WorldWideScience

Sample records for metal ion decontamination

  1. Phytoremediation: an overview of metallic ion decontamination from soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, O.V.; Labana, S.; Pandey, G.; Budhiraja, R.; Jain, R.K. [Inst. of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh (India)

    2003-07-01

    In recent years, phytoremediation has emerged as a promising ecoremediation technology, particularly for soil and water cleanup of large volumes of contaminated sites. The exploitation of plants to remediate soils contaminated with trace elements could provide a cheap and sustainable technology for bioremediation. Many modern tools and analytical devices have provided insight into the selection and optimization of the remediation process by plant species. This review describes certain factors for the phytoremediation of metal ion decontamination and various aspects of plant metabolism during metallic decontamination. Metal-hyperaccumulating plants, desirable for heavily polluted environments, can be developed by the introduction of novel traits into high biomass plants in a transgenic approach, which is a promising strategy for the development of effective phytoremediation technology. The genetic manipulation of a phytoremediator plant needs a number of optimization processes, including mobilization of trace elements/metal ions, their uptake into the root, stem and other viable parts of the plant and their detoxification and allocation within the plant. This upcoming science is expanding as technology continues to offer new, low-cost remediation options. (orig.)

  2. Selective Decontamination Effect of Metal Ions in Soil Using Supercritical CO2 and TBP Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jihye; Park, Kwangheon; Jung, Wonyoung

    2014-01-01

    Decontamination of soil pollution is difficult because the type of contamination largely depends on the characteristics of the pollutant and the area. Also, existing soil decontamination methods generate large quantities of secondary waste and additional process costs. For this reason, new decontamination methods are always under active investigation. A method involving the use of supercritical carbon dioxide with excellent permeability in place of chemical solvents is currently being studied. Unlike other heavy metals in fission products, uranium is used as fuel, and must be handled carefully. Therefore, in this paper, we studied a supercritical carbon dioxide method for decontaminating heavy metal ions in soil using tri-n-butyl phosphate(TBP), which is well known as a ligand for the extraction of metal ions of actinium. We investigated the decontamination effect of heavy metal ions in the soil using TBP-HNO 3 Complex and supercritical carbon dioxide. The study results showed that when heavy metals in soil are extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide, the extraction efficiency is different according to the type of pollutant metal ions in the soil. When TBP-HNO 3 Complex is used with an extractant, uranium extraction is very effective, but lithium, strontium, and cesium extraction is not effective. Therefore, in the case of a mixture of uranium and other metals such as lithium, strontium, cesium, and so on in soil contaminated by fission product leaks from nuclear power plants, we can selectively decontaminate uranium with supercritical carbon dioxide and TBP-HNO 3 Complex

  3. Decontamination of Metal Ions in Soil by Supercritical CO2 Extraction with Crown Ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jihe; Park, Kwangheon [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Previous decontamination methods have shortcomings in that they produce additional waste due to the usage of solutions with chemical toxicity. Hence, demand is strong for new decontamination methods that can guarantee effective decontamination while decreasing the chemical solution. In particular, methods using supercritical CO2 as a means of decontamination are currently in progress. This study examines the method of decontaminating metallic ions inside soil using supercritical CO2. This paper examined the effects of extracting metallic ions inside soil using supercritical CO2 and crown ether as the ligand. It was confirmed that extraction effectiveness increases following greater usage of ligand and co-ligand, with a drastic increase in extraction effectiveness when using extracts over a certain dose. Moreover, it was shown that if the usage of ligand and additive decreases, the extraction ratio also decreases.

  4. Decontamination of Metal Ions in Soil by Supercritical CO2 Extraction with Crown Ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jihe; Park, Kwangheon

    2015-01-01

    Previous decontamination methods have shortcomings in that they produce additional waste due to the usage of solutions with chemical toxicity. Hence, demand is strong for new decontamination methods that can guarantee effective decontamination while decreasing the chemical solution. In particular, methods using supercritical CO2 as a means of decontamination are currently in progress. This study examines the method of decontaminating metallic ions inside soil using supercritical CO2. This paper examined the effects of extracting metallic ions inside soil using supercritical CO2 and crown ether as the ligand. It was confirmed that extraction effectiveness increases following greater usage of ligand and co-ligand, with a drastic increase in extraction effectiveness when using extracts over a certain dose. Moreover, it was shown that if the usage of ligand and additive decreases, the extraction ratio also decreases

  5. Selective Decontamination Effect of Metal Ions in Soil Using Supercritical CO{sub 2} and TBP Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jihye; Park, Kwangheon; Jung, Wonyoung [Kyunghee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Decontamination of soil pollution is difficult because the type of contamination largely depends on the characteristics of the pollutant and the area. Also, existing soil decontamination methods generate large quantities of secondary waste and additional process costs. For this reason, new decontamination methods are always under active investigation. A method involving the use of supercritical carbon dioxide with excellent permeability in place of chemical solvents is currently being studied. Unlike other heavy metals in fission products, uranium is used as fuel, and must be handled carefully. Therefore, in this paper, we studied a supercritical carbon dioxide method for decontaminating heavy metal ions in soil using tri-n-butyl phosphate(TBP), which is well known as a ligand for the extraction of metal ions of actinium. We investigated the decontamination effect of heavy metal ions in the soil using TBP-HNO{sub 3} Complex and supercritical carbon dioxide. The study results showed that when heavy metals in soil are extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide, the extraction efficiency is different according to the type of pollutant metal ions in the soil. When TBP-HNO{sub 3} Complex is used with an extractant, uranium extraction is very effective, but lithium, strontium, and cesium extraction is not effective. Therefore, in the case of a mixture of uranium and other metals such as lithium, strontium, cesium, and so on in soil contaminated by fission product leaks from nuclear power plants, we can selectively decontaminate uranium with supercritical carbon dioxide and TBP-HNO{sub 3} Complex.

  6. Decontamination of Metal Ions in Soil by Supercritical CO{sub 2} Extraction with Catecholamine Ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jihye; Kim, Hakwon; Park, Kwangheon [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The role of fuel cladding and reactor vessels is to help prevent the leakage of radioactive materials, including the fission products. However, if these shielding materials are damaged by a severe disaster such as the Fukushima Accident, radioactive materials could leak outside of a power plant site. Indeed, after the Fukushima Accident, radioactive materials have been detected in air and water samples. The air and water pollution lead to soil pollution, which is particularly difficult to decontaminate, as soil pollution has several types that vary according to the characteristics of a pollutant or its area. The existing decontamination methods generate a secondary waste owing to use of chemical toxicity solvents. It is also disadvantageous due to the additional cost of handling them. Therefore, new effective decontamination methods that reduce the use of toxicity solvents are necessary. For example, using supercritical CO{sub 2} has been studied as a new decontamination method. This study examines the method of decontaminating metallic ions inside of the soil using supercritical CO{sub 2} and a catecholamine compound. This study examined the effects of extracting metallic ions inside the soil using supercritical CO{sub 2} and catecholamine as the ligand. Based on these results, it is evident that when only the extraction agent was used, there was no extraction effect and that only when the ligand, co-ligand, and additive were used together was there an extraction effect. Following this, the optimal extraction-agent ratio was confirmed using varying amounts of extraction agents. The most effective extraction ratio of ligand to co-ligand was 1:2 in E-9 when 0.3 ml of H{sub 2}O were added.

  7. Method for decontaminating radiation metal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuma, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Akio; Akimoto, Hidetoshi

    1991-01-01

    This report describes a method for decontaminating radiation metal waste characterized by the following properties: in order to decontaminate radiation metal waste of various shapes produced by facilities involved with radioactive substances, non-complex shapes are decontaminated by electropolishing the materials in a neutral saline solution. Complex shapes are chemically decontaminated by means of an acid solution containing permanganic acid or an alkaline solution and a mineral acid solution. After neutralizing the solutions used for chemical decontamination, the radioactive material is separated and removed. Further, in the decontamination method for radioactive metal waste, a supernatant liquid is reused as the electrolyte in electropolishing decontamination. Permanganic ions (MnO 4 - ) are reduced to manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ) and deposited prior to neutralizing the solution used for chemical decontamination. Once manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ) has been separated and removed, it is re-used as the electrolyte in electropolishing decontamination by means of a process identical to the separation process for radioactive substances. 3 figs

  8. Organic decontamination by ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    This study has successfully identified ion exchanger media suitable for decontaminating the 5500-gallon organic layer in Tank 241-C-103. Decontamination of radionuclides is necessary to meet shipping, incinerator site storage, and incineration feed requirements. The exchanger media were identified through a literature search and experiments at the Russian Institute for Physical Chemistry. The principal radionuclides addressed are Cs-137 and Sr-90. Recommendations for an experimental program plan conclude the discussion. The experimental program would provide the data necessary for plant design specifications for a column and for ion exchange media to be used in decontaminating the organic layer

  9. Chemical decontamination of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J.A.; Lerch, R.E.

    1979-10-01

    A metal decontamination process based upon removal of contamination by treatment with a cerium (IV)-nitric acid solution (or other redox agent in nitric acid) is feasible and highly promising. The technique is effective in dissolving the surface layer of stainless steel. Dissolution rates of approximately 1.5 mils/h were demonstrated with cerium (IV)-nitric acid solutions. Removal of plutonium contamination from stainless steel was demonstrated in laboratory tests, in which activity levels were reduced from greater than 5 x 10 5 counts per minute to nondetectable levels in approximately one hour at 90 0 C. Removal of paint from stainless steel surfaces was also demonstrated. Advantages of this process over other chemical solutions include: (1) The solutions are not high salt systems; therefore, there is potentially less waste generated. (2) Cerium(IV) in nitric acid is a good dissolution agent for plutonium oxide. (3) Regeneration of Ce(IV) during the decontamination is accomplished by electrolysis. (4) The process should be effective for irregularly shaped equipment. (5) It could be effective as a spray or a flow-through system. 13 figures

  10. Method for electrochemical decontamination of radioactive metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekechukwu, Amy A [Augusta, GA

    2008-06-10

    A decontamination method for stripping radionuclides from the surface of stainless steel or aluminum material comprising the steps of contacting the metal with a moderately acidic carbonate/bicarbonate electrolyte solution containing sodium or potassium ions and thereafter electrolytically removing the radionuclides from the surface of the metal whereby radionuclides are caused to be stripped off of the material without corrosion or etching of the material surface.

  11. Comparison Extraction Rates by Supercritical CO2 Decontamination According to Elapsed Time after Heavy Metal Ions were Adsorbed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Ken; Park, Kwang Heon

    2010-01-01

    Due to the increasing price of oil and coal and the tightening of regulations on greenhouse gases, nuclear power plants will become a more important source of electricity. Therefore, the number of nuclear power plants will constantly increase over the world. However, nuclear power plants have a disadvantage: they generate radioactive waste. Among radioactive waste, heavy metals in soil have a special feature: they change the form of contamination depending on the types and sizes of the soil. Therefore, diverse methods have to be used for decontamination. The current methods used for decontaminating heavy metals in soil are the electrokinetic method, the biodegradation method, and soil washing. Since soil washing in particular creates many secondary wastes, the cost of decontaminating soil has increased. In this case supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO 2 ) was used to reduce the secondary waste, and is expected to lower the cost as well

  12. Electrochemical analysis of ion-exchange membranes with respect to a possible use in electrodialytic decontamination of soil polluted with heavy metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Laursen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    Transport numbers in different metal chloride solutions were estimated using the emf method for two ion-exchange membranes: Ionics CR67 HMR412 (cation-exchange membrane) and Ionics AR204 SXRA 7639 (anion-exchange membrane). The cation-exchange membrane was found to work nearly ideally for Na...... experiments taken as a simplified simulation of the electrokinetic decontamination method showed that it was possible to remove all ions in the simulated soil volume, with a sharp increase in the potential difference over the soil volume as a result, and that it was possible to control the metal content...

  13. ORO scrap metal decontamination program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jugan, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has approximately 80,000 tons of contaminated scrap metal at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Piketon, Ohio; and the Feed Materials Production Center in Fernald, Ohio. After unsuccessful in-house attempts to eliminate/recycle the contaminated metal, DOE is allowing private enterprise the opportunity to participate in this program. DOE is making this opportunity available under a two-phase approach, which is being supported by two separate and corresponding Request for Proposals. Phase I, which is nearing completion, is a demonstration phase to establish a group of companies that the DOE will consider qualified to eliminate the scrap at one or more sites. In Phase I, the companies decontaminated 25-50 tons of scrap to demonstrate capabilities to DOE and to gain the knowledge required to plan/bid on elimination of the scrap at one or more sites. Phase II will request proposals for elimination of the total scrap at one or more of the above noted sites. Multiple awards for Phase II are also anticipated. Companies participating in Phase II will be required to take title to the contaminated scrap and decontaminate/process the scrap for beneficial reuse. Radioactive wastes and metal that cannot be successfully decontaminated/processed will be returned to DOE

  14. Laser Decontamination of Surfaces Contaminated with Cs+ Ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baigalmaaa, B.; Won, H. J.; Moon, J. K.; Jung, C. H.; Lee, K. W.; Hyun, J. H.

