understanding of catalysis on early transition metal oxide-based catalysts through exploration of surface structure and chemistry during catalysis using in-situ approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Franklin [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering. Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-09-14

    Two main categories of heterogeneous catalysts are metal and metal oxide which catalyze 80% chemical reactions at solid-gas and solid-liquid interfaces. Metal oxide catalysts are much more complicated than metal catalysts. The reason is that the cations of the metal atoms could exhibit a few different oxidation states on surface of the same catalyst particle such as Co3O4 or change of their oxidation states under different reactive environments. For a metal catalyst, there is only one oxidation state typically. In addition, surface of a metal oxide can be terminated with multiple surface functionalities including O atoms with different binding configurations and OH group. For metal, only metal atoms are exposed typically. Obviously, the complication of surface chemistry and structure of a metal oxide makes studies of surface of an oxide catalyst very challenging. Due to the complication of surface of a meal oxide, the electronic and geometric structures of surface of a metal oxide and the exposed species have received enormous attention since oxide catalysts catalyze at least 1/3 chemical reactions in chemical and energy industries. Understanding of catalytic reactions on early transition metal oxide-based catalysts is fundamentally intriguing and of great practical interest in energy- and environment-related catalysis. Exploration of surface chemistry of oxide-based catalysts at molecular level during catalysis has remained challenging though it is critical in deeply understanding catalysis on oxide-based catalysts and developing oxide-based catalysts with high activity and selectivity. Thus, the overall objective of this project is to explore surface chemistry and structure of early transition metal oxide-based catalysts through in-situ characterization of surface of catalysts, measurements of catalytic performances, and then build an intrinsic correlation of surface chemistry and structure with their catalytic performances in a few

  15. The effect of noble metals on catalytic methanation reaction over supported Mn/Ni oxide based catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Azelee Wan Abu Bakar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 in sour natural gas can be removed using green technology via catalytic methanation reaction by converting CO2 to methane (CH4 gas. Using waste to wealth concept, production of CH4 would increase as well as creating environmental friendly approach for the purification of natural gas. In this research, a series of alumina supported manganese–nickel oxide based catalysts doped with noble metals such as ruthenium and palladium were prepared by wetness impregnation method. The prepared catalysts were run catalytic screening process using in-house built micro reactor coupled with Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR spectroscopy to study the percentage CO2 conversion and CH4 formation analyzed by GC. Ru/Mn/Ni(5:35:60/Al2O3 calcined at 1000 °C was found to be the potential catalyst which gave 99.74% of CO2 conversion and 72.36% of CH4 formation at 400 °C reaction temperature. XRD diffractogram illustrated that the supported catalyst was in polycrystalline with some amorphous state at 1000 °C calcination temperature with the presence of NiO as active site. According to FESEM micrographs, both fresh and used catalysts displayed spherical shape with small particle sizes in agglomerated and aggregated mixture. Nitrogen Adsorption analysis revealed that both catalysts were in mesoporous structures with BET surface area in the range of 46–60 m2/g. All the impurities have been removed at 1000 °C calcination temperature as presented by FTIR, TGA–DTA and EDX data.

  16. Vanadium oxide based cpd. useful as a cathode active material - is used in lithium or alkali metal batteries to prolong life cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    A mixt. of metallic iron particles and vanadium pentoxide contg. V in its pentavalent state in a liq. is reacted to convert at least some of the pentavalent V to its tetravalent state and form a gel. The liq. phase is then sepd. from the oxide based gel to obtain a solid material(I) comprising Fe......, V and oxygen where at least some of the V is in the tetravalent state. USE-(I) is a cathode active material in electric current producing storage cells. ADVANTAGE-Use of (I) in Li or alkali metal batteries gives prolonged life cycles.Storage cells using (I) have improved capacity during charge...

  17. Biomimetic PDMS-hydroxyurethane terminated with catecholic moieties for chemical grafting on transition metal oxide-based surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, Kelen R.; Rischka, Klaus; Gätjen, Linda; Noeske, Paul-Ludwig Michael; Cavalcanti, Welchy Leite; Rodrigues-Filho, Ubirajara P.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work was to synthesize a non-isocyanate poly(dimethylsiloxane) hydroxyurethane with biomimetic terminal catechol moieties, as a candidate for inorganic and metallic surface modification. Such surface modifier is capable to strongly attach onto metallic and inorganic substrates forming layers and, in addition, providing water-repellent surfaces. The non-isocyanate route is based on carbon dioxide cycloaddition into bis-epoxide, resulting in a precursor bis(cyclic carbonate)-polydimethylsiloxane (CCPDMS), thus fully replacing isocyanate in the manufacture process. A biomimetic approach was chosen with the molecular composition being inspired by terminal peptides present in adhesive proteins of mussels, like Mefp (Mytilus edulis foot protein), which bear catechol moieties and are strong adhesives even under natural and saline water. The catechol terminal groups were grafted by aminolysis reaction into a polydimethylsiloxane backbone. The product, PDMSUr-Dopamine, presented high affinity towards inhomogeneous alloy surfaces terminated by native oxide layers as demonstrated by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D), as well as stability against desorption by rinsing with ethanol. As revealed by QCM-D, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and computational studies, the thickness and composition of the resulting nanolayers indicated an attachment of PDMSUr-Dopamine molecules to the substrate through both terminal catechol groups, with the adsorbate exposing the hydrophobic PDMS backbone. This hypothesis was investigated by classical molecular dynamic simulation (MD) of pure PDMSUr-Dopamine molecules on SiO2 surfaces. The computationally obtained PDMSUr-Dopamine assembly is in agreement with the conclusions from the experiments regarding the conformation of PDMSUr-Dopamine towards the surface. The tendency of the terminal catechol groups to approach the surface is in agreement with proposed model for the attachment PDMSUr-Dopamine. Remarkably, the versatile

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of novel biochar-based and metal oxide-based catalysts for removal of model tar (toluene), ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide from simulated producer gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Pushpak

    carbon, acidic surface activated carbon, and mixed metal oxide catalyst. H2S adsorption capacities were 0.008 g H2S/g catalyst for all biochar-based catalysts and 0.01g H2S/g catalyst for mixed metal oxide. Thus, ultrasonication and microwave technology offer improved benefits for synthesis of high-performance catalysts intended for use in biomass-generated producer gas upgrading. High surface area biochar-based and metal-oxide based catalysts have high efficiencies for simultaneous removal of toluene, NH3, and H2S.

  19. An in vivo evaluation of fit of zirconium-oxide based ceramic single crowns, generated with two CAD/CAM systems, in comparison to metal ceramic single crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscaro, Leonello; Bonfiglioli, Roberto; Soattin, Massimo; Vigolo, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess in vivo the marginal fit of single crowns produced using two CAD/CAM all-ceramic systems, in comparison to more traditional metal ceramic crowns. Thirty vital, caries-free, and previously untreated teeth were chosen in five patients who needed extraction for implant placement and therefore were included in this study. In the control group (C), 10 regular metal ceramic crowns with porcelain occlusal surfaces were fabricated. In the other two groups (Z and E), CAD/CAM technology was used for the fabrication of 20 zirconium-oxide-based ceramic single crowns with two systems. All zirconia crowns were cemented with glass-ionomer cement, always following the manufacturer's instructions. The same dentist carried out all clinical phases. The teeth were extracted 1 month later. Marginal gaps along vertical planes were measured for each crown, using a total of four landmarks for each tooth by means of a microscope at a magnification of 50×. On completion of microscopic evaluation, representative specimens from each group were prepared for ESEM evaluation. Mean and standard deviations of the four landmarks (mesial, distal, buccal, palatal) at each single crown were calculated for each group. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was performed to determine whether the four landmarks, taken into consideration together, differed between groups. Two-way ANOVA was performed to study in detail, for each landmark, how the three systems used to produce the FPDs affected the gap measurements. Differences were considered to be significant at p compared to more traditional metal ceramic crowns. © 2012 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  20. Olfactory dreams, olfactory interest, and imagery : Relationships to olfactory memory

    OpenAIRE

    Arshamian, Artin

    2007-01-01

    Existing evidence for olfactory imagery is mixed and mainly based on reports from hallucinations and volitional imagery. Using a questionnaire, Stevenson and Case (2005) showed that olfactory dreams provided a good source for olfactory imagery studies. This study applied an extended version of the same questionnaire and examined olfactory dreams and their relation to real-life experienced odors, volitional imagery, and olfactory interest. Results showed that olfactory dreams were similar to r...

  1. Olfactory neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, D.; Ahmed, B.; Malik, S.M.; Khan, M.

    2000-01-01

    Olfactory neuroblastoma/esthesioneuroblastoma in a rare malignant tumour of the olfactory neuroepithelium. This is a report of 5 cases managed over the last 10 years at Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi. Age of the patients at presentation ranged from 27 to 70 years. The main symptoms were unilateral nasal obstruction and intermittent epistaxis. The mean duration of symptoms at presentation was 11 months. Two patients were staged as B and 3 as C at presentation. The stage of the disease correlated with the duration of symptoms. All the cases were diagnosed on histopathology. Three were offered combination of surgery and radiotherapy. One patient received only surgical treatment and one patient received radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Combination of surgery and radiotherapy showed best results. (author)

  2. Assessment of Olfactory Memory in Olfactory Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollndorfer, Kathrin; Reichert, Johanna; Braunsteiner, Josephine; Schöpf, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    To assess all clinically relevant components of olfactory perception, examinations for olfactory sensitivity, discrimination, and identification are performed. Besides the standard perceptual test battery, episodic olfactory memory might offer additional information about olfactory abilities relative to these standard clinical tests. As both olfactory deficits and memory deficits are early symptoms in neurodegenerative disorders, olfactory memory may be of particular interest. However, to date little is known about episodic olfactory memory performance in patients with decreased olfactory function. This study includes the investigation of olfactory memory performance in 14 hyposmic patients (8 female, mean age 52.6 years) completing two episodic odor memory tests (Sniffin' Test of Odor Memory and Odor Memory Test). To control for a general impairment in memory function, a verbal and a figural memory test were carried out. A regression model with multiple predictors was calculated for both odor memory tests separately. Odor identification was identified as the only significant predictor for both odor memory tasks. From our results, we conclude that currently available olfactory memory tests are highly influenced by odor identification abilities, implying the need for the development and validation of additional tests in this field which could serve as additional olfactory perception variables for clinical assessment.

  3. Olfactory Neuroblastoma: Diagnostic Difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya MN,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory neuroblastoma is an uncommon malignant tumor of sinonasal tract arising from the olfactory neuro epithelium. The olfactory neuroblastomas presenting with divergent histomorphologies like, epithelial appearance of cells, lacking a neuro fibrillary background and absence of rosettes are difficult to diagnose. Such cases require immunohistochemistry to establish the diagnosis. We describe the clinical features, pathological and immunohistochemical findings of grade IV Olfactory neuroblastoma in a 57 year old man

  4. Olfactory Perceptual Learning Requires Action of Noradrenaline in the Olfactory Bulb: Comparison with Olfactory Associative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinera, Jennifer; Kermen, Florence; Sacquet, Joëlle; Didier, Anne; Mandairon, Nathalie; Richard, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Noradrenaline contributes to olfactory-guided behaviors but its role in olfactory learning during adulthood is poorly documented. We investigated its implication in olfactory associative and perceptual learning using local infusion of mixed a1-ß adrenergic receptor antagonist (labetalol) in the adult mouse olfactory bulb. We reported that…

  5. Olfactory Reference Syndrome

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    Alper Evrensel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory reference syndrome is a delusional disorder in which the patient persistently and falsely believes that his or her body emits a foul odor. The disease is considered a variant of somatic type of delusional disorder under the diagnostic systems. Similarities between olfactory reference syndrome and obsessive compulsive disorder have also been noted. The etiopathogenesis of the disorder has not yet been clarified. Antidepressants, antipsychotics and psychotherapy are used in the treatment of this disorder. The aim of this article was to review clinical features, neurobiology, differantial diagnosis, classification problems and treatment of olfactory reference syndrome.

  6. Ionotropic crustacean olfactory receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Corey

    Full Text Available The nature of the olfactory receptor in crustaceans, a major group of arthropods, has remained elusive. We report that spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, express ionotropic receptors (IRs, the insect chemosensory variants of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Unlike insects IRs, which are expressed in a specific subset of olfactory cells, two lobster IR subunits are expressed in most, if not all, lobster olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs, as confirmed by antibody labeling and in situ hybridization. Ligand-specific ORN responses visualized by calcium imaging are consistent with a restricted expression pattern found for other potential subunits, suggesting that cell-specific expression of uncommon IR subunits determines the ligand sensitivity of individual cells. IRs are the only type of olfactory receptor that we have detected in spiny lobster olfactory tissue, suggesting that they likely mediate olfactory signaling. Given long-standing evidence for G protein-mediated signaling in activation of lobster ORNs, this finding raises the interesting specter that IRs act in concert with second messenger-mediated signaling.

  7. Acetylcholine and Olfactory Perceptual Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Donald A.; Fletcher, Max L.; Sullivan, Regina M.

    2004-01-01

    Olfactory perceptual learning is a relatively long-term, learned increase in perceptual acuity, and has been described in both humans and animals. Data from recent electrophysiological studies have indicated that olfactory perceptual learning may be correlated with changes in odorant receptive fields of neurons in the olfactory bulb and piriform…

  8. Oxide-based thin film transistors for flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongli; Wang, Xiangyu; Gao, Ya; Hou, Yahui; Wan, Qing

    2018-01-01

    The continuous progress in thin film materials and devices has greatly promoted the development in the field of flexible electronics. As one of the most common thin film devices, thin film transistors (TFTs) are significant building blocks for flexible platforms. Flexible oxide-based TFTs are well compatible with flexible electronic systems due to low process temperature, high carrier mobility, and good uniformity. The present article is a review of the recent progress and major trends in the field of flexible oxide-based thin film transistors. First, an introduction of flexible electronics and flexible oxide-based thin film transistors is given. Next, we introduce oxide semiconductor materials and various flexible oxide-based TFTs classified by substrate materials including polymer plastics, paper sheets, metal foils, and flexible thin glass. Afterwards, applications of flexible oxide-based TFTs including bendable sensors, memories, circuits, and displays are presented. Finally, we give conclusions and a prospect for possible development trends. Project supported in part by the National Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholars of China (No. 61425020), in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11674162).

  9. Effects of cadmium on olfactory mediated behaviors and molecular biomarkers in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Chase R.; Gallagher, Evan P., E-mail: evang3@u.washington.edu

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Low Cd exposures elicited significant olfactory mediated behavioral changes independent of histological injury. •The olfactory behavioral deficits persisted following a 16-day depuration. •Olfactory molecular biomarkers expression was strongly linked to injury to the olfactory epithelium. •Cd induced a strong antioxidant response in the coho salmon olfactory system. •Results suggest a sensitivity of salmonids to waterborne Cd. -- Abstract: The olfactory system of salmonids is sensitive to the adverse effects of metals such as copper and cadmium. In the current study, we analyzed olfactory-mediated alarm responses, epithelial injury and recovery, and a suite of olfactory molecular biomarkers encoding genes critical in maintaining olfactory function in juvenile coho salmon receiving acute exposures to cadmium (Cd). The molecular biomarkers analyzed included four G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) representing the two major classes of odorant receptors (salmon olfactory receptor sorb and vomeronasal receptors svra, svrb, and gpr27), as well as markers of neurite outgrowth (nrn1) and antioxidant responses to metals, including heme oxygenase 1 (hmox1), and peroxiredoxin 1 (prdx1). Coho received acute (8–168 h) exposures to 3.7 ppb and 347 ppb Cd, and a subset of fish was analyzed following a 16-day depuration. Coho exposed to 347 ppb Cd over 48 h exhibited a reduction in freeze responses, and an extensive loss of olfaction accompanied by histological injury to the olfactory epithelium. The olfactory injury in coho exposed to 347 ppb Cd was accompanied at the gene level by significant decreases in expression of the olfactory GPCRs and increased expression of hmox1. Persistent behavioral deficits, histological injury and altered expression of a subset of olfactory biomarkers were still evident in Cd-exposed coho following a 16-day depuration in clean water. Exposure to 3.7 ppb Cd also resulted in reduced freeze responses and histological changes

  10. Olfactory threshold in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, N P; Rossor, M N; Marsden, C D

    1987-01-01

    Olfactory threshold to differing concentrations of amyl acetate was determined in 78 subjects with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and 40 age-matched controls. Impaired olfactory threshold (previously reported by others) was confirmed in Parkinsonian subjects compared with controls. There was no significant correlation between olfactory threshold and age, sex, duration of disease, or current therapy with levodopa or anticholinergic drugs. In a sub-group of 14 levodopa-treated patients with severe "on-off" fluctuations, no change in olfactory threshold between the two states was demonstrable. Olfactory impairment in Parkinson's disease may involve mechanisms that are not influenced by pharmacologic manipulation of dopaminergic or cholinergic status. PMID:3819760

  11. Hypnotic Olfactory Hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Rochelle E; Langdon, Robyn A

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory hallucinations (smelling odors that are not present) are intrusive and disruptive yet challenging to investigate because they cannot be produced on demand. In this study, the authors attempted to model olfactory hallucinations using hypnotic suggestions. We gave some subjects a suggestion to smell an odor in the absence of a real odor (positive hallucination) and gave others a suggestion to smell nothing in the presence of a real odor (negative hallucination). High hypnotizable individuals who received the positive hallucination reported intense smells whereas those who received the negative hallucination reported a reduction in intensity. These suggestions also influenced later recall about frequency of odor presentation. Findings are discussed in terms of reality monitoring and differences between positive and negative hallucinations.

  12. Are olfactory receptors really olfactive?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giorgi, Franco; Maggio, Roberto; Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Any living organism interacts with and responds specifically to environmental molecules by expressing specific olfactory receptors. This specificity will be first examined in causal terms with particular emphasis on the mechanisms controlling olfactory gene expression, cell-to-cell interactions a...

  13. Olfactory training with older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birte-Antina, Wegener; Ilona, Croy; Antje, Hähner; Thomas, Hummel

    2018-01-01

    Loss of olfactory function is largely found with aging. Such a reduction in olfactory function affects quality of life and enhances likelihood of depressive symptoms. Furthermore, it has been shown that reduction in olfactory function is associated with cognitive impairment and several diseases such as major depression. Because several studies suggest that discontinuous exposure to odors may improve general olfactory function, the primary aim of this study was to investigate whether such "olfactory training" has positive effects on subjective well-being and cognitive function. We performed a controlled, unblinded, longitudinal study SETTING: The study took place at an outpatients' clinic of a Department of Otorhinolaryngology at a Medical University. A total of 91 participants (age 50 to 84 years) completed testing. They were randomly assigned to an olfactory training (OT) group (N = 60) and a control group (N = 31). The study included two appointments at the Smell and Taste Clinic. Olfactory and cognitive function as well as subjective well-being was tested using standardized tests. During the 5-month interval between sessions, the OT group completed daily olfactory exposure. During the same time, the control group completed daily Sudoku problems. Analyses show a significant improvement of olfactory function for participants in the OT group and improved verbal function and subjective well-being. In addition, results indicated a decrease of depressive symptoms. Based on the present results, OT may constitute an inexpensive, simple way to improve quality of life in older people. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Ultraviolet GaN photodetectors on Si via oxide buffer heterostructures with integrated short period oxide-based distributed Bragg reflectors and leakage suppressing metal-oxide-semiconductor contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyszka, A.; Lupina, L.; Lupina, G.; Schubert, M. A.; Zaumseil, P.; Haeberlen, M.; Storck, P.; Thapa, S. B.; Schroeder, T.

    2014-08-01

    Based on a novel double step oxide buffer heterostructure approach for GaN integration on Si, we present an optimized Metal-Semiconductor-Metal (MSM)-based Ultraviolet (UV) GaN photodetector system with integrated short-period (oxide/Si) Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) and leakage suppressing Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) electrode contacts. In terms of structural properties, it is demonstrated by in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction and transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray studies that the DBR heterostructure layers grow with high thickness homogeneity and sharp interface structures sufficient for UV applications; only minor Si diffusion into the Y2O3 films is detected under the applied thermal growth budget. As revealed by comparative high resolution x-ray diffraction studies on GaN/oxide buffer/Si systems with and without DBR systems, the final GaN layer structure quality is not significantly influenced by the growth of the integrated DBR heterostructure. In terms of optoelectronic properties, it is demonstrated that—with respect to the basic GaN/oxide/Si system without DBR—the insertion of (a) the DBR heterostructures and (b) dark current suppressing MOS contacts enhances the photoresponsivity below the GaN band-gap related UV cut-off energy by almost up to two orders of magnitude. Given the in-situ oxide passivation capability of grown GaN surfaces and the one order of magnitude lower number of superlattice layers in case of higher refractive index contrast (oxide/Si) systems with respect to classical III-N DBR superlattices, virtual GaN substrates on Si via functional oxide buffer systems are thus a promising robust approach for future GaN-based UV detector technologies.

  15. Olfactory groove meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Stephen J; DeMonte, Franco

    2003-06-15

    Olfactory groove meningiomas (OGMs) arise over the cribriform plate and may reach very large sizes prior to presentation. They can be differentiated from tuberculum sellae meningiomas because OGMs arise more anterior in the skull base and displace the optic nerve and chiasm inferiorly rather than superiorly. The authors searched the neurosurgery database at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center for cases of OGM treated between 1993 and 2003. The records of these patients were then reviewed retrospectively for details regarding clinical presentation, imaging findings, surgical results and complications, and follow-up status. Thirteen patients, (12 women and one man, mean age 56 years) harbored OGMs (mean size 5.7 cm). All patients underwent bifrontal craniotomies and biorbital osteotomies. There were 11 complete resections (including the hyperostotic bone and dura of the cribriform plate and any extension into the ethmoid sinuses) and two subtotal resections with minimal residual tumor left in patients with recurrent lesions. No complication directly due to the surgery occurred in any patient. There were no recurrences in a mean follow-up period of 2 years (range 0-5 years). With current microsurgical techniques, the results of OGM resection are excellent, with a high rate of total resection and a low incidence of complications. All hyperostotic bone should be removed with the dura of the anterior skull base to minimize the risk of recurrence.

  16. Sniffing and Oxytocin: Effects on Olfactory Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, Ron

    2016-05-04

    In this issue of Neuron, Oettl et al. (2016) show how oxytocin can boost processing of olfactory information in female rats by a top-downregulation from the anterior olfactory nucleus onto the main olfactory bulb. As a result, interactions with juvenile conspecifics receive more attention and are longer memorized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An Olfactory Cinema: Smelling Perfume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaying Sim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available While technological improvements from the era of silent movies to that of sound cinema have altered and continued to affect audience’s cinematic experiences, the question is not so much how technology has increased possibility of a sensory response to cinema, rather, it is one that exposes how such technological changes only underscore the participation of our senses and the body in one’s experience of watching film, highlighting the inherently sensorial nature of the cinematic experience. This paper aims to address the above question through an olfactory cinema, by close analysis of Perfume: The Story of a Murderer (2006 by Tom Tykwer. What is an olfactory cinema, and how can such an approach better our understanding of sensorial aspects found within a cinema that ostensibly favours audio-visual senses? What can we benefit from an olfactory cinema? Perhaps, it is through an olfactory cinema that one may begin to embrace the sensual quality of cinema that has been overshadowed by the naturalized ways of experiencing films solely with our eyes and ears, so much so that we desensitize ourselves to the role our senses play in cinematic experiences altogether

  18. Olfactory training in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Haehner

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Decrease of olfactory function in Parkinson's disease (PD is a well-investigated fact. Studies indicate that pharmacological treatment of PD fails to restore olfactory function in PD patients. The aim of this investigation was whether patients with PD would benefit from "training" with odors in terms of an improvement of their general olfactory function. It has been hypothesized that olfactory training should produce both an improved sensitivity towards the odors used in the training process and an overall increase of olfactory function. METHODS: We recruited 70 subjects with PD and olfactory loss into this single-center, prospective, controlled non-blinded study. Thirty-five patients were assigned to the olfactory training group and 35 subjects to the control group (no training. Olfactory training was performed over a period of 12 weeks while patients exposed themselves twice daily to four odors (phenyl ethyl alcohol: rose, eucalyptol: eucalyptus, citronellal: lemon, and eugenol: cloves. Olfactory testing was performed before and after training using the "Sniffin' Sticks" (thresholds for phenyl ethyl alcohol, tests for odor discrimination, and odor identification in addition to threshold tests for the odors used in the training process. RESULTS: Compared to baseline, trained PD patients experienced a significant increase in their olfactory function, which was observed for the Sniffin' Sticks test score and for thresholds for the odors used in the training process. Olfactory function was unchanged in PD patients who did not perform olfactory training. CONCLUSION: The present results indicate that olfactory training may increase olfactory sensitivity in PD patients.

  19. Promising iron oxide-based magnetic nanoparticles in biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phuong Ha-Lien; Tran, Thao Truong-Dinh; Vo, Toi Van; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2012-12-01

    For the past few decades biomedical engineering has imprinted its significant impact on the map of science through its wide applications on many other fields. An important example obviously proving this fact is the versatile application of magnetic nanoparticles in theranostics. Due to preferable properties such as biocompatibility, non-toxicity compared to other metal derivations, iron oxide-based magnetic nanoparticles was chosen to be addressed in this review. Aim of this review is to give the readers a whole working window of these magnetic nanoparticles in the current context of science. Thus, preparation of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with the so-far techniques, methods of characterizing the nanoparticles as well as their most recent biomedical applications will be stated.

  20. Olfactory dysfunction, olfactory bulb pathology and urban air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Osnaya, Norma; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Keefe, Sheyla; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Aiello-Mora, Mario; Maronpot, Robert R.; Doty, Richard L

    2010-01-01

    Mexico City (MC) residents are exposed to severe air pollution and exhibit olfactory bulb inflammation. We compared the olfactory function of individuals living under conditions of extreme air pollution to that of controls from a relatively clean environment and explore associations between olfaction scores, apolipoprotein E (APOE) status, and pollution exposure. The olfactory bulbs (OBs) of 35 MC and 9 controls 20.8 ± 8.5 y were assessed by light and electron microscopy. The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) was administered to 62 MC / 25 controls 21.2 ±2.7 y. MC subjects had significantly lower UPSIT scores: 34.24 ± 0.42 versus controls 35.76 ± 0.40, p=0.03. Olfaction deficits were present in 35.5% MC and 12% of controls. MC APOE ε 4 carriers failed 2.4 ± 0.54 items in the 10-item smell identification scale from the UPSIT related to Alzheimer's disease, while APOE 2/3 and 3/3 subjects failed 1.36 ± 0.16 items, p = 0.01. MC residents exhibited OB endothelial hyperplasia, neuronal accumulation of particles (2/35), and immunoreactivity to beta amyloid βA42 (29/35) and/or α-synuclein (4/35) in neurons, glial cells and/or blood vessels. Ultrafine particles were present in OBs endothelial cytoplasm and basement membranes. Control OBs were unremarkable. Air pollution exposure is associated with olfactory dysfunction and OB pathology, APOE 4 may confer greater susceptibility to such abnormalities, and ultrafine particles could play a key role in the OB pathology. This study contributes to our understanding of the influences of air pollution on olfaction and its potential contribution to neurodegeneration. PMID:19297138

  1. Surface effects in metal oxide-based nanodevices

    KAUST Repository

    Lien, Der Hsien

    2015-10-29

    As devices shrink to the nanoscale, surface-to-volume ratio increases and the surface-environment interaction becomes a major factor for affecting device performance. The variation of electronic properties, including the surface band bending, gas chemisorption or photodesorption, native surface defects, and surface roughness, is called "surface effects". Such effects are ambiguous because they can be either negative or beneficial effects, depending on the environmental conditions and device application. This review provides an introduction to the surface effects on different types of nanodevices, offering the solutions to respond to their benefits and negative effects and provides an outlook on further applications regarding the surface effect. This review is beneficial for designing nano-enabled photodetectors, harsh electronics, memories, sensors and transistors via surface engineering.

  2. Role of Nrf2 antioxidant defense in mitigating cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the olfactory system of zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lu; Gallagher, Evan P., E-mail: evang3@uw.edu

    2013-01-15

    Exposure to trace metals can disrupt olfactory function in fish leading to a loss of behaviors critical to survival. Cadmium (Cd) is an olfactory toxicant that elicits cellular oxidative stress as a mechanism of toxicity while also inducing protective cellular antioxidant genes via activation of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms of Cd-induced olfactory injury have not been characterized. In the present study, we investigated the role of the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defense pathway in protecting against Cd-induced olfactory injury in zebrafish. A dose-dependent induction of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant genes associated with cellular responses to oxidative stress was observed in the olfactory system of adult zebrafish following 24 h Cd exposure. Zebrafish larvae exposed to Cd for 3 h showed increased glutathione S-transferase pi (gst pi), glutamate–cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (gclc), heme oxygenase 1 (hmox1) and peroxiredoxin 1 (prdx1) mRNA levels indicative of Nrf2 activation, and which were blocked by morpholino-mediated Nrf2 knockdown. The inhibition of antioxidant gene induction in Cd-exposed Nrf2 morphants was associated with disruption of olfactory driven behaviors, increased cell death and loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Nrf2 morphants also exhibited a downregulation of OSN-specific genes after Cd exposure. Pre-incubation of embryos with sulforaphane (SFN) partially protected against Cd-induced olfactory tissue damage. Collectively, our results indicate that oxidative stress is an important mechanism of Cd-mediated injury in the zebrafish olfactory system. Moreover, the Nrf2 pathway plays a protective role against cellular oxidative damage and is important in maintaining zebrafish olfactory function. -- Highlights: ► Oxidative stress is an important mechanism of Cd-mediated olfactory injury. ► Cd induces antioxidant gene expression in the zebrafish olfactory system. ► The

  3. Olfactory dysfunction in Iranian diabetic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Mehdizadeh Seraj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory dysfunction is a known complication of diabetes and, despite its importance in the quality of life, is usually neglected due to its gradual progression. In this study, we aim to determine the prevalence and severity of olfactory dysfunction in diabetics and its association with microangiopathic complications of the disease (neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopathy. Excluding the confounding factors, a case-control study of 60 eligible subjects, divided into a group of 30 diabetic patients and a group of 30 control subjects was performed. We used "absorbent perfumer's paper strips" method to test the olfactory threshold. In our study, 60% of diabetics were found to have some degree of olfactory dysfunction and a significant difference (P<0.01 between the olfactory threshold of the case and control groups was observed. There were no significant associations between the olfactory dysfunction and age, sex, treatment duration and microangiopathic complications.

  4. Role of Centrifugal Projections to the Olfactory Bulb in Olfactory Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselycznyk, Carly L.; Zhang, Steven; Linster, Christine

    2006-01-01

    While there is evidence that feedback projections from cortical and neuromodulatory structures to the olfactory bulb are crucial for maintaining the oscillatory dynamics of olfactory bulb processing, it is not clear how changes in dynamics are related to odor perception. Using electrical lesions of the olfactory peduncle, sparing output from the…

  5. SLEEP AND OLFACTORY CORTICAL PLASTICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan eBarnes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In many systems, sleep plays a vital role in memory consolidation and synaptic homeostasis. These processes together help store information of biological significance and reset synaptic circuits to facilitate acquisition of information in the future. In this review, we describe recent evidence of sleep-dependent changes in olfactory system structure and function which contribute to odor memory and perception. During slow-wave sleep, the piriform cortex becomes hypo-responsive to odor stimulation and instead displays sharp-wave activity similar to that observed within the hippocampal formation. Furthermore, the functional connectivity between the piriform cortex and other cortical and limbic regions is enhanced during slow-wave sleep compared to waking. This combination of conditions may allow odor memory consolidation to occur during a state of reduced external interference and facilitate association of odor memories with stored hedonic and contextual cues. Evidence consistent with sleep-dependent odor replay within olfactory cortical circuits is presented. These data suggest that both the strength and precision of odor memories is sleep-dependent. The work further emphasizes the critical role of synaptic plasticity and memory in not only odor memory but also basic odor perception. The work also suggests a possible link between sleep disturbances that are frequently co-morbid with a wide range of pathologies including Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia and depression and the known olfactory impairments associated with those disorders.

  6. Comparative gene expression profiling of olfactory ensheathing cells from olfactory bulb and olfactory mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérout, Nicolas; Derambure, Céline; Drouot, Laurent; Bon-Mardion, Nicolas; Duclos, Célia; Boyer, Olivier; Marie, Jean-Paul

    2010-10-01

    Olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC) have the ability to promote regeneration in the nervous system. Hence, they hold promise for cell therapy. Most of the experimental studies have investigated the role of OECs taken from olfactory bulb (OB). However, for a clinical human application, olfactory mucosa (OM) seems to be the only acceptable source for OECs. Many studies have compared the distinct ability of OECs from OB and OM to improve functional nerve regeneration after lesion of the nervous system. Nevertheless, the two populations of OECs may differ in several points, which might affect all fate after transplantation in vivo. We report here the first study which compares gene expression profiling between these two populations of OECs. It appears that OB-OECs and OM-OECs display distinct gene expression pattern, which suggest that they may be implicated in different physiological processes. Notably, OM-OECs overexpress genes characteristic of wound healing and regulation of extra cellular matrix. In contrast, OB-OECs gene profile suggests a prominent role in nervous system development. Hence, OB-OECs and OM-OECs fundamentally differ in their gene expression pattern, which may represent a crucial point for future clinical application. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Low-dimensional II-VI oxide-based semiconductor nanostructure photodetectors for light sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jae Su; Ko, Yeong Hwan; Nagaraju, Goli

    2015-01-01

    Low-dimensional II-VI oxide-based semiconductor nanostructure photodetectors for light sensing are described. Depending on the absorption edge and energy bandgap of the nanostructured materials, the detection wavelength range can be controlled. The physical properties of the fabricated nanostructures are investigated. The p-n junction property of n-ZnO and p-CuO nanostructures is obtained. This growth of the ZnO nanorod arrays on CuO nanostructures may be useful for photodetection applications. The NiO/ZnO nanostructures are also synthesized. Metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) type photodetectors are fabricated by integrating the oxide-based (i.e., ZnO and CuO) semiconductor nanostructures. Using the solution-based ZnO seed layer, the UV MSM type photodetectors with the vertically-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays are also fabricated. Their photoresponse characteristics are evaluated in a specific spectral range.

  8. Induction of associative olfactory memory by targeted activation of single olfactory neurons in Drosophila larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Takato; Lee, Chi-Yu; Yoshida-Kasikawa, Maki; Honjo, Ken; Furukubo-Tokunaga, Katsuo

    2014-04-25

    It has been postulated that associative memory is formed by at least two sets of external stimuli, CS and US, that are transmitted to the memory centers by distinctive conversing pathways. However, whether associative memory can be induced by the activation of only the olfactory CS and a biogenic amine-mediated US pathways remains to be elucidated. In this study, we substituted the reward signals with dTrpA1-mediated thermogenetic activation of octopaminergic neurons and the odor signals by ChR2-mediated optical activation of a specific class of olfactory neurons. We show that targeted activation of the olfactory receptor and the octopaminergic neurons is indeed sufficient for the formation of associative olfactory memory in the larval brain. We also show that targeted stimulation of only a single type of olfactory receptor neurons is sufficient to induce olfactory memory that is indistinguishable from natural memory induced by the activation of multiple olfactory receptor neurons.

  9. Novel olfactory ligands via terpene synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchet, Sabrina; Chamberlain, Keith; Woodcock, Christine M; Miller, David J; Birkett, Michael A; Pickett, John A; Allemann, Rudolf K

    2015-05-01

    A synthetic biology approach to the rational design of analogues of olfactory ligands by providing unnatural substrates for the enzyme synthesising (S)-germacrene D, an olfactory ligand acting as a plant derived insect repellent, to produce novel ligands is described as a viable alternative to largely unsuccessful ligand docking studies. (S)-14,15-Dimethylgermacrene D shows an unexpected reversal in behavioural activity.

  10. Duration and specificity of olfactory nonassociative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Kaitlin G; Radhakrishna, Sreya; Escanilla, Olga; Linster, Christiane

    2013-05-01

    Olfactory habituation is a simple form of nonassociative memory in which responsiveness to stable but behaviorally nonsignificant stimuli is decreased. Olfactory habituation has recently become a paradigm widely used to probe the neural substrate underlying olfactory perception and memory. This simple behavioral paradigm has been used successfully used to probe many aspects of olfactory processing, and it has recently become clear that the neural processes underlying olfactory habituation can depend on the task parameters used. We here further investigate memory specificity and duration using 2 variations in task parameters: the number of habituation trials and the time delay between habituation and cross-habituation testing. We find that memory specificity increases with the number of habituation trials but decreases with time after the last habituation trial.

  11. Calcium signals in olfactory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareilus, E; Noé, J; Breer, H

    1995-11-09

    Laser scanning confocal microscopy in combination with the fluorescent calcium indicators Fluo-3 and Fura-Red was employed to estimate the intracellular concentration of free calcium ions in individual olfactory receptor neurons and to monitor temporal and spatial changes in the Ca(2+)-level upon stimulation. The chemosensory cells responded to odorants with a significant increase in the calcium concentration, preferentially in the dendritic knob. Applying various stimulation paradigma, it was found that in a population of isolated cells, subsets of receptor neurons display distinct patterns of responsiveness.

  12. Methodology for the effective stabilization of tin-oxide-based oxidation/reduction catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor); Schryer, David R. (Inventor); Davis, Patricia P. (Inventor); Leighty, Bradley D. (Inventor); Watkins, Anthony N. (Inventor); Schryer, Jacqueline L. (Inventor); Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor); Gulati, Suresh T. (Inventor); Summers, Jerry C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The invention described herein involves a novel approach to the production of oxidation/reduction catalytic systems. The present invention serves to stabilize the tin oxide reducible metal-oxide coating by co-incorporating at least another metal-oxide species, such as zirconium. In one embodiment, a third metal-oxide species is incorporated, selected from the group consisting of cerium, lanthanum, hafnium, and ruthenium. The incorporation of the additional metal oxide components serves to stabilize the active tin-oxide layer in the catalytic process during high-temperature operation in a reducing environment (e.g., automobile exhaust). Moreover, the additional metal oxides are active components due to their oxygen-retention capabilities. Together, these features provide a mechanism to extend the range of operation of the tin-oxide-based catalyst system for automotive applications, while maintaining the existing advantages.

  13. Neuromodulation of Olfactory Sensitivity in the Peripheral Olfactory Organs of the American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Je Won; Kim, Jin-Hee; Pfeiffer, Rita; Ahn, Young-Joon; Page, Terry L.; Kwon, Hyung Wook

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory sensitivity exhibits daily fluctuations. Several studies have suggested that the olfactory system in insects is modulated by both biogenic amines and neuropeptides. However, molecular and neural mechanisms underlying olfactory modulation in the periphery remain unclear since neuronal circuits regulating olfactory sensitivity have not been identified. Here, we investigated the structure and function of these signaling pathways in the peripheral olfactory system of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, utilizing in situ hybridization, qRT-PCR, and electrophysiological approaches. We showed that tachykinin was co-localized with the octopamine receptor in antennal neurons located near the antennal nerves. In addition, the tachykinin receptor was found to be expressed in most of the olfactory receptor neurons in antennae. Functionally, the effects of direct injection of tachykinin peptides, dsRNAs of tachykinin, tachykinin receptors, and octopamine receptors provided further support for the view that both octopamine and tachykinin modulate olfactory sensitivity. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that octopamine and tachykinin in antennal neurons are olfactory regulators in the periphery. We propose here the hypothesis that octopamine released from neurons in the brain regulates the release of tachykinin from the octopamine receptor neurons in antennae, which in turn modulates the olfactory sensitivity of olfactory receptor neurons, which house tachykinin receptors. PMID:24244739

  14. Neuromodulation of olfactory sensitivity in the peripheral olfactory organs of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Won Jung

    Full Text Available Olfactory sensitivity exhibits daily fluctuations. Several studies have suggested that the olfactory system in insects is modulated by both biogenic amines and neuropeptides. However, molecular and neural mechanisms underlying olfactory modulation in the periphery remain unclear since neuronal circuits regulating olfactory sensitivity have not been identified. Here, we investigated the structure and function of these signaling pathways in the peripheral olfactory system of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, utilizing in situ hybridization, qRT-PCR, and electrophysiological approaches. We showed that tachykinin was co-localized with the octopamine receptor in antennal neurons located near the antennal nerves. In addition, the tachykinin receptor was found to be expressed in most of the olfactory receptor neurons in antennae. Functionally, the effects of direct injection of tachykinin peptides, dsRNAs of tachykinin, tachykinin receptors, and octopamine receptors provided further support for the view that both octopamine and tachykinin modulate olfactory sensitivity. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that octopamine and tachykinin in antennal neurons are olfactory regulators in the periphery. We propose here the hypothesis that octopamine released from neurons in the brain regulates the release of tachykinin from the octopamine receptor neurons in antennae, which in turn modulates the olfactory sensitivity of olfactory receptor neurons, which house tachykinin receptors.

  15. A Closer Look at Acid-Base Olfactory Titrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neppel, Kerry; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Queen, Connie; Reed, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Olfactory titrations using raw onions and eugenol as acid-base indicators are reported. An in-depth investigation on olfactory titrations is presented to include requirements for potential olfactory indicators and protocols for using garlic, onions, and vanillin as acid-base olfactory indicators are tested.

  16. The role of main olfactory and vomeronasal systems in animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In many terrestrial tetrapod, olfactory sensory communication is mediated by two anatomically and functionally distinct sensory systems; the main olfactory system and vomeronasal system (accessory olfactory system). Recent anatomical studies of the central pathways of the olfactory and vomeronasal systems showed that ...

  17. [Odor sensing system and olfactory display].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Takamichi

    2014-01-01

    In this review, an odor sensing system and an olfactory display are introduced into people in pharmacy. An odor sensing system consists of an array of sensors with partially overlapping specificities and pattern recognition technique. One of examples of odor sensing systems is a halitosis sensor which quantifies the mixture composition of three volatile sulfide compounds. A halitosis sensor was realized using a preconcentrator to raise sensitivity and an electrochemical sensor array to suppress the influence of humidity. Partial least squares (PLS) method was used to quantify the mixture composition. The experiment reveals that the sufficient accuracy was obtained. Moreover, the olfactory display, which present scents to human noses, is explained. A multi-component olfactory display enables the presentation of a variety of smells. The two types of multi-component olfactory display are described. The first one uses many solenoid valves with high speed switching. The valve ON frequency determines the concentration of the corresponding odor component. The latter one consists of miniaturized liquid pumps and a surface acoustic wave (SAW) atomizer. It enables the wearable olfactory display without smell persistence. Finally, the application of the olfactory display is demonstrated. Virtual ice cream shop with scents was made as a content of interactive art. People can enjoy harmony among vision, audition and olfaction. In conclusion, both odor sensing system and olfactory display can contribute to the field of human health care.

  18. Olfactory bulb as an alternative in neurotransplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Руслан Романович Новиков

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the ethical and legal aspects of transplantation of embryonic neural tissue, structure of the rat olfactory bulb. It is given substantiation for its use as a possible alternative version of the embryonic neural tissue at damage in the cerebral hemispheres in the experiment.Materials and methods. Detailed description of the fault model of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain of rats, olfactory bulb biopsy procedure, cultivation of olfactory bulb suspension and fetal neural tissue, comparison of the functional aspects of transplantation of the olfactory bulb and the embryonic neural tissue.Results. The obtained data are similar to structure of olfactory bulb and fetal tissues during culturing. Recovery in the motor areas varies by the time factor and less intense in the group of the olfactory bulb and the group without tissue transplantation.Conclusions. Comparative analysis of the effectiveness of transplantation of embryonic neural tissue and olfactory bulb in the injured brain allows us to speak about the positive results of these groups to the difference in the duration of the recovery process

  19. Imaging the olfactory tract (Cranial Nerve no.1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duprez, Thierry P.; Rombaux, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    This review paper browses pros and cons of the different radiological modalities for imaging the olfactory tract and highlights the potential benefits and limitation of more recent advances in MR and CT technology. A systematic pictorial overview of pathological conditions affecting olfactory sense is given. Techniques for collecting quantitative data on olfactory bulb volume and on olfactory sulcus depth are described. At last, insights into functional imaging of olfactory sense are shown.

  20. Neuronal organization of olfactory bulb circuits

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    Shin eNagayama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory sensory neurons extend their axons solely to the olfactory bulb, which is dedicated to odor information processing. The olfactory bulb is divided into multiple layers, with different types of neurons found in each of the layers. Therefore, neurons in the olfactory bulb have conventionally been categorized based on the layers in which their cell bodies are found; namely, juxtaglomerular cells in the glomerular layer, tufted cells in the external plexiform layer, mitral cells in the mitral cell layer, and granule cells in the granule cell layer. More recently, numerous studies have revealed the heterogeneous nature of each of these cell types, allowing them to be further divided into subclasses based on differences in morphological, molecular, and electrophysiological properties. In addition, technical developments and advances have resulted in an increasing number of studies regarding cell types other than the conventionally categorized ones described above, including short-axon cells and adult-generated interneurons. Thus, the expanding diversity of cells in the olfactory bulb is now being acknowledged. However, our current understanding of olfactory bulb neuronal circuits is mostly based on the conventional and simplest classification of cell types. Few studies have taken neuronal diversity into account for understanding the function of the neuronal circuits in this region of the brain. This oversight may contribute to the roadblocks in developing more precise and accurate models of olfactory neuronal networks. The purpose of this review is therefore to discuss the expanse of existing work on neuronal diversity in the olfactory bulb up to this point, so as to provide an overall picture of the olfactory bulb circuit.

  1. The Olfactory Mosaic: Bringing an Olfactory Network Together for Odor Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtiol, Emmanuelle; Wilson, Donald A

    2017-01-01

    Olfactory perception and its underlying neural mechanisms are not fixed, but rather vary over time, dependent on various parameters such as state, task, or learning experience. In olfaction, one of the primary sensory areas beyond the olfactory bulb is the piriform cortex. Due to an increasing number of functions attributed to the piriform cortex, it has been argued to be an associative cortex rather than a simple primary sensory cortex. In fact, the piriform cortex plays a key role in creating olfactory percepts, helping to form configural odor objects from the molecular features extracted in the nose. Moreover, its dynamic interactions with other olfactory and nonolfactory areas are also critical in shaping the olfactory percept and resulting behavioral responses. In this brief review, we will describe the key role of the piriform cortex in the larger olfactory perceptual network, some of the many actors of this network, and the importance of the dynamic interactions among the piriform-trans-thalamic and limbic pathways.

  2. Clinical diagnosis and treatment of olfactory meningioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiangdong; Wang Zhong; Zhang Shiming; Zhu Fengqing; Zhou Dai; Hui Guozhen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical diagnosis and treatment of olfactory meningioma. Methods: In this group 17 olfactory meningiomas were operated, and the clinical presentations and the surgery results were obtained. Results: The symptoms of psychiatrical disorder, visual disturbances and eclipse at presentation was higher. In 16 cases the grade of resection was Simpson II, 1 case Simpson III, most of the cases had a good recovery. Conclusion: Attention should be paid to the early symptom at presentation such as psychiatrical disorder to obtain an early diagnosis. Microsurgery is useful in the treatment of olfactory meningioma. (authors)

  3. Hierarchical oxide-based composite nanostructures for energy, environmental, and sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pu-Xian; Shimpi, Paresh; Cai, Wenjie; Gao, Haiyong; Jian, Dunliang; Wrobel, Gregory

    2011-02-01

    Self-assembled composite nanostructures integrate various basic nano-elements such as nanoparticles, nanofilms and nanowires toward realizing multifunctional characteristics, which promises an important route with potentially high reward for the fast evolving nanoscience and nanotechnology. A broad array of hierarchical metal oxide based nanostructures have been designed and fabricated in our research group, involving semiconductor metal oxides, ternary functional oxides such as perovskites and spinels and quaternary dielectric hydroxyl metal oxides with diverse applications in efficient energy harvesting/saving/utilization, environmental protection/control, chemical sensing and thus impacting major grand challenges in the area of materials and nanotechnology. Two of our latest research activities have been highlighted specifically in semiconductor oxide alloy nanowires and metal oxide/perovskite composite nanowires, which could impact the application sectors in ultraviolet/blue lighting, visible solar absorption, vehicle and industry emission control, chemical sensing and control for vehicle combustors and power plants.

  4. Methods to measure olfactory behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Junhui; Wang, Wenbin; Pan, Yung-Wei; Lu, Song; Xia, Zhengui

    2015-02-02

    Mice rely on the sense of olfaction to detect food sources, recognize social and mating partners, and avoid predators. Many behaviors of mice, including learning and memory, social interaction, fear, and anxiety are closely associated with their function of olfaction, and behavior tasks designed to evaluate those brain functions may use odors as cues. Accurate assessment of olfaction is not only essential for the study of olfactory system but also critical for proper interpretation of various mouse behaviors, especially learning and memory, emotionality and affect, and sociality. Here we describe a series of behavior experiments that offer multidimensional and quantitative assessments for mouse olfactory function, including olfactory habituation, discrimination, odor preference, odor detection sensitivity, and olfactory memory, with respect to both social and nonsocial odors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. Cladistic Analysis of Olfactory and Vomeronasal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda-Bañon, Isabel; Pro-Sistiaga, Palma; Mohedano-Moriano, Alicia; Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; de la Rosa-Prieto, Carlos; Gutierrez-Castellanos, Nicolás; Lanuza, Enrique; Martinez-Garcia, Fernando; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2010-01-01

    Most tetrapods possess two nasal organs for detecting chemicals in their environment, which are the sensory detectors of the olfactory and vomeronasal systems. The seventies’ view that the olfactory system was only devoted to sense volatiles, whereas the vomeronasal system was exclusively specialized for pheromone detection was challenged by accumulating data showing deep anatomical and functional interrelationships between both systems. In addition, the assumption that the vomeronasal system appeared as an adaptation to terrestrial life is being questioned as well. The aim of the present work is to use a comparative strategy to gain insight in our understanding of the evolution of chemical “cortex.” We have analyzed the organization of the olfactory and vomeronasal cortices of reptiles, marsupials, and placental mammals and we have compared our findings with data from other taxa in order to better understand the evolutionary history of the nasal sensory systems in vertebrates. The olfactory and vomeronsasal cortices have been re-investigated in garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis), short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica), and rats (Rattus norvegicus) by tracing the efferents of the main and accessory olfactory bulbs using injections of neuroanatomical anterograde tracers (dextran-amines). In snakes, the medial olfactory tract is quite evident, whereas the main vomeronasal-recipient structure, the nucleus sphaericus is a folded cortical-like structure, located at the caudal edge of the amygdala. In marsupials, which are acallosal mammals, the rhinal fissure is relatively dorsal and the olfactory and vomeronasal cortices relatively expanded. Placental mammals, like marsupials, show partially overlapping olfactory and vomeronasal projections in the rostral basal telencephalon. These data raise the interesting question of how the telencephalon has been re-organized in different groups according to the biological relevance of chemical senses. PMID:21290004

  6. Dimorphic olfactory lobes in the arthropoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strausfeld, Nicholas; Reisenman, Carolina E

    2009-07-01

    Specialized olfactory lobe glomeruli relating to sexual or caste differences have been observed in at least five orders of insects, suggesting an early appearance of this trait in insect evolution. Dimorphism is not limited to nocturnal species, but occurs even in insects that are known to use vision for courtship. Other than a single description, there is no evidence for similar structures occurring in the Crustacea, suggesting that the evolution of dimorphic olfactory systems may typify terrestrial arthropods.

  7. Olfactory bulb encoding during learning under anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alister U Nicol

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neural plasticity changes within the olfactory bulb are important for olfactory learning, although how neural encoding changes support new associations with specific odours and whether they can be investigated under anaesthesia, remain unclear. Using the social transmission of food preference olfactory learning paradigm in mice in conjunction with in vivo microdialysis sampling we have shown firstly that a learned preference for a scented food odour smelled on the breath of a demonstrator animal occurs under isofluorane anaesthesia. Furthermore, subsequent exposure to this cued odour under anaesthesia promotes the same pattern of increased release of glutamate and GABA in the olfactory bulb as previously found in conscious animals following olfactory learning, and evoked GABA release was positively correlated with the amount of scented food eaten. In a second experiment, multiarray (24 electrodes electrophysiological recordings were made from olfactory bulb mitral cells under isofluorane anaesthesia before, during and after a novel scented food odour was paired with carbon disulfide. Results showed significant increases in overall firing frequency to the cued-odour during and after learning and decreases in response to an uncued odour. Analysis of patterns of changes in individual neurons revealed that a substantial proportion (>50% of them significantly changed their response profiles during and after learning with most of those previously inhibited becoming excited. A large number of cells exhibiting no response to the odours prior to learning were either excited or inhibited afterwards. With the uncued odour many previously responsive cells became unresponsive or inhibited. Learning associated changes only occurred in the posterior part of the olfactory bulb. Thus olfactory learning under anaesthesia promotes extensive, but spatially distinct, changes in mitral cell networks to both cued and uncued odours as well as in evoked glutamate and

  8. Olfactory bulb encoding during learning under anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Alister U.; Sanchez-Andrade, Gabriela; Collado, Paloma; Segonds-Pichon, Anne; Kendrick, Keith M.

    2014-01-01

    Neural plasticity changes within the olfactory bulb are important for olfactory learning, although how neural encoding changes support new associations with specific odors and whether they can be investigated under anesthesia, remain unclear. Using the social transmission of food preference olfactory learning paradigm in mice in conjunction with in vivo microdialysis sampling we have shown firstly that a learned preference for a scented food odor smelled on the breath of a demonstrator animal occurs under isofluorane anesthesia. Furthermore, subsequent exposure to this cued odor under anesthesia promotes the same pattern of increased release of glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the olfactory bulb as previously found in conscious animals following olfactory learning, and evoked GABA release was positively correlated with the amount of scented food eaten. In a second experiment, multiarray (24 electrodes) electrophysiological recordings were made from olfactory bulb mitral cells under isofluorane anesthesia before, during and after a novel scented food odor was paired with carbon disulfide. Results showed significant increases in overall firing frequency to the cued-odor during and after learning and decreases in response to an uncued odor. Analysis of patterns of changes in individual neurons revealed that a substantial proportion (>50%) of them significantly changed their response profiles during and after learning with most of those previously inhibited becoming excited. A large number of cells exhibiting no response to the odors prior to learning were either excited or inhibited afterwards. With the uncued odor many previously responsive cells became unresponsive or inhibited. Learning associated changes only occurred in the posterior part of the olfactory bulb. Thus olfactory learning under anesthesia promotes extensive, but spatially distinct, changes in mitral cell networks to both cued and uncued odors as well as in evoked glutamate and GABA

  9. Cladistic analysis of olfactory and vomeronasal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alino eMartinez-Marcos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most tetrapods possess two nasal organs for detecting chemicals in their environment, which are the sensory detectors of the olfactory and vomeronasal systems. The seventies’ view that the olfactory system was only devoted to sense volatiles, whereas the vomeronasal system was exclusively specialized for pheromone detection was challenged by accumulating data showing deep anatomical and functional interrelationships between both systems. In addition, the assumption that the vomeronasal system appeared as an adaptation to terrestrial life is being questioned as well. The aim of the present work is to use a comparative strategy to gain insight in our understanding of the evolution of chemical cortex. We have analyzed the organization of the olfactory and vomeronasal cortices of reptiles, marsupials and placental mammals and we have compared our findings with data from other taxa in order to better understand the evolutionary history of the nasal sensory systems in vertebrates. The olfactory and vomeronsasal cortices have been re-investigated in garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis, short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica and rats (Rattus norvegicus by tracing the efferents of the main and accessory olfactory bulbs using injections of neuroanatomical anterograde tracers (dextran-amines. In snakes, the medial olfactory tract is quite evident, whereas the main vomeronasal-recipient structure, the nucleus sphericus is a folded cortical-like structure, located at the caudal edge of the amygdala. In marsupials, which are acallosal mammals, the rhinal fissure is relatively dorsal and the olfactory and vomeronasal cortices relatively expanded. Placental mammals, like marsupials, show partially overlapping olfactory and vomeronasal projections in the rostral basal telencephalon. These data raise the interesting question of how the telencephalon has been re-organized in different groups according to the biological relevance of chemical senses.

  10. [Deficits in medical counseling in olfactory dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxel, B R; Nisius, A; Fruth, K; Mann, W J; Muttray, A

    2012-05-01

    Olfactory dysfunctions are common with a prevalence of up to 20% in the population. An impaired sense of smell can lead to specific dangers, therefore, counseling and warning of hazardous situations to raise patient awareness is an important medical function. In this study 105 patients presenting to the University of Mainz Medical Centre with dysosmia were evaluated using a questionnaire. For quantification of the olfactory dysfunction a standardized olfactory test (Sniffin' Sticks) was used. Of the patients 46% were hyposmic and 40% were functionally anosmic. The median duration of the olfactory impairment was 10 months and the main causes of dysosmia were upper respiratory tract infections and idiopathic disorders. More than 90% of the patients consulted an otorhinolaryngologist and 60% a general practitioner before presenting to the University of Mainz Medical Center. More than two thirds of the patients conducted a professional activity, 95% of patients reported that they had not received any medical counseling and 6% of the subjects were forced to discontinue their profession because of olfactory dysfunction. In patients with olfactory dysfunctions appropriate diagnostics, including olfactometry should be performed. Furthermore, correct medical counseling concerning necessary additional arrangements (e.g. installation of smoke or gas detectors, precautions while cooking or for hygiene) has to be performed. For patients in a profession an analysis of the hazards at work is crucial.

  11. Olfactory Loss and Regain: Lessons for Neuroplasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Johanna L; Schöpf, Veronika

    2018-02-01

    For the visual and auditory senses, an array of studies has reported on neuronal reorganization processes after sensory loss. In contrast to this, neuroplasticity has been investigated only scarcely after loss of the olfactory sense. The present review focuses on the current extent of literature on structural and functional neuroplasticity effects after loss, with a focus on magnetic resonance imaging-based studies. We also include findings on the regain of the olfactory sense, for example after successful olfactory training. Existing studies indicate that widespread structural changes beyond the level of the olfactory bulb occur in the brain after loss of the olfactory sense. Moreover, on a functional level, loss of olfactory input not only entails changes in olfaction-related brain regions but also in the trigeminal system. Existing evidence should be strengthened by future longitudinal studies, a more thorough investigation of the neuronal consequences of congenital anosmia, and the application of state-of-the-art neuroimaging methods, such as connectivity analyses and joint analyses of brain structure and function.

  12. CNPase Expression in Olfactory Ensheathing Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Radtke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A large body of work supports the proposal that transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs into nerve or spinal cord injuries can promote axonal regeneration and remyelination. Yet, some investigators have questioned whether the transplanted OECs associate with axons and form peripheral myelin, or if they recruit endogenous Schwann cells that form myelin. Olfactory bulbs from transgenic mice expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP under the control of the 2-3-cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNPase promoter were studied. CNPase is expressed in myelin-forming cells throughout their lineage. We examined CNPase expression in both in situ in the olfactory bulb and in vitro to determine if OECs express CNPase commensurate with their myelination potential. eGFP was observed in the outer nerve layer of the olfactory bulb. Dissociated OECs maintained in culture had both intense eGFP expression and CNPase immunostaining. Transplantation of OECs into transected peripheral nerve longitudinally associated with the regenerated axons. These data indicate that OECs in the outer nerve layer of the olfactory bulb of CNPase transgenic mice express CNPase. Thus, while OECs do not normally form myelin on olfactory nerve axons, their expression of CNPase is commensurate with their potential to form myelin when transplanted into injured peripheral nerve.

  13. Olfactory Fear Conditioning Induces Field Potential Potentiation in Rat Olfactory Cortex and Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaoudi, Belkacem; Granjon, Lionel; Mouly, Anne-Marie; Sevelinges, Yannick; Gervais, Remi

    2004-01-01

    The widely used Pavlovian fear-conditioning paradigms used for studying the neurobiology of learning and memory have mainly used auditory cues as conditioned stimuli (CS). The present work assessed the neural network involved in olfactory fear conditioning, using olfactory bulb stimulation-induced field potential signal (EFP) as a marker of…

  14. Olfactory processing and odor specificity: a meta-analysis of menstrual cycle variation in olfactory sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinec Nováková Lenka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cycle-correlated variation in olfactory threshold, with women becoming more sensitive to odors mid-cycle, is somewhat supported by the literature but the evidence is not entirely consistent, with several studies finding no, or mixed, effects. It has been argued that cyclic shifts in olfactory threshold might be limited to odors relevant to the mating context.

  15. Nanotubes from Oxide-Based Misfit Family: The Case of Calcium Cobalt Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchakarla, Leela S; Lajaunie, Luc; Ramasubramaniam, Ashwin; Arenal, Raul; Tenne, Reshef

    2016-06-28

    Misfit layered compounds (MLCs) have generated significant interest in recent years as potential thermoelectric materials. MLC nanotubes could reveal behavior that is entirely different from the bulk material. Recently, new chemical strategies were exploited for the synthesis of nanotubular forms of chalcogenide-based MLCs, which are promising candidates for thermoelectric materials. However, analogous synthesis of oxide-based MLC nanotubes has not been demonstrated until now. Here, we report a chemical strategy for synthesis of cobalt-oxide-based misfit nanotubes. A combination of high-resolution (scanning) transmission electron microscopy (including image simulations), spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy, electron diffraction, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations is used to discover the formation of a phase within these nanotubes that differs significantly from bulk calcium cobaltite MLCs. Furthermore, DFT calculations show that this phase is semiconducting with a band gap in excess of 1 eV, unlike bulk calcium cobaltite MLCs, which are known to be metallic. Through systematic experiments, we propose a formation mechanism for these nanotubes that could also apply more generally to realizing other oxide-based MLC nanotubes.

  16. An Olfactory Indicator for Acid-Base Titrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flair, Mark N.; Setzer, William N.

    1990-01-01

    The use of an olfactory acid-base indicator in titrations for visually impaired students is discussed. Potential olfactory indicators include eugenol, thymol, vanillin, and thiophenol. Titrations performed with each indicator with eugenol proved to be successful. (KR)

  17. Olfactory screening test in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibenstein, A; Fioretti, A B; Simaskou, M N; Sucapane, P; Mearelli, S; Mina, C; Amabile, G; Fusetti, M

    2005-07-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a transient status between physiologic ageing and dementia. Each year more than 12% of subjects with MCI develop Alzheimer's disease. This study evaluated the presence of an olfactory deficit in amnesic MCI (aMCI) patients. Twenty-nine patients diagnosed with aMCI and a homogeneous control group of 29 subjects were enrolled in the study. Olfactory function was assessed by the Sniffin' Sticks Screening Test (SSST) and the Mini Mental State Examination, the Clinical Dementia Rating, the Geriatric Depression Scale and the Mental Deterioration Battery were used to evaluate the neurocognitive status. aMCI patients showed a significant impairment of their olfactory identification compared to controls (SSST score: 8.3+/-2.1 vs. 10.8+/-0.9; p<0.001). These results suggest that olfactory tests should be part of the diagnostic armamentarium of pre-clinical dementia. A long-term follow up might confirm the olfactory identification function as an early and reliable marker in the diagnosis of pre-clinical dementia.

  18. Physical Variables in the Olfactory Stimulation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Don

    1963-01-01

    Electrical recording from small twigs of nerve in a tortoise showed that olfactory, vomeronasal, and trigeminal receptors in the nose are responsive to various odorants. No one kind of receptor was most sensitive to all odorants. For controlled stimulation, odorant was caused to appear in a stream of gas already flowing through the nose. Of the parameters definable at the naris, temperature, relative humidity, and nature of inert gas had little effect on olfactory responses to amyl acetate, whereas odorant species, odorant concentration, and volume flow rate effectively determined the responses of all nasal chemoreceptors. An intrinsic variable of accessibility to the receptors, particularly olfactory, was demonstrated. Flow dependence of chemoreceptor responses is thought to reflect the necessity for delivery of odorant molecules to receptor sites. Since the olfactory receptors are relatively exposed, plateauing of the response with flow rate for slightly soluble odorants suggests an approach to concentration equilibrium in the overlying mucus with that in the air entering the naris. Accordingly, data for responses to amyl acetate were fitted with Beidler's (1954) taste equation for two kinds of sites being active. The requirement for finite aqueous solubility, if true, suggests substitution of aqueous solutions for gaseous solutions. A suitable medium was found and results conformed to expectations. Olfactory receptors were insensitive to variation of ionic strength, pH, and osmotic pressure. PMID:13994681

  19. Sex effect in mutual olfactory relationships of individually caged rabbits

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    Alessandro Finzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the sex influence on sniffing behavior of rabbits, sets of three rabbits each were located for seven days in contiguous cages divided by a metal wall with holes that prevented the neighboring rabbits to see each other. A buck was located in the central cage, with a doe at each side. Rabbit behavior was video recorded to observe animals sniffing with the muzzle near the wall. The bucks displayed an olfactory preference towards one of the two does, which decreased in few days. The significance was p  0.05. The interest of bucks towards the does was also characterized by a frenetic scratching of the separation wall, contemporary with intense sniffing, displayed only for the first 35 min of the first day. The sniffing behavior of does at the central cage housing the male was not so marked as in bucks, and it progressively changed across the trial (p < 0.01. In conclusion, rabbits establish a transitory sex-oriented olfactory relationship with the conspecifics housed in contiguous cages, which looks no longer necessary once the rabbits have recognized each other.