    2008-01-01

    Laser decontamination technology has been proven to be an efficient method for a surface modification of metals and concretes contaminated with radioactive isotopes. Furthermore, the generation of a secondary waste is negligible. The radioactivity of hot cells in the DFDF (Dupic Fuel Development Facility) is presumed to be very high and the predominant radionuclide is Cs-137. A series of laser decontamination studies by a fabricated Q-switched Nd:YAG laser system were performed on stainless steel specimens artificially contaminated with Cs+ ion. Decontamination characteristics of the stainless steel were analyzed by SEM and EPMA

  15. Chemically reducing decontamination method for radioactive metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Akio; Onuma, Tsutomu; Sato, Hitoshi.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention concerns a decontamination method of electrolytically reducing radioactive metal wastes, then chemically dissolving the surface thereof with a strong acid decontaminating solution. This method utilizes dissolving characteristics of stainless steels in the strong acid solution. That is, in the electrolytic reduction operation, a portion of the metal wastes is brought into contact with a strong acid decontaminating solution, and voltage and current are applied to the portion and keep it for a long period of time so as to make the potential of the immersed portion of the metal wastes to an active soluble region. Then, the electrolytic reduction operation is stopped, and the metal wastes are entirely immersed in the decontaminating solution to decontaminate by chemical dissolution. As the decontaminating solution, strong acid such as sulfuric acid, nitric acid is used. Since DC current power source capacity required for causing reaction in the active soluble region can be decreased, the decontamination facility can be minimized and simplified, and necessary electric power can be saved even upon decontamination of radioactive metal wastes made of stainless steels and having a great area. Further, chemical dissolution can be conducted without adding an expensive oxidizing agent. (N.H.)

  16. Decontamination method for radiation contaminated metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enda, Masami; Hosaka, Katsumi; Sakai, Hitoshi.

    1997-01-01

    An organic acid solution is used as a decontamination liquid, and base materials of radiation contaminated metals are dissolved in the solution. The concentration of the organic acid is measured, and the organic acid is supplied by an amount corresponding to the lowering of the concentration. The decontamination liquid wastes generated during the decontamination step are decomposed, and metals leached in the organic acid solution are separated. With such procedures, contamination intruded into the inside of the mother materials of the metals can be removed, and radioactivity of the contaminated metals such as stainless steels and carbon steels can be eliminated, or the radiation level thereof can be reduced. In addition, the amount of secondary wastes generated along with the decontamination can be suppressed. (T.M.)

  17. Radioactive scrap metal decontamination technology assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.; Schlienger, M.E.

    1996-04-01

    Within the DOE complex there exists a tremendous quantity of radioactive scrap metal. As an example, it is estimated that within the gaseous diffusion plants there exists in excess of 700,000 tons of contaminated stainless steel. At present, valuable material is being disposed of when it could be converted into a high quality product. Liquid metal processing represents a true recycling opportunity for this material. By applying the primary production processes towards the material's decontamination and re-use, the value of the strategic resource is maintained while drastically reducing the volume of material in need of burial. Potential processes for the liquid metal decontamination of radioactively contaminated metal are discussed and contrasted. Opportunities and technology development issues are identified and discussed. The processes compared are: surface decontamination; size reduction, packaging and burial; melting technologies; electric arc melting; plasma arc centrifugal treatment; air induction melting; vacuum induction melting; and vacuum induction melting and electroslag remelting

  18. Electrodialytic decontamination of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nott, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Development of a novel electrodialytic decontamination process for the selective removal of radioactive Cs from spent ion exchange resins containing large amounts of Li is described. The process involves passage of a dc electric current through a bed of the spent ion exchange resin in a specially designed electrodialytic cell. The radiocesium so removed from a volume of the spent resin is concentrated onto a much smaller volume of a Cs selective sorbent to achieve a significant radioactive waste volume reduction. Technical feasibility of the electrodialytic resin decontamination process has been demonstrated on a bench scale with a batch of simulated spent ion exchange resin and using potassium cobalt ferrocyanide as the Cs selective sorbent. A volume reduction factor between 10 and 17 has been estimated. The process appears to be economically attractive. Improvements in process economics can be expected from optimization of the process. Other possible applications of the EDRD process have been identified

  19. Chemical decontamination method for radioactive metal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuma, Tsutomu; Akimoto, Hidetoshi

    1991-01-01

    The invention relates to a decontamination method for radioactive metal waste products derived from equipment that handles radioactive materials whose surfaces have been contaminated; in particular it concerns a decontamination method that reduces the amount of radioactive waste by decontaminating radioactive waste substances to a level of radioactivity in line with normal waste products. In order to apply chemical decontamination to metal waste products whose surfaces are divided into carbon steel waste and stainless steel waste; the carbon steel waste is treated using only a primary process in which the waste is immersed in a sulfuric acid solution, while the stainless steel waste must be treated with both the primary process and then electrolytically reduces it for a specific length of time and a secondary process that uses a solution of sulfuric acid mixed with oxidizing metal salts. The method used to categorize metal waste into carbon steel waste and stainless steel waste involves determining the presence, or absence, of magnetism. Voltage is applied for a fixed duration; once that has stopped, electrolytic reduction repeats the operative cycle of applying, then stopping voltage until the potential of the radioactive metal waste is retained in the active region. 1 fig. 2 tabs

  20. A study on dry decontamination using ion exchange polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Ki Jung; Ahn, Byung Gil

    1997-12-01

    Through the project of A study on dry decontamination using ion exchange polymer , the followings were investigated. 1. Highly probable decontamination technologies for the decontamination were investigated. 2. Development of gel type decontamination agent using ion-exchange resin powder (mixed type) as an ion exchanger. 3. Manufacturing of contaminated specimens (5 kinds) with Cs-137 solution and dust / Cs-137 solution. 4. Decontamination performance evaluation of the manufactured agent. 5. Analysis of composition (XRF) and the structure of surface of specimens (optic micrography). (author). 20 refs., 11 figs

  1. Chemical decontamination method for radioactive metal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuma, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Akio; Shibuya, Sadao.

    1991-01-01

    When contaminants mainly composed of copper remained on the surface of stainless steel wastes sent from an electrolytic reduction as a first step are chemically decontaminated, metal wastes are discriminated to carbon steel wastes and stainless steel wastes. Then, the carbon steel wastes are applied only with the first step of immersing in a sulfuric acid solution, and stainless steel wastes are applied with a first step of immersing into a sulfuric acid solution for electrolytic reduction for a predetermined period of time and a second step of immersing into a liquid in which an oxidative metal salt is added to sulfuric acid. The decontamination liquid which is used for immersing the stainless steel wastes in the second step and the oxidation force of which is lowered is used as the sulfuric acid solution in the first step for the carbon steel wastes. In view of the above, the decontamination liquid of the second step can be utilized most effectively, enabling to greatly decrease the secondary wastes and to improve decontamination efficiency. (T.M.)

  2. Metallic surfaces decontamination by using laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moggia, Fabrice; Lecardonnel, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Metal surface cleaning appears to be one of the major priorities for industries especially for nuclear industries. The research and the development of a new technology that is able to meet the actual requirements (i.e. waste volume minimization, liquid effluents and chemicals free process...) seems to be the main commitment. Currently, a wide panel of technologies already exists (e.g. blasting, disk sander, electro-decontamination...) but for some of them, the efficiency is limited (e.g, Dry Ice blasting) and for others, the wastes production (liquid and/or solid) remains an important issue. One answer could be the use of a LASER light process. Since a couple of years, the Clean- Up Business Unit of the AREVA group investigates this decontamination technology. Many tests have been already performed in inactive (i.e. on simulants such as paints, inks, resins, metallic oxides) or active conditions (i.e. pieces covered with a thick metallic oxide layer and metallic pieces covered with grease). The paper will describe the results obtained in term of decontamination efficiency during all our validation process. Metallographic characterizations (i.e. SEM, X-ray scattering) and radiological analysis will be provided. We will also focus our paper on the future deployment of the LASER technology and its commercial use at La Hague reprocessing facility in 2013. (authors)

  3. Metal decontamination for waste minimization using liquid metal refining technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyce, E.L. Jr.; Lally, B.; Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The current Department of Energy Mixed Waste Treatment Project flowsheet indicates that no conventional technology, other than surface decontamination, exists for metal processing. Current Department of Energy guidelines require retrievable storage of all metallic wastes containing transuranic elements above a certain concentration. This project is in support of the National Mixed Low Level Waste Treatment Program. Because of the high cost of disposal, it is important to develop an effective decontamination and volume reduction method for low-level contaminated metals. It is important to be able to decontaminate complex shapes where surfaces are hidden or inaccessible to surface decontamination processes and destruction of organic contamination. These goals can be achieved by adapting commercial metal refining processes to handle radioactive and organic contaminated metal. The radioactive components are concentrated in the slag, which is subsequently vitrified; hazardous organics are destroyed by the intense heat of the bath. The metal, after having been melted and purified, could be recycled for use within the DOE complex. In this project, we evaluated current state-of-the-art technologies for metal refining, with special reference to the removal of radioactive contaminants and the destruction of hazardous organics. This evaluation was based on literature reports, industrial experience, plant visits, thermodynamic calculations, and engineering aspects of the various processes. The key issues addressed included radioactive partitioning between the metal and slag phases, minimization of secondary wastes, operability of the process subject to widely varying feed chemistry, and the ability to seal the candidate process to prevent the release of hazardous species

  4. Decontamination method of contaminated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Fumio; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Sato, Chikara; Komori, Itaru.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively separate radioactive materials from molten metals in dry-processing method by heating metals contaminated with radioactive materials at a temperature below melting point to oxidize the surface thereof, then heating them to melt and include the radioactive materials into the oxides. Method: Metals contaminated with radioactive materials are heated at a temperature below the melting point thereof in an oxidizing atmosphere to oxidize the surface. Thereafter they are heated to melt at temperature above the melting point of the metals, and the molten metals are separated with the radioactive materials included in the oxides. For instance, radiation-contaminated aluminum pipe placed on the bed of an electrical heating furnace, and heated at 500 0 C which is lower than the melting point 660 0 C of aluminum for 1 - 2 hours while supplying air from an air pipe into the furnace, and an oxide film is formed on the surface of the aluminum pipe. Then, the furnace temperature is increased to 750 0 C wherein molten aluminum is flown down to a container and the oxide film is separated by floating it as the slug on the molten aluminum. (Horiuchi, T.)

  5. Chemical decontamination method for radioactive metal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Akio; Onuma, Tsutomu; Yamazaki, Sei; Miura, Haruki.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention provides a chemical decontamination method for radioactive metal wastes, which are generated from radioactive material handling facilities and the surfaces of which are contaminated by radioactive materials. That is, it has a feature of applying acid dissolution simultaneously with mechanical grinding. The radioactive metal wastes are contained in a vessel such as a barrel together with abrasives in a sulfuric acid solution and rotated at several tens rotation per minute. By such procedures for the radioactive metal wastes, (1) cruds and passive membranes are mechanically removed, (2) exposed mother metal materials are uniformly brought into contact with sulfuric acid and further (3) the mother metal materials dissolve the cruds and the passive membranes also chemically by a reducing dissolution (so-called local cell effect). According to the method of the present invention, stainless steel metal wastes having cruds and passive membranes can rapidly and efficiently be decontaminated to a radiation level equal with that of ordinary wastes. (I.S.)

  6. Biocompatible metal decontamination from soil using Ageratum conyzoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Virbala; Pant, Deepak

    2018-05-28

    Metal pollution in soil is a serious problem among waste landfill sites and associated environment all over the globe. Amelioration of contaminated soil by plant bioaccumulation is an important strategy to protect the soil environment. Ageratum conyzoides is a common weed species that can grow easily in any contaminating site and bioaccumulate heavy metals present in the e-waste dumping/recycling sites as a natural scavenger. Soil selected for the study was contaminated with waste cathode ray tube (CRT) and printed circuit board (PCB) powder in the concentration range of 1-10 g/kg. Soil decontamination was achieved by using weed plants with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA, 0.1 g/kg) and kinetin (100 μM) combination in pot experiments. Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu accumulation was found to be highest in leaves (6.51-38.58; 0.14-73.12; 5.24-269.07; 9.38-116.59%); Pb and Cr in stem (22.83-113.41; 21.05-500%), respectively, as compared with blank. Ion chromatography was used as a tool for the measurement of essential ions present in plant under different conditions. Plants showed better growth in terms of shoot, root length, biomass weight, and chlorophyll content with the proposed combination. EDTA allows the metals available for the accumulation through possible complexation. Also, the compatibility of kinetin to manage stress in plant is found to be enhanced in the presence of EDTA due to possible π-π interaction. Metal stress condition causes the deficiency of essential ions in the plants thereby disturbing its biochemistry and results in its eventual death. EDTA-kinetin hybrid treatment was found to be compatible for metal decontamination from soil, its detoxification in plants by changing its environment and restoring the essential ions for the survival of plant.

  7. The role of metal complexes in nuclear reactor decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prince, A.A.M.; Raghavan, P.S.; Gopalan, R. [Madras Christian College, Tambaram, Chennai (India); Velmurugan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V. [Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC) (IN). Water and Steam Chemistry Lab. (WSCL)

    2006-07-15

    Chemical decontamination is the process of removal of radioactivity from corrosion products formed on structural materials in the nuclear reactors. These corrosion products cause problems for the operation and maintenance of the plants. Removal of the radioactive contaminants can be achieved by dissolving the oxide from the system surface using organic complexing agents in low concentrations known as dilute chemical decontamination (DCD) formulations. These organic complexing agents attack the oxide surface and form metal complexes, which further accelerate the dissolution process. The stability of the complexes plays an important role in dissolving the radioactive contaminated oxides. In addition, the DCD process is operated through ion exchange resins for the removal of the dissolved metal ions and radioactive nuclides. In the present study, the kinetics of dissolution of various model corrosion products such as magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and maghemite ({gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) have been studied in the presence of complexing agents such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), hydroxyethylethylenediaminepentaacetic acid (HEEDTA), and 2,6 pyridinedicarboxylic acid (PDCA). The reductive roles of metal complexes and organic reducing agents are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Decontamination method for radiation-contaminated metal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwa, Takeshi; Kuribayashi, Nobuhide; Yasumune, Taketoshi.

    1991-01-01

    In immersing radiation-contaminated metal wastes into a sulfuric acid solution thereby peeling and removing radioactive deposition cruds and dissolving the surface of the matrix metals to eliminate radioactive contaminants, when the potential of the sulfuric acid solution is shifted to a higher direction by more than a certain level due to the increase of the amount of metal ions leached from the cruds and the matrix material, the leached metal ions are electrolytically reduced to control the potential of the sulfuric acid solution to less than a predetermined potential level. Although the dissolving rate is increased as the concentration of the sulfuric acid solution is higher, it is preferably from 0.5 to 2 mol/l, since higher concentration increases the load on the waste liquid processing. Further, the temperature for solution is set to higher than a room temperature and, preferably from 50 to 90degC. Further, the potential level of the solution, although varies somewhat depending on the concentration of the leached metal ions and the temperature, is preferably controlled to less than 0.1 to 0.2 V. This can attain high decontaminating effect in a short period of time by using a sulfuric acid solution alone. (T.M.)

  9. Electrodialytic decontamination of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik K.; Karlsmose, Bodil

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil is a newly developed method, which combines the electrokinetic mevement of ions in soil with the principle of electrodialytis. The method has been proven to work in laboratory scale and at present two types of pilot plant tests are made....

  10. Heavy metal decontamination of sludges and soils. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemann, J.

    1993-06-01

    This research project deals with decontamination technology for contaminated soil and sediments. A pilot plant for the decontamination of soil contaminated with heavy metals has been erected and is operated. The process is arranged in two steps: - heavy metal contaminated solid is decontaminted with acidic extraction. - the heavy metals are separated in a recyclable formation from the process solution you gain in the first process step. Heavy metal contaminated soil, heavy metal contaminated sediments (habour sediments) as well as residue from a soil regeneration plant have been successfully decontaminated in the pilot plan. An adaption of the process is necessary for various materials. High rates of mobilisation of heavy metals (e.g. lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, zinc) were obtained, especially with soil which contains less organic matter. (orig.). 54 figs., 30 tabs., 45 refs [de

  11. Electrochemical Decontamination of Painted and Heavily Corroded Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marczak, S.; Anderson, J.; Dziewinski, J.

    1998-01-01

    The radioactive metal wastes that are generated from nuclear fuel plants and radiochemical laboratories are mainly contaminated by the surface deposition of radioactive isotopes. There are presently several techniques used in removing surface contamination involving physical and chemical processes. However, there has been very little research done in the area of soiled, heavily oxidized, and painted metals. Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory have been developing electrochemical procedures for the decontamination of bare and painted metal objects. These methods have been found to be effective on highly corroded as well as relatively new metals. This study has been successful in decontaminating projectiles and shrapnel excavated during environmental restoration projects after 40+ years of exposure to the elements. Heavily corroded augers used in sampling activities throughout the area were also successfully decontaminated. This process has demonstrated its effectiveness and offers several advantages over the present metal decontamination practices of media blasting and chemical solvents. These advantages include the addition of no toxic or hazardous chemicals, low operating temperature and pressure, and easily scaleable equipment. It is in their future plans to use this process in the decontamination of gloveboxes destined for disposal as TRU waste

  12. Method for electrolytic decontamination of radioactive contaminated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Akio; Horita, Masami; Onuma, Tsutomu; Kato, Koji

    1991-01-01

    The invention relates to an electrolytic decontamination method for radioactive contaminated metals. The contaminated sections are eluted by electrolysis after the surface of a piece of equipment used with radioactive substances has been immersed in an electrolyte. Metal contaminated by radioactive substances acts as the anode

  13. Laser decontamination of metallic - Metallic surfaces decontamination by using Laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moggia, F.; Objois, L.; Toulemonde, V.

    2014-01-01

    Within the next years, the volume of metallic contaminated with radionuclides will get higher. In that way, the development of new efficient decontamination methods appears to be a promising challenge for industrials as AREVA. Today, even if a few methods already exist, some of them point out a lack of efficiency and for the others, a production of secondary waste not compatible with the actual requirements. Based on this observation, we started the study of a new process based on the Laser technology. This technology is very promising in terms of effectiveness and waste minimization. Since a couple of years we went through an intensive experimental program (including active and non active tests, metallographic observations...) to fully describe this technology and also to prove its interest for our industry. (authors)

  14. Decontamination of transuranic contaminated metals by melt refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heshmatpour, B.; Copeland, G.L.; Heestand, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Melt refining of transuranic contaminated metals is a possible decontamination process with the potential advantages of producing metal for reuse and of simplifying chemical analyses. By routinely achieving the 10 nCi/g( about0.1ppm) level by melt refining, scrap metal can be removed from the transuranic waste category. (To demonstrate the effectiveness of this melt refining process, mild steel, stainless steel, nickel, and copper were contaminated with 500 ppm (μg/g) PuO 2 and melted with various fluxes. The solidified slags and metals were analyzed for their plutonium contents, and corresponding partition ratios for plutonium were calculated. Some metals were double refined in order to study the effect of secondary slag treatment. The initial weight of the slags was also varied to investigate the effect of slag weight on the degree of plutonium removal. In general, all four metals could be decontaminated below 1 ppm (μg/g) Pu ( about100 nCi/g) by a single slag treatment. Doubling the slag weight did not improve decontamination significantly; however, double slag treatment using 5 wt.% slag did decontaminate the metals to below 0.1 ppm (μg/g) Pu (10 nCi/g).)

  15. Melting metal waste for volume reduction and decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, G.L.; Heshmatpour, B.; Heestand, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Melt-slagging was investigated as a technique for volume reduction and decontamination of radioactively contaminated scrap metals. Experiments were conducted using several metals and slags in which the partitioning of the contaminant U or Pu to the slag was measured. Concentrations of U or Pu in the metal product of about 1 ppM were achieved for many metals. A volume reduction of 30:1 was achieved for a typical batch of mixed metal scrap. Additionally, the production of granular products was demonstrated with metal shot and crushed slag

  16. Uranium decontamination of common metals by smelting, a review (handbook)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mautz, E.W.; Briggs, G.G.; Shaw, W.E.; Cavendish, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    The published and unpublished literature relating to the smelting of common metals scrap contaminated with uranium-bearing compounds has been searched and reviewed. In general, standard smelting practice produces ingots having a low uranium content, particularly for ferrous, nickel, and copper metals or alloys. Aluminum recovered from uranium contaminated scrap shows some decontamination by smelting but the uranium content is not as low as for other metals. Due to the heterogeneous nature and origin of scrap metals contaminated with uranium, information is frequently missing as to the extent of the initial contamination and the degree of decontamination obtained. The uranium content of the final cast ingots is generally all that is available. Results are summarized below by the primary composition of the uranium contaminated scrap metal. (U.S.)

  17. Decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montford, B.

    1975-01-01

    Development of special techniques has permitted the use of mild decontamination processes for the CANDU type reactor primary coolant circuit, overcoming many of the problems associated with conventional decontamination processes, which use strong, acidic reagents. (Author)

  18. Ion implantation in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vook, F.L.

    1977-02-01

    The application of ion beams to metals is rapidly emerging as a promising area of research and technology. This report briefly describes some of the recent advances in the modification and study of the basic properties of metals by ion implantation techniques. Most of the research discussed illustrates some of the new and exciting applications of ion beams to metals which are under active investigation at Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque

  19. Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muth, T.R.; Shasteen, K.E.; Liby, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) accumulated large quantities of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) through historic maintenance activities. The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) of major sites formerly engaged in production of nuclear materials and manufacture of nuclear weapons will generate additional quantities of RSM, as much as 3 million tons of such metal according to a recent study. The recycling of RSM is quickly becoming appreciated as a key strategy in DOE's cleanup of contaminated sites and facilities

  20. Results of chemical decontamination of DOE`s uranium-enrichment scrap metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, R.G.

    1997-02-01

    The CORPEX{reg_sign} Nuclear Decontamination Processes were used to decontaminate representative scrap metal specimens obtained from the existing scrap metal piles located at the Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. In September 1995, under contract to Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, MELE Associates, Inc. performed the on-site decontamination demonstration. The decontamination demonstration proved that significant amounts of the existing DOE scrap metal can be decontaminated to levels where the scrap metal could be economically released by DOE for beneficial reuse. This simple and environmentally friendly process can be used as an alternative, or in addition to, smelting radiologically contaminated scrap metal.

  1. Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacNair, V.; Muth, T.; Shasteen, K.; Liby, A.; Hradil, G.; Mishra, B.

    1996-01-01

    In October 1993, Manufacturing Sciences Corporation was awarded DOE contract DE-AC21-93MC30170 to develop and test recycling of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) to high value and intermediate and final product forms. This work was conducted to help solve the problems associated with decontamination and reuse of the diffusion plant barrier nickel and other radioactively contaminated scrap metals present in the diffusion plants. Options available for disposition of the nickel include decontamination and subsequent release or recycled product manufacture for restricted end use. Both of these options are evaluated during the course of this research effort. work during phase I of this project successfully demonstrated the ability to make stainless steel from barrier nickel feed. This paved the way for restricted end use products made from stainless steel. Also, after repeated trials and studies, the inducto-slag nickel decontamination process was eliminated as a suitable alternative. Electro-refining appeared to be a promising technology for decontamination of the diffusion plant barrier material. Goals for phase II included conducting experiments to facilitate the development of an electro-refining process to separate technetium from nickel. In parallel with those activities, phase II efforts were to include the development of the necessary processes to make useful products from radioactive scrap metal. Nickel from the diffusion plants as well as stainless steel and carbon steel could be used as feed material for these products

  2. Chemical Decontamination of Metallic Waste from Uranium Conversion Plant Dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D. S.; Choi, Y. D.; Hwang, S. T.; Park, J. H.; Byun, J. I.; Jang, N. S.

    2005-01-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) started a decommissioning program of the uranium conversion plant. Pre-work was carried as follows; installation of the access control facility, installation of a changing room and shower room, designation of an emergency exit way and indicating signs, installation of a radiation management facility, preparation of a storage area for tools and equipments, inspection and load test of crane, distribution and packaging of existing waste, and pre-decontamination of the equipment surface and the interior. First, decommissioning work was performed in kiln room, which will be used for temporary radioactive waste storage room. Kiln room housed hydro fluorination rotary kiln for production of uranium tetra-fluoride. The kiln is about 0.8 m in diameter and 5.5 m long. The total dismantled waste was 6,690 kg, 73 % of which was metallic waste and 27 % the others such as cable, asbestos, concrete, secondary waste, etc. And effluent treatment room and filtration room were dismantled for installation of decontamination equipment and lagoon sludge treatment equipment. There were tanks and square mixer in these rooms. The total dismantled waste was 17,250 kg, 67% of which was metallic waste and 33% the others. These dismantled metallic wastes consist of stainless and carbon steel. In this paper, the stainless steel plate and pipe were decontaminated by the chemical decontamination with ultrasonic

  3. Decontamination of radioactive metal surfaces by plasma arc gouging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osamu, K.; Makoto, K.; Takao, K.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out to develop a new decontamination method that applies plasma arc gouging for removal of a thin surface layer from radioactively contaminated metallic wastes. Plasma arc gouging has been carried out on stainless steel and carbon steel pipes. The torch nozzle and gouging angle have been optimized to increase the decontamination rate. A water film is formed on the pipe surface to reduce both dust concentration in the off-gas and prevent slag particles, which are splashed up by the plasma gas, from adhering to the gouged surface. Using chromium-electroplated carbon steel pipes as samples, a decontamination factor of >10 3 is obtained after gouging to a depth of about0.5 mm in combination with ultrasonic cleaning

  4. Method of electrolytically decontaminating of radioactive metal wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oonuma, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Akio; Yamadera, Toshio.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To significantly reduce the volume of secondary wastes by separating from electrolytes metal ions containing radioactive metal ions dissolved therein in the form of elemental metals of a reduced volume with ease, as well as regenerating the electrolytes for re-use. Method: Contaminated portions at the surface of the radioactive metal wastes are dissolved in electrolytes and, when the metal ion concentration in the electrolytes reaches a predetermined level, the electrolytes are introduced to an acid recovery step and an electrodeposition step. The recovered acid is re-used as the electrolytes, while dissolved metal ions containing radioactive metal ions are deposited as elemental metals in the electrodeposition step. The electrolytes usable herein include those acids easily forming stable complex compounds with the metals or those not forming hydroxides of the contaminated metals. Combination of sodium sulfate and sulfuric acid, sodium chloride and hydrochloride or the like is preferred. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. Ion implantation of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1976-01-01

    In this part of the paper descriptions are given of the effects of ion implantation on (a) friction and wear in metals; and (b) corrosion of metals. In the study of corrosion, ion implantation can be used either to introduce a constituent that is known to convey corrosion resistance, or more generally to examine the parameters which control corrosion. (U.K.)