  20. Investigation of breathing parameters during odor perception and olfactory imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemann, A M; Kopietz, R; Albrecht, J; Schöpf, V; Pollatos, O; Schreder, T; May, J; Linn, J; Brückmann, H; Wiesmann, M

    2009-01-01

    Compared with visual and auditory imagery, little is known about olfactory imagery. There is evidence that respiration may be altered by both olfactory perception and olfactory imagery. In order to investigate this relationship, breathing parameters (respiratory minute volume, respiratory amplitude, and breathing rate) in human subjects during olfactory perception and olfactory imagery were investigated. Fifty-six subjects having normal olfactory function were tested. Nasal respiration was measured using a respiratory pressure sensor. Using an experimental block design, we alternately presented odors or asked the subjects to imagine a given smell. Four different pleasant odors were used: banana, rose, coffee, and lemon odor. We detected a significant increase in respiratory minute volume between olfactory perception and the baseline condition as well as between olfactory imagery and baseline condition. Additionally we found significant differences in the respiratory amplitude between imagery and baseline condition and between odor and imagery condition. Differences in the breathing rate between olfactory perception, olfactory imagery, and baseline were not statistically significant. We conclude from our results that olfactory perception and olfactory imagery both have effects on the human respiratory profile and that these effects are based on a common underlying mechanism.

  1. Behavioral determination of olfactory thresholds to amyl acetate in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krestel, D; Passe, D; Smith, J C; Jonsson, L

    1984-01-01

    By use of a modified conditioned suppression technique, olfactory thresholds to amyl acetate were determined for four beagle dogs. Using the same odorant and olfactometer and a similar breathing chamber, olfactory thresholds were obtained in eight human subjects. It was determined that the olfactory sensitivity of the dogs was about 2.5 log units better than that of the human subjects.

  2. Neural Correlates of Olfactory Learning: Critical Role of Centrifugal Neuromodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Max L.; Chen, Wei R.

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian olfactory system is well established for its remarkable capability of undergoing experience-dependent plasticity. Although this process involves changes at multiple stages throughout the central olfactory pathway, even the early stages of processing, such as the olfactory bulb and piriform cortex, can display a high degree of…

  3. Inhibitory neurotransmission and olfactory memory in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hassani, Abdessalam Kacimi; Giurfa, Martin; Gauthier, Monique; Armengaud, Catherine

    2008-11-01

    In insects, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission through ligand-gated chloride channel receptors. Both GABA and glutamate have been identified in the olfactory circuit of the honeybee. Here we investigated the role of inhibitory transmission mediated by GABA and glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) in olfactory learning and memory in honeybees. We combined olfactory conditioning with injection of ivermectin, an agonist of GluCl receptors. We also injected a blocker of glutamate transporters (L-trans-PDC) or a GABA analog (TACA). We measured acquisition and retention 1, 24 and 48 h after the last acquisition trial. A low dose of ivermectin (0.01 ng/bee) impaired long-term olfactory memory (48 h) while a higher dose (0.05 ng/bee) had no effect. Double injections of ivermectin and L-trans-PDC or TACA had different effects on memory retention, depending on the doses and agents combined. When the low dose of ivermectin was injected after Ringer, long-term memory was again impaired (48 h). Such an effect was rescued by injection of both TACA and L-trans-PDC. A combination of the higher dose of ivermectin and TACA decreased retention at 48 h. We interpret these results as reflecting the involvement of both GluCl and GABA receptors in the impairment of olfactory long-term memory induced by ivermectin. These results illustrate the diversity of inhibitory transmission and its implication in long-term olfactory memory in honeybees.

  4. Linking adult olfactory neurogenesis to social behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia E Feierstein

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the adult brain, new neurons are added to two brain areas: the olfactory bulb and the hippocampus. Newly-generated neurons integrate into the preexisting circuits, bringing a set of unique properties, such as increased plasticity and responsiveness to stimuli. However, the functional implications of the constant addition of these neurons remain unclear, although they are believed to be important for learning and memory. The levels of neurogenesis are regulated by a variety of environmental factors, as well as during learning, suggesting that new neurons could be important for coping with changing environmental demands. Notably, neurogenesis has been shown to be physiologically regulated in relation to reproductive behavior: neurogenesis increases in female mice upon exposure to cues of the mating partners, during pregnancy and lactation, and in male mice upon exposure to their offspring. In this scenario, and because of the key contribution of olfaction to maternal behavior, we sought to investigate the contribution of adult-generated neurons in the olfactory system to maternal behavior and offspring recognition. To do so, we selectively disrupted neurogenesis in the olfactory pathway of female mice using focal irradiation. Disruption of adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb did not affect maternal behavior, or the ability of female mice to discriminate familiar from unfamiliar pups. However, reduction of olfactory neurogenesis resulted in abnormal social interaction of female mice, specifically with male conspecifics. Because the olfactory system is crucial for sex recognition, we suggest that the abnormal interaction with males could result from the inability to detect or discriminate male-specific odors and could therefore have implications for the recognition of potential mating partners. Here, I review the results of this and other studies, and discuss their implications for our understanding of the function of adult neurogenesis.

  5. Olfactory coding in the turbulent realm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Jacob

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance olfactory search behaviors depend on odor detection dynamics. Due to turbulence, olfactory signals travel as bursts of variable concentration and spacing and are characterized by long-tail distributions of odor/no-odor events, challenging the computing capacities of olfactory systems. How animals encode complex olfactory scenes to track the plume far from the source remains unclear. Here we focus on the coding of the plume temporal dynamics in moths. We compare responses of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs and antennal lobe projection neurons (PNs to sequences of pheromone stimuli either with white-noise patterns or with realistic turbulent temporal structures simulating a large range of distances (8 to 64 m from the odor source. For the first time, we analyze what information is extracted by the olfactory system at large distances from the source. Neuronal responses are analyzed using linear-nonlinear models fitted with white-noise stimuli and used for predicting responses to turbulent stimuli. We found that neuronal firing rate is less correlated with the dynamic odor time course when distance to the source increases because of improper coding during long odor and no-odor events that characterize large distances. Rapid adaptation during long puffs does not preclude however the detection of puff transitions in PNs. Individual PNs but not individual ORNs encode the onset and offset of odor puffs for any temporal structure of stimuli. A higher spontaneous firing rate coupled to an inhibition phase at the end of PN responses contributes to this coding property. This allows PNs to decode the temporal structure of the odor plume at any distance to the source, an essential piece of information moths can use in their tracking behavior.

  6. Traumatic brain injury and olfactory deficits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortin, Audrey; Lefebvre, Mathilde Beaulieu; Ptito, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: Olfactory functions are not systematically evaluated following traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study aimed at comparing two smell tests that are used in a clinical setting. RESEARCH DESIGN: The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) and the Alberta Smell....... RESULTS: The scores of the two smell tests were significantly correlated. Both tests indicated that patients with frontal lesion performed significantly worse than patients with other types of lesion. Mood and injury severity were not associated with olfactory impairment when age was taken into account...

  7. Drosophila olfactory receptors as classifiers for volatiles from disparate real world applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowotny, Thomas; De Bruyne, Marien; Warr, Coral G; Berna, Amalia Z; Trowell, Stephen C

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory receptors evolved to provide animals with ecologically and behaviourally relevant information. The resulting extreme sensitivity and discrimination has proven useful to humans, who have therefore co-opted some animals’ sense of smell. One aim of machine olfaction research is to replace the use of animal noses and one avenue of such research aims to incorporate olfactory receptors into artificial noses. Here, we investigate how well the olfactory receptors of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, perform in classifying volatile odourants that they would not normally encounter. We collected a large number of in vivo recordings from individual Drosophila olfactory receptor neurons in response to an ecologically relevant set of 36 chemicals related to wine (‘wine set’) and an ecologically irrelevant set of 35 chemicals related to chemical hazards (‘industrial set’), each chemical at a single concentration. Resampled response sets were used to classify the chemicals against all others within each set, using a standard linear support vector machine classifier and a wrapper approach. Drosophila receptors appear highly capable of distinguishing chemicals that they have not evolved to process. In contrast to previous work with metal oxide sensors, Drosophila receptors achieved the best recognition accuracy if the outputs of all 20 receptor types were used. (paper)

  8. Olfactory sensations produced by high-energy photon irradiation of the olfactory receptor mucosa in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, S.M.; Thomas, R.J.; Loverock, L.T.; Spittle, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    During irradiation of volumes that incorporate the olfactory system, a proportion of patients have complained of a pungent smell. A retrospective study was carried out to determine the prevalence of this side-effect. A questionnaire was sent to 40 patients whose treatment volumes included the olfactory region and also to a control group treated away from this region. The irradiated tumor volumes included the frontal lobe, whole brain, nasopharynx, pituitary fossa, and maxillary antrum. Of the 25 patients who replied, 60% experienced odorous symptoms during irradiation. They described the odor as unpleasant and consistent with ozone. Stimulation of olfactory receptors is considered to be caused by the radiochemical formation of ozone and free radicals in the mucus overlying the olfactory mucosa

  9. Olfactory disfunction and its relation olfactory bulb volume in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinayar, S; Oner, S; Can, S; Kizilay, A; Kamisli, S; Sarac, K

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is the most frequently seen non-motor symptom of Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). The aim of this study is to analyze selective olfactory dysfunction, and olfactory bulb volume (OBV) in subtypes of IPD, and compare them with those of the healthy controls. Our study included 41 patients with IPD and age and gender matched 19 healthy controls. IPD patients were either tremor dominant (65.9%; TDPD) or non-tremor dominant (34.1%; NTDPD) type. All patients underwent neurological, ear, nose, and throat examinations, and orthonasal olfaction testing. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique was used to measure the volume of the olfactory bulb. A significant decrease in olfactory identification scores was found in the patient group. The patients had difficulty in discriminating between odors of mothballs, chocolate, Turkish coffee and soap. OBV did not differ between the patient, and the control groups. In the TDPD group, odor identification ability was decreased when compared to the control group. However, odor test results of NTDPD, control and TDPD groups were similar. OBV estimates of the TDPD group were not different from those of the control group, while in the NTDPD group OBVs were found to be decreased. In all patients with Parkinson's disease OBV values did not vary with age of the patients, duration of the disease, age at onset of the disease, and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor scores (UPDRS-m). Olfactory function is a complex process involving olfactory, and cortical structures as well. In Idiopathic Parkinson's disease, changes in OBV do not seem to be directly related to olfactory dysfunction.

  10. Self-ratings of olfactory function reflect odor annoyance rather than olfactory acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaapila, Antti; Tuorila, Hely; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Wright, Margaret J; Keskitalo, Kaisu; Hansen, Jonathan; Kaprio, Jaakko; Perola, Markus; Silventoinen, Karri

    2008-12-01

    Self-ratings of olfactory function often correlates poorly with results of objective smell tests. We explored these ratings relative to self-rating of odor annoyance, to odor identification ability, and to mean perceived intensity of odors, and estimated relative genetic and environmental contributions to these traits. A total of 1,311 individual twins from the general population (62% females and 38% males, aged 10-83 years, mean age 29 years) including 191 monozygous and 343 dizygous complete twin pairs from Australia, Denmark, Finland, and the United Kingdom rated their sense of smell and annoyance caused by ambient smells (e.g., smells of foods) using seven categories, and performed odor identification and evaluation task for six scratch-and-sniff odor stimuli. The self-rating of olfactory function correlated with the self-rating of odor annoyance (r = 0.30) but neither correlated with the odor identification score. Quantitative genetic modeling revealed no unambiguously significant genetic contribution to variation in any of the studied traits. The results suggest that environmental rather than genetic factors modify the self-rating of olfactory function and support earlier findings of discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of olfactory function. In addition, the results imply that the self-rating of olfactory function arises from experienced odor annoyance rather than from actual olfactory acuity.

  11. Changes in Olfactory Sensory Neuron Physiology and Olfactory Perceptual Learning After Odorant Exposure in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Marley D; Guang, Stephanie A; Moberly, Andrew H; McGann, John P

    2016-02-01

    The adult olfactory system undergoes experience-dependent plasticity to adapt to the olfactory environment. This plasticity may be accompanied by perceptual changes, including improved olfactory discrimination. Here, we assessed experience-dependent changes in the perception of a homologous aldehyde pair by testing mice in a cross-habituation/dishabituation behavioral paradigm before and after a week-long ester-odorant exposure protocol. In a parallel experiment, we used optical neurophysiology to observe neurotransmitter release from olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) terminals in vivo, and thus compared primary sensory representations of the aldehydes before and after the week-long ester-odorant exposure in individual animals. Mice could not discriminate between the aldehydes during pre-exposure testing, but ester-exposed subjects spontaneously discriminated between the homologous pair after exposure, whereas home cage control mice cross-habituated. Ester exposure did not alter the spatial pattern, peak magnitude, or odorant-selectivity of aldehyde-evoked OSN input to olfactory bulb glomeruli, but did alter the temporal dynamics of that input to make the time course of OSN input more dissimilar between odorants. Together, these findings demonstrate that odor exposure can induce both physiological and perceptual changes in odor processing, and suggest that changes in the temporal patterns of OSN input to olfactory bulb glomeruli could induce differences in odor quality. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Functional Neuroanatomy of "Drosophila" Olfactory Memory Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven-Ozkan, Tugba; Davis, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    New approaches, techniques and tools invented over the last decade and a half have revolutionized the functional dissection of neural circuitry underlying "Drosophila" learning. The new methodologies have been used aggressively by researchers attempting to answer three critical questions about olfactory memories formed with appetitive…

  13. Resistance to Interference of Olfactory Perceptual Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Richard J.; Case, Trevor I.; Tomiczek, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    Olfactory memory is especially persistent. The current study explored whether this applies to a form of perceptual learning, in which experience of an odor mixture results in greater judged similarity between its elements. Experiment 1A contrasted 2 forms of interference procedure, "compound" (mixture AW, followed by presentation of new mixtures…

  14. Olfactory receptors in non-chemosensory tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NaNa Kang & JaeHyung Koo*

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory receptors (ORs detect volatile chemicals that lead tothe initial perception of smell in the brain. The olfactory receptor(OR is the first protein that recognizes odorants in theolfactory signal pathway and it is present in over 1,000 genesin mice. It is also the largest member of the G protein-coupledreceptors (GPCRs. Most ORs are extensively expressed in thenasal olfactory epithelium where they perform the appropriatephysiological functions that fit their location. However, recentwhole-genome sequencing shows that ORs have been foundoutside of the olfactory system, suggesting that ORs may playan important role in the ectopic expression of non-chemosensorytissues. The ectopic expressions of ORs and their physiologicalfunctions have attracted more attention recently sinceMOR23 and testicular hOR17-4 have been found to be involvedin skeletal muscle development, regeneration, and humansperm chemotaxis, respectively. When identifying additionalexpression profiles and functions of ORs in non-olfactorytissues, there are limitations posed by the small number ofantibodies available for similar OR genes. This review presentsthe results of a research series that identifies ectopic expressionsand functions of ORs in non-chemosensory tissues toprovide insight into future research directions.

  15. Spotlight on olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Violante M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mayela Rodríguez-Violante,1,2 Natalia Ospina-García,1,2 Christian Pérez-Lohman,1,2 Amin Cervantes-Arriaga1,2 1Movement Disorders Clinic, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Clinical Neurodegenerative Research Unit, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Mexico City, Mexico Abstract: Olfactory dysfunction is frequent in Parkinson’s disease (PD. A correlation between olfactory dysfunction and the pathophysiological process of the disease has been confirmed. On the other hand, olfaction disturbances are also prevalent in other neurodegenerative diseases, and may be related to other factors such as gender, age, smoking, and trauma. Clinically, hyposmia is commonly assessed by smell identification testing. Good diagnostic accuracy has been widely reported, but differences in sensitivity and specificity due to sociocultural factors have also been reported. Since hyposmia may be present before the onset of motor symptoms, it has the potential to serve as a biomarker for the identification of subjects at risk of developing PD. Several studies have been conducted to assess the utility of smell testing as an isolated or combined biomarker for this end. Finally, severe olfactory dysfunction has been associated with faster disease progression and higher risk of cognitive decline in patients with PD. Olfactory dysfunction assessment in PD will continue to be relevant in research and clinical practice. Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, olfaction, smell identification test, biomarker 

  16. Olfactory perception, cognition, and dysfunction in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Richard J

    2013-05-01

    The main functions of olfaction relate to finding food, avoiding predators and disease, and social communication. Its role in detecting food has resulted in a unique dual mode sensory system. Environmental odorants are 'smelled' via the external nostrils, while volatile chemicals in food-detected by the same receptors-arrive via the nasopharynx, contributing to flavor. This arrangement allows the brain to link the consequences of eating with a food's odor, and then later to use this information in the search for food. Recognizing an odorant-a food, mate, or predator-requires the detection of complex chemical blends against a noisy chemical background. The brain solves this problem in two ways. First, by rapid adaptation to background odorants so that new odorants stand out. Second, by pattern matching the neural representation of an odorant to prior olfactory experiences. This account is consistent with olfactory sensory physiology, anatomy, and psychology. Odor perception, and its products, may be subject to further processing-olfactory cognition. While olfactory cognition has features in common with visual or auditory cognition, several aspects are unique, and even those that are common may be instantiated in different ways. These differences can be productively used to evaluate the generality of models of cognition and consciousness. Finally, the olfactory system can breakdown, and this may be predictive of the onset of neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's, as well as having prognostic value in other disorders such as schizophrenia. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:273-284. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1224 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Phylogenic aspects of the amphibian dual olfactory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kazumi; Saito, Shouichiro; Oikawa, Toshihiro; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

    2008-01-01

    The phylogenic significance of the subdivision of dual olfactory system is reviewed mainly on the basis of our findings by electron microscopy and lectin histochemistry in the three amphibian species. The dual olfactory system is present in common in these species and consists of the projection from the olfactory epithelium (OE) to the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and that from the vomeronasal epithelium (VNE) to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). The phylogenic significance of subdivisions in the dual olfactory system in the amphibian must differently be interpreted. The subdivision of the MOB into its dorsal region (D-MOB) and ventral region (V-MOB) in Xenopus laevis must be attributed to the primitive features in their olfactory receptors. The middle cavity epithelium lining the middle cavity of this frog possesses both ciliated sensory cells and microvillous sensory cells, reminding the OE in fish. The subdivision of the AOB into the rostral (R-AOB) and caudal part (C-AOB) in Bufo japonicus formosus must be regarded as an advanced characteristic. The lack of subdivisions in both MOB and AOB in Cynops pyrrhogaster may reflect their phylogenic primitiveness. Since our lectin histochemistry to detect glycoconjugates expressed in the olfactory pathway reveals the subdivisions in the dual olfactory system in the amphibian, the glycoconjugates may deeply participate in the organization and function of olfactory pathways in phylogeny.

  18. Exchange Bias Effects in Iron Oxide-Based Nanoparticle Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Manh-Huong; Alonso, Javier; Khurshid, Hafsa; Lampen-Kelley, Paula; Chandra, Sayan; Stojak Repa, Kristen; Nemati, Zohreh; Das, Raja; Iglesias, Óscar; Srikanth, Hariharan

    2016-01-01

    The exploration of exchange bias (EB) on the nanoscale provides a novel approach to improving the anisotropic properties of magnetic nanoparticles for prospective applications in nanospintronics and nanomedicine. However, the physical origin of EB is not fully understood. Recent advances in chemical synthesis provide a unique opportunity to explore EB in a variety of iron oxide-based nanostructures ranging from core/shell to hollow and hybrid composite nanoparticles. Experimental and atomistic Monte Carlo studies have shed light on the roles of interface and surface spins in these nanosystems. This review paper aims to provide a thorough understanding of the EB and related phenomena in iron oxide-based nanoparticle systems, knowledge of which is essential to tune the anisotropic magnetic properties of exchange-coupled nanoparticle systems for potential applications. PMID:28335349

  19. Tunicamycin impairs olfactory learning and synaptic plasticity in the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jia; Okutani, Fumino; Murata, Yoshihiro; Taniguchi, Mutsuo; Namba, Toshiharu; Wang, Yu-Jie; Kaba, Hideto

    2017-03-06

    Tunicamycin (TM) induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inhibits N-glycosylation in cells. ER stress is associated with neuronal death in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, and most patients complain of the impairment of olfactory recognition. Here we examined the effects of TM on aversive olfactory learning and the underlying synaptic plasticity in the main olfactory bulb (MOB). Behavioral experiments demonstrated that the intrabulbar infusion of TM disabled aversive olfactory learning without affecting short-term memory. Histological analyses revealed that TM infusion upregulated C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), a marker of ER stress, in the mitral and granule cell layers of MOB. Electrophysiological data indicated that TM inhibited tetanus-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) at the dendrodendritic excitatory synapse from mitral to granule cells. A low dose of TM (250nM) abolished the late phase of LTP, and a high dose (1μM) inhibited the early and late phases of LTP. Further, high-dose, but not low-dose, TM reduced the paired-pulse facilitation ratio, suggesting that the inhibitory effects of TM on LTP are partially mediated through the presynaptic machinery. Thus, our results support the hypothesis that TM-induced ER stress impairs olfactory learning by inhibiting synaptic plasticity via presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms in MOB. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Subthreshold olfactory stimulation can enhance sweetness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, D; Rytz, A; Morgenegg, C; Ali, S; Martin, N

    2007-03-01

    The impact of olfactory perception on sweetness was explored in a model solution using odorants at subthreshold concentrations. First, the impact of 6 odorants, previously described in the literature as congruent with sweetness, was investigated at suprathreshold level in a sucrose solution. Ethyl butyrate and maltol were selected as they had the highest and the lowest sweetness-enhancing properties, respectively. Second, the impact on sweetness of the 2 odorants was investigated at subthreshold concentrations. A system delivering a continuous liquid flow at the same sucrose level, but with varying odorant concentrations, was used. At a subthreshold level, ethyl butyrate but not maltol significantly enhanced the sweetness of the sucrose solution. This study highlights that olfactory perception induced by odorants at a subthreshold level can significantly modulate taste perception. Finally, contrary to results observed with ethyl butyrate at suprathreshold levels, at subthreshold levels, the intensity of sweetness enhancement was not proportional to ethyl butyrate concentration.

  1. Genetic diversity of canine olfactory receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitte Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution has resulted in large repertoires of olfactory receptor (OR genes, forming the largest gene families in mammalian genomes. Knowledge of the genetic diversity of olfactory receptors is essential if we are to understand the differences in olfactory sensory capability between individuals. Canine breeds constitute an attractive model system for such investigations. Results We sequenced 109 OR genes considered representative of the whole OR canine repertoire, which consists of more than 800 genes, in a cohort of 48 dogs of six different breeds. SNP frequency showed the overall level of polymorphism to be high. However, the distribution of SNP was highly heterogeneous among OR genes. More than 50% of OR genes were found to harbour a large number of SNP, whereas the rest were devoid of SNP or only slightly polymorphic. Heterogeneity was also observed across breeds, with 25% of the SNP breed-specific. Linkage disequilibrium within OR genes and OR clusters suggested a gene conversion process, consistent with a mean level of polymorphism higher than that observed for introns and intergenic sequences. A large proportion (47% of SNP induced amino-acid changes and the Ka/Ks ratio calculated for all alleles with a complete ORF indicated a low selective constraint with respect to the high level of redundancy of the olfactory combinatory code and an ongoing pseudogenisation process, which affects dog breeds differently. Conclusion Our demonstration of a high overall level of polymorphism, likely to modify the ligand-binding capacity of receptors distributed differently within the six breeds tested, is the first step towards understanding why Labrador Retrievers and German Shepherd Dogs have a much greater potential for use as sniffer dogs than Pekingese dogs or Greyhounds. Furthermore, the heterogeneity in OR polymorphism observed raises questions as to why, in a context in which most OR genes are highly polymorphic, a subset of

  2. Olfactory Stimuli Increase Presence in Virtual Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson G Munyan

    Full Text Available Exposure therapy (EXP is the most empirically supported treatment for anxiety and trauma-related disorders. EXP consists of repeated exposure to a feared object or situation in the absence of the feared outcome in order to extinguish associated anxiety. Key to the success of EXP is the need to present the feared object/event/situation in as much detail and utilizing as many sensory modalities as possible, in order to augment the sense of presence during exposure sessions. Various technologies used to augment the exposure therapy process by presenting multi-sensory cues (e.g., sights, smells, sounds. Studies have shown that scents can elicit emotionally charged memories, but no prior research has examined the effect of olfactory stimuli upon the patient's sense of presence during simulated exposure tasks.60 adult participants navigated a mildly anxiety-producing virtual environment (VE similar to those used in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Participants had no autobiographical memory associated with the VE. State anxiety, Presence ratings, and electrodermal (EDA activity were collected throughout the experiment.Utilizing a Bonferroni corrected Linear Mixed Model, our results showed statistically significant relationships between olfactory stimuli and presence as assessed by both the Igroup Presence Questionnaire (IPQ: R2 = 0.85, (F(3,52 = 6.625, p = 0.0007 and a single item visual-analogue scale (R2 = 0.85, (F(3,52 = 5.382, p = 0.0027. State anxiety was unaffected by the presence or absence of olfactory cues. EDA was unaffected by experimental condition.Olfactory stimuli increase presence in virtual environments that approximate those typical in exposure therapy, but did not increase EDA. Additionally, once administered, the removal of scents resulted in a disproportionate decrease in presence. Implications for incorporating the use of scents to increase the efficacy of exposure therapy is discussed.

  3. Modeling peripheral olfactory coding in Drosophila larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek J Hoare

    Full Text Available The Drosophila larva possesses just 21 unique and identifiable pairs of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs, enabling investigation of the contribution of individual OSN classes to the peripheral olfactory code. We combined electrophysiological and computational modeling to explore the nature of the peripheral olfactory code in situ. We recorded firing responses of 19/21 OSNs to a panel of 19 odors. This was achieved by creating larvae expressing just one functioning class of odorant receptor, and hence OSN. Odor response profiles of each OSN class were highly specific and unique. However many OSN-odor pairs yielded variable responses, some of which were statistically indistinguishable from background activity. We used these electrophysiological data, incorporating both responses and spontaneous firing activity, to develop a bayesian decoding model of olfactory processing. The model was able to accurately predict odor identity from raw OSN responses; prediction accuracy ranged from 12%-77% (mean for all odors 45.2% but was always significantly above chance (5.6%. However, there was no correlation between prediction accuracy for a given odor and the strength of responses of wild-type larvae to the same odor in a behavioral assay. We also used the model to predict the ability of the code to discriminate between pairs of odors. Some of these predictions were supported in a behavioral discrimination (masking assay but others were not. We conclude that our model of the peripheral code represents basic features of odor detection and discrimination, yielding insights into the information available to higher processing structures in the brain.

  4. Trpm5 expression in the olfactory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrski, Martina; Eckstein, Eugenia; Schmid, Andreas; Bufe, Bernd; Weiss, Jan; Chubanov, Vladimir; Boehm, Ulrich; Zufall, Frank

    2017-04-01

    The Ca 2+ -activated monovalent cation channel Trpm5 is a key element in chemotransduction of taste receptor cells of the tongue, but the extent to which Trpm5 channels are expressed in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) of the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of adult mice as part of a specific pheromonal detection system is debated. Here, we used a novel Trpm5-IRES-Cre knockin strain to drive Cre recombinase expression, employed previously validated Trpm5 antibodies, performed in situ hybridization experiments to localize Trpm5 RNA, and searched extensively for Trpm5 splice variants in genetically-labeled, Trpm5-expressing MOE cells. In contrast to previous reports, we find no evidence for the existence in adult mouse OSNs of the classical Trpm5 channel known from taste cells. We show that Trpm5-expressing adult OSNs express a novel Trpm5 splice variant, Trpm5-9, that is unlikely to form a functional cation channel by itself. We also demonstrate that Trpm5 is transiently expressed in a subpopulation of mature OSNs in the embryonic olfactory epithelium, indicating that Trpm5 channels could play a specific role in utero during a narrow developmental time window. Ca 2+ imaging with GCaMP3 under the control of the Trpm5-IRES-Cre allele using a newly developed MOE wholemount preparation of the adult olfactory epithelium reveals that Trpm5-GCaMP3 OSNs comprise a heterogeneous group of sensory neurons many of which can detect general odorants. Together, these studies are essential for understanding the role of transient receptor potential channels in mammalian olfaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. MRI of the olfactory bulbs and sulci in human fetuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoulay, Robin; Grabar, Sophie; Kalifa, Gabriel; Adamsbaum, Catherine [Paris V, Faculte de Medecine, Department of Radiology, Hopital Saint Vincent de Paul, Paris Cedex 14 (France); Fallet-Bianco, Catherine [Hopital Sainte-Anne, Paris (France); Garel, Catherine [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France)

    2006-02-01

    There is limited knowledge of the MRI pattern of the development of fetal olfactory bulbs and sulci. To describe the MRI appearance of olfactory bulbs and sulci in normal in vivo fetuses according to gestational age. Olfactory bulbs and sulci were retrospectively assessed on brain MRI examinations of 88 normal fetuses between 24 and 39 weeks gestational age. Two reference centres were involved in the study and both used routine protocols that included axial and coronal T2- and T1-weighted sequences at 1.5 T. The results were compared both with the commonly used neuropathological data in the literature and with personal neuropathological data. Pearson's chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test were performed. One case of olfactory agenesis associated with CHARGE syndrome was identified. T2-weighted coronal sequences were the most sensitive for detecting olfactory bulbs and sulci. Olfactory sulci were significantly better detected from 30 weeks onwards (90.9-100%; P<0.001). MRI showed a posteroanterior development of these sulci. Olfactory bulbs were better detected from 30 to 34 weeks (80-90.9%; P<0.002). Comparison with neuropathological data confirmed the posteroanterior development of the sulci and showed an important delay in detection of the olfactory structures (bulbs and sulci). No difference was observed between the two centres involved. To date, fetal MRI can depict olfactory sulci from 30 weeks gestational age onwards and olfactory bulbs from 30 to 34 weeks gestational age. This preliminary reference standard is useful to assess the normality of the olfactory system and to diagnose olfactory agenesis. (orig.)

  6. Olfactory Information Processing in the Drosophila Antennal Lobe : Anything Goes?

    OpenAIRE

    Silbering, Ana F.; Okada, Ryuichi; Ito, Kei; Galizia, Cosmas Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    When an animal smells an odor, olfactory sensory neurons generate an activity pattern across olfactory glomeruli of the first sensory neuropil, the insect antennal lobe or the vertebrate olfactory bulb. Here, several networks of local neurons interact with sensory neurons and with output neurons-insect projection neurons, or vertebrate mitral/tufted cells. The extent and form of information processing taking place in these local networks has been subject of controversy. To investigate the ro...

  7. Kappe neurons, a novel population of olfactory sensory neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Ahuja, Gaurav; Nia, Shahrzad Bozorg; Zapilko, Veronika; Shiriagin, Vladimir; Kowatschew, Daniel; Oka, Yuichiro; Korsching, Sigrun I.

    2014-01-01

    Perception of olfactory stimuli is mediated by distinct populations of olfactory sensory neurons, each with a characteristic set of morphological as well as functional parameters. Beyond two large populations of ciliated and microvillous neurons, a third population, crypt neurons, has been identified in teleost and cartilaginous fishes. We report here a novel, fourth olfactory sensory neuron population in zebrafish, which we named kappe neurons for their characteristic shape. Kappe neurons ar...

  8. Early Olfactory Processing in Drosophila: Mechanisms and Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Rachel I.

    2013-01-01

    In the olfactory system of Drosophila melanogaster, it is relatively straightforward to make in vivo measurements of activity in neurons corresponding to targeted processing. This, together with the numerical simplicity of the Drosophila olfactory system, has produced rapid gains in our understanding of Drosophila olfaction. This review summarizes the neurophysiology of the first two layers of this system: the peripheral olfactory receptor neurons and their postsynaptic targets in the antenna...

  9. Functional neuroanatomy of Drosophila olfactory memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven-Ozkan, Tugba; Davis, Ronald L

    2014-10-01

    New approaches, techniques and tools invented over the last decade and a half have revolutionized the functional dissection of neural circuitry underlying Drosophila learning. The new methodologies have been used aggressively by researchers attempting to answer three critical questions about olfactory memories formed with appetitive and aversive reinforcers: (1) Which neurons within the olfactory nervous system mediate the acquisition of memory? (2) What is the complete neural circuitry extending from the site(s) of acquisition to the site(s) controlling memory expression? (3) How is information processed across this circuit to consolidate early-forming, disruptable memories to stable, late memories? Much progress has been made and a few strong conclusions have emerged: (1) Acquisition occurs at multiple sites within the olfactory nervous system but is mediated predominantly by the γ mushroom body neurons. (2) The expression of long-term memory is completely dependent on the synaptic output of α/β mushroom body neurons. (3) Consolidation occurs, in part, through circuit interactions between mushroom body and dorsal paired medial neurons. Despite this progress, a complete and unified model that details the pathway from acquisition to memory expression remains elusive. © 2014 Guven-Ozkan and Davis; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. Higher Body Mass Index Is Associated with Subjective Olfactory Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. M. Patel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Morbidly obese patients demonstrate altered olfactory acuity. There has been no study directly assessing Body Mass Index (BMI in patients with olfactory dysfunction. Our purpose was to compare BMI in a group of patients with subjective olfactory dysfunction to those without subjective olfactory complaints. Methods. Retrospective matched case-control study. Sixty patients who presented to a tertiary care otolaryngology center with subjective smell dysfunction over one year were identified. Neoplastic and obstructive etiologies were excluded. Demographics, BMI, and smoking status were reviewed. Sixty age, gender, and race matched control patients were selected for comparison. Chi-square testing was used. Results. 48 out of 60 patients (80% in the olfactory dysfunction group fell into the overweight or obese categories, compared to 36 out of 60 patients (60% in the control group. There was a statistically significant difference between the olfactory dysfunction and control groups for this stratified BMI (p= 0.0168.  Conclusion. This study suggests high BMI is associated with olfactory dysfunction. Prospective clinical research should examine this further to determine if increasing BMI may be a risk factor in olfactory loss and to elucidate what role olfactory loss may play in diet and feeding habits of obese patients.

  11. Apolipoprotein E4 causes early olfactory network abnormalities and short-term olfactory memory impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Katherine Y; Mathews, Paul M; Levy, Efrat; Wilson, Donald A

    2017-02-20

    While apolipoprotein (Apo) E4 is linked to increased incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there is growing evidence that it plays a role in functional brain irregularities that are independent of AD pathology. However, ApoE4-driven functional differences within olfactory processing regions have yet to be examined. Utilizing knock-in mice humanized to ApoE4 versus the more common ApoE3, we examined a simple olfactory perceptual memory that relies on the transfer of information from the olfactory bulb (OB) to the piriform cortex (PCX), the primary cortical region involved in higher order olfaction. In addition, we have recorded in vivo resting and odor-evoked local field potentials (LPF) from both brain regions and measured corresponding odor response magnitudes in anesthetized young (6-month-old) and middle-aged (12-month-old) ApoE mice. Young ApoE4 compared to ApoE3 mice exhibited a behavioral olfactory deficit coinciding with hyperactive odor-evoked response magnitudes within the OB that were not observed in older ApoE4 mice. Meanwhile, middle-aged ApoE4 compared to ApoE3 mice exhibited heightened response magnitudes in the PCX without a corresponding olfactory deficit, suggesting a shift with aging in ApoE4-driven effects from OB to PCX. Interestingly, the increased ApoE4-specific response in the PCX at middle-age was primarily due to a dampening of baseline spontaneous activity rather than an increase in evoked response power. Our findings indicate that early ApoE4-driven olfactory memory impairments and OB network abnormalities may be a precursor to later network dysfunction in the PCX, a region that not only is targeted early in AD, but may be selectively vulnerable to ApoE4 genotype. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Retro- and orthonasal olfactory function in relation to olfactory bulb volume in patients with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Murat; Kurt, Onuralp; Ay, Seyid Ahmet; Baskoy, Kamil; Altundag, Aytug; Saglam, Muzaffer; Deniz, Ferhat; Tekeli, Hakan; Yonem, Arif; Hummel, Thomas

    2017-08-24

    Idiopathic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (IHH) with an olfactory deficit is defined as Kallmann syndrome (KS) and is distinct from normosmic IHH. Because olfactory perception not only consists of orthonasally gained impressions but also involves retronasal olfactory function, in this study we decided to comprehensively evaluate both retronasal and orthonasal olfaction in patients with IHH. This case-control study included 31 controls and 45 IHH patients. All participants whose olfactory and taste functions were evaluated with orthonasal olfaction (discrimination, identification and threshold), retronasal olfaction, taste function and olfactory bulb volume (OBV) measurement. The patients were separated into three groups according to orthonasal olfaction: anosmic IHH (aIHH), hyposmic IHH (hIHH) and normosmic IHH (nIHH). Discrimination, identification and threshold scores of patients with KS were significantly lower than controls. Threshold scores of patients with nIHH were significantly lower than those of controls, but discrimination and identification scores were not significantly different. Retronasal olfaction was reduced only in the aIHH group compared to controls. Identification of bitter, sweet, sour, and salty tastes was not significantly different when compared between the anosmic, hyposmic, and normosmic IHH groups and controls. OBV was lower bilaterally in all patient groups when compared with controls. The OBV of both sides was found to be significantly correlated with TDI scores in IHH patients. 1) There were no significant differences in gustatory function between controls and IHH patients; 2) retronasal olfaction was reduced only in anosmic patients but not in orthonasally hyposmic participants, possibly indicating presence of effective compensatory mechanisms; 3) olfactory bulb volumes were highly correlated with olfaction scores in the HH group. The current results indicate a continuum from anosmia to normosmia in IHH patients. Copyright © 2017

  13. Olfactory deprivation increases dopamine D2 receptor density in the rat olfactory bulb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, K.M.; Pullara, J.M.; Marshall, J.F.; Leon, M.

    1991-01-01

    Unilateral olfactory deprivation during postnatal development results in significant anatomical and neurochemical changes in the deprived olfactory bulb. Perhaps the most dramatic neurochemical change is the loss of dopaminergic expression by neurons of the glomerular region. The authors describe here the effects of early olfactory deprivation on other elements of the bulb dopaminergic system, namely the dopamine receptors of the olfactory bulb. Rat pups had a single naris occluded on postnatal day 2 (PN2). On PN20 or PN60, animals were sacrificed and the bulbs were examined for catecholamine levels or D2 and D1 dopamine receptor binding. Receptor densities were quantified by in vitro autoradiography using the tritiated antagonists spiperone (D2) and SCH23390 (D1). Dopamine uptake sites were similarly examined using tritiated mazindol. No significant specific labeling of D1 or mazindol sites was observed in the olfactory bulbs of control or experimental animals at either age. Normal animals displayed prominent labeling of D2 sites in the glomerular and nerve layers. After 60 days of deprivation, deprived bulbs exhibited an average increase in D2 receptor density of 32%. As determined by Scatchard analysis, the mean values for Kd and Bmax were 0.134 nM and 293 fmol/mg protein in normal bulbs, and 0.136 nM and 403 fmol/mg protein in deprived bulbs. The results suggest that, as in the neostriatum, dopamine depletion in the olfactory bulb leads to an upregulation of D2 receptor sites. This change may represent an attempt by the system to adapt neurochemically to reduced dopaminergic activity and thereby maintain bulb function

  14. Olfactory deprivation increases dopamine D2 receptor density in the rat olfactory bulb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie, K.M.; Pullara, J.M.; Marshall, J.F.; Leon, M. (University of California, Irvine (USA))

    1991-05-01

    Unilateral olfactory deprivation during postnatal development results in significant anatomical and neurochemical changes in the deprived olfactory bulb. Perhaps the most dramatic neurochemical change is the loss of dopaminergic expression by neurons of the glomerular region. The authors describe here the effects of early olfactory deprivation on other elements of the bulb dopaminergic system, namely the dopamine receptors of the olfactory bulb. Rat pups had a single naris occluded on postnatal day 2 (PN2). On PN20 or PN60, animals were sacrificed and the bulbs were examined for catecholamine levels or D2 and D1 dopamine receptor binding. Receptor densities were quantified by in vitro autoradiography using the tritiated antagonists spiperone (D2) and SCH23390 (D1). Dopamine uptake sites were similarly examined using tritiated mazindol. No significant specific labeling of D1 or mazindol sites was observed in the olfactory bulbs of control or experimental animals at either age. Normal animals displayed prominent labeling of D2 sites in the glomerular and nerve layers. After 60 days of deprivation, deprived bulbs exhibited an average increase in D2 receptor density of 32%. As determined by Scatchard analysis, the mean values for Kd and Bmax were 0.134 nM and 293 fmol/mg protein in normal bulbs, and 0.136 nM and 403 fmol/mg protein in deprived bulbs. The results suggest that, as in the neostriatum, dopamine depletion in the olfactory bulb leads to an upregulation of D2 receptor sites. This change may represent an attempt by the system to adapt neurochemically to reduced dopaminergic activity and thereby maintain bulb function.

  15. Photoperiod mediated changes in olfactory bulb neurogenesis and olfactory behavior in male white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C Walton

    Full Text Available Brain plasticity, in relation to new adult mammalian neurons generated in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus, has been well described. However, the functional outcome of new adult olfactory neurons born in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles is not clearly defined, as manipulating neurogenesis through various methods has given inconsistent and conflicting results in lab mice. Several small rodent species, including Peromyscus leucopus, display seasonal (photoperiodic brain plasticity in brain volume, hippocampal function, and hippocampus-dependent behaviors; plasticity in the olfactory system of photoperiodic rodents remains largely uninvestigated. We exposed adult male P. leucopus to long day lengths (LD and short day lengths (SD for 10 to 15 weeks and then examined olfactory bulb cell proliferation and survival using the thymidine analog BrdU, olfactory bulb granule cell morphology using Golgi-Cox staining, and behavioral investigation of same-sex conspecific urine. SD mice did not differ from LD counterparts in granular cell morphology of the dendrites or in dendritic spine density. Although there were no differences due to photoperiod in habituation to water odor, SD mice rapidly habituated to male urine, whereas LD mice did not. In addition, short day induced changes in olfactory behavior were associated with increased neurogenesis in the caudal plexiform and granule cell layers of the olfactory bulb, an area known to preferentially respond to water-soluble odorants. Taken together, these data demonstrate that photoperiod, without altering olfactory bulb neuronal morphology, alters olfactory bulb neurogenesis and olfactory behavior in Peromyscus leucopus.

  16. Toward Annealing-Stable Molybdenum-Oxide-Based Hole-Selective Contacts For Silicon Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Essig, Stephanie

    2018-02-21

    Molybdenum oxide (MoOX) combines a high work function with broadband optical transparency. Sandwiched between a hydrogenated intrinsic amorphous silicon passivation layer and a transparent conductive oxide, this material allows a highly efficient hole-selective front contact stack for crystalline silicon solar cells. However, hole extraction from the Si wafer and transport through this stack degrades upon annealing at 190 °C, which is needed to cure the screen-printed Ag metallization applied to typical Si solar cells. Here, we show that effusion of hydrogen from the adjacent layers is a likely cause for this degradation, highlighting the need for hydrogen-lean passivation layers when using such metal-oxide-based carrier-selective contacts. Pre-MoOX-deposition annealing of the passivating a-Si:H layer is shown to be a straightforward approach to manufacturing MoOX-based devices with high fill factors using screen-printed metallization cured at 190 °C.

  17. Olfactory lateralization in homing pigeons: a GPS study on birds released with unilateral olfactory inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardo, Anna; Filannino, Caterina; Ioalè, Paolo; Pecchia, Tommaso; Wikelski, Martin; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2011-02-15

    A large body of evidence has shown that pigeons rely on an olfactory-based navigational map when homing from unfamiliar locations. Previous studies on pigeons released with one nostril occluded highlighted an asymmetry in favour of the right nostril, particularly concerning the initial orientation performance of naïve birds. Nevertheless, all pigeons experiencing only unilateral olfactory input showed impaired homing, regardless of the side of the occluded nostril. So far this phenomenon has been documented only by observing the birds' vanishing bearings. In the present work we recorded the flight tracks of pigeons with previous homing experience equipped with a GPS data logger and released from an unfamiliar location with the right or the left nostril occluded. The analysis of the tracks revealed that the flight path of the birds with the right nostril occluded was more tortuous than that of unmanipulated controls. Moreover, the pigeons smelling with the left nostril interrupted their journey significantly more frequently and displayed more exploratory activity than the control birds, e.g. during flights around a stopover site. These data suggest a more important involvement of the right olfactory system in processing the olfactory information needed for the operation of the navigational map.

  18. Olfactory aversive conditioning alters olfactory bulb mitral/tufted cell glomerular odor responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max L Fletcher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical organization of receptor neuron input into the olfactory bulb (OB allows odor information to be transformed into an odorant-specific spatial map of mitral/tufted cell glomerular activity at the upper level of the olfactory bulb. In other sensory systems, neuronal representations of stimuli can be reorganized or enhanced following learning. While the mammalian OB has been shown to undergo experience-dependent plasticity at the glomerular level, it is still unclear if similar representational change occurs within mitral/tufted cell glomerular odor representations following learning. To address this, odorant-evoked glomerular activity patterns were imaged in mice expressing a GFP-based calcium indicator (GCaMP2 in OB mitral/tufted cells. Glomerular odor responses were imaged before and after olfactory associative conditioning to aversive foot shock. Following conditioning, we found no overall reorganization of the glomerular representation. Training, however, did significantly alter the amplitudes of individual glomeruli within the representation in mice in which the odor was presented together with foot shock. Further, the specific pairing of foot shock with odor presentations lead to increased responses primarily in initially weakly activated glomeruli. Overall, these results suggest that associative conditioning can enhance the initial representation of odors within the olfactory bulb by enhancing responses to the learned odor in some glomeruli.

  19. Neuropeptide S facilitates mice olfactory function through activation of cognate receptor-expressing neurons in the olfactory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Feng Shao

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide S (NPS is a newly identified neuromodulator located in the brainstem and regulates various biological functions by selectively activating the NPS receptors (NPSR. High level expression of NPSR mRNA in the olfactory cortex suggests that NPS-NPSR system might be involved in the regulation of olfactory function. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. injection of NPS or co-injection of NPSR antagonist on the olfactory behaviors, food intake, and c-Fos expression in olfactory cortex in mice. In addition, dual-immunofluorescence was employed to identify NPS-induced Fos immunereactive (-ir neurons that also bear NPSR. NPS (0.1-1 nmol i.c.v. injection significantly reduced the latency to find the buried food, and increased olfactory differentiation of different odors and the total sniffing time spent in olfactory habituation/dishabituation tasks. NPS facilitated olfactory ability most at the dose of 0.5 nmol, which could be blocked by co-injection of 40 nmol NPSR antagonist [D-Val(5]NPS. NPS administration dose-dependently inhibited food intake in fasted mice. Ex-vivo c-Fos and NPSR immunohistochemistry in the olfactory cortex revealed that, as compared with vehicle-treated mice, NPS markedly enhanced c-Fos expression in the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON, piriform cortex (Pir, ventral tenia tecta (VTT, the anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus (ACo and lateral entorhinal cortex (LEnt. The percentage of Fos-ir neurons that also express NPSR were 88.5% and 98.1% in the AON and Pir, respectively. The present findings demonstrated that NPS, via selective activation of the neurons bearing NPSR in the olfactory cortex, facilitates olfactory function in mice.

  20. A second look at the structure of human olfactory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Theresa L

    2009-07-01

    How do we remember olfactory information? Is the architecture of human olfactory memory unique compared with that of memory for other types of stimuli? Ten years ago, a review article evaluated these questions, as well as the distinction between long- and short-term olfactory memory, with three lines of evidence: capacity differences, coding differences, and neuropsychological evidence, though serial position effects were also considered. From the data available at the time, the article preliminarily suggested that olfactory memory was a two-component system that was not qualitatively different from memory systems for other types of stimuli. The decade that has elapsed since then has ushered in considerable changes in theories of memory structure and provided huge advances in neuroscience capabilities. Not only have many studies exploring various aspects of olfactory memory been published, but a model of olfactory perception that includes an integral unitary memory system also has been presented. Consequently, the structure of olfactory memory is reevaluated in the light of further information currently available with the same theoretical lines of evidence previously considered. This evaluation finds that the preponderance of evidence suggests that, as in memory for other types of sensory stimuli, the short-term-long-term distinction remains a valuable dissociation for conceptualizing olfactory memory, though perhaps not as architecturally separate systems.

  1. Voltage-Dependent Intrinsic Bursting in Olfactory Bulb Golgi Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressler, R. Todd; Rozman, Peter A.; Strowbridge, Ben W.

    2013-01-01

    In the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB), local synaptic circuits modulate the evolving pattern of activity in mitral and tufted cells following olfactory sensory stimulation. GABAergic granule cells, the most numerous interneuron subtype in this brain region, have been extensively studied. However, classic studies using Golgi staining methods…

  2. Semaphorins and their receptors in olfactory axon guidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasterkamp, R Jeroen; Ruitenberg, Marc J; Verhaagen, J

    The mammalian olfactory system is capable of discriminating among a large variety of odor molecules and is therefore essential for the identification of food, enemies and mating partners. The assembly and maintenance of olfactory connectivity have been shown to depend on the combinatorial actions of

  3. Designing exons for human olfactory receptor gene subfamilies ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    The loci of olfactory receptors (ORs) in the human genome occur in clusters ranging ... [Hassan Sk S, Choudhury P P, Pal A, Brahmachary R L and Goswami A 2010 Designing exons for human olfactory receptor gene subfamilies using a mathematical .... Acknowledgements. This work was supported by the Department of.

  4. Olfactory function after mild head injury in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriever, Valentin A; Studt, Friederike; Smitka, Martin; Grosser, Kay; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Olfactory impairment has been shown to be linked to head injury. In addition, it is believed that measurement of olfactory function after head trauma represents a sensitive tool for measuring frontal brain damage. Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of mild head trauma in children on olfactory function over a time period of up to 1 year after head trauma. The olfactory function of 114 children who suffered mild head trauma according to the Glasgow Coma Scale was assessed 3 times with an interval of 4 months. In addition, healthy, age-matched controls were tested for comparison of olfactory function. Patients scored significantly lower on the odor threshold test compared to the control group-but still within normal range. Between the 2 groups, no difference was found for suprathreshold testing. Neither olfactory threshold scores nor olfactory discrimination scores changed significantly over the study period of 1 year. This data prove an impact of mild head trauma on olfactory function of children. It seems unlikely that children who suffered mild head trauma will become hyposmic or anosmic.

  5. Kappe neurons, a novel population of olfactory sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Gaurav; Bozorg Nia, Shahrzad; Zapilko, Veronika; Shiriagin, Vladimir; Kowatschew, Daniel; Oka, Yuichiro; Korsching, Sigrun I

    2014-02-10

    Perception of olfactory stimuli is mediated by distinct populations of olfactory sensory neurons, each with a characteristic set of morphological as well as functional parameters. Beyond two large populations of ciliated and microvillous neurons, a third population, crypt neurons, has been identified in teleost and cartilaginous fishes. We report here a novel, fourth olfactory sensory neuron population in zebrafish, which we named kappe neurons for their characteristic shape. Kappe neurons are identified by their Go-like immunoreactivity, and show a distinct spatial distribution within the olfactory epithelium, similar to, but significantly different from that of crypt neurons. Furthermore, kappe neurons project to a single identified target glomerulus within the olfactory bulb, mdg5 of the mediodorsal cluster, whereas crypt neurons are known to project exclusively to the mdg2 glomerulus. Kappe neurons are negative for established markers of ciliated, microvillous and crypt neurons, but appear to have microvilli. Kappe neurons constitute the fourth type of olfactory sensory neurons reported in teleost fishes and their existence suggests that encoding of olfactory stimuli may require a higher complexity than hitherto assumed already in the peripheral olfactory system.

  6. Comparison between olfactory function of pregnant women and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A structured questionnaire was administered to obtain participants' information on socio-demographics, pregnancy history, and ability to perceive smell. They subjectively rated their olfactory function on a visual analogue scale of 0 – 100. Olfactory threshold (OT), discrimination (OD), identification (OI) scores and TDI of both ...

  7. Understanding smell--the olfactory stimulus problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffarth, Benjamin

    2013-09-01

    The main problem with sensory processing is the difficulty in relating sensory input to physiological responses and perception. This is especially problematic at higher levels of processing, where complex cues elicit highly specific responses. In olfaction, this relationship is particularly obfuscated by the difficulty of characterizing stimulus statistics and perception. The core questions in olfaction are hence the so-called stimulus problem, which refers to the understanding of the stimulus, and the structure-activity and structure-odor relationships, which refer to the molecular basis of smell. It is widely accepted that the recognition of odorants by receptors is governed by the detection of physico-chemical properties and that the physical space is highly complex. Not surprisingly, ideas differ about how odor stimuli should be classified and about the very nature of information that the brain extracts from odors. Even though there are many measures for smell, there is none that accurately describes all aspects of it. Here, we summarize recent developments in the understanding of olfaction. We argue that an approach to olfactory function where information processing is emphasized could contribute to a high degree to our understanding of smell as a perceptual phenomenon emerging from neural computations. Further, we argue that combined analysis of the stimulus, biology, physiology, and behavior and perception can provide new insights into olfactory function. We hope that the reader can use this review as a competent guide and overview of research activities in olfactory physiology, psychophysics, computation, and psychology. We propose avenues for research, particularly in the systematic characterization of receptive fields and of perception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Microsurgical removal of olfactory groove meningiomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ri-Sheng; Zhou, Liang-Fu; Mao, Ying; Zhang, Rong; Yang, Wei-Zhong

    2011-01-01

    To explore an effective method for further improving the surgical results of treatment of olfactory groove meningiomas. Sixty seven cases of olfactory groove meningiomas were treated by microneurosurgery, among which fifty seven were de novo cases, eight were recurrent tumors and the other two re-recurrent cases. Modified Derome approach was used in 12 cases, bilateral subfrontal approach in 28 cases, modified pterional approach in 21 cases and unilateral subfrontal approach in six cases. Tumors were resected microsurgically with radical removal of invaded dura, bone, and paranasal sinus mucosa. Reconstruction was performed in patients with skull base defect. Simpson grade I removal was accomplished in 59 cases, grade II in seven cases and grade IV in one case. Among 57 patients with de novo tumor, Simpson I resection was accomplished in 54 cases. Postoperative rhinorrhea and intracranial infection occurred in one case and was cured after temporal lumbar CSF drainage and antibiotic therapy. Two patients (2.9%) died within one month after operation, i.e.one aged patient of heart failure and the other of severe hypothalamus complication. Forty seven patients (72.3%) were followed up from one to ten years with an average of five years and four months. With the exception of two cases died, among the alive 45 patients, there were only three patients with tumor recurrence, which had undergone Simpson II or IV tumor resection. No recurrence was found in cases with Simpson I tumor removal. Previous blurred vision was not improved in three patients, hemiparalysis in two patients, and the other patients recovered well, resuming previous jobs or being able to take care themselves. Total tumor removal (Simpson I) should be the surgical goal for treatment of olfactory groove meningiomas, especially for de novo cases. An appropriate approach is fundamental in the effort to remove an OGM totally. Appropriate anterior skull base reconstruction with vascularized material is

  9. Effects of anti-depressants on olfactory sensitivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombion, Sandrine; Morand-Villeneuve, Nadège; Millot, Jean-Louis

    2008-04-01

    Some studies have underlined a decrease in olfactory sensitivity in patients suffering from depression. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of current anti-depressant drugs on the olfactory sensitivity in mice. METHODS MICE: (N degrees =22) were tested in a Y-maze with a choice between an odorant (butanol) or distilled water before and during 3 weeks of daily intra-peritoneal injection of either citalopram or clomipramine. Their performance was compared with those of a control group (N degrees =11) injected with a saline solution. The results showed a significant decrease in olfactory sensitivity with both anti-depressants during the three weeks of treatment. The antidepressant induced alteration in serotonin and/or noradrenaline transmission in the olfactory bulb may account for the altered olfactory sensitivity observed in this study.

  10. Canine olfactory detection of malignant melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Leon Frederick; Farmery, Luke; George, Susannah Mary Creighton; Farrant, Paul B J

    2013-01-01

    Our patient is a 75-year-old man who presented after his pet dog licked persistently at an asymptomatic lesion behind his right ear. Examination revealed a nodular lesion in the postauricular sulcus. Histology confirmed malignant melanoma, which was subsequently excised. Canine olfactory detection of human malignancy is a well-documented phenomenon. Advanced olfaction is hypothesised to explain canine detection of bladder, breast, colorectal, lung, ovarian, prostate and skin cancers. Further research in this area may facilitate the development of a highly accurate aid to diagnosis for many malignancies, including melanoma. PMID:24127369

  11. An olfactory demography of a diverse metropolitan population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Andreas; Hempstead, Margaret; Gomez, Iran A; Gilbert, Avery N; Vosshall, Leslie B

    2012-10-10

    Human perception of the odour environment is highly variable. People vary both in their general olfactory acuity as well as in if and how they perceive specific odours. In recent years, it has been shown that genetic differences contribute to variability in both general olfactory acuity and the perception of specific odours. Odour perception also depends on other factors such as age and gender. Here we investigate the influence of these factors on both general olfactory acuity and on the perception of 66 structurally and perceptually different odours in a diverse subject population. We carried out a large human olfactory psychophysics study of 391 adult subjects in metropolitan New York City, an ethnically and culturally diverse North American metropolis. 210 of the subjects were women and the median age was 34.6 years (range 19-75). We recorded ~2,300 data points per subject to obtain a comprehensive perceptual phenotype, comprising multiple perceptual measures of 66 diverse odours. We show that general olfactory acuity correlates with gender, age, race, smoking habits, and body type. Young, female, non-smoking subjects had the highest average olfactory acuity. Deviations from normal body type in either direction were associated with decreased olfactory acuity. Beyond these factors we also show that, surprisingly, there are many odour-specific influences of race, age, and gender on olfactory perception. We show over 100 instances in which the intensity or pleasantness perception of an odour is significantly different between two demographic groups. These data provide a comprehensive snapshot of the olfactory sense of a diverse population. Olfactory acuity in the population is most strongly influenced by age, followed by gender. We also show a large number of diverse correlations between demographic factors and the perception of individual odours that may reflect genetic differences as well as different prior experiences with these odours between demographic groups.

  12. An olfactory demography of a diverse metropolitan population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human perception of the odour environment is highly variable. People vary both in their general olfactory acuity as well as in if and how they perceive specific odours. In recent years, it has been shown that genetic differences contribute to variability in both general olfactory acuity and the perception of specific odours. Odour perception also depends on other factors such as age and gender. Here we investigate the influence of these factors on both general olfactory acuity and on the perception of 66 structurally and perceptually different odours in a diverse subject population. Results We carried out a large human olfactory psychophysics study of 391 adult subjects in metropolitan New York City, an ethnically and culturally diverse North American metropolis. 210 of the subjects were women and the median age was 34.6 years (range 19–75. We recorded ~2,300 data points per subject to obtain a comprehensive perceptual phenotype, comprising multiple perceptual measures of 66 diverse odours. We show that general olfactory acuity correlates with gender, age, race, smoking habits, and body type. Young, female, non-smoking subjects had the highest average olfactory acuity. Deviations from normal body type in either direction were associated with decreased olfactory acuity. Beyond these factors we also show that, surprisingly, there are many odour-specific influences of race, age, and gender on olfactory perception. We show over 100 instances in which the intensity or pleasantness perception of an odour is significantly different between two demographic groups. Conclusions These data provide a comprehensive snapshot of the olfactory sense of a diverse population. Olfactory acuity in the population is most strongly influenced by age, followed by gender. We also show a large number of diverse correlations between demographic factors and the perception of individual odours that may reflect genetic differences as well as different

  13. Preservation of olfaction in surgery of olfactory groove meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Woo-Youl; Jung, Shin; Jung, Tae-Young; Moon, Kyung-Sub; Kim, In-Young

    2013-08-01

    Olfaction is commonly considered as secondary among the sensory functions, perhaps reflecting a lack of interest in sparing olfaction after surgery for the olfactory groove meningiomas (OGM). However, considering the repercussions of olfaction for the quality of life, the assessment of post-operative olfaction should be necessary. We retrospectively reviewed the olfactory outcome in patients with OGM and investigated the factors associated with sparing the post-operative olfaction. Between 1993 and 2012, 40 patients with OGM underwent surgical resection and estimated the olfactory function using the Korean version of "Sniffin'Sticks" test (KVSS). Variable factors, such as tumor size, degree of preoperative edema, tumor consistency, preoperative olfactory function, surgical approaches, patient's age, and gender were analyzed with attention to the post-operative olfactory function. Anatomical and functional preservation of olfactory structures were achieved in 26 patients (65%) and 22 patients (55%), respectively. Among the variable factors, size of tumor was significant related to the preservation of post-operative olfaction. (78.6% in size4 cm, p=0.035). Sparing the olfaction was significantly better in patients without preoperative olfactory dysfunction (84.6%) compared with ones with preoperative olfactory dysfunction (40.7%, p=0.016). The frontolateral approach achieved much more excellent post-operative olfactory function (71.4%) than the bifrontal approach (36.8%, p=0.032). If the tumor was smaller than 4 cm and the patients did not present olfactory dysfunction preoperatively, the possibility of sparing the post-operative olfaction was high. Among the variable surgical approaches, frontolateral route may be preferable sparing the post-operative olfaction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Inducible Activation of ERK5 MAP Kinase Enhances Adult Neurogenesis in the Olfactory Bulb and Improves Olfactory Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbin; Lu, Song; Li, Tan; Pan, Yung-Wei; Zou, Junhui; Abel, Glen M.; Xu, Lihong; Storm, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent discoveries have suggested that adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and olfactory bulb (OB) may be required for at least some forms of olfactory behavior in mice. However, it is unclear whether conditional and selective enhancement of adult neurogenesis by genetic approaches is sufficient to improve olfactory function under physiological conditions or after injury. Furthermore, specific signaling mechanisms regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB are not fully defined. We previously reported that ERK5, a MAP kinase selectively expressed in the neurogenic regions of the adult brain, plays a critical role in adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB. Using a site-specific knock-in mouse model, we report here that inducible and targeted activation of the endogenous ERK5 in adult neural stem/progenitor cells enhances adult neurogenesis in the OB by increasing cell survival and neuronal differentiation. This conditional ERK5 activation also improves short-term olfactory memory and odor-cued associative olfactory learning under normal physiological conditions. Furthermore, these mice show enhanced recovery of olfactory function and have more adult-born neurons after a zinc sulfate-induced lesion of the main olfactory epithelium. We conclude that ERK5 MAP kinase is an important endogenous signaling pathway regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB, and that conditional activation of endogenous ERK5 is sufficient to enhance adult neurogenesis in the OB thereby improving olfactory function both under normal conditions and after injury. PMID:25995470

  15. Measurement and Analysis of Olfactory Responses with the Aim of Establishing an Objective Diagnostic Method for Central Olfactory Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Tominori; Wang, Li-Qun; Miwakeichi, Fumikazu; Tonoike, Mitsuo; Kaneda, Teruo

    In order to establish a new diagnostic method for central olfactory disorders and to identify objective indicators, we measured and analyzed brain activities in the parahippocampal gyrus and uncus, region of responsibility for central olfactory disorders. The relationship between olfactory stimulation and brain response at region of responsibility can be examined in terms of fitted responses (FR). FR in these regions may be individual indicators of changes in brain olfactory responses. In the present study, in order to non-invasively and objectively measure olfactory responses, an odor oddball task was conducted on four healthy volunteers using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a odorant stimulator with blast-method. The results showed favorable FR and activation in the parahippocampal gyrus or uncus in all subjects. In some subjects, both the parahippocampal gyrus and uncus were activated. Furthermore, activation was also confirmed in the cingulate gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and insula. The hippocampus and uncus are known to be involved in the olfactory disorders associated with early-stage Alzheimer's disease and other olfactory disorders. In the future, it will be necessary to further develop the present measurement and analysis method to clarify the relationship between central olfactory disorders and brain activities and establish objective indicators that are useful for diagnosis.

  16. Olfactory impairment and subjective olfactory complaints independently predict conversion to dementia: a longitudinal, population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciu, Ingrid; Larsson, Maria; Nordin, Steven; Adolfsson, Rolf; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Olofsson, Jonas K

    2014-02-01

    We examined whether conversion to dementia can be predicted by self-reported olfactory impairment and/or by an inability to identify odors. Common forms of dementia involve an impaired sense of smell, and poor olfactory performance predicts cognitive decline among the elderly. We followed a sample of 1529 participants, who were within a normal range of overall cognitive function at baseline, over a 10-year period during which 159 were classified as having a dementia disorder. Dementia conversion was predicted from demographic variables, Mini-Mental State Examination score, and olfactory assessments. Self-reported olfactory impairment emerged as an independent predictor of dementia. After adjusting for effects of other predictors, individuals who rated their olfactory sensitivity as "worse than normal" were more likely to convert to dementia than those who reported normal olfactory sensitivity (odds ratio [OR] = 2.17; 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.40, 3.37]). Additionally, low scores on an odor identification test also predicted conversion to dementia (OR per 1 point increase = 0.89; 95% CI [0.81, 0.98]), but these two effects were additive. We suggest that assessing subjective olfactory complaints might supplement other assessments when evaluating the risk of conversion to dementia. Future studies should investigate which combination of olfactory assessments is most useful in predicting dementia conversion.

  17. Olfactory sex recognition investigated in Antarctic prions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bonadonna

    Full Text Available Chemical signals can yield information about an animal such as its identity, social status or sex. Such signals have rarely been considered in birds, but recent results have shown that chemical signals are actually used by different bird species to find food and to recognize their home and nest. This is particularly true in petrels whose olfactory anatomy is among the most developed in birds. Recently, we have demonstrated that Antarctic prions, Pachyptila desolata, are also able to recognize and follow the odour of their partner in a Y-maze.However, the experimental protocol left unclear whether this choice reflected an olfactory recognition of a particular individual (i.e. partner or a more general sex recognition mechanism. To test this second hypothesis, male and female birds' odours were presented simultaneously to 54 Antarctic prions in a Y-maze. Results showed random behaviour by the tested bird, independent of its sex or reproductive status. Present results do not support the possibility that Antarctic prions can distinguish the sex of a conspecific through its odour but indirectly support the hypothesis that they can distinguish individual odours.

  18. A model of olfactory associative learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavoni, Gaia; Balasubramanian, Vijay

    We propose a mechanism, rooted in the known anatomy and physiology of the vertebrate olfactory system, by which presentations of rewarded and unrewarded odors lead to formation of odor-valence associations between piriform cortex (PC) and anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) which, in concert with neuromodulators release in the bulb, entrains a direct feedback from the AON representation of valence to a group of mitral cells (MCs). The model makes several predictions concerning MC activity during and after associative learning: (a) AON feedback produces synchronous divergent responses in a localized subset of MCs; (b) such divergence propagates to other MCs by lateral inhibition; (c) after learning, MC responses reconverge; (d) recall of the newly formed associations in the PC increases feedback inhibition in the MCs. These predictions have been confirmed in disparate experiments which we now explain in a unified framework. For cortex, our model further predicts that the response divergence developed during learning reshapes odor representations in the PC, with the effects of (a) decorrelating PC representations of odors with different valences, (b) increasing the size and reliability of those representations, and enabling recall correction and redundancy reduction after learning. Simons Foundation for Mathematical Modeling of Living Systems.

  19. Multiple reversal olfactory learning in honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Mota

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In multiple reversal learning, animals trained to discriminate a reinforced from a non-reinforced stimulus are subjected to various, successive reversals of stimulus contingencies (e.g. A+ vs. B-, A- vs. B+, A+ vs. B-. This protocol is useful to determine whether or not animals learn to learn and solve successive discriminations faster (or with fewer errors with increasing reversal experience. Here we used the olfactory conditioning of proboscis extension reflex to study how honeybees Apis mellifera perform in a multiple reversal task. Our experiment contemplated four consecutive differential conditioning phases involving the same odors (A+ vs. B- to A- vs. B+ to A+ vs. B- to A- vs. B+. We show that bees in which the weight of reinforced or non-reinforced stimuli was similar mastered the multiple olfactory reversals. Bees which failed the task exhibited asymmetric responses to reinforced and non-reinforced stimuli, thus being unable to rapidly reverse stimulus contingencies. Efficient reversers did not improve their successive discriminations but rather tended to generalize their choice to both odors at the end of conditioning. As a consequence, both discrimination and reversal efficiency decreasedalong experimental phases. This result invalidates a learning-to-learn effect and indicates that bees do not only respond to the actual stimulus contingencies but rather combine these with an average of past experiences with the same stimuli.  

  20. Recent progress in tungsten oxides based memristors and their neuromorphological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Bo; Younis, Adnan; Chu, Dewei

    2016-09-01

    The advance in conventional silicon based semiconductor industry is now becoming indeterminacy as it still along the road of Moore's Law and concomitant problems associated with it are the emergence of a number of practical issues such as short channel effect. In terms of memory applications, it is generally believed that transistors based memory devices will approach to their scaling limits up to 2018. Therefore, one of the most prominent challenges today in semiconductor industry is the need of a new memory technology which is able to combine the best characterises of current devices. The resistive switching memories which are regarded as "memristors" thus gain great attentions thanks to their specific nonlinear electrical properties. More importantly, their behaviour resembles with the transmission characteristic of synapse in biology. Therefore, the research of synapses biomimetic devices based on memristor will certainly bring a great research prospect in studying synapse emulation as well as building artificial neural networks. Tungsten oxides (WO x ) exhibits many essential characteristics as a great candidate for memristive devices including: accredited endurance (over 105 cycles), stoichiometric flexibility, complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process compatibility and configurable properties including non-volatile rectification, memorization and learning functions. Herein, recent progress on Tungsten oxide based materials and its associating memory devices had been reviewed. The possible implementation of this material as a bio-inspired artificial synapse is also highlighted. The penultimate section summaries the current research progress for tungsten oxide based biological synapses and end up with several proposals that have been suggested for possible future developments.

  1. Flexible Sensory Platform Based on Oxide-based Neuromorphic Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Zhu, Li Qiang; Feng, Ping; Wan, Chang Jin; Liu, Yang Hui; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2015-12-11

    Inspired by the dendritic integration and spiking operation of a biological neuron, flexible oxide-based neuromorphic transistors with multiple input gates are fabricated on flexible plastic substrates for pH sensor applications. When such device is operated in a quasi-static dual-gate synergic sensing mode, it shows a high pH sensitivity of ~105 mV/pH. Our results also demonstrate that single-spike dynamic mode can remarkably improve pH sensitivity and reduce response/recover time and power consumption. Moreover, we find that an appropriate negative bias applied on the sensing gate electrode can further enhance the pH sensitivity and reduce the power consumption. Our flexible neuromorphic transistors provide a new-concept sensory platform for biochemical detection with high sensitivity, rapid response and ultralow power consumption.

  2. Fano resonance in anodic aluminum oxide based photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Guo Liang; Fei, Guang Tao; Zhang, Yao; Yan, Peng; Xu, Shao Hui; Ouyang, Hao Miao; Zhang, Li De

    2014-01-08

    Anodic aluminum oxide based photonic crystals with periodic porous structure have been prepared using voltage compensation method. The as-prepared sample showed an ultra-narrow photonic bandgap. Asymmetric line-shape profiles of the photonic bandgaps have been observed, which is attributed to Fano resonance between the photonic bandgap state of photonic crystal and continuum scattering state of porous structure. And the exhibited Fano resonance shows more clearly when the sample is saturated ethanol gas than air-filled. Further theoretical analysis by transfer matrix method verified these results. These findings provide a better understanding on the nature of photonic bandgaps of photonic crystals made up of porous materials, in which the porous structures not only exist as layers of effective-refractive-index material providing Bragg scattering, but also provide a continuum light scattering state to interact with Bragg scattering state to show an asymmetric line-shape profile.

  3. Iron oxide-based nanomagnets in nanomedicine: fabrication and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Meng Lin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxide-based nanomagnets have attracted a great deal of attention in nanomedicine over the past decade. Down to the nanoscale, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles can only be magnetized in the presence of an external magnetic field, which makes them capable of forming stable colloids in a physio-biological medium. Their superparamagnetic property, together with other intrinsic properties, such as low cytotoxicity, colloidal stability, and bioactive molecule conjugation capability, makes such nanomagnets ideal in both in-vitro and in-vivo biomedical applications. In this review, a chemical, physical, and biological synthetic approach to prepare iron oxide-based nanomagnets with different physicochemical properties was illustrated and compared. The growing interest in iron oxide-based nanomagnets with multifunctionalities was explored in cancer diagnostics and treatment, focusing on their combined roles in a magnetic resonance contrast agent, hyperthermia, and magnetic force assisted drug delivery. Iron oxides as magnetic carriers in gene therapy were reviewed with a focus on the sophisticated design and construction of magnetic vectors. Finally, the iron oxide-based nanomagnet also represents a very promising tool in particle/cell interfacing in controlling cellular functionalities, such as adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, and cell patterning, in stem cell therapy and tissue engineering applications. Meng Meng Lin received a BSc in biotechnology at the University of Hong Kong, China in 2004 and an MSc in biomedical nanotechnology at Newcastle University, UK, in 2005. She is currently working toward her PhD at the Institute of Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University, UK. She was a visiting student at the Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden, in 2006. Her research interests include nanoparticles preparation, cell/nanomaterials interface, and cancer-oriented drug delivery. Hyung-Hwan Kim received an MSc degree in

  4. Radiation effects on the electrical properties of hafnium oxide based MOS capacitors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrosky, J. C. (Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH); McClory, J. W. (Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH); Bielejec, Edward Salvador; Foster, J. C. (Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH)

    2010-10-01

    Hafnium oxide-based MOS capacitors were investigated to determine electrical property response to radiation environments. In situ capacitance versus voltage measurements were analyzed to identify voltage shifting as a result of changes to trapped charge with increasing dose of gamma, neutron, and ion radiation. In situ measurements required investigation and optimization of capacitor fabrication to include dicing, cleaning, metalization, packaging, and wire bonding. A top metal contact of 200 angstroms of titanium followed by 2800 angstroms of gold allowed for repeatable wire bonding and proper electrical response. Gamma and ion irradiations of atomic layer deposited hafnium oxide on silicon devices both resulted in a midgap voltage shift of no more than 0.2 V toward less positive voltages. This shift indicates recombination of radiation induced positive charge with negative trapped charge in the bulk oxide. Silicon ion irradiation caused interface effects in addition to oxide trap effects that resulted in a flatband voltage shift of approximately 0.6 V also toward less positive voltages. Additionally, no bias dependent voltage shifts with gamma irradiation and strong oxide capacitance room temperature annealing after ion irradiation was observed. These characteristics, in addition to the small voltage shifts observed, demonstrate the radiation hardness of hafnium oxide and its applicability for use in space systems.

  5. The Evaluation of Olfactory Function in Patients With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robabeh, Soleimani; Mohammad, Jalali Mir; Reza, Ahmadi; Mahan, Badri

    2015-04-23

    The aim of this study was to compare olfactory threshold, smell identification, intensity and pleasantness ratings between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, and (2) to evaluate correlations between ratings of olfactory probes and illness characteristics. Thirty one patients with schizophrenia and 31 control subjects were assessed with the olfactory n-butanol threshold test, the Iran smell identification test (Ir-SIT), and the suprathreshold amyl acetate odor intensity and odor pleasantness rating test. All olfactory tasks were performed unirhinally. Patients with schizophrenia showed disrupted olfaction in all four measures. Longer duration of schizophrenia was associated with a larger impairment of olfactory threshold or microsmic range on the Ir-SIT (P=0.04, P=0.05, respectively). In patients with schizophrenia, female subjects' ratings of pleasantness followed the same trend as control subjects, whereas male patients' ratings showed an opposite trend. Patients exhibiting high positive score on the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) performed better on the olfactory threshold test (r=0.37, P=0.04). The higher odor pleasantness ratings of patients were associated with presence of positive symptoms. The results suggest that both male and female patients with schizophrenia had difficulties on the olfactory threshold and smell identification tests, but appraisal of odor pleasantness was more disrupted in male patients.

  6. Olfactory hallucination in childhood primary headaches: case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M A S; Donaldson, Sarah; Akor, Francis; Cahill, Denise; Akilani, Raed

    2015-03-01

    Although olfactory hallucination (OH) has been reported in patients with primary headaches, olfactory aura has not been recognised by the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-2). In this study, we examined the frequency and characteristics of OH among children and adolescents with primary headaches. 839 neurologically normal patients with primary headaches (537 migraine) were eligible for the assessment of olfactory hallucination. Headache diagnosis was based on the ICHD. Data were prospectively collected during clinic sessions and using headache diaries. Olfactory hallucination was reported exclusively during headache attacks by 21/839 (2.5%) patients, all of whom had migraine. The prevalence of olfactory hallucination was 3.9% among migraineurs (6.5% among those with migraine aura). Olfactory hallucination shortly followed the onset of headaches and lasted from 15 to 50 minutes. Of those with MA, 10 patients had visual aura; two had somatosensory aura; one had motor aura; and two had a combination of visual and somatosensory aura. Using the ICHD-2, both OH and migraine aura occurred in the same headache attacks. In 12/15 patients, OH occurred simultaneously with migraine aura, whereas in 3/12 patients, it preceded aura. Our findings show that olfactory hallucination occurs in migraine and it has similarities to migraine aura. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Genetic basis of olfactory cognition: extremely high level of DNA sequence polymorphism in promoter regions of the human olfactory receptor genes revealed using the 1000 Genomes Project dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatieva, Elena V; Levitsky, Victor G; Yudin, Nikolay S; Moshkin, Mikhail P; Kolchanov, Nikolay A

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of olfactory cognition is very complicated. Olfactory cognition is initiated by olfactory receptor proteins (odorant receptors), which are activated by olfactory stimuli (ligands). Olfactory receptors are the initial player in the signal transduction cascade producing a nerve impulse, which is transmitted to the brain. The sensitivity to a particular ligand depends on the expression level of multiple proteins involved in the process of olfactory cognition: olfactory receptor proteins, proteins that participate in signal transduction cascade, etc. The expression level of each gene is controlled by its regulatory regions, and especially, by the promoter [a region of DNA about 100-1000 base pairs long located upstream of the transcription start site (TSS)]. We analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms using human whole-genome data from the 1000 Genomes Project and revealed an extremely high level of single nucleotide polymorphisms in promoter regions of olfactory receptor genes and HLA genes. We hypothesized that the high level of polymorphisms in olfactory receptor promoters was responsible for the diversity in regulatory mechanisms controlling the expression levels of olfactory receptor proteins. Such diversity of regulatory mechanisms may cause the great variability of olfactory cognition of numerous environmental olfactory stimuli perceived by human beings (air pollutants, human body odors, odors in culinary etc.). In turn, this variability may provide a wide range of emotional and behavioral reactions related to the vast variety of olfactory stimuli.

  8. Cellular Architecture and Functional Aspects of the Olfactory Rosette of Wallago attu (Bleeker)

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Saroj Kumar; Chakrabarti, Padmanabha

    2009-01-01

    The olfactory epithelium of Wallago attu has been studied with conventional histological techniques. The elongated olfactory rosette consists of 62 to 64 primary lamellae in each left and right rosette. The olfactory lamellae are arranged in two rows on either side of the long raphe. Each olfactory lamella consists of two layers of epithelium separated by central core. The olfactory epithelium in one side consists of mixed sensory and non-sensory epithelium while the other side is consists of...

  9. Neurobiology of mammalian olfactory learning that occurs during sensitive periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideto KABA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This review examines the organizational principles underlying olfactory learning in three specialized contexts that occur during sensitive periods of enhanced neural plasticity and emphasizes some of their common features. All three forms of olfactory learning are associated with neural changes in the olfactory bulb (OB at the first stage of sensory processing. These changes require the association of the olfactory and somatosensory signals in the OB. They all depend on somatosensory stimulation-induced release of noradrenaline that induces structural and functional changes at mitral-granule cell reciprocal synapses in the OB, resulting in increases in inhibitory transmission. In the accessory olfactory bulb, this represents the enhanced self-inhibition of mitral cells, which selectively disrupts the transmission of the mating male’s pregnancy-blocking signal at this level. In contrast, an extensive network of secondary dendrites of mitral cells in the main olfactory bulb probably results in a sharpening of the odor-induced pattern of activity, due to increases in lateral inhibition, leading to offspring recognition in sheep and neonatal learning in rats and rabbits. These findings show that inhibitory interneurons play a critical role in olfactory learning. Further work on how these neurons shape olfactory circuit function could provide important clues to understand memory functions of interneurons in other systems. Moreover, recent research has suggested that three forms of olfactory learning are controlled by synergistic, redundant, and distributed neural mechanisms. This has general implications regarding the mechanisms that may contribute to the robustness of memories [Current Zoology 56 (6: 819–833, 2010].

  10. Gender-typical olfactory regulation of sexual behavior in goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yutaro; Nagaoka, Akira; Kitami, Asana; Mitsuhashi, Tomomi; Hayakawa, Youichi; Kobayashi, Makito

    2014-01-01

    It is known that olfaction is essential for the occurrence of sexual behavior in male goldfish. Sex pheromones from ovulatory females elicit male sexual behavior, chasing, and sperm releasing act. In female goldfish, ovarian prostaglandin F2α (PGF) elicits female sexual behavior, egg releasing act. It has been considered that olfaction does not affect sexual behavior in female goldfish. In the present study, we re-examined the involvement of olfaction in sexual behavior of female goldfish. Olfaction was blocked in male and female goldfish by two methods: nasal occlusion (NO) which blocks the reception of olfactants, and olfactory tract section (OTX) which blocks transmission of olfactory information from the olfactory bulb to the telencephalon. Sexual behavior of goldfish was induced by administration of PGF to females, an established method for inducing goldfish sexual behavior in both sexes. Sexual behavior in males was suppressed by NO and OTX as previously reported because of lack of pheromone stimulation. In females, NO suppressed sexual behavior but OTX did not affect the occurrence of sexual behavior. Females treated with both NO and OTX performed sexual behavior normally. These results indicate that olfaction is essential in female goldfish to perform sexual behavior as in males but in a different manner. The lack of olfaction in males causes lack of pheromonal stimulation, resulting in no behavior elicited. Whereas the results of female experiments suggest that lack of olfaction in females causes strong inhibition of sexual behavior mediated by the olfactory pathway. Olfactory tract section is considered to block the pathway and remove this inhibition, resulting in the resumption of the behavior. By subtract sectioning of the olfactory tract, it was found that this inhibition was mediated by the medial olfactory tracts, not the lateral olfactory tracts. Thus, it is concluded that goldfish has gender-typical olfactory regulation for sexual behavior.

  11. Gender-typical olfactory regulation of sexual behavior in goldfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yutaro; Nagaoka, Akira; Kitami, Asana; Mitsuhashi, Tomomi; Hayakawa, Youichi; Kobayashi, Makito

    2014-01-01

    It is known that olfaction is essential for the occurrence of sexual behavior in male goldfish. Sex pheromones from ovulatory females elicit male sexual behavior, chasing, and sperm releasing act. In female goldfish, ovarian prostaglandin F2α (PGF) elicits female sexual behavior, egg releasing act. It has been considered that olfaction does not affect sexual behavior in female goldfish. In the present study, we re-examined the involvement of olfaction in sexual behavior of female goldfish. Olfaction was blocked in male and female goldfish by two methods: nasal occlusion (NO) which blocks the reception of olfactants, and olfactory tract section (OTX) which blocks transmission of olfactory information from the olfactory bulb to the telencephalon. Sexual behavior of goldfish was induced by administration of PGF to females, an established method for inducing goldfish sexual behavior in both sexes. Sexual behavior in males was suppressed by NO and OTX as previously reported because of lack of pheromone stimulation. In females, NO suppressed sexual behavior but OTX did not affect the occurrence of sexual behavior. Females treated with both NO and OTX performed sexual behavior normally. These results indicate that olfaction is essential in female goldfish to perform sexual behavior as in males but in a different manner. The lack of olfaction in males causes lack of pheromonal stimulation, resulting in no behavior elicited. Whereas the results of female experiments suggest that lack of olfaction in females causes strong inhibition of sexual behavior mediated by the olfactory pathway. Olfactory tract section is considered to block the pathway and remove this inhibition, resulting in the resumption of the behavior. By subtract sectioning of the olfactory tract, it was found that this inhibition was mediated by the medial olfactory tracts, not the lateral olfactory tracts. Thus, it is concluded that goldfish has gender-typical olfactory regulation for sexual behavior. PMID

  12. Distinct amyloid precursor protein processing machineries of the olfactory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Yeon; Rasheed, Ameer; Yoo, Seung-Jun; Kim, So Yeun; Cho, Bongki; Son, Gowoon; Yu, Seong-Woon; Chang, Keun-A; Suh, Yoo-Hun; Moon, Cheil

    2018-01-01

    Processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) occurs through sequential cleavages first by β-secretase and then by the γ-secretase complex. However, abnormal processing of APP leads to excessive production of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the central nervous system (CNS), an event which is regarded as a primary cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, gene mutations of the γ-secretase complex-which contains presenilin 1 or 2 as the catalytic core-could trigger marked Aβ accumulation. Olfactory dysfunction usually occurs before the onset of typical AD-related symptoms (eg, memory loss or muscle retardation), suggesting that the olfactory system may be one of the most vulnerable regions to AD. To date however, little is known about why the olfactory system is affected so early by AD prior to other regions. Thus, we examined the distribution of secretases and levels of APP processing in the olfactory system under either healthy or pathological conditions. Here, we show that the olfactory system has distinct APP processing machineries. In particular, we identified higher expressions levels and activity of γ-secretase in the olfactory epithelium (OE) than other regions of the brain. Moreover, APP c-terminal fragments (CTF) are markedly detected. During AD progression, we note increased expression of presenilin2 of γ-secretases in the OE, not in the OB, and show that neurotoxic Aβ*56 accumulates more quickly in the OE. Taken together, these results suggest that the olfactory system has distinct APP processing machineries under healthy and pathological conditions. This finding may provide a crucial understanding of the unique APP-processing mechanisms in the olfactory system, and further highlights the correlation between olfactory deficits and AD symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Self-Ratings of Olfactory Function Reflect Odor Annoyance Rather than Olfactory Acuity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Antti; Tuorila, Hely; Kyvik, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    annoyance (r = 0.30) but neither correlated with the odor identification score.Quantitative genetic modeling revealed no unambiguously significant genetic contribution to variation in any of the studied traits. CONCLUSION:: The results suggest that environmental rather than genetic factors modify the self......OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS:: Self-ratings of olfactory function correlates often poorly with results of objective smell tests. We explored them relative to self-rating of odor annoyance, to odor identification ability, and to mean perceived intensity of odors, and estimated relative genetic...... Kingdom rated their sense of smell and annoyance caused by ambient smells (e.g., smells of foods) using seven categories, and performed odor identification and evaluation task for six scratch-and-sniff odor stimuli. RESULTS:: The self-rating of olfactory function correlated with the self-rating of odor...

  14. Face detection for interactive tabletop viewscreen system using olfactory display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Kanazawa, Fumihiro

    2009-10-01

    An olfactory display is a device that delivers smells to the nose. It provides us with special effects, for example to emit smell as if you were there or to give a trigger for reminding us of memories. The authors have developed a tabletop display system connected with the olfactory display. For delivering a flavor to user's nose, the system needs to recognition and measure positions of user's face and nose. In this paper, the authors describe an olfactory display which enables to detect the nose position for an effective delivery.

  15. SNP genotypes of olfactory receptor genes associated with olfactory ability in German Shepherd dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M; Geng, G-J; Zhang, W; Cui, L; Zhang, H-X; Zheng, J-L

    2016-04-01

    To find out the relationship between SNP genotypes of canine olfactory receptor genes and olfactory ability, 28 males and 20 females from German Shepherd dogs in police service were scored by odor detection tests and analyzed using the Beckman GenomeLab SNPstream. The representative 22 SNP loci from the exonic regions of 12 olfactory receptor genes were investigated, and three kinds of odor (human, ice drug and trinitrotoluene) were detected. The results showed that the SNP genotypes at the OR10H1-like:c.632C>T, OR10H1-like:c.770A>T, OR2K2-like:c.518G>A, OR4C11-like:c.511T>G and OR4C11-like:c.692G>A loci had a statistically significant effect on the scenting abilities (P odor influenced the performances of the dogs (P odor at the following loci: OR10H1-like:c.632C>T, OR10H1-like:c.770A>T, OR4C11-like:c.511T>G and OR4C11-like:c.692G>A (P dogs with genotype CC at the OR10H1-like:c.632C>T, genotype AA at the OR10H1-like:c.770A>T, genotype TT at the OR4C11-like:c.511T>G and genotype GG at the OR4C11-like:c.692G>A loci did better at detecting the ice drug. We concluded that there was linkage between certain SNP genotypes and the olfactory ability of dogs and that SNP genotypes might be useful in determining dogs' scenting potential. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  16. Artificial neural networks for classifying olfactory signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, R; Pöppl, S J

    2000-01-01

    For practical applications, artificial neural networks have to meet several requirements: Mainly they should learn quick, classify accurate and behave robust. Programs should be user-friendly and should not need the presence of an expert for fine tuning diverse learning parameters. The present paper demonstrates an approach using an oversized network topology, adaptive propagation (APROP), a modified error function, and averaging outputs of four networks described for the first time. As an example, signals from different semiconductor gas sensors of an electronic nose were classified. The electronic nose smelt different types of edible oil with extremely different a-priori-probabilities. The fully-specified neural network classifier fulfilled the above mentioned demands. The new approach will be helpful not only for classifying olfactory signals automatically but also in many other fields in medicine, e.g. in data mining from medical databases.

  17. Olfactory groove meningiomas: approaches and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Paulo Henrique Pires de; Tahara, Adriana; Almeida, Antonio Nogueira; Simm, Renata; Silva, Arnaldo Neves da; Maldaun, Marcos Vinicius Calfatt; Panagopoulos, Alexandros Theodoros; Zicarelli, Carlos Alexandre; Silva, Pedro Gabriel

    2009-09-01

    Olfactory groove meningiomas (OGM) account for 4.5% of all intracranial meningiomas. We report 21 patients with OGMs. Tumors were operated on using three surgical approaches: bifrontal (7 patients), fronto-pterional (11 patients) and fronto-orbital (3 patients). Total tumor removal (Simpson Grade 1) was achieved in 13 patients and Simpson II in 8 patients. Perioperative mortality was 4.76%. The average size of the OGM was 4.3+/-1.1cm. The overall recurrence rate was 19%. We preferred to use the pterional approach, which provides quick access to the tumor with less brain exposure. It also allows complete drainage of cisternal cerebrospinal fluid, providing a good level of brain relaxation during surgery. However, for long, thin tumors, hemostasis can be difficult using this approach.

  18. Fault tolerant architecture for artificial olfactory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotfivand, Nasser; Hamidon, Mohd Nizar; Abdolzadeh, Vida

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, to cover and mask the faults that occur in the sensing unit of an artificial olfactory system, a novel architecture is offered. The proposed architecture is able to tolerate failures in the sensors of the array and the faults that occur are masked. The proposed architecture for extracting the correct results from the output of the sensors can provide the quality of service for generated data from the sensor array. The results of various evaluations and analysis proved that the proposed architecture has acceptable performance in comparison with the classic form of the sensor array in gas identification. According to the results, achieving a high odor discrimination based on the suggested architecture is possible. (paper)

  19. A specialized odor memory buffer in primary olfactory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelano, Christina; Montag, Jessica; Khan, Rehan; Sobel, Noam

    2009-01-01

    The neural substrates of olfactory working memory are unknown. We addressed the questions of whether olfactory working memory involves a verbal representation of the odor, or a sensory image of the odor, or both, and the location of the neural substrates of these processes. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure activity in the brains of subjects who were remembering either nameable or unnameable odorants. We found a double dissociation whereby remembering nameable odorants was reflected in sustained activity in prefrontal language areas, and remembering unnameable odorants was reflected in sustained activity in primary olfactory cortex. These findings suggest a novel dedicated mechanism in primary olfactory cortex, where odor information is maintained in temporary storage to subserve ongoing tasks.

  20. AASERT: Hydrodynamic Interaction Between Olfactory Antennae and Odor Plumes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koehl, M

    2002-01-01

    We trained graduate and undergraduate students by involving them in research elucidating ways in which the structure and the motions of olfactory antennae affect how they encounter the concentration...

  1. Olfactory ensheathing glia : their contribution to primary olfactory nervous system regeneration and their regenerative potential following transplantation into the injured spinal cord

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, Elske H P; de Bree, Freddy M; Verhaagen, J.

    2007-01-01

    Olfactory ensheathing glia (OEG) are a specialized type of glia that guide primary olfactory axons from the neuroepithelium in the nasal cavity to the brain. The primary olfactory system is able to regenerate after a lesion and OEG contribute to this process by providing a growth-supportive

  2. Calcium Signaling in Mitral Cell Dendrites of Olfactory Bulbs of Neonatal Rats and Mice during Olfactory Nerve Stimulation and Beta-Adrenoceptor Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qi; Mutoh, Hiroki; Debarbieux, Franck; Knopfel, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Synapses formed by the olfactory nerve (ON) provide the source of excitatory synaptic input onto mitral cells (MC) in the olfactory bulb. These synapses, which relay odor-specific inputs, are confined to the distally tufted single primary dendrites of MCs, the first stage of central olfactory processing. Beta-adrenergic modulation of electrical…

  3. Assessment of olfactory nerve by SPECT-MRI image with nasal thallium-201 administration in patients with olfactory impairments in comparison to healthy volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Shiga

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess whether migration of thallium-201 ((201Tl to the olfactory bulb were reduced in patients with olfactory impairments in comparison to healthy volunteers after nasal administration of (201Tl. PROCEDURES: 10 healthy volunteers and 21 patients enrolled in the study (19 males and 12 females; 26-71 years old. The causes of olfactory dysfunction in the patients were head trauma (n = 7, upper respiratory tract infection (n = 7, and chronic rhinosinusitis (n = 7. (201TlCl was administered unilaterally to the olfactory cleft, and SPECT-CT was conducted 24 h later. Separate MRI images were merged with the SPECT images. (201Tl olfactory migration was also correlated with the volume of the olfactory bulb determined from MRI images, as well as with odor recognition thresholds measured by using T&T olfactometry. RESULTS: Nasal (201Tl migration to the olfactory bulb was significantly lower in the olfactory-impaired patients than in healthy volunteers. The migration of (201Tl to the olfactory bulb was significantly correlated with odor recognition thresholds obtained with T&T olfactometry and correlated with the volume of the olfactory bulb determined from MRI images when all subjects were included. CONCLUSIONS: Assessment of the (201Tl migration to the olfactory bulb was the new method for the evaluation of the olfactory nerve connectivity in patients with impaired olfaction.

  4. Effect of strong fragrance on olfactory detection threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasunla, Ayotunde James; Douglas, David Dayo; Adeosun, Aderemi Adeleke; Steinbach, Silke; Nwaorgu, Onyekwere George Benjamin

    2014-09-01

    To assess the olfactory threshold of healthy volunteers at the University College Hospital, Ibadan and to investigate the effect of perfume on their olfactory detection thresholds. A quasi-experimental study on olfactory detection thresholds of healthy volunteers from September 2013 to November 2013. Tertiary health institution. A structured questionniare was administered to the participants in order to obtain information on sociodemographics, occupation, ability to perceive smell, use of perfume, effects of perfume on appetite and self-confidence, history of allergy, and previous nasal surgery. Participants subjectively rated their olfactory performance. Subsequently, they had olfactory detection threshold testing done at baseline and after exposure to perfume with varied concentrations of n-butanol in a forced triple response and staircase fashion. Healthy volunteers, 37 males and 63 females, were evaluated. Their ages ranged from 19 to 59 years with a mean of 31 years ± 8. Subjectively, 94% of the participants had excellent olfactory function. In the pre-exposure forced triple response, 88% were able to detect the odor at ≤.25 mmol/l concentration while in the post-exposure forced triple response, only 66% were able to detect the odor at ≤.25 mmol/l concentration. There is also a statistical significant difference in the olfactory detection threshold score between the pre-exposure and post-exposure period in the participants (P fragrances affects the olfactory detection threshold. Therefore patients and clinicians should be aware of this and its effects on the outcome of test of olfaction. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  5. Development of the olfactory pathways in platypus and echidna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, Ken W S

    2012-01-01

    The two groups of living monotremes (platypus and echidnas) have remarkably different olfactory structures in the adult. The layers of the main olfactory bulb of the short-beaked echidna are extensively folded, whereas those of the platypus are not. Similarly, the surface area of the piriform cortex of the echidna is large and its lamination complex, whereas in the platypus it is small and simple. It has been argued that the modern echidnas are derived from a platypus-like ancestor, in which case the extensive olfactory specializations of the modern echidnas would have developed relatively recently in monotreme evolution. In this study, the development of the constituent structures of the olfactory pathway was studied in sectioned platypus and echidna embryos and post-hatchlings at the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, Germany. The aim was to determine whether the olfactory structures follow a similar maturational path in the two monotremes during embryonic and early post-hatching ages or whether they show very different developmental paths from the outset. The findings indicate that anatomical differences in the central olfactory system between the short-beaked echidna and the platypus begin to develop immediately before hatching, although details of differences in nasal cavity architecture emerge progressively during late post-hatching life. These findings are most consistent with the proposition that the two modern monotreme lineages have followed independent evolutionary paths from a less olfaction-specialized ancestor. The monotreme olfactory pathway does not appear to be sufficiently structurally mature at birth to allow olfaction-mediated behaviour, because central components of both the main and accessory olfactory system have not differentiated at the time of hatching. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Time frequency analysis of olfactory induced EEG-power change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Alexander Schriever

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of time-frequency analysis (TFA of olfactory-induced EEG change with a low-cost, portable olfactometer in the clinical investigation of smell function.A total of 78 volunteers participated. The study was composed of three parts where olfactory stimuli were presented using a custom-built olfactometer. Part I was designed to optimize the stimulus as well as the recording conditions. In part II EEG-power changes after olfactory/trigeminal stimulation were compared between healthy participants and patients with olfactory impairment. In Part III the test-retest reliability of the method was evaluated in healthy subjects.Part I indicated that the most effective paradigm for stimulus presentation was cued stimulus, with an interstimulus interval of 18-20s at a stimulus duration of 1000ms with each stimulus quality presented 60 times in blocks of 20 stimuli each. In Part II we found that central processing of olfactory stimuli analyzed by TFA differed significantly between healthy controls and patients even when controlling for age. It was possible to reliably distinguish patients with olfactory impairment from healthy individuals at a high degree of accuracy (healthy controls vs anosmic patients: sensitivity 75%; specificity 89%. In addition we could show a good test-retest reliability of TFA of chemosensory induced EEG-power changes in Part III.Central processing of olfactory stimuli analyzed by TFA reliably distinguishes patients with olfactory impairment from healthy individuals at a high degree of accuracy. Importantly this can be achieved with a simple olfactometer.

  7. Determinants of human olfactory performance: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Sorokowski, Piotr; Frackowiak, Tomasz

    2015-02-15

    Olfaction allows us to detect subtle changes in our environment, but sensitivity of the sense of smell varies among individuals. Although a significant number of research papers discuss the relationship between olfactory abilities and environmental factors, most studies have been conducted on Western populations or in developed Asian societies. The potential environmental and cultural determinants of olfactory acuity warrant further exploration. In the current study, we compared previously published data on olfaction in an industrialized, modern society (i.e., Europeans) and an indigenous society living in unpolluted, natural environmental conditions (i.e., Tsimane'), with novel data on the olfactory acuity of inhabitants of the Cook Islands. Like the European population (and contrary to the Tsimane'), the Cook Islands people form a modern society, and like the Tsimane' population (and contrary to the Europeans), they live in an unpolluted region. Thus, these comparisons enabled us to independently assess the importance of both air pollution and changes in lifestyle for olfactory abilities in modern societies. Our results indicate that people from the Cook Islands had significantly higher olfactory acuity (i.e., lower thresholds of odor detection) than did Europeans and Tsimane' people. Interestingly, the olfactory sensitivity of Europeans was significantly lower than the olfactory sensitivity of the remaining two groups. Our data suggest that air pollution is an important factor in the deterioration of the sense of smell. However, it is also possible that factors such as agricultural and/or cooking practices, alcohol consumption, and access to medical service may also influence olfactory acuity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. State and trait olfactory markers of major depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Naudin

    Full Text Available Nowadays, depression is a major issue in public health. Because of the partial overlap between the brain structures involved in depression, olfaction and emotion, the study of olfactory function could be a relevant way to find specific cognitive markers of depression. This study aims at determining whether the olfactory impairments are state or trait markers of major depressive episode (MDE through the study of the olfactory parameters involving the central olfactory pathway. In a pilot study, we evaluated prospectively 18 depressed patients during acute episodes of depression and 6 weeks after antidepressant treatment (escitalopram against 54 healthy volunteers, matched by age, gender and smoking status. We investigated the participants' abilities to identify odors (single odors and in binary mixture, to evaluate and discriminate the odors' intensity, and determine the hedonic valence of odors. The results revealed an "olfactory anhedonia" expressed by decrease of hedonic score for high emotional odorant as potential state marker of MDE. Moreover, these patients experienced an "olfactory negative alliesthesia", during the odor intensity evaluation, and failed to identify correctly two odorants with opposite valences in a binary iso-mixture, which constitute potential trait markers of the disease. This study provides preliminary evidence for olfactory impairments associated with MDE (state marker that are persistent after the clinical improvement of depressive symptoms (trait marker. These results could be explained by the chronicity of depression and/or by the impact of therapeutic means used (antidepressant treatment. They need to be confirmed particularly the ones obtained in complex olfactory environment which corresponds a more objective daily life situation.

  9. State and trait olfactory markers of major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudin, Marine; El-Hage, Wissam; Gomes, Marlène; Gaillard, Philippe; Belzung, Catherine; Atanasova, Boriana

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, depression is a major issue in public health. Because of the partial overlap between the brain structures involved in depression, olfaction and emotion, the study of olfactory function could be a relevant way to find specific cognitive markers of depression. This study aims at determining whether the olfactory impairments are state or trait markers of major depressive episode (MDE) through the study of the olfactory parameters involving the central olfactory pathway. In a pilot study, we evaluated prospectively 18 depressed patients during acute episodes of depression and 6 weeks after antidepressant treatment (escitalopram) against 54 healthy volunteers, matched by age, gender and smoking status. We investigated the participants' abilities to identify odors (single odors and in binary mixture), to evaluate and discriminate the odors' intensity, and determine the hedonic valence of odors. The results revealed an "olfactory anhedonia" expressed by decrease of hedonic score for high emotional odorant as potential state marker of MDE. Moreover, these patients experienced an "olfactory negative alliesthesia", during the odor intensity evaluation, and failed to identify correctly two odorants with opposite valences in a binary iso-mixture, which constitute potential trait markers of the disease. This study provides preliminary evidence for olfactory impairments associated with MDE (state marker) that are persistent after the clinical improvement of depressive symptoms (trait marker). These results could be explained by the chronicity of depression and/or by the impact of therapeutic means used (antidepressant treatment). They need to be confirmed particularly the ones obtained in complex olfactory environment which corresponds a more objective daily life situation.

  10. Reference values of olfactory function for Mexico City inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneros, Marco; Hudson, Robyn; López-Palacios, Martha; Drucker-Colín, René

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory testing is useful in the differential diagnosis of age-related pathologies. To provide baseline reference values for clinical use in Mexico City we investigated the relation between olfactory capabilities and the principal population parameters of age, sex, and smoking habits in a large sample of healthy inhabitants. We applied the internationally recognized and commercially available Sniffin' Sticks test battery to 916 men and women from across the adult life span. The Sniffin' Sticks test evaluates three key aspects of olfactory function: 1) ability to detect an odor, 2) to discriminate between odors, and 3) to identify odors. We found a significant decline in olfactory function from the 5th decade of age, and that detection threshold was the most sensitive measure of this. We did not find a significant difference between men and women or between smokers and non-smokers. In confirmation of our previous studies of the negative effect of air pollution on olfactory function, Mexico City inhabitants had poorer overall performance than corresponding subjects previously tested in the neighboring but less polluted Mexican state of Tlaxcala. Although we basically confirm findings on general demographic patterns of olfactory performance from other countries, we also demonstrate the need to take into account local cultural, environmental and demographic factors in the clinical evaluation of olfactory performance of Mexico City inhabitants. The Sniffin' Sticks test battery, with some adjustment of stimuli to correspond to Mexican culture, provides an easily administered means of assessing olfactory health. Copyright © 2015 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Irradiation performance of thorium oxide based coated particle fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiratori, Tetsuo; Itoh, Akinori; Akabori, Mitsuo; Shiba, Koreyuki; Adachi, Mamoru

    1988-11-01

    BISO coated ThO 2 particles as fertile fuel and BISO or TRISO coated (Th, U)O 2 particles as fissile fuel for a High-temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) were irradiated to investigate particle performances in loosely-packed condition of two capsules in JRR-2 and one capsule in JMTR. Irradiation of these coated particles was achieved to a maximum fast neutron fluence of 2.22 x 10 21 neutrons/cm 2 (E > 0.18 MeV) and a maximum thermal neutron fluence of 1.35 x 10 21 neutrons/cm 2 at temperatures of 770 to 1225 deg C. And a maximum burnup of fissile particles was 2.42 % FIMA. It was found in the post-irradiation examinations that the coated particles were intact except a little of the BISO coated fissile particles, and the thorium oxide based coated particles performed well under the irradiation conditions. The data were also taken on the fission product behavior released from the fuel kernels during the irradiation. And density of the outer LTIPyC (OPyC) increased as increasing the fluence of fast neutron. As a result of the densification of the OPyC, the crushing strength of the BISO coated particles increased, otherwise the TRISO coated particles decreased. (author)

  12. Genetic Control of Wiring Specificity in the Fly Olfactory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Weizhe; Luo, Liqun

    2014-01-01

    Precise connections established between pre- and postsynaptic partners during development are essential for the proper function of the nervous system. The olfactory system detects a wide variety of odorants and processes the information in a precisely connected neural circuit. A common feature of the olfactory systems from insects to mammals is that the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) expressing the same odorant receptor make one-to-one connections with a single class of second-order olfactory projection neurons (PNs). This represents one of the most striking examples of targeting specificity in developmental neurobiology. Recent studies have uncovered central roles of transmembrane and secreted proteins in organizing this one-to-one connection specificity in the olfactory system. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of how this wiring specificity is genetically controlled and focus on the mechanisms by which transmembrane and secreted proteins regulate different stages of the Drosophila olfactory circuit assembly in a coordinated manner. We also discuss how combinatorial coding, redundancy, and error-correcting ability could contribute to constructing a complex neural circuit in general. PMID:24395823

  13. Illuminating odors: when optogenetics brings to light unexpected olfactory abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaud, Julien; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

    2016-06-01

    For hundreds of years, the sense of smell has generated great interest in the world literature, oenologists, and perfume makers but less of scientists. Only recently this sensory modality has gained new attraction in neuroscience when original tools issued from physiology, anatomy, or molecular biology were available to decipher how the brain makes sense of olfactory cues. However, this move was promptly dampened by the difficulties of developing quantitative approaches to study the relationship between the physical characteristics of stimuli and the sensations they create. An upswing of olfactory investigations occurred when genetic tools could be used in combination with devices borrowed from the physics of light (a hybrid technique called optogenetics) to scrutinize the olfactory system and to provide greater physiological precision for studying olfactory-driven behaviors. This review aims to present the most recent studies that have used light to activate components of the olfactory pathway, such as olfactory receptor neurons, or neurons located further downstream, while leaving intact others brain circuits. With the use of optogenetics to unravel the mystery of olfaction, scientists have begun to disentangle how the brain makes sense of smells. In this review, we shall discuss how the brain recognizes odors, how it memorizes them, and how animals make decisions based on odorants they are capable of sensing. Although this review deals with olfaction, the role of light will be central throughout. © 2016 Grimaud and Lledo; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  14. Illuminating odors: when optogenetics brings to light unexpected olfactory abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaud, Julien

    2016-01-01

    For hundreds of years, the sense of smell has generated great interest in the world literature, oenologists, and perfume makers but less of scientists. Only recently this sensory modality has gained new attraction in neuroscience when original tools issued from physiology, anatomy, or molecular biology were available to decipher how the brain makes sense of olfactory cues. However, this move was promptly dampened by the difficulties of developing quantitative approaches to study the relationship between the physical characteristics of stimuli and the sensations they create. An upswing of olfactory investigations occurred when genetic tools could be used in combination with devices borrowed from the physics of light (a hybrid technique called optogenetics) to scrutinize the olfactory system and to provide greater physiological precision for studying olfactory-driven behaviors. This review aims to present the most recent studies that have used light to activate components of the olfactory pathway, such as olfactory receptor neurons, or neurons located further downstream, while leaving intact others brain circuits. With the use of optogenetics to unravel the mystery of olfaction, scientists have begun to disentangle how the brain makes sense of smells. In this review, we shall discuss how the brain recognizes odors, how it memorizes them, and how animals make decisions based on odorants they are capable of sensing. Although this review deals with olfaction, the role of light will be central throughout. PMID:27194792

  15. Recency and suffix effects with immediate recall of olfactory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, C; Jenkins, R

    2000-05-01

    In contrast to our understanding of the immediate recall of auditory and visual material, little is known about the corresponding characteristics of short-term olfactory memory. The current study investigated the pattern of immediate serial recall and the associated suffix effect using olfactory stimuli. Subjects were trained initially to identify and name correctly nine different odours. Experiment 1 established an immediate correct recall span of approximately six items. In Experiment 2 participants recalled serially span equivalent lists which were followed by a visual, auditory, or olfactory suffix. Primacy was evident in the recall curves for all three suffix conditions. Recency, in contrast, was evident in the auditory and visual suffix conditions only; there was a strong suffix effect in the olfactory suffix condition. Experiment 3 replicated this pattern of effects using seven-item lists, and demonstrated that the magnitude of the recency and suffix effects obtained in the olfactory modality can equate to that obtained in the auditory modality. It is concluded that the pattern of recency and suffix effects in the olfactory modality is reliable, and poses difficulties for those theories that rely on the presence of a primary linguistic code, sound, or changing state as determinants of these effects in serial recall.

  16. Quality coding by neural populations in the early olfactory pathway: analysis using information theory and lessons for artificial olfactory systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Fonollosa

    Full Text Available In this article, we analyze the ability of the early olfactory system to detect and discriminate different odors by means of information theory measurements applied to olfactory bulb activity images. We have studied the role that the diversity and number of receptor neuron types play in encoding chemical information. Our results show that the olfactory receptors of the biological system are low correlated and present good coverage of the input space. The coding capacity of ensembles of olfactory receptors with the same receptive range is maximized when the receptors cover half of the odor input space - a configuration that corresponds to receptors that are not particularly selective. However, the ensemble's performance slightly increases when mixing uncorrelated receptors of different receptive ranges. Our results confirm that the low correlation between sensors could be more significant than the sensor selectivity for general purpose chemo-sensory systems, whether these are biological or biomimetic.

  17. Inducible activation of ERK5 MAP kinase enhances adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb and improves olfactory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbin; Lu, Song; Li, Tan; Pan, Yung-Wei; Zou, Junhui; Abel, Glen M; Xu, Lihong; Storm, Daniel R; Xia, Zhengui

    2015-05-20

    Recent discoveries have suggested that adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and olfactory bulb (OB) may be required for at least some forms of olfactory behavior in mice. However, it is unclear whether conditional and selective enhancement of adult neurogenesis by genetic approaches is sufficient to improve olfactory function under physiological conditions or after injury. Furthermore, specific signaling mechanisms regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB are not fully defined. We previously reported that ERK5, a MAP kinase selectively expressed in the neurogenic regions of the adult brain, plays a critical role in adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB. Using a site-specific knock-in mouse model, we report here that inducible and targeted activation of the endogenous ERK5 in adult neural stem/progenitor cells enhances adult neurogenesis in the OB by increasing cell survival and neuronal differentiation. This conditional ERK5 activation also improves short-term olfactory memory and odor-cued associative olfactory learning under normal physiological conditions. Furthermore, these mice show enhanced recovery of olfactory function and have more adult-born neurons after a zinc sulfate-induced lesion of the main olfactory epithelium. We conclude that ERK5 MAP kinase is an important endogenous signaling pathway regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB, and that conditional activation of endogenous ERK5 is sufficient to enhance adult neurogenesis in the OB thereby improving olfactory function both under normal conditions and after injury. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357833-17$15.00/0.

  18. Accumulation of [35S]taurine in peripheral layers of the olfactory bulb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, M.R.; Wysocki, C.J.; Sturman, J.A.; Wen, G.Y.

    1981-01-01

    Accumulation of [ 35 S]taurine in the laminae of the olfactory bulb of the adult cat, rat, mouse and rabbit was examined autoradiographically. [ 35 S]Taurine was administered either i.p. or i.v. and olfactory bulbs were excised 24 h post-injection. High concentrations of [ 35 S]taurine were restricted to the olfactory nerve and glomerular layers of the olfactory bulb in all species examined. Olfactory neurons are continuously renewed and the results obtained suggest that taurine may have an important role in olfactory receptor axons. (Auth.)

  19. Identification and Comparison of Candidate Olfactory Genes in the Olfactory and Non-Olfactory Organs of Elm Pest Ambrostoma quadriimpressum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Based on Transcriptome Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinliang; Chen, Qi; Zhao, Hanbo; Ren, Bingzhong

    2016-01-01

    The leaf beetle Ambrostoma quadriimpressum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a predominant forest pest that causes substantial damage to the lumber industry and city management. However, no effective and environmentally friendly chemical method has been discovered to control this pest. Until recently, the molecular basis of the olfactory system in A. quadriimpressum was completely unknown. In this study, antennae and leg transcriptomes were analyzed and compared using deep sequencing data to identify the olfactory genes in A. quadriimpressum. Moreover, the expression profiles of both male and female candidate olfactory genes were analyzed and validated by bioinformatics, motif analysis, homology analysis, semi-quantitative RT-PCR and RT-qPCR experiments in antennal and non-olfactory organs to explore the candidate olfactory genes that might play key roles in the life cycle of A. quadriimpressum. As a result, approximately 102.9 million and 97.3 million clean reads were obtained from the libraries created from the antennas and legs, respectively. Annotation led to 34344 Unigenes, which were matched to known proteins. Annotation data revealed that the number of genes in antenna with binding functions and receptor activity was greater than that of legs. Furthermore, many pathway genes were differentially expressed in the two organs. Sixteen candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 10 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 34 odorant receptors (ORs), 20 inotropic receptors [1] and 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) and their isoforms were identified. Additionally, 15 OBPs, 9 CSPs, 18 ORs, 6 IRs and 2 SNMPs were predicted to be complete ORFs. Using RT-PCR, RT-qPCR and homology analysis, AquaOBP1/2/4/7/C1/C6, AquaCSP3/9, AquaOR8/9/10/14/15/18/20/26/29/33, AquaIR8a/13/25a showed olfactory-specific expression, indicating that these genes might play a key role in olfaction-related behaviors in A. quadriimpressum such as foraging and seeking. AquaOBP4/C5, AquaOBP4/C5, AquaCSP7

  20. Identification and Comparison of Candidate Olfactory Genes in the Olfactory and Non-Olfactory Organs of Elm Pest Ambrostoma quadriimpressum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae Based on Transcriptome Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinliang Wang

    Full Text Available The leaf beetle Ambrostoma quadriimpressum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae is a predominant forest pest that causes substantial damage to the lumber industry and city management. However, no effective and environmentally friendly chemical method has been discovered to control this pest. Until recently, the molecular basis of the olfactory system in A. quadriimpressum was completely unknown. In this study, antennae and leg transcriptomes were analyzed and compared using deep sequencing data to identify the olfactory genes in A. quadriimpressum. Moreover, the expression profiles of both male and female candidate olfactory genes were analyzed and validated by bioinformatics, motif analysis, homology analysis, semi-quantitative RT-PCR and RT-qPCR experiments in antennal and non-olfactory organs to explore the candidate olfactory genes that might play key roles in the life cycle of A. quadriimpressum. As a result, approximately 102.9 million and 97.3 million clean reads were obtained from the libraries created from the antennas and legs, respectively. Annotation led to 34344 Unigenes, which were matched to known proteins. Annotation data revealed that the number of genes in antenna with binding functions and receptor activity was greater than that of legs. Furthermore, many pathway genes were differentially expressed in the two organs. Sixteen candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs, 10 chemosensory proteins (CSPs, 34 odorant receptors (ORs, 20 inotropic receptors [1] and 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs and their isoforms were identified. Additionally, 15 OBPs, 9 CSPs, 18 ORs, 6 IRs and 2 SNMPs were predicted to be complete ORFs. Using RT-PCR, RT-qPCR and homology analysis, AquaOBP1/2/4/7/C1/C6, AquaCSP3/9, AquaOR8/9/10/14/15/18/20/26/29/33, AquaIR8a/13/25a showed olfactory-specific expression, indicating that these genes might play a key role in olfaction-related behaviors in A. quadriimpressum such as foraging and seeking. AquaOBP4/C5, Aqua

  1. System identification of Drosophila olfactory sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Anmo J; Lazar, Aurel A; Slutskiy, Yevgeniy B

    2011-02-01

    The lack of a deeper understanding of how olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) encode odors has hindered the progress in understanding the olfactory signal processing in higher brain centers. Here we employ methods of system identification to investigate the encoding of time-varying odor stimuli and their representation for further processing in the spike domain by Drosophila OSNs. In order to apply system identification techniques, we built a novel low-turbulence odor delivery system that allowed us to deliver airborne stimuli in a precise and reproducible fashion. The system provides a 1% tolerance in stimulus reproducibility and an exact control of odor concentration and concentration gradient on a millisecond time scale. Using this novel setup, we recorded and analyzed the in-vivo response of OSNs to a wide range of time-varying odor waveforms. We report for the first time that across trials the response of OR59b OSNs is very precise and reproducible. Further, we empirically show that the response of an OSN depends not only on the concentration, but also on the rate of change of the odor concentration. Moreover, we demonstrate that a two-dimensional (2D) Encoding Manifold in a concentration-concentration gradient space provides a quantitative description of the neuron's response. We then use the white noise system identification methodology to construct one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) Linear-Nonlinear-Poisson (LNP) cascade models of the sensory neuron for a fixed mean odor concentration and fixed contrast. We show that in terms of predicting the intensity rate of the spike train, the 2D LNP model performs on par with the 1D LNP model, with a root mean-square error (RMSE) increase of about 5 to 10%. Surprisingly, we find that for a fixed contrast of the white noise odor waveforms, the nonlinear block of each of the two models changes with the mean input concentration. The shape of the nonlinearities of both the 1D and the 2D LNP model appears to be

  2. Induction of Associative Olfactory Memory by Targeted Activation of Single Olfactory Neurons in Drosophila Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Honda, Takato; Lee, Chi-Yu; Yoshida-Kasikawa, Maki; Honjo, Ken; Furukubo-Tokunaga, Katsuo

    2014-01-01

    It has been postulated that associative memory is formed by at least two sets of external stimuli, CS and US, that are transmitted to the memory centers by distinctive conversing pathways. However, whether associative memory can be induced by the activation of only the olfactory CS and a biogenic amine-mediated US pathways remains to be elucidated. In this study, we substituted the reward signals with dTrpA1-mediated thermogenetic activation of octopaminergic neurons and the odor signals by C...

  3. A TAP1 null mutation leads to an enlarged olfactory bulb and supernumerary, ectopic olfactory glomeruli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, Ernesto; Cruz, Nicole M.; Ly, Xuan; Welander, Beth A.; Hanson, Kyle; Kronberg, Eugene; Restrepo, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility class I (MHCI) molecules are well known for their immunological role in mediating tissue graft rejection. Recently, these molecules were discovered to be expressed in distinct neuronal subclasses, dispelling the long-held tenet that the uninjured brain is immune-privileged. Here, we show that MHCI molecules are expressed in the main olfactory bulb (MOB) of adult animals. Furthermore, we find that mice with diminished levels of MHCI expression have enlarged MOBs containing an increased number of small, morphologically abnormal and ectopically located P2 glomeruli. These findings suggest that MHCI molecules may play an important role in the proper formation of glomeruli in the bulb. PMID:23697805

  4. Olfactory performance of rats after selective deafferentation of the olfactory bulb by 3-methyl indole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, Burton

    2007-02-01

    Rats trained to detect propyl acetate and valeric acid and to discriminate between propyl acetate and amyl acetate and between valeric acid and butyric acid were injected with a low dose of 3-methyl indole, a treatment that produces well-defined and selective deafferentation of the olfactory bulbs. Treatment completely deafferented most but not all bulbar loci for aliphatic acids and at least disrupted those for propyl and amyl acetate. In posttreatment tests, experimental rats performed somewhat but not significantly more poorly than controls and about as well on the acid detection and discrimination tasks as on the corresponding acetate tests.

  5. Centrifugal telencephalic afferent connections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohedano-Moriano, Alicia; de la Rosa-Prieto, Carlos; Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; Ubeda-Bañon, Isabel; Pro-Sistiaga, Palma; de Moya-Pinilla, Miguel; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2012-01-01

    Parallel to the olfactory system, most mammals possess an accessory olfactory or vomeronasal system. The olfactory and vomeronasal epithelia project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, which in turn project to adjacent areas of the telencephalon, respectively. New data indicate that projections arising from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs partially converge in the rostral telencephalon and are non-overlapping at caudal telencephalic levels. Therefore, the basal telencephalon should be reclassified in olfactory, vomeronasal, and mixed areas. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that virtually all olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures send reciprocal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Further, non-chemosensory recipient structures also projects centrifugally to the olfactory bulbs. These feed-back projections appear to be essential modulating processing of chemosensory information. The present work aims at characterizing centrifugal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs arising from olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed, and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic areas. This issue has been addressed by using tracer injections in the rat and mouse brain. Tracer injections were delivered into the main and accessory olfactory bulbs as well as in olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed, and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic structures. The results confirm that olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Interestingly, olfactory (e.g., piriform cortex), vomeronasal (e.g., posteromedial cortical amygdala), mixed (e.g., the anterior medial amygdaloid nucleus), and non-chemosensory-recipient (e.g., the nucleus of the diagonal band) structures project to the main and to the accessory olfactory bulbs thus providing the possibility of simultaneous modulation and interaction of both systems at different stages of chemosensory processing

  6. Organization and distribution of glomeruli in the bowhead whale olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takushi Kishida

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although modern baleen whales (Mysticeti retain a functional olfactory system that includes olfactory bulbs, cranial nerve I and olfactory receptor genes, their olfactory capabilities have been reduced to a great degree. This reduction likely occurred as a selective response to their fully aquatic lifestyle. The glomeruli that occur in the olfactory bulb can be divided into two non-overlapping domains, a dorsal domain and a ventral domain. Recent molecular studies revealed that all modern whales have lost olfactory receptor genes and marker genes that are specific to the dorsal domain. Here we show that olfactory bulbs of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus lack glomeruli on the dorsal side, consistent with the molecular data. In addition, we estimate that there are more than 4,000 glomeruli elsewhere in the bowhead whale olfactory bulb, which is surprising given that bowhead whales possess only 80 intact olfactory receptor genes. Olfactory sensory neurons that express the same olfactory receptors in rodents generally project to two specific glomeruli in an olfactory bulb, implying an approximate 1:2 ratio of the number of olfactory receptors to the number of glomeruli. Here we show that this ratio does not apply to bowhead whales, reiterating the conceptual limits of using rodents as model organisms for understanding the initial coding of odor information among mammals.

  7. Oxide-based protonic conductors: Point defects and transport properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonanos, N.

    2001-01-01

    , hydrogen pumps, fuel cells, etc. The extent to which protonic defects form depends mainly on the partial pressure of water vapour, temperature and basicity of the constituent oxides, while their mobility depends, among other factors, on the metal-oxygen bond length and bond energy. The defect equilibria...

  8. A dual enzyme functionalized nanostructured thulium oxide based interface for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jay; Roychoudhury, Appan; Srivastava, Manish; Solanki, Pratima R; Lee, Dong Won; Lee, Seung Hee; Malhotra, B D

    2014-01-21

    In this paper, we present results of the studies related to fabrication of a rare earth metal oxide based efficient biosensor using an interface based on hydrothermally prepared nanostructured thulium oxide (n-Tm2O3). A colloidal solution of prepared nanorods has been electrophoretically deposited (EPD) onto an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrate. The n-Tm2O3 nanorods are found to provide improved sensing characteristics to the electrode interface in terms of electroactive surface area, diffusion coefficient, charge transfer rate constant and electron transfer kinetics. The structural and morphological studies of n-Tm2O3 nanorods have been carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques. This interfacial platform has been used for fabrication of a total cholesterol biosensor by immobilizing cholesterol esterase (ChEt) and cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) onto a Tm2O3 nanostructured surface. The results of response studies of the fabricated ChEt-ChOx/n-Tm2O3/ITO bioelectrode show a broad linear range of 8-400 mg dL(-1), detection limit of 19.78 mg (dL cm(-2))(-1), and high sensitivity of 0.9245 μA (mg per dL cm(-2))(-1) with a response time of 40 s. Further, this bioelectrode has been utilized for estimation of total cholesterol with negligible interference (3%) from analytes present in human serum samples. The utilization of this n-Tm2O3 modified electrode for enzyme-based biosensor analysis offers an efficient strategy and a novel interface for application of the rare earth metal oxide materials in the field of electrochemical sensors and bioelectronic devices.

  9. Expression of olfactory signaling genes in the eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Pronin

    Full Text Available To advance our understanding how the outer eye interacts with its environment, we asked which cellular receptors are expressed in the cornea, focusing on G protein-coupled receptors.Total RNA from the mouse cornea was subjected to next-generation sequencing using the Illumina platform. The data was analyzed with TopHat and CuffLinks software packages. Expression of a representative group of genes detected by RNA-seq was further analyzed by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization using RNAscope technology and fluorescent microscopy.We generated more than 46 million pair-end reads from mouse corneal RNA. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the mouse corneal transcriptome reconstructed from these reads represents over 10,000 gene transcripts. We identified 194 GPCR transcripts, of which 96 were putative olfactory receptors. RT-PCR analysis confirmed the presence of several olfactory receptors and related genes, including olfactory marker protein and the G protein associated with olfaction, Gαolf. In situ hybridization showed that mRNA for olfactory marker protein, Gαolf and possibly some olfactory receptors were found in the corneal epithelial cells. In addition to the corneal epithelium, Gαolf was present in the ganglionic and inner nuclear layers of the retina. One of the olfactory receptors, Olfr558, was present primarily in vessels of the eye co-stained with antibodies against alpha-smooth muscle actin, indicating expression in arterioles.Several species of mRNA encoding putative olfactory receptors and related genes are expressed in the mouse cornea and other parts of the eye indicating they may play a role in sensing chemicals in the ocular environment.

  10. Neural representations of novel objects associated with olfactory experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghio, Marta; Schulze, Patrick; Suchan, Boris; Bellebaum, Christian

    2016-07-15

    Object conceptual knowledge comprises information related to several motor and sensory modalities (e.g. for tools, how they look like, how to manipulate them). Whether and to which extent conceptual object knowledge is represented in the same sensory and motor systems recruited during object-specific learning experience is still a controversial question. A direct approach to assess the experience-dependence of conceptual object representations is based on training with novel objects. The present study extended previous research, which focused mainly on the role of manipulation experience for tool-like stimuli, by considering sensory experience only. Specifically, we examined the impact of experience in the non-dominant olfactory modality on the neural representation of novel objects. Sixteen healthy participants visually explored a set of novel objects during the training phase while for each object an odor (e.g., peppermint) was presented (olfactory-visual training). As control conditions, a second set of objects was only visually explored (visual-only training), and a third set was not part of the training. In a post-training fMRI session, participants performed an old/new task with pictures of objects associated with olfactory-visual and visual-only training (old) and no training objects (new). Although we did not find any evidence of activations in primary olfactory areas, the processing of olfactory-visual versus visual-only training objects elicited greater activation in the right anterior hippocampus, a region included in the extended olfactory network. This finding is discussed in terms of different functional roles of the hippocampus in olfactory processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Using insect electroantennogram sensors on autonomous robots for olfactory searches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Dominique; Arhidi, Lotfi; Demondion, Elodie; Masson, Jean-Baptiste; Lucas, Philippe

    2014-08-04

    Robots designed to track chemical leaks in hazardous industrial facilities or explosive traces in landmine fields face the same problem as insects foraging for food or searching for mates: the olfactory search is constrained by the physics of turbulent transport. The concentration landscape of wind borne odors is discontinuous and consists of sporadically located patches. A pre-requisite to olfactory search is that intermittent odor patches are detected. Because of its high speed and sensitivity, the olfactory organ of insects provides a unique opportunity for detection. Insect antennae have been used in the past to detect not only sex pheromones but also chemicals that are relevant to humans, e.g., volatile compounds emanating from cancer cells or toxic and illicit substances. We describe here a protocol for using insect antennae on autonomous robots and present a proof of concept for tracking odor plumes to their source. The global response of olfactory neurons is recorded in situ in the form of electroantennograms (EAGs). Our experimental design, based on a whole insect preparation, allows stable recordings within a working day. In comparison, EAGs on excised antennae have a lifetime of 2 hr. A custom hardware/software interface was developed between the EAG electrodes and a robot. The measurement system resolves individual odor patches up to 10 Hz, which exceeds the time scale of artificial chemical sensors. The efficiency of EAG sensors for olfactory searches is further demonstrated in driving the robot toward a source of pheromone. By using identical olfactory stimuli and sensors as in real animals, our robotic platform provides a direct means for testing biological hypotheses about olfactory coding and search strategies. It may also prove beneficial for detecting other odorants of interests by combining EAGs from different insect species in a bioelectronic nose configuration or using nanostructured gas sensors that mimic insect antennae.

  12. Integrated olfactory receptor and microarray gene expression databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crasto Chiquito J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression patterns of olfactory receptors (ORs are an important component of the signal encoding mechanism in the olfactory system since they determine the interactions between odorant ligands and sensory neurons. We have developed the Olfactory Receptor Microarray Database (ORMD to house OR gene expression data. ORMD is integrated with the Olfactory Receptor Database (ORDB, which is a key repository of OR gene information. Both databases aim to aid experimental research related to olfaction. Description ORMD is a Web-accessible database that provides a secure data repository for OR microarray experiments. It contains both publicly available and private data; accessing the latter requires authenticated login. The ORMD is designed to allow users to not only deposit gene expression data but also manage their projects/experiments. For example, contributors can choose whether to make their datasets public. For each experiment, users can download the raw data files and view and export the gene expression data. For each OR gene being probed in a microarray experiment, a hyperlink to that gene in ORDB provides access to genomic and proteomic information related to the corresponding olfactory receptor. Individual ORs archived in ORDB are also linked to ORMD, allowing users access to the related microarray gene expression data. Conclusion ORMD serves as a data repository and project management system. It facilitates the study of microarray experiments of gene expression in the olfactory system. In conjunction with ORDB, ORMD integrates gene expression data with the genomic and functional data of ORs, and is thus a useful resource for both olfactory researchers and the public.