  6. Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valerie MacNair; Steve Sarten; Thomas Muth; Brajendra Mishra

    1999-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) faces the task of decommissioning much of the vast US weapons complex. One challenge of this effort includes the disposition of large amounts of radioactively contaminated scrap metal (RSM) including but not limited to steel, nickel, copper, and aluminum. The decontamination and recycling of RSM has become a key element in the DOE's strategy for cleanup of contaminated sites and facilities. Recycling helps to offset the cost of decommissioning and saves valuable space in the waste disposal facilities. It also reduces the amount of environmental effects associated with mining new metals. Work on this project is geared toward finding decontamination and/or recycling alternatives for the RSM contained in the decommissioned gaseous diffusion plants including approximately 40,000 tons of nickel. The nickel is contaminated with Technetium-99, and is difficult to remove using traditional decontamination technologies. The project, titled ''Advanced Technologies for Decontamination and Conversion of Scrap Metal'' was proposed as a four phase project. Phase 1 and 2 are complete and Phase 3 will complete May 31, 1999. Stainless steel made from contaminated nickel barrier was successfully produced in Phase 1. An economic evaluation was performed and a market study of potential products from the recycled metal was completed. Inducto-slag refining, after extensive testing, was eliminated as an alternative to remove technetium contamination from nickel. Phase 2 included successful lab scale and pilot scale demonstrations of electrorefining to separate technetium from nickel. This effort included a survey of available technologies to detect technetium in volumetrically contaminated metals. A new process to make sanitary drums from RSM was developed and implemented. Phase 3 included a full scale demonstration of electrorefining, an evaluation of electro-refining alternatives including direct dissolution, melting of nickel into anodes, a laser cutting

  7. Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muth, T.R.; Shasteen, K.E.; Liby, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) accumulated large quantities of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) through historic maintenance activities. The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) of major sites formerly engaged in production of nuclear materials and manufacture of nuclear weapons will generate additional quantities of RSM, as much as 3 million tons of such metal according to a recent study. The recycling of RSM is quickly becoming appreciated as a key strategy in DOE's cleanup of contaminated sites and facilities. The work described here has focused on recycle of the concentrated and high-value contaminated scrap metal resource that will arise from cleanup of DOE's gaseous diffusion plants

  8. Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, T.R.; Shasteen, K.E.; Liby, A.L. [Manufacturing Sciences Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) accumulated large quantities of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) through historic maintenance activities. The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) of major sites formerly engaged in production of nuclear materials and manufacture of nuclear weapons will generate additional quantities of RSM, as much as 3 million tons of such metal according to a recent study. The recycling of RSM is quickly becoming appreciated as a key strategy in DOE`s cleanup of contaminated sites and facilities. The work described here has focused on recycle of the concentrated and high-value contaminated scrap metal resource that will arise from cleanup of DOE`s gaseous diffusion plants.

  9. Method of electrolytic decontamination of contaminated metal materials for radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Yoshio; Ishibashi, Masaru; Matsumoto, Hiroyo.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To electrolytically eliminate radioactive materials from metal materials contaminated with radioactive materials, as well as efficiently remove metal ions leached out in an electrolyte. Method: In the case of anodic dissolution of metal materials contaminated with radioactivity in an electrolyte to eliminate radioactive contaminating materials on the surface of the metal materials, a portion of an electrolytic cell is defined with partition membranes capable of permeating metal ions therethrough. A cathode connected to a different power source is disposed to the inside of the partition membranes and fine particle of metals are suspended and floated in the electrolyte. By supplying an electric current between an insoluble anode disposed outside of the partition membranes and the cathode, metal ions permeating from the outside of the partition membranes are deposited on the fine metal particles. Accordingly, since metal ions in the electrolyte are removed, the electrolyte can always be kept clean. (Yoshihara, H.)

  10. Strippable gel for decontamination of contaminated metallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, D.; Sandhya, U.; Khot, S.A.; Srinivas, C.; Wattal, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    Periodic decontamination of radioactive laboratories including fume hoods, glove boxes and all surfaces used for handling, processing and transporting radioactive materials is mandatory in all nuclear installations as this reduces spread of contamination and decreases total man rem exposure. Conventionally, chemical decontaminating agents or surfactant solutions are used for this purpose. However, this approach leads to generation of large volume of secondary radioactive waste. The use of strippable gel is an attractive alternative with low secondary waste generation particularly where removal of loose or weakly fixed contamination is necessary and also when the decontaminated material are to be reused, for e.g. decontamination of fume hoods, glove boxes, transport casks, spent fuel storage racks, control rod drive transport containers etc. Literature on gel formulations is scarce and mostly in the patent form. The sustained effort on gel formulation development has resulted in a basic gel formulation. The gel is a highly viscous water-based organic polymer, particularly suitable for application on vertical surfaces including difficult to reach metallic surfaces of complex geometry and not just limited to horizontal surfaces. The gel can be easily applied on contaminated surfaces by brushing or spraying. Curing of the gel is complete within 16-24 hours under ambient conditions and can then be removed by peeling as a dry sheet. While curing, the contaminants are trapped in gel either physically or chemically depending upon the nature of the contaminant. Salient features of cured gel include that it is water soluble and can be disposed off after immobilization in cement. Decontamination performance of the gel was initially evaluated by applying it on SS planchettes contaminated with known amount of radionuclides such as Cs(I), Co(II) and Ce(III). The measured decontamination factor was found to be in the range of 50-500, lowest for Ce(III) and highest for Co

  11. Method of melting decontamination of radioactive contaminated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, Tatsuhiko; Miura, Noboru; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the transfer efficiency of radioactive materials into slags. Method: Contaminated metals are melt with adding slagging agent in order to transfer the radioactive materials into the slag, where the slagging agent holds less free energy than that of metal oxides contaminated with radioactive materials in order to promote the transfer of the contaminated materials into the slag layer. This effect can also be attained on metals or alloys other than iron contaminated with radioactive materials. In the case of alloy, the slagging agent is to containing such metal oxide that free energy is less than that of the oxide of metal being the main ingredient element of the alloy. The decontamination effect can further be improved by containing halogenide such as calcium fluoride together with the metal oxide into the slagging agent. (Ikeda, J.)

  12. Fungitoxicity of metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somers, E

    1961-01-01

    The in vitro fungistatic activity of some twenty-four metal cations has been determine against Alternaria tenuis and Botrytis fabae. The metal salts, mainly nitrates, were tested in aqueous solution without added spore germination stimulant. The logarithm of the metal ion concentration at the ED 50 value has been found to conform to the exponenttial relationship with electronegativity proposed by Danielli and Davies (1951). These results are discussed in relation to the site of action of metal cations on the fungal cell.

  13. Coolant system decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anstine, L.D.; James, D.B.; Melaika, E.A.; Peterson, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    An improved method for decontaminating the coolant system of water cooled nuclear power reactors and for regenerating the decontamination solution is described. A small amount of one or more weak-acid organic complexing agents is added to the reactor coolant, and the pH is adjusted to form a decontamination solution which is circulated throughout the coolant system to dissolve metal oxides from the interior surfaces and complex the resulting metal ions and radionuclide ions. The coolant containing the complexed metal ions and radionuclide ions is passed through a strong-base anion exchange resin bed which has been presaturated with a solution containing the complexing agents in the same ratio and having the same pH as the decontamination solution. As the decontamination solution passes through the resin bed, metal-complexed anions are exchanged for the metal-ion-free anions on the bed, while metal-ion-free anions in the solution pass through the bed, thus removing the metal ions and regenerating the decontamination solution. (author)

  14. Method of decontaminating radioactive metal wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaji, Nobuyoshi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To completely prevent the surface contamination of an equipment and decrease the amount of radioactive wastes to be resulted. Method: The surfaces of vessels, pipeways or the likes of nuclear reactor facilities to be contaminated with radioactive materials are appended with thin plates of metals identical or different from the constituents of the surfaces so as to be releasable after use. The material and the thickness of the plates and the method of appending then are determined depending on the state of use of the appended portions. Since only the stripped plates have to be processed as radioactive wastes, the amount of wastes can be decreased and, since the scrap materials can be reused, it is advantageous in view of the resource-saving. (Sekiya, K.)

  15. Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muth, T.R.; Moore, J.; Olson, D.; Mishra, B.

    1994-01-01

    Recycle of radioactive scrap metals (RSM) from decommissioning of DOE uranium enrichment and nuclear weapons manufacturing facilities is mandatory to recapture the value of these metals and avoid the high cost of disposal by burial. The scrap metals conversion project detailed below focuses on the contaminated nickel associated with the gaseous diffusion plants. Stainless steel can be produced in MSC's vacuum induction melting process (VIM) to the S30400 specification using nickel as an alloy constituent. Further the case alloy can be rolled in MSC's rolling mill to the mechanical property specification for S30400 demonstrating the capability to manufacture the contaminated nickel into valuable end products at a facility licensed to handle radioactive materials. Bulk removal of Technetium from scrap nickel is theoretically possible in a reasonable length of time with the high calcium fluoride flux, however the need for the high temperature creates a practical problem due to flux volatility. Bulk decontamination is possible and perhaps more desirable if nickel is alloyed with copper to lower the melting point of the alloy allowing the use of the high calcium fluoride flux. Slag decontamination processes have been suggested which have been proven technically viable at the Colorado School of Mines

  16. The synergistic effect of complex ligands for radioactive metal salts decontamination in supercritical CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go, M. S.; Park, K. H.; Kim, H. W.; Kim, H. D.

    2004-01-01

    The organophosphorus and dithiocarbamate ligands were used to extract five metal ions (Cd 2+ , Co 2+ , Cu 2+ , Pb 2+ , Zn 2+ ) in supercritical CO 2 so as to decontaminate the radioactive contaminants. The experiments confirmed that the ligands mixed together in a variety of the mixing ratios efficiently extracted all metal ions by more than 90% due to its synergistic effect. The UV-Vis spectrometer installed in a high-pressurized cell showed that the NaDDC was decomposed in supercritical CO 2 containing the water. It also proved that the synergistic effect improved the deprotonation of the organophosphorus ligand when NaDDC was used together with. In addition, we mixed organophosphorus ligand together with diethylamine, the decomposed NaDDC, to obtain the same extraction result of more than 90% as with NaDDC. The enhanced extraction efficiency shows the synergistic effect that is produced by combining two ligands together

  17. Melting decontamination and recycling of radioactive polluted metals from uranium mining and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Anquan

    2011-01-01

    Melting method is a primary method used for decontamination of radioactive polluted metal from uranium mining and metallurgy. The decontamination mechanism of the method, the way selection and its features are introduced. Taking the ten year's work of CNNC Uranium Mining and Metallurgy Radioactive Polluted Metal Melting Processing Center as example, the effects of processing radioactive polluted metals by smelting method are discussed. The surface pollution levels of radioactive polluted metal from uranium mining and metallurgy decreased from 4-48 Bq/cm 2 before decontamination to 0.004-0.016 Bq/cm 2 after decontamination, and the specific activity of its metal is less than 1 Bq/g, which is below the solution control level proposed by IAEARS-G1.7 'the application of the concepts of exclusion, immunity and solution control'. The metals after decontamination can be recycled by producing tooth plate and bucket teeth of excavator used in mines. (authors)

  18. Metal ion transporters and homeostasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, N

    1999-01-01

    Transition metals are essential for many metabolic processes and their homeostasis is crucial for life. Aberrations in the cellular metal ion concentrations may lead to cell death and severe diseases. Metal ion transporters play a major role in maintaining the correct concentrations of the various metal ions in the different cellular compartments. Recent studies of yeast mutants revealed key elements in metal ion homeostasis, including novel transport systems. Several of the proteins discover...

  19. Application of a modified electrochemical system for surface decontamination of radioactive metal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Lim, Y.K.; Yang, H.Y.; Shin, S.W.; Song, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional and modified electrolytic decontamination experiments were performed in a solution of sodium sulfate for the decontamination of carbon steel as the simulated metal wastes which are generated in large amounts from nuclear power plants. The effect of reaction time, current density and concentration of electrolytes in the modified electrolytic decontamination system were examined to remove the surface contamination of the simulated radioactive metal wastes. As for the results of this research, the modified electrochemical decontamination process can decontaminate more effectively than the conventional decontamination process by applying different anode material which causes higher induced electro-motive forces. When 0.5 M sodium sulfate, 0.4 A/cm 2 current density and 30 minutes reaction time were applied in the modified process, a 16 μm thickness change that is expected to remove most surface contamination in radioactive metal wastes was achieved on carbon steel which is the main material of radioactive metal waste in nuclear power plants. The decontamination efficiency of metal waste showed similar results with the small and large lab-scale modified electrochemical system. The application of this modified electrolytic decontamination system is expected to play a considerable role for decontamination of radioactive metal waste in nuclear power plants in the near future. (author)

  20. Eurochemic reprocessing plant decommissioning. Decontamination of contaminated metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walthery, R.; Teunckens, L.; Lewandowski, P.