  13. Active forgetting of olfactory memories in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jacob A; Davis, Ronald L

    2014-01-01

    Failure to remember, or forgetting, is a phenomenon familiar to everyone and despite more than a century of scientific inquiry, why we forget what we once knew remains unclear. If the brain marshals significant resources to form and store memories, why is it that these memories become lost? In the last century, psychological studies have divided forgetting into decay theory, in which memory simply dissipates with time, and interference theory, in which additional learning or mental activity hinders memory by reducing its stability or retrieval (for review, Dewar et al., 2007; Wixted, 2004). Importantly, these psychological models of forgetting posit that forgetting is a passive property of the brain and thus a failure of the brain to retain memories. However, recent neuroscience research on olfactory memory in Drosophila has offered evidence for an alternative conclusion that forgetting is an "active" process, with specific, biologically regulated mechanisms that remove existing memories (Berry et al., 2012; Shuai et al., 2010). Similar to the bidirectional regulation of cell number by mitosis and apoptosis, protein concentration by translation and lysosomal or proteomal degradation, and protein phosphate modification by kinases and phosphatases, biologically regulated memory formation and removal would be yet another example in biological systems where distinct and separate pathways regulate the creation and destruction of biological substrates. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Olfactory instruction for fear: neural system analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Sabino Canteras

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies using cat odor have led to detailed mapping of neural sites engaged in innate and contextual fear responses. Here, we reviewed three lines of work examining the dynamics of the neural systems that organize innate and learned fear responses to cat odor. In the first, we explored the neural systems involved in innate fear responses and in the different stages of fear conditioning to cat odor (i.e., acquisition and expression, with a particular emphasis on the role of the dorsal premammillary nucleus (PMd and the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (PAGdl as key sites that influence innate and contextual conditioning. In the second line of studies, we reviewed how chemical stimulation of these sites (i.e., the PMd and PAGdl may serve as a useful unconditioned stimulus in an olfactory fear conditioning paradigm; these experiments provide an interesting perspective for the understanding of learned fear to predator odor. Finally, in the third line of studies, we explored the fact that neutral odors that acquire an aversive valence in a shock-paired conditioning paradigm may mimic predator odor and mobilize elements of the hypothalamic predator-responsive circuit.

  15. Anterior Interhemispheric Approach for Olfactory Groove Meningioma

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    Imam Hidayat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the surgical technique with bifrontal interhemispheric approach for total removal of tumor in olfactory groove meningioma (OGM. Methods: This study described a case of a 38-year-old woman with bilateral blindness, anosmia, and behaviour changes. Imaging studies show a tumor mass in midfrontal base. Surgery using a bifrontal interhemispheric approach was performed and total removal was achieved and postoperative computed tomography (CT scan was performed to confirm the result. Histopathological findings established a diagnosis of meningioma. Results: A coronal skin incision behind the hairline was utilized. The scalp was elevated, taking care to reserve the vascularized pericranium medial to the linea temporalis of each side, and preserving the 2 supraorbital nerves. Eight burr holes were used, with the two initial holes made on each side of the orbitotemporal region, and the other four holes at the midline. A bifrontal craniotomy was performed. The tumor was first detached from its attachment with bipolar cautery and debulked. During this step, the main tumor feeder arteries from the anterior and posterior ethmoidal artery were interrupted, and the tumor devascularized. Total tumor removal through surgical intervention was achieved and confirmed by head CT-scan postoperatively. Conclusions: This case report supports the suitability of the bifrontal interhemispheric approach for OGM resection with additional radiation therapy.

  16. Ablation of mouse adult neurogenesis alters olfactory bulb structure and olfactory fear conditioning

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    Matthew Valley

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis replenishes olfactory bulb (OB interneurons throughout the life of most mammals, yet during this constant fl ux it remains unclear how the OB maintains a constant structure and function. In the mouse OB, we investigated the dynamics of turnover and its impact on olfactory function by ablating adult neurogenesis with an x-ray lesion to the subventricular zone (SVZ. Regardless of the magnitude of the lesion to the SVZ, we found no change in the survival of young adult born granule cells (GCs born after the lesion, and a gradual decrease in the population of GCs born before the lesion. After a lesion producing a 96% reduction of incoming adult born GCs to the OB, we found a diminished behavioral fear response to conditioned odor cues but not to audio cues. Interestingly, despite this behavioral defi cit and gradual anatomical changes, we found no electrophysiological changes in the GC population assayed in vivo through dendro-dendritic synaptic plasticity and odor-evoked local fi eld potential oscillations. These data indicate that turnover in the granule cell layer is generally decoupled from the rate of adult neurogenesis, and that OB adult neurogenesis plays a role in a wide behavioral system extending beyond the OB.

  17. No evidence for visual context-dependency of olfactory learning in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarali, Ayse; Mayerle, Moritz; Nawroth, Christian; Gerber, Bertram

    2008-08-01

    How is behaviour organised across sensory modalities? Specifically, we ask concerning the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster how visual context affects olfactory learning and recall and whether information about visual context is getting integrated into olfactory memory. We find that changing visual context between training and test does not deteriorate olfactory memory scores, suggesting that these olfactory memories can drive behaviour despite a mismatch of visual context between training and test. Rather, both the establishment and the recall of olfactory memory are generally facilitated by light. In a follow-up experiment, we find no evidence for learning about combinations of odours and visual context as predictors for reinforcement even after explicit training in a so-called biconditional discrimination task. Thus, a ‘true’ interaction between visual and olfactory modalities is not evident; instead, light seems to influence olfactory learning and recall unspecifically, for example by altering motor activity, alertness or olfactory acuity.

  18. Volumetric study of the olfactory bulb in patients with chronic rhinonasal sinusitis using MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda A. Alarabawy

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: MRI with volumetric analysis is a useful tool in assessment of the olfactory bulb volume in patients with olfactory loss and appears to be of help in assessment of the degree of recovery in patients after sinus surgery.

  19. Heightened Olfactory Sensitivity in Young Females with Recent-Onset Anorexia Nervosa and Recovered Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Mette; Guldberg, Johanne; Vangkilde, Signe

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Olfaction may be related to food restriction and weight loss. However, reports regarding olfactory function in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) have been inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: Characterize olfactory sensitivity and identification in female adolescents and young adults...

  20. Processing, characterization and properties of oxide based nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaduri, Sutapa

    The synthesis, characterization and mechanical properties of oxide based nanocomposites are reported in this dissertation. Two binary systems are studied: Alsb2Osb3-MgO and Alsb2Osb3-ZrOsb2. Alsb2Osb3-MgO was chosen because of its relatively large field of solid solubilities at a moderate temperature. On the other hand, Alsb2Osb3-ZrOsb2 was chosen because it shows minimal solid solubility of the constituents. A novel "Auto Ignition" process using suitable fuels and oxidizers was utilized in the synthesis of nanocomposites and solid solutions. Thermodynamic calculations were carried out in predicting end point adiabatic temperatures (Tsbad) for each composition in both systems. Combustion temperatures were experimentally measured by means of a data acquisition system. Characterizations of the powders were carried out by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive analysis (EDAX) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Heat treatment experiments were carried out to study the grain growth behavior. A hot isostatic pressing (HIP) model was developed for the present nanoceramics. Input parameters were carefully chosen for such nanomaterials. The as-synthesized nanocrystalline powders were consolidated to near theoretical density by hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) while retaining fine grain size. The experimental results were compared with the predictions of the model. Mechanical properties, such as room temperature toughness, low temperatures well as high temperature hardness, were determined for both systems. Room temperature hardness values were (2.89-7.79) GPa and fracture toughness was between 2.7 and 5.82 MPa.msp{1/2} for various compositions in the Alsb2Osb3-MgO system. Room temperature hardness values were between 5.33 and 8.71 GPa and fracture toughness values ranged from (5.3-9.62) MPa.msp{1/2} for various compositions in the Alsb2Osb3-ZrOsb2 system. Nanoindentation experiments were carried out to further explore the room

  1. Reduced Graphene Oxide-Based Silver Nanoparticle-Containing Composite Hydrogel as Highly Efficient Dye Catalysts for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Tifeng; Guo, Haiying; Zhang, Qingrui; Peng, Qiuming; Tang, Yongfu; Yan, Xuehai; Li, Bingbing

    2015-01-01

    New reduced graphene oxide-based silver nanoparticle-containing composite hydrogels were successfully prepared in situ through the simultaneous reduction of GO and noble metal precursors within the GO gel matrix. The as-formed hydrogels are composed of a network structure of cross-linked nanosheets. The reported method is based on the in situ co-reduction of GO and silver acetate within the hydrogel matrix to form RGO-based composite gel. The stabilization of silver nanoparticles was also achieved simultaneously within the gel composite system. The as-formed silver nanoparticles were found to be homogeneously and uniformly dispersed on the surface of the RGO nanosheets within the composite gel. More importantly, this RGO-based silver nanoparticle-containing composite hydrogel matrix acts as a potential catalyst for removing organic dye pollutants from an aqueous environment. Interestingly, the as-prepared catalytic composite matrix structure can be conveniently separated from an aqueous environment after the reaction, suggesting the potentially large-scale applications of the reduced graphene oxide-based nanoparticle-containing composite hydrogels for organic dye removal and wastewater treatment. PMID:26183266

  2. Manganese oxides-based composite electrodes for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dongyun; Ma, Jun; Huang, Mingyu; Liu, Feng; Chen, Taizhou; Liu, Chao; Ni, Hongjun

    2017-06-01

    In recent, nanostructured transition metal oxides as a new class of energy storage materials have widely attracted attention due to its excellent electrochemical performance for supercapacitors. The MnO2 based transition metal oxides and their composite electrode materials were focused in the review for supercapacitor applications. The researches on different nanostructures of manganese oxides such as Nano rods, Nano sheets, nanowires, nanotubes and so on have been discovered in recent years, together with brief explanations of their properties. Research on enhancing materials’ properties by designing combination of different materials on the micron or Nano scale is too limited, and therefore we discuss the effects of different components’ sizes and their synergy on the performance. Moreover, the low-cost and large-scale fabrication of flexible supercapacitors with high performance (high energy density and cycle stability) have been pointed out and studied.

  3. Properties and mechanisms of olfactory learning and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle T Tong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Memories are dynamic physical phenomena with psychometric forms as well as characteristic timescales. Most of our understanding of the cellular mechanisms underlying the neurophysiology of memory, however, derives from one-trial learning paradigms that, while powerful, do not fully embody the gradual, representational, and statistical aspects of cumulative learning. The early olfactory system -- particularly olfactory bulb -- comprises a reasonably well-understood and experimentally accessible neuronal network with intrinsic plasticity that underlies both one-trial (adult aversive, neonatal and cumulative (adult appetitive odor learning. These olfactory circuits employ many of the same molecular and structural mechanisms of memory as, for example, hippocampal circuits following inhibitory avoidance conditioning, but the temporal sequences of post-conditioning molecular events are likely to differ owing to the need to incorporate new information from ongoing learning events into the evolving memory trace. Moreover, the shapes of acquired odor representations, and their gradual transformation over the course of cumulative learning, also can be directly measured, adding an additional representational dimension to the traditional metrics of memory strength and persistence. In this review, we describe some established molecular and structural mechanisms of memory with a focus on the timecourses of post-conditioning molecular processes. We describe the properties of odor learning intrinsic to the olfactory bulb and review the utility of the olfactory system of adult rodents as a memory system in which to study the cellular mechanisms of cumulative learning.

  4. Olfactory insights into sleep-dependent learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Laura K; Gottfried, Jay A

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is pervasive throughout most of the animal kingdom-even jellyfish and honeybees do it. Although the precise function of sleep remains elusive, research increasingly suggests that sleep plays a key role in memory consolidation. Newly formed memories are highly labile and susceptible to interference, and the sleep period offers an optimal window in which memories can be strengthened or modified. Interestingly, a small but growing research area has begun to explore the ability of odors to modulate memories during sleep. The unique anatomical organization of the olfactory system, including its intimate overlap with limbic systems mediating emotion and memory, and the lack of a requisite thalamic intermediary between the nasal periphery and olfactory cortex, suggests that odors may have privileged access to the brain during sleep. Indeed, it has become clear that the long-held assumption that odors have no impact on the sleeping brain is no longer tenable. Here, we summarize recent studies in both animal and human models showing that odor stimuli experienced in the waking state modulate olfactory cortical responses in sleep-like states, that delivery of odor contextual cues during sleep can enhance declarative memory and extinguish fear memory, and that olfactory associative learning can even be achieved entirely within sleep. Data reviewed here spotlight the emergence of a new research area that should hold far-reaching implications for future neuroscientific investigations of sleep, learning and memory, and olfactory system function. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantum Dot Distribution in the Olfactory Epithelium After Nasal Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzotto, D.; De Marchis, S.

    2010-10-01

    Nanoparticles are used in a wide range of human applications from industrial to bio-medical fields. However, the unique characteristics of nanoparticles, such as the small size, large surface area per mass and high reactivity raises great concern on the adverse effects of these particles on ecological systems and human health. There are several pioneer studies reporting translocation of inhaled particulates to the brain through a potential neuronal uptake mediated by the olfactory nerve (1, 2, 3). However, no direct evidences have been presented up to now on the pathway followed by the nanoparticles from the nose to the brain. In addition to a neuronal pathway, nanoparticles could gain access to the central nervous system through extracellular pathways (perineuronal, perivascular and cerebrospinal fluid paths). In the present study we investigate the localization of intranasally delivered fluorescent nanoparticles in the olfactory epithelium. To this purpose we used quantum dots (QDs), a model of innovative fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals commonly used in cell and animal biology (4). Intranasal treatments with QDs were performed acutely on adult CD1 mice. The olfactory epithelium was collected and analysed by confocal microscopy at different survival time after treatment. Data obtained indicate that the neuronal components of the olfactory epithelium are not preferentially involved in QDs uptake, thus suggesting nanoparticles can cross the olfactory epithelium through extracellular pathways.

  6. Muscarinic ACh Receptors Contribute to Aversive Olfactory Learning in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bryon; Molina-Fernández, Claudia; Ugalde, María Beatriz; Tognarelli, Eduardo I; Angel, Cristian; Campusano, Jorge M

    2015-01-01

    The most studied form of associative learning in Drosophila consists in pairing an odorant, the conditioned stimulus (CS), with an unconditioned stimulus (US). The timely arrival of the CS and US information to a specific Drosophila brain association region, the mushroom bodies (MB), can induce new olfactory memories. Thus, the MB is considered a coincidence detector. It has been shown that olfactory information is conveyed to the MB through cholinergic inputs that activate acetylcholine (ACh) receptors, while the US is encoded by biogenic amine (BA) systems. In recent years, we have advanced our understanding on the specific neural BA pathways and receptors involved in olfactory learning and memory. However, little information exists on the contribution of cholinergic receptors to this process. Here we evaluate for the first time the proposition that, as in mammals, muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs) contribute to memory formation in Drosophila. Our results show that pharmacological and genetic blockade of mAChRs in MB disrupts olfactory aversive memory in larvae. This effect is not explained by an alteration in the ability of animals to respond to odorants or to execute motor programs. These results show that mAChRs in MB contribute to generating olfactory memories in Drosophila.

  7. Classical olfactory conditioning in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li Liu

    Full Text Available The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a serious pest of fruits and vegetables. Methyl eugenol (ME, a male attractant, is used to against this fly by mass trapping. Control effect may be influenced by learning, which could modify the olfactory response of the fly to this attractant. To collect the behavioral evidence, studies on the capability of this fly for olfactory learning are necessary. We investigated olfactory learning in male flies with a classical olfactory conditioning procedure using restrained individuals under laboratory conditions. The acquisition of the proboscis extension reflex was used as the criterion for conditioning. A high conditioned response level was found in oriental fruit flies when an odor was presented in paired association with a sucrose reward but not when the odor and sucrose were presented unpaired. We also found that the conditioning performance was influenced by the odor concentration, intertrial interval, and starvation time. A slight sensitization elicited by imbibing sucrose was observed. These results indicate that oriental fruit flies have a high capacity to form an olfactory memory as a result of classical conditioning.

  8. Sad man's nose: Emotion induction and olfactory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohr, Elena L R; Erwin, Elena; Croy, Ilona; Hummel, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Emotional and olfactory processing is frequently shown to be closely linked both anatomically and functionally. Depression, a disease closely related to the emotional state of sadness, has been shown to be associated with a decrease in olfactory sensitivity. The present study focuses on the state of sadness in n = 31 healthy subjects in order to investigate the specific contribution of this affective state in the modulation of olfactory processing. A sad or indifferent affective state was induced using 2 movies that were presented on 2 separate days. Afterward, chemosensory-evoked potentials were recorded after stimulation with an unpleasant (hydrogen sulfide: "rotten eggs") or a pleasant (phenyl ethyl alcohol: "rose") odorant. Latencies of N1 and P2 peaks were longer after induction of the sad affective state. Additionally, amplitudes were lower in a sad affective state when being stimulated with the unpleasant odorant. Processing of olfactory input has thus been reduced under conditions of the sad affective state. We argue that the affective state per se could at least partially account for the reduced olfactory sensitivity in depressed patients. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to show influence of affective state on chemosensory event-related potentials. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Nutrient Sensing: Another Chemosensitivity of the Olfactory System

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    A-Karyn Julliard

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Olfaction is a major sensory modality involved in real time perception of the chemical composition of the external environment. Olfaction favors anticipation and rapid adaptation of behavioral responses necessary for animal survival. Furthermore, recent studies have demonstrated that there is a direct action of metabolic peptides on the olfactory network. Orexigenic peptides such as ghrelin and orexin increase olfactory sensitivity, which in turn, is decreased by anorexigenic hormones such as insulin and leptin. In addition to peptides, nutrients can play a key role on neuronal activity. Very little is known about nutrient sensing in olfactory areas. Nutrients, such as carbohydrates, amino acids, and lipids, could play a key role in modulating olfactory sensitivity to adjust feeding behavior according to metabolic need. Here we summarize recent findings on nutrient-sensing neurons in olfactory areas and delineate the limits of our knowledge on this topic. The present review opens new lines of investigations on the relationship between olfaction and food intake, which could contribute to determining the etiology of metabolic disorders.

  10. The influence of olfactory loss on dietary behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Katja; Hummel, Cornelia; Teszmer, Katja; Krone, Franziska; Ishimaru, Tadashi; Seo, Han-Seok; Hummel, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    To assess dietary behavior and possible changes in food selection in patients with smell loss. A total of 176 patients (114 women and 62 men) age 17 to 86 years were classified into three diagnostic groups (normosmia, n = 12; hyposmia, n = 75; functional anosmia, n = 89) according to their olfactory test scores obtained with "Sniffin' Sticks." Group differences in food intake and dietary behaviors were investigated with a specifically designed questionnaire providing a dietary alterations score (DAS). Numerous dietary changes were reported, e.g., 29% of all patients reported that they eat less since the onset of olfactory dysfunction, 39% use more spices with their food, 47% go out to eat at restaurants less frequently, 37% eat less sweets, and 48% drink less sweet beverages. Subjects with weight gain or weight loss scored higher on the DAS scale than subjects who did not report changes in weight. Similarly, DAS scale changes were more pronounced in subjects with a gradual onset of olfactory loss compared to subjects with a sudden loss of olfaction. Finally, a change of taste preferences toward savory and salty foods was observed across all patients enrolled in the present study. Patients with olfactory loss report alterations of dietary behaviors. Numerous factors appear to impact the results of olfactory loss in terms of changes in diet.

  11. Solution processed lanthanum aluminate gate dielectrics for use in metal oxide-based thin film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esro, M.; Adamopoulos, G., E-mail: g.adamopoulos@lancaster.ac.uk [Engineering Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YR (United Kingdom); Mazzocco, R.; Kolosov, O.; Krier, A. [Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Vourlias, G. [Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Milne, W. I. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Department of Electrical and Computing Engineering, University of Canterbury, 4800 Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2015-05-18

    We report on ZnO-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) employing lanthanum aluminate gate dielectrics (La{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}O{sub y}) grown by spray pyrolysis in ambient atmosphere at 440 °C. The structural, electronic, optical, morphological, and electrical properties of the La{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}O{sub y} films and devices as a function of the lanthanum to aluminium atomic ratio were investigated using a wide range of characterization techniques such as UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, impedance spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and field-effect measurements. As-deposited LaAlO{sub y} dielectrics exhibit a wide band gap (∼6.18 eV), high dielectric constant (k ∼ 16), low roughness (∼1.9 nm), and very low leakage currents (<3 nA/cm{sup 2}). TFTs employing solution processed LaAlO{sub y} gate dielectrics and ZnO semiconducting channels exhibit excellent electron transport characteristics with hysteresis-free operation, low operation voltages (∼10 V), high on/off current modulation ratio of >10{sup 6}, subthreshold swing of ∼650 mV dec{sup −1}, and electron mobility of ∼12 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}.

  12. Metal oxide-based, nano-structured catalyst materials for water oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Fekete, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen has the potential to revolutionalise the transportation fuels market towards a greener future. (Photo)electrocatalytic water splitting into oxygen and hydrogen, at present, is one of the most promising technologies that could render large-scale hydrogen production commercially viable. One of the main challenges that has hampered the widespread use of water electrolysis techniques is the large overpotential involved in the water oxidation (anode) reaction, that accompanies the hydr...

  13. Radial glia phagocytose axonal debris from degenerating overextending axons in the developing olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Daniel A; Wegner, Michael; Stolt, C Claus; Chehrehasa, Fatemeh; Ekberg, Jenny A K; St John, James A

    2015-02-01

    Axon targeting during the development of the olfactory system is not always accurate, and numerous axons overextend past the target layer into the deeper layers of the olfactory bulb. To date, the fate of the mis-targeted axons has not been determined. We hypothesized that following overextension, the axons degenerate, and cells within the deeper layers of the olfactory bulb phagocytose the axonal debris. We utilized a line of transgenic mice that expresses ZsGreen fluorescent protein in primary olfactory axons. We found that overextending axons closely followed the filaments of radial glia present in the olfactory bulb during embryonic development. Following overextension into deeper layers of the olfactory bulb, axons degenerated and radial glia responded by phagocytosing the resulting debris. We used in vitro analysis to confirm that the radial glia had phagocytosed debris from olfactory axons. We also investigated whether the fate of overextending axons was altered when the development of the olfactory bulb was perturbed. In mice that lacked Sox10, a transcription factor essential for normal olfactory bulb development, we observed a disruption to the morphology and positioning of radial glia and an accumulation of olfactory axon debris within the bulb. Our results demonstrate that during early development of the olfactory system, radial glia play an important role in removing overextended axons from the deeper layers of the olfactory bulb. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Olfactory coding in antennal neurons of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Y.T.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Takken, W.; Meijerink, J.; Smid, H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in the antenna of insects serve to encode odors in action potential activity conducted to the olfactory lobe of the deuterocerebrum. We performed an analysis of the electrophysiological responses of olfactory neurons in the antennae of the female malaria mosquito

  15. Use of thallium transport to visualize functional olfactory nerve regeneration in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga, Hideaki; Washiyama, Kohshin; Hirota, Kyoko; Amano, Ryohei; Furukawa, Mitsuru; Miwa, Takaki

    2009-12-01

    To image olfactory nerve regeneration in vivo using a high-resolution gamma cam- era and radiography after nasal administration of thallium-201 (olfacto-scintigraphy). Six Wistar rats were trained to avoid the smell of cycloheximide as a test of olfactory function. The olfactory nerve fibers of 3 rats were then carefully transected bilaterally with a Teflon knife, avoiding damage to the olfactory bulbs. The remaining 3 rats underwent sham operations and were used as controls. Steel wires were implanted in the left olfactory bulb of each rat for locating the bulbs with plain X-rays. The rats were assessed 2, 14, 28, and 42 d after the olfactory nerve transection or sham operation for their ability to detect odours and for transport of 201Tl to the olfactory bulb area 8 h after nasal administration of 201Tl. Both transport of 201Tl to the olfactory bulb area (p < 0.04) and ability to detect odours (p < 0.04) significantly increased with a time course after olfactory nerve transection. 201Tl transport to the olfactory bulb may be useful to visually assess olfactory ability in vivo. We plan to test olfacto-scintigraphy clinically by nasal administration of 201Tl in patients with posttraumatic olfactory loss.

  16. A subtype-specific critical period for neurogenesis in the postnatal development of mouse olfactory glomeruli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuko Kato

    Full Text Available Sensory input is essential for the normal development of sensory centers in the brain, such as the somatosensory, visual, auditory, and olfactory systems. Visual deprivation during a specific developmental stage, called the critical period, results in severe and irreversible functional impairments in the primary visual cortex. Olfactory deprivation in the early postnatal period also causes significant developmental defects in the olfactory bulb, the primary center for olfaction. Olfactory bulb interneurons are continuously generated from neural stem cells in the ventricular-subventricular zone, suggesting that the olfactory system has plasticity even in adulthood. Here, we investigated the effect of transient neonatal olfactory deprivation on the addition of interneurons to the glomerular layer of the adult mouse olfactory bulb. We found that the addition of one subtype of interneurons was persistently inhibited even after reopening the naris. BrdU pulse-chase experiments revealed that the neonatal olfactory deprivation predominantly affected an early phase in the maturation of this neuronal subtype in the olfactory bulb. Subjecting the mice to odor stimulation for 6 weeks after naris reopening resulted in significant recovery from the histological and functional defects caused by the olfactory deprivation. These results suggest that a subtype-specific critical period exists for olfactory bulb neurogenesis, but that this period is less strict and more plastic compared with the critical periods for other systems. This study provides new insights into the mechanisms of postnatal neurogenesis and a biological basis for the therapeutic effect of olfactory training.

  17. Deletion of Type 3 Adenylyl Cyclase Perturbs the Postnatal Maturation of Olfactory Sensory Neurons and Olfactory Cilium Ultrastructure in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhe; Yang, Dong; Zhang, Mengdi; Zhu, Ning; Zhou, Yanfen; Storm, Daniel R; Wang, Zhenshan

    2017-01-01

    Type 3 adenylyl cyclase (Adcy3) is localized to the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and is an essential component of the olfactory cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathway. Although the role of this enzyme in odor detection and axonal projection in OSNs was previously characterized, researchers will still have to determine its function in the maturation of postnatal OSNs and olfactory cilium ultrastructure. Previous studies on newborns showed that the anatomic structure of the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of Adcy3 knockout mice ( Adcy3 -/- ) is indistinguishable from that of their wild-type littermates ( Adcy3 +/+ ), whereas the architecture and associated composition of MOE are relatively underdeveloped at this early age. The full effects of sensory deprivation on OSNs may not also be exhibited in such age. In the present study, following a comparison of postnatal OSNs in seven-, 30-, and 90-day-old Adcy3 -/- mice and wild-type controls ( Adcy 3 +/+ ), we observed that the absence of Adcy3 leads to cumulative defects in the maturation of OSNs. Upon aging, Adcy3 -/- OSNs exhibited increase in immature cells and reduction in mature cells along with elevated apoptosis levels. The density and ultrastructure of Adcy3 -/- cilia were also disrupted in mice upon aging. Collectively, our results reveal an indispensable role of Adcy3 in postnatal maturation of OSNs and maintenance of olfactory cilium ultrastructure in mice through adulthood.

  18. Evidence for a Peripheral Olfactory Memory in Imprinted Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevitt, Gabrielle A.; Dittman, Andrew H.; Quinn, Thomas P.; Moody, William J., Jr.

    1994-05-01

    The remarkable homing ability of salmon relies on olfactory cues, but its cellular basis is unknown. To test the role of peripheral olfactory receptors in odorant memory retention, we imprinted coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to micromolar concentrations of phenyl ethyl alcohol during parr-smolt transformation. The following year, we measured phenyl ethyl alcohol responses in the peripheral receptor cells using patch clamp. Cells from imprinted fish showed increased sensitivity to phenyl ethyl alcohol compared either to cells from naive fish or to sensitivity to another behaviorally important odorant (L-serine). Field experiments verified an increased behavioral preference for phenyl ethyl alcohol by imprinted salmon as adults. Thus, some component of the imprinted olfactory homestream memory appears to be retained peripherally.

  19. Increased dopaminergic signaling impairs aversive olfactory memory retention in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shixing; Yin, Yan; Lu, Huimin; Guo, Aike

    2008-05-23

    Dopamine is necessary for the aversive olfactory associative memory formation in Drosophila, but its effect on other stages of memory is not known. Herein, we studied the effect of enhanced dopaminergic signaling on aversive olfactory memory retention in flies. We used l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) to elevate dopamine levels: l-DOPA-treated flies exhibited a normal learning performance, but a decrease in 1-h memory. Dopamine transporter (DAT) mutant flies or flies treated with the DAT inhibitor desipramine exhibited poor memory retention. Flies subjected to heat stress after training exhibited a decrease in memory. Memory was restored by blocking dopaminergic neuronal output during heat stress, suggesting that dopamine is involved in heat stress-induced memory impairment in flies. Taken together, our findings suggest that increased dopaminergic signaling impairs aversive olfactory memory retention in flies.

  20. Self-grounding visual, auditory and olfactory autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knez, Igor; Ljunglöf, Louise; Arshamian, Artin; Willander, Johan

    2017-07-01

    Given that autobiographical memory provides a cognitive foundation for the self, we investigated the relative importance of visual, auditory and olfactory autobiographical memories for the self. Thirty subjects, with a mean age of 35.4years, participated in a study involving a three×three within-subject design containing nine different types of autobiographical memory cues: pictures, sounds and odors presented with neutral, positive and negative valences. It was shown that visual compared to auditory and olfactory autobiographical memories involved higher cognitive and emotional constituents for the self. Furthermore, there was a trend showing positive autobiographical memories to increase their proportion to both cognitive and emotional components of the self, from olfactory to auditory to visually cued autobiographical memories; but, yielding a reverse trend for negative autobiographical memories. Finally, and independently of modality, positive affective states were shown to be more involved in autobiographical memory than negative ones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of flumethrin on survival and olfactory learning in honeybees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Tan

    Full Text Available Flumethrin has been widely used as an acaricide for the control of Varroa mites in commercial honeybee keeping throughout the world for many years. Here we test the mortality of the Asian honeybee Apis cerana cerana after treatment with flumethrin. We also ask (1 how bees react to the odor of flumethrin, (2 whether its odor induces an innate avoidance response, (3 whether its taste transmits an aversive reinforcing component in olfactory learning, and (4 whether its odor or taste can be associated with reward in classical conditioning. Our results show that flumethrin has a negative effect on Apis ceranàs lifespan, induces an innate avoidance response, acts as a punishing reinforcer in olfactory learning, and interferes with the association of an appetitive conditioned stimulus. Furthermore flumethrin uptake within the colony reduces olfactory learning over an extended period of time.

  2. Atypical olfactory groove meningioma associated with uterine fibromatosis; case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma I. Papacocea

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The concomitant presence of the olfactory groove meningioma with uterine fibrosis is very rare. Our report presents the case of a giant olfactory groove meningioma revealed after a uterine fibroma resection in a 44 years-old female, due to a generalized seizure 10 days after operation. Cranial CT-scan identified the tumor as an olfactory groove meningioma. The tumor was operated with a macroscopically complete resection; the endothermal coagulation of the dura attachment was performed (Simpson II with a good postoperative evolution. Laboratory results showed the presence of receptors for steroid hormones both in meningioma and uterine tumor, and the histopathological examination revealed an atypical meningioma with 17% proliferation markers. Our findings suggest that even though meningiomas are benign tumors and a complete resection usually indicates a good prognosis, the association with uterine fibromatosis and the presence of high percentage of steroid receptors creates a higher risk to relapse, imposing therefore a good monitoring.

  3. Methodological Considerations in Conducting an Olfactory fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Vedaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The sense of smell is a complex chemosensory processing in human and animals that allows them to connect with the environment as one of their chief sensory systems. In the field of functional brain imaging, many studies have focused on locating brain regions that are involved during olfactory processing. Despite wealth of literature about brain network in different olfactory tasks, there is a paucity of data regarding task design. Moreover, considering importance of olfactory tasks for patients with variety of neurological diseases, special contemplations should be addressed for patients. In this article, we review current olfaction tasks for behavioral studies and functional neuroimaging assessments, as well as technical principles regarding utilization of these tasks in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

  4. Associative cortex features in the first olfactory brain relay station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, Wilder; Gire, David H; Whitesell, Jennifer; Carmean, Vanessa; Lucero, Mary T; Restrepo, Diego

    2011-03-24

    Synchronized firing of mitral cells (MCs) in the olfactory bulb (OB) has been hypothesized to help bind information together in olfactory cortex (OC). In this survey of synchronized firing by suspected MCs in awake, behaving vertebrates, we find the surprising result that synchronized firing conveys information on odor value ("Is it rewarded?") rather than odor identity ("What is the odor?"). We observed that as mice learned to discriminate between odors, synchronous firing responses to the rewarded and unrewarded odors became divergent. Furthermore, adrenergic blockage decreases the magnitude of odor divergence of synchronous trains, suggesting that MCs contribute to decision-making through adrenergic-modulated synchronized firing. Thus, in the olfactory system information on stimulus reward is found in MCs one synapse away from the sensory neuron. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The olfactory tubercle encodes odor valence in behaving mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadziola, Marie A; Tylicki, Kate A; Christian, Diana L; Wesson, Daniel W

    2015-03-18

    Sensory information acquires meaning to adaptively guide behaviors. Despite odors mediating a number of vital behaviors, the components of the olfactory system responsible for assigning meaning to odors remain unclear. The olfactory tubercle (OT), a ventral striatum structure that receives monosynaptic input from the olfactory bulb, is uniquely positioned to transform odor information into behaviorally relevant neural codes. No information is available, however, on the coding of odors among OT neurons in behaving animals. In recordings from mice engaged in an odor discrimination task, we report that the firing rate of OT neurons robustly and flexibly encodes the valence of conditioned odors over identity, with rewarded odors evoking greater firing rates. This coding of rewarded odors occurs before behavioral decisions and represents subsequent behavioral responses. We predict that the OT is an essential region whereby odor valence is encoded in the mammalian brain to guide goal-directed behaviors. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/354515-13$15.00/0.

  6. Stimulus-response functions of single avian olfactory bulb neurones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeegan, Dorothy E F; Demmers, Theodorus G M; Wathes, Christopher M; Jones, R Bryan; Gentle, Michael J

    2002-10-25

    This study investigated olfactory processing in a functional context by examining the responses of single avian olfactory bulb neurones to two biologically important gases over relevant concentration ranges. Recordings of extracellular spike activity were made from 80 single units in the left olfactory bulb of 11 anaesthetised, freely breathing adult hens (Gallus domesticus). The units were spontaneously active, exhibiting widely variable firing rates (0.07-47.28 spikes/s) and variable temporal firing patterns. Single units were tested for their response to an ascending concentration series of either ammonia (2.5-100 ppm) or hydrogen sulphide (1-50 ppm), delivered directly to the olfactory epithelium. Stimulation with a calibrated gas delivery system resulted in modification of spontaneous activity causing either inhibition (47% of units) or excitation (53%) of firing. For ammonia, 20 of the 35 units tested exhibited a response, while for hydrogen sulphide, 25 of the 45 units tested were responsive. Approximate response thresholds for ammonia (median threshold 3.75 ppm (range 2.5-60 ppm, n=20)) and hydrogen sulphide (median threshold 1 ppm (range 1-10 ppm, n=25)) were determined with most units exhibiting thresholds near the lower end of these ranges. Stimulus response curves were constructed for 23 units; 16 (the most complete) were subjected to a linear regression analysis to determine whether they were best fitted by a linear, log or power function. No single function provided the best fit for all the curves (seven were linear, eight were log, one was power). These findings show that avian units respond to changes in stimulus concentration in a manner generally consistent with reported responses in mammalian olfactory bulb neurones. However, this study illustrates a level of fine-tuning to small step changes in concentration (<5 ppm) not previously demonstrated in vertebrate single olfactory bulb neurones.

  7. Olfactory interference during inhibitory backward pairing in honey bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Dacher

    Full Text Available Restrained worker honey bees are a valuable model for studying the behavioral and neural bases of olfactory plasticity. The proboscis extension response (PER; the proboscis is the mouthpart of honey bees is released in response to sucrose stimulation. If sucrose stimulation is preceded one or a few times by an odor (forward pairing, the bee will form a memory for this association, and subsequent presentations of the odor alone are sufficient to elicit the PER. However, backward pairing between the two stimuli (sucrose, then odor has not been studied to any great extent in bees, although the vertebrate literature indicates that it elicits a form of inhibitory plasticity.If hungry bees are fed with sucrose, they will release a long lasting PER; however, this PER can be interrupted if an odor is presented 15 seconds (but not 7 or 30 seconds after the sucrose (backward pairing. We refer to this previously unreported process as olfactory interference. Bees receiving this 15 second backward pairing show reduced performance after a subsequent single forward pairing (excitatory conditioning trial. Analysis of the results supported a relationship between olfactory interference and a form of backward pairing-induced inhibitory learning/memory. Injecting the drug cimetidine into the deutocerebrum impaired olfactory interference.Olfactory interference depends on the associative link between odor and PER, rather than between odor and sucrose. Furthermore, pairing an odor with sucrose can lead either to association of this odor to PER or to the inhibition of PER by this odor. Olfactory interference may provide insight into processes that gate how excitatory and inhibitory memories for odor-PER associations are formed.

  8. Functional MRI of the olfactory system in conscious dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Jia

    Full Text Available We depend upon the olfactory abilities of dogs for critical tasks such as detecting bombs, landmines, other hazardous chemicals and illicit substances. Hence, a mechanistic understanding of the olfactory system in dogs is of great scientific interest. Previous studies explored this aspect at the cellular and behavior levels; however, the cognitive-level neural substrates linking them have never been explored. This is critical given the fact that behavior is driven by filtered sensory representations in higher order cognitive areas rather than the raw odor maps of the olfactory bulb. Since sedated dogs cannot sniff, we investigated this using functional magnetic resonance imaging of conscious dogs. We addressed the technical challenges of head motion using a two pronged strategy of behavioral training to keep dogs' head as still as possible and a single camera optical head motion tracking system to account for residual jerky movements. We built a custom computer-controlled odorant delivery system which was synchronized with image acquisition, allowing the investigation of brain regions activated by odors. The olfactory bulb and piriform lobes were commonly activated in both awake and anesthetized dogs, while the frontal cortex was activated mainly in conscious dogs. Comparison of responses to low and high odor intensity showed differences in either the strength or spatial extent of activation in the olfactory bulb, piriform lobes, cerebellum, and frontal cortex. Our results demonstrate the viability of the proposed method for functional imaging of the olfactory system in conscious dogs. This could potentially open up a new field of research in detector dog technology.

  9. Olfactory dysfunction and cardiovascular dysautonomia in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Hisayoshi; Toyoda, Chizuko; Yogo, Makiko; Mochio, Soichiro

    2010-06-01

    Several studies have reported that olfactory dysfunction is an early neuropathological manifestation of Parkinson's disease (PD). Reduced cardiac meta-iodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-MIBG) uptake may be one of the earliest signs of PD. We studied the relation of olfactory dysfunction to cardiovascular dysautonomia in patients with PD. The study group comprised 66 patients with PD (70.5 years) and 26 controls (70.3 years) for olfactory assessment, 21 controls (72.1 years) for cardiac (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy and heart rate variability (HRV), assessed using the coefficient of variation for RR intervals (HRV), and 23 controls (69.2 years) for orthostatic blood pressure response. Olfactory function was assessed by the odor stick identification test Japan (OSIT-J), and cardiovascular autonomic function was evaluated by (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy of the heart, the fall in orthostatic blood pressure, and HRV. Patients with PD had a significantly lower OSIT-J score than did the controls (4.1 +/- 3.0 vs. 9.9 +/- 1.7, p = 0.001). The OSIT-J score was unrelated to variables other than gender, including age, disease duration, motor score on the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale, score on the mini-mental state examination, motor phenotype, visual hallucinations, and dopaminergic medication on multiple regression and logistic regression analyses. The OSIT-J score was related to the heart/mediastinum ratio of cardiac (123)I-MIBG uptake, the fall in orthostatic blood pressure, and HRV, after adjustment for other clinical variables. Olfactory dysfunction in PD was, thus, significantly related to both cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic dysfunction, as well as vascular sympathetic dysfunction. As non-motor symptoms of PD, olfactory dysfunction and autonomic network failure appear to be closely related in PD.

  10. Effects of pyridine inhalation exposure on olfactory epithelium in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buron, G; Hacquemand, R; Pourié, G; Jacquot, L; Brand, G

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory neurons in the nasal mucosa have the capacity to regenerate continuously along the lifespan by neurogenesis processes starting with progenitor cells close to the basal lamina. The cellular turnover into olfactory neuroepithelium may be modified by environmental stimuli insofar as nasal mucosa is directly in contact with airborne chemicals. However, few studies have been focused on selective changes, especially those concerning mature olfactory neurons and basal cells during specific inhalation exposure. Among chemicals, solvents are known to induce changes in smell abilities and concomitant histological and cellular modifications related to the type of molecule, concentration and time of exposure. This study was designed to characterize smell sensitivity (using behavioral tests) and immunohistochemical effects on olfactory neuroepithelium induced by pyridine exposure in mice. Olfactory marker protein (OMP) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were used to characterize respectively mature olfactory neurons and basal cells. Results showed that inhalation exposure to pyridine had no impact on smell sensitivity whatever the concentration used and the time of exposure. These findings were in agreement with immunohistochemical measurements showing the same cellular kinetic whatever the condition of exposition to pyridine. Indeed, OMP-positive cells increased and PCNA-positive cells decreased as early as the beginning of exposure and cell amounts remained stable at this level until the end of exposure. These findings suggest that pyridine could have the property to rapidly activate a cellular turnover from basal cell progenitors. Rather than toxic effects, the present findings suggest that the metabolites of pyridine might have cell cycle activation properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Functional MRI of the olfactory system in conscious dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hao; Pustovyy, Oleg M; Waggoner, Paul; Beyers, Ronald J; Schumacher, John; Wildey, Chester; Barrett, Jay; Morrison, Edward; Salibi, Nouha; Denney, Thomas S; Vodyanoy, Vitaly J; Deshpande, Gopikrishna

    2014-01-01

    We depend upon the olfactory abilities of dogs for critical tasks such as detecting bombs, landmines, other hazardous chemicals and illicit substances. Hence, a mechanistic understanding of the olfactory system in dogs is of great scientific interest. Previous studies explored this aspect at the cellular and behavior levels; however, the cognitive-level neural substrates linking them have never been explored. This is critical given the fact that behavior is driven by filtered sensory representations in higher order cognitive areas rather than the raw odor maps of the olfactory bulb. Since sedated dogs cannot sniff, we investigated this using functional magnetic resonance imaging of conscious dogs. We addressed the technical challenges of head motion using a two pronged strategy of behavioral training to keep dogs' head as still as possible and a single camera optical head motion tracking system to account for residual jerky movements. We built a custom computer-controlled odorant delivery system which was synchronized with image acquisition, allowing the investigation of brain regions activated by odors. The olfactory bulb and piriform lobes were commonly activated in both awake and anesthetized dogs, while the frontal cortex was activated mainly in conscious dogs. Comparison of responses to low and high odor intensity showed differences in either the strength or spatial extent of activation in the olfactory bulb, piriform lobes, cerebellum, and frontal cortex. Our results demonstrate the viability of the proposed method for functional imaging of the olfactory system in conscious dogs. This could potentially open up a new field of research in detector dog technology.

  12. Processing of Sensory Information in the Olfactory System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The olfactory system is an attractive model system due to the easy control of sensory input and the experimental accessibility in animal studies. The odorant signals are processed from receptor neurons to a neural network of mitral and granular cells while various types of nonlinear behaviour can...... and equation-free techniques allow for a better reproduction and understanding of recent experimental findings. Talks: Olfaction as a Model System for Sensory-Processing Neural Networks (Jens Midtgaard, University of Copenhagen, Denmark) Nonlinear Effects of Signal Transduction in Olfactory Sensory Neurons...

  13. Taste, olfactory and trigeminal neophobia in rats with forebrain lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-You; Roman, Christopher; St Andre, Justin; Reilly, Steve

    2009-01-28

    The present study was designed to examine whether lesions of the insular cortex (IC; Experiment 1), the basolateral amygdala (BLA) or medial amygdala (MeA; Experiment 2) influence the neophobic reactions to orally consumed liquid stimuli. Three different types of stimuli were used: taste (0.5% saccharin), olfactory (0.1% amyl acetate), and trigeminal (0.01 mM capsaicin). Rats with IC, BLA and MeA lesions showed normal responses to the olfactory and trigeminal stimuli. Each type of lesion, however, disrupted the initial occurrence of neophobia to the taste stimulus. The significance of these findings to conditioned taste aversion is discussed.

  14. A neural network model for olfactory glomerular activity prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Zu; Tsuji, Toshio; Takiguchi, Noboru; Ohtake, Hisao

    2012-12-01

    Recently, the importance of odors and methods for their evaluation have seen increased emphasis, especially in the fragrance and food industries. Although odors can be characterized by their odorant components, their chemical information cannot be directly related to the flavors we perceive. Biological research has revealed that neuronal activity related to glomeruli (which form part of the olfactory system) is closely connected to odor qualities. Here we report on a neural network model of the olfactory system that can predict glomerular activity from odorant molecule structures. We also report on the learning and prediction ability of the proposed model.

  15. Nuclear architecture and gene silencing in olfactory sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armelin-Correa, Lucia M; Nagai, Maíra H; Leme Silva, Artur G; Malnic, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Odorants are discriminated by hundreds of odorant receptor (OR) genes, which are dispersed throughout the mammalian genome. The OR genes are expressed in a highly specialized type of cell, the olfactory sensory neuron. Each one of these neurons expresses one of the 2 alleles from one single OR gene type. The mechanisms underlying OR gene expression are unclear. Here we describe recent work demonstrating that the olfactory sensory neuron shows a particular nuclear architecture, and that the genomic OR loci are colocalized in silencing heterochromatin compartments within the nucleus. These discoveries highlight the important role played by epigenetic modifications and nuclear genome organization in the regulation of OR gene expression.

  16. Olfactory inputs activate the medial entorhinal cortex via the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biella, G; de Curtis, M

    2000-04-01

    The lateral and medial regions of the entorhinal cortex differ substantially in terms of connectivity and pattern of activation. With regard to olfactory input, a detailed and extensive physiological map of the olfactory projection to the entorhinal cortex is missing, even if anatomic studies suggest that the olfactory afferents are confined to the lateral and rostral entorhinal region. We studied the contribution of the medial and lateral entorhinal areas to olfactory processing by analyzing the responses induced by lateral olfactory tract stimulation in different entorhinal subfields of the in vitro isolated guinea pig brain. The pattern of synaptic activation of the medial and lateral entorhinal regions was reconstructed either by performing simultaneous multisite recordings or by applying current source density analysis on field potential laminar profiles obtained with 16-channel silicon probes. Current source density analysis demonstrated the existence of a direct monosynaptic olfactory input into the superficial 300 microm of the most rostral part of the lateral entorhinal cortex exclusively, whereas disynaptic sinks mediated by associative fibers arising from the piriform cortex were observed at 100-350 microm depth in the entire lateral aspect of the cortex. No local field responses were recorded in the medial entorhinal region unless a large population spike was generated in the hippocampus (dentate gyrus and CA1 region) by a stimulus 3-5x the intensity necessary to obtain a maximal monosynaptic response in the piriform cortex. In these conditions, a late sink was recorded at a depth of 600-1000 microm in the medial entorhinal area (layers III-V) 10.6 +/- 0.9 (SD) msec after a population spike was simultaneously recorded in CA1. Diffuse activation of the medial entorhinal region was also obtained by repetitive low-intensity stimulation of the lateral olfactory tract at 2-8 Hz. Higher or lower stimulation frequencies did not induce hippocampal

  17. A New Class of High Z Nanocrystalline and Textured Oxide-Based Thermoelectric Material, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop high figure of merit (ZT) oxide-based thermoelectric materials. This will be accomplished by engineering a novel microstructure that will lead...

  18. The mannose receptor is expressed by olfactory ensheathing cells in the rat olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Litia A; Nobrega, Alberto F; Soares, Igor D P; Carvalho, Sergio L; Allodi, Silvana; Baetas-da-Cruz, Wagner; Cavalcante, Leny A

    2013-12-01

    Complex carbohydrate structures are essential molecules of infectious bacteria, parasites, and host cells and are involved in cell signaling associated with immune responses, glycoprotein homeostasis, and cell migration. The uptake of mannose-tailed glycans is usually carried out by professional phagocytes to trigger MHC class I- and MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation or, alternatively, to end inflammation. We have detected the mannose receptor (MR) in cultured olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), so we investigated by flow cytometry whether recently dissociated cells of the olfactory bulb (OB) nerve fiber layer (ONL) could bind a mannosylated ligand (fluorescein conjugate of mannosyl bovine serum albumin; Man/BSA-FITC) in a specific manner. In addition, we estimated the relative proportion of ONL OECs, microglia, and astrocytes, tagged by 2'3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase), by the B4 isolectin of Griffonia simplicifonia (IB4), and by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), respectively, that were Man/BSA-FITC(+) . We also determined by histochemistry and/or immunohistochemistry whether Man/BSA-FITC or an anti-MR antibody (anti-C-terminal MR peptide; anti-cMR) labeled OECs and/or parenchymal microglia. In addition, we confirmed by Western blot with the K1K2 (against the entire MR molecule) antibody that a band of about 180 kDA is expressed in the OB. Our findings are compatible with a prospective sentinel role of OECs against pathogens of the upper airways and/or damage-associated glycidic patterns as well as with homeostasis of OB mannosylated glycoproteins. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Gamma Knife radiosurgery of olfactory groove meningiomas provides a method to preserve subjective olfactory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gande, Abhiram; Kano, Hideyuki; Bowden, Gregory; Mousavi, Seyed H; Niranjan, Ajay; Flickinger, John C; Lunsford, L Dade

    2014-02-01

    Anosmia is a common outcome after resection of olfactory groove meningioma(s) (OGM) and for some patients represents a significant disability. To evaluate long term tumor control rates and preservation of subjective olfaction after Gamma Knife (GK) stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of OGM. We performed a retrospective chart review and telephone assessments of 41 patients who underwent GK SRS between 1987 and 2008. Clinical outcomes were stratified by full, partial or no subjective olfaction, whereas tumor control was assessed by changes in volume greater or lesser than 25%. The median clinical and imaging follow-up were 76 and 65 months, respectively. Prior to SRS, 19 (46%) patients had surgical resections and two (5%) had received fractionated radiation therapy. Twenty four patients (59%) reported a normal sense of smell, 12 (29%) reported a reduced sense of smell and five (12%) had complete anosmia. The median tumor volume was 8.5 cm(3) (range 0.6-56.1), the mean radiation dose at the tumor margin was 13 Gy (range 10-20) and the median estimated dose to the olfactory nerve was 5.1 Gy (range 1.1-18.1). At follow-up, 27 patients (66%) reported intact olfaction (three (7%) described return to a normal sense of smell), nine (22%) described partial anosmia, and five (12%) had complete anosmia. No patient reported deterioration in olfaction after SRS. Thirteen patients (32%) showed significant tumor regression, 26 (63%) had no further growth and two (5%) had progressed. The progression free tumor control rates were 97% at 1 year and 95% at 2, 10 and 20 years. Symptomatic adverse radiation effects occurred in three (7%) patients. Stereotactic radiosurgery provided both long term tumor control and preservation of olfaction.

  20. Consolidation of an olfactory memory trace in the olfactory bulb is required for learning-induced survival of adult-born neurons and long-term memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Kermen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has recently been proposed that adult-born neurons in the olfactory bulb, whose survival is modulated by learning, support long-term olfactory memory. However, the mechanism used to select which adult-born neurons following learning will participate in the long-term retention of olfactory information is unknown. We addressed this question by investigating the effect of bulbar consolidation of olfactory learning on memory and neurogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Initially, we used a behavioral ecological approach using adult mice to assess the impact of consolidation on neurogenesis. Using learning paradigms in which consolidation time was varied, we showed that a spaced (across days, but not a massed (within day, learning paradigm increased survival of adult-born neurons and allowed long-term retention of the task. Subsequently, we used a pharmacological approach to block consolidation in the olfactory bulb, consisting in intrabulbar infusion of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin, and found impaired learning and no increase in neurogenesis, while basic olfactory processing and the basal rate of adult-born neuron survival remained unaffected. Taken together these data indicate that survival of adult-born neurons during learning depends on consolidation processes taking place in the olfactory bulb. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We can thus propose a model in which consolidation processes in the olfactory bulb determine both survival of adult-born neurons and long-term olfactory memory. The finding that adult-born neuron survival during olfactory learning is governed by consolidation in the olfactory bulb strongly argues in favor of a role for bulbar adult-born neurons in supporting olfactory memory.

  1. Olfactory neuroblastoma: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Marton; Osnes, Terje; Jebsen, Peter; Evensen, Jan Folkvard; Meling, Torstein R

    2018-01-01

    Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is a potentially curable disease, despite being an aggressive malignancy with a poor natural history. Our goal was to evaluate management outcomes for patients with ONB treated at our institution. Our prospective database for brain tumors and the pathology registry of head and neck cancers at Oslo University Hospital were searched to identify all patients treated for ONB between 1998 and 2016. Variables extracted from these databases, supplemented by retrospective chart reviews, underwent thorough analysis. All cases were formally re-examined by a dedicated head and neck pathologist. Twenty patients were identified. Follow-up was 100%. Mean follow-up was 81.5 months for the entire cohort and 120.3 months for patients with no evidence of disease. Fourteen patients underwent treatment of choice including craniofacial resection (CFR) with or without radiotherapy (XRT). Six patients could only receive less extensive treatment; three patients underwent lateral rhinotomy (LR) with or without XRT after being deemed medically unsuitable for CFR, while another three patients received only supportive, non-surgical treatment (due to positive lymph node status in two and to extensive tumor size in one case). Overall and disease-specific survival rates were 100% after 10 years of follow-up when negative surgical margins were achieved by CFR. Positive margins were associated with poorer outcome with no patients surviving longer than 44 months. Long-term survival was also achieved in two cases among patients not eligible for CFR: one case after radical LR and one case after radio-chemotherapy. Advanced disease at presentation (tumor size ≥40 mm, Kadish grades C and D, or TNM IVa and IVb) and positive surgical margins were correlated to significantly dismal survival. Our study suggests that CFR with or without adjuvant XRT is safe and leads to excellent long-time overall and disease-specific survival. Negative surgical margins, tumor size <40

  2. What is the short term effect of perfumes on olfactory thresholds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, A M; Gaskin, J A; Philpott, C M; Goodenough, P C; Elloy, M; Clark, A; Murty, G E

    2007-08-01

    Body sprays and perfumes are commonly worn by patients attending ENT out-patients clinics. Their effect on performance in olfactory testing is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether olfactory thresholds are altered by the presence of such fragrances. One hundred and sixty healthy volunteers, aged 18 to 65 years, underwent olfactory thresholds testing. Each was then exposed to one of four strong perfumes, applied in a facemask for two minutes, and the thresholds were retested. All olfactory thresholds worsened after being exposed to the strong perfumes of Lynx and Impulse body sprays, with the strongest effect being on olfactory detection of phenylethyl alcohol (pperfumes can have a negative effect on olfactory thresholds. Patients attending olfactory threshold testing need to be advised not to wear body sprays or perfumes.

  3. Newborn neurons in the olfactory bulb selected for long-term survival through olfactory learning are prematurely suppressed when the olfactory memory is erased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Sébastien; Rey, Nolwen; Sacquet, Joelle; Mandairon, Nathalie; Didier, Anne

    2011-10-19

    A role for newborn neurons in olfactory memory has been proposed based on learning-dependent modulation of olfactory bulb neurogenesis in adults. We hypothesized that if newborn neurons support memory, then they should be suppressed by memory erasure. Using an ecological approach in mice, we showed that behaviorally breaking a previously learned odor-reward association prematurely suppressed newborn neurons selected to survive during initial learning. Furthermore, intrabulbar infusions of the caspase pan-inhibitor ZVAD (benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp) during the behavioral odor-reward extinction prevented newborn neurons death and erasure of the odor-reward association. Newborn neurons thus contribute to the bulbar network plasticity underlying long-term memory.

  4. A Robust Feedforward Model of the Olfactory System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilun Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Most natural odors have sparse molecular composition. This makes the principles of compressed sensing potentially relevant to the structure of the olfactory code. Yet, the largely feedforward organization of the olfactory system precludes reconstruction using standard compressed sensing algorithms. To resolve this problem, recent theoretical work has shown that signal reconstruction could take place as a result of a low dimensional dynamical system converging to one of its attractor states. However, the dynamical aspects of optimization slowed down odor recognition and were also found to be susceptible to noise. Here we describe a feedforward model of the olfactory system that achieves both strong compression and fast reconstruction that is also robust to noise. A key feature of the proposed model is a specific relationship between how odors are represented at the glomeruli stage, which corresponds to a compression, and the connections from glomeruli to third-order neurons (neurons in the olfactory cortex of vertebrates or Kenyon cells in the mushroom body of insects, which in the model corresponds to reconstruction. We show that should this specific relationship hold true, the reconstruction will be both fast and robust to noise, and in particular to the false activation of glomeruli. The predicted connectivity rate from glomeruli to third-order neurons can be tested experimentally.

  5. Olfactory Receptor Response to the Cockroach Sexual Attractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckh, J; Priesner, E; Schneider, D; Jacobson, M

    1963-08-23

    The recently isolated sex attractant of the female American cockroach elicits an electical response in the antennae of males, females, and mymphs of this species. These electroantennograms are known to be summated receptor (generator) potentials of many olfactory sensillae stimulated simultaneously. Many other odorous substances also elicit such responses in the cockroach antenna.

  6. Brain correlates of progressive olfactory loss in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campabadal, Anna; Uribe, Carme; Segura, Barbara; Baggio, Hugo C; Abos, Alexandra; Garcia-Diaz, Anna Isabel; Marti, Maria Jose; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Compta, Yaroslau; Bargallo, Nuria; Junque, Carme

    2017-08-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is present in a large proportion of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) upon diagnosis. However, its progression over time has been poorly investigated. The few available longitudinal studies lack control groups or MRI data. To investigate the olfactory changes and their structural correlates in non-demented PD over a four-year follow-up. We assessed olfactory function in a sample of 25 PD patients and 24 normal controls of similar age using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification test (UPSIT). Structural magnetic resonance imaging data, obtained with a 3-T Siemens Trio scanner, were analyzed using FreeSurfer software. Analysis of variance showed significant group (F = 53.882; P effects, but the group-by-time interaction was not statistically significant. UPSIT performance declined ≥1.5 standard deviations in 5 controls and 7 patients. Change in UPSIT scores of patients correlated positively with volume change in the left putamen, right thalamus, and right caudate nucleus. Olfactory loss over time in PD and controls is similar, but we have observed significant correlation between this loss and basal ganglia volumes only in patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Olfactory Imagination and Odor Processing: Three Same-Different Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, E.P.; Stelt, van der O.; Nixdorf, R.R.; Linschoten, M.R.I.; Mojet, J.; Wijk, de R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Do people who claim to have olfactory imagination process odors more efficiently? In three same–different experiments, using all possible combinations of odors and odor names as primes and targets, selected high imagers (n¿=¿12) were faster (±230 ms; P¿

  8. Olfactory-Induced Synesthesias: A Review and Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Richard J.; Tomiczek, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    Recent reviews of synesthesia concentrate upon rare neurodevelopmental examples and exclude common olfactory-induced experiences with which they may profitably be compared. Like the neurodevelopmental synesthesias, odor-induced experiences involve different sensory modalities; are reliable, asymmetric (concurrents cannot induce), and automatic;…

  9. Rapidly acquired multisensory association in the olfactory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunanayaka, Prasanna R; Wilson, Donald A; Vasavada, Megha; Wang, Jianli; Martinez, Brittany; Tobia, Michael J; Kong, Lan; Eslinger, Paul; Yang, Qing X

    2015-11-01

    The formation of an odor percept in humans is strongly associated with visual information. However, much less is known about the roles of learning and memory in shaping the multisensory nature of odor representations in the brain. The dynamics of odor and visual association in olfaction was investigated using three functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigms. In two paradigms, a visual cue was paired with an odor. In the third, the same visual cue was never paired with an odor. In this experimental design, if the visual cue was not influenced by odor-visual pairing, then the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal elicited by subsequent visual cues should be similar across all three paradigms. Additionally, intensity, a major dimension of odor perception, was used as a modulator of associative learning which was characterized in terms of the spatiotemporal behavior of the BOLD signal in olfactory structures. A single odor-visual pairing cue could subsequently induce primary olfactory cortex activity when only the visual cue was presented. This activity was intensity dependent and was also detected in secondary olfactory structures and hippocampus. This study provides evidence for a rapid learning response in the olfactory system by a visual cue following odor and visual cue pairing. The novel data and paradigms suggest new avenues to explore the dynamics of odor learning and multisensory representations that contribute to the construction of a unified odor percept in the human brain.

  10. Olfactory memories are intensity specific in larval Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Dushyant; Chen, Yi-Chun; Yarali, Ayse; Oguz, Tuba; Gerber, Bertram

    2013-05-01

    Learning can rely on stimulus quality, stimulus intensity, or a combination of these. Regarding olfaction, the coding of odour quality is often proposed to be combinatorial along the olfactory pathway, and working hypotheses are available concerning short-term associative memory trace formation of odour quality. However, it is less clear how odour intensity is coded, and whether olfactory memory traces include information about the intensity of the learnt odour. Using odour-sugar associative conditioning in larval Drosophila, we first describe the dose-effect curves of learnability across odour intensities for four different odours (n-amyl acetate, 3-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol and benzaldehyde). We then chose odour intensities such that larvae were trained at an intermediate odour intensity, but were tested for retention with either that trained intermediate odour intensity, or with respectively higher or lower intensities. We observed a specificity of retention for the trained intensity for all four odours used. This adds to the appreciation of the richness in 'content' of olfactory short-term memory traces, even in a system as simple as larval Drosophila, and to define the demands on computational models of associative olfactory memory trace formation. We suggest two kinds of circuit architecture that have the potential to accommodate intensity learning, and discuss how they may be implemented in the insect brain.

  11. Distinct Neural Mechanisms Mediate Olfactory Memory Formation at Different Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Ann Marie; Magidson, Phillip D.; Linster, Christiane; Wilson, Donald A.; Cleland, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Habituation is one of the oldest forms of learning, broadly expressed across sensory systems and taxa. Here, we demonstrate that olfactory habituation induced at different timescales (comprising different odor exposure and intertrial interval durations) is mediated by different neural mechanisms. First, the persistence of habituation memory is…

  12. Odor memory stability after reinnervation of the olfactory bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Blanco-Hernández

    Full Text Available The olfactory system, particularly the olfactory epithelium, presents a unique opportunity to study the regenerative capabilities of the brain, because of its ability to recover after damage. In this study, we ablated olfactory sensory neurons with methimazole and followed the anatomical and functional recovery of circuits expressing genetic markers for I7 and M72 receptors (M72-IRES-tau-LacZ and I7-IRES-tau-GFP. Our results show that 45 days after methimazole-induced lesion, axonal projections to the bulb of M72 and I7 populations are largely reestablished. Furthermore, regenerated glomeruli are re-formed within the same areas as those of control, unexposed mice. This anatomical regeneration correlates with functional recovery of a previously learned odorant-discrimination task, dependent on the cognate ligands for M72 and I7. Following regeneration, mice also recover innate responsiveness to TMT and urine. Our findings show that regeneration of neuronal circuits in the olfactory system can be achieved with remarkable precision and underscore the importance of glomerular organization to evoke memory traces stored in the brain.

  13. Virtual vision system with actual flavor by olfactory display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Kanazawa, Fumihiro

    2010-11-01

    The authors have researched multimedia system and support system for nursing studies on and practices of reminiscence therapy and life review therapy. The concept of the life review is presented by Butler in 1963. The process of thinking back on one's life and communicating about one's life to another person is called life review. There is a famous episode concerning the memory. It is called as Proustian effects. This effect is mentioned on the Proust's novel as an episode that a story teller reminds his old memory when he dipped a madeleine in tea. So many scientists research why smells trigger the memory. The authors pay attention to the relation between smells and memory although the reason is not evident yet. Then we have tried to add an olfactory display to the multimedia system so that the smells become a trigger of reminding buried memories. An olfactory display is a device that delivers smells to the nose. It provides us with special effects, for example to emit smell as if you were there or to give a trigger for reminding us of memories. The authors have developed a tabletop display system connected with the olfactory display. For delivering a flavor to user's nose, the system needs to recognition and measure positions of user's face and nose. In this paper, the authors describe an olfactory display which enables to detect the nose position for an effective delivery.

  14. Optophysiological analysis of associational circuits in the olfactory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akari eHagiwara

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary olfactory cortical areas receive direct input from the olfactory bulb, but also have extensive associational connections that have been mainly studied with classical anatomical methods. Here, we shed light on the functional properties of associational connections in the anterior and posterior piriform cortex (aPC and pPC using optophysiological methods. We found that the aPC receives dense functional connections from the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON, a major hub in olfactory cortical circuits. The local recurrent connectivity within the aPC, long invoked in cortical autoassociative models, is sparse and weak. By contrast, the pPC receives negligible input from the AON, but has dense connections from the aPC as well as more local recurrent connections than the aPC. Finally, there are negligible functional connections from the pPC to aPC. Our study provides a circuit basis for a more sensory role for the aPC in odor processing and an associative role for the pPC.

  15. Olfactory attractiveness of mixtures of some host plant and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple "Y" shaped olfactometer was used in laboratory studies on the olfactory attractiveness of mixtures in various proportions of industrial analogues of some host plant and conspecific-based semiochemicals, or their combinations with banana rhizome, to the banana weevil. The aim was to identify factors that influence ...

  16. Olfactory Dysfunction in Narcolepsy with and without Cataplexy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bušková, J.; Klaschka, Jan; Šonka, K.; Nevšímalová, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 6 (2010), s. 558-561 ISSN 1389-9457 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : narcolepsy * cataplexy * narcolepsy without cataplexy * RBD * olfactory dysfunction Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.430, year: 2010

  17. Dishevelled proteins are associated with olfactory sensory neuron presynaptic terminals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego J Rodriguez-Gil

    Full Text Available Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs project their axons from the olfactory epithelium toward the olfactory bulb (OB in a heterogeneous and unsorted arrangement. However, as the axons approach the glomerular layer of the OB, axons from OSNs expressing the same odorant receptor (OR sort and converge to form molecularly homogeneous glomeruli. Axon guidance cues, cell adhesion molecules, and OR induced activity have been implicated in the final targeting of OSN axons to specific glomeruli. Less understood, and often controversial, are the mechanisms used by OSN axons to initially navigate from the OE toward the OB. We previously demonstrated a role for Wnt and Frizzled (Fz molecules in OSN axon extension and organization within the olfactory nerve. Building on that we now turned our attention to the downstream signaling cascades from Wnt-Fz interactions. Dishevelled (Dvl is a key molecule downstream of Fz receptors. Three isoforms of Dvl with specific as well as overlapping functions are found in mammals. Here, we show that Dvl-1 expression is restricted to OSNs in the dorsal recess of the nasal cavity, and labels a unique subpopulation of glomeruli. Dvl-2 and Dvl-3 have a widespread distribution in both the OE and OB. Both Dvl-1 and Dvl-2 are associated with intra-glomerular pre-synaptic OSN terminals, suggesting a role in synapse formation/stabilization. Moreover, because Dvl proteins were observed in all OSN axons, we hypothesize that they are important determinants of OSN cell differentiation and axon extension.

  18. Neural correlates of olfactory processing in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupers, R; Beaulieu-Lefebvre, M; Schneider, F C

    2011-01-01

    is highly plastic and that blind individuals rely more on their sense of smell than the sighted do. The olfactory system in the blind is therefore likely to be susceptible to cross-modal changes similar to those observed for the tactile and auditory modalities. To test this hypothesis, we used functional...

  19. Apathy and Olfactory Dysfunction in Early Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yong Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Olfactory and emotional dysfunctions are very common in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Olfaction and emotions share common neuroanatomical substrates. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the association between olfactory and emotional dysfunctions in patients with PD. Methods Parkinson’s disease patients who had been assessed for their olfactory function and neuropsychiatric symptoms including emotional dysfunction were included. A logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between low olfaction and different neuropsychiatric symptoms. Results The patients with low olfaction (cross cultural smell identification test score ≤ 6 showed a higher prevalence of apathy when compared with those with high olfaction, whereas the frequencies of other neuropsychiatric symptoms were comparable between the two groups. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of apathy/indifference [odds ratio (OR = 2.859, p = 0.007], age 70 years or more (OR = 2.281, p = 0.009, and the male gender (OR = 1.916, p = 0.030 were significantly associated with low olfaction. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that apathy/indifference is a unique emotional dysfunction associated with olfactory dysfunction in PD. The findings also suggest that PD patients with low olfaction have a high prevalence of apathy.

  20. Olfactory responses to attractants and repellents in tsetse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskamp, KE; Everaarts, E; Den Otter, CJ

    1999-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate how antennal olfactory cells of tsetse (Diptera: Glossinidae) code odour quality and how they are able to discriminate between attractive and repellent odours. For Glossina pallidipes Austen, a survey is presented of the cells' responses to attractive

  1. Comparison between Olfactory Function of Pregnant Women and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-11-15

    Nov 15, 2016 ... 70 non-pregnant women (controls) without rhinologic symptoms were studied. A structured questionnaire was administered to obtain participants' information on socio-demographics, pregnancy history, and ability to perceive smell. They subjectively rated their olfactory function on a visual analogue scale of ...

  2. Olfactory-visual integration facilitates perception of subthreshold negative emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Lucas R; Gitelman, Darren R; Schuyler, Brianna; Li, Wen

    2015-10-01

    A fast growing literature of multisensory emotion integration notwithstanding, the chemical senses, intimately associated with emotion, have been largely overlooked. Moreover, an ecologically highly relevant principle of "inverse effectiveness", rendering maximal integration efficacy with impoverished sensory input, remains to be assessed in emotion integration. Presenting minute, subthreshold negative (vs. neutral) cues in faces and odors, we demonstrated olfactory-visual emotion integration in improved emotion detection (especially among individuals with weaker perception of unimodal negative cues) and response enhancement in the amygdala. Moreover, while perceptual gain for visual negative emotion involved the posterior superior temporal sulcus/pSTS, perceptual gain for olfactory negative emotion engaged both the associative olfactory (orbitofrontal) cortex and amygdala. Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) analysis of fMRI timeseries further revealed connectivity strengthening among these areas during crossmodal emotion integration. That multisensory (but not low-level unisensory) areas exhibited both enhanced response and region-to-region coupling favors a top-down (vs. bottom-up) account for olfactory-visual emotion integration. Current findings thus confirm the involvement of multisensory convergence areas, while highlighting unique characteristics of olfaction-related integration. Furthermore, successful crossmodal binding of subthreshold aversive cues not only supports the principle of "inverse effectiveness" in emotion integration but also accentuates the automatic, unconscious quality of crossmodal emotion synthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Neural correlates of taste perception in congenital olfactory impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Léa; Vestergaard, Martin; Madsen, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    Olfaction and gustation contribute both to the appreciation of food flavours. Although acquired loss of smell has profound consequences on the pleasure of eating, food habits and body weight, less is known about the impact of congenital olfactory impairment on gustatory processing. Here we examined...

  4. Refining the dual olfactory hypothesis: pheromone reward and odour experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Fernando; Martínez-Ricós, Joana; Agustín-Pavón, Carmen; Martínez-Hernández, Jose; Novejarque, Amparo; Lanuza, Enrique

    2009-06-25

    In rodents, sexual advertisement and gender recognition are mostly (if not exclusively) mediated by chemosignals. Specifically, there is ample evidence indicating that female mice are 'innately' attracted by male sexual pheromones that have critical non-volatile components and are detected by the vomeronasal organ. These pheromones can only get access to the vomeronasal organ by active pumping mechanisms that require close contact with the source of the stimulus (e.g. urine marks) during chemoinvestigation. We have hypothesised that male sexual pheromones are rewarding to female mice. Indeed, male-soiled bedding can be used as a reinforcer to induce conditioned place preference, provided contact with the bedding is allowed. The neural mechanisms of pheromone reward seem, however, different from those employed by other natural reinforcers, such as the sweetness or postingestive effects of sucrose. In contrast to vomeronasal-detected male sexual pheromones, male-derived olfactory stimuli (volatiles) are not intrinsically attractive to female mice. However, after repeated exposure to male-soiled bedding, intact female mice develop an acquired preference for male odours. On the contrary, in females whose accessory olfactory bulbs have been lesioned, exposure to male-soiled bedding induces aversion to male odorants. These considerations, together with data on the different properties of olfactory and vomeronasal receptors, lead us to make a proposal for the complementary roles that the olfactory and vomeronasal systems play in intersexual attraction and in other forms of intra- or inter-species communication.

  5. Sniffing out olfactory reference syndrome | Thomas | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olfactory reference syndrome is characterised by the erroneous belief that one emits an unpleasant body odour. This results in significant distress and is often accompanied by repetitive behaviour such as frequent showering in an attempt to camouflage the perceived odour. The body odour concerns may have a delusional ...

  6. Enhanced trapping of stable flies via olfactory and visual cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult stable flies are highly attracted to the so-called Alsynite cylinder trap; however this trap is expensive. Here we report the development of a cheaper and better white panel trap with options of adding visual and olfactory stimuli for enhanced stable fly trapping. The white panel trap attracte...

  7. Prenatal stress inhibits hippocampal neurogenesis but spares olfactory bulb neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Belnoue

    Full Text Available The dentate gyrus (DG and the olfactory bulb (OB are two regions of the adult brain in which new neurons are integrated daily in the existing networks. It is clearly established that these newborn neurons are implicated in specific functions sustained by these regions and that different factors can influence neurogenesis in both structures. Among these, life events, particularly occurring during early life, were shown to profoundly affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and its associated functions like spatial learning, but data regarding their impact on adult bulbar neurogenesis are lacking. We hypothesized that prenatal stress could interfere with the development of the olfactory system, which takes place during the prenatal period, leading to alterations in adult bulbar neurogenesis and in olfactory capacities. To test this hypothesis we exposed pregnant C57Bl/6J mice to gestational restraint stress and evaluated behavioral and anatomic consequences in adult male offspring. We report that prenatal stress has no impact on adult bulbar neurogenesis, and does not alter olfactory functions in adult male mice. However, it decreases cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the DG of the hippocampus, thus confirming previous reports on rats. Altogether our data support a selective and cross-species long-term impact of prenatal stress on neurogenesis.

  8. Considerations on the role of olfactory input in avian navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltschko, Roswitha; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2017-12-01

    A large amount of data documents an important role of olfactory input in pigeon navigation, but the nature of this role is not entirely clear. The olfactory navigation hypothesis assumes that odors are carrying essential navigational information, yet some recent experiments support an activating role of odors. This led to an ongoing controversy. An important, often-neglected aspect of the findings on olfaction is that olfactory deprivation affects avian navigation only at unfamiliar sites. The orientation of anosmic birds at familiar sites remains an enigma; earlier assumptions that they would rely on familiar landmarks have been disproven by the home-oriented behavior of anosmic pigeons additionally deprived of object vision, which clearly indicated the use by the birds of non-visual, non-olfactory cues. However, if odors activate the establishing and enlarging of the navigational 'map' and promote the integration of local values of navigational factors into this map, it seems possible that such a process needs to occur only once at a given site, when the birds are visiting this site for the first time. If that were the case, the birds could interpret the local factors correctly at any later visit and orient by them. This hypothesis could explain the oriented behavior of birds at familiar sites, and it could also help to reconcile some of the seemingly controversial findings reported in the literature, where the effect of olfactory deprivation was reported to differ considerably between the various pigeon lofts, possibly because of different training procedures. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. TRPM5-expressing microvillous cells in the main olfactory epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liman Emily R

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main olfactory epithelium (MOE in the nasal cavity detects a variety of air borne molecules that provide information regarding the presence of food, predators and other relevant social and environmental factors. Within the epithelium are ciliated sensory neurons, supporting cells, basal cells and microvillous cells, each of which is distinct in morphology and function. Arguably, the least understood, are the microvillous cells, a population of cells that are small in number and whose function is not known. We previously found that in a mouse strain in which the TRPM5 promoter drives expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP, a population of ciliated olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs, as well as a population of cells displaying microvilli-like structures is labeled. Here we examined the morphology and immunocytochemical properties of these microvillous-like cells using immunocytochemical methods. Results We show that the GFP-positive microvillous cells were morphologically diversified and scattered throughout the entire MOE. These cells immunoreacted to an antibody against TRPM5, confirming the expression of this ion channel in these cells. In addition, they showed a Ca2+-activated non-selective cation current in electrophysiological recordings. They did not immunoreact to antibodies that label cell markers and elements of the transduction pathways from olfactory sensory neurons and solitary chemosensory cells of the nasal cavity. Further, the TRPM5-expressing cells did not display axon-like processes and were not labeled with a neuronal marker nor did trigeminal peptidergic nerve fibers innervate these cells. Conclusion We provide morphological and immunocytochemical characterization of the TRPM5-expressing microvillous cells in the main olfactory epithelium. Our data demonstrate that these cells are non-neuronal and in terms of chemosensory transduction do not resemble the TRPM5-expressing olfactory sensory neurons

  10. TRPM5-expressing microvillous cells in the main olfactory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Weihong; Ezekwe, Ejiofor A D; Zhao, Zhen; Liman, Emily R; Restrepo, Diego

    2008-11-24

    The main olfactory epithelium (MOE) in the nasal cavity detects a variety of air borne molecules that provide information regarding the presence of food, predators and other relevant social and environmental factors. Within the epithelium are ciliated sensory neurons, supporting cells, basal cells and microvillous cells, each of which is distinct in morphology and function. Arguably, the least understood, are the microvillous cells, a population of cells that are small in number and whose function is not known. We previously found that in a mouse strain in which the TRPM5 promoter drives expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP), a population of ciliated olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), as well as a population of cells displaying microvilli-like structures is labeled. Here we examined the morphology and immunocytochemical properties of these microvillous-like cells using immunocytochemical methods. We show that the GFP-positive microvillous cells were morphologically diversified and scattered throughout the entire MOE. These cells immunoreacted to an antibody against TRPM5, confirming the expression of this ion channel in these cells. In addition, they showed a Ca2+-activated non-selective cation current in electrophysiological recordings. They did not immunoreact to antibodies that label cell markers and elements of the transduction pathways from olfactory sensory neurons and solitary chemosensory cells of the nasal cavity. Further, the TRPM5-expressing cells did not display axon-like processes and were not labeled with a neuronal marker nor did trigeminal peptidergic nerve fibers innervate these cells. We provide morphological and immunocytochemical characterization of the TRPM5-expressing microvillous cells in the main olfactory epithelium. Our data demonstrate that these cells are non-neuronal and in terms of chemosensory transduction do not resemble the TRPM5-expressing olfactory sensory neurons and nasal solitary chemosensory cells.

  11. Exposure assessment of metal- and metal oxides-based nanoparticles in aquatic systems using fuzzy set theory

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musee, N

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing number of nanoproducts and industrial applications of Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), increasing also the volumes of hazard (toxicity) and exposure data. There is thus an increasing necessity to identify the most significant...

  12. Associations of olfactory bulb and depth of olfactory sulcus with basal ganglia and hippocampus in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanik, Nermin; Serin, Halil Ibrahim; Celikbilek, Asuman; Inan, Levent Ertugrul; Gundogdu, Fatma

    2016-05-04

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by hyposmia in the preclinical stages. We investigated the relationships of olfactory bulb (OB) volume and olfactory sulcus (OS) depth with basal ganglia and hippocampal volumes. The study included 25 patients with PD and 40 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Idiopathic PD was diagnosed according to published diagnostic criteria. The Hoehn and Yahr (HY) scale, the motor subscale of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS III), and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were administered to participants. Volumetric measurements of olfactory structures, the basal ganglia, and hippocampus were performed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). OB volume and OS depth were significantly reduced in PD patients compared to healthy control subjects (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). The OB and left putamen volumes were significantly correlated (p=0.048), and the depth of the right OS was significantly correlated with right hippocampal volume (p=0.018). We found significant correlations between OB and putamen volumes and OS depth and hippocampal volume. Our study is the first to demonstrate associations of olfactory structures with the putamen and hippocampus using MRI volumetric measurements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Olfactory bulb glomerular NMDA receptors mediate olfactory nerve potentiation and odor preference learning in the neonate rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Lethbridge

    Full Text Available Rat pup odor preference learning follows pairing of bulbar beta-adrenoceptor activation with olfactory input. We hypothesize that NMDA receptor (NMDAR-mediated olfactory input to mitral cells is enhanced during training, such that increased calcium facilitates and shapes the critical cAMP pattern. Here, we demonstrate, in vitro, that olfactory nerve stimulation, at sniffing frequencies, paired with beta-adrenoceptor activation, potentiates olfactory nerve-evoked mitral cell firing. This potentiation is blocked by a NMDAR antagonist and by increased inhibition. Glomerular disinhibition also induces NMDAR-sensitive potentiation. In vivo, in parallel, behavioral learning is prevented by glomerular infusion of an NMDAR antagonist or a GABA(A receptor agonist. A glomerular GABA(A receptor antagonist paired with odor can induce NMDAR-dependent learning. The NMDA GluN1 subunit is phosphorylated in odor-specific glomeruli within 5 min of training suggesting early activation, and enhanced calcium entry, during acquisition. The GluN1 subunit is down-regulated 3 h after learning; and at 24 h post-training the GluN2B subunit is down-regulated. These events may assist memory stability. Ex vivo experiments using bulbs from trained rat pups reveal an increase in the AMPA/NMDA EPSC ratio post-training, consistent with an increase in AMPA receptor insertion and/or the decrease in NMDAR subunits. These results support a model of a cAMP/NMDA interaction in generating rat pup odor preference learning.

  14. Regulation of spike timing-dependent plasticity of olfactory inputs in mitral cells in the rat olfactory bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng-Fei Ma

    Full Text Available The recent history of activity input onto granule cells (GCs in the main olfactory bulb can affect the strength of lateral inhibition, which functions to generate contrast enhancement. However, at the plasticity level, it is unknown whether and how the prior modification of lateral inhibition modulates the subsequent induction of long-lasting changes of the excitatory olfactory nerve (ON inputs to mitral cells (MCs. Here we found that the repetitive stimulation of two distinct excitatory inputs to the GCs induced a persistent modification of lateral inhibition in MCs in opposing directions. This bidirectional modification of inhibitory inputs differentially regulated the subsequent synaptic plasticity of the excitatory ON inputs to the MCs, which was induced by the repetitive pairing of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs with postsynaptic bursts. The regulation of spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP was achieved by the regulation of the inter-spike-interval (ISI of the postsynaptic bursts. This novel form of inhibition-dependent regulation of plasticity may contribute to the encoding or processing of olfactory information in the olfactory bulb.

  15. Analysis of the goldfish Carassius auratus olfactory epithelium transcriptome reveals the presence of numerous non-olfactory GPCR and putative receptors for progestin pheromones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhardt Richard

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goldfish (Carassius auratus uses steroids and prostaglandins as pheromone cues at different stages of the reproductive cycle to facilitate spawning synchronization. Steroid progestin pheromone binding has been detected in goldfish olfactory membranes but the receptors responsible for this specific binding remain unknown. In order to shed some light on the olfactory epithelium transcriptome and search for possible receptor candidates a large set of EST from this tissue were analysed and compared to and combined with a similar zebrafish (Danio rerio resource. Results We generated 4,797 high quality sequences from a normalized cDNA library of the goldfish olfactory epithelium, which were clustered in 3,879 unique sequences, grouped in 668 contigs and 3,211 singletons. BLASTX searches produced 3,243 significant (E-value -10 hits and Gene Ontology (GO analysis annotated a further 1,223 of these genes (37.7%. Comparative analysis with zebrafish olfactory epithelium ESTs revealed 1,088 identical unigenes. The transcriptome size of both species was estimated at about 16,400 unigenes, based on the proportion of genes identified involved in Glucose Metabolic Process. Of 124 G-protein coupled receptors identified in the olfactory epithelium of both species, 56 were olfactory receptors. Beta and gamma membrane progestin receptors were also isolated by subcloning of RT-PCR products from both species and an olfactory epithelium specific splice form identified. Conclusion The high similarity between the goldfish and zebrafish olfactory systems allowed the creation of a 'cyprinid' olfactory epithelium library estimated to represent circa 70% of the transcriptome. These results are an important resource for the identification of components of signalling pathways involved in olfaction as well as putative targets for pharmacological and histochemical studies. The possible function of the receptors identified in the olfactory system is

  16. A ventral glomerular deficit in Parkinson's disease revealed by whole olfactory bulb reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapiec, Bolek; Dieriks, Birger V; Tan, Sheryl; Faull, Richard L M; Mombaerts, Peter; Curtis, Maurice A

    2017-10-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is common in Parkinson's disease and is an early symptom, but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Hindering progress in our mechanistic understanding of olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease is the paucity of literature about the human olfactory bulb, both from normal and Parkinson's disease cases. Qualitatively it is well established that the neat arrangement of the glomerular array seen in the mouse olfactory bulb is missing in humans. But rigorous quantitative approaches to describe and compare the thousands of glomeruli in the human olfactory bulb are not available. Here we report a quantitative approach to describe the glomerular component of the human olfactory bulb, and its application to draw statistical comparisons between olfactory bulbs from normal and Parkinson's disease cases. We subjected horizontal 10 µm sections of olfactory bulbs from six normal and five Parkinson's disease cases to fluorescence immunohistochemistry with antibodies against vesicular glutamate transporter-2 and neural cell adhesion molecule. We scanned the immunostained sections with a fluorescence slide scanner, segmented the glomeruli, and generated 3D reconstructions of whole olfactory bulbs. We document the occurrence of atypical glomerular morphologies and glomerular-like structures deep in the olfactory bulb, both in normal and Parkinson's disease cases. We define a novel and objective parameter: the global glomerular voxel volume, which is the total volume of all voxels that are classified immunohistochemically as glomerular. We find that the global glomerular voxel volume in Parkinson's disease cases is half that of normal cases. The distribution of glomerular voxels along the dorsal-ventral dimension of the olfactory bulb in these series of horizontal sections is significantly altered in Parkinson's disease cases: whereas most glomerular voxels reside within the ventral half of olfactory bulbs from normal cases, glomerular voxels are

  17. A dual enzyme functionalized nanostructured thulium oxide based interface for biomedical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jay; Roychoudhury, Appan; Srivastava, Manish; Solanki, Pratima R.; Lee, Dong Won; Lee, Seung Hee; Malhotra, B. D.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we present results of the studies related to fabrication of a rare earth metal oxide based efficient biosensor using an interface based on hydrothermally prepared nanostructured thulium oxide (n-Tm2O3). A colloidal solution of prepared nanorods has been electrophoretically deposited (EPD) onto an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrate. The n-Tm2O3 nanorods are found to provide improved sensing characteristics to the electrode interface in terms of electroactive surface area, diffusion coefficient, charge transfer rate constant and electron transfer kinetics. The structural and morphological studies of n-Tm2O3 nanorods have been carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques. This interfacial platform has been used for fabrication of a total cholesterol biosensor by immobilizing cholesterol esterase (ChEt) and cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) onto a Tm2O3 nanostructured surface. The results of response studies of the fabricated ChEt-ChOx/n-Tm2O3/ITO bioelectrode show a broad linear range of 8-400 mg dL-1, detection limit of 19.78 mg (dL cm-2)-1, and high sensitivity of 0.9245 μA (mg per dL cm-2)-1 with a response time of 40 s. Further, this bioelectrode has been utilized for estimation of total cholesterol with negligible interference (3%) from analytes present in human serum samples. The utilization of this n-Tm2O3 modified electrode for enzyme-based biosensor analysis offers an efficient strategy and a novel interface for application of the rare earth metal oxide materials in the field of electrochemical sensors and bioelectronic devices.In this paper, we present results of the studies related to fabrication of a rare earth metal oxide based efficient biosensor using an interface based on hydrothermally prepared nanostructured thulium oxide (n-Tm2O3). A colloidal solution of prepared

  18. Rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in an alpha-synuclein mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine H Petit

    Full Text Available Impaired olfaction is an early pre-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease. The neuropathology underlying olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease is unknown, however α-synuclein accumulation/aggregation and altered neurogenesis might play a role. We characterized olfactory deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease expressing human wild-type α-synuclein under the control of the mouse α-synuclein promoter. Preliminary clinical observations suggest that rasagiline, a monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, improves olfaction in Parkinson's disease. We therefore examined whether rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in this Parkinson's disease model and investigated the role of olfactory bulb neurogenesis. α-Synuclein mice were progressively impaired in their ability to detect odors, to discriminate between odors, and exhibited alterations in short-term olfactory memory. Rasagiline treatment rescued odor detection and odor discrimination abilities. However, rasagiline did not affect short-term olfactory memory. Finally, olfactory changes were not coupled to alterations in olfactory bulb neurogenesis. We conclude that rasagiline reverses select olfactory deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease. The findings correlate with preliminary clinical observations suggesting that rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in Parkinson's disease.

  19. Rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in an alpha-synuclein mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Géraldine H; Berkovich, Elijahu; Hickery, Mark; Kallunki, Pekka; Fog, Karina; Fitzer-Attas, Cheryl; Brundin, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Impaired olfaction is an early pre-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease. The neuropathology underlying olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease is unknown, however α-synuclein accumulation/aggregation and altered neurogenesis might play a role. We characterized olfactory deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease expressing human wild-type α-synuclein under the control of the mouse α-synuclein promoter. Preliminary clinical observations suggest that rasagiline, a monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, improves olfaction in Parkinson's disease. We therefore examined whether rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in this Parkinson's disease model and investigated the role of olfactory bulb neurogenesis. α-Synuclein mice were progressively impaired in their ability to detect odors, to discriminate between odors, and exhibited alterations in short-term olfactory memory. Rasagiline treatment rescued odor detection and odor discrimination abilities. However, rasagiline did not affect short-term olfactory memory. Finally, olfactory changes were not coupled to alterations in olfactory bulb neurogenesis. We conclude that rasagiline reverses select olfactory deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease. The findings correlate with preliminary clinical observations suggesting that rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in Parkinson's disease.

  20. Fos Protein Expression in Olfactory-Related Brain Areas after Learning and after Reactivation of a Slowly Acquired Olfactory Discrimination Task in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roullet, Florence; Lienard, Fabienne; Datiche, Frederique; Cattarelli, Martine

    2005-01-01

    Fos protein immunodetection was used to investigate the neuronal activation elicited in some olfactory-related areas after either learning of an olfactory discrimination task or its reactivation 10 d later. Trained rats (T) progressively acquired the association between one odor of a pair and water-reward in a four-arm maze. Two groups of…

  1. Effect of cadmium on glutathione S-transferase and metallothionein gene expression in coho salmon liver, gill and olfactory tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinoza, Herbert M.; Williams, Chase R.; Gallagher, Evan P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Developed qPCR assays to distinguish closely related GST isoforms in salmon. ► Examined the effect of cadmium on GST and metallothionein genes in 3 tissues. ► Modulation of GST varied among isoforms, tissues, and included a loss of expression. ► Metallothionein outperformed, but generally complemented, GSTs as biomarkers. ► Salmon olfactory genes were among the most responsive to cadmium. - Abstract: The glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a multifunctional family of phase II enzymes that detoxify a variety of environmental chemicals, reactive intermediates, and secondary products of oxidative damage. GST mRNA expression and catalytic activity have been used as biomarkers of exposure to environmental chemicals. However, factors such as species differences in induction, partial analyses of multiple GST isoforms, and lack of understanding of fish GST gene regulation, have confounded the use of GSTs as markers of pollutant exposure. In the present study, we examined the effect of exposure to cadmium (Cd), a prototypical environmental contaminant and inducer of mammalian GST, on GST mRNA expression in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) liver, gill, and olfactory tissues. GST expression data were compared to those for metallothionein (MT), a prototypical biomarker of metal exposure. Data mining of genomic databases led to the development of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays for salmon GST isoforms encompassing 9 subfamilies, including alpha, mu, pi, theta, omega, kappa, rho, zeta and microsomal GST. In vivo acute (8–48 h) exposures to low (3.7 ppb) and high (347 ppb) levels of Cd relevant to environmental scenarios elicited a variety of transient, albeit minor changes (<2.5-fold) in tissue GST profiles, including some reductions in GST mRNA expression. In general, olfactory GSTs were the earliest to respond to cadmium, whereas, more pronounced effects in olfactory and gill GST expression were observed at 48 h relative to earlier time

  2. The Use of Calixarene Thin Films in the Sensor Array for VOCs Detection and Olfactory Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan F. Holloway

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This work is dedicated to the development of a sensor array for detection of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs in pre-explosive concentrations as well as for olfactory robotic navigation in the frame of two EU projects. A QCM (quartz crystal microbalance sensor array was built utilising quartz crystals spun-coated with thin films of different amphiphilic calixarene molecules to provide a base for pattern recognition of different volatile organic chemicals (VOCs. Commercial Metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS sensors were also used in the same array for the benefit of comparison. The sensor array was tested with a range of organic vapours, such as hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones, aromatics, etc, in concentrations below LEL and up to UEL (standing for lower and upper explosion limit, respectively; the sensor array proved to be capable of identification and concentration evaluation of a range of VOCs. Comparison of QCM and MOS sensors responses to VOCs in the LEL-UEL range showed the advantage of the former. In addition, the sensor array was tested on the vapours of camphor from cinnamon oil in order to prove the concept of using the "scent marks" for robotic navigation. The results showed that the response signature of QCM coated with calixarenes to camphor is very much different from those of any other VOCs used. Adsorption and de-sorption rates of camphor are also much slower comparing to VOCs due to a high viscosity of the compound. Our experiments demonstrated the suitability of calixarene sensor array for the task and justified the use of camphor as a "scent mark" for olfactory navigation.

  3. Gross morphology and histology of the olfactory organ of the Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrando, S.; Gallus, L.; Ghigliotti, L.

    2016-01-01

    The Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) is the largest predatory fish in Arctic waters. Knowledge of the fundamental biology and ecological role of the Greenland shark is limited, and the sensory biology of the Greenland shark has been poorly studied. Given the potential relevant contribution...... of chemoreception to the sensory capability of the Greenland shark to forage and navigate in low-light environments, we examined the architecture of the peripheral olfactory organ (the olfactory rosette) through morphological, histological and immunohistochemical assays. We found that each olfactory rosette...... neurons, presence of unusually large cells along the olfactory fiber bundles) deserve further investigation. Overall, the structure of the olfactory rosette suggests a well-developed olfactory capability for the Greenland shark coherent with a bentho-pelagic lifestyle....

  4. Congenital olfactory impairment is linked to cortical changes in prefrontal and limbic brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstensen, Helena Gásdal; Vestergaard, Martin; Baaré, William F C

    2018-01-01

    piriform cortex, while olfactory identification was negatively associated with right SFS volume. Our findings suggest that lifelong olfactory deprivation trigger changes in the cortical volume of prefrontal and limbic brain regions previously linked to olfactory memory.......The human sense of smell is closely associated with morphological differences of the fronto-limbic system, specifically the piriform cortex and medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC). Still it is unclear whether cortical volume in the core olfactory areas and connected brain regions are shaped...... differently in individuals who suffer from lifelong olfactory deprivation relative to healthy normosmic individuals. To address this question, we examined if regional variations in gray matter volume were associated with smell ability in seventeen individuals with isolated congenital olfactory impairment (COI...

  5. A computer-assisted odorized hole-board for testing olfactory perception in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandairon, Nathalie; Sultan, Sébastien; Rey, Nolwen; Kermen, Florence; Moreno, Mélissa; Busto, Germain; Farget, Vincent; Messaoudi, Belkacem; Thevenet, Marc; Didier, Anne

    2009-06-15

    The present paper describes a behavioral setup, designed and built in our laboratory, allowing the systematic and automatic recording of performances in a large number of olfactory behavioral tests. This computerized monitoring system has the capability of measuring different aspects of olfactory function in mice using different paradigms including threshold evaluation, generalization tasks, habituation/dishabituation, olfactory associative learning, short-term olfactory memory with or without a spatial component, and olfactory preferences. In this paper, we first describe the hole-board apparatus and its software and then give the experimental results obtained using this system. We demonstrate that one single, easy-to-run experimental setup is a powerful tool for the study of olfactory behavior in mice that has many advantages and broad applications.

  6. Correlation of olfactory dysfunction of different etiologies in MRI and comparison with subjective and objective olfactometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goektas, Oender; Fleiner, Franca; Sedlmaier, Benedikt; Bauknecht, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Background: The clinical diagnosis of olfactory dysfunction of different etiologies has been standardized by the German Working Group of Olfactology and Gustology, but there is no agreement about the most suitable imaging modality for diagnosing this disorder. Material and methods: A total of 24 patients (13 women, 11 men; mean age 52 years) with different types of olfactory dysfunction (anosmia, hyposmia) were examined by objective and subjective olfactometry and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the olfactory bulb. Results: There was a positive correlation between objective olfactometry and volumetry of the olfactory bulb but no correlation between subjective olfactometry and MRI. Conclusion: MRI allows an evaluation of the olfactory bulb and appears to be superior to other modalities such as computed tomography (CT). Objective olfactometry remains the gold standard for reliable diagnosis of olfactory dysfunction.

  7. Different olfactory system deficits affect the antigonadal action of light deprivation differently in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Criado, J E; Mediavilla, M D; Pinilla, L; Guisado, R

    1985-12-01

    Twenty-eight day-old male rats were subjected to: Blinding-olfactory bulbectomy, Blinding-peripheral anosmia, Blinding-accessory olfactory bulbectomy and Blinding-sham olfactory operation. A set of rats remained intact. Six weeks later, their pituitary-gonads-accessory sex organs were studied. Bulbectomy as well as peripheral anosmia exaggerated the antigonadal effects of blindness, while the accessory olfactory system impairment did not. It is suggested that olfactory bulbectomy potentiation of the antigonadal effects of light deprivation is due to a lack of sensory function rather than to bulbectomy itself and that the accessory olfactory system which is involved in the priming pheromonal effects does not play any role in the inhibition of the antigonadal effects of blindness.

  8. Olfactory stimuli as context cues in human memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, A; Ross, D A

    1989-01-01

    Olfactory stimuli were used as context cues in a recognition memory paradigm. Male college students were exposed to 50 slides of the faces of college females while in the presence of a pleasant or an unpleasant odor. During the acquisition phase, ratings of physical attractiveness of the slides were collected. After a 48-hr delay, a recognition test was given using the original 50 slides and 50 new slides. The recognition test was conducted with either the original odor or the alternative odor present. A no-odor control group did not receive olfactory cues. The attractiveness ratings indicated that the odor variations had no effect on these social judgments. Analyses of d' scores, hits, and false alarms for the recognition performance indicated support for the predicted interaction in which presence of the same odor at both sessions led to better overall performance.

  9. Insect olfactory coding and memory at multiple timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nitin; Stopfer, Mark

    2011-10-01

    Insects can learn, allowing them great flexibility for locating seasonal food sources and avoiding wily predators. Because insects are relatively simple and accessible to manipulation, they provide good experimental preparations for exploring mechanisms underlying sensory coding and memory. Here we review how the intertwining of memory with computation enables the coding, decoding, and storage of sensory experience at various stages of the insect olfactory system. Individual parts of this system are capable of multiplexing memories at different timescales, and conversely, memory on a given timescale can be distributed across different parts of the circuit. Our sampling of the olfactory system emphasizes the diversity of memories, and the importance of understanding these memories in the context of computations performed by different parts of a sensory system. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Olfactory neural tumours - the role of external beam radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slevin, N.J.; Irwin, C.J.R.; Banerjee, S.S.; Path, F.R.C.; Gupta, N.K.; Farrington, W.T. [Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Inst., Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1996-11-01

    Olfactory neuroblastoma is an uncommon tumour arising in the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses. We report the management of nine cases treated with external beam radiotherapy subsequent to surgery, either attempted definitive removal or biopsy only. Recent refinements in pathological evaluation of these tumours are discussed. Seven cases were deemed classical olfactory neuroblastoma whilst two were classified as neuroendocrine carcinoma. The clinical features, radiotherapy technique and variable natural history are presented. Seven of eight patients treated radically were controlled locally, with a minimum follow-up of two years. Three patients developed cervical lymph node disease and three patients died of systemic metastatic disease. Suggestions are made as to which patients should have en-bloc resection rather than definitive radiotherapy. (author).

  11. Superior Orthonasal but Not Retronasal Olfactory Skills in Congenital Blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Lea; Ismaili, Abd Rahman Alaoui; Ptito, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    olfactory but reduced taste perception. In this study we tested the hypothesis that congenitally blind subjects have enhanced orthonasal but not retronasal olfactory skills. Twelve congenitally blind and 14 sighted control subjects, matched in age, gender and body mass index, were asked to identify odours...... using grocery-available food powders. Results showed that blind subjects were significantly faster and tended to be better at identifying odours presented orthonasally. This was not the case when odorants were presented retronasally. We also found a significant group x route interaction, showing...... that although both groups performed better for retronasally compared to orthonasally presented odours, this gain was less pronounced for blind subjects. Finally, our data revealed that blind subjects were more familiar with the orthonasal odorants and used the retronasal odorants less often for cooking than...

  12. [A new case of "olfactory schwannoma"; presentation and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Soto, L; Alfaro-Baca, R; Torrecilla-Sardón, M V; Fernández-Vallejo, B; Ferreira-Muñóz, R; De Diego, T

    2009-06-01

    We report the case of a 54-year-old man who presented at the Emergency Department with intense headache of 6-days duration and sporadic nominal dysphasia. He did not present anosmia and the rest of the examination was normal. The emergency CT and the posterior cerebral MR showed a great subfrontal extra-axial mass of 7 x 6 x 5 cm, over the right side of the cribiform plate, hetereogeneously enhancing after gadolinium administration. Preoperative diagnosis was olfactory groove meningioma. After total removal by bifrontal craniotomy the histopathological diagnosis was schwannoma of the conventional type. Owing to the unusual frequency of this kind of tumors (26 to the date), we review the literature, the possible radiological differences with olfactory groove meningiomas and the different theories about their origin.

  13. Organization of the olfactory system of nymphalidae butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Mikael A; Schäpers, Alexander; Nässel, Dick R; Janz, Niklas

    2013-05-01

    Olfaction is in many species the most important sense, essential for food search, mate finding, and predator avoidance. Butterflies have been considered a microsmatic group of insects that mainly rely on vision due to their diurnal lifestyle. However, an emerging number of studies indicate that butterflies indeed use the sense of smell for locating food and oviposition sites. To unravel the neural substrates for olfaction, we performed an anatomical study of 2 related butterfly species that differ in food and host plant preference. We found many of the anatomical structures and pathways, as well as distribution of neuroactive substances, to resemble that of their nocturnal relatives among the Lepidoptera. The 2 species differed in the number of one type of olfactory sensilla, thus indicating a difference in sensitivity to certain compounds. Otherwise no differences could be observed. Our findings suggest that the olfactory system in Lepidoptera is well conserved despite the long evolutionary time since butterflies and moths diverged from a common ancestor.

  14. Olfactory dysfunction in persian patients suffering from parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanzadeh, Akbar; Shams, Mehdi; Noorolahi, Hamid; Ghorbani, Askar; Fatehi, Farzad

    2011-01-01

    Looking in literature reveals that aging is accompanied by olfactory dysfunction and hyposmia/anosmia is a common manifestation in some neurodegenerative disorders. Olfactory dysfunction is regarded as non-motor manifestations of Parkinson disease (PD). The main goal of this study was to examine the extent of olfactory dysfunction in Persian PD patients. We used seven types of odors including rosewater, mint, lemon, garlic which were produced by Barij Essence Company in Iran. Additionally, coffee and vinegar were used. Subjects had to distinguish and name between seven previously named odors, stimuli were administered to each nostril separately. Totally, 92 patients and 40 controls were recruited. The mean (standard deviation) (SD) age patients was 64.88 (11.30) versus 61.05 (7.93) in controls. The male: female ratio in patients was 50:42 versus 22:18 in control group. Also, mean UPDRS score (SD) in patients was 24.42 (5.08) and the disease duration (SD) was 3.72 (3.53). Regarding the number of truly detected odors, there were a significant higher number of correct identified odors in control group in comparison with the PD patients. Furthermore, there was a significant negative correlation between number of correct diagnosed smells and UPDRS (Pearson Correlation= -0.27, P = 0.009); conversely, no significant correlation between the duration of Parkinson disease and number of correct diagnosed smells (P > 0.05). Smelling dysfunction is a major problem in Persian PD patients and it requires vigilant investigation for the cause of olfactory dysfunction exclusively in elder group and looking for possible PD disease.

  15. Olfactory Transfer of Analgesic Drugs After Nasal Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Espefält Westin, Ulrika

    2007-01-01

    Nasal administration of analgesics for achieving rapid pain relief is currently a topic of great interest. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts access to the central nervous system (CNS) for several central-acting drugs, such as morphine and dihydroergotamine, which results in a substantial effect delay. Evidence for the olfactory transfer of drugs from the nasal cavity to the CNS after nasal administration, bypassing the BBB, is available for both animals and humans. The aims of this thes...

  16. Hunger state affects both olfactory abilities and gustatory sensitivity.

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    Hanci, Deniz; Altun, Huseyin

    2016-07-01

    Chemical senses such as odor, taste and appearance are directly related with appetite. Understanding the relation between appetite and flavor is getting more important due to increasing number of obese patients worldwide. The literature on the studies investigating the change in olfactory abilities and gustatory sensitivity mostly performed using food-related odors and tastes rather than standardized tests were developed to study olfaction and gustation. Therefore, results are inconsistent and the relationship between olfactory and gustatory sensitivity with respect to the actual state of human satiety is still not completely understood. Here, for the first time in literature, we investigated the change in both olfactory abilities and gustatory sensitivity in hunger and in satiety using 123 subjects (37 men, 86 women; mean age 31.4 years, age range 21-41 years). The standardized Sniffin' Sticks Extended Test and Taste Strips were used for olfactory testing and gustatory sensitivity, respectively. TDI score (range 1-48) was calculated as the collective scores of odor threshold (T), odor discrimination (D) and odor identification (I). The evaluation was performed in two successive days where the hunger state of test subjects was confirmed by blood glucose test strips (mean blood glucose level 90.0 ± 5.6 mg/dl in hunger and 131.4 ± 8.1 mg/dl in satiety). The results indicated statistically significant decrease in olfaction in satiety compared to hunger (mean TDI 39.3 ± 1.1 in hunger, 37.4 ± 1.1 in satiety, p hunger (p hunger state.

  17. A coupled-oscillator model of olfactory bulb gamma oscillations.

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    Guoshi Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory bulb transforms not only the information content of the primary sensory representation, but also its underlying coding metric. High-variance, slow-timescale primary odor representations are transformed by bulbar circuitry into secondary representations based on principal neuron spike patterns that are tightly regulated in time. This emergent fast timescale for signaling is reflected in gamma-band local field potentials, presumably serving to efficiently integrate olfactory sensory information into the temporally regulated information networks of the central nervous system. To understand this transformation and its integration with interareal coordination mechanisms requires that we understand its fundamental dynamical principles. Using a biophysically explicit, multiscale model of olfactory bulb circuitry, we here demonstrate that an inhibition-coupled intrinsic oscillator framework, pyramidal resonance interneuron network gamma (PRING, best captures the diversity of physiological properties exhibited by the olfactory bulb. Most importantly, these properties include global zero-phase synchronization in the gamma band, the phase-restriction of informative spikes in principal neurons with respect to this common clock, and the robustness of this synchronous oscillatory regime to multiple challenging conditions observed in the biological system. These conditions include substantial heterogeneities in afferent activation levels and excitatory synaptic weights, high levels of uncorrelated background activity among principal neurons, and spike frequencies in both principal neurons and interneurons that are irregular in time and much lower than the gamma frequency. This coupled cellular oscillator architecture permits stable and replicable ensemble responses to diverse sensory stimuli under various external conditions as well as to changes in network parameters arising from learning-dependent synaptic plasticity.

  18. Functional evidence of multidrug resistance transporters (MDR in rodent olfactory epithelium.

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    Adrien Molinas

    Full Text Available P-glycoprotein (Pgp and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1 are membrane transporter proteins which function as efflux pumps at cell membranes and are considered to exert a protective function against the entry of xenobiotics. While evidence for Pgp and MRP transporter activity is reported for olfactory tissue, their possible interaction and participation in the olfactory response has not been investigated.Functional activity of putative MDR transporters was assessed by means of the fluorometric calcein acetoxymethyl ester (calcein-AM accumulation assay on acute rat and mouse olfactory tissue slices. Calcein-AM uptake was measured as fluorescence intensity changes in the presence of Pgp or MRP specific inhibitors. Epifluorescence microscopy measured time course analysis in the olfactory epithelium revealed significant inhibitor-dependent calcein uptake in the presence of each of the selected inhibitors. Furthermore, intracellular calcein accumulation in olfactory receptor neurons was also significantly increased in the presence of either one of the Pgp or MRP inhibitors. The presence of Pgp or MRP1 encoding genes in the olfactory mucosa of rat and mouse was confirmed by RT-PCR with appropriate pairs of species-specific primers. Both transporters were expressed in both newborn and adult olfactory mucosa of both species. To assess a possible involvement of MDR transporters in the olfactory response, we examined the electrophysiological response to odorants in the presence of the selected MDR inhibitors by recording electroolfactograms (EOG. In both animal species, MRPs inhibitors induced a marked reduction of the EOG magnitude, while Pgp inhibitors had only a minor or no measurable effect.The findings suggest that both Pgp and MRP transporters are functional in the olfactory mucosa and in olfactory receptor neurons. Pgp and MRPs may be cellular constituents of olfactory receptor neurons and represent potential mechanisms for modulation

  19. Nitric Oxide-Mediated Modulation of Central Network Dynamics during Olfactory Perception.

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    Satoshi Watanabe

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO modulates the dynamics of central olfactory networks and has been implicated in olfactory processing including learning. Land mollusks have a specialized olfactory lobe in the brain called the procerebral (PC lobe. The PC lobe produces ongoing local field potential (LFP oscillation, which is modulated by olfactory stimulation. We hypothesized that NO should be released in the PC lobe in response to olfactory stimulation, and to prove this, we applied an NO electrode to the PC lobe of the land slug Limax in an isolated tentacle-brain preparation. Olfactory stimulation applied to the olfactory epithelium transiently increased the NO concentration in the PC lobe, and this was blocked by the NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME at 3.7 mM. L-NAME at this concentration did not block the ongoing LFP oscillation, but did block the frequency increase during olfactory stimulation. Olfactory stimulation also enhanced spatial synchronicity of activity, and this response was also blocked by L-NAME. Single electrical stimulation of the superior tentacle nerve (STN mimicked the effects of olfactory stimulation on LFP frequency and synchronicity, and both of these effects were blocked by L-NAME. L-NAME did not block synaptic transmission from the STN to the nonbursting (NB-type PC lobe neurons, which presumably produce NO in an activity-dependent manner. Previous behavioral experiments have revealed impairment of olfactory discrimination after L-NAME injection. The recording conditions in the present work likely reproduce the in vivo brain state in those behavioral experiments. We speculate that the dynamical effects of NO released during olfactory perception underlie precise odor representation and memory formation in the brain, presumably through regulation of NB neuron activity.

  20. Olfactory processing in adults with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicker, Bruno; Monfardini, Elisabetta; Royet, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    As evidenced in the DSM-V, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are often characterized by atypical sensory behavior (hyper- or hypo-reactivity), but very few studies have evaluated olfactory abilities in individuals with ASD. Fifteen adults with ASD and 15 typically developing participants underwent olfactory tests focused on superficial (suprathreshold detection task), perceptual (intensity and pleasantness judgment tasks), and semantic (identification task) odor processing. In terms of suprathreshold detection performance, decreased discrimination scores and increased bias scores were observed in the ASD group. Furthermore, the participants with ASD exhibited increased intensity judgment scores and impaired scores for pleasantness judgments of unpleasant odorants. Decreased identification performance was also observed in the participants with ASD compared with the typically developing participants. This decrease was partly attributed to a higher number of near misses (a category close to veridical labels) among the participants with ASD than was observed among the typically developing participants. The changes in discrimination and bias scores were the result of a high number of false alarms among the participants with ASD, which suggests the adoption of a liberal attitude in their responses. Atypical intensity and pleasantness ratings were associated with hyperresponsiveness and flattened emotional reactions, respectively, which are typical of participants with ASD. The high number of near misses as non-veridical labels suggested that categorical processing is functional in individuals with ASD and could be explained by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. These findings are discussed in terms of dysfunction of the olfactory system.

  1. The effect of verbal context on olfactory neural responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensafi, Moustafa; Croy, Ilona; Phillips, Nicola; Rouby, Catherine; Sezille, Caroline; Gerber, Johannes; Small, Dana M; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Odor names refer usually to "source" object categories. For example, the smell of rose is often described with its source category (flower). However, linguistic studies suggest that odors can also be named with labels referring to categories of "practices". This is the case when rose odor is described with a verbal label referring to its use in fragrance practices ("body lotion," cosmetic for example). It remains unknown whether naming an odor by its practice category influences olfactory neural responses differently than that observed when named with its source category. The aim of this study was to investigate this question. To this end, functional MRI was used in a within-subjects design comparing brain responses to four different odors (peach, chocolate, linden blossom, and rose) under two conditions whereby smells were described either (1) with their source category label (food and flower) or (2) with a practice category label (body lotion). Both types of labels induced activations in secondary olfactory areas (orbitofrontal cortex), whereas only the source label condition induced activation in the cingulate cortex and the insula. In summary, our findings offer a new look at olfactory perception by indicating differential brain responses depending on whether odors are named according to their source or practice category. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Evidence for partial overlap of male olfactory cues in lampreys

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    Buchinger, Tyler J.; Li, Ke; Huertas, Mar; Baker, Cindy F.; Jia, Liang; Hayes, Michael C.; Li, Weiming; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2016-01-01

    Animals rely on a mosaic of complex information to find and evaluate mates. Pheromones, often comprised of multiple components, are considered to be particularly important for species-recognition in many species. While the evolution of species-specific pheromone blends is well-described in many insects, very few vertebrate pheromones have been studied in a macro-evolutionary context. Here, we report a phylogenetic comparison of multi-component male odours that guide reproduction in lampreys. Chemical profiling of sexually mature males from eleven species of lamprey, representing six of ten genera and two of three families, indicated the chemical profiles of sexually mature male odours are partially shared among species. Behavioural assays conducted with four species sympatric in the Laurentian Great Lakes indicated asymmetric female responses to heterospecific odours, where Petromyzon marinus were attracted to male odour collected from all species tested but other species generally preferred only the odour of conspecifics. Electro-olfactogram recordings from P. marinusindicated that although P. marinus exhibited behavioural responses to odours from males of all species, at least some of the compounds that elicited olfactory responses were different in conspecific male odours compared to heterospecific male odours. We conclude that some of the compounds released by sexually mature males are shared among species and elicit olfactory and behavioural responses in P. marinus, and suggest that our results provide evidence for partial overlap of male olfactory cues among lampreys. Further characterization of the chemical identities of odour components is needed to confirm shared pheromones among species.

  3. Short-term memory in olfactory network dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopfer, Mark; Laurent, Gilles

    1999-12-01

    Neural assemblies in a number of animal species display self-organized, synchronized oscillations in response to sensory stimuli in a variety of brain areas.. In the olfactory system of insects, odour-evoked oscillatory synchronization of antennal lobe projection neurons (PNs) is superimposed on slower and stimulus-specific temporal activity patterns. Hence, each odour activates a specific and dynamic projection neuron assembly whose evolution during a stimulus is locked to the oscillation clock. Here we examine, using locusts, the changes in population dynamics of projection-neuron assemblies over repeated odour stimulations, as would occur when an animal first encounters and then repeatedly samples an odour for identification or localization. We find that the responses of these assemblies rapidly decrease in intensity, while they show a marked increase in spike time precision and inter-neuronal oscillatory coherence. Once established, this enhanced precision in the representation endures for several minutes. This change is stimulus-specific, and depends on events within the antennal lobe circuits, independent of olfactory receptor adaptation: it may thus constitute a form of sensory memory. Our results suggest that this progressive change in olfactory network dynamics serves to converge, over repeated odour samplings, on a more precise and readily classifiable odour representation, using relational information contained across neural assemblies.

  4. The effect of desflurane on postoperative olfactory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, I; Bayır, H; Saglam, I; Sereflican, M; Bilgi, M; Yurttas, V; Demirhan, A; Tekelioglu, U Y; Kocoglu, H

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of desflurane 6%, on olfactory memory. This is a prospective clinical study performed with 40 patients aged 18-60 who had elective surgery and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I-III. The Brief Smell Identification Test (BSIT) was used for evaluating patients' olfactory memories before and after the surgery. Patients received standard general anesthesia protocol and routine monitoring. For induction, 1.5 mg/kg of fentanyl, 2 mg/kg of propofol, and 0.5 mg/kg of rocuronium bromide were administered. Anesthesia was maintained with the inhalational of anesthetic desflurane (6%). The scores are recorded 30 minutes before the surgery and when the Aldrete Recovery Score reached 10 in the postoperative period. Preoperative and postoperative results were compared and p-values 0.05). We have observed for the first time in the literature that general anesthesia using desflurane (6%) did not affect short-term olfactory memory. Further studies will be necessary to confirm our findings with larger sample size.

  5. Effects of Caffeine on Olfactory Learning in Crickets.

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    Sugimachi, Seigo; Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Mizunami, Makoto; Okada, Jiro

    2016-10-01

    Caffeine is a plant-derived alkaloid that is generally known as a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant. In order to examine the effects of caffeine on higher CNS functions in insects, we used an appetitive olfactory learning paradigm for the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Crickets can form significant long-term memories (LTMs) after repetitive training sessions, during which they associate a conditioned stimulus (CS: odor) with an unconditioned stimulus (US: reward). Administration of hemolymphal injections of caffeine established LTM after only single-trial conditioning over a wide range of caffeine dosages (1.6 µµg/kg to 39 mg/kg). We investigated the physiological mechanisms underlying this enhancement of olfactory learning performance pharmacologically, focusing on three major physiological roles of caffeine: 1) inhibition of phosphodiesterase (PDE), 2) agonism of ryanodine receptors, and 3) antagonism of adenosine receptors. Application of drugs relevant to these actions resulted in significant effects on LTM formation. These results suggest that externally applied caffeine enhances LTM formation in insect olfactory learning via multiple cellular mechanisms.

  6. Immobilization of olfactory receptors onto gold electrodes for electrical biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casuso, Ignacio [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, Laboratori de Nanobioenginyeria-IBEC, Parc Cientific de Barcelona, C/Josep Samitier 1-5, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: icasuso@pcb.ub.es; Pla-Roca, Mateu [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, Laboratori de Nanobioenginyeria-IBEC, Parc Cientific de Barcelona, C/Josep Samitier 1-5, Barcelona (Spain); Gomila, Gabriel [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, Laboratori de Nanobioenginyeria-IBEC, Parc Cientific de Barcelona, C/Josep Samitier 1-5, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: ggomila@pcb.ub.es; Samitier, Josep [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, Laboratori de Nanobioenginyeria-IBEC, Parc Cientific de Barcelona, C/Josep Samitier 1-5, Barcelona (Spain); Minic, Jasmina; Persuy, Marie A.; Salesse, Roland; Pajot-Augy, Edith [INRA, Neurobiologie de l' Olfaction et de la Prise Alimentaire, Equipe Recepteurs et Communication Chimique, Domaine de Vilvert, Jouy en Josas Cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    We investigate the immobilization of native nanovesicles containing functional olfactory receptors onto gold electrodes by means of atomic force microscopy in liquid. We show that nanovesicles can be adsorbed without disrupting them presenting sizes once immobilized ranging from 50 nm to 200 nm in diameter. The size of the nanovesicles shows no dependence on the electrode hydrophobicity being constant in a height/width ratio close to 1:3. Nevertheless, electrode hydrophobicity does affect the surface coverage, the surface coverage is five times higher in hydrophilic electrodes than on hydrophobic ones. Surface coverage is also affected by nanovesicles dimensions in suspension, the size homogenization to around 50 nm yields a further five fold increment in surface coverage achieving a coverage of about 50% close to the hard spheres jamming limit (54.7%). A single layer of nanovesicles is always formed with no particle overlap. Present results provide insights into the immobilization on electrodes of olfactory receptors for further olfactory electrical biosensor development.

  7. Assessing olfactory functions in patients with Barth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibattista, Michele; Lobasso, Simona; Stramaglia, Sebastiano; Corcelli, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Barth syndrome is a rare X-linked disease affecting less than 200 individuals worldwide. Several comorbidities have been associated with the pathology and, among those, cardiac myopathy and neutropenia are the most life threatening. The appropriate nutritive support is important to sustain the everyday life of Barth syndrome patients given the chronic fatigue they experience. Since they often prefer salty and fried food, and avoid vegetables and fruits, their eating habit and food preferences do not always provide the proper amount of vitamins and amino acids. It has been indeed reported that Barth syndrome patients have altered taste sensitivity. As olfaction also contributes to food consumption and flavor perception, we decided to investigate their olfactory abilities using the "Sniffin' sticks' extended test". We found no significant difference in any of the tested olfactory abilities between the group of Barth syndrome patients and the healthy controls. In summary, altered food preference of Barth boys could not be easily explained with an altered olfactory perception.

  8. Assessing olfactory functions in patients with Barth syndrome.

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    Michele Dibattista

    Full Text Available Barth syndrome is a rare X-linked disease affecting less than 200 individuals worldwide. Several comorbidities have been associated with the pathology and, among those, cardiac myopathy and neutropenia are the most life threatening. The appropriate nutritive support is important to sustain the everyday life of Barth syndrome patients given the chronic fatigue they experience. Since they often prefer salty and fried food, and avoid vegetables and fruits, their eating habit and food preferences do not always provide the proper amount of vitamins and amino acids. It has been indeed reported that Barth syndrome patients have altered taste sensitivity. As olfaction also contributes to food consumption and flavor perception, we decided to investigate their olfactory abilities using the "Sniffin' sticks' extended test". We found no significant difference in any of the tested olfactory abilities between the group of Barth syndrome patients and the healthy controls. In summary, altered food preference of Barth boys could not be easily explained with an altered olfactory perception.

  9. Floral to green: mating switches moth olfactory coding and preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveer, Ahmed M; Kromann, Sophie H; Birgersson, Göran; Bengtsson, Marie; Lindblom, Tobias; Balkenius, Anna; Hansson, Bill S; Witzgall, Peter; Becher, Paul G; Ignell, Rickard

    2012-06-22

    Mating induces profound physiological changes in a wide range of insects, leading to behavioural adjustments to match the internal state of the animal. Here, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, that a noctuid moth switches its olfactory response from food to egg-laying cues following mating. Unmated females of the cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) are strongly attracted to lilac flowers (Syringa vulgaris). After mating, attraction to floral odour is abolished and the females fly instead to green-leaf odour of the larval host plant cotton, Gossypium hirsutum. This behavioural switch is owing to a marked change in the olfactory representation of floral and green odours in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL). Calcium imaging, using authentic and synthetic odours, shows that the ensemble of AL glomeruli dedicated to either lilac or cotton odour is selectively up- and downregulated in response to mating. A clear-cut behavioural modulation as a function of mating is a useful substrate for studies of the neural mechanisms underlying behavioural decisions. Modulation of odour-driven behaviour through concerted regulation of odour maps contributes to our understanding of state-dependent choice and host shifts in insect herbivores.

  10. Assessment of Olfactory Function in MAPT-Associated Neurodegenerative Disease Reveals Odor-Identification Irreproducibility as a Non-Disease-Specific, General Characteristic of Olfactory Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markopoulou, Katerina; Chase, Bruce A; Robowski, Piotr; Strongosky, Audrey; Narożańska, Ewa; Sitek, Emilia J; Berdynski, Mariusz; Barcikowska, Maria; Baker, Matt C; Rademakers, Rosa; Sławek, Jarosław; Klein, Christine; Hückelheim, Katja; Kasten, Meike; Wszolek, Zbigniew K

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is associated with normal aging, multiple neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease, Lewy body disease and Alzheimer's disease, and other diseases such as diabetes, sleep apnea and the autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis. The wide spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders associated with olfactory dysfunction suggests different, potentially overlapping, underlying pathophysiologies. Studying olfactory dysfunction in presymptomatic carriers of mutations known to cause familial parkinsonism provides unique opportunities to understand the role of genetic factors, delineate the salient characteristics of the onset of olfactory dysfunction, and understand when it starts relative to motor and cognitive symptoms. We evaluated olfactory dysfunction in 28 carriers of two MAPT mutations (p.N279K, p.P301L), which cause frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism, using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test. Olfactory dysfunction in carriers does not appear to be allele specific, but is strongly age-dependent and precedes symptomatic onset. Severe olfactory dysfunction, however, is not a fully penetrant trait at the time of symptom onset. Principal component analysis revealed that olfactory dysfunction is not odor-class specific, even though individual odor responses cluster kindred members according to genetic and disease status. Strikingly, carriers with incipient olfactory dysfunction show poor inter-test consistency among the sets of odors identified incorrectly in successive replicate tests, even before severe olfactory dysfunction appears. Furthermore, when 78 individuals without neurodegenerative disease and 14 individuals with sporadic Parkinson's disease were evaluated twice at a one-year interval using the Brief Smell Identification Test, the majority also showed inconsistency in the sets of odors they identified incorrectly, independent of age and cognitive status. While these findings may reflect the

  11. Ancestral amphibian v2rs are expressed in the main olfactory epithelium

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    Syed, Adnan S.; Sansone, Alfredo; Nadler, Walter; Manzini, Ivan; Korsching, Sigrun I.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian olfactory receptor families are segregated into different olfactory organs, with type 2 vomeronasal receptor (v2r) genes expressed in a basal layer of the vomeronasal epithelium. In contrast, teleost fish v2r genes are intermingled with all other olfactory receptor genes in a single sensory surface. We report here that, strikingly different from both lineages, the v2r gene family of the amphibian Xenopus laevis is expressed in the main olfactory as well as the vomeronasal epithelium. Interestingly, late diverging v2r genes are expressed exclusively in the vomeronasal epithelium, whereas “ancestral” v2r genes, including the single member of v2r family C, are restricted to the main olfactory epithelium. Moreover, within the main olfactory epithelium, v2r genes are expressed in a basal zone, partially overlapping, but clearly distinct from an apical zone of olfactory marker protein and odorant receptor-expressing cells. These zones are also apparent in the spatial distribution of odor responses, enabling a tentative assignment of odor responses to olfactory receptor gene families. Responses to alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones show an apical localization, consistent with being mediated by odorant receptors, whereas amino acid responses overlap extensively with the basal v2r-expressing zone. The unique bimodal v2r expression pattern in main and accessory olfactory system of amphibians presents an excellent opportunity to study the transition of v2r gene expression during evolution of higher vertebrates. PMID:23613591

  12. Olfactory identification in amnestic and non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment and its neuropsychological correlates.

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    Vyhnalek, Martin; Magerova, Hana; Andel, Ross; Nikolai, Tomas; Kadlecova, Alexandra; Laczo, Jan; Hort, Jakub

    2015-02-15

    Olfactory identification impairment in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients is well documented and considered to be caused by underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, contrasting with less clear evidence in non-amnestic MCI (naMCI). The aim was to (a) compare the degree of olfactory identification dysfunction in aMCI, naMCI, controls and mild AD dementia and (b) assess the relation between olfactory identification and cognitive performance in aMCI compared to naMCI. 75 patients with aMCI and 32 with naMCI, 26 patients with mild AD and 27 controls underwent the multiple choice olfactory identification Motol Hospital Smell Test with 18 different odors together with a comprehensive neuropsychological examination. Controlling for age and gender, patients with aMCI and naMCI did not differ significantly in olfactory identification and both performed significantly worse than controls (pmemory and visuospatial tests were significantly related to better olfactory identification ability. Conversely, no cognitive measure was significantly related to olfactory performance in naMCI. Olfactory identification is similarly impaired in aMCI and naMCI. Olfactory impairment is proportional to cognitive impairment in aMCI but not in naMCI. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Olfactory short-term memory encoding and maintenance - an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Steffen; Bluschke, Annet; Beste, Christian; Iannilli, Emilia; Rößner, Veit; Hummel, Thomas; Bender, Stephan

    2014-09-01

    This study examined whether the memory encoding and short term maintenance of olfactory stimuli is associated with neurophysiological activation patterns which parallel those described for sensory modalities such as vision and auditory. We examined olfactory event-related potentials in an olfactory change detection task in twenty-four healthy adults and compared the measured activation to that found during passive olfactory stimulation. During the early olfactory post-processing phase, we found a sustained negativity over bilateral frontotemporal areas in the passive perception condition which was enhanced in the active memory task. There was no significant lateralization in either experimental condition. During the maintenance interval at the end of the delay period, we still found sustained activation over bilateral frontotemporal areas which was more negative in trials with correct - as compared to incorrect - behavioural responses. This was complemented by a general significantly stronger frontocentral activation. Summarizing, we were able to show that olfactory short term memory involves a parallel sequence of activation as found in other sensory modalities. In addition to olfactory-specific frontotemporal activations in the memory encoding phase, we found slow cortical potentials over frontocentral areas during the memory maintenance phase indicating the activation of a supramodal memory maintenance system. These findings could represent the neurophysiological underpinning of the 'olfactory flacon', the olfactory counter-part to the visual sketchpad and phonological loop embedded in Baddeley's working memory model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Smelly primes – when olfactory primes do or do not work

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    Monique A Smeets

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In applied olfactory cognition the effects that olfactory stimulation can have on (human behavior are investigated. To enable an efficient application of olfactory stimuli a model of how they may lead to a change in behavior is proposed. To this end we use the concept of olfactory priming. Olfactory priming may prompt a special view on priming as the olfactory sense has some unique properties which make odors special types of primes. Examples of such properties are the ability of odors to influence our behavior outside of awareness, to lead to strong affective evaluations, to evoke specific memories, and to associate easily and quickly to other environmental stimuli. Opportunities and limitations for using odors as primes are related to these properties, and alternative explanations for reported findings are offered. Implications for olfactory semantic, construal, behavior and goal priming are given based on a brief overview of the priming literature from social psychology and from olfactory perception science. We end by formulating recommendations and ideas for a future research agenda and applications for olfactory priming.

  15. Increased Regenerative Capacity of the Olfactory Epithelium in Niemann–Pick Disease Type C1

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    Anja Meyer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Niemann–Pick disease type C1 (NPC1 is a fatal neurovisceral lysosomal lipid storage disorder. The mutation of the NPC1 protein affects the homeostasis and transport of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids from late endosomes/lysosomes to the endoplasmic reticulum resulting in progressive neurodegeneration. Since olfactory impairment is one of the earliest symptoms in many neurodegenerative disorders, we focused on alterations of the olfactory epithelium in an NPC1 mouse model. Previous findings revealed severe morphological and immunohistochemical alterations in the olfactory system of NPC1−/− mutant mice compared with healthy controls (NPC1+/+. Based on immunohistochemical evaluation of the olfactory epithelium, we analyzed the impact of neurodegeneration in the olfactory epithelium of NPC1−/− mice and observed considerable loss of mature olfactory receptor neurons as well as an increased number of proliferating and apoptotic cells. Additionally, after administration of two different therapy approaches using either a combination of miglustat, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD and allopregnanolone or a monotherapy with HPβCD, we recorded a remarkable reduction of morphological damages in NPC1−/− mice and an up to four-fold increase of proliferating cells within the olfactory epithelium. Numbers of mature olfactory receptor neurons doubled after both therapy approaches. Interestingly, we also observed therapy-induced alterations in treated NPC1+/+ controls. Thus, olfactory testing may provide useful information to monitor pharmacologic treatment approaches in human NPC1.