    1998-01-01

    When decommissioning nuclear installations, large quantifies of metal components are produced as well as significant amounts of other radioactive materials, which mostly show low surface contamination. Having been used or having been brought for a while in a controlled area, marks them as 'suspected material'. In view of the very high costs for radioactive waste processing and disposal, alternatives have been considered, and much effort has been spent in recycling through decontamination, melting and unconditional release of metals. In a broader context, recycling of materials can be considered as a first order ecological priority to limit the quantities of radioactive wastes to be disposed of, to reduce the technical and economic problems involved with the management of radioactive wastes, and to make economic use of primary material and conserve natural resources of basic material for future generations. Other evaluations as the environmental impact of recycling compared to non recycling (mining or production of new material) and waste treatment, with the associated risks involved, can also be considered, as well as social and political impacts of recycling. This document gives an overview of the current practices in recycling of materials at the decommissioning of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant in Dessel, Belgium. It deals with the decontamination and measurement techniques in use, and considers related technical and economic aspects and constraints. (author)

  1. A biosystem for removal of metal ions from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilbane, J.J. II.

    1990-01-01

    The presence of heavy metal ions in ground and surface waters constitutes a potential health risk and is an environmental concern. Moreover, processes for the recovery of valuable metal ions are of interest. Bioaccumulation or biosorption is not only a factor in assessing the environmental risk posed by metal ions; it can also be used as a means of decontamination. A biological system for the removal and recovery of metal ions from contaminated water is reported here. Exopolysaccharide-producing microorganisms, including a methanotrophic culture, are demonstrated to have superior metal binding ability, compared with other microbial cultures. This paper describes a biosorption process in which dried biomass obtained from exopolysaccharide-producing microorganisms is encapsulated in porous plastic beads and is used for metal ion binding and recovery. 22 refs., 13 figs.

  2. Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite for decontamination of sulfur mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praveen Kumar, J.; Prasad, G.K.; Ramacharyulu, P.V.R.K.; Garg, P.; Ganesan, K.

    2013-01-01

    Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. They were prepared by precipitation pyrolysis method and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. Obtained data indicated the presence of mesopores with diameter ranging from 2 to 80 nm and the materials exhibited relatively high surface area 86 m 2 g −1 when compared to the individual metal oxide nanoparticles. Reactive sites of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied by infrared spectroscopy technique using pyridine as a probe molecule. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard when compared to single component metal oxides and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Highlights: • Preparation of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • CuO–ZnO with better surface area was synthesized by precipitation pyrolysis. • Decontamination of HD using mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • HD decontaminated by elimination and hydrolysis reactions

  3. Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite for decontamination of sulfur mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveen Kumar, J.; Prasad, G.K., E-mail: gkprasad2001@yahoo.com; Ramacharyulu, P.V.R.K.; Garg, P.; Ganesan, K.

    2013-11-01

    Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. They were prepared by precipitation pyrolysis method and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. Obtained data indicated the presence of mesopores with diameter ranging from 2 to 80 nm and the materials exhibited relatively high surface area 86 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} when compared to the individual metal oxide nanoparticles. Reactive sites of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied by infrared spectroscopy technique using pyridine as a probe molecule. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard when compared to single component metal oxides and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Highlights: • Preparation of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • CuO–ZnO with better surface area was synthesized by precipitation pyrolysis. • Decontamination of HD using mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • HD decontaminated by elimination and hydrolysis reactions.

  4. Treatment of Soil Decontamination Solution by the Cs{sup +} Ion Selective Ion Exchange Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Hui Jun; Kim, Gye Nam; Jung, Chung Hun; Oh, Won Zin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Occasionally, radioactively contaminated soils have been excavated and stored at the temporary storage facility. Cesium as a radionuclide is one of the most toxic elements and it has a long half decay life. During the operation of nuclear facility, soils near the facility would be contaminated with radioactive cesium and it will cause the deleterious effect to human body and environment. In this study, Cs{sup +} ion selective ion exchange resin was prepared by changing the functional group of commercial anion exchange resin for a ferrocyanide ion. Ion exchange capability of using the soil decontamination solution was investigated. We also performed the feasibility test of recycling the spent Cs ion selective ion exchange resin.

  5. Recycling decontaminated scrap metal from the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordas, F.

    2000-01-01

    The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) has set up a pilot program for recycling decontaminated scrap metal. In decommissioning its enriched uranium production facilities at Pierrelatte, the CEA has accumulated some 700 metric tons of scrap metal from dismantled uranium hexafluoride transport containers. The containers were decontaminated by SOCATRI at the Tricastin site, then cut up and recycled by a steelmaker. The project was submitted to the Ionizing Radiation Protection Office, the Nuclear Facilities Safety Division and the Regional Directorate for Industry, Research and Environmental Protection for approval. It was also submitted to the Ministry of Industry's Nuclear Information and Safety Council and to the Permanent Secretariat for Industrial Pollution Problems (an informational group chaired by the Prefect of the Provence Alpes-Cote d Azur region and including representatives of local and regional authorities, associations, elected officials and the media). The permit was granted for this program under the terms of a prefectorial decree stipulating additional requirements for the steelmaker, and contingent on the demonstration of full control over the operations, demonstrated traceability and the absence of any significant harmful effects. The key elements of this demonstration include the choice of operators, identification of the objects, itemization of the operations, discrimination of operators, the contractual framework of the operations, the signature of agreements by the CEA with SOCATRI and with the steelmaker, documentary monitoring of the operations, contradictory inspections and measurements, second-level inspection by the CEA/Valrho, audits of the operators and impact assessments. All the procedures of operations related to the scrap metal are described in quality assurance documents. (author)

  6. Low-level liquid waste decontamination by ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.O.; Lee, D.D.; Dillow, T.A.

    1991-12-01

    Improved processes are being developed to treat contaminated liquid wastes that have been and continue to be generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Both inorganic and organic ion-exchange methods have given promising results. Nickel and cobalt hexacyanoferrate(2) compounds are extremely selective for cesium removal, with distribution coefficients in excess of 10 6 and remarkable insensitivity to competition from sodium and potassium. They tend to lose effectiveness at pH > ∼11, but some formulations are useful for limited periods of time up to pH ∼13. Sodium titanate is selective for strontium removal at high pH. The separations are so efficient that simple batch processes can yield large decontamination factors while generating small volumes of solid waste. A resorcinol-based resin developed at the Savannah River Site gave superior cesium removal, compared with other organic ion exchangers; the distribution coefficient was limited primarily by competition from potassium and was nearly independent of sodium. The optimum pH was ∼12.5. It was much less effective for strontium removal, which was limited by competition from sodium. 8 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs

  7. Study of tritium decontamination of stainless steel, copper, aluminum metals by tritium dry desorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yun; Shi Zhengkun; Wu Tao

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the decontamination efficiency of stainless steel, copper, aluminum metals contaminated by tritium, the metals were decontaminated by exposing to UV, ozone, heating, and the combination of heating, UV and ozone. The result indicates that the elevation of temperature can obviously improve decontamination. While irradiated by 172 nm UV, the decontamination efficiency is low, but it is better while heated and irradiated by 172 nm UV. If the stainless steel is irradiated by 172 nm UV and heated at 500℃ for 4 h, the decontamination efficiency is 99.2%. There is better decontamination efficiency of copper while exposed to ozone. While exposed to ozone and heated at 500℃, the decontamination efficiencies of stainless steel, copper and aluminum are higher than 99.2%. The decontamination efficiency can more obviously improve when metal is heated at high temperature (500℃) than low temperature (300℃). The surface tritium of metal placed at 30 d after decontamination increases because of diffusion and penetration of the tritium. Resolution spectra of tritium show that there are four kinds of contamination adsorbed tritium of stainless steel. (authors)

  8. Mesoporous binary metal oxide nanocomposites: Synthesis, characterization and decontamination of sulfur mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveen Kumar, J., E-mail: praveenjella10@gmail.com; Prasad, G.K.; Ramacharyulu, P.V.R.K.; Singh, Beer; Gopi, T.; Krishna, R.

    2016-04-15

    Mesoporous MnO{sub 2}–ZnO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–ZnO, NiO–ZnO, and CeO{sub 2}–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard. They were synthesized by precipitation pyrolysis method and characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive analysis of X rays, X ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption techniques. The transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption data indicated the presence of pores with diameter ranging from 10 to 70 nm in the binary metal oxide nanocomposites and these materials exhibited surface area values in the range of 76–134 m{sup 2}/g. These binary metal oxide nanocomposites demonstrated large decontamination efficiencies against sulfur mustard when compared to their single component metal oxide nanoparticles. The binary metal oxide nanocomposites effectively decontaminated sulfur mustard into relatively non toxic products such as chloro ethyl vinyl sulfide, divinyl sulfide, 1,4-oxathiane, etc. The promising decontamination properties of binary metal oxide nanocomposites against sulfur mustard were attributed to the basic sites, Lewis acid sites, and the presence of these sites was confirmed by CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} temperature programmed desorption. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous MnO{sub 2}–ZnO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–ZnO, NiO–ZnO, and CeO{sub 2}–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard. - Highlights: • Binary metal oxide nanocomposites were synthesized by co-precipitation method. • They were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard. • They decontaminated sulfur mustard into non toxic products. • MnO{sub 2}–ZnO and CeO{sub 2}–ZnO nanocomposites showed greater decontamination efficiency.

  9. Ion implantation and amorphous metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohmuth, K.; Rauschenbach, B.

    1981-01-01

    This review deals with ion implantation of metals in the high concentration range for preparing amorphous layers (>= 10 at%, implantation doses > 10 16 ions/cm 2 ). Different models are described concerning formation of amorphous phases of metals by ion implantation and experimental results are given. The study of amorphous phases has been carried out by the aid of Rutherford backscattering combined with the channeling technique and using transmission electron microscopy. The structure of amorphous metals prepared by ion implantation has been discussed. It was concluded that amorphous metal-metalloid compounds can be described by a dense-random-packing structure with a great portion of metal atoms. Ion implantation has been compared with other techniques for preparing amorphous metals and the adventages have been outlined

  10. Electrochemical decontamination of metallic surfaces by means of a movable electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihai, F.; Nicu, M.; Cazan, L.; Turcanu, C.

    1998-01-01

    Electrochemical decontamination can be considered to be a decontamination assisted by an electrochemical field. The method is applied to the metallic surface decontamination for contaminants of any physico-chemical nature. The physico-chemical phenomenon that is the basis for the electrochemical methods is the anodic layer dissolution. By dissolution of the superficial layer any radioactive contaminant on the surface or entrapped within the surface oxide is eliminated. Electrochemical decontamination, also known as electropolishing, involves the use of the object to be cleaned as an anode in an electrochemical cell. The passage of current results in anodic dissolution of the surface material. Generally, there are many methods of application for electropolishing. The most common method is immersing the object to be decontaminated in a tank filled with a suitable electrolyte. The electrochemical method with movable electrode involves the use of 'in situ' mobile devices that are able to electropolish punctual surfaces in places difficult to access. The advantages are the simplicity of the setup, short times of application and reduced waste volumes. Phosphoric and sulphuric acid mixture is used as the electrolyte in electropolishing because of its stability, safety and applicability to a variety of alloy systems. The method was applied to decontaminate carbon steel, aluminium and copper. Used contaminants are mixtures of 60 Co and 134 Cs; 60 Co and 65 Zn; 60 Co, 65 Zn and 134 Cs. After preparation, the samples were kept in laboratory conditions about one month, to simulate real conditions and to let the chemical reactions between contaminant and sample material constitution to complete. To calculate decontamination factor characteristic for each studied decontamination method the following radiometric measurements are necessary: - activity measurement after radioisotope solution contamination representing initial activity Λ in ; - activity measurement after

  11. Reuse of waste water from high pressure water jet decontamination for reactor decommissioning scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Junxian; Li Xin; Hou Huijuan

    2011-01-01

    For recycle and reuse of reactor decommissioning scrap metal by high pressure water jet decontamination, large quantity of radioactive waste water will be generated. To save the cost of radioactive waste water treatment and to reduce the cost of the scrap decontamination, this part of radioactive waste water should be reused. Most of the radioactivities in the decontamination waste water come from the solid particle in the water. Thus to reuse the waste water, the solid particle in the waster should be removed. Different possible treatment technologies have been investigated. By cost benefit analysis the centrifugal separation technology is selected. (authors)

  12. Low-level liquid waste decontamination by inorganic ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.O.; Lee, D.D.; Dillow, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Improved processes are being developed to treat contaminated liquid wastes that have been and continue to be generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The most serious contaminants are 137 Cs and 90 Sr, and certain inorganic ion-exchange material have given promising results. Nickel and cobalt hexacyanoferrate (II) compounds are extremely selective for cesium removal, with distribution coefficients in excess of 10 6 even in the presence of high cesium and moderate potassium concentrations. Sodium titanate is selective for strontium removal from solutions with high alkali metal concentrations, especially at high pH. These separations are so efficient that one or two stages of simple, batch separation can yield large DFs (∼10 4 ) while still generating small volumes of solid waste

  13. Study on LOMI decontamination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Fuduan; Yu Degui; Lu Jingju; Xie Yinyan

    1993-10-01

    The results of decontamination technique of Low-Oxidation-State Metal-Ion (LOMI) reagents developed from 1986 to 1991 in the laboratory are introduced. The experiments included preparation of LOMI reagents, de-filming efficiency, corrosion behavior of typical alloys, decontamination factors of reagents for contaminated materials and components have proved that the NP/LOMI decontamination method and treatment technique of waste water are feasible and have some advantages. The preparation of LOMI reagent with low concentration of formic acid by reduced pressure distilling technique and the utilization ratio of vanadium reached to 95% by second electrolysis are the main contributions of the study to the decontamination technique

  14. Screening for the next generation heavy metal hyperaccumulators for dryland decontamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravanbakhsh, Mohammadhossein; Ronaghi, Abdol Majid; Taghavi, Seyed Mohsen; Jousset, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metal removal by plants bears a great potential to decontaminate soils. A major challenge remains to find plant species that accumulate heavy metal, harbor a sufficient biomass and grow in the desired environmental conditions. Here we present candidate plants for phytoremediation in arid

  15. Effects of slag composition and process variables on decontamination of metallic wastes by melt refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heshmatpour, B.; Copeland, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    Melt refining has been suggested as an alternative for decontamination and volume reduction of low-level-contaminated metallic wastes. Knowledge of metallurgical and thermochemical aspects of the process is essential for effective treatment of various metals. Variables such as slag type and composition, melting technique, and refractory materials need to be identified for each metal or alloy. Samples of contaminated metals were melted with fluxes by resistance furnace or induction heating. The resulting ingots as well as the slags were analyzed for their nuclide contents, and the corresponding partition ratios were calculated. Compatibility of slags and refractories was also investigated, and proper refractory materials were identified. Resistance furnace melting appeared to be a better melting technique for nonferrous scrap, while induction melting was more suitable for ferrous metals. In general uranium contents of the metals, except for aluminum, could be reduced to as low as 0.01 to 0.1 ppM by melt refining. Aluminum could be decontaminated to about 1 to 2 ppM U when certain fluoride slags were used. The extent of decontamination was not very sensitive to slag type and composition. However, borosilicate and basic oxidizing slags were more effective on ferrous metals and Cu; NaNO 3 -NaCl-NaOH type fluxes were desirable for Zn, Pb, and Sn; and fluoride type slags were effective for decontamination of Al. Recrystallized alumina proved to be the most compatible refractory for melt refining both ferrous and nonferrous metals, while graphite was suitable for nonferrous metal processing. In conclusion, melt refining is an effective technique for volume reduction ad decontamination of contaminated metal scrap when proper slags, melting technique, and refractories are used

  16. Analysis of the application of decontamination technologies to radioactive metal waste minimization using expert systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayrakal, Suna [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-09-30

    Radioactive metal waste makes up a significant portion of the waste currently being sent for disposal. Recovery of this metal as a valuable resource is possible through the use of decontamination technologies. Through the development and use of expert systems a comparison can be made of laser decontamination, a technology currently under development at Ames Laboratory, with currently available decontamination technologies for applicability to the types of metal waste being generated and the effectiveness of these versus simply disposing of the waste. These technologies can be technically and economically evaluated by the use of expert systems techniques to provide a waste management decision making tool that generates, given an identified metal waste, waste management recommendations. The user enters waste characteristic information as input and the system then recommends decontamination technologies, determines residual contamination levels and possible waste management strategies, carries out a cost analysis and then ranks, according to cost, the possibilities for management of the waste. The expert system was developed using information from literature and personnel experienced in the use of decontamination technologies and requires validation by human experts and assignment of confidence factors to the knowledge represented within.

  17. Analysis of the application of decontamination technologies to radioactive metal waste minimization using expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayrakal, S.

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive metal waste makes up a significant portion of the waste currently being sent for disposal. Recovery of this metal as a valuable resource is possible through the use of decontamination technologies. Through the development and use of expert systems a comparison can be made of laser decontamination, a technology currently under development at Ames Laboratory, with currently available decontamination technologies for applicability to the types of metal waste being generated and the effectiveness of these versus simply disposing of the waste. These technologies can be technically and economically evaluated by the use of expert systems techniques to provide a waste management decision making tool that generates, given an identified metal waste, waste management recommendations. The user enters waste characteristic information as input and the system then recommends decontamination technologies, determines residual contamination levels and possible waste management strategies, carries out a cost analysis and then ranks, according to cost, the possibilities for management of the waste. The expert system was developed using information from literature and personnel experienced in the use of decontamination technologies and requires validation by human experts and assignment of confidence factors to the knowledge represented within

  18. Decontamination of spent ion-exchangers contaminated with cesium radionuclides using resorcinol-formaldehyde resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamarchuk, Marina; Egorin, Andrey; Tokar, Eduard; Tutov, Mikhail; Marinin, Dmitry; Avramenko, Valentin

    2017-01-05

    The origin of the emergence of radioactive contamination not removable in the process of acid-base regeneration of ion-exchange resins used in treatment of technological media and liquid radioactive waste streams has been determined. It has been shown that a majority of cesium radionuclides not removable by regeneration are bound to inorganic deposits on the surface and inside the ion-exchange resin beads. The nature of the above inorganic inclusions has been investigated by means of the methods of electron microscopy, IR spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The method of decontamination of spent ion-exchange resins and zeolites contaminated with cesium radionuclides employing selective resorcinol-formaldehyde resins has been suggested. Good prospects of such an approach in deep decontamination of spent ion exchangers have been demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Decontamination of alpha contaminated metallic waste by cerium IV redox process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, J.G.; Dhami, P.S.; Gandhi, P.M.; Wattal, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    Decontamination of alpha contaminated metallic waste is an important aspect in the management of waste generated during dismantling and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Present work on cerium redox process targets decontamination of alpha contaminated metallic waste till it qualifies for the non alpha waste category for disposal in near surface disposal facility. Recovery of the alpha radio nuclides and cerium from aqueous secondary waste streams was also studied deploying solvent extraction process and established. The alpha-lean secondary waste stream has been immobilised in cement based matrix for final disposal. (author)

  20. Method of decontaminating radioactive-contaminated instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urata, Megumu; Fujii, Masaaki; Kitaguchi, Hiroshi.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable safety processing of liquid wastes by recovering radioactive metal ions remaining in the electrolytes after the decontamination procedure thereby decreasing the radioactivity. Method: In a decontamination tank containing electrolytes consisting of diluted hydrochloric acid and diluted sulfuric acid, are provided a radioactive contaminated instrument connected to an anode and a collector electrode made of stainless steel connected to a cathode respectively. Upon applying electrical current, the portion of the mother material to be decontaminated is polished electrolytically into metal ions and they are deposited as metal on the collection electrode. After completion of the decontamination, an ultrasonic wave generator is operated to strip and remove the oxide films. Thereafter, the anode is replaced with the carbon electrode and electrical current is supplied continuously, whereby the remaining metal ions are deposited and recovered as the metal on the collection electrode. (Yoshino, Y.)

  1. Method of decontaminating radioactive-contaminated instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, M; Fujii, M; Kitaguchi, H

    1982-03-29

    Purpose: To enable safety processing of liquid wastes by recovering radioactive metal ions remaining in the electrolytes after the decontamination procedure thereby decreasing the radioactivity. Method: In a decontamination tank containing electrolytes consisting of diluted hydrochloric acid and diluted sulfuric acid, are provided a radioactive contaminated instrument connected to an anode and a collector electrode made of stainless steel connected to a cathode respectively. Upon applying electrical current, the portion of the mother material to be decontaminated is polished electrolytically into metal ions and they are deposited as metal on the collection electrode. After completion of the decontamination, an ultrasonic wave generator is operated to strip and remove the oxide films. Thereafter, the anode is replaced with the carbon electrode and electrical current is supplied continuously, whereby the remaining metal ions are deposited and recovered as the metal on the collection electrode.

  2. Solidification of metal oxide from electrokinetic-electrodialytic decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Daeseo; Park, Uk-Ryang; Kim, Gye-Nam; Kim, Seung-Soo; Moon, Jei-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Electrokinectic-electrodialytic decontamination technology reduced 80% of the concentration of the uranium soil waste to below the concentration of self-disposal. After conducting electrokinectic-electrodialytic decontamination, more than 10% of the remainder of radioactive waste from the cathodes of electrokinectic-electrodialytic equipment were produced. To dispose of such waste, it is necessary to solidify second radioactive waste owing to the requirements of radioactive waste from public corporations. In this study, a solidification experiment was carried out using a polymer. At first, a sampling of second radioactive waste was conducted. Then, second radioactive waste and a polymer were mixed. Third, the solidified state between the second radioactive waste and polymer was checked. In our next study, an experiment for the requirements of a public radioactive waste corporation will be conducted.

  3. Laser techniques for radioactive decontamination gives metallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar Alracon, L.; Molina, G.; Vizuet Gonzalez, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this work it presented the prototype for system decontamination at diverse component with removable superficial contamination, using the technique gives laser ablation, for the evaporation at the pollutant. It discusses the principle in the fact that system, as well as the different elements that compose it. The are presented the obtained results when irradiating with a laser a surface without radioactive contamination to verify the system operation

  4. Chemical decontamination: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.A.; Wood, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    The source of radioactive contamination in various types of power reactors is discussed. The methods of chemical decontamination vary with the manner in which the radioactive contaminants are deposited on the surface. Two types of dilute decontamination systems are available. One system uses organic acids and chelating agents, which are mildly reducing in nature. In this process, the oxide contaminants are removed by simple acidic dissolution and reductive dissolution. The second type of decontamination process is based on low oxidation state metal ions, which are more strongly reducing and do not require a corrosion inhibitor. All processes commercially available for decontamination of power reactors are not detailed here, but a few key issues to be considered in the selection of a process are highlighted. 2 figures, 2 tables

  5. Leach studies on cement-solidified ion exchange resins from decontamination processes at operating nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Akers, D.W.; McConnell, J.W.; Morcos, N.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of varying pH and leachant compositions on the physical stability and leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents were determined for cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin wastes collected from two operating commercial light water reactors. Small scale waste-form specimens were collected during waste solidifications performed at the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant Unit 1 and at the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Station. The collected specimens were leach tested, and their compressive strength was measured in accordance with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's ''Technical Position on Waste Form'' (Revision 1), from the Low-Level Waste Management Branch. Leachates from these studies were analyzed for radionuclides, selected transition metals, and chelating agents to assess the leachability of these waste form constituents. Leachants used for the study were deionized water, simulated seawater, and groundwater compositions similar to those found at Barnwell, South Carolina and Hanford, Washington. Results of this study indicate that initial leachant pH does not affect leachate pH or releases from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin waste forms. However, differences in leachant composition and the presence of chelating agents may affect the releases of radionuclides and chelating agents. In addition, results from this study indicate that the cumulative releases of radionuclides and chelating agents observed for forms that disintegrated were similar to those for forms that maintained their general physical integrity

  6. An attemp to use a pulsed CO2 laser for decontamination of radioactive metal surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    MILAN S. TRTICA; SCEPAN S. MILJANIC; NATASA N. STJEPANOVIC

    2000-01-01

    There is a growing interest in laser radioactive decontamination of metal surfaces. It offers advantages over conventional methods: improved safety, reduction of secondary waste, reduced waste volume, acceptable cost. The main mechanism of cleaning by lasers is ablation. A pulsed TEA CO2 laser was used in this work for surface cleaning in order to show that ablation of metal surfaces is possible even at relatively low pulse energies, and to suggest that it could be competitive with other lase...

  7. Decontamination processes for low level radioactive waste metal objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longnecker, E.F.; Ichikawa, Sekigo; Kanamori, Osamu

    1996-01-01

    Disposal and safe storage of contaminated nuclear waste is a problem of international scope. Although the greatest volume of such waste is concentrated in the USA and former Soviet Union, Western Europe and Japan have contaminated nuclear waste requiring attention. Japan's radioactive nuclear waste is principally generated at nuclear power plants since it has no nuclear weapons production. However, their waste reduction, storage and disposal problems may be comparable to that of the USA on an inhabited area basis when consideration is given to population density where Japan's population, half that of the USA, lives in an area slightly smaller than that of California's. If everyone's backyard was in California, the USA might have insoluble radioactive waste reduction, storage and disposal problems. Viewing Japan's contaminated nuclear waste as a national problem requiring solutions, as well as an economic opportunity, Morikawa began research and development for decontaminating low level radioactive nuclear waste seven years ago. As engineers and manufacturers of special machinery for many years Morikawa brings special electro/mechanical/pneumatic Skills and knowledge to solving these unique problems. Genden Engineering Services and Construction Company (GESC), an affiliate of Japan Atomic Power Company, recently joined with Morikawa in this R ampersand D effort to decontaminate low level radioactive nuclear waste (LLW) and to substantially reduce the volume of such nuclear waste requiring long term storage. This paper will present equipment with both mechanical and chemical processes developed over these several years by Morikawa and most recently in cooperation with GESC

  8. An attemp to use a pulsed CO2 laser for decontamination of radioactive metal surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILAN S. TRTICA

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in laser radioactive decontamination of metal surfaces. It offers advantages over conventional methods: improved safety, reduction of secondary waste, reduced waste volume, acceptable cost. The main mechanism of cleaning by lasers is ablation. A pulsed TEA CO2 laser was used in this work for surface cleaning in order to show that ablation of metal surfaces is possible even at relatively low pulse energies, and to suggest that it could be competitive with other lasers because of much higher energy efficiencies. A brief theoretical analysis was made before the experiments. The laser beam was focused using a KBr-lens onto a surface contaminated with 137Cs (b-, t1/2 = 30.17 y. Three different metals were used: stainless steel, copper and aluminium. The ablated material was pumped out in an air atmosphere and transferred to a filter. The presence of activity on the filter was shown by a germanium detector-multichannel analyzer. The activity levels were measured by a GM counter. The calculated decontamination factors and collection factors showed that ablation occurs with a relatively high efficiency of decontamination. This investigation suggests that decontamination using a CO2 laser should be seriously considered.