  16. Olfactory deficits in Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1 disease.

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    Marina Hovakimyan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC is a rare autosomal recessive lipid storage disease characterized by progressive neurodegeneration. As only a few studies have been conducted on the impact of NPC on sensory systems, we used a mutant mouse model (NPC1(-/- to examine the effects of this disorder to morphologically distinct regions of the olfactory system, namely the olfactory epithelium (OE and olfactory bulb (OB. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For structural and functional analysis immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, western blotting, and electrophysiology have been applied. For histochemistry and western blotting, we used antibodies against a series of neuronal and glia marker proteins, as well as macrophage markers. NPC1(-/- animals present myelin-like lysosomal deposits in virtually all types of cells of the peripheral and central olfactory system. Especially supporting cells of the OE and central glia cells are affected, resulting in pronounced astrocytosis and microgliosis in the OB and other olfactory cortices. Up-regulation of Galectin-3, Cathepsin D and GFAP in the cortical layers of the OB underlines the critical role and location of the OB as a possible entrance gate for noxious substances. Unmyelinated olfactory afferents of the lamina propria seem less affected than ensheathing cells. Supporting the structural findings, electro-olfactometry of the olfactory mucosa suggests that NPC1(-/- animals exhibit olfactory and trigeminal deficits. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data demonstrate a pronounced neurodegeneration and glia activation in the olfactory system of NPC1(-/-, which is accompanied by sensory deficits.

  17. CD36 is involved in oleic acid detection by the murine olfactory system.

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    Sonja eOberland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory signals influence food intake in a variety of species. To maximize the chances of finding a source of calories, an animal’s preference for fatty foods and triglycerides already becomes apparent during olfactory food search behavior. However, the molecular identity of both receptors and ligands mediating olfactory-dependent fatty acid recognition are, so far, undescribed. We here describe that a subset of olfactory sensory neurons expresses the fatty acid receptor CD36 and demonstrate a receptor-like localization of CD36 in olfactory cilia by STED microscopy. CD36-positive olfactory neurons share olfaction-specific transduction elements and project to numerous glomeruli in the ventral olfactory bulb. In accordance with the described roles of CD36 as fatty acid receptor or co-receptor in other sensory systems, the number of olfactory neurons responding to oleic acid, a major milk component, in Ca2+ imaging experiments is drastically reduced in young CD36 knock-out mice. Strikingly, we also observe marked age-dependent changes in CD36 localization, which is prominently present in the ciliary compartment only during the suckling period. Our results support the involvement of CD36 in fatty acid detection by the mammalian olfactory system.

  18. Olfactory organ of Octopus vulgaris: morphology, plasticity, turnover and sensory characterization

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    Gianluca Polese

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The cephalopod olfactory organ was described for the first time in 1844 by von Kölliker, who was attracted to the pair of small pits of ciliated cells on each side of the head, below the eyes close to the mantle edge, in both octopuses and squids. Several functional studies have been conducted on decapods but very little is known about octopods. The morphology of the octopus olfactory system has been studied, but only to a limited extent on post-hatching specimens, and the only paper on adult octopus gives a minimal description of the olfactory organ. Here, we describe the detailed morphology of young male and female Octopus vulgaris olfactory epithelium, and using a combination of classical morphology and 3D reconstruction techniques, we propose a new classification for O. vulgaris olfactory sensory neurons. Furthermore, using specific markers such as olfactory marker protein (OMP and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA we have been able to identify and differentially localize both mature olfactory sensory neurons and olfactory sensory neurons involved in epithelium turnover. Taken together, our data suggest that the O. vulgaris olfactory organ is extremely plastic, capable of changing its shape and also proliferating its cells in older specimens.

  19. Olfactory training induces changes in regional functional connectivity in patients with long-term smell loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kollndorfer

    2015-01-01

    The results of this study indicate that an olfactory training program can reorganize functional networks, although, initially, no differences in the spatial distribution of neural activation were observed.

  20. Pulse Power Capability Estimation of Lithium Titanate Oxide-based Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Ana-Irina; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan

    2016-01-01

    , this paper analyzes the power capability characteristic of a 13Ah high power Lithium Titanate Oxide-based battery and its dependence on temperature, load current and state-of-charge. Furthermore, a model to predict the discharging PPC of the battery cell at different temperatures and load currents for three...

  1. Zinc oxide based dye sensitized solar cell using eosin – Y as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A zinc oxide based Dye sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) has been fabricated, using Eosin-Y as the dye adsorbed on a nanocrystalline zinc oxide - fluorine doped tin oxide electrode, for the sensitization of the large band gap semiconductor. The absorption spectrum of Eosin-Y showed high absorption of visible light between ...

  2. Functional characteristics of a tiny but specialized olfactory system: olfactory receptor neurons of carrot psyllids (Homoptera: Triozidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersen, Lina; Larsson, Mattias C; Anderbrant, Olle

    2008-11-01

    With only approximately 50 olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), the carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis (Homoptera: Psylloidea) may have the smallest olfactory system described in adult Neopteran insects. Using single sensillum recordings (SSR) and gas chromatograph-linked SSR, we characterized 4 olfactory sensilla forming a distinct morphological type, which together house approximately 25% of all ORNs. We recorded responses to extracts and single constituents from Daucus carota ssp. sativus, from the conifers Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris, and Juniperus communis, as well as from male and female T. apicalis. Receptor neurons were highly selective; only 9 compounds in total elicited repeatable responses, and each neuron responded to at most 3 individual compounds. Chemical profiles of carrot and conifers showed significant overlap, with 4 out of 9 electrophysiologically active compounds occurring in more than one type of extract, but a carrot-specific compound elicited the most repeated responses. We identified 4 tentative neuron classes and found a rather high degree of neuronal redundancy, with 1 neuron class present in 3 and another present in all 4 of the sensilla, respectively.

  3. Chronically reinforced, operant olfactory conditioning increases the number of newborn GABAergic olfactory periglomerular neurons in the adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Rodríguez, Miguel; Esquivelzeta-Rabell, José F; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel

    2012-12-01

    The mammalian brain preserves the ability to replace olfactory periglomerular cells (PGC) throughout life. Even though we have detailed a great deal the mechanisms underlying stem and amplifying cells maintenance and proliferation, as well as those modulating migration and differentiation, our knowledge on PGC phenotypic plasticity is at best fragmented and controversial. Here we explored whether chronically reinforced olfactory conditioning influences the phenotype of newborn PGC. Accordingly, olfactory conditioned rats showed increased numbers of GAD 65/67 positive PGC. Because such phenotypic change was not accompanied neither by increments in the total number of PGC, or periglomerular cell nuclei labeled with bromodeoxyuridine, nor by reductions in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), calbindin (CB) or calretinin (CR) immunoreactive PGC, we speculate that increments in the number of GABAergic PGC occur at the expense of other PGC phenotypes. In any event, these results support that adult newborn PGC phenotype may be subjected to phenotypic plasticity influenced by sensory stimulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Electrochromics for smart windows: Oxide-based thin films and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granqvist, Claes G.

    2014-08-01

    Electrochromic (EC) smart windows are able to vary their throughput of visible light and solar energy by the application of an electrical voltage and are able to provide energy efficiency and indoor comfort in buildings. Section 1 explains why this technology is important and timely by first outlining today's precarious situation concerning increasing energy use and associated effects on the world's climate, and this section also underscores the great importance of enhancing the energy efficiency of buildings by letting them function more in harmony with the environment—particularly its varying temperature—than is possible with current mainstream technologies. This same chapter also surveys recent work on the energy savings and other benefits that are possible with EC-based technologies. Section 2 then provides some notes on the history of the EC effect and its applications. Section 3 presents a generic design for the oxide-based EC devices that are most in focus for present-day applications and research. This design includes five superimposed layers with a centrally-positioned electrolyte connecting two oxide films—at least one of which having EC properties—and with transparent electrical conductors surrounding the three-layer structure in the middle. It is emphasized that this construction can be viewed as a thin-film electrical battery whose charging state is manifested as optical absorption. Also discussed are six well known hurdles for the implementation of these EC devices, as well as a number of practical constructions of EC-based smart windows. Section 4 is an in-depth discussion of various aspects of EC oxides. It begins with a literature survey for 2007–2013, which updates earlier reviews, and is followed by a general discussion of optical and electronic effects and, specifically, on charge transfer absorption in tungsten oxide. Ionic effects are then treated with foci on the inherent nanoporosity of the important EC oxides and on the

  5. Electrochromics for smart windows: Oxide-based thin films and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granqvist, Claes G.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochromic (EC) smart windows are able to vary their throughput of visible light and solar energy by the application of an electrical voltage and are able to provide energy efficiency and indoor comfort in buildings. Section 1 explains why this technology is important and timely by first outlining today's precarious situation concerning increasing energy use and associated effects on the world's climate, and this section also underscores the great importance of enhancing the energy efficiency of buildings by letting them function more in harmony with the environment—particularly its varying temperature—than is possible with current mainstream technologies. This same chapter also surveys recent work on the energy savings and other benefits that are possible with EC-based technologies. Section 2 then provides some notes on the history of the EC effect and its applications. Section 3 presents a generic design for the oxide-based EC devices that are most in focus for present-day applications and research. This design includes five superimposed layers with a centrally-positioned electrolyte connecting two oxide films—at least one of which having EC properties—and with transparent electrical conductors surrounding the three-layer structure in the middle. It is emphasized that this construction can be viewed as a thin-film electrical battery whose charging state is manifested as optical absorption. Also discussed are six well known hurdles for the implementation of these EC devices, as well as a number of practical constructions of EC-based smart windows. Section 4 is an in-depth discussion of various aspects of EC oxides. It begins with a literature survey for 2007–2013, which updates earlier reviews, and is followed by a general discussion of optical and electronic effects and, specifically, on charge transfer absorption in tungsten oxide. Ionic effects are then treated with foci on the inherent nanoporosity of the important EC oxides and on the

  6. fMRI study of the role of glutamate NMDA receptor in the olfactory adaptation in rats: Insights into cellular and molecular mechanisms of olfactory adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fuqiang; Wang, Xiaohai; Zariwala, Hatim A; Uslaner, Jason M; Houghton, Andrea K; Evelhoch, Jeffrey L; Hostetler, Eric; Winkelmann, Christopher T; Hines, Catherine D G

    2017-04-01

    Olfactory adaptation, characterized by attenuation of response to repeated odor stimulations or continuous odor exposure, is an intrinsic feature of olfactory processing. Adaptation can be induced by either "synaptic depression" due to depletion of neurotransmitters, or "enhanced inhibition" onto principle neurons by local inhibitory interneurons in olfactory structures. It is not clear which mechanism plays a major role in olfactory adaptation. More importantly, molecular sources of enhanced inhibition have not been identified. In this study, olfactory responses to either repeated 40-s stimulations with interstimulus intervals (ISI) of 140-s or 30-min, or a single prolonged 200-s stimulus were measured by fMRI in different naïve rats. Olfactory adaptations in the olfactory bulb (OB), anterior olfactory nucleus (AON), and piriform cortex (PC) were observed only with repeated 40-s odor stimulations, and no olfactory adaptations were detected during the prolonged 200-s stimulation. Interestingly, in responses to repeated 40-s odor stimulations in the PC, the first odor stimulation induced positive activations, and odor stimulations under adapted condition induced negative activations. The negative activations suggest that "sparse coding" and "global inhibition" are the characteristics of olfactory processing in PC, and the global inhibition manifests only under an adapted condition, not a naïve condition. Further, we found that these adaptations were NMDA receptor dependent; an NMDA receptor antagonist (MK801) blocked the adaptations. Based on the mechanism that glutamate NMDA receptor plays a role in the inhibition onto principle neurons by interneurons, our data suggest that the olfactory adaptations are caused by enhanced inhibition from interneurons. Combined with the necessity of the interruption of odor stimulation to observe the adaptations, the molecular source for the enhanced inhibition is most likely an increased glutamate release from presynaptic

  7. Reorganization of neuronal circuits of the central olfactory system during postprandial sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro eYamaguchi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastic changes in neuronal circuits often occur in association with specific behavioral states. In this review, we focus on an emerging view that neuronal circuits in the olfactory system are reorganized along the wake-sleep cycle. Olfaction is crucial to sustaining the animals’ life, and odor-guided behaviors have to be newly acquired or updated to successfully cope with a changing odor world. It is therefore likely that neuronal circuits in the olfactory system are highly plastic and undergo repeated reorganization in daily life. A remarkably plastic feature of the olfactory system is that newly generated neurons are continually integrated into neuronal circuits of the olfactory bulb (OB throughout life. New neurons in the OB undergo an extensive selection process, during which many are eliminated by apoptosis for the fine tuning of neuronal circuits. The life and death decision of new neurons occurs extensively during a short time window of sleep after food consumption (postprandial sleep, a typical daily olfactory behavior. We review recent studies that explain how olfactory information is transferred between the OB and the olfactory cortex (OC along the course of the wake-sleep cycle. Olfactory sensory input is effectively transferred from the OB to the OC during waking, while synchronized top-down inputs from the OC to the OB are promoted during the slow-wave sleep. We discuss possible neuronal circuit mechanisms for the selection of new neurons in the OB, which involves the encoding of olfactory sensory inputs and memory trace formation during waking and internally generated activities in the OC and OB during subsequent sleep. The plastic changes in the OB and OC are well coordinated along the course of olfactory behavior during wakefulness and postbehavioral rest and sleep. We therefore propose that the olfactory system provides an excellent model in which to understand behavioral state-dependent plastic mechanisms of the neuronal

  8. Olfactory habituation in Drosophila-odor encoding and its plasticity in the antennal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twick, Isabell; Lee, John Anthony; Ramaswami, Mani

    2014-01-01

    A ubiquitous feature of an animal's response to an odorant is that it declines when the odorant is frequently or continuously encountered. This decline in olfactory response, termed olfactory habituation, can have temporally or mechanistically different forms. The neural circuitry of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster's olfactory system is well defined in terms of component cells, which are readily accessible to functional studies and genetic manipulation. This makes it a particularly useful preparation for the investigation of olfactory habituation. In addition, the insect olfactory system shares many architectural and functional similarities with mammalian olfactory systems, suggesting that olfactory mechanisms in insects may be broadly relevant. In this chapter, we discuss the likely mechanisms of olfactory habituation in context of the participating cell types, their connectivity, and their roles in sensory processing. We overview the structure and function of key cell types, the mechanisms that stimulate them, and how they transduce and process odor signals. We then consider how each stage of olfactory processing could potentially contribute to behavioral habituation. After this, we overview a variety of recent mechanistic studies that point to an important role for potentiation of inhibitory synapses in the primary olfactory processing center, the antennal lobe, in driving the reduced response to familiar odorants. Following the discussion of mechanisms for short- and long-term olfactory habituation, we end by considering how these mechanisms may be regulated by neuromodulators, which likely play key roles in the induction, gating, or suppression of habituated behavior, and speculate on the relevance of these processes for other forms of learning and memory. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. On the nose: Olfactory disturbances in patients with transient epileptic amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Sharon A; Butler, Christopher R; Milton, Fraser; Han, Yang; Zeman, Adam Z

    2017-01-01

    While olfactory hallucinations are relatively rare in epilepsy, a high prevalence (up to 42%) has been reported in one form - Transient Epileptic Amnesia (TEA). TEA is characterized by recurring amnestic seizures and is commonly associated with persistent interictal memory deficits. Despite reports of changes in smell, olfactory ability has not been objectively assessed in this group. The aim of this study was to measure olfactory ability in patients with TEA and explore whether olfactory symptoms relate to other clinical variables. Fifty-five participants with TEA were recruited from The Impairment of Memory in Epilepsy project database. The presence of olfactory symptoms was obtained via case notes and clinical interview. Participants completed questionnaires to evaluate their olfaction and memory function subjectively. Olfactory ability was measured using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). TEA participants' performance was compared to 50 matched healthy control participants. A subset of TEA participants (n=26) also completed a battery of memory tests including standard neuropsychological measures, and assessment of accelerated long-term forgetting and autobiographical memory. Olfactory hallucinations were reported in 55% of patients with TEA. A significant reduction in smell identification (UPSIT) was found between patients with TEA and healthy controls (polfactory hallucinations, were not predictive of olfactory ability. Patients reported ongoing memory difficulties and performed below normative values on objective tests. While no correlation was found between objective measures of memory and olfactory performance, subjective complaints of route finding difficulty was associated with UPSIT score. Impairments in odor identification are common in patients with TEA and exceed changes that occur in normal aging. Olfactory hallucinations occurs in approximately half of patients with TEA, but do not always coincide with reduced sense of

  10. Sensory experience shapes the integration of adult-born neurons into the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Elizabeth; Swanson, Jessica; Arenkiel, Benjamin R

    2017-08-01

    Olfaction is an ancient sensory modality which is heavily involved in viscerally-important tasks like finding food and identifying mates. Olfactory processing involves interpreting stimuli from a non-continuous odor space, and translating them into an organized pattern of neuronal activity in the olfactory bulb. Additionally, olfactory processing is rapidly modulated by behavioral states and vice versa. This implies strong bidirectional neuromodulation between the olfactory bulb and other brain regions that include the cortex, hippocampus, and basal forebrain. Intriguingly, the olfactory bulb is one of the only brain regions where adult-born neurons are integrated into existing networks throughout life. The ongoing integration of adult-born neurons is known to be important for olfactory processing, odor discrimination, and odor learning. Furthermore, the survival and integration of the adult-born neurons is regulated by neuromodulatory signaling, sensory experience, and olfactory learning. Studies making use of new genetic markers to label and manipulate immature adult-born neurons reveal an increase in their population response to odors as they mature. Importantly, this reflects a period of developmental plasticity where adult-born neurons are especially sensitive to sensory experience and olfactory learning. In this review, we discuss the contribution of adult neurogenesis to olfactory bulb plasticity and information processing, with a focus on the developmental plasticity of adult born neurons, and how it is influenced by sensory experience and olfactory learning. Ultimately, recent studies raise important questions about behavioral-state-dependent effects on adult-born neurons, and the consequences of neuromodulation on the developmental plasticity of newborn neurons in the olfactory bulb.

  11. Effects of olfactory dysfunction on sensory evaluation and preparation of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Han-Seok; Hummel, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the impact of olfactory dysfunction on behavior during sensory evaluation and self-preparation, as well as on sensory perception and pleasantness of green tea and coffee. We compared the intensities of overall odor, flavor, and bitter taste, respectively, and the pleasantness ratings for three different concentrations of green teas and coffees between three groups: young (n=30) and elderly (n=30) with normal olfactory function and elderly (n=30) with olfactory dysfunction. In addition, we compared the subject groups' behavior during sensory testing and preparation of green tea or coffee. As expected, elderly subjects with olfactory dysfunction rated the overall odor intensity less intense than subjects with normal olfactory function. Also, elderly subjects with olfactory dysfunction rated the intensities of overall flavor and bitter taste significantly lower rather than subjects with normal olfactory function in green tea, whereas this result was not obtained in coffee. Compared to young subjects with normal olfactory function, elderly with olfactory dysfunction used more green tea powder to optimize their own green tea. Moreover, olfactory function scores assessed by the "Sniffin' Sticks" test were positively related with sniffing frequency for green tea and with sniffing time for coffee during sensory evaluation. During preparation of the green tea, compared to elderly subjects, young healthy subjects tried to adjust the green tea more frequently by adding green tea powder or water. Such behavioral differences were not present during coffee preparation. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that olfactory dysfunction affects odor perception and sniffing behavior. However, under the current conditions, it appeared to have no effect on hedonic ratings and self-preparation behaviors.

  12. Antenatal insults modify newborn olfactory function by nitric oxide produced from neuronal nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobyshevsky, Alexander; Yu, Lei; Yang, Yirong; Khalid, Syed; Luo, Kehuan; Jiang, Rugang; Ji, Haitao; Derrick, Matthew; Kay, Leslie; Silverman, Richard B; Tan, Sidhartha

    2012-10-01

    Newborn feeding, maternal, bonding, growth and wellbeing depend upon intact odor recognition in the early postnatal period. Antenatal stress may affect postnatal odor recognition. We investigated the exact role of a neurotransmitter, nitric oxide (NO), in newborn olfactory function. We hypothesized that olfactory neuron activity depended on NO generated by neuronal NO synthase (NOS). Utilizing in vivo functional manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI) in a rabbit model of cerebral palsy we had shown previously that in utero hypoxia-ischemia (H-I) at E22 (70% gestation) resulted in impaired postnatal response to odorants and poor feeding. With the same antenatal insult, we manipulated NO levels in the olfactory neuron in postnatal day 1 (P1) kits by administration of intranasal NO donors or a highly selective nNOS inhibitor. Olfactory function was quantitatively measured by the response to amyl acetate stimulation by MEMRI. The relevance of nNOS to normal olfactory development was confirmed by the increase of nNOS gene expression from fetal ages to P1 in olfactory epithelium and bulbs. In control kits, nNOS inhibition decreased NO production in the olfactory system and increased MEMRI slope enhancement. In H-I kits the MEMRI slope did not increase, implicating modification of endogenous NO-mediated olfactory function by the antenatal insult. NO donors as a source of exogenous NO did not significantly change function in either group. In conclusion, olfactory epithelium nNOS in newborn rabbits probably modulates olfactory signal transduction. Antenatal H-I injury remote from delivery may affect early functional development of the olfactory system by decreasing NO-dependent signal transduction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibit odorant-mediated CREB phosphorylation in sustentacular cells of mouse olfactory epithelium.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dooley, Ruth

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Extracellular nucleotides have long been known to play neuromodulatory roles and to be involved in intercellular signalling. In the olfactory system, ATP is released by olfactory neurons, and exogenous ATP can evoke an increase in intracellular calcium concentration in sustentacular cells, the nonneuronal supporting cells of the olfactory epithelium. Here we investigate the hypothesis that olfactory neurons communicate with sustentacular cells via extracellular ATP and purinergic receptor activation. RESULTS: Here we show that exposure of mice to a mixture of odorants induced a significant increase in the levels of the transcription factor CREB phosphorylated at Ser-133 in the nuclei of both olfactory sensory neurons and sustentacular cells. This activation was dependent on adenylyl cyclase III-mediated olfactory signaling and on activation of P2Y purinergic receptors on sustentacular cells. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibited odorant-dependent CREB phosphorylation specifically in the nuclei of the sustentacular cells. CONCLUSION: Our results point to a possible role for extracellular nucleotides in mediating intercellular communication between the neurons and sustentacular cells of the olfactory epithelium in response to odorant exposure. Maintenance of extracellular ionic gradients and metabolism of noxious chemicals by sustentacular cells may therefore be regulated in an odorant-dependent manner by olfactory sensory neurons.

  14. Roles for Drosophila Mushroom Body Neurons in Olfactory Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Lin; Tanaka, Nobuaki K.; Ito, Kei; Davis, Ronald L.; Akalal, David-Benjamin G.; Wilson, Curtis F.

    2006-01-01

    Olfactory learning assays in Drosophila have revealed that distinct brain structures known as mushroom bodies (MBs) are critical for the associative learning and memory of olfactory stimuli. However, the precise roles of the different neurons comprising the MBs are still under debate. The confusion surrounding the roles of the different neurons…

  15. Olfactory impairment is related to REM sleep deprivation in rotenone model of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana F. Aurich

    Full Text Available Introduction: Olfactory dysfunction affects about 85-90% of Parkinson's disease (PD patients with severe deterioration in the ability of discriminate several types of odors. In addition, studies reported declines in olfactory performances during a short period of sleep deprivation. Besides, PD is also known to strongly affect the occurrence and maintenance of rapid eye movement (REM sleep. Methods: Therefore, we investigated the mechanisms involved on discrimination of a social odor (dependent on the vomeronasal system and a non-social odor (related to the main olfactory pathway in the rotenone model of PD. Also, a concomitant impairment in REM sleep was inflicted with the introduction of two periods (24 or 48 h of REM sleep deprivation (REMSD. Rotenone promoted a remarkable olfactory impairment in both social and non-social odors, with a notable modulation induced by 24 h of REMSD for the non-social odor. Results: Our findings demonstrated the occurrence of a strong association between the density of nigral TH-ir neurons and the olfactory discrimination capacity for both odorant stimuli. Specifically, the rotenone-induced decrease of these neurons tends to elicit reductions in the olfactory discrimination ability. Conclusions: These results are consistent with the participation of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system mainly in the olfactory discrimination of a non-social odor, probably through the main olfactory pathway. Such involvement may have produce relevant impact in the preclinical abnormalities found in PD patients.

  16. A novel neural substrate for the transformation of olfactory inputs into motor output.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Derjean

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that animals respond to odors by generating or modulating specific motor behaviors. These reactions are important for daily activities, reproduction, and survival. In the sea lamprey, mating occurs after ovulated females are attracted to spawning sites by male sex pheromones. The ubiquity and reliability of olfactory-motor behavioral responses in vertebrates suggest tight coupling between the olfactory system and brain areas controlling movements. However, the circuitry and the underlying cellular neural mechanisms remain largely unknown. Using lamprey brain preparations, and electrophysiology, calcium imaging, and tract tracing experiments, we describe the neural substrate responsible for transforming an olfactory input into a locomotor output. We found that olfactory stimulation with naturally occurring odors and pheromones induced large excitatory responses in reticulospinal cells, the command neurons for locomotion. We have also identified the anatomy and physiology of this circuit. The olfactory input was relayed in the medial part of the olfactory bulb, in the posterior tuberculum, in the mesencephalic locomotor region, to finally reach reticulospinal cells in the hindbrain. Activation of this olfactory-motor pathway generated rhythmic ventral root discharges and swimming movements. Our study bridges the gap between behavior and cellular neural mechanisms in vertebrates, identifying a specific subsystem within the CNS, dedicated to producing motor responses to olfactory inputs.

  17. The olfactory fascia: an evo-devo concept of the fibrocartilaginous nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Roger; Rumeau, Cécile; de Saint Hilaire, Théophile; Tonnelet, Romain; Nguyen, Duc Trung; Gallet, Patrice; Perez, Manuela

    2016-12-01

    Evo-devo is the science that studies the link between evolution of species and embryological development. This concept helps to understand the complex anatomy of the human nose. The evo-devo theory suggests the persistence in the adult of an anatomical entity, the olfactory fascia, that unites the cartilages of the nose to the olfactory mucosa. We dissected two fresh specimens. After resecting the superficial tissues of the nose, dissection was focused on the disarticulation of the fibrocartilaginous noses from the facial and skull base skeleton. Dissection shows two fibrocartilaginous sacs that were invaginated side-by-side in the midface and attached to the anterior skull base. These membranous sacs were separated in the midline by the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid. Their walls contained the alar cartilages and the lateral expansions of the septolateral cartilage, which we had to separate from the septal cartilage. The olfactory mucosa was located inside their cranial ends. The olfactory fascia is a continuous membrane uniting the nasal cartilages to the olfactory mucosa. Its origin can be found in the invagination and differentiation processes of the olfactory placodes. The fibrous portions of the olfactory fascia may be described as ligaments that unit the different components of the olfactory fascia one to the other and the fibrocartilaginous nose to the facial and skull base skeleton. The basicranial ligaments, fixing the fibrocartilaginous nose to the skull base, represent key elements in the concept of septorhinoplasty by disarticulation.

  18. Olfactory Neuroblastoma (ONB) in a 2 year old child: A case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) presenting in a 2 year old girl as a nasal mass is presented. Although olfactory neuroblastomas have been reported from various parts of the world, this, to our knowledge is the first report from Midwestern Nigeria. We wish to emphasize the importance of histological examination of ...

  19. Histological properties of the nasal cavity and olfactory bulb of the Japanese jungle crow Corvus macrorhynchos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokosuka, Makoto; Hagiwara, Akiko; Saito, Toru R; Tsukahara, Naoki; Aoyama, Masato; Wakabayashi, Yoshihiro; Sugita, Shoei; Ichikawa, Masumi

    2009-09-01

    The nasal cavity and olfactory bulb (OB) of the Japanese jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos) were studied using computed tomography (CT) and histochemical staining. The nasal septum divided the nasal cavity in half. The anterior and maxillary conchae were present on both sides of the nasal cavity, but the posterior concha was indistinct. A small OB was present on the ventral surface of the periphery of the cerebrum. The OB-brain ratio--the ratio of the size of the OB to that of the cerebral hemisphere--was 6.13. The olfactory nerve bundles projected independently to the OB, which appeared fused on gross examination. Histochemical analysis confirmed the fusion of all OB layers. Using a neural tracer, we found that the olfactory nerve bundles independently projected to the olfactory nerve layer (ONL) and glomerular layer (GL) of the left and right halves of the fused OB. Only 4 of 21 lectins bound to the ONL and GL. Thus, compared with mammals and other birds, the jungle crow may have a poorly developed olfactory system and an inferior sense of olfaction. However, it has been contended recently that the olfactory abilities of birds cannot be judged from anatomical findings alone. Our results indicate that the olfactory system of the jungle crow is an interesting research model to evaluate the development and functions of vertebrate olfactory systems.

  20. Primary olfactory cortex in autism and epilepsy: increased glial cells in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menassa, David A; Sloan, Carolyn; Chance, Steven A

    2017-07-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder is characterized by sensory anomalies including impaired olfactory identification. Between 5 and 46 percent of individuals with autism have a clinical diagnosis of epilepsy. Primary olfactory cortex (piriform cortex) is central to olfactory identification and is an epileptogenic structure. Cytoarchitectural changes in olfactory cortex may underlie olfactory differences seen in autism. Primary olfactory cortex was sampled from 17 post-mortem autism cases with and without epilepsy, 11 epilepsy cases without autism and 11 typically developed cases. Stereological and neuropathological methods were used to quantify glial, pyramidal and non-pyramidal cell densities in layers of the piriform as well as identify pathological differences in this area and its neighbouring region, the olfactory tubercle. We found increased layer II glial cell densities in autism with and without epilepsy, which were negatively correlated with age and positively correlated with levels of corpora amylacea in layer I. These changes were also associated with greater symptom severity and did not extend to the olfactory tubercle. Glial cell organization may follow an altered trajectory of development with age in autism. The findings are consistent with other studies implicating increased glial cells in the autism brain. Altered cytoarchitecture may contribute to sensory deficits observed in affected individuals. This study provides evidence that autism is linked to alterations in the cytoarchitectural structure that underlies primary sensory processes and is not restricted to heteromodal ("higher") cognitive centers. © 2016 International Society of Neuropathology.

  1. Electrophysiological characterization of olfactory cell types in the antennae and palps of the housefly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelling, FJ; Biancaniello, G; den Otter, CJ

    2002-01-01

    A set of odours was presented to the housefly Musca domestica and the electrophysiological responses of single olfactory receptor cells in the antennae and palps were recorded. The olfactory cells in the antennae of the housefly showed a large variability of response profiles, but multidimensional

  2. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibit odorant-mediated CREB phosphorylation in sustentacular cells of mouse olfactory epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatt Hanns

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extracellular nucleotides have long been known to play neuromodulatory roles and to be involved in intercellular signalling. In the olfactory system, ATP is released by olfactory neurons, and exogenous ATP can evoke an increase in intracellular calcium concentration in sustentacular cells, the nonneuronal supporting cells of the olfactory epithelium. Here we investigate the hypothesis that olfactory neurons communicate with sustentacular cells via extracellular ATP and purinergic receptor activation. Results Here we show that exposure of mice to a mixture of odorants induced a significant increase in the levels of the transcription factor CREB phosphorylated at Ser-133 in the nuclei of both olfactory sensory neurons and sustentacular cells. This activation was dependent on adenylyl cyclase III-mediated olfactory signaling and on activation of P2Y purinergic receptors on sustentacular cells. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibited odorant-dependent CREB phosphorylation specifically in the nuclei of the sustentacular cells. Conclusion Our results point to a possible role for extracellular nucleotides in mediating intercellular communication between the neurons and sustentacular cells of the olfactory epithelium in response to odorant exposure. Maintenance of extracellular ionic gradients and metabolism of noxious chemicals by sustentacular cells may therefore be regulated in an odorant-dependent manner by olfactory sensory neurons.

  3. Morphology and cytology of the olfactory organs in small juvenile Dascyllus aruanus and Amphiprion ocellaris (Pisces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvedlund, Michael; Brolund, Thea Marie; Nielsen, Lis Engdahl

    2003-01-01

    The olfactory organs in juvenile Dascyllus aruanus and Amphiprion ocellaris, studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), consisted of two bilaterally radial rosettes per specimen, fan-shaped, located medio-ventrally, one in each of two olfactory chambers. In D. aruanus...

  4. Olfactory Cues Used for Wayfinding in Urban Environments by Individuals with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoklenis, Athanasios; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    This study examined which olfactory cues individuals with visual impairments use most often and determined which of these cues these individuals deemed to be the most important for wayfinding in urban environments. It also investigated the ways in which the individuals use these olfactory cues. (Contains 3 tables.)

  5. The olfactory deficit and fMRI in the Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Jianzhong; Wang Jianli; Yang Qingxian; Qi Ji

    2008-01-01

    Olfactory deficit is a common symptom occurring at the early stage of Alzheimer's disease, the purpose of this review is to summarize MRI research on olfactory deficit in the Alzheimer's disease and potential clinical relevance of fMRI in this area. (authors)

  6. Main causes and diagnostic evaluation in patients with primary complaint of olfactory disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Fornazieri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Establishing a diagnosis in patients with olfactory disturbances has always been challenging for physicians.One reason for this is the rarity of some of the diseases that affect this sense, such as Kallmann's syndrome and post-viral olfactory loss. OBJECTIVE: To identify the major causes of olfactory disturbances and to describe the diagnostic evaluation in outpatients attended to at an ambulatory clinic specialized in olfaction disorders. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed in outpatients with primary olfactory complaint attended to between June 1, 2011 and September 30, 2013 in a center specialized in olfactory disorders. Patient history, nasofibroscopy, and the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT comprised the examination. RESULTS: Sixty-two patients were evaluated. The major causes were chronic rhinosinusitis (31%; rhinitis, primarily the allergic type (19%; post-viral olfactory loss (13%; and post-traumatic loss (8%. UPSIT scores were statistically different among different etiologies (p = 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: The major diagnoses that should be part of the physician assessment when a patient complains of olfactory disturbance are chronic rhinosinusitis with and without polyps, allergic rhinitis, post-viral olfactory loss, and post-traumatic loss.

  7. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibit odorant-mediated CREB phosphorylation in sustentacular cells of mouse olfactory epithelium

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dooley, Ruth

    2011-08-22

    Abstract Background Extracellular nucleotides have long been known to play neuromodulatory roles and to be involved in intercellular signalling. In the olfactory system, ATP is released by olfactory neurons, and exogenous ATP can evoke an increase in intracellular calcium concentration in sustentacular cells, the nonneuronal supporting cells of the olfactory epithelium. Here we investigate the hypothesis that olfactory neurons communicate with sustentacular cells via extracellular ATP and purinergic receptor activation. Results Here we show that exposure of mice to a mixture of odorants induced a significant increase in the levels of the transcription factor CREB phosphorylated at Ser-133 in the nuclei of both olfactory sensory neurons and sustentacular cells. This activation was dependent on adenylyl cyclase III-mediated olfactory signaling and on activation of P2Y purinergic receptors on sustentacular cells. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibited odorant-dependent CREB phosphorylation specifically in the nuclei of the sustentacular cells. Conclusion Our results point to a possible role for extracellular nucleotides in mediating intercellular communication between the neurons and sustentacular cells of the olfactory epithelium in response to odorant exposure. Maintenance of extracellular ionic gradients and metabolism of noxious chemicals by sustentacular cells may therefore be regulated in an odorant-dependent manner by olfactory sensory neurons.

  8. Size matters - The olfactory bulb as a marker for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottstaedt, F; Weidner, K; Strauß, T; Schellong, J; Kitzler, H; Wolff-Stephan, S; Hummel, T; Croy, I

    2018-03-15

    Major Depression is mainly related to structural and functional alterations in brain networks involving limbic and prefrontal regions. Reduced olfactory sensitivity in depression is associated with reduced olfactory bulb (OB) volume. We determined if the OB volume reduction is a specific biomarker for depression and whether its diagnostic accuracy allows its use as a valid biomarker to support its diagnosis. 84 in-patients with mixed mental disorders and 51 age-matched healthy controls underwent structural MR imaging with a spin-echo T2-wheighted sequence. Individual OB volume was calculated manually (interrater-reliability = .81, p < .001) and compared between groups. Multiple regression analysis with OB volume as dependent variable and Receiver Operator Characteristic analysis to obtain its diagnostic accuracy for depression were ruled out. Patients exhibited a 13.5% reduced OB volume. Multiple regression analysis showed that the OB volume variation was best explained by depression (β = -.19), sex (β = -.31) and age (β = -.29), but not by any other mental disorder. OB volume attained a diagnostic accuracy of 68.1% for depression. The patient group mainly contained highly comorbid patients with mostly internalizing disorders which limits the generalisability of the results of the regression analysis. The OB may serve as a marker for depression. We assume that reduced neural olfactory input to subsequent limbic and salience processing structures moderates this relation. However, the OB was in an inferior position compared to conventional questionnaires for diagnosis of depression. Combination with further structural or functional measurements is suggested. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evidence for olfactory search in wandering albatross, Diomedea exulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevitt, Gabrielle A; Losekoot, Marcel; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2008-03-25

    Wandering albatrosses (Diomedea exulans) forage over thousands of square kilometers of open ocean for patchily distributed live prey and carrion. These birds have large olfactory bulbs and respond to fishy-scented odors in at-sea trials, suggesting that olfaction plays a role in natural foraging behavior. With the advent of new, fine-scale tracking technologies, we are beginning to explore how birds track prey in the pelagic environment, and we relate these observations to models of odor transport in natural situations. These models suggest that odors emanating from prey will tend to disperse laterally and downwind of the odor source and acquire an irregular and patchy concentration distribution due to turbulent transport. For a seabird foraging over the ocean, this scenario suggests that olfactory search would be facilitated by crosswind flight to optimize the probability of encountering a plume emanating from a prey item, followed by upwind, zigzag flight to localize the prey. By contrast, birds approaching prey by sight would be expected to fly directly to a prey item, irrespective of wind direction. Using high-precision global positioning system (GPS) loggers in conjunction with stomach temperature recorders to simultaneously monitor feeding events, we confirm these predictions in freely ranging wandering albatrosses. We found that initial olfactory detection was implicated in nearly half (46.8%) of all flown approaches preceding prey-capture events, accounting for 45.5% of total prey mass captured by in-flight foraging. These results offer insights into the sensory basis for area-restricted search at the large spatial scales of the open ocean.

  10. Olfactory systems and neural circuits that modulate predator odor fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorey K. Takahashi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available When prey animals detect the odor of a predator a constellation of fear-related autonomic, endocrine, and behavioral responses rapidly occur to facilitate survival. How olfactory sensory systems process predator odor and channel that information to specific brain circuits is a fundamental issue that is not clearly understood. However, research in the last 15 years has begun to identify some of the essential features of the sensory detection systems and brain structures that underlie predator odor fear. For instance, the main (MOS and accessory olfactory systems (AOS detect predator odors and different types of predator odors are sensed by specific receptors located in either the MOS or AOS. However, complex predator chemosignals may be processed by both the MOS and AOS, which complicate our understanding of the specific neural circuits connected directly and indirectly from the MOS and AOS to activate the physiological and behavioral components of unconditioned and conditioned fear. Studies indicate that brain structures including the dorsal periaqueductal gray, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and the medial amygdala appear to be broadly involved in predator odor induced autonomic activity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress hormone secretion. The medial amygdala also plays a key role in predator odor unconditioned fear behavior and retrieval of contextual fear memory associated with prior predator odor experiences. Other neural structures including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the ventral hippocampus appear prominently involve in predator odor fear behavior. The basolateral amygdala, medial hypothalamic nuclei, and medial prefrontal cortex are also activated by some but not all predator odors. Future research that characterizes how distinct predator odors are uniquely processed in olfactory systems and neural circuits will provide significant insights into the differences of how diverse predator odors activate

  11. The Influence of Circadian Timing on Olfactory Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Rachel S; Van Reen, Eliza; Barker, David H; Hilditch, Cassie J; Bartz, Ashten L; Carskadon, Mary A

    2017-12-25

    Olfactory sensitivity has traditionally been viewed as a trait that varies according to individual differences but is not expected to change with one's momentary state. Recent research has begun to challenge this position and time of day has been shown to alter detection levels. Links between obesity and the timing of food intake further raise the issue of whether odor detection may vary as a function of circadian processes. To investigate this question, 37 (21 male) adolescents (M age = 13.7 years) took part in a 28-h forced desynchrony (FD) protocol with 17.5 h awake and 10.5 h of sleep, for 7 FD cycles. Odor threshold was measured using Sniffin' Sticks 6 times for each FD cycle (total threshold tests = 42). Circadian phase was determined by intrinsic period derived from dim light melatonin onsets. Odor threshold showed a significant effect of circadian phase, with lowest threshold occurring on average slightly after the onset of melatonin production, or about 1.5○ (approximately 21:08 h). Considerable individual variability was observed, however, peak olfactory acuity never occurred between 80.5○ and 197.5○ (~02:22-10:10 h). These data are the first to show that odor threshold is differentially and consistently influenced by circadian timing, and is not a stable trait. Potential biological relevance for connections between circadian phase and olfactory sensitivity are discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Olfactory systems and neural circuits that modulate predator odor fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Lorey K

    2014-01-01

    When prey animals detect the odor of a predator a constellation of fear-related autonomic, endocrine, and behavioral responses rapidly occur to facilitate survival. How olfactory sensory systems process predator odor and channel that information to specific brain circuits is a fundamental issue that is not clearly understood. However, research in the last 15 years has begun to identify some of the essential features of the sensory detection systems and brain structures that underlie predator odor fear. For instance, the main (MOS) and accessory olfactory systems (AOS) detect predator odors and different types of predator odors are sensed by specific receptors located in either the MOS or AOS. However, complex predator chemosignals may be processed by both the MOS and AOS, which complicate our understanding of the specific neural circuits connected directly and indirectly from the MOS and AOS to activate the physiological and behavioral components of unconditioned and conditioned fear. Studies indicate that brain structures including the dorsal periaqueductal gray (DPAG), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, and the medial amygdala (MeA) appear to be broadly involved in predator odor induced autonomic activity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress hormone secretion. The MeA also plays a key role in predator odor unconditioned fear behavior and retrieval of contextual fear memory associated with prior predator odor experiences. Other neural structures including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the ventral hippocampus (VHC) appear prominently involved in predator odor fear behavior. The basolateral amygdala (BLA), medial hypothalamic nuclei, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are also activated by some but not all predator odors. Future research that characterizes how distinct predator odors are uniquely processed in olfactory systems and neural circuits will provide significant insights into the differences of how diverse predator

  13. Quantitative assessment of olfactory function in an industrial setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, R L; Gregor, T; Monroe, C

    1986-06-01

    The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) was administered, on a volunteer basis, to workers frequenting the cafeteria of the corporate offices of a major chemical manufacturing company to (1) establish the level of acceptance of self-administered olfactory testing within such a setting, (2) determine the percentage of the sample that reported or evidenced marked olfactory impairment, and (3) develop guidelines for the use of the UPSIT as a corporate medical surveillance tool. The initial acceptance of the testing program was high. Thus, 640 of the cafeteria visitors agreed to take the test (total work force in building less than 1,000). However, only 52% of the tests handed out were completed by the employees and returned to the test examiners, possibly reflecting the informal atmosphere in which they were distributed. Of the group returning the tests, seven employees reported having smell problems due to allergies or sinus disease. However, all of these employees had normal UPSIT scores. Three subjects (1% of the sample) evidenced marked olfactory dysfunction. Of these three, only one was aware of the problem before testing. On average, the corporate subjects significantly outperformed matched control subjects obtained from previous administrations of the UPSIT at health fairs and other public events, although the difference was less than half a point (37.89 v 37.53; P less than .004). As in previous studies, the test scores of women were slightly, but significantly, higher than those of men (respective means = 37.98 v 37.80, P less than .04).

  14. Characterization and Correction of Olfactory Deficits in Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigwekar, Sagar U; Weiser, Jeremy M; Kalim, Sahir; Xu, Dihua; Wibecan, Joshua L; Dougherty, Sarah M; Mercier-Lafond, Laurence; Corapi, Kristin M; Eneanya, Nwamaka D; Holbrook, Eric H; Brown, Dennis; Thadhani, Ravi I; Păunescu, Teodor G

    2017-11-01

    Patients with CKD suffer from food aversion, anorexia, and malnutrition. Although olfaction has a significant role in determining food flavor, our understanding of olfactory impairment and of the olfaction-nutrition axis in patients with kidney disease is limited. We quantified odor identification, odor threshold, and subjective odor perception in a cohort ( n =161) comprising 36 participants with CKD, 100 participants with ESRD, and 25 controls. We investigated olfaction-nutrition associations in these participants and examined a novel intervention to improve olfaction in ESRD. The mean odor identification score was lower in patients with CKD (75.6%±13.1%; P =0.02) and ESRD (66.8%±15.1%; P Patients with ESRD exhibited higher odor threshold than the remaining participants exhibited. All groups had similar scores for subjective smell assessment. In multivariable adjusted analyses, kidney disease associated with increased odds of odor identification deficits (odds ratio, 4.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.94 to 11.89). A reduction in odor identification score was associated with higher subjective global assessment score and lower serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and albumin concentrations. We found no associations between odor threshold and nutritional parameters. In a proof of concept, 6-week, open-label clinical trial, intranasal theophylline (an epithelial membrane transport and proton secretion activator) increased odor identification score in five out of seven (71%) patients with ESRD. In conclusion, patients with kidney disease have olfactory deficits that may influence their nutritional status. Our preliminary results regarding olfactory improvement using intranasal theophylline warrant confirmation in a randomized controlled trial. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  15. Olfactory specialization for perfume collection in male orchid bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitko, Lukasz; Weber, Marjorie G; Ramirez, Santiago R; Hedenström, Erik; Wcislo, William T; Eltz, Thomas

    2016-05-15

    Insects rely on the olfactory system to detect a vast diversity of airborne molecules in their environment. Highly sensitive olfactory tuning is expected to evolve when detection of a particular chemical with great precision is required in the context of foraging and/or finding mates. Male neotropical orchid bees (Euglossini) collect odoriferous substances from multiple sources, store them in specialized tibial pouches and later expose them at display sites, presumably as mating signals to females. Previous analysis of tibial compounds among sympatric species revealed substantial chemical disparity in chemical composition among lineages with outstanding divergence between closely related species. Here, we tested whether specific perfume phenotypes coevolve with matching olfactory adaptations in male orchid bees to facilitate the location and harvest of species-specific perfume compounds. We conducted electroantennographic (EAG) measurements on males of 15 sympatric species in the genus Euglossa that were stimulated with 18 compounds present in variable proportions in male hind tibiae. Antennal response profiles were species-specific across all 15 species, but there was no conspicuous differentiation between closely related species. Instead, we found that the observed variation in EAG activity follows a Brownian motion model of trait evolution, where the probability of differentiation increases proportionally with lineage divergence time. However, we identified strong antennal responses for some chemicals that are present as major compounds in the perfume of the same species, thus suggesting that sensory specialization has occurred within multiple lineages. This sensory specialization was particularly apparent for semi-volatile molecules ('base note' compounds), thus supporting the idea that such compounds play an important role in chemical signaling of euglossine bees. Overall, our study found no close correspondence between antennal responses and behavioral

  16. Olfactory discrimination and memory deficits in the Flinders Sensitive Line rodent model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, A; Pfeiffer, L-M; Thiele, S; Coenen, V A; Döbrössy, M D

    2017-10-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder with broad symptomatic manifestations. The current study examined, for the first time, olfactory memory and discrimination in the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rodent model of depression. Male FSL rats and controls were trained on an Olfactory Discrimination (OD) and a Social Interaction (SI) test. On the OD test, the FSL and controls performed similarly at the shortest inter-trial interval (5min), however, with extended delay of 30min, the FSLs had a recall and odour discrimination deficit. At the longest delay (60min) both groups performed poorly. The FSL rats i.) had a deficit in olfactory discrimination suggesting impairment in olfactory memory and recall; ii.) were less likely to socialize with unfamiliar rats. The data suggests that FSL animals have an impaired olfactory information processing capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Electroantennogram measurement of the olfactory response of Daphnia spp. and its impairment by waterborne copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbeya, Christy K; Csuzdi, Catherine E; Dew, William A; Pyle, Greg G

    2012-08-01

    In this study an electroantennogram (EAG) method was developed for use on live daphniids. The EAG response of Daphnia magna and Daphnia pulex to a variety of amino acids was measured. The strongest response measured was elicited by L-arginine and was shown to induce a concentration-dependent response indicating the response is olfactory in nature. Subsequent exposures of D. magna to a low, ecologically-relevant concentration of copper (7.5 μg/L) showed a disruption in EAG function. This study utilizes the development of an EAG method for measuring olfactory acuity of live daphniids and demonstrates that at ecologically-relevant concentrations, the olfactory dysfunction caused by copper can be detected. The EAG technique is a useful tool for investigating the olfactory response of daphniids to odourants at the cellular level and detecting the effects of toxicants on the olfactory acuity of daphniids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pre-birth sense of smell in the wild boar: the ontogeny of the olfactory mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgione, Domenico; Trapanese, Martina; Buglione, Maria; Rippa, Daniela; Polese, Gianluca; Maresca, Viviana; Maselli, Valeria

    2017-08-01

    Animals recognize their surrounding environments through the sense of smell by detecting thousands of chemical odorants. Wild boars (Sus scrofa) completely depend on their ability to recognize chemical odorants: to detect food, during scavenging and searching partners, during breeding periods and to avoid potential predators. Wild piglets must be prepared for the chemical universe that they will enter after birth, and they show intense neuronal activity in the olfactory mucosa. With this in mind, we investigated the morpho-functional embryonic development of the olfactory mucosa in the wild boar (in five stages before birth). Using mRNA expression analysis of olfactory marker protein and neuropeptide Y, involved in the function of olfactory sensory neurons, we show early activation of the appropriate genes in the wild boar. We hypothesize olfactory pre-birth development in wild boar is highly adaptive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. The olfactory thalamus: unanswered questions about the role of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus in olfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle eCourtiol

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MDT is a higher order thalamic nucleus and its role in cognition is increasingly well established. Interestingly, components of the MDT also have a somewhat unique sensory function as they link primary olfactory cortex to orbitofrontal associative cortex. In fact, anatomical evidence firmly demonstrates that the MDT receives direct input from primary olfactory areas including the piriform cortex and has dense reciprocal connections with the orbitofrontal cortex. The functions of this olfactory pathway have been poorly explored but lesion, imaging, and electrophysiological studies suggest that these connections may be involved in olfactory processing including odor perception, discrimination, learning, and attention. However, many important questions regarding the MDT and olfaction remain unanswered. Our goal here is not only to briefly review the existing literature but also to highlight some of the remaining questions that need to be answered to better define the role(s of the MDT in olfactory processing.

  20. Ectopic olfactory neuroblastoma: report of four cases and a review of the literature.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wormald, R

    2011-04-01

    Our objective is to present a short series of four rare cases of ectopic olfactory neuroblastoma. Our methods present four case reports of ectopic olfactory neuroblastoma and a review of the literature for management and treatment of this disease. The results indicate short case series reports of ectopic olfactory neuroblastoma arising from the anterior ethmoidal sinuses, the nasopharynx, the lateral nasal wall and the floor of the nose. The discussion focuses on likely origins of ectopic olfactory neuroblastoma, its clinical features and management. We conclude that ectopic olfactory neuroblastoma is a rare disease. Treatment principles are the same for non-ectopic disease and guided by extension into adjacent structures such as the orbit or anterior cranial fossa and usually involves surgery with or without adjuvant radiotherapy.

  1. Women have better olfactory perception for wine aromas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wurz Douglas André

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to verify the influence of the gender on the olfactory perception of aromas found in the wines, as well as to identify the aromatic groups most perceived by men and women. Twenty different aromas of different aromatic classes described in the wines were used: fruity, spices, wood, herbaceous, floral, buttery, defects. The different aromatic groups were packed in Erlenmeyer glasses wrapped with aluminum paper in order to avoid the visualization of the aromas by the participants. Fifty people, 25 men and 25 women, aged between 21 and 65 years, were ramdomly separated in groups of 10 people to participate of the evaluation. The influence of the gender on the ability to identify aromas was verified. Women matched 56.8% of the aromas, while men matched 44.6%. In relation to the aromatic class, a greater index of the feminine gender in all the aromatic classes was verified, being spices the group of aromas that women most perceived, with 80.6% of hits, followed by the floral aromas with 50% accuracy. For men, the aromatic class with the highest index of accuracy was also the spices, however, with a success rate of 58.4%, followed by the herbaceous group with 38.2% of correct answers. Both females and males obtained high scores for the group of wine defects (acetic acid and ethyl acetate, 85.2% and 81.0%, respectively, overcoming the other aromatic classes. Buttery aromas were the ones least recognized by women, with 30.8% of hits, whereas the least perceived aroma for men were the floral ones, with no hits observed in any group of participants. The results found in this study show that there are differences in olfactory perception between men and women, and this factor, in addition to the wine service temperature, wine glass type, olfactory memory, must also be considered in sensory analysis. Female gender has a greater ability to identify aromas in relation to the male gender, since women have a greater number of cells

  2. Olfactory LOVER: Behavioral and neural correlates of autobiographical odor memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eLarsson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memories (AMs are personally experienced events that may be localized in time and space. In the present work we present an overview targeting memories evoked by the sense of smell. Overall, research indicates that autobiographical odor memory is different than memories evoked by our primary sensory systems; sight and hearing. Here, observed differences from a behavioral and neuroanatomical perspective are presented. The key features of an olfactory evoked AM may be referred to the LOVER acronym - Limbic, Old, Vivid, Emotional, and Rare.

  3. Olfactory function in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis before and after functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rong-San; Lu, Fung-Jou; Liang, Kai-Li; Shiao, Jiun-Yi; Su, Mao-Chang; Hsin, Chung-Han; Chen, Wen-Kang

    2008-01-01

    The olfactory loss in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis has been measured by different methods. However, the results have been variable and it is not clear whether functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) significantly improves olfactory function. This study was performed to evaluate the influences of FESS on olfactory function in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis using three different types of olfactory tests. Seventy patients with chronic rhinosinusitis were administered the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), a single staircase phenyl ethyl alcohol odor detection threshold test (STT), and a short-term odor memory/discrimination test a day before and 6 months after FESS. A questionnaire inquiring about the patients' self-perception of olfactory function was administered also. Independent ratings of the severity of chronic rhinosinusitis before FESS were established from CT scans. Fifty-two (74.3%) of the patients reported that their olfactory function was impaired before surgery, and 68.6% of the patients reported impaired olfactory function after surgery, a difference that was not significant. No meaningful changes in any of the olfactory test scores were noted 6 or more months after FESS. Preoperatively, small correlations between CT scores and the symptom scores (r = 0.278; p = 0.024), threshold scores (r = -0.27; p = 0.031), and UPSIT scores (r = -0.36; p = 0.003) were observed. In patients with severe rhinosinusitis, FESS had little impact on the ability to smell, regardless of the method for assessing smell function. Subtle associations between olfactory function and the severity of chronic rhinosinusitis determined by CT were observed, however, preoperatively. The olfactory test measures were correlated with one another both pre- and postoperatively.

  4. Histological and lectin histochemical studies on the olfactory mucosae of the Korean roe deer, Capreolus pygargus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changnam; Ahn, Meejung; Kim, Jeongtae; Kim, Seungjoon; Moon, Changjong; Shin, Taekyun

    2015-04-01

    The morphological features of the olfactory mucosae of Korean roe deer, Capreolus pygargus, were histologically studied using the ethmoid turbinates containing the olfactory mucosae from six roe deer (male, 2-3 years old). The ethmoid turbinates were embedded in paraffin, and histochemically evaluated in terms of the mucosal characteristics. Lectin histochemistry was performed to investigate the carbohydrate-binding specificity on the olfactory mucosa. Lectins, including Triticum vulgaris wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), and soybean agglutinin (SBA) were used for the N-acetylglucosamine, fucose and N-acetylgalactosamine carbohydrate groups, respectively. Histologically, the olfactory mucosa, positioned mainly in the caudal roof of the nasal cavity, consisted of the olfactory epithelium and the lamina propria. The olfactory epithelium consisted of protein gene product (PGP) 9.5-positive olfactory receptor cells, galectin-3-positive supporting cells and basal cells. Bowman's glands in the lamina propria were stained by both the periodic acid Schiff reagent and alcian blue (pH 2.5). Two types of lectin, WGA and SBA, were labeled in free border, receptor cells, supporting cells and Bowman's glands, with the exception of basal cells, while UEA-I was labeled in free border, supporting cells and Bowman's glands, but not in receptor cells and basal cells, suggesting that carbohydrate terminals on the olfactory mucosae of roe deer vary depending on cell type. This is the first morphological study of the olfactory mucosa of the Korean roe deer to evaluate carbohydrate terminals in the olfactory mucosae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors that influence telomeric oxidative base damage and repair by DNA glycosylase OGG1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhee, David B; Ghosh, Avik; Lu, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes at the ends of linear chromosomes in eukaryotes, and are essential in preventing chromosome termini from being recognized as broken DNA ends. Telomere shortening has been linked to cellular senescence and human aging, with oxidative stress as a major...... contributing factor. 7,8-Dihydro-8-oxogaunine (8-oxodG) is one of the most abundant oxidative guanine lesions, and 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) is involved in its removal. In this study, we examined if telomeric DNA is particularly susceptible to oxidative base damage and if telomere-specific factors...... affect the incision of oxidized guanines by OGG1. We demonstrated that telomeric TTAGGG repeats were more prone to oxidative base damage and repaired less efficiently than non-telomeric TG repeats in vivo. We also showed that the 8-oxodG-incision activity of OGG1 is similar in telomeric and non...

  6. Silicon oxide based high capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbong; Masarapu, Charan; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Lopez, Herman A.; Kumar, Sujeet

    2017-03-21

    Silicon oxide based materials, including composites with various electrical conductive compositions, are formulated into desirable anodes. The anodes can be effectively combined into lithium ion batteries with high capacity cathode materials. In some formulations, supplemental lithium can be used to stabilize cycling as well as to reduce effects of first cycle irreversible capacity loss. Batteries are described with surprisingly good cycling properties with good specific capacities with respect to both cathode active weights and anode active weights.

  7. The Light Response Characteristics of Oxide-Based Thin Film Transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Soo-Yeon Lee; Seung-Min Song; Moon-Kyu Song; Woo-Geun Lee; Kap-Soo Yoon; Jang-Yeon Kwon; Min-Koo Han

    2011-01-01

    We fabricated the inverted-staggered etch stopper structure oxide-based TFT and investigated the characteristics of oxide TFT under the 400 nm wavelength light illumination. When 400 nm light was illuminated, the threshold voltage (Vth) decreased and subthreshold slope (SS) increased at forward sweep, while Vth and SS were not altered when larger wavelength lights, such as 650 nm, 550 nm and 450 nm, were illuminated. At reverse sweep, the transfer curve barely changed eve...

  8. SMELL-S and SMELL-R: Olfactory tests not influenced by odor-specific insensitivity or prior olfactory experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Julien W; Keller, Andreas; Wong, Michele; Jiang, Rong-San; Vosshall, Leslie B

    2017-10-24

    Smell dysfunction is a common and underdiagnosed medical condition that can have serious consequences. It is also an early biomarker of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, where olfactory deficits precede detectable memory loss. Clinical tests that evaluate the sense of smell face two major challenges. First, human sensitivity to individual odorants varies significantly, so test results may be unreliable in people with low sensitivity to a test odorant but an otherwise normal sense of smell. Second, prior familiarity with odor stimuli can bias smell test performance. We have developed nonsemantic tests for olfactory sensitivity (SMELL-S) and olfactory resolution (SMELL-R) that use mixtures of odorants that have unfamiliar smells. The tests can be self-administered by healthy individuals with minimal training and show high test-retest reliability. Because SMELL-S uses odor mixtures rather than a single molecule, odor-specific insensitivity is averaged out, and the test accurately distinguished people with normal and dysfunctional smell. SMELL-R is a discrimination test in which the difference between two stimulus mixtures can be altered stepwise. This is an advance over current discrimination tests, which ask subjects to discriminate monomolecular odorants whose difference in odor cannot be quantified. SMELL-R showed significantly less bias in scores between North American and Taiwanese subjects than conventional semantically based smell tests that need to be adapted to different languages and cultures. Based on these proof-of-principle results in healthy individuals, we predict that SMELL-S and SMELL-R will be broadly effective in diagnosing smell dysfunction. Published under the PNAS license.

  9. Cholinergic microvillous cells in the mouse main olfactory epithelium and effect of acetylcholine on olfactory sensory neurons and supporting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Tatsuya; Szebenyi, Steven A; Krosnowski, Kurt; Sathyanesan, Aaron; Jackson, Jacqueline; Lin, Weihong

    2011-09-01

    The mammalian olfactory epithelium is made up of ciliated olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), supporting cells, basal cells, and microvillous cells. Previously, we reported that a population of nonneuronal microvillous cells expresses transient receptor potential channel M5 (TRPM5). Using transgenic mice and immunocytochemical labeling, we identify that these cells are cholinergic, expressing the signature markers of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter. This result suggests that acetylcholine (ACh) can be synthesized and released locally to modulate activities of neighboring supporting cells and OSNs. In Ca(2+) imaging experiments, ACh induced increases in intracellular Ca(2+) levels in 78% of isolated supporting cells tested in a concentration-dependent manner. Atropine, a muscarinic ACh receptor (mAChR) antagonist suppressed the ACh responses. In contrast, ACh did not induce or potentiate Ca(2+) increases in OSNs. Instead ACh suppressed the Ca(2+) increases induced by the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin in some OSNs. Supporting these results, we found differential expression of mAChR subtypes in supporting cells and OSNs using subtype-specific antibodies against M(1) through M(5) mAChRs. Furthermore, we found that various chemicals, bacterial lysate, and cold saline induced Ca(2+) increases in TRPM5/ChAT-expressing microvillous cells. Taken together, our data suggest that TRPM5/ChAT-expressing microvillous cells react to certain chemical or thermal stimuli and release ACh to modulate activities of neighboring supporting cells and OSNs via mAChRs. Our studies reveal an intrinsic and potentially potent mechanism linking external stimulation to cholinergic modulation of activities in the olfactory epithelium.

  10. The impact of environmental metals in young urbanites' brains.

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    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Serrano-Sierra, Alejandro; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Zhu, Hongtu; Yuan, Ying; Smith, Donna; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Cross, Janet V; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Kavanaugh, Michael; Guilarte, Tomás R

    2013-07-01

    Air pollution exposures are linked to cognitive and olfaction deficits, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration including frontal hyperphosphorylated tau and diffuse amyloid plaques in Mexico City children and young adults. Mexico City residents are chronically exposed to fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) concentrations (containing toxic combustion and industrial metals) above the annual standard (15 μg/m(3)) and to contaminated water and soil. Here, we sought to address the brain-region-specific effects of metals and key neuroinflammatory and DNA repair responses in two air pollution targets: frontal lobe and olfactory bulb from 12 controls vs. 47 Mexico City children and young adults average age 33.06±4.8 SE years. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (metal analysis) and real time PCR (for COX2, IL1β and DNA repair genes) in target tissues. Mexico City residents had higher concentrations of metals associated with PM: manganese (p=0.003), nickel and chromium (p=0.02) along with higher frontal COX2 mRNA (p=0.008) and IL1β (p=0.0002) and COX2 (p=0.005) olfactory bulb indicating neuroinflammation. Frontal metals correlated with olfactory bulb DNA repair genes and with frontal and hippocampal inflammatory genes. Frontal manganese, cobalt and selenium increased with age in exposed subjects. Together, these findings suggest PM-metal neurotoxicity causes brain damage in young urbanites, the olfactory bulb is a target of air pollution and participates in the neuroinflammatory response and since metal concentrations vary significantly in Mexico City urban sub-areas, place of residency has to be integrated with the risk for CNS detrimental effects particularly in children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Parasite and predator risk assessment: nuanced use of olfactory cues.

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    Sharp, John G; Garnick, Sarah; Elgar, Mark A; Coulson, Graeme

    2015-10-22

    Foraging herbivores face twin threats of predation and parasite infection, but the risk of predation has received much more attention. We evaluated, experimentally, the role of olfactory cues in predator and parasite risk assessment on the foraging behaviour of a population of marked, free-ranging, red-necked wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus). The wallabies adjusted their behaviour according to these olfactory cues. They foraged less, were more vigilant and spent less time at feeders placed in the vicinity of faeces from dogs that had consumed wallaby or kangaroo meat compared with that of dogs feeding on sheep, rabbit or possum meat. Wallabies also showed a species-specific faecal aversion by consuming less food from feeders contaminated with wallaby faeces compared with sympatric kangaroo faeces, whose gastrointestinal parasite fauna differs from that of the wallabies. Combining both parasite and predation cues in a single field experiment revealed that these risks had an additive effect, rather than the wallabies compromising their response to one risk at the expense of the other. © 2015 The Author(s).