  9. Possibilities of a metal surface radioactive decontamination using a pulsed CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milijanic, Scepan S.; Stjepanovic, Natasa N.; Trtica, Milan S.

    2000-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the laser radioactive decontamination of metal surfaces. It offers advantages over conventional methods: improved safety, reduction of secondary waste, reduced waste volume, acceptable cost. A main mechanism of cleaning in by lasers is ablation. In this work a pulsed TEA CO2 laser was used for surface cleaning, primarily in order to demonstrate that the ablation from metal surfaces with this laser is possible even with relatively low pulse energies, and secondary, that it could be competitive with other lasers because of much higher energy efficiencies. The laser pulse contains two parts, one strong and shot peak at the beginning, followed with a tail. The beam was focused onto a contaminated surface with a KBr lens. The surface was contaminated with 137Cs. Three different metals were used: stainless steel, copper and aluminum. The evaporated material was pumped out in air atmosphere and transferred to a filter. Presence of the activity on the filter was proved by a germanium detector-multichannel analyzer. Activity levels were measured by a GM counter. Calculated decontamination factors as well as collection factors have shown that ablation takes place with relatively high efficiency of decontamination. This investigation suggests that decontamination using the CO2 laser should be seriously considered.

  10. Melting decontamination and free release of metal waste at Studsvik RadWaste Co. in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawatsuma, Shinji; Ishikawa, Keiji; Matsubara, Tatsuo; Donomae, Yasushi; Imagawa, Yasuhiro

    2006-01-01

    The Studsvik RadWaste Co. in Sweden was visited on August 29, 2005 by members of radioactive waste and decommissioning subgroup of central safety task force in old Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute as 'Overseas investigation'. The visit afforded us the chance to survey melting and decontaminating of metallic waste in this company and the status of free release. Domestic and foreign radioactive metallic waste is accepted in this company after 1987, and the majority of the decontaminated waste have been released freely. In the background of the big effort of this company and the strong leadership of the regulator (SSI: Swedish radiation protection Authority), prosperous operation was able to have been achieved. This survey was done based on 'Free release of radioactive metallic waste in Europe: the free release experience for 17 years at Studsvik RadWaste Co. in Sweden' by Dr. J. Lorenzen. (author)

  11. Melting-decontamination method for radioactive contaminated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, Tatsuhiko; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Miura, Noboru; Iba, Hajime.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate uranium components remaining in metals even after the uranium-contaminated metals are melted. Method: Metal wastes contaminated with actinide element or its compound as nuclear fuel substance are melted in a crucible. Molten metals are fallen through a filter disposed at the bottom of the crucible into another receiving crucible. Uranium compounds are still left in the molten metal fallen in the receiving crucible. The residual uranium compounds are concentrated by utilizing the principle of the zone-refining process. That is, a displaceable local-heating heater is disposed to the receiving crucible, by which metals once solidified in the receiving crucible is again heated locally to transfer from solid to molten phase in a quasi-equibilized manner. In this way, by eliminating the end of the metal rod at which the uranium is segregated, the contaminating coefficient can be improved. (Ikeda, J.)

  12. Metal Ion Controlled Polymorphism of a Peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Lars Bo Stegeager; Jancso, Attila; Szunyogh, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    ions on fully or partially unstructured proteins, or the effect of metal ions on protein aggregation. Metal ions may be employed to fold (or misfold) individual peptides in a controlled manner depending on the potential metal ion coordinating amino acid side chains (Cys, His, Asp, Glu......In this work a metal ion binding model dodecapeptide was investigated in terms of its capacity to adopt different structures depending on the metal ion to peptide stoichiometry. The dodecapeptide is much simpler than real proteins, yet displays sufficient complexity to model the effect of metal......, …) in the peptide, and the ligand and structural preferences of the metal ion (in our studies Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Cu+/2+). Simultaneously, new species such as metal ion bridged ternary complexes or even oligomers may be formed. In recent previous studies we have observed similar polymorphism of zinc finger model...

  13. Cement matrix solidification of decontamination ion-exchange resin waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, N. S.; Hebditch, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    Crossflow membrane separation has been evaluated as an alternative to more conventional separation methods for the removal of oil from nuclear power station aqueous effluents and liquid wastes. Three commercially available membranes were investigated at small pilot scale; sintered metal power and metal fibre membranes, both of tubular geometries, and hollow fibre polypropylene. The sintered powder membrane gave by far the best oil water separation performance. Less than 10 ppm oil in the aqueous permeate was readily achieved and the oil was concentrated up to 75% by volume from feed concentrations in the range 1000 ppm to 10%. The presence of solids was found to have a profound influence on permeation rates. On the basis of the data presented, a single stage scheme for the treatment of oily effluents is proposed

  14. Growth of micrometric oxide layers to explore laser decontamination of metallic surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho Luisa; Pacquentin Wilfried; Tabarant Michel; Maskrot Hicham; Semerok Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear industry produces a wide range of radioactive waste in terms of hazard level, contaminants and material. For metallic equipment like steam generators, the radioactivity is mainly located in the oxide surface. In order to study and develop safe techniques for dismantling and for decontamination, it is important to have access to oxide layers with a representative distribution of non-radioactive contaminants. In this paper we propose a method for the creation of oxide layers on stai...

  15. Growth of micrometric oxide layers for the study of metallic surfaces decontamination by laser

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho Luisa; Pacquentin Wilfried; Tabarant Michel; Maskrot Hicham; Semerok Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear industry produces a wide range of radioactive waste in term of level of hazard, contaminants and material. For metallic equipment like steam generators, the radioactivity is mainly located in the oxide surface. In order to study and develop techniques for dismantling and for decontamination in a safe way, it is important to have access to oxide layers with a representative distribution of non-radioactive contaminants. We propose a method of formation of oxide layer on stainless st...

  16. Laser decontamination and cleaning of metal surfaces: modelling and experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leontyev, A.

    2011-01-01

    Metal surface cleaning is highly required in different fields of modern industry. Nuclear industry seeks for new methods for oxidized surface decontamination, and thermonuclear installations require the cleaning of plasma facing components from tritium-containing deposited layer. The laser ablation is proposed as an effective and safe method for metal surface cleaning and decontamination. The important factor influencing the laser heating and ablation is the in-depth distribution of laser radiation. The model of light propagation in a scattering layer on a metal substrate is developed and applied to analyse the features of light distribution. To simulate the contaminated surfaces, the stainless steel AISI 304L was oxidized by laser and in a furnace. Radioactive contamination of the oxide layer was simulated by introducing europium and/or sodium. The decontamination factor of more than 300 was demonstrated with found optimal cleaning regime. The decreasing of the corrosion resistance was found after laser cleaning. The ablation thresholds of ITER-like surfaces were measured. The cleaning productivity of 0.07 m 2 /hour.W was found. For mirror surfaces, the damage thresholds were determined to avoid damage during laser cleaning. The possibility to restore reflectivity after thin carbon layer deposition was demonstrated. The perspectives of further development of laser cleaning are discussed. (author) [fr

  17. Application of inorganic ion exchangers for low and medium activity radioactive effluent decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozol, J.F.; Eymard, S.; Gambade, R.; La Rosa, G.

    1986-01-01

    This study proposes an alternative pretreatment or treatment for low and medium activity liquid wastes, allowing to improve the quality of containment and decrease the cost of storage. Inorganic ion exchangers are used to remove alpha emitters and long lived fission products and concentrate them in a small volume; these exchangers can be converted into a stable matrix by thermal treatment. This treatment, at least for some liquid wastes, don't exclude a complementary decontamination by chemical precipitation. Sludges, arising from precipitation, exempt from alpha emitters and long lived fission products can be stored in a shallow land burial. This study includes two parts: - Measurements of distribution coefficients for the main nuclides in order to choose, for each liquid wastes, the most suitable ion exchanger. - Estimation of performances of selected inorganic ion exchangers, from tests of percolation of genuine effluents

  18. Immobilisation in cement of ion exchange resins arising from the purification of reagents used for the decontamination of reactor circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donoghue, S.J.; Howard, C.G.; Lee, D.J.

    1987-06-01

    An account of the annual decontaminations undertaken on the SGHWR at Winfrith is given with reasons for changing from Citrox reagents to LOMI plus the effects of using nitric acid permanganate solution as a preoxidising agent. Safe disposal of these reagents after use is a problem concerning many water cooled reactor operators. A brief review of the various methods of disposal is given. The proposed method of disposing of LOMI wastes generated at Winfrith is to remove the activity onto ion exchange resins then immobilize them in a cement matrix. Duolite C225 (a cross linked polystyrene with sulphonic acid functional groups) has been identified as a suitable ion exchanger. Duolite C225 in the sodium form can be successfully immobilised in blended cement systems. The formulation which appears acceptable is manufactured from a 9 to 1 blend of Blast Furnace Slag and Ordinary Portland Cement, containing 40% ion exchange resin by weight, in the form of a slurry. The product has adequate strength for handling and shows little dimensional change with time. Experiments show that above 50% waste loading the product becomes unstable and its strength is unacceptably low. Changes in the metal cation have shown little effect on the properties of the product. Increasing the waste loading appears to have little effect on the hydration rate of the product. Preliminary calculations show that a volume reduction factor of 4 is obtained by taking the active LOMI effluent, removing the activity onto the Duolite C225 and then immobilising in cement. (author)

  19. Decontamination of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from slag-polluted soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisone, Sara; Mercier, Guy; Blais, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Metallurgy is an industrial activity that is one of the largest contributors to soil contamination by metals. This contamination is often associated with organic compound contamination; however, little research has been aimed at the development of simultaneous processes for decontamination as opposed to treatments to heavy metals or organic compounds alone. This paper presents an efficient process to decontaminate the soils polluted with smelting by-products rich in Cu, Zn and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A simultaneous treatment for metals and PAHs was also tested. The process is mainly based on physical techniques, such as crushing, gravimetric separation and attrition. For the finest particle size fractions, an acid extraction with H2SO4 was used to remove metals. The PAH removal was enhanced by adding surfactant during attrition. The total metal removals varied from 49% to 73% for Cu and from 43% to 63% for Zn, whereas a removal yield of 92% was measured for total PAHs. Finally, a technical-economic evaluation was done for the two processes tested.

  20. Prosopis juliflora--a green solution to decontaminate heavy metal (Cu and Cd) contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, P; Prince, W S P M; Sivakumar, S; Subbhuraam, C V

    2005-09-01

    Soil and plant samples (root and shoot) of Prosopis juliflora were collected in the vicinity of metal based foundry units in Coimbatore and assessed for their heavy metal content (Cu and Cd) to ascertain the use of P. juliflora as a green solution to decontaminate soils contaminated with Cu and Cd. The results showed that Cu and Cd content was much higher in plant components compared to their extractable level in the soil. Furthermore, there exist a strong correlation between the distance of the sources of industrial units and accumulation of heavy metals in plants. Accumulation of Cd in roots is comparatively higher than that of shoots. However, in case of Cu no such clear trend is seen. Considering the accumulation efficiency and tolerance of P. juliflora to Cd and Cu, this plant can be explored further for the decontamination of metal polluted soils. On the other hand, in view of heavy metal accumulate the practice of providing foliage and pods as fodder for live stock should be avoided.

  1. Chemical decontamination process and device therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Ryota; Sakai, Hitoshi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a process and a device for chemical decontamination, which can suppress corrosion of low corrosion resistant materials, keep decontamination properties substantially as same as before and further, reduce the volume of secondary wastes. In a step of reductively melting oxide membranes on an objective material to be decontaminated, a mixture of oxalic acid and a salt thereof is used as a reducing agent, and the reductive melting is conducted while suppressing hydrogen ion concentration of an aqueous liquid system. In order to enhance the reducibility of the oxalic acid ions, it is desirable to add a cyclic hetero compound thereto. The device of the present invention comprises, a decontamination loop including a member to be decontaminated, a heater and a pH meter, a medical injection pump for injecting a reducing agent to the decontamination loop, a metal ion recovering loop including an ion exchange resin tower, a reducing agent decomposing loop including an electrolytic vessel and/or a UV ray irradiation cell, a circulation pump for circulating the decontamination liquid to each of the loops and a plurality of opening/closing valves for switching the loop in which the decontamination liquid is circulated. (T.M.)

  2. Metal hydride compositions and lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Kwo; Nei, Jean

    2018-04-24

    Heterogeneous metal hydride (MH) compositions comprising a main region comprising a first metal hydride and a secondary region comprising one or more additional components selected from the group consisting of second metal hydrides, metals, metal alloys and further metal compounds are suitable as anode materials for lithium ion cells. The first metal hydride is for example MgH.sub.2. Methods for preparing the composition include coating, mechanical grinding, sintering, heat treatment and quenching techniques.

  3. DECISION ANALYSIS AND TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENTS FOR METAL AND MASONRY DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to conduct a comparative analysis of innovative technologies for the non-aggressive removal of coatings from metal and masonry surfaces and the aggressive removal of one-quarter to one-inch thickness of surface from structural masonry. The technologies tested should be capable of being used in nuclear facilities. Innovative decontamination technologies are being evaluated under standard, non-nuclear conditions at the FIU-HCET technology assessment site in Miami, Florida. This study is being performed to support the OST, the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D and D) Focus Area, and the environmental restoration of DOE facilities throughout the DOE complex by providing objective evaluations of currently available decontamination technologies

  4. Decontamination Project for Cell G of the Metal Recovery Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandry, G.J.; Grisham, R.W.

    1994-02-01

    The goal of the decontamination effort in Cell G at the Metal Recovery Facility, Building 3505, located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was two-fold: to determine the effectiveness of the dry decontamination technique employed and to provide data required to assess whether additional decontamination using this method would be beneficial in the eventual decommissioning of the facility. Allied Technology Group (ATG) was contracted to remove a portion of the concrete surface in Cell G by a technique known as scabbling. Some metallic cell components were also scabbled to remove paint and other surface debris. Generally, the scabbling operation was a success. Levels of contamination were greatly reduced. The depth of contaminant penetration into the concrete surfaces of certain areas was much greater than had been anticipated, necessitating the removal of additional concrete and extending ATG's period of performance. Scabbling and other related techniques will be extremely useful in the decontamination and decommissioning of other nuclear facilities with similar radiological profiles

  5. Decontamination of metals by melt refinings/slagging: An annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizia, R.E. [ed.; Worcester, S.A.; Twidwell, L.G.; Paolini, D.J.; Weldon, T.A.

    1993-07-01

    As the number of nuclear installations undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) increases, current radioactive waste storage space is consumed and establishment of new waste storage areas becomes increasingly difficult, the problem of handling and storing radioactive scrap metal (RSM) gains increasing importance in the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. To alleviate present and future waste storage problems, Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) is managing a program for the recycling of RSM for beneficial use within the DOE complex. As part of that effort, Montana Tech has been awarded a contract to help optimize melting and refining technology for the recycling of stainless steel RSM. The scope of the Montana Tech program includes a literature survey, a decontaminating slag design study, small scale melting studies to determine optimum slag compositions for removal of radioactive contaminant surrogates, analysis of preferred melting techniques, and coordination of large scale melting demonstrations (100--500 lbs) to be conducted at selected facilities. The program will support recycling and decontaminating stainless steel RSM for use in waste canisters for Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility densified high level waste. This report is the result of the literature search conducted to establish a basis for experimental melt/slag program development.

  6. Decontamination of metals by melt refinings/slagging: An annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizia, R.E.; Worcester, S.A.; Twidwell, L.G.; Paolini, D.J.; Weldon, T.A.

    1993-07-01

    As the number of nuclear installations undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) increases, current radioactive waste storage space is consumed and establishment of new waste storage areas becomes increasingly difficult, the problem of handling and storing radioactive scrap metal (RSM) gains increasing importance in the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. To alleviate present and future waste storage problems, Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) is managing a program for the recycling of RSM for beneficial use within the DOE complex. As part of that effort, Montana Tech has been awarded a contract to help optimize melting and refining technology for the recycling of stainless steel RSM. The scope of the Montana Tech program includes a literature survey, a decontaminating slag design study, small scale melting studies to determine optimum slag compositions for removal of radioactive contaminant surrogates, analysis of preferred melting techniques, and coordination of large scale melting demonstrations (100--500 lbs) to be conducted at selected facilities. The program will support recycling and decontaminating stainless steel RSM for use in waste canisters for Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility densified high level waste. This report is the result of the literature search conducted to establish a basis for experimental melt/slag program development

  7. Versatile high current metal ion implantation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Dickinson, M.R.; Galvin, J.E.; Godechot, X.; MacGill, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    A metal ion implantation facility has been developed with which high current beams of practically all the solid metals of the periodic table can be produced. A multicathode, broad-beam, metal vapor vacuum arc ion source is used to produce repetitively pulsed metal ion beams at an extraction voltage of up to 100 kV, corresponding to an ion energy of up to several hundred kiloelectronvolts because of the ion charge state multiplicity, and with a beam current of up to several amps peak pulsed and several tens of milliamps time averaged delivered onto a downstream target. Implantation is done in a broad-beam mode, with a direct line of sight from ion source to target. Here we summarize some of the features of the ion source and the implantation facility that has been built up around it. (orig)

  8. Influences of thermal decontamination on mercury removal, soil properties, and repartitioning of coexisting heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Tuan; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng

    2011-08-01

    Thermal treatment is a useful tool to remove Hg from contaminated soils. However, thermal treatment may greatly alter the soil properties and cause the coexisting contaminants, especially trace metals, to transform and repartition. The metal repartitioning may increase the difficulty in the subsequent process of a treatment train approach. In this study, three Hg-contaminated soils were thermally treated to evaluate the effects of treating temperature and duration on Hg removal. Thermogravimetric analysis was performed to project the suitable heating parameters for subsequent bench-scale fixed-bed operation. Results showed that thermal decontamination at temperature>400°C successfully lowered the Hg content tosoil particle size was less significant, even when the soils were thermally treated to 550°C. Soil clay minerals such as kaolinite were shown to be decomposed. Aggregates were observed on the surface of soil particles after the treatment. The heavy metals tended to transform into acid-extractable, organic-matter bound, and residual forms from the Fe/Mn oxide bound form. These results suggest that thermal treatment may markedly influence the effectiveness of subsequent decontamination methods, such as acid washing or solvent extraction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Metal ion implantation: Conventional versus immersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Anders, A.; Anders, S.; Dickinson, M.R.; MacGill, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Vacuum-arc-produced metal plasma can be used as the ion feedstock material in an ion source for doing conventional metal ion implantation, or as the immersing plasma for doing plasma immersion ion implantation. The basic plasma production method is the same in both cases; it is simple and efficient and can be used with a wide range of metals. Vacuum arc ion sources of different kinds have been developed by the authors and others and their suitability as a metal ion implantation tool has been well established. Metal plasma immersion surface processing is an emerging tool whose characteristics and applications are the subject of present research. There are a number of differences between the two techniques, both in the procedures used and in the modified surfaces created. For example, the condensibility of metal plasma results in thin film formation and subsequent energetic implantation is thus done through the deposited layer; in the usual scenario, this recoil implantation and the intermixing it produces is a feature of metal plasma immersion but not of conventional energetic ion implantation. Metal plasma immersion is more suited (but not limited) to higher doses (>10 17 cm -2 ) and lower energies (E i < tens of keV) than the usual ranges of conventional metal ion implantation. These and other differences provide these vacuum-arc-based surface modification tools with a versatility that enhances the overall technological attractiveness of both

  10. Amorphization of metals by ion implantation and ion beam mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschenbach, B.; Heera, V.

    1988-01-01

    Amorphous metallic systems can be formed either by high-fluence ion implantation of glassforming species or by irradiation of layered metal systems with inert gas ions. Both techniques and experimental examples are presented. Empirical rules are discussed which predict whether a given system can be transformed into an amorphous phase. Influence of temperature, implantation dose and pre-existing crystalline metal composition on amorphization is considered. Examples are given of the implantation induced amorphous structure, recrystallization and formation of quasicrystalline structures. (author)

  11. Processing of waste solutions from electrochemical decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlot, L.A.; Allen, R.P.; Arrowsmith, H.W.; Hooper, J.L.

    1979-09-01

    The use of electropolishing as a decontamination technique will be effective only if we can minimize the amount of secondary waste requiring disposal and economically recycle part of the decontamination electrolyte. Consequently, a solution purification method is needed to remove the dissolved contamination and metal in the electrolyte. This report describes the selection of a purification method for a phosphoric acid electrolyte from the following possible acid reclamation processes: ion exchange, solvent extraction, precipitation, distillation, electrolysis, and membrane separation

  12. Pseudo ribbon metal ion beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, Igor B.; Ryabchikov, Alexander I.; Sivin, Denis O.; Verigin, Dan A.

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes high broad metal ion source based on dc macroparticle filtered vacuum arc plasma generation with the dc ion-beam extraction. The possibility of formation of pseudo ribbon beam of metal ions with the parameters: ion beam length 0.6 m, ion current up to 0.2 A, accelerating voltage 40 kV, and ion energy up to 160 kV has been demonstrated. The pseudo ribbon ion beam is formed from dc vacuum arc plasma. The results of investigation of the vacuum arc evaporator ion-emission properties are presented. The influence of magnetic field strength near the cathode surface on the arc spot movement and ion-emission properties of vacuum-arc discharge for different cathode materials are determined. It was shown that vacuum-arc discharge stability can be reached when the magnetic field strength ranges from 40 to 70 G on the cathode surface

  13. Pseudo ribbon metal ion beam source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Igor B; Ryabchikov, Alexander I; Sivin, Denis O; Verigin, Dan A

    2014-02-01

    The paper describes high broad metal ion source based on dc macroparticle filtered vacuum arc plasma generation with the dc ion-beam extraction. The possibility of formation of pseudo ribbon beam of metal ions with the parameters: ion beam length 0.6 m, ion current up to 0.2 A, accelerating voltage 40 kV, and ion energy up to 160 kV has been demonstrated. The pseudo ribbon ion beam is formed from dc vacuum arc plasma. The results of investigation of the vacuum arc evaporator ion-emission properties are presented. The influence of magnetic field strength near the cathode surface on the arc spot movement and ion-emission properties of vacuum-arc discharge for different cathode materials are determined. It was shown that vacuum-arc discharge stability can be reached when the magnetic field strength ranges from 40 to 70 G on the cathode surface.

  14. Decontamination of radioactive cesium in soil using nano-size metallic calcium dispersing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Fukuoka, Takezo; Matsue, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Hidemasa; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Kajitani, Mikio

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, the major concern on radioactive cesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) deposition and soil contamination due to the emission form the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant showed up after a massive quake on March 11, 2011. Soil contamination with radioactive cesium has a long-term radiological impact due to its long half-life (30 years for 137 Cs) and its high biological hazard. Therefore, much attention has been paid to decontaminate Cs-contaminated soil with washing and/or extraction by adopting solvents. However, such wet methods have some disadvantages, i.e. forming of secondary effluents and additional cost for their treatment. We have recently shown that the nano-size metallic calcium/calcium oxide/iron dispersing mixture (Fe-nCa) is most effective for heavy metals immobilization and volume reduction method under dry condition. Thus, we applied this method to treat real radioactive cesium contaminated soils in dry condition. Simple stirring of the contaminated soil with Fe-nCa achieved about above 90% of radioactive Cs decontamination rate and the volume reduction level also reached around 50-60%. In this paper, we showed the effectiveness of a Fe-nCa method for the rapid remediation and volume reduction method of real radioactive cesium contaminated soils under dry conditions and our challenges for sophistication applying machine and reagents. (author)

  15. Decontamination of U-metal surface by an oxidation etching system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, R.B.; Kansa, E.J.; Shaffer, R.J.; Weed, H.C. [California Univ., Livermore, CA (United States). Lawrence Livermore National Lab

    2001-07-01

    A surface treatment to remove surface contamination from uranium (U) metal and/or hydrides of uranium and heavy metals (HM) from U-metal parts is described. In the case of heavy metal atomic contamination on a surface, and potentially several atomic layers beneath, the surface oxidation treatment combines both chemical and chemically driven mechanical processes. The chemical process is a controlled temperature-time oxidation process to create a thin film of uranium oxide (UO{sub 2} and higher oxides) on the U-metal surface. The chemically driven mechanical process is strain induced by the volume increase as the U-metal surface transforms to a UO{sub 2} surface film. These volume strains are significantly large to cause surface failure spalling/scale formation and thus, removal of a U-oxide film that contains the HM-contaminated surface. The case of a HM-hydride surface contamination layer can be treated similarly by using inert hot gas to decompose the U-hydrides and/or HM-hydrides that are contiguous with the surface. A preliminary analysis to design and to plan for a sequence of tests is developed. The tests will provide necessary and sufficient data to evaluate the effective implementation and operational characteristics of a safe and reliable system. The following description is limited to only a surface oxidation process for HM-decontamination. (authors)

  16. Abrasive blasting, a technique for the industrial decontamination of metal components and concrete blocks from decommissioning to unconditional release levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gills, R.; Lewandowski, P.; Ooms, B.; Reusen, N.; Van Laer, W.; Walthery, R.

    2007-01-01

    When decommissioning nuclear installations, large quantities of metal components are produced as well as significant amounts of other radioactive materials, which mostly show low surface contamination. Having been used or having been brought for a while in a controlled area marks them as 'suspected material'. In view of the very high costs for radioactive waste processing and disposal, alternatives have been considered, and much effort has gone to recycling through decontamination, melting and unconditional release of metals. In a broader context, recycling of materials can considered to be a first order ecological priority in order to limit the quantities of radioactive wastes for final disposal and to reduce the technical and economic problems involved with the management of radioactive wastes. It will help as well to make economic use of primary material and to conserve natural resources of basic material for future generations. In a demonstration programme, Belgoprocess has shown that it is economically interesting to decontaminate metal components to unconditional release levels using dry abrasive blasting techniques, the unit cost for decontamination being only 30 % of the global cost for radioactive waste treatment, conditioning, storage and disposal. As a result, an industrial dry abrasive blasting unit was installed in the Belgoprocess central decontamination infrastructure. At the end of December 2006, more than 1,128 Mg of contaminated metal has been treated as well as 313 Mg of concrete blocks. The paper gives an overview of the experience relating to the decontamination of metal material and concrete blocks at the decommissioning of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant in Dessel, Belgium as well from the decontamination of concrete containers by abrasive blasting