  12. The wiring diagram of a glomerular olfactory system

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    Berck, Matthew E; Khandelwal, Avinash; Claus, Lindsey; Hernandez-Nunez, Luis; Si, Guangwei; Tabone, Christopher J; Li, Feng; Truman, James W; Fetter, Rick D; Louis, Matthieu; Samuel, Aravinthan DT; Cardona, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The sense of smell enables animals to react to long-distance cues according to learned and innate valences. Here, we have mapped with electron microscopy the complete wiring diagram of the Drosophila larval antennal lobe, an olfactory neuropil similar to the vertebrate olfactory bulb. We found a canonical circuit with uniglomerular projection neurons (uPNs) relaying gain-controlled ORN activity to the mushroom body and the lateral horn. A second, parallel circuit with multiglomerular projection neurons (mPNs) and hierarchically connected local neurons (LNs) selectively integrates multiple ORN signals already at the first synapse. LN-LN synaptic connections putatively implement a bistable gain control mechanism that either computes odor saliency through panglomerular inhibition, or allows some glomeruli to respond to faint aversive odors in the presence of strong appetitive odors. This complete wiring diagram will support experimental and theoretical studies towards bridging the gap between circuits and behavior. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14859.001 PMID:27177418

  13. Visual and olfactory enhancement of stable fly trapping.

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    Zhu, Junwei J; Zhang, Qing-He; Taylor, David B; Friesen, Kristina A

    2016-09-01

    Stable flies are considered to be one of the major blood-feeding pests in the US livestock industry, causing losses running into billions of dollars annually. Adult stable flies are highly attracted to Alsynite traps; however, Alsynite is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain and is expensive. Here, we report on the development of a less expensive and more efficacious trap based upon a white panel with the option to add visual and olfactory stimuli for enhanced stable fly trapping. White panel traps caught twice as many stable flies than Alsynite traps. Baiting the traps with synthetic manure volatiles increased catches 2-3-fold. Electroretinographic recordings of stable flies showed strong peaks of visual sensitivities occurring at 330-360 nm, 460-525 nm and 605-635 nm. A laboratory study indicated that young stable flies are more responsive to white, whereas gravid females prefer blue; in the field, white traps caught more stable flies than patterned or blue-black traps. Stable fly control can be enhanced by developing more efficient trapping systems with added visual and olfactory stimuli. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Olfactory dysfunction and its measurement in the clinic

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    Richard L. Doty

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The sense of smell is largely taken for granted by laypersons and medical professionals alike. Indeed, its role in determining the flavor of foods and beverages, as well as in warning of, or protecting against, environmental hazards, often goes unrecognized. This is exemplified, in part, by the fact that most patients presenting to medical clinics with “taste” problems are typically subjected to complex brain imaging and gastroenterological tests without the sense of smell even being tested or considered as a basis of the problem. Aside from frank deficiencies in sweet, sour, bitter, salty and savory (umami sensations, “taste” disorders most commonly reflect inadequate stimulation of the olfactory receptors via the retronasal route; i.e., from volatiles passing to the receptors from the oral cavity through the nasal pharynx. This article describes the two most common procedures for measuring the sense of smell in the clinic and provides examples of the application of these tests to diseases and other disorders frequently associated with smell loss. Basic issues related to olfactory testing and evaluation are addressed. It is pointed out that smell loss, particularly in later life, can be a harbinger for not only a range of neurodegenerative diseases, but can be a prognostic indicator of early mortality. Keywords: Allergy, Polyposis, Nasal disease, Rhinosinusitis, Smell, Psychophysics, Olfaction, Iatrogenesis

  15. Beyond Modeling: All-Atom Olfactory Receptor Model Simulations

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    Peter C Lai

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory receptors (ORs are a type of GTP-binding protein-coupled receptor (GPCR. These receptors are responsible for mediating the sense of smell through their interaction with odor ligands. OR-odorant interactions marks the first step in the process that leads to olfaction. Computational studies on model OR structures can validate experimental functional studies as well as generate focused and novel hypotheses for further bench investigation by providing a view of these interactions at the molecular level. Here we have shown the specific advantages of simulating the dynamic environment that is associated with OR-odorant interactions. We present a rigorous methodology that ranges from the creation of a computationally-derived model of an olfactory receptor to simulating the interactions between an OR and an odorant molecule. Given the ubiquitous occurrence of GPCRs in the membranes of cells, we anticipate that our OR-developed methodology will serve as a model for the computational structural biology of all GPCRs.

  16. Following the canyon to reach and remove olfactory groove meningiomas.

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    Stefini, Roberto; Zenga, Francesco; Giacomo, Esposito; Bolzoni, Andrea; Tartara, Fulvio; Spena, Giannantonio; Ambrosi, Claudia; Fontanella, Marco M

    2017-04-01

    Olfactory groove meningiomas (OGMs) represent approximately 10% of all intracranial meningiomas. They arise in the olfactory fossa, a variable depression delimited by the lateral lamella and perpendicular plate. The cribriform plate with the lateral lamella and ethmoidal and orbital roof could be viewed as a 'canyon' with the frontal sinus as the main entrance. Between January 2000 and December 2013, 32 consecutive patients underwent removal of OGMs through this 'canyon' at the Department of Neurosurgery of Brescia and Turin. Complete removal was achieved in all patients with this trans-frontal sinus subcranial approach (Simpson grade I; mean lesion volume, 46.6 cm3). Five patients (15.6%) experienced nasal CSF leakage, treated with external lumbar drain positioning for 4 days and resolved in all cases but one, which was re-operated. Two patients (6.2%) during the CSF leakage experienced meningitis at day 7 after surgery, both successfully treated by intravenous antibiotic therapy. After one month, one patient developed hydrocephalus, treated with a ventricular peritoneal shunt. In one patient, traction on the OGM caused bleeding of the callosomarginal artery, which was coagulated with superior frontal gyrus ischemia without neurological consequences. Glasgow Outcome Scale Score at 6 months was V in 29 patients, IV in one patient, and I in two patients. Advantages with this approach may include easy and early control of blood supply from its insertion in the skull base, minimal frontal lobe retraction, preservation of the frontal veins draining to the sagittal sinus, and a satisfactory aesthetic outcome.

  17. Classical olfactory conditioning in the cockroach Periplaneta americana.

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    Watanabe, Hidehiro; Kobayashi, Yuko; Sakura, Midori; Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Mizunami, Makoto

    2003-12-01

    We established a classical conditioning procedure for the cockroach, Periplaneta americana, by which odors were associated with reward or punishment. Cockroaches underwent differential conditioning trials in which peppermint odor was associated with sucrose solution and vanilla odor was associated with saline solution. Odor preference of cockroaches was tested by allowing them to choose between peppermint and vanilla sources. Cockroaches that had undergone one set of differential conditioning trials exhibited a significantly greater preference for peppermint odor than did untrained cockroaches. Memory formed by three sets of differential conditioning trials, with an inter-trial interval of 5 min, was retained at least 4 days after conditioning. This conditioning procedure was effective even for cockroaches that had been harnessed in plastic tubes. This study shows, for the first time in hemimetaborous insects, that both freely moving and harnessed insects are capable of forming olfactory memory by classical conditioning procedure. This procedure may be useful for future electrophysiological and pharmacological studies aimed at elucidation of neural mechanisms underlying olfactory learning and memory.

  18. Cellular Mechanisms of Action of Drug Abuse on Olfactory Neurons

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    Thomas Heinbockel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoids (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are the active ingredient of marijuana (cannabis which is the most commonly abused illicit drug in the USA. In addition to being known and used as recreational drugs, cannabinoids are produced endogenously by neurons in the brain (endocannabinoids and serve as important signaling molecules in the nervous system and the rest of the body. Cannabinoids have been implicated in bodily processes both in health and disease. Recent pharmacological and physiological experiments have described novel aspects of classic brain signaling mechanisms or revealed unknown mechanisms of cellular communication involving the endocannabinoid system. While several forms of signaling have been described for endocannabinoids, the most distinguishing feature of endocannabinoids is their ability to act as retrograde messengers in neural circuits. Neurons in the main olfactory bulb express high levels of cannabinoid receptors. Here, we describe the cellular mechanisms and function of this novel brain signaling system in regulating neural activity at synapses in olfactory circuits. Results from basic research have the potential to provide the groundwork for translating the neurobiology of drug abuse to the realm of the pharmacotherapeutic treatment of addiction, specifically marijuana substance use disorder.

  19. Molecular characterization of the Aphis gossypii olfactory receptor gene families.

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    Depan Cao

    Full Text Available The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, is a polyphagous pest that inflicts great damage to cotton yields worldwide. Antennal olfaction, which is extremely important for insect survival, mediates key behaviors such as host preference, mate choice, and oviposition site selection. In insects, odor detection is mediated by odorant receptors (ORs and ionotropic receptors (IRs, which ensure the specificity of the olfactory sensory neuron responses. In this study, our aim is to identify chemosensory receptors in the cotton aphid genome, as a means to uncover olfactory encoding of the polyphagous feeding habits as well as to aid the discovery of new targets for behavioral interference. We identified a total of 45 candidate ORs and 14 IRs in the cotton aphid genome. Among the candidate AgoORs, 9 are apparent pseudogenes, while 19 can be clustered with ORs from the pea aphid, forming 16 AgoOR/ApOR orthologous subgroups. Among the candidate IRs, we identified homologs of the two highly conserved co-receptors IR8a and IR25a; no AgoIR retain the complete glutamic acid binding domain, suggesting that putative AgoIRs bind different ligands. Our results provide the necessary information for functional characterization of the chemosensory receptors of A. gossypii, with potential for new or refined applications of semiochemicals-based control of this pest insect.

  20. In search of the structure of human olfactory space

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    Alexei eKoulakov

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the responses of human observers to an ensemble of monomolecular odorants. Each odorant is characterized by a set of 146 perceptual descriptors obtained from a database of odor character profiles. Each odorant is therefore represented by a point in a highly multidimensional sensory space. In this work we study the arrangement of odorants in this perceptual space. We argue that odorants densely sample a two-dimensional curved surface embedded in the multidimensional sensory space. This surface can account for more than half of the variance of the perceptual data. We also show that only 12% of experimental variance cannot be explained by curved surfaces of substantially small dimensionality (<10. We suggest that these curved manifolds represent the relevant spaces sampled by the human olfactory system, thereby providing surrogates for olfactory sensory space. For the case of 2D approximation, we relate the two parameters on the curved surface to the physico-chemical parameters of odorant molecules. We show that one of the dimensions is related to eigenvalues of molecules’ connectivity matrix, while the other is correlated with measures of molecules’ polarity. We discuss the behavioral significance of these findings.

  1. Influence of Biphasic Stimulation on Olfactory Ensheathing Cells for Neuroprosthetic Devices.

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    Hassarati, Rachelle T; Foster, L John R; Green, Rylie A

    2016-01-01

    The recent success of olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) assisted regeneration of injured spinal cord has seen a rising interest in the use of these cells in tissue-engineered systems. Previously shown to support neural cell growth through glial scar tissue, OECs have the potential to assist neural network formation in living electrode systems to produce superior neuroprosthetic electrode surfaces. The following study sought to understand the influence of biphasic electrical stimulation (ES), inherent to bionic devices, on cell survival and function, with respect to conventional metallic and developmental conductive hydrogel (CH) coated electrodes. The CH utilized in this study was a biosynthetic hydrogel consisting of methacrylated poly(vinyl-alcohol) (PVA), heparin and gelatin through which poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) was electropolymerised. OECs cultured on Pt and CH surfaces were subjected to biphasic ES. Image-based cytometry yielded little significant difference between the viability and cell cycle of OECs cultured on the stimulated and passive samples. The significantly lower voltages measured across the CH electrodes (147 ± 3 mV) compared to the Pt (317 ± 5 mV), had shown to influence a higher percentage of viable cells on CH (91-93%) compared to Pt (78-81%). To determine the functionality of these cells following electrical stimulation, OECs co-cultured with PC12 cells were found to support neural cell differentiation (an indirect measure of neurotrophic factor production) following ES.

  2. Influence of Biphasic Stimulation on Olfactory Ensheathing Cells for Neuroprosthetic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachelle Therese Hassarati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent success of olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC assisted regeneration of injured spinal cord has seen a rising interest in the use of these cells in tissue-engineered systems. Previously shown to support neural cell growth through glial scar tissue, OECs have the potential to assist neural network formation in living electrode systems to produce superior neuroprosthetic electrode surfaces. The following study sought to understand the influence of biphasic electrical stimulation (ES, inherent to bionic devices, on cell survival and function, with respect to conventional metallic and developmental conductive hydrogel (CH coated electrodes. The CH utilised in this study was a biosynthetic hydrogel consisting of methacrylated poly(vinyl-alcohol (PVA, heparin and gelatin through which poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT was electropolymerised. OECs cultured on Pt and CH surfaces were subjected to biphasic ES. Image-based cytometry yielded little significant difference between the viability and cell cycle of OECs cultured on the stimulated and passive samples. The significantly lower voltages measured across the CH electrodes (147 ± 3 mV compared to the Pt (317 ± 5 mV, had shown to influence a higher percentage of viable cells on CH (91 - 93 % compared to Pt (78 - 81 %. To determine the functionality of these cells following electrical stimulation, OECs co-cultured with PC12 cells were found to support neural cell differentiation (an indirect measure of neurotrophic factor production following ES.

  3. Neurobiological correlates of visual and olfactory recognition in sheep.

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    Kendrick, K M

    1994-12-01

    This paper describes neurophysiological and behavioural experiments which investigate the ability of sheep to recognise different individuals using visual and olfactory cues. Behavioural experiments using Y-mazes with back-projected images of faces have shown that sheep can distinguish between the faces of sheep and humans when the faces are presented in a frontal view although they have more difficulty in doing so if the faces are presented in profile, upside down or with the eyes obscured. Single-cell electrophysiological recordings made from neurones in the temporal cortex have shown that sheep, like non-human primates, have cells in this region that code preferentially for facial stimuli and that their responses are also diminished or abolished if the faces are presented upside-down, in profile, or with the eyes obscured. Different sub-populations of cells code for faces of similar social and emotional significance. Thus one population of cells codes for faces with horns and their responses are also modulated by the size of the horns, another population codes for faces of animals of the same breed, and particularly familiar animals, and a final population codes for faces of humans and dogs. Visual cues from body shape and posture are also important for recognition of different classes of individual. Field studies have shown that sheep find it difficult to recognise humans approaching them if they change their posture to quadrupedal as opposed to a bipedal one. Electrophysiological studies have also demonstrated the presence of cells in the temporal cortex which respond preferentially to the sight of a human body shape and their activity is influenced by body orientation, posture and direction of movement. In some cases alterations to the human's appearance can also influence their activity. Olfactory recognition studies have used electrophysiological, in vivo sampling and behavioural analyses to establish the mechanisms whereby a maternal ewe develops the

  4. Olfactory and solitary chemosensory cells: two different chemosensory systems in the nasal cavity of the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis

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    Hansen Anne

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nasal cavity of all vertebrates houses multiple chemosensors, either innervated by the Ist (olfactory or the Vth (trigeminal cranial nerve. Various types of receptor cells are present, either segregated in different compartments (e.g. in rodents or mingled in one epithelium (e.g. fish. In addition, solitary chemosensory cells have been reported for several species. Alligators which seek their prey both above and under water have only one nasal compartment. Information about their olfactory epithelium is limited. Since alligators seem to detect both volatile and water-soluble odour cues, I tested whether different sensory cell types are present in the olfactory epithelium. Results Electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry were used to examine the sensory epithelium of the nasal cavity of the American alligator. Almost the entire nasal cavity is lined with olfactory (sensory epithelium. Two types of olfactory sensory neurons are present. Both types bear cilia as well as microvilli at their apical endings and express the typical markers for olfactory neurons. The density of these olfactory neurons varies along the nasal cavity. In addition, solitary chemosensory cells innervated by trigeminal nerve fibres, are intermingled with olfactory sensory neurons. Solitary chemosensory cells express components of the PLC-transduction cascade found in solitary chemosensory cells in rodents. Conclusion The nasal cavity of the American alligator contains two different chemosensory systems incorporated in the same sensory epithelium: the olfactory system proper and solitary chemosensory cells. The olfactory system contains two morphological distinct types of ciliated olfactory receptor neurons.

  5. Lesion of the olfactory epithelium accelerates prion neuroinvasion and disease onset when prion replication is restricted to neurons.

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    Jenna Crowell

    Full Text Available Natural prion diseases of ruminants are moderately contagious and while the gastrointestinal tract is the primary site of prion agent entry, other mucosae may be entry sites in a subset of infections. In the current study we examined prion neuroinvasion and disease induction following disruption of the olfactory epithelium in the nasal mucosa since this site contains environmentally exposed olfactory sensory neurons that project directly into the central nervous system. Here we provide evidence for accelerated prion neuroinvasion and clinical onset from the olfactory mucosa after disruption and regeneration of the olfactory epithelium and when prion replication is restricted to neurons. In transgenic mice with neuron restricted replication of prions, there was a reduction in survival when the olfactory epithelium was disrupted prior to intranasal inoculation and there was >25% decrease in the prion incubation period. In a second model, the neurotropic DY strain of transmissible mink encephalopathy was not pathogenic in hamsters by the nasal route, but 50% of animals exhibited brain infection and/or disease when the olfactory epithelium was disrupted prior to intranasal inoculation. A time course analysis of prion deposition in the brain following loss of the olfactory epithelium in models of neuron-restricted prion replication suggests that neuroinvasion from the olfactory mucosa is via the olfactory nerve or brain stem associated cranial nerves. We propose that induction of neurogenesis after damage to the olfactory epithelium can lead to prion infection of immature olfactory sensory neurons and accelerate prion spread to the brain.

  6. Olfactory Dysfunctions and Decreased Nitric Oxide Production in the Brain of Human P301L Tau Transgenic Mice.

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    Hu, Yang; Ding, Wenting; Zhu, Xiaonan; Chen, Ruzhu; Wang, Xuelan

    2016-04-01

    Different patterns of olfactory dysfunction have been found in both patients and mouse models of Alzheimer's Disease. However, the underlying mechanism of the dysfunction remained unknown. Deficits of nitric oxide production in brain can cause olfactory dysfunction by preventing the formation of olfactory memory. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioral changes in olfaction and alterations in metabolites of nitric oxide, nitrate/nitrite concentration, in the brain of human P301L tau transgenic mice. The tau mice showed impairments in olfaction and increased abnormal phosphorylation of Tau protein at AT8 in different brain areas, especially in olfactory bulb. We now report that these olfactory deficits and Tau pathological changes were accompanied by decreased nitrate/nitrite concentration in the brain, especially in the olfactory bulb, and reduced expression of nNOS in the brain of tau mice. These findings provided evidence of olfactory dysfunctions correlated with decreased nitric oxide production in the brain of tau mice.

  7. Long term serious olfactory loss in colds and/or flu.

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    de Haro-Licer, Josep; Roura-Moreno, Jordi; Vizitiu, Anabella; González-Fernández, Adela; González-Ares, Josep Antón

    2013-01-01

    In the general population, we can find 2-3% of lifelong olfactory disorders (from hyposmia to anosmia). Two of the most frequent aetiologies are the common cold and flu. The aim of this study was to show the degree of long-term olfactory dysfunction caused by a cold or flu. This study was based on 240 patients, with olfactory loss caused only by flu or a cold. We excluded all patients with concomitant illness (66 patients), the rest of patients (n=174) consisted of 51 men (29.3%) and 123 women (70.7%). They all underwent olfactometry study (i and v cranial nerve) and a nasal sinus computed tomography scan, as well as magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Results were compared with a control group (n=120). Very significant differences in levels of olfactory impairment for the olfactory nerve (P<.00001) and trigeminal nerve (P<.0001) were confirmed. People that suffer olfactory dysfunction for more than 6 months, from flu or a cold, present serious impairment of olfactory abilities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. Gross anatomy and histology of the olfactory rosette of the shark Heptranchias perlo.

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    Ferrando, Sara; Gallus, Lorenzo; Amaroli, Andrea; Gambardella, Chiara; Waryani, Baradi; Di Blasi, Davide; Vacchi, Marino

    2017-06-01

    Sharks belonging to the family Hexanchidae have six or seven gill slits, unlike all other elasmobranchs, which have five gill slits. Their olfactory organs have a round shape, which is common for holocephalans, but not for elasmobranchs. Thus, the shape of the olfactory organ represents a further, less striking, peculiarity of this family among elasmobranchs. Despite that, the microscopic anatomy and histology of the olfactory organ have not yet been studied in any species of this family. Here, an anatomical and histological description of the olfactory organ of the sharpnose sevengill shark Heptranchias perlo is given. The organ is a rosette, with a central raphe and 31-34 primary lamellae, which bear secondary lamellae with a more or less branched shape. The elastic connective capsule which envelops the olfactory rosette possibly changes its shape along with water influx. In the olfactory epithelium, the supporting cells also have a secretory function, while no specialized mucous cells are visible; regarding this feature the olfactory epithelium of H. perlo differs from that of other chondrichthyan species. The immunohistochemical investigation of the sensory epithelium shows the absence of immunoreactivity for Gαolf in receptor neurons, which confirms previous observations in Chondrichthyes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Olfactory training induces changes in regional functional connectivity in patients with long-term smell loss.

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    Kollndorfer, K; Fischmeister, F Ph S; Kowalczyk, K; Hoche, E; Mueller, C A; Trattnig, S; Schöpf, V

    2015-01-01

    Recently, olfactory training has been introduced as a promising treatment for patients with olfactory dysfunction. However, less is known about the neuronal basis and the influence on functional networks of this training. Thus, we aimed to investigate the neuroplasticity of chemosensory perception through an olfactory training program in patients with smell loss. The experimental setup included functional MRI (fMRI) experiments with three different types of chemosensory stimuli. Ten anosmic patients (7f, 3m) and 14 healthy controls (7f, 7m) underwent the same testing sessions. After a 12-week olfactory training period, seven patients (4f, 3m) were invited for follow-up testing using the same fMRI protocol. Functional networks were identified using independent component analysis and were further examined in detail using functional connectivity analysis. We found that anosmic patients and healthy controls initially use the same three networks to process chemosensory input: the olfactory; the somatosensory; and the integrative network. Those networks did not differ between the two groups in their spatial extent, but in their functional connectivity. After the olfactory training, the sensitivity to detect odors significantly increased in the anosmic group, which was also manifested in modifications of functional connections in all three investigated networks. The results of this study indicate that an olfactory training program can reorganize functional networks, although, initially, no differences in the spatial distribution of neural activation were observed.

  10. The effect of non-diabetic chronic renal failure on olfactory function.

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    Koseoglu, S; Derin, S; Huddam, B; Sahan, M

    2017-05-01

    In chronic renal failure (CRF), deterioration of glomerular filtration results in accumulation of metabolites in the body which affect all organs. This study was performed to investigate the olfactory functions, and determine if hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis improves olfactory function in non-diabetic CRF patients. The olfactory functions were analyzed in CRF patients not on a dialysis program and had a creatinine level≥2mg/dL, in CRF patients on hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, and in healthy controls. Diabetic patients were excluded since diabetes alone is a cause of olfactory dysfunction. The study group consisted of a total of 107 individuals including 38CRF patients on a hemodialysis program, 15 CRF patients on peritoneal dialysis, 30 patients with a creatinine level ≥ 2mg/dL without any need for dialysis, and 24 healthy controls with normal renal functions. Olfactory functions were analyzed with "Sniffin' sticks" test, and the groups were compared for the test results. All test parameters were impaired in patients with CRF. The median TDI scores of the patients with CRF and the healthy subjects were 24.75 (13-36) and 32.5 (27.75-37.75), respectively, with a statistically significant difference in between (Pdiabetic CRF affects olfactory functions negatively. Dialysis improves olfactory functions in those patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of olfactory tissue and its neural progenitors to schizophrenia and psychiatric research.

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    Lavoie, Joëlle; Sawa, Akira; Ishizuka, Koko

    2017-05-01

    The goal of this review article is to introduce olfactory epithelium-derived cell/tissue models as a promising surrogate system to study the molecular mechanisms implicated in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we particularly focus on the utility of their neural progenitors. Recent investigations of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia using olfactory epithelium-derived tissue/cell models have provided insights about schizophrenia-associated alterations in neurodevelopment, stress response, and gene/protein expression regulatory pathways. The olfactory epithelium retains the capacity for lifelong neurogenesis and regeneration, because of the presence of neural stem cells and progenitors. Thus, both mature neurons and neural progenitors can be obtained from the olfactory epithelium without the need for genetic reprogramming and related confounds. Furthermore, the olfactory epithelium is highly scalable resource in translational settings. Here, we also demonstrate recent findings from research using olfactory epithelium-derived tissue/cell models in schizophrenia and other brain disorders. In summary, we propose that the olfactory epithelium is a promising resource to study neural molecular and cellular signatures relevant to the pathology of schizophrenia and other mental disorders.

  12. Information processing during sleep: the effect of olfactory stimuli on dream content and dream emotions.

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    Schredl, Michael; Atanasova, Desislava; Hörmann, Karl; Maurer, Joachim T; Hummel, Thomas; Stuck, Boris A

    2009-09-01

    Research has shown that external stimuli presented during sleep can affect dream content, thus reflecting information processing of the sleeping brain. Olfactory stimuli should have a stronger effect on dream emotions because their processing is linked directly to the limbic system. Because selective olfactory stimulation does not increase arousal activity, intense olfactory stimulation is therefore a prime paradigm for studying information processing during sleep. Fifteen healthy, normosmic volunteers were studied by intranasal chemosensory stimulation during rapid eye movement sleep based on air-dilution olfactometry. For olfactory stimulation, hydrogen sulphide (smell of rotten eggs) and phenyl ethyl alcohol (smell of roses) was used and compared with a control condition without stimulation. The olfactory stimuli affected significantly the emotional content of dreams: the positively toned stimulus yielded more positively toned dreams, whereas the negative stimulus was followed by more negatively toned dreams. Direct incorporations, i.e. the dreamer is smelling something, were not found. The findings indicate that information processing of olfactory stimuli is present in sleep and that the emotional tone of dreams can be influenced significantly depending upon the hedonic characteristic of the stimulus used. It would be interesting to conduct learning experiments (associating specific odours with declarative material) to study whether this declarative material is incorporated into subsequent dreams if the corresponding odour cue is presented during sleep. It would also be interesting to study the effect of positively toned olfactory stimuli on nightmares.

  13. Differences in peripheral sensory input to the olfactory bulb between male and female mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Marley D.; Czarnecki, Lindsey A.; Moberly, Andrew H.; McGann, John P.

    2017-04-01

    Female mammals generally have a superior sense of smell than males, but the biological basis of this difference is unknown. Here, we demonstrate sexually dimorphic neural coding of odorants by olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), primary sensory neurons that physically contact odor molecules in the nose and provide the initial sensory input to the brain’s olfactory bulb. We performed in vivo optical neurophysiology to visualize odorant-evoked OSN synaptic output into olfactory bub glomeruli in unmanipulated (gonad-intact) adult mice from both sexes, and found that in females odorant presentation evoked more rapid OSN signaling over a broader range of OSNs than in males. These spatiotemporal differences enhanced the contrast between the neural representations of chemically related odorants in females compared to males during stimulus presentation. Removing circulating sex hormones makes these signals slower and less discriminable in females, while in males they become faster and more discriminable, suggesting opposite roles for gonadal hormones in influencing male and female olfactory function. These results demonstrate that the famous sex difference in olfactory abilities likely originates in the primary sensory neurons, and suggest that hormonal modulation of the peripheral olfactory system could underlie differences in how males and females experience the olfactory world.

  14. Histomorphological and microanatomical characteristics of the olfactory organ of freshwater carp, Cirrhinus reba (Hamilton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Saroj Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The morphoanatomy, cellular organization, and surface architecture of the olfactory apparatus in Cirrhinus reba (Hamilton is described using light and scanning electron microscopy. The oval shaped olfactory rosette contained 32 ± 2 primary lamellae on each side of the median raphe, and was lodged on the floor of the olfactory chamber. The olfactory lamellae were basically flat and compactly arranged in the rosette. The olfactory chamber communicated to the outside aquatic environment through inlet and outlet apertures with a conspicuous nasal flap in between. The mid dorsal portion of the olfactory lamellae was characterized by a linguiform process. Sensory and non-sensory regions were distributed separately on each lamella. The sensory epithelium occupied the apical part including the linguiform process, whereas the resting part of the lamella was covered with non-sensory epithelium. The sensory epithelium comprised both ciliated and microvillous receptor cells distinguished by the architecture on their apical part. The non-sensory epithelium possessed mucous cells, labyrinth cells, and stratified epithelial cells with distinctive microridges. The functional importance of the different cells lining the olfactory mucosa was correlated with the ecological habits of the fish examined.

  15. Tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the olfactory/respiratory epithelium in early sheep fetuses (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izvolskaia, Marina; Duittoz, Anne H; Ugrumov, Mikhail V; Tillet, Yves

    2006-04-14

    Transient expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the first enzyme in catecholamine synthesis) has been shown in different brain and peripheral structures of various species. TH-immunoreactive neurons have been reported in the nasal region of human and rat fetuses migrating to the forebrain with GnRH neurons during embryogenesis. In the present study, immunohistochemical analysis and in situ hybridization were performed in fetal sheep and in vitro sheep embryo olfactory placode cultures to confirm this population in this species. On embryonic days 33 to 35, TH-immunoreactive cells as well as TH cDNA-hybridized cells were found in the olfactory and respiratory epithelium and were spatially separated from GnRH-immunoreactive neurons. In days 40 to 44 of gestation, TH-immunoreactive neurons were no longer observed in the olfactory epithelium, and TH-immunoreactive fibers were found on the trajectories of the olfactory nerves. At this stage, some TH-immunoreactive fibers were also labeled for GnRH. TH-immunoreactive cells were also found in primary cultures of olfactory placodes of fetal sheep at 10 to 18 days in vitro. Some of them coexpressed GnRH. These results imply that olfactory epithelium is also able to give rise to TH expressing cells in fetal sheep, but this expression is suppressed earlier in ontogenesis than in humans due to some unidentified factors not present in the primary cultures of olfactory placode. The role of TH expression remains unclear as in other previously described examples.

  16. Continuous postnatal neurogenesis contributes to formation of the olfactory bulb neural circuits and flexible olfactory associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Masayuki; Ieki, Nao; Miyoshi, Goichi; Mochimaru, Daisuke; Miyachi, Hitoshi; Imura, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Fishell, Gord; Mori, Kensaku; Kageyama, Ryoichiro; Imayoshi, Itaru

    2014-04-23

    The olfactory bulb (OB) is one of the two major loci in the mammalian brain where newborn neurons are constantly integrated into the neural circuit during postnatal life. Newborn neurons are generated from neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and migrate to the OB through the rostral migratory stream. The majority of these newborn neurons differentiate into inhibitory interneurons, such as granule cells and periglomerular cells. It has been reported that prolonged supply of newborn neurons leads to continuous addition/turnover of the interneuronal populations and contributes to functional integrity of the OB circuit. However, it is not still clear how and to what extent postnatal-born neurons contribute to OB neural circuit formation, and the functional role of postnatal neurogenesis in odor-related behaviors remains elusive. To address this question, here by using genetic strategies, we first determined the unique integration mode of newly born interneurons during postnatal development of the mouse OB. We then manipulated these interneuron populations and found that continuous postnatal neurogenesis in the SVZ-OB plays pivotal roles in flexible olfactory associative learning and memory.

  17. Gustatory and olfactory sensitivity in patients with anorexia and bulimia in the course of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Katja; Scholze, Ninette; Joraschky, Peter; Hummel, Thomas

    2008-12-01

    The majority of studies on taste and smell in eating disorders have revealed several alterations of olfactory or gustatory functions. Aim of this prospective study was to employ detailed olfactory and gustatory testing in female subjects of three homogenous groups - anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and healthy controls - and to look at the effects of treatment on these measures. Sixteen hospitalized female patients with anorexia (restricting type, mean age [M]=24.5 years), 24 female patients with bulimia (purging type, M=24.3 years) as well as 23 healthy controls (M=24.5 years) received olfactory ("Sniffin' Sticks") and gustatory testing ("Taste Strips"). Group differences in olfactory and gustatory sensitivity, body mass index (BMI), the Beck depression inventory, the eating attitudes test (EAT), and the influence of therapy on gustatory and olfactory function were investigated. (1) Group differences were present for odor discrimination and overall olfactory function with anorexic patients having the lowest scores. (2) Regarding taste function, controls scored higher than patients with anorexia. (3) At admission small but significant correlations were found between overall olfactory function and body weight (r(63)=0.35), BMI (r(63) = 0.37), and EAT score (r(63) = -0.27). Similarly, (4) the taste test score correlated significantly with body weight (r(63)= 0.48), and BMI (r(63) = 0.45). Finally, (5) at discharge overall olfactory and gustatory function were significantly higher compared to admission in anorexic patients. As compared to healthy controls and bulimic patients our results show lowered olfactory and gustatory sensitivities in anorexic patients that improved with increasing BMI and decreasing eating pathology in the course of treatment.

  18. Olfactory evaluation in Mild Cognitive Impairment: correlation with neurocognitive performance and endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonacci, Alessandro; Bruno, Rosa M; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo; Pratali, Lorenza; Berardi, Nicoletta; Tognoni, Gloria; Cintoli, Simona; Volpi, Leda; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Sicari, Rosa; Taddei, Stefano; Maffei, Lamberto; Picano, Eugenio

    2017-05-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is an intermediate condition between normal aging and dementia, associated with an increased risk of progression into the latter within months or years. Olfactory impairment, a well-known biomarker for neurodegeneration, might be present in the condition early, possibly representing a signal for future pathological onset. Our study aimed at evaluating olfactory function in MCI and healthy controls in relation to neurocognitive performance and endothelial function. A total of 85 individuals with MCI and 41 healthy controls, matched for age and gender, were recruited. Olfactory function was assessed by Sniffin' Sticks Extended Test (Burghart, Medizintechnik, GmbH, Wedel, Germany). A comprehensive neurocognitive assessment was performed. Endothelial function was assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery by ultrasound. MCI individuals showed an impaired olfactory function compared to controls. The overall olfactory score is able to predict MCI with a good sensitivity and specificity (70.3 and 77.4% respectively). In MCI, olfactory identification score is correlated with a number of neurocognitive abilities, including overall cognitive status, dementia rating, immediate and delayed memory, visuospatial ability and verbal fluency. FMD was reduced in MCI (2.90 ± 2.15 vs. 3.66 ± 1.96%, P = 0.016) and was positively associated with olfactory identification score (ρ s =0.219, P = 0.025). The association remained significant after controlling for age, gender, and smoking. In conclusion, olfactory evaluation is able to discriminate between MCI and healthy individuals. Systemic vascular dysfunction might be involved, at least indirectly, in olfactory dysfunction in MCI. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. An endocannabinoid system is present in the mouse olfactory epithelium but does not modulate olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutch, C R; Hillard, C J; Jia, C; Hegg, C C

    2015-08-06

    Endocannabinoids modulate a diverse array of functions including progenitor cell proliferation in the central nervous system, and odorant detection and food intake in the mammalian central olfactory system and larval Xenopus laevis peripheral olfactory system. However, the presence and role of endocannabinoids in the peripheral olfactory epithelium have not been examined in mammals. We found the presence of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptor protein and mRNA in the olfactory epithelium. Using either immunohistochemistry or calcium imaging we localized CB1 receptors on neurons, glia-like sustentacular cells, microvillous cells and progenitor-like basal cells. To examine the role of endocannabinoids, CB1- and CB2- receptor-deficient (CB1(-/-)/CB2(-/-)) mice were used. The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) was present at high levels in both C57BL/6 wildtype and CB1(-/-)/CB2(-/-) mice. 2-AG synthetic and degradative enzymes are expressed in wildtype mice. A small but significant decrease in basal cell and olfactory sensory neuron numbers was observed in CB1(-/-)/CB2(-/-) mice compared to wildtype mice. The decrease in olfactory sensory neurons did not translate to impairment in olfactory-mediated behaviors assessed by the buried food test and habituation/dishabituation test. Collectively, these data indicate the presence of an endocannabinoid system in the mouse olfactory epithelium. However, unlike in tadpoles, endocannabinoids do not modulate olfaction. Further investigation on the role of endocannabinoids in progenitor cell function in the olfactory epithelium is warranted. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Predictors of olfactory dysfunction in rhinosinusitis using the brief smell identification test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Jeremiah A; Mace, Jess C; Buniel, Maria C F; Soler, Zachary M; Smith, Timothy L

    2014-07-01

    Associations between olfactory function to quality-of-life (QOL) and disease severity in patients with rhinosinusitis is poorly understood. We sought to evaluate and compare olfactory function between subgroups of patients with rhinosinusitis using the Brief Smell Identification Test (B-SIT). Cross-sectional evaluation of a multicenter cohort. Patients with recurrent acute sinusitis and chronic rhinosinusitis with and without nasal polyposis were prospectively enrolled from three academic tertiary care sites. Each subject completed the B-SIT, in addition to measures of disease-specific QOL. Patient demographics, comorbidities, and clinical measures of disease severity were compared between patients with normal (BSIT≥9) and abnormal (BSIT<9) olfaction scores. Regression modeling was used to identify potential risk factors associated with olfactory impairment. Patients with rhinosinusitis (n=445) were found to suffer olfactory dysfunction as measured by the B-SIT (28.3%). Subgroups of rhinosinusitis differed in the degree of olfactory dysfunction reported. Worse disease severity, measured by computed tomography and nasal endoscopy, correlated to worse olfaction. Olfactory scores did not consistently correlate with the Rhinosinusitis Disability Index or Sinonasal Outcome Test scores. Regression models demonstrated nasal polyposis was the strongest predictor of olfactory dysfunction. Recalcitrant disease and aspirin intolerance were strongly predictive of worse olfactory function. Olfactory dysfunction is a complex, multifactorial process found to be differentially expressed within subgroups of rhinosinusitis. Olfaction was associated with disease severity as measured by imaging and endoscopy, with only weak associations to disease-specific QOL measures. 2b. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Development of test for determining olfactory investigation of complex odours in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Jensen, Margit Bak; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    2017-01-01

    The sense of smell is likely to influence the behaviour of domestic and captive animals in a wide range of management and housing situations. In domestic cattle, there may be unexploited potential for using odours and olfaction in the management; however, published studies on bovine olfactory...... capacity are scarce. By applying an olfactory Habituation/Dishabituation test developed for rodents, this study aimed to assess olfactory ability in cattle. Twenty-three cows (n = 10) and heifers (n = 13) were tested with three different odours (orange juice, liquid coffee and tap water as an odourless...

  2. Olfactory Functioning in Parkinson's Disease: The Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hartevelt, Tim Johannes

    2014-01-01

    of sense of smell is one of the most common and earliest symptoms, appearing approximately 5 years prior to any motor symptoms. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has proven remarkably effective in alleviating the symptoms of PD including olfactory dysfunction. This remains a difficult area to research with many...... function in PD patients with DBS. The first two studies in this dissertation are reviews of the olfactory system and one of its most vital roles in eating behaviour. These studies indicate the extent of the olfactory system in terms of anatomy and implication in certain behaviours. In the third study...

  3. Intranasal location and immunohistochemical characterization of the equine olfactory epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Kupke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory epithelium (OE is the only body site where neurons contact directly the environment and are therefore exposed to a broad variation of substances and insults. It can serve as portal of entry for neurotropic viruses which spread via the olfactory pathway to the central nervous system (CNS. For horses, it has been proposed and concluded mainly from rodent studies that different viruses, e.g. Borna disease virus (BoDV, equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1, hendra virus, influenza virus, rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV can use this route. However, little is yet known about cytoarchitecture, protein expression and the intranasal location of the equine OE. Revealing differences in cytoarchitecture or protein expression pattern in comparison to rodents, canines or humans might help to explain varying susceptibility to certain intranasal virus infections. On the other hand, disclosing similarities especially between rodents and other species, e.g. horses would help to underscore transferability of rodent models. Analysis of the complete noses of 5 adult horses revealed that in the equine OE two epithelial subtypes with distinct marker expression exist, designated as types a and b which resemble those previously described in dogs. Detailed statistical analysis was carried out to confirm the results obtained on the descriptive level. The equine OE was predominantly located in caudodorsal areas of the nasal turbinates with a significant decline in rostroventral direction, especially for type a. Immunohistochemically, olfactory marker protein (OMP and doublecortin (DCX expression was found in more cells of OE type a, whereas expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA was present in more cells of type b. Accordingly, type a resembles the mature epithelium, in contrast to the more juvenile type b. Protein expression profile was comparable to canine and rodent OE but equine type a and b were

  4. Imaging of olfactory bulb and gray matter volumes in brain areas associated with olfactory function in patients with Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shun, E-mail: shchen_2013@163.com [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); Tan, Hong-yu, E-mail: honhyutan@21cn.com [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); Wu, Zhuo-hua, E-mail: zhh88@126.com [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); Sun, Chong-peng, E-mail: Suncp2002@gmail.com [Imaging Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); He, Jian-xun, E-mail: xundog@163.com [Imaging Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); Li, Xin-chun, E-mail: xinchunli@163.com [Imaging Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); Shao, Ming, E-mail: yimshao@126.com [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China)

    2014-03-15

    We explored if magnetic resonance imaging sequences might aid in the clinical differential diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). We measured the volumes of the olfactory bulb, the olfactory tract, and olfaction-associated cortical gray matter in 20 IPD patients, 14 MSA patients, and 12 normal subjects, using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging sequences in combination with voxel-based statistical analysis. We found that, compared to normal subjects and MSA patients, the volumes of the olfactory bulb and tract were significantly reduced in IPD patients. The gray matter volume of IPD patients decreased in the following order: the olfactory area to the right of the piriform cortex, the right amygdala, the left entorhinal cortex, and the left occipital lobe. Further, the total olfactory bulb volume of IPD patients was associated with the duration of disease. The entorhinal cortical gray matter volume was negatively associated with the UPDRS III score. Conclusion: Structural volumes measured by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging may potentially be used for differential diagnosis of IPD from MSA.

  5. Segmented Thermoelectric Oxide-Based Module for High-Temperature Waste Heat Harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Thanh Hung; Van Nong, Ngo; Han, Li

    2015-01-01

    We report a high-performance thermoelectric (TE) oxide-based module using the segmentation of half-Heusler Ti0.3Zr0.35Hf0.35CoSb0.8Sn0.2 and misfit-layered cobaltite Ca3Co4O9+δ as the p-leg and 2% Al-doped ZnO as the n-leg. The maximum output power of a 4-couple segmented module at ΔT=700 K attai...

  6. Effects of nano-zinc oxide based paint on weathering performance of coated wood

    OpenAIRE

    Can, Ahmet; Sivrikaya, Hüseyin

    2014-01-01

    Nano-sized zinc oxide (ZnO) was chosen as a suitable candidate for the UV-protection of coatings. The accelerated weathering performances of Scots pine coated with wood paint mixed with nano- ZnO were investigated. Uncoated specimens, specimens coated with only nano-ZnO and nano-zinc oxide based paint were used as references. This work describes the effect of the nanoparticles and paint performance on accelerated weathering performance of coated specimens. 1 ml and 3 ml nano-zinc oxide is add...

  7. Neuropeptide complexity in the crustacean central olfactory pathway: immunolocalization of A-type allatostatins and RFamide-like peptides in the brain of a terrestrial hermit crab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanska, Marta A; Tuchina, Oksana; Agricola, Hans; Hansson, Bill S; Harzsch, Steffen

    2012-09-11

    In the olfactory system of malacostracan crustaceans, axonal input from olfactory receptor neurons associated with aesthetascs on the animal's first pair of antennae target primary processing centers in the median brain, the olfactory lobes. The olfactory lobes are divided into cone-shaped synaptic areas, the olfactory glomeruli where afferents interact with local olfactory interneurons and olfactory projection neurons. The local olfactory interneurons display a large diversity of neurotransmitter phenotypes including biogenic amines and neuropeptides. Furthermore, the malacostracan olfactory glomeruli are regionalized into cap, subcap, and base regions and these compartments are defined by the projection patterns of the afferent olfactory receptor neurons, the local olfactory interneurons, and the olfactory projection neurons. We wanted to know how neurons expressing A-type allatostatins (A-ASTs; synonym dip-allatostatins) integrate into this system, a large family of neuropeptides that share the C-terminal motif -YXFGLamide. We used an antiserum that was raised against the A-type Diploptera punctata (Dip)-allatostatin I to analyse the distribution of this peptide in the brain of a terrestrial hermit crab, Coenobita clypeatus (Anomura, Coenobitidae). Allatostatin A-like immunoreactivity (ASTir) was widely distributed in the animal's brain, including the visual system, central complex and olfactory system. We focussed our analysis on the central olfactory pathway in which ASTir was abundant in the primary processing centers, the olfactory lobes, and also in the secondary centers, the hemiellipsoid bodies. In the olfactory lobes, we further explored the spatial relationship of olfactory interneurons with ASTir to interneurons that synthesize RFamide-like peptides. We found that these two peptides are present in distinct populations of local olfactory interneurons and that their synaptic fields within the olfactory glomeruli are also mostly distinct. We discuss our

  8. Neuropeptide complexity in the crustacean central olfactory pathway: immunolocalization of A-type allatostatins and RFamide-like peptides in the brain of a terrestrial hermit crab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polanska Marta A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the olfactory system of malacostracan crustaceans, axonal input from olfactory receptor neurons associated with aesthetascs on the animal’s first pair of antennae target primary processing centers in the median brain, the olfactory lobes. The olfactory lobes are divided into cone-shaped synaptic areas, the olfactory glomeruli where afferents interact with local olfactory interneurons and olfactory projection neurons. The local olfactory interneurons display a large diversity of neurotransmitter phenotypes including biogenic amines and neuropeptides. Furthermore, the malacostracan olfactory glomeruli are regionalized into cap, subcap, and base regions and these compartments are defined by the projection patterns of the afferent olfactory receptor neurons, the local olfactory interneurons, and the olfactory projection neurons. We wanted to know how neurons expressing A-type allatostatins (A-ASTs; synonym dip-allatostatins integrate into this system, a large family of neuropeptides that share the C-terminal motif –YXFGLamide. Results We used an antiserum that was raised against the A-type Diploptera punctata (Dip-allatostatin I to analyse the distribution of this peptide in the brain of a terrestrial hermit crab, Coenobita clypeatus (Anomura, Coenobitidae. Allatostatin A-like immunoreactivity (ASTir was widely distributed in the animal’s brain, including the visual system, central complex and olfactory system. We focussed our analysis on the central olfactory pathway in which ASTir was abundant in the primary processing centers, the olfactory lobes, and also in the secondary centers, the hemiellipsoid bodies. In the olfactory lobes, we further explored the spatial relationship of olfactory interneurons with ASTir to interneurons that synthesize RFamide-like peptides. We found that these two peptides are present in distinct populations of local olfactory interneurons and that their synaptic fields within the olfactory

  9. Dissecting neural pathways for forgetting in Drosophila olfactory aversive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Yichun; Hirokawa, Areekul; Ai, Yulian; Zhang, Min; Li, Wanhe; Zhong, Yi

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have identified molecular pathways driving forgetting and supported the notion that forgetting is a biologically active process. The circuit mechanisms of forgetting, however, remain largely unknown. Here we report two sets of Drosophila neurons that account for the rapid forgetting of early olfactory aversive memory. We show that inactivating these neurons inhibits memory decay without altering learning, whereas activating them promotes forgetting. These neurons, including a cluster of dopaminergic neurons (PAM-β'1) and a pair of glutamatergic neurons (MBON-γ4>γ1γ2), terminate in distinct subdomains in the mushroom body and represent parallel neural pathways for regulating forgetting. Interestingly, although activity of these neurons is required for memory decay over time, they are not required for acute forgetting during reversal learning. Our results thus not only establish the presence of multiple neural pathways for forgetting in Drosophila but also suggest the existence of diverse circuit mechanisms of forgetting in different contexts.

  10. True navigation in migrating gulls requires intact olfactory nerves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikelski, Martin; Arriero, Elena; Gagliardo, Anna

    2015-01-01

    debated. In this experiment we subjected adult lesser black-backed gulls migrating from their Finnish/Russian breeding grounds (from >60°N) to Africa (to birds westward (1080 km) or eastward (885 km......During migratory journeys, birds may become displaced from their normal migratory route. Experimental evidence has shown that adult birds can correct for such displacements and return to their goal. However, the nature of the cues used by migratory birds to perform long distance navigation is still......) to simulate natural navigational challenges. When translocated westwards and outside their migratory corridor birds with olfactory nerve section kept a clear directional preference (southerly) but were unable to compensate for the displacement, while intact birds and gulls with the ophthalmic branch...

  11. Olfactory Reference Syndrome: Diagnostic Criteria and Differential Diagnosis

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    Lochner C

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory reference syndrome (ORS has been defined as a psychiatric condition characterized by persistent preoccupation about body odour accompanied by shame, embarrassment, significant distress, avoidance behaviour and social isolation. ORS has however not been included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition (DSM-IV and, given that its primary symptoms may be found in various other disorders, differential diagnosis can be problematic. Using an illustrative case of ORS, we propose diagnostic criteria for ORS. We also argue that ORS represents a unique cluster of symptoms that can be delineated as a separate diagnostic entity, and that ORS falls on a spectrum of social anxiety disorders that includes social anxiety disorder, taijin kyofusho, and body dysmorphic disorder.

  12. Update on the olfactory receptor (OR gene superfamily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olender Tsviya

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The olfactory receptor gene (OR superfamily is the largest in the human genome. The superfamily contains 390 putatively functional genes and 465 pseudogenes arranged into 18 gene families and 300 subfamilies. Even members within the same subfamily are often located on different chromosomes. OR genes are located on all autosomes except chromosome 20, plus the X chromosome but not the Y chromosome. The gene:pseudogene ratio is lowest in human, higher in chimpanzee and highest in rat and mouse -- most likely reflecting the greater need of olfaction for survival in the rodent than in the human. The OR genes undergo allelic exclusion, each sensory neurone expressing usually only one odourant receptor allele; the mechanism by which this phenomenon is regulated is not yet understood. The nomenclature system (based on evolutionary divergence of genes into families and subfamilies of the OR gene superfamily has been designed similarly to that originally used for the CYP gene superfamily.

  13. Differential odor processing in two olfactory pathways in the honeybee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro Yamagata

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An important component in understanding central olfactory processing and coding in the insect brain relates to the characterization of the functional divisions between morphologically distinct types of projection neurons (PN. Using calcium imaging, we investigated how the identity, concentration and mixtures of odors are represented in axon terminals (boutons of two types of PNs - lPN and mPN. In lPN boutons we found less concentration dependence, narrow tuning profiles at a high concentration, which may be optimized for fine, concentration-invariant odor discrimination. In mPN boutons, however, we found clear rising concentration dependence, broader tuning profiles at a high concentration, which may be optimized for concentration coding. In addition, we found more mixture suppression in lPNs than in mPNs, indicating lPNs better adaptation for synthetic mixture processing. These results suggest a functional division of odor processing in both PN types.

  14. Facial, Olfactory, and Vocal Cues to Female Reproductive Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Röder

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Facial, olfactory, and vocal cues may advertise women's fertility. However, most of the evidence for this proposal has come from studies of changes in young adult women's attractiveness over the menstrual cycle. By contrast with this emphasis on changes in attractiveness over the menstrual cycle, possible changes in women's attractiveness over their lifespan have received little attention. The present study investigated men's ratings of young girls' (11–15 years old, adult women's (19–30 years old and circum-menopausal women's (50–65 years old facial, body odor, and vocal attractiveness and femininity. Faces and voices, but not body odors, of young girls and adult women were perceived to be significantly more attractive and feminine than those of circum-menopausal women. These data suggest that facial and vocal cues may be cues to women's reproductive value, but that body odor cues do not necessarily advertise this information.

  15. The value of identity: olfactory notes on orbitofrontal cortex function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Jay A; Zelano, Christina

    2011-12-01

    Neuroscientific research has emphatically promoted the idea that the key function of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is to encode value. Associative learning studies indicate that OFC representations of stimulus cues reflect the predictive value of expected outcomes. Neuroeconomic studies suggest that the OFC distills abstract representations of value from discrete commodities to optimize choice. Although value-based models provide good explanatory power for many different findings, these models are typically disconnected from the very stimuli and commodities giving rise to those value representations. Little provision is made, either theoretically or empirically, for the necessary cooperative role of object identity, without which value becomes orphaned from its source. As a step toward remediating the value of identity, this review provides a focused olfactory survey of OFC research, including new work from our lab, to highlight the elemental involvement of this region in stimulus-specific predictive coding of both perceptual outcomes and expected values. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. Telomerase protects adult rodent olfactory ensheathing glia from early senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamusí, María-Beatriz; Rubio, Mari-Paz; Ramón-Cueto, Almudena

    2011-05-01

    Adult olfactory bulb ensheathing glia (OB-OEG) promote the repair of acute, subacute, and chronic spinal cord injuries and autologous transplantation is a feasible approach. There are interspecies differences between adult rodent and primate OB-OEG related to their longevity in culture. Whereas primate OB-OEG exhibit a relatively long life span, under the same culture conditions rodent OB-OEG divide just three to four times, are sensitive to oxidative stress and become senescent after the third week in vitro. Telomerase is a "physiological key regulator" of the life span of normal somatic cells and also has extratelomeric functions such as increased resistance to oxidative stress. To elucidate whether telomerase has a role in the senescence of rodent OB-OEG, we have introduced the catalytic subunit of telomerase mTERT into cultures of these cells by retroviral infection. Native and modified adult rat OB-OEG behaved as telomerase-competent cells as they divided while expressing mTERT but entered senescence once the gene switched off. After ectopic expression of mTERT, OB-OEG resumed division at a nonsenescent rate, expressed p75 and other OEG markers, and exhibited the morphology of nonsenescent OB-OEG. The nonsenescent period of mTERT-OEG lasted 9weeks and then ectopic mTERT switched off and cells entered senescence again. Our results suggest a role of telomerase in early senescence of adult rodent OB-OEG cultures and a protection from oxidative damage. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Understanding olfactory ensheathing glia and their prospect for nervous system repair. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Functional imaging of cortical feedback projections to the olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eRothermel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Processing of sensory information is substantially shaped by centrifugal, or feedback, projections from higher cortical areas, yet the functional properties of these projections are poorly characterized. Here, we used genetically-encoded calcium sensors (GCaMPs to functionally image activation of centrifugal projections targeting the olfactory bulb (OB. The OB receives massive centrifugal input from cortical areas but there has been as yet no characterization of their activity in vivo. We focused on projections to the OB from the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON, a major source of cortical feedback to the OB. We expressed GCaMP selectively in AON projection neurons using a mouse line expressing Cre recombinase (Cre in these neurons and Cre-dependent viral vectors injected into AON, allowing us to image GCaMP fluorescence signals from their axon terminals in the OB. Electrical stimulation of AON evoked large fluorescence signals that could be imaged from the dorsal OB surface in vivo. Surprisingly, odorants also evoked large signals that were transient and coupled to odorant inhalation both in the anesthetized and awake mouse, suggesting that feedback from AON to the OB is rapid and robust across different brain states. The strength of AON feedback signals increased during wakefulness, suggesting a state-dependent modulation of cortical feedback to the OB. Two-photon GCaMP imaging revealed that different odorants activated different subsets of centrifugal AON axons and could elicit both excitation and suppression in different axons, indicating a surprising richness in the representation of odor information by cortical feedback to the OB. Finally, we found that activating neuromodulatory centers such as basal forebrain drove AON inputs to the OB independent of odorant stimulation. Our results point to the AON as a multifunctional cortical area that provides ongoing feedback to the OB and also serves as a descending relay for other neuromodulatory

  18. Morphological, olfactory, and vocal development in big brown bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather W. Mayberry

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a within subjects design, we documented morphological, bioacoustical and behavioral developmental changes in big brown bats. Eptesicus fuscus pups are born naked and blind but assume an adult-like appearance by post-natal day (PND 45 and flight by PND 30. Adult females use spatial memory, acoustic and olfactory cues to reunite with offspring, but it is unclear if pups can recognize maternal scents. We tested the olfactory discrimination abilities of young E. fuscus pups and found they exhibited no odor preferences. Pups also emit distinct vocalizations called isolation calls (i-calls that facilitate mother-offspring reunions, but how pups shift their vocalizations from i-calls to downward frequency modulated (FM sweeps used in echolocation remains unclear. Between PND 0–9, pups emitted mainly long duration, tonal i-calls rich in harmonics, but after they switched to short duration, downward FM sweeps with fewer harmonics. Call maximum frequency and repetition rate showed minor changes across development. Signal duration, bandwidth, and number of harmonics decreased, whereas the maximum, minimum and bandwidth of the fundamental, and peak spectral frequency all increased. We recorded vocalizations during prolonged maternal separation and found that isolated pups called longer and at a faster rate, presumably to signal for maternal assistance. To assess how PND 13 pups alter their signals during interactions with humans we compared spontaneous and provoked vocalizations and found that provoked calls were spectrally and temporally more similar to those of younger bats suggesting that pups in distress emit signals that sound like younger bats to promote maternal assistance.

  19. Projections from the posterolateral olfactory amygdala to the ventral striatum: neural basis for reinforcing properties of chemical stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanuza Enrique

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrates sense chemical stimuli through the olfactory receptor neurons whose axons project to the main olfactory bulb. The main projections of the olfactory bulb are directed to the olfactory cortex and olfactory amygdala (the anterior and posterolateral cortical amygdalae. The posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus mainly projects to other amygdaloid nuclei; other seemingly minor outputs are directed to the ventral striatum, in particular to the olfactory tubercle and the islands of Calleja. Results Although the olfactory projections have been previously described in the literature, injection of dextran-amines into the rat main olfactory bulb was performed with the aim of delimiting the olfactory tubercle and posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus in our own material. Injection of dextran-amines into the posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus of rats resulted in anterograde labeling in the ventral striatum, in particular in the core of the nucleus accumbens, and in the medial olfactory tubercle including some islands of Calleja and the cell bridges across the ventral pallidum. Injections of Fluoro-Gold into the ventral striatum were performed to allow retrograde confirmation of these projections. Conclusion The present results extend previous descriptions of the posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus efferent projections, which are mainly directed to the core of the nucleus accumbens and the medial olfactory tubercle. Our data indicate that the projection to the core of the nucleus accumbens arises from layer III; the projection to the olfactory tubercle arises from layer II and is much more robust than previously thought. This latter projection is directed to the medial olfactory tubercle including the corresponding islands of Calleja, an area recently described as critical node for the neural circuit of addiction to some stimulant drugs of abuse.

  20. O-dealkylation of phenacetin in the olfactory rosette in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brittebo, E.B.; Darnerud, P.O.; Brandt, I.; Larsson, J.; Svanberg, O.

    1986-01-01

    Olfactory rosettes from trout (Salmo gairdneri) were found to metabolise ( 14 C-ethyl)-phenacetin to 14 CO 2 in vitro. Based on wet weight, the rate of metabolism was lower than that in liver and gills. Based on protein content, the rate of metabolism was about equal to that in liver and gills. Addition of the cytochrome P-450 inhibitors metyrapone, 9-hydroxyellipticine and piperonyl butoxide significantly decreased the formation of 14 CO 2 from ( 14 C-ethyl)-phenacetin in olfactory rosettes. Microautoradiography of rosettes incubated with ( 14 C-ethyl)-phenacetin showed the presence of non-extracable metabolites in the sensory and indifferent epithelium. Addition of metyrapone decreased the binding of radioactivity in the epithelia considerably. When olfactory rosettes were incubated with ( 14 C-dimethylamine)-aminopyrine, no formation of 14 CO 2 was observed. The results are concluded to indicate that cytochrome P-450 dependent enzyme activity is present in the epithelia of the trout olfactory rosette. (author)

  1. Effects of rasagiline on olfactory function in patients with Parkinson’s disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haehner, Antje; Hummel, Thomas; Wolz, Martin; Klingelhöfer, Lisa; Fauser, Mareike; Storch, Alexander; Reichmann, Heinz

    2013-12-01

    Impairment of olfactory function is a well recognized nonmotor manifestation of Parkinson’s disease(PD). The aim of this investigation was to determine if the MAO-B inhibitor rasagiline can improve olfaction in PD patients. Thirty-four PD patients participated in this single-center, prospective, randomized, controlled,double-blind study. Seventeen patients were randomly assigned to rasagiline and 17 patients to placebo. Orthoand retronasal olfactory testing and recording of event related potentials were performed before and after 120 days of rasagiline versus placebo intake. When comparing olfactory score differences between baseline and after 120 days between the 2 groups, the level of significance was not reached. The primary end point of the study was not reached, and therefore, a specific effect of rasagiline on olfactory function in PD could not be demonstrated.

  2. Amino acid- vs. peptide-odorants: responses of individual olfactory receptor neurons in an aquatic species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hassenklöver

    Full Text Available Amino acids are widely used waterborne olfactory stimuli proposed to serve as cues in the search for food. In natural waters the main source of amino acids is the decomposition of proteins. But this process also produces a variety of small peptides as intermediate cleavage products. In the present study we tested whether amino acids actually are the natural and adequate stimuli for the olfactory receptors they bind to. Alternatively, these olfactory receptors could be peptide receptors which also bind amino acids though at lower affinity. Employing calcium imaging in acute slices of the main olfactory epithelium of the fully aquatic larvae of Xenopus laevis we show that amino acids, and not peptides, are more effective waterborne odorants.

  3. Long-term olfactory memories are stabilised via protein synthesis in Camponotus fellah ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrieri, Fernando Javier; D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Deveaud, J-M.

    2011-01-01

    Ants exhibit impressive olfactory learning abilities. Operant protocols in which ants freely choose between rewarded and nonrewarded odours have been used to characterise associative olfactory learning and memory. Yet, this approach precludes the use of invasive methods allowing the dissection...... of molecular bases of learning and memory. An open question is whether the memories formed upon olfactory learning that are retrievable several days after training are indeed based on de novo protein synthesis. Here, we addressed this question in the ant Camponotus fellah using a conditioning protocol in which...... to conditioning. Cycloheximide did not impair acquisition of either short-term memory (10¿min) or early and late mid-term memories (1 or 12¿h). These results show that, upon olfactory learning, ants form different memories with variable molecular bases. While short- and mid-term memories do not require protein...

  4. Induction of an Olfactory Memory by the Activation of a Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, Hideto; Hayashi, Yasunori; Higuchi, Takashi; Nakanishi, Shigetada

    1994-07-01

    Female mice form an olfactory memory of male pheromones at mating; exposure to the pheromones of a strange male after that mating will block pregnancy. The formation of this memory is mediated by the accessory olfactory system, in which an increase in norepinephrine after mating reduces inhibitory transmission of γ-aminobutyric acid from the granule cells to the mitral cells. This study shows that the activation of mGluR2, a metabotropic glutamate receptor that suppresses the γ-aminobutyric acid inhibition of the mitral cells, permits the formation of a specific olfactory memory without the occurrence of mating by infusion of mGluR2 agonists into the female's accessory olfactory bulb. This memory faithfully reflects the memory formed at mating.

  5. Impaired sense of smell and altered olfactory system in RAG-1-/- immunodeficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza eRattazzi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Immune deficiencies are often associated with a number of physical manifestations including loss of sense of smell and an increased level of anxiety. We have previously shown that T and B cell-deficient recombinase activating gene (RAG-1-/- knockout mice have an increased level of anxiety-like behavior and altered gene expression involved in olfaction. In this study, we expanded these findings by testing the structure and functional development of the olfactory system in RAG-1-/- mice. Our results show that these mice have a reduced engagement in different types of odors and this phenotype is associated with disorganized architecture of glomerular tissue and atrophy of the main olfactory epithelium. Most intriguingly this defect manifests specifically in adult age and is not due to impairment in the patterning of the olfactory neuron staining at the embryo stage. Together these findings provide a formerly unreported biological evidence for an altered function of the olfactory system in RAG-1-/- mice.

  6. Heightened Olfactory Sensitivity in Young Females with Recent-Onset Anorexia Nervosa and Recovered Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Bentz

    Full Text Available Olfaction may be related to food restriction and weight loss. However, reports regarding olfactory function in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN have been inconclusive.Characterize olfactory sensitivity and identification in female adolescents and young adults with first-episode AN and young females recovered from AN.We used the Sniffin' Sticks Odor Threshold Test and Odor Identification Test to assess 43 participants with first-episode AN, 27 recovered participants, and 39 control participants. Participants completed the Importance of Olfaction questionnaire, the Beck Youth Inventory and the Eating Disorder Inventory. We also conducted a psychiatric diagnostic interview and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule with participants.Both clinical groups showed heightened olfactory sensitivity. After excluding participants with depression, participants with first-episode AN identified more odors than recovered participants.Heightened olfactory sensitivity in AN may be independent of clinical status, whereas only individuals with current AN and without depression show more accurate odor identification.

  7. Temporal Processing in the Olfactory System: Can We See a Smell?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gire, David H.; Restrepo, Diego; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Greer, Charles; De Carlos, Juan A.; Lopez-Mascaraque, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Sensory processing circuits in the visual and olfactory systems receive input from complex, rapidly changing environments. Although patterns of light and plumes of odor create different distributions of activity in the retina and olfactory bulb, both structures use what appears on the surface similar temporal coding strategies to convey information to higher areas in the brain. We compare temporal coding in the early stages of the olfactory and visual systems, highlighting recent progress in understanding the role of time in olfactory coding during active sensing by behaving animals. We also examine studies that address the divergent circuit mechanisms that generate temporal codes in the two systems, and find that they provide physiological information directly related to functional questions raised by neuroanatomical studies of Ramon y Cajal over a century ago. Consideration of differences in neural activity in sensory systems contributes to generating new approaches to understand signal processing. PMID:23664611

  8. Does ambient noise or hypobaric atmosphere influence olfactory and gustatory function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahne, Torsten; Köppke, Robert; Nehring, Michael; Plontke, Stefan K; Fischer, Hans-Georg

    2018-01-01

    Multidimensional food perception is based mainly on gustatory and olfactory function. Recent research has demonstrated that hypobaric pressure impairs gustatory function and that background noise or distracting auditory stimulation impairs olfactory function. Using a hypobaric chamber, the odor identification, discrimination, and thresholds as well as taste identification and threshold scores were measured in 16 healthy male volunteers under normal and hypobaric (6380 ft) conditions using clinically validated tests. In both conditions, background noise was either canceled out or replaced by white noise presentation (70 dB sound pressure level). Olfactory sensitivity for n-butanol and gustatory sensitivity were impaired in a hypobaric atmosphere. White noise did not influence the odor test results. White noise stimulation impaired sensitivity for sour and sweet but not for bitter or salty tastants. We conclude that hypobaric or noisy environments could impair gustatory and olfactory sensitivity selectively for particular tastants and odorants.

  9. Long-term control of olfactory neuroblastoma in a dog treated with surgery and radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumpel, E; Moore, A S; Simpson, D J; Hoffmann, K L; Taylor, D P

    2017-07-01

    Olfactory neuroblastoma is a rare malignancy of the nasal cavity in dogs that is thought to arise from specialised sensory neuroendocrine olfactory cells derived from the neural crest. An 8-year-old dog was presented for reclusiveness and pacing. On CT and MRI, a contract-enhancing mass was disclosed within the rostral fossa, extending caudally from the cribriform plate into the left nasal sinus. Surgical excision was performed and the diagnosis was histological grade III (Hyams grading scheme) olfactory neuroblastoma. Based on human CT criteria this was high stage (modified Kadish stage C). Surgical excision was incomplete and was followed by curative-intent radiation therapy using a linear accelerator to a total dose of 48 Gy. The dog survived 20 months after diagnosis. Although olfactory neuroblastoma is a rare tumour in dogs, aggressive local therapy may allow for prolonged survival, even when the tumour is advanced. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  10. Water temperature and pH influence olfactory sensitivity to pre ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    olfactogram (EOG) study has shown sex and maturity differences in peripheral olfactory responses to the steroid pheromone in Salmo solar (Moore and. Scott 1991) and to the prostaglandin pheromone in teleost fish (Sorensen and Goetz 1993).

  11. Activity-induced remodeling of olfactory bulb microcircuits revealed by monosynaptic tracing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin R Arenkiel

    Full Text Available The continued addition of new neurons to mature olfactory circuits represents a remarkable mode of cellular and structural brain plasticity. However, the anatomical configuration of newly established circuits, the types and numbers of neurons that form new synaptic connections, and the effect of sensory experience on synaptic connectivity in the olfactory bulb remain poorly understood. Using in vivo electroporation and monosynaptic tracing, we show that postnatal-born granule cells form synaptic connections with centrifugal inputs and mitral/tufted cells in the mouse olfactory bulb. In addition, newly born granule cells receive extensive input from local inhibitory short axon cells, a poorly understood cell population. The connectivity of short axon cells shows clustered organization, and their synaptic input onto newborn granule cells dramatically and selectively expands with odor stimulation. Our findings suggest that sensory experience promotes the synaptic integration of new neurons into cell type-specific olfactory circuits.

  12. Canine olfactory receptor gene polymorphism and its relation to odor detection performance by sniffer dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesniak, Anna; Walczak, Marta; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Sacharczuk, Mariusz; Gawkowski, Maciej; Jaszczak, Kazimierz

    2008-01-01

    The outstanding sensitivity of the canine olfactory system has been acknowledged by using sniffer dogs in military and civilian service for detection of a variety of odors. It is hypothesized that the canine olfactory ability is determined by polymorphisms in olfactory receptor (OR) genes. We investigated 5 OR genes for polymorphic sites which might affect the olfactory ability of service dogs in different fields of specific substance detection. All investigated OR DNA sequences proved to have allelic variants, the majority of which lead to protein sequence alteration. Homozygous individuals at 2 gene loci significantly differed in their detection skills from other genotypes. This suggests a role of specific alleles in odor detection and a linkage between single-nucleotide polymorphism and odor recognition efficiency.

  13. Global Transcriptional Analysis of Olfactory Genes in the Head of Pine Shoot Beetle, Tomicus yunnanensis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Zhao, Ning; Yang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    The most important proteins involved in olfaction include odorant binding protein (OBP), chemosensory protein (CSP), olfactory receptor (OR), and gustatory receptor (GR). Despite that the exhaustive genomic analysis has revealed a large number of olfactory genes in a number of model insects, it is still poorly understood for most nonmodel species. This is mostly due to the reason that the small antenna is challenging for collection. We can generally isolate one or few genes at a time by means...

  14. Transduction proteins of olfactory receptor cells: identification of guanine nucleotide binding proteins and protein kinase C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anholt, R.R.H.; Mumby, S.M.; Stoffers, D.A.; Girard, P.R.; Kuo, J.F.; Snyder, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have analyzed guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G-proteins) in the olfactory epithelium of Rana catesbeiana using subunit-specific antisera. The olfactory epithelium contained the α subunits of three G-proteins, migrating on polyacrylamide gels in SDS with apparent molecular weights of 45,000, 42,000, and 40,000, corresponding to G/sub s/, G/sub i/, and G/sub o/, respectively. A single β subunit with an apparent molecular weight of 36,000 was detected. An antiserum against the α subunit of retinal transducin failed to detect immunoreactive proteins in olfactory cilia detached from the epithelium. The olfactory cilia appeared to be enriched in immunoreactive G/sub sα/ relative to G/sub ichemical bond/ and G/sub ochemical bond/ when compared to membranes prepared from the olfactory epithelium after detachment of the cilia. Bound antibody was detected by autoradiography after incubation with [ 125 I]protein. Immunohistochemical studies using an antiserum against the β subunit of G-proteins revealed intense staining of the ciliary surface of the olfactory epithelium and of the axon bundles in the lamina propria. In contrast, an antiserum against a common sequence of the α subunits preferentially stained the cell membranes of the olfactory receptor cells and the acinar cells of Bowman's glands and the deep submucosal glands. In addition to G-proteins, they have identified protein kinase C in olfactory cilia via a protein kinase C specific antiserum and via phorbol ester binding. However, in contrast to the G-proteins, protein kinase C occurred also in cilia isolated from respiratory epithelium

  15. Activation of Olfactory Receptors on Mouse Pulmonary Macrophages Promotes Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 Production

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jing Jing; Tay, Hock L.; Plank, Maximilian; Essilfie, Ama-Tawiah; Hansbro, Philip M.; Foster, Paul S.; Yang, Ming

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that non-olfactory tissues and cells can express olfactory receptors (ORs), however, the exact function of ectopic OR expression remains unknown. We have previously shown in mouse models that a unique cooperation between interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) drives the activation of pulmonary macrophages and leads to the induction of pathogenic responses in the respiratory tract. Further, through gene array studies, we have shown that activat...

  16. A circadian clock in the olfactory bulb anticipates feeding during food anticipatory activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahum Nolasco

    Full Text Available Rabbit pups ingest food, in this case milk, once a day with circadian periodicity and are a natural model of food anticipatory activity. During nursing, several sensory systems receive information about properties of the food, one of them being the olfactory system, which has received little attention in relation to synchronization by food. In addition, the olfactory bulb has a circadian pacemaker that exhibits rhythms independently of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, but the biological functions of these rhythms are largely unknown. In the present contribution, we hypothesized that circadian suckling of milk synchronizes rhythms in the olfactory bulb. To this aim we explored by immunohistochemistry, rhythms of FOS and PER1 proteins, as indicators of activation and reporter of oscillations, respectively, through a complete 24-h cycle in periglomerular, mitral and granular cell layers of both the main and the accessory olfactory bulb. Subjects were 7-day-old rabbit pups scheduled to nurse during the night (02:00 h or day (10:00 h, and also fasted subjects, to explore the possible persistence of oscillations. In the three layers of the main olfactory bulb, FOS was high at time of nursing, then further increased 1.5 h afterward, and then decreased to increase again in advance of the next nursing bout. This pattern persisted, without the postprandial increase, in fasted subjects with a shift in subjects nursed at 02:00. PER1 was increased 2-8 h after nursing and this increase persisted in most cell layers, with a shift, in fasted subjects. In the accessory olfactory bulb we only observed a consistent pattern of FOS expression in the mitral cell layer of nursed subjects, similar to that of the main olfactory bulb. We conclude that the main olfactory bulb is synchronized during milk ingestion, but during fasting its oscillations perhaps are modulated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus, as proposed for rodents.

  17. Early survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium enhances activity-dependent survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien eFrançois

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The neuronal olfactory epithelium undergoes permanent renewal because of environmental aggression. This renewal is partly regulated by factors modulating the level of neuronal apoptosis. Among them, we had previously characterized endothelin as neuroprotective. In this study, we explored the effect of cell survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium by intranasal delivery of endothelin receptors antagonists to rat pups. This treatment induced an overall increase of apoptosis in the olfactory epithelium. The responses to odorants recorded by electroolfactogram were decreased in treated animal, a result consistent with a loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs. However, the treated animal performed better in an olfactory orientation test based on maternal odor compared to non-treated littermates. This improved performance could be due to activity-dependent neuronal survival of OSNs in the context of increased apoptosis level. In order to demonstrate it, we odorized pups with octanal, a known ligand for the rI7 olfactory receptor (Olr226. We quantified the number of OSN expressing rI7 by RT-qPCR and whole mount in situ hybridization. While this number was reduced by the survival factor removal treatment, this reduction was abolished by the presence of its ligand. This improved survival was optimal for low concentration of odorant and was specific for rI7-expressing OSNs. Meanwhile, the number of rI7-expressing OSNs was not affected by the odorization in non-treated littermates; showing that the activity-dependant survival of OSNs did not affect the OSN population during the 10 days of odorization in control conditions. Overall, our study shows that when apoptosis is promoted in the olfactory mucosa, the activity-dependent neuronal plasticity allows faster tuning of the olfactory sensory neuron population towards detection of environmental odorants.

  18. Inactivation of the olfactory marker protein (OMP) gene in river dolphins and other odontocete cetaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Mark S; Gatesy, John

    2017-04-01

    Various toothed whales (Odontoceti) are unique among mammals in lacking olfactory bulbs as adults and are thought to be anosmic (lacking the olfactory sense). At the molecular level, toothed whales have high percentages of pseudogenic olfactory receptor genes, but species that have been investigated to date retain an intact copy of the olfactory marker protein gene (OMP), which is highly expressed in olfactory receptor neurons and may regulate the temporal resolution of olfactory responses. One hypothesis for the retention of intact OMP in diverse odontocete lineages is that this gene is pleiotropic with additional functions that are unrelated to olfaction. Recent expression studies provide some support for this hypothesis. Here, we report OMP sequences for representatives of all extant cetacean families and provide the first molecular evidence for inactivation of this gene in vertebrates. Specifically, OMP exhibits independent inactivating mutations in six different odontocete lineages: four river dolphin genera (Platanista, Lipotes, Pontoporia, Inia), sperm whale (Physeter), and harbor porpoise (Phocoena). These results suggest that the only essential role of OMP that is maintained by natural selection is in olfaction, although a non-olfactory role for OMP cannot be ruled out for lineages that retain an intact copy of this gene. Available genome sequences from cetaceans and close outgroups provide evidence of inactivating mutations in two additional genes (CNGA2, CNGA4), which imply further pseudogenization events in the olfactory cascade of odontocetes. Selection analyses demonstrate that evolutionary constraints on all three genes (OMP, CNGA2, CNGA4) have been greatly reduced in Odontoceti, but retain a signature of purifying selection on the stem Cetacea branch and in Mysticeti (baleen whales). This pattern is compatible with the 'echolocation-priority' hypothesis for the evolution of OMP, which posits that negative selection was maintained in the common

  19. Olfactory learning and memory in the disease vector mosquito Aedes aegypti

    OpenAIRE

    Vinauger, Clément; Lutz, Eleanor K.; Riffell, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory learning in blood-feeding insects, such as mosquitoes, could play an important role in host preference and disease transmission. However, standardised protocols allowing testing of their learning abilities are currently lacking, and how different olfactory stimuli are learned by these insects remains unknown. Using a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm, we trained individuals and groups of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to associate an odorant conditioned stimulus (CS) with a blood-reinforced...

  20. Involvement of right piriform cortex in olfactory familiarity judgments. : Familiarity judgment in olfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Plailly , Jane; Bensafi , Moustafa; Pachot-Clouard , Mathilde; Delon-Martin , Chantal; Kareken , David ,; Rouby , Catherine; Segebarth , Christoph; Royet , Jean ,

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Previous studies have shown activation of right orbitofrontal cortex during judgments of odor familiarity. In the present study, we sought to extend our knowledge about the neural circuits involved in such a task by exploring the involvement of the right prefrontal areas and limbic/primary olfactory structures. Fourteen right-handed male subjects were tested using fMRI with a single functional run of two olfactory conditions (odor detection and familiarity judgments). ...

  1. Adult neurogenesis in the olfactory system shapes odor memory and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheusi, Gilles; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

    2014-01-01

    The olfactory system is a dynamic place. In mammals, not only are sensory neurons located in the sensory organ renewed through adult life, but also its first central relay is reconstructed by continuous neuronal recruitment. Despite these numerous morphological and physiological changes, olfaction is a unique sensory modality endowed with a privileged link to memory. This raises a clear conundrum; how does the olfactory system balance its neuronal turnover with its participation in long-term memory? This review concentrates on the functional aspects of adult neurogenesis, addressing how the integration of late-born neurons participates in olfactory perception and memory. After outlining the properties of adult neurogenesis in the olfactory system, and after describing their regulation by internal and environmental factors, we ask how the process of odorant perception can be influenced by constant neuronal turnover. We then explore the possible functional roles that newborn neurons might have for olfactory memory. Throughout this review, and as we concentrate almost exclusively on mammalian models, we stress the idea that adult neurogenesis is yet another form of plasticity used by the brain to copes with a constantly changing olfactory world. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Olfactory Context-Dependent Memory and the Effects of Affective Congruency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackländer, Ryan P M; Bermeitinger, Christina

    2017-10-31

    Odors have been claimed to be particularly effective mnemonic cues, possibly because of the strong links between olfaction and emotion processing. Indeed, past research has shown that odors can bias processing towards affectively congruent material. In order to determine whether this processing bias translates to memory, we conducted 2 olfactory-enhanced-context memory experiments where we manipulated affective congruency between the olfactory context and to-be-remembered material. Given the presumed importance of valence to olfactory perception, we hypothesized that memory would be best for affectively congruent material in the olfactory enhanced context groups. Across the 2 experiments, groups which encoded and retrieved material in the presence of an odorant exhibited better memory performance than groups that did not have the added olfactory context during encoding and retrieval. While context-enhanced memory was exhibited in the presence of both pleasant and unpleasant odors, there was no indication that memory was dependent on affective congruency between the olfactory context and the to-be-remembered material. While the results provide further support for the notion that odors can act as powerful contextual mnemonic cues, they call into question the notion that affective congruency between context and focal material is important for later memory performance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Hendra and Nipah Virus Infection in Cultured Human Olfactory Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisevich, Viktoriya; Ozdener, Mehmet Hakan; Malik, Bilal; Rockx, Barry

    2017-01-01

    Henipaviruses are emerging zoonotic viruses and causative agents of encephalitis in humans. However, the mechanisms of entry into the central nervous system (CNS) in humans are not known. Here, we evaluated the possible role of olfactory epithelium in virus entry into the CNS. We characterized Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) infection of primary human olfactory epithelial cultures. We show that henipaviruses can infect mature olfactory sensory neurons. Henipaviruses replicated efficiently, resulting in cytopathic effect and limited induction of host responses. These results show that human olfactory epithelium is susceptible to infection with henipaviruses, suggesting that this could be a pathway for neuroinvasion in humans. IMPORTANCE Henipaviruses are emerging zoonotic pathogens that can cause acute and severe respiratory and neurological disease in humans. The pathways by which henipaviruses enter the central nervous system (CNS) in humans are still unknown. The observation that human olfactory neurons are highly susceptible to infection with henipaviruses demonstrates that the olfactory epithelium can serve as a site of Henipavirus entry into the CNS.

  4. Morphogenetic Studies of the Drosophila DA1 Ventral Olfactory Projection Neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hung-Chang; Wei, Jia-Yi; Chu, Sao-Yu; Chung, Pei-Chi; Hsu, Tsai-Chi; Yu, Hung-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    In the Drosophila olfactory system, odorant information is sensed by olfactory sensory neurons and relayed from the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL), to higher olfactory centers via olfactory projection neurons (PNs). A major portion of the AL is constituted with dendrites of four groups of PNs, anterodorsal PNs (adPNs), lateral PNs (lPNs), lateroventral PNs (lvPNs) and ventral PNs (vPNs). Previous studies have been focused on the development and function of adPNs and lPNs, while the investigation on those of lvPNs and vPNs received less attention. Here, we study the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the morphogenesis of a putative male-pheromone responding vPN, the DA1 vPN. Using an intersection strategy to remove background neurons labeled within a DA1 vPN-containing GAL4 line, we depicted morphological changes of the DA1 vPN that occurs at the pupal stage. We then conducted a pilot screen using RNA interference knock-down approach to identify cell surface molecules, including Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1 and Semaphorin-1a, that might play essential roles for the DA1 vPN morphogenesis. Taken together, by revealing molecular and cellular basis of the DA1 vPN morphogenesis, we should provide insights into future comprehension of how vPNs are assembled into the olfactory neural circuitry.

  5. The peripheral olfactory organ in the Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus (Bloch and Schneider, 1801

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ghigliotti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus (Bloch and Schneider, 1801 is the largest predatory fish in Arctic waters. The socio-economic significance of Greenland shark is demonstrated by its impact on the fishing cultures in Greenland, Scandinavia and Iceland for centuries. The fundamental biology and ecological role of Greenland shark, on the other hand, is virtually unknown. Although knowledge of its life history is limited, increasing evidence indicates that the Greenland shark may undertake long-distance migrations and perform vertical movements from the surface to the deep sea. It is an omnivorous species feeding on carrion and a wide variety of pelagic and bottom-dwelling organisms ranging from invertebrates to mammals, and including active species such as fishes and seals. Accordingly, Greenland shark should be recognized as a top predator, with a strong potential to influence the trophic dynamics of the Arctic marine ecosystem. The sensory biology of Greenland shark is scarcely studied, and considering the importance of olfaction in chemoreception, feeding and other behavioral traits, we examined the architecture of the peripheral olfactory organ where olfactory cues are received from the environment – the olfactory rosette. The structural organization of the olfactory rosette, in terms of histological features of the sensory epithelium, number of primary lamellae and total sensory surface area, provides a first proxy of the olfactory capability of Greenland shark. Based on own results and published studies, the overall morphology of the olfactory rosette is viewed in context of the functional and trophic ecology among other elasmobranch species.

  6. Insight of scent: experimental evidence of olfactory capabilities in the wandering albatross (Diomedea exulans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardon, J; Nesterova, A P; Traugott, J; Saunders, S M; Bonadonna, F

    2010-02-15

    Wandering albatrosses routinely forage over thousands of kilometres of open ocean, but the sensory mechanisms used in the food search itself have not been completely elucidated. Recent telemetry studies show that some spatial behaviours of the species are consistent with the 'multimodal foraging strategy' hypothesis which proposes that birds use a combination of olfactory and visual cues while foraging at sea. The 'multimodal foraging strategy' hypothesis, however, still suffers from a lack of experimental evidence, particularly regarding the olfactory capabilities of wandering albatrosses. As an initial step to test the hypothesis, we carried out behavioural experiments exploring the sensory capabilities of adult wandering albatrosses at a breeding colony. Three two-choice tests were designed to investigate the birds' response to olfactory and visual stimuli, individually or in combination. Perception of the different stimuli was assessed by comparing the amount of exploration directed towards an 'experimental' display or a 'control' display. Our results indicate that birds were able to perceive the three types of stimulus presented: olfactory, visual and combined. Moreover, olfactory and visual cues were found to have additional effects on the exploratory behaviours of males. This simple experimental demonstration of reasonable olfactory capabilities in the wandering albatross supports the 'multimodal foraging strategy' and is consistent with recent hypotheses of the evolutionary history of procellariiforms.

  7. [Olfactory functional magnetic resonance imaging with modified OEP-98C olfactometer and event-related design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Hui; Wang, Jian; Liu, Jian-Feng; Feng, Feng; Ni, Dao-Feng; Jin, Zheng-Yu

    2009-04-01

    To explore the feasibility of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in analysis of olfaction function with modified OEP-98C olfactometer and event-related design. Six young right-handed men underwent olfactory fMRI with event-related design. OEP-98C olfactometer was modified to accommodate MR environment. There were 2 types of tasks in the experiment. In one task, only isoamyl acetate was used as odorant. In the other task, to avoid possible decreased olfactory attention, vanillin was given before each presentation of isoamyl acetate. In both tasks, uniform activation in piriform cortex and secondary olfactory cortexes was determined. The activation of piriform cortex was not significantly different between the two tasks (P > 0.01). With isoamyl acetate as odorant, modified OEP-98C olfactometer, and event-related design, olfaction fMRI can depict cortex activation at primary and secondary olfactory cortex. Applying other odorant with similar quality to avoid olfactory attention decrease can not promote depiction of activation in primary olfactory cortex.

  8. Contribution of pheromones processed by the main olfactory system to mate recognition in female mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheal J. Baum

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Until recently it was widely believed that the ability of female mammals (with the likely exception of women to identify and seek out a male breeding partner relied on the detection of non-volatile male pheromones by the female’s vomeronasal organ and their subsequent processing by a neural circuit that includes the accessory olfactory bulb, vomeronasal amygdala, and hypothalamus. Emperical data are reviewed in this paper that demonstrate the detection of volatile pheromones by the main olfactory epithelium of female mice which, in turn, leads to the activation of a population of glomeruli and abutting mitral cells in the main olfactory bulb (MOB. Anatomical results along with functional neuroanatomical data demonstrate that some of these MOB mitral cells project to the vomeronasal amygdala. These particular MOB mitral cells were selectively activated (i.e., expressed Fos protein by exposure to male as opposed to female urinary volatiles. A similar selectivity to opposite sex urinary volatiles was also seen in mitral cells of the accessory olfactory bulb of female mice. Behavioral data from female mouse, ferret, and human are reviewed that implicate the main olfactory system, in some cases interacting with the accessory olfactory system, in mate recognition.

  9. Olfactory nerve--a novel invasion route of Neisseria meningitidis to reach the meninges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Sjölinder

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is a human-specific pathogen with capacity to cause septic shock and meningitis. It has been hypothesized that invasion of the central nervous system (CNS is a complication of a bacteremic condition. In this study, we aimed to characterize the invasion route of N. meningitidis to the CNS. Using an intranasally challenged mouse disease model, we found that twenty percent of the mice developed lethal meningitis even though no bacteria could be detected in blood. Upon bacterial infection, epithelial lesions and redistribution of intracellular junction protein N-cadherin were observed at the nasal epithelial mucosa, especially at the olfactory epithelium, which is functionally and anatomically connected to the CNS. Bacteria were detected in the submucosa of the olfactory epithelium, along olfactory nerves in the cribriform plate, at the olfactory bulb and subsequently at the meninges and subarachnoid space. Furthermore, our data suggest that a threshold level of bacteremia is required for the development of meningococcal sepsis. Taken together, N. meningitidis is able to pass directly from nasopharynx to meninges through the olfactory nerve system. This study enhances our understanding how N. meningitidis invades the meninges. The nasal olfactory nerve system may be a novel target for disease prevention that can improve outcome and survival.

  10. Assessment of olfactory detection thresholds in children with autism spectrum disorders using a pulse ejection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazaki, Hirokazu; Muramatsu, Taro; Fujisawa, Takashi X; Miyao, Masutomo; Matsuura, Eri; Okada, Ken-Ichi; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Tomoda, Akemi; Mimura, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Atypical responsiveness to olfactory stimuli has been reported as the strongest predictor of social impairment in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, previous laboratory-based sensory psychophysical studies that have aimed to investigate olfactory sensitivity in children with ASD have produced inconsistent results. The methodology of these studies is limited by several factors, and more sophisticated approaches are required to produce consistent results. We measured olfactory detection thresholds in children with ASD and typical development (TD) using a pulse ejection system-a newly developed methodology designed to resolve problems encountered in previous studies. The two odorants used as stimuli were isoamyl acetate and allyl caproate. Forty-three participants took part in this study: 23 (6 females, 17 males) children with ASD and 20 with TD (6 females, 14 males). Olfactory detection thresholds of children with ASD were significantly higher than those of TD children with both isoamyl acetate (2.85 ± 0.28 vs 1.57 ± 0.15; p children with ASD. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the olfactory abnormalities that children with ASD experience. Considering the role and effect that odors play in our daily lives, insensitivity to some odorants might have a tremendous impact on children with ASD. Future studies of olfactory processing in ASD may reveal important links between brain function, clinically relevant behavior, and treatment.

  11. Olfactory Dysfunction in Older Adults is Associated with Feelings of Depression and Loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivam, Anita; Wroblewski, Kristen E; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Barnes, Lisa L; Wilson, Robert S; Bennett, David A; Pinto, Jayant M

    2016-05-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is a common complaint among physician visits. Olfactory loss affects quality of life and impairs function and activities of daily living. The purpose of our study was to assess the degree of odor identification associated with mental health. Olfactory function was measured using the brief smell identification test. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Loneliness was assessed by the de Jong-Gierveld Loneliness Scale. Cognition was measured by a battery of 19 cognitive tests. The frequency of olfactory dysfunction in our study was ~40%. Older subjects had worse olfactory performance, as previously found. More loneliness was associated with worse odor identification. Similarly, symptoms of depression were associated with worse olfaction (among men). Although better global cognitive function was strongly associated with better odor identification, after controlling for multiple factors, the associations with depression and loneliness were unchanged. Clinicians should assess these mental health conditions when treating older patients who present with olfactory deficits. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Olfactory neurons expressing transient receptor potential channel M5 (TRPM5) are involved in sensing semiochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Weihong; Margolskee, Robert; Donnert, Gerald; Hell, Stefan W; Restrepo, Diego

    2007-02-13

    Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the main olfactory epithelium respond to environmental odorants. Recent studies reveal that these OSNs also respond to semiochemicals such as pheromones and that main olfactory input modulates animal reproduction, but the transduction mechanism for these chemosignals is not fully understood. Previously, we determined that responses to putative pheromones in the main olfactory system were reduced but not eliminated in mice defective for the canonical cAMP transduction pathway, and we suggested, on the basis of pharmacology, an involvement of phospholipase C. In the present study, we find that a downstream signaling component of the phospholipase C pathway, the transient receptor potential channel M5 (TRPM5), is coexpressed with the cyclic nucleotide-gated channel subunit A2 in a subset of mature OSNs. These neurons project axons primarily to the ventral olfactory bulb, where information from urine and other socially relevant signals is processed. We find that these chemosignals activate a subset of glomeruli targeted by TRPM5-expressing OSNs. Our data indicate that TRPM5-expressing OSNs that project axons to glomeruli in the ventral area of the main olfactory bulb are involved in processing of information from semiochemicals.

  13. Effects of urea on the olfactory reception in zebrafish (Danio rerio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Gallus

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of uremia on human olfactory functions have been clinically evaluated in various studies, even if to date it is not completely clarified which uremic toxins mediate these processes. Surprisingly, the role of the main molecule involved in uremia, urea indeed, has not been adequately investigated as other possible molecules may also be involved in uremic anosmia. The effects of urea on the olfaction have been evaluated in some clinical studies, but this is the first attempt to determine a direct action of urea on the olfactory epithelium of a vertebrate. Danio rerio adults were exposed to urea in different experiments to assess the effects on olfactory sensitivity and signal transduction. The analysis of the swimming speed has been used to evaluate the response to hypoxanthine 3-N-oxide (H3NO, a molecule that is known to elicit an olfactory-mediated alarm reaction in D. rerio. The presence and distribution of the G protein alpha subunit coupled to the olfactory receptors (Gαolf has been immunohistochemically investigated in the olfactory epithelium of control and urea-exposed D. rerio. Our findings showed that urea alters the response to H3NO of D. rerio with a quite rapid and reversible effect that appears to be independent from a mere interference of urea on the receptor-ligand binding. The Gαolf protein resulted increases after urea treatment, suggesting an effect of urea on its expression or degradation.

  14. Kinetic models for the release of the anticancer drug doxorubicin from biodegradable polylactide/metal oxide-based hybrids

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlanga, N

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For decades, studies on drug-release kinetics have been an important topic in the field of drug delivery because they provide important insights into the mechanism of drug release from carriers. In this work, polylactide (PLA), doxorubicin (DOX...

  15. Obtaining and Application of New Cellulose- and Graphene Oxide-Based Adsorbents for Treatment of Industrial Waste Containing Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Fryczkowska

    2017-11-01

    The studies show that doping of cellulose with graphene oxide clearly affects the physical properties of this biopolymer. GO improves the water absorption of CEL/GO composite cellulose granules only in the concentration above 0.05% w/w. For a concentration of 0.1% w/w of GO in cellulose, water absorption is increased by ~108% compared to pure cellulose granules. In addition, the use of dry and wet granules in the study changes their sorption properties with respect to all tested substances. Studies on test solutions have shown that the sorption of cellulose granules decreases with increasing molar mass of test compounds, in the following order: FeCl3, methylene blue (MB and bovine albumin (BSA. This means that the cellulose granules obtained in the experiment are made up of small micropores, which makes the diffusion of compounds of high molecular weight difficult. The best sorption results were obtained for ferric ions and amounted to 66-72% for FeCl3 solution, and ~92% for the wastewater that was sorbed on pure cellulose granules.

  16. Obtaining and Application of New Cellulose- and Graphene Oxide-Based Adsorbents for Treatment of Industrial Waste Containing Heavy Metals

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Fryczkowska; Mirosław Wyszomirski; Monika Puzoń

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the results of studies on the preparation and properties of composite granules produced by phase inversion from cellulose (CEL) solutions in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazole acetate (EMIMAc), containing nano-addition in the form of graphene oxide (GO) in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). Water absorption and sorption of such compounds as FeCl3, methylene blue (MB) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied. In addition, attempts were made to investigate the sorption properties of the ...

  17. Mainstream cigarette smoke exposure alters cytochrome P4502G1 expression in F344 rat olfactory mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotchkiss, J.A.; Nikula, K.J.; Lewis, J.L.; Finch, G.L.; Belinsky, S.A.; Dahl, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    Inhalation of mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) by rats results in multifocal rhinitis, mucous hypersecretion, nasal epithelial hyperplasia and metaplasia, and focal olfactory mucosal atrophy. In humans, cigarette smoking causes long-term, dose-related alterations in olfactory function in both current and former smokers. An olfactory-specific cytochrome P450 has been identified in rabbits and rats. The presence of olfactory-specific P450s, as well as relatively high levels of other biotransformation enzymes, such as NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase, in the olfactory neuroepithelium suggest that these enzyme systems may play a role in olfaction. This hypothesis is strengthened by the observation that, in rats, the temporal gene activation of P4502G1 coincides with the postnatal increase in the sensitivity of olfactory response to odorants. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of MCS exposure on P4502G1 protein expression

  18. Lectin cytochemical localisation of glycoconjugates in the olfactory system of the lizards Lacerta viridis and Podarcis sicula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, V; Lazzari, M; Ciani, F

    2000-07-01

    To investigate the presence of defined carbohydrate moieties on the cell surface of the olfactory and vomeronasal receptor cells and the projections of the latter into the olfactory bulbs, a lectin binding study was performed on the olfactory system of the lizards: Lacerta viridis and Podarcis sicula. Both lizards showed a high lectin binding for N-acetyl-glucosamine in the sensory neurons. The lectin binding patterns in Lacerta indicated that the main olfactory system possessed a moderate density of N-acetyl-galactosamine residues and detectable levels of galactose ones. The vomeronasal system on the other hand contained a high density of N-acetyl-galactosamine moieties and a moderate density of glucosamine ones. In Podarcis the main olfactory system and vomeronasal organ contained respectively detectable and moderate levels of galactose residues. The expression of specific glycoconjugates may be associated with outgrowth, guidance and fasciculation of olfactory and vomeronasal axons.

  19. Tumor necrosis factor-α antagonist suppresses local inflammatory reaction and facilitates olfactory nerve recovery following injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Salihi, Mohammed Omar; Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Tamari, Kengo; Miyamura, Tomotaka; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko

    2017-02-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is a common finding in head trauma due to injury to the olfactory nerve. We previously reported that anti-inflammatory treatment with steroids improves recovery outcome in olfactory nerve injury models. Clinically, however, steroid administration is not recommended in the acute phase of head injury cases because of concerns regarding its side effects. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) is known to play a key role in inflammatory response to injury. The present study examines if the inhibition of TNF-α can facilitate functional recovery in the olfactory system following injury. Olfactory nerve transection (NTx) was performed in olfactory marker protein (OMP-tau-lacZ) mice to establish injury models. We measured TNF-α gene expression in the olfactory bulb using semi-quantitative and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and found that they increase within hours after NTx injury. A TNF-α antagonist (etanercept) was intraperitoneally injected immediately after the NTx and histological assessment of recovery within the olfactory bulb was performed at 5-70 days. X-gal staining labeled OMP in the degenerating and regenerating olfactory nerve fibers, and immunohistochemical staining detected the presence of reactive astrocytes and macrophages/microglia. Etanercept-injected mice showed significantly smaller areas of injury-associated tissue, fewer astrocytes and macrophages/microglia, and an increase in regenerating nerve fibers. Olfactory function assessments using both an olfactory avoidance behavioral test and evoked potential recordings showed improved functional recovery in etanercept-injected animals. These findings suggest that inhibition of TNF-α could provide a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of olfactory dysfunction following head injuries. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Olfactory Dysfunction Is Associated with the Intake of Macronutrients in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Il Gyu; Kim, So Young; Kim, Min-Su; Park, Bumjung; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory function can impact food selection. However, few large population-based studies have investigated this effect across different age groups. The objective of this study was to assess the association between subjective olfactory dysfunction (anosmia or hyposmia) and macronutrient intake. A total of 24,990 participants aged 20 to 98 years were evaluated based on data collected through the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 through 2012. Olfactory dysfunction was surveyed using a self-reported questionnaire, and the nutritional status was assessed through a validated 24-hour recall method. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses with complex sampling were performed to evaluate the relationships between olfactory dysfunction and protein intake (daily protein intake/recommended protein intake [%]), carbohydrate intake (daily carbohydrate intake/total calories [%]), and fat intake (daily fat intake/total calories [%]) after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, income, smoking history, alcohol consumption, and stress level. Olfactory dysfunction was reported by 5.4% of Korean adults and was found to be associated with decreased fat consumption (estimated value [EV] of fat intake [%] = -0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.13 to -0.13, P = 0.045). A subgroup analysis according to age and sex revealed that among young females, olfactory dysfunction was associated with reduced fat consumption (EV = -2.30, 95% CI = -4.16 to -0.43, P = 0.016) and increased carbohydrate intake (EV = 2.80, 95% CI = 0.55 to 5.05, P = 0.015), and that among middle-aged females, olfactory dysfunction was also associated with reduced fat intake (EV = -1.26, 95% CI = -2.37 to -0.16, P = 0.025). In contrast, among young males, olfactory dysfunction was associated with reduced protein intake (EV = -26.41 95% CI = -45.14 to -7.69, P = 0.006). Olfactory dysfunction was associated with reduced fat intake. Moreover, olfactory dysfunction exerted

  1. Olfactory memory in the old and very old: relations to episodic and semantic memory and APOE genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Maria; Hedner, Margareta; Papenberg, Goran; Seubert, Janina; Bäckman, Lars; Laukka, Erika J

    2016-02-01

    The neuroanatomical organization that underlies olfactory memory is different from that of other memory types. The present work examines olfactory memory in an elderly population-based sample (Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen) aged 60-100 years (n = 2280). We used structural equation modeling to investigate whether olfactory memory in old age is best conceptualized as a distinct category, differentiated from episodic and semantic memory. Further, potential olfactory dedifferentiation and genetic associations (APOE) to olfactory function in late senescence were investigated. Results are in support of a 3-factor solution where olfactory memory, as indexed by episodic odor recognition and odor identification, is modeled separately from episodic and semantic memory for visual and verbal information. Increasing age was associated with poorer olfactory memory performance, and observed age-related deficits were further exacerbated for carriers of the APOE ε4 allele; these effects tended to be larger for olfactory memory compared to episodic and semantic memory pertaining to other sensory systems (vision, auditory). Finally, stronger correlations between olfactory and episodic memory, indicating dedifferentiation, were observed in the older age groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Intranasal insulin influences the olfactory performance of patients with smell loss, dependent on the body mass index: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöpf, V; Kollndorfer, K; Pollak, M; Mueller, C A; Freiherr, J

    2015-12-01

    The application of intranasal insulin in healthy humans has been linked to improved memory function, reduced food intake, and increased olfactory thresholds. There has also been some correlation between the morbidities associated with central nervous system (CNS) insulin resistance, such as type II diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease, obesity, and impaired odour recognition. Given that impaired odour recognition is an important component of olfactory performance, mechanisms that govern these effects may account for impaired olfactory functions in anosmic patients. Ten patients with post-infectious olfactory loss received intranasal administration of 40 IU insulin or a placebo solution, as well as olfactory performance tests before and after administration. When administered insulin, patients exhibited an immediate performance improvement with regard to olfactory sensitivity and olfactory intensity ratings. In addition, more odours were correctly identified. Furthermore, an improvement in the odour identification task was detected in patients with higher body mass index. Results of this pilot study shed light on the link between cerebral insulin level and an impaired sense of smell. This research line might provide a better understanding of olfactory loss in relation to eating and dietary behavior, and could offer opportunities to develop faster therapeutic intervention for patients with olfactory dysfunction.

  3. Electrocatalysis of oxygen electrode reactions by some perovskite oxides based on lanthanum manganate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, I.A.; Rao, K.V.; Venkatesan, V.K.

    1984-01-01

    In recent years, several electrocatalyst materials based on platinum, silver, tungsten bronzes, spinels, metal chelates, etc., have been studied for use as oxygen diffusion electrodes in alkaline fuel cells, secondary metal-air batteries, and water electrolyzers. However, virtually all catalysts of commercial importance are semiconducting transition metal oxides. The various oxide catalysts that have been studied can be grouped under mixed oxides, spinels, and perovskites

  4. Zinc-oxide-based sorbents and processes for preparing and using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwal, Santosh Kumar; Turk, Brian Scott; Gupta, Raghubir Prasael

    2010-03-23

    Zinc oxide-based sorbents, and processes for preparing and using them are provided. The sorbents are preferably used to remove one or more reduced sulfur species from gas streams. The sorbents comprise an active zinc component, optionally in combination with one or more promoter components and/or one or more substantially inert components. The active zinc component is a two phase material, consisting essentially of a zinc oxide (ZnO) phase and a zinc aluminate (ZnAl.sub.2O.sub.4) phase. Each of the two phases is characterized by a relatively small crystallite size of typically less than about 500 Angstroms. Preferably the sorbents are prepared by converting a precursor mixture, comprising a precipitated zinc oxide precursor and a precipitated aluminum oxide precursor, to the two-phase, active zinc oxide containing component.

  5. Compact Modeling Solutions for Oxide-Based Resistive Switching Memories (OxRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Bocquet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging non-volatile memories based on resistive switching mechanisms attract intense R&D efforts from both academia and industry. Oxide-based Resistive Random Acces Memories (OxRAM gather noteworthy performances, such as fast write/read speed, low power and high endurance outperforming therefore conventional Flash memories. To fully explore new design concepts such as distributed memory in logic, OxRAM compact models have to be developed and implemented into electrical simulators to assess performances at a circuit level. In this paper, we present compact models of the bipolar OxRAM memory based on physical phenomenons. This model was implemented in electrical simulators for single device up to circuit level.

  6. Switching Kinetics in Nanoscale Hafnium Oxide Based Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulaosmanovic, Halid; Ocker, Johannes; Müller, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Müller, Johannes; Polakowski, Patrick; Flachowsky, Stefan; van Bentum, Ralf; Mikolajick, Thomas; Slesazeck, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    The recent discovery of ferroelectricity in thin hafnium oxide films has led to a resurgence of interest in ferroelectric memory devices. Although both experimental and theoretical studies on this new ferroelectric system have been undertaken, much remains to be unveiled regarding its domain landscape and switching kinetics. Here we demonstrate that the switching of single domains can be directly observed in ultrascaled ferroelectric field effect transistors. Using models of ferroelectric domain nucleation we explain the time, field and temperature dependence of polarization reversal. A simple stochastic model is proposed as well, relating nucleation processes to the observed statistical switching behavior. Our results suggest novel opportunities for hafnium oxide based ferroelectrics in nonvolatile memory devices.

  7. Enhanced and selective ammonia sensing of reduced graphene oxide based chemo resistive sensor at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ramesh, E-mail: rameshphysicsdu@gmail.com; Kaur, Amarjeet, E-mail: amarkaur@physics.du.ac.in [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India)

    2016-05-06

    The reduced graphene oxide thin films were fabricated by using the spin coating method. The reduced graphene oxide samples were characterised by Raman studies to obtain corresponding D and G bands at 1360 and 1590 cm{sup −1} respectively. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectra consists of peak corresponds to sp{sup 2} hybridisation of carbon atoms at 1560 cm{sup −1}. The reduced graphene oxide based chemoresistive sensor exhibited a p-type semiconductor behaviour in ambient conditions and showed good sensitivity to different concentration of ammonia from 25 ppm to 500 ppm and excellent selectivity at room temperature. The sensor displays selectivity to several hazardous vapours such as methanol, ethanol, acetone and hydrazine hydrate. The sensor demonstrated a sensitivity of 9.8 at 25 ppm concentration of ammonia with response time of 163 seconds.

  8. Charge transport and glassy dynamics in poly(ethylene oxide) based phosphonium ionomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, Ciprian; Yu, Hsin-Jung; Lumsargis, Victoria; Wang, Jing-Han Helen; Chen, Quan; Colby, Ralph; Runt, James

    We use broadband dielectric spectroscopy to investigate ionic conduction and dielectric response, and X-ray scattering to investigate morphology of poly(ethylene oxide) based phosphonium ionomers with varying ion content. Two models of electrode polarization are used to separate ionic conductivity of the ionomers into number density of conducting ions and their mobility and calculate the dc conductivity from components of electrode polarization. Ion mobility is coupled to polymer segmental motion (α-relaxation), as these are observed to share similar Vogel temperatures. Ionomers with higher ion content impart higher static dielectric constant than those with lower ion content. From temperature activated plots of static dielectric constant, there is more ionic aggregation in ionomers with higher ion content (affecting dc conductivity), consistent with X-ray scattering, which shows much stronger ionic aggregate peaks for the ionomers with higher ion content. Supported by the NSF Polymers Program.

  9. No Sensory Compensation for Olfactory Memory: Differences between Blind and Sighted People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Karwowski, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Blindness can be a driving force behind a variety of changes in sensory systems. When vision is missing, other modalities and higher cognitive functions can become hyper-developed through a mechanism called sensory compensation. Overall, previous studies suggest that olfactory memory in blind people can be better than that of the sighted individuals. Better performance of blind individuals in other-sensory modalities was hypothesized to be a result of, among others, intense perceptual training. At the same time, if the superiority of blind people in olfactory abilities indeed results from training, their scores should not decrease with age to such an extent as among the sighted people. Here, this hypothesis was tested in a large sample of 94 blind individuals. Olfactory memory was assessed using the Test for Olfactory Memory, comprising episodic odor recognition (discriminating previously presented odors from new odors) and two forms of semantic memory (cued and free identification of odors). Regarding episodic olfactory memory, we observed an age-related decline in correct hits in blind participants, but an age-related increase in false alarms in sighted participants. Further, age moderated the between-group differences for correct hits, but the direction of the observed effect was contrary to our expectations. The difference between blind and sighted individuals younger than 40 years old was non-significant, but older sighted individuals outperformed their blind counterparts. In conclusion, we found no positive effect of visual impairment on olfactory memory. We suggest that daily perceptual training is not enough to increase olfactory memory function in blind people.

  10. No Sensory Compensation for Olfactory Memory: Differences between Blind and Sighted People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Sorokowska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Blindness can be a driving force behind a variety of changes in sensory systems. When vision is missing, other modalities and higher cognitive functions can become hyper-developed through a mechanism called sensory compensation. Overall, previous studies suggest that olfactory memory in blind people can be better than that of the sighted individuals. Better performance of blind individuals in other-sensory modalities was hypothesized to be a result of, among others, intense perceptual training. At the same time, if the superiority of blind people in olfactory abilities indeed results from training, their scores should not decrease with age to such an extent as among the sighted people. Here, this hypothesis was tested in a large sample of 94 blind individuals. Olfactory memory was assessed using the Test for Olfactory Memory, comprising episodic odor recognition (discriminating previously presented odors from new odors and two forms of semantic memory (cued and free identification of odors. Regarding episodic olfactory memory, we observed an age-related decline in correct hits in blind participants, but an age-related increase in false alarms in sighted participants. Further, age moderated the between-group differences for correct hits, but the direction of the observed effect was contrary to our expectations. The difference between blind and sighted individuals younger than 40 years old was non-significant, but older sighted individuals outperformed their blind counterparts. In conclusion, we found no positive effect of visual impairment on olfactory memory. We suggest that daily perceptual training is not enough to increase olfactory memory function in blind people.

  11. Olfactory impairment is correlated with confabulation in alcoholism: towards a multimodal testing of orbitofrontal cortex.

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    Pierre Maurage

    Full Text Available Olfactory abilities are now a flourishing field in psychiatry research. As the orbitofrontal cortex appears to be simultaneously implicated in odour processing and executive impairments, it has been proposed that olfaction could constitute a cognitive marker of psychiatric states. While this assumption appears promising, very few studies have been conducted on this topic among psychopathological populations. The present study thus aimed at exploring the links between olfaction and executive functions. These links were evaluated using two tasks of comparable difficulty, one known to rely on orbitofrontal cortex processing (i.e., a confabulation task, and one not associated with this area (i.e., Stop-Signal task.Twenty recently detoxified alcoholic individuals and twenty paired controls took part in an experiment evaluating olfactory abilities and executive functioning (i.e., Stop-Signal task and confabulation task. Comorbidities and potential biasing variables were also controlled for. Alcoholic individuals exhibited impaired performance for high-level olfactory processing and significant confabulation problems as compared to controls (but no deficit in Stop-Signal task, even when the influence of comorbidities was taken into account. Most importantly, olfactory abilities and confabulation rates were significantly correlated in both groups.Alcoholism jointly leads to olfactory and memory source impairments, and these two categories of deficits are associated. These results strongly support the proposition that olfactory and confabulation measures both index orbitofrontal functioning, and suggest that olfaction could become a reliable cognitive marker in psychiatric disorders. Moreover, it underlines the need to take into account these olfactory and source memory impairments in a clinical context.

  12. Olfactory ensheathing cells of hamsters, rabbits, monkeys, and mice express α-smooth muscle actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawji, Khalil S; Zhang, Shannon X; Tsai, Ying-Yu; Smithson, Laura J; Kawaja, Michael D

    2013-07-12

    Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are the chief glial population of the mammalian olfactory nervous system, residing in the olfactory mucosa and at the surface of the olfactory bulb. We investigated the neurochemical features of OECs in a variety of mammalian species (including adult hamsters, rabbits, monkeys, and mice, as well as fetal pigs) using three biomarkers: α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), S100β, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Mucosal and bulbar OECs from all five mammalian species express S100β. Both mucosal and bulbar OECs of monkeys express αSMA, yet only bulbar OECs of hamsters and only mucosal OECs of rabbits express αSMA as well. Mucosal OECs, but not bulbar OECs, also express GFAP in hamsters and monkeys; mice, by comparison, have only a sparse population of OECs expressing GFAP. Though αSMA immunostaining is not detected in OECs of adult mice, GFAP-expressing mucosal OECs isolated from adult mice do coexpress αSMA in vitro. Moreover, mucosal OECs from adult mutant mice lacking αSMA expression display perturbed cellular morphology (i.e., fewer cytoplasmic processes extending among the hundreds of olfactory axons in the olfactory nerve fascicles and nuclei having degenerative features). In sum, these findings highlight the efficacy of αSMA and S100β as biomarkers of OECs from a variety of mammalian species. These observations provide definitive evidence that mammalian OECs express the structural protein αSMA (at various levels of detection), which appears to play a pivotal role in their ensheathment of olfactory axons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Degeneration and recovery of rat olfactory epithelium following inhalation of dibasic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, C M; Kelly, D P; Bogdanffy, M S

    1990-08-01

    Dibasic esters (DBE) are solvent mixtures used in the paint and coating industry. To evaluate the potential subchronic toxicity of DBE, groups of male and female rats were exposed for periods of up to 13 weeks to DBE concentrations of 0, 20, 76, or 390 mg/m3. After approximately 7 and 13 weeks of exposure, 10 rats per sex per group were subjected to clinical chemical, hematological, and urine analyses. Following 7 or 13 weeks of exposure, 10 or 20 rats per sex per group, respectively, were euthanized. An additional 10 rats were euthanized following a 6-week recovery period. A standard profile of tissues, including four levels of nasal cavity, was evaluated histopathologically. After 7 weeks of exposure, slight degeneration of the olfactory epithelium was observed in both male and female rats at 76 and 390 mg/m3. After 13 weeks, degeneration of the olfactory epithelium was present at all DBE concentrations in female rats, but only at the mid and high concentrations in male rats. The severity and incidence of the lesions were concentration related for both sexes with female rats being more sensitive than males. Following the recovery period, histological changes compatible with repair in the olfactory mucosa included an absence of degeneration, focal disorganization of the olfactory epithelium, and respiratory metaplasia. All other tissues were macroscopically normal. No other signs of toxicity were indicated by the other parameters evaluated. Inhalation studies of other esters demonstrate similar pathology in the olfactory epithelium. Since olfactory mucosa is rich in carboxylesterase activity, acids may be the toxic metabolites of these compounds. This hypothetical mechanism may explain the sensitivity of olfactory tissue to the effects of DBE.

  14. Olfactory toxicity in rats following manganese chloride nasal instillation: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Melanie L; Rao, Deepa B; Francher, Taylor; Traver, Samantha; Dorman, David C

    2018-01-01

    Following inhalation, manganese travels along the olfactory nerve from the olfactory epithelium (OE) to the olfactory bulb (OB). Occupational exposure to inhaled manganese is associated with changes in olfactory function. This pilot study evaluated two related hypotheses: (a) intranasal manganese administration increases OE and OB manganese concentrations; and (b) intranasal manganese exposure impairs performance of previously trained rats on a go-no-go olfactory discrimination (OD) task. Male Fischer 344 rats were trained to either lever press ("go") in response to a positive conditioned stimulus (CS+: vanillin) or to do nothing ("no go") when a negative conditioned stimulus (CS-: amyl acetate) was present. Following odor training, rats were randomly assigned to either a manganese (200mM MnCl 2 ) or 0.9% saline treatment group (n=4-5 rats/group). Administration of either saline or manganese was performed on isoflurane-anesthetized rats as 40μL bilateral intranasal instillations. Rats were retested 48h later using the vanillin/amyl acetate OD task, then euthanized, followed by collection of the OE and OB. Manganese concentrations in tissue samples were analyzed by ICP-MS. An additional cohort of rats (n=3-4/group) was instilled similarly with saline or manganese and nasal and OB pathology assessed 48h later. Manganese-exposed rats had increased manganese levels in both the OE and OB and decreased performance in the OD task when compared with control animals. Histopathological evaluation of the caudal nasal cavity showed moderate, acute to subacute suppurative inflammation of the olfactory epithelium and submucosa of the ethmoid turbinates and mild suppurative exudate in the nasal sinuses in animals given manganese. No histologic changes were evident in the OB. The nasal instillation and OD procedures developed in this study are useful methods to assess manganese - induced olfactory deficits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Volumetric Computed Tomography Analysis of the Olfactory Cleft in Patients with Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Zachary M.; Pallanch, John F.; Sansoni, Eugene Ritter; Jones, Cameron S.; Lawrence, Lauren A.; Schlosser, Rodney J.; Mace, Jess C.; Smith, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Commonly used computed tomography (CT) staging systems for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) focus on the sinuses and do not quantify disease in the olfactory cleft. The goal of the current study was to determine whether precise measurements of olfactory cleft opacification better correlate with olfaction in patients with CRS. Methods Olfaction was assessed using the 40-item Smell Identification Test (SIT-40) before and after sinus surgery in adult patients. Olfactory cleft opacification was quantified precisely using three-dimensional, computerized volumetric analysis, as well as via a semi-quantitative Likert scale estimations at predetermined anatomic sites. Sinus opacification was also quantified using the Lund-Mackay staging system. Results The overall cohort (n=199) included 89 (44.7%) patients with CRS with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) and 110 (55.3%) with CRS without nasal polyposis (CRSsNP). The olfactory cleft opacified volume correlated with objective olfaction as determined by the SIT-40 (Rs= −0.461; p<0.001). The correlation was significantly stronger in the CRSwNP subgroup (Rs= −0.573; p<0.001), whereas no appreciable correlation was found in the CRSsNP group (Rs= −0.141; p=0.141). Correlations between sinus-specific Lund-Mackay CT scoring and SIT-40 scores were weaker in the CRSwNP (Rs= −0.377; p<0.001) subgroup but stronger in the CRSsNP (Rs= −0.225; p=0.018) group when compared to olfactory cleft correlations. Greater intra-class correlations (ICC) were found between quantitative volumetric measures of olfactory cleft opacification (ICC=0.844; p<0.001) as compared with semi-quantitative Likert grading (ICC=0.627; p<0.001). Conclusions Quantitative measures of olfactory cleft opacification correlate with objective olfaction, with the strongest correlations seen in patients with nasal polyps. PMID:26010298

  16. The temporal expression pattern of alpha-synuclein modulates olfactory neurogenesis in transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian R Schreglmann

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis mirrors the brain´s endogenous capacity to generate new neurons throughout life. In the subventricular zone/ olfactory bulb system adult neurogenesis is linked to physiological olfactory function and has been shown to be impaired in murine models of neuronal alpha-Synuclein overexpression. We analyzed the degree and temporo-spatial dynamics of adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis in transgenic mice expressing human wild-type alpha-Synuclein (WTS under the murine Thy1 (mThy1 promoter, a model known to have a particularly high tg expression associated with impaired olfaction.Survival of newly generated neurons (NeuN-positive in the olfactory bulb was unchanged in mThy1 transgenic animals. Due to decreased dopaminergic differentiation a reduction in new dopaminergic neurons within the olfactory bulb glomerular layer was present. This is in contrast to our previously published data on transgenic animals that express WTS under the control of the human platelet-derived growth factor β (PDGF promoter, that display a widespread decrease in survival of newly generated neurons in regions of adult neurogenesis, resulting in a much more pronounced neurogenesis deficit. Temporal and quantitative expression analysis using immunofluorescence co-localization analysis and Western blots revealed that in comparison to PDGF transgenic animals, in mThy1 transgenic animals WTS is expressed from later stages of neuronal maturation only but at significantly higher levels both in the olfactory bulb and cortex.The dissociation between higher absolute expression levels of alpha-Synuclein but less severe impact on adult olfactory neurogenesis in mThy1 transgenic mice highlights the importance of temporal expression characteristics of alpha-Synuclein on the maturation of newborn neurons.

  17. The influence of early life interventions on olfactory memory related to palatable food, and on oxidative stress parameters and Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb of female adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noschang, Cristie; Krolow, Rachel; Arcego, Danusa M; Laureano, Daniela; Fitarelli, Luiza D; Huffell, Ana Paula; Ferreira, Andréa G K; da Cunha, Aline A; Machado, Fernanda Rossato; Wyse, Angela T S; Dalmaz, Carla

    2012-08-01

    The effects of neonatal handling and the absence of ovarian hormones on the olfactory memory related to a palatable food in adulthood were investigated. Oxidative stress parameters and Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb of adult pre-puberty ovariectomized female rats handled or not in the neonatal period were also evaluated. Litters were non-handled or handled (10 min/day, days 1-10 after birth). Females from each litter were divided into: OVX (subjected to ovariectomy), sham, and intact. When adults, olfactory memory related to a palatable food (chocolate) was evaluate using the hole-board olfactory task. Additionally, oxidative stress parameters and Na+/K+-ATPase activity were measured in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. No difference between groups was observed considering olfactory memory evaluation. Neonatal handled rats presented an increase in Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the hippocampus and in the olfactory bulb, compared to non-handled ones. Considering the surgical procedure, there was a decrease in Na+/K+-ATPase and catalase activities in sham and OVX groups, compared to intact animals in the olfactory bulb. We concluded that olfactory memory related to a palatable food in adulthood was not affected by neonatal handling or by pre-puberty surgery, with or without removal of ovaries. The difference observed between groups in catalase and Na+/K+-ATPase activity does not seem to be related to the olfactory memory. Additionally, the increase in Na+/K+-ATPase activity (an enzyme that maintains the neurochemical gradient necessary for neuronal excitability) induced by neonatal handling may be related to neuroplastic changes in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb.

  18. Scents and sense: in silico perspectives on olfactory receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don, Charleen G; Riniker, Sereina

    2014-12-15

    Olfactory receptors (ORs) represent the largest subfamily of the superfamily G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This family of membrane receptors functions as essential gateway for activation of many cellular signaling pathways. Finding universal principles underlying GPCR activation by studying ORs is important for the design of new therapeutics that target olfaction-related and other GPCR-malfunctioning diseases. In addition, gaining knowledge regarding the interactions between ORs and their cognate ligands (odorants) may contribute to solve the puzzle of how odor perception is encoded in humans. As no crystal structure of an OR is available yet, homology modeling can be applied to generate a three-dimensional OR model. Molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations and qualitative structure-activity-relationship can further guide experimental research by investigating interactions at the atomic level. This article will review these computational techniques as well as present databases and popular software suites, which can support researchers in the OR research field. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A computational model of conditioning inspired by Drosophila olfactory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Faramarz; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Heinrich, Ralf; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that Drosophila melanogaster (briefly Drosophila) can successfully perform higher cognitive processes including second order olfactory conditioning. Understanding the neural mechanism of this behavior can help neuroscientists to unravel the principles of information processing in complex neural systems (e.g. the human brain) and to create efficient and robust robotic systems. In this work, we have developed a biologically-inspired spiking neural network which is able to execute both first and second order conditioning. Experimental studies demonstrated that volume signaling (e.g. by the gaseous transmitter nitric oxide) contributes to memory formation in vertebrates and invertebrates including insects. Based on the existing knowledge of odor encoding in Drosophila, the role of retrograde signaling in memory function, and the integration of synaptic and non-synaptic neural signaling, a neural system is implemented as Simulated fly. Simulated fly navigates in a two-dimensional environment in which it receives odors and electric shocks as sensory stimuli. The model suggests some experimental research on retrograde signaling to investigate neural mechanisms of conditioning in insects and other animals. Moreover, it illustrates a simple strategy to implement higher cognitive capabilities in machines including robots. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Topological reorganization of odor representations in the olfactory bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Yaksi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Odors are initially represented in the olfactory bulb (OB by patterns of sensory input across the array of glomeruli. Although activated glomeruli are often widely distributed, glomeruli responding to stimuli sharing molecular features tend to be loosely clustered and thus establish a fractured chemotopic map. Neuronal circuits in the OB transform glomerular patterns of sensory input into spatiotemporal patterns of output activity and thereby extract information about a stimulus. It is, however, unknown whether the chemotopic spatial organization of glomerular inputs is maintained during these computations. To explore this issue, we measured spatiotemporal patterns of odor-evoked activity across thousands of individual neurons in the zebrafish OB by temporally deconvolved two-photon Ca(2+ imaging. Mitral cells and interneurons were distinguished by transgenic markers and exhibited different response selectivities. Shortly after response onset, activity patterns exhibited foci of activity associated with certain chemical features throughout all layers. During the subsequent few hundred milliseconds, however, MC activity was locally sparsened within the initial foci in an odor-specific manner. As a consequence, chemotopic maps disappeared and activity patterns became more informative about precise odor identity. Hence, chemotopic maps of glomerular input activity are initially transmitted to OB outputs, but not maintained during pattern processing. Nevertheless, transient chemotopic maps may support neuronal computations by establishing important synaptic interactions within the circuit. These results provide insights into the functional topology of neural activity patterns and its potential role in circuit function.

  1. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J.

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people’s attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties—namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased—but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception. PMID:27725715

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE OLFACTORY RECEPTORS EXPRESSED IN HUMAN SPERMATOZOA

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    Caroline eFlegel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of external cues is fundamental for human spermatozoa to locate the oocyte in the female reproductive tract. This task requires a specific chemoreceptor repertoire that is expressed on the surface of human spermatozoa, which is not fully identified to date. Olfactory receptors (ORs are candidate molecules and have been attributed to be involved in sperm chemotaxis and chemokinesis, indicating an important role in mammalian spermatozoa. An increasing importance has been suggested for spermatozoal RNA, which led us to investigate the expression of all 387 OR genes. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of OR transcripts in human spermatozoa of several individuals by RNA-Seq. We detected 91 different transcripts in the spermatozoa samples that could be aligned to annotated OR genes. Using stranded mRNA-Seq, we detected a class of these putative OR transcripts in an antisense orientation, indicating a different function, rather than coding for a functional OR protein. Nevertheless, we were able to detect OR proteins in various compartments of human spermatozoa, indicating distinct functions in human sperm. A panel of various OR ligands induced Ca2+ signals in human spermatozoa, which could be inhibited by mibefradil. This study indicated that a variety of ORs are expressed at the mRNA and protein level in human spermatozoa and demonstrates that ORs are involved in the physiological processes.

  3. A proteomic investigation of soluble olfactory proteins in Anopheles gambiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Mastrobuoni

    Full Text Available Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs and chemosensory proteins (CSPs are small soluble polypeptides that bind semiochemicals in the lymph of insect chemosensilla. In the genome of Anopheles gambiae, 66 genes encode OBPs and 8 encode CSPs. Here we monitored their expression through classical proteomics (2D gel-MS analysis and a shotgun approach. The latter method proved much more sensitive and therefore more suitable for tiny biological samples as mosquitoes antennae and eggs. Females express a larger number and higher quantities of OBPs in their antennae than males (24 vs 19. OBP9 is the most abundant in the antennae of both sexes, as well as in larvae, pupae and eggs. Of the 8 CSPs, 4 were detected in antennae, while SAP3 was the only one expressed in larvae. Our proteomic results are in fairly good agreement with data of RNA expression reported in the literature, except for OBP4 and OBP5, that we could not identify in our analysis, nor could we detect in Western Blot experiments. The relatively limited number of soluble olfactory proteins expressed at relatively high levels in mosquitoes makes further studies on the coding of chemical messages at the OBP level more accessible, providing for few specific targets. Identification of such proteins in Anopheles gambiae might facilitate future studies on host finding behavior in this important disease vector.

  4. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2016-10-11

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people's attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties-namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased-but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception.

  5. Characterization of the Olfactory Receptors Expressed in Human Spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegel, Caroline; Vogel, Felix; Hofreuter, Adrian; Schreiner, Benjamin S. P.; Osthold, Sandra; Veitinger, Sophie; Becker, Christian; Brockmeyer, Norbert H.; Muschol, Michael; Wennemuth, Gunther; Altmüller, Janine; Hatt, Hanns; Gisselmann, Günter

    2016-01-01

    The detection of external cues is fundamental for human spermatozoa to locate the oocyte in the female reproductive tract. This task requires a specific chemoreceptor repertoire that is expressed on the surface of human spermatozoa, which is not fully identified to date. Olfactory receptors (ORs) are candidate molecules and have been attributed to be involved in sperm chemotaxis and chemokinesis, indicating an important role in mammalian spermatozoa. An increasing importance has been suggested for spermatozoal RNA, which led us to investigate the expression of all 387 OR genes. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of OR transcripts in human spermatozoa of several individuals by RNA-Seq. We detected 91 different transcripts in the spermatozoa samples that could be aligned to annotated OR genes. Using stranded mRNA-Seq, we detected a class of these putative OR transcripts in an antisense orientation, indicating a different function, rather than coding for a functional OR protein. Nevertheless, we were able to detect OR proteins in various compartments of human spermatozoa, indicating distinct functions in human sperm. A panel of various OR ligands induced Ca2+ signals in human spermatozoa, which could be inhibited by mibefradil. This study indicates that a variety of ORs are expressed at the mRNA and protein level in human spermatozoa. PMID:26779489

  6. The effect of rare earth ions on structural, morphological and thermoelectric properties of nanostructured tin oxide based perovskite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, P.; Alagar Nedunchezhian, A. S.; Yalini Devi, N.; Sidharth, D.; Arivanandhan, M.; Jayavel, R.

    2017-11-01

    Metal oxide based materials are promising for thermoelectric applications especially at elevated temperature due to their high thermal stability. Recently, perovskite based oxide materials have been focused as a novel thermoelectric material due to their tunable electrical conductivity. Thermoelectric properties of BaSnO3 has been extensively investigated. However, the effect of various rare earth doping on the thermoelectric properties of BaSnO3 is not studied in detail. In the present work, Ba1‑x RE x SnO3 (RE  =  La and Sr) materials with x  =  0.05 were prepared by polymerization complex (PC) method in order to study the effect of RE incorporation on the structural, morphological and thermoelectric characteristics of BaSnO3. The structural and morphological properties of the synthesized materials were studied by XRD and TEM analysis. XRD analysis confirmed the mixed phases of the synthesized samples. The TEM images of Ba1‑x Sr x SnO3 shows hexagonal and cubic morphology while, Ba1‑x La x SnO3 exhibit rod like morphology. Various functional groups of the perovskite material were identified using FTIR analysis. Formation of the perovskite material was further confirmed by XPS analysis. The Seebeck coefficient of Ba0.95La0.05SnO3 was relatively higher than that of Ba0.95Sr0.05SnO3, especially at high temperature. The rod like morphology of Ba0.95La0.05SnO3 may facilitate fast electron transport which results high thermal power compared to Ba0.95Sr0.05SnO3 despite of its poor crystalline nature. The substitution of La3+ on the Ba2+ site could vary the carrier density which results high Seebeck coefficient of Ba0.95La0.05SnO3 compared to Ba0.95Sr0.05SnO3. From the experimental results, it is obvious that Ba0.95La0.05SnO3 could be a promising thermoelectric material for high temperature application.

  7. Differential response of olfactory sensory neuron populations to copper ion exposure in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzari, Maurizio; Bettini, Simone; Milani, Liliana; Maurizii, Maria Gabriella; Franceschini, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Copper exposure affects ciliated olfactory receptors more than microvillar cells. • Crypt olfactory sensory neurons are not affected by copper exposure. • Copper exposure induces an increase in the amount of sensory epithelium. - Abstract: The peripheral olfactory system of fish is in direct contact with the external aqueous environment, so dissolved contaminants can easily impair sensory functions and cause neurobehavioral injuries. The olfactory epithelium of fish is arranged in lamellae forming a rosette in the olfactory cavity and contains three main types of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs): ciliated (cOSNs) and microvillous olfactory sensory neurons (mOSNs), common to all vertebrates, and a third minor group of olfactory neurons, crypt cells, absent in tetrapods. Since copper is a ubiquitously diffusing olfactory toxicant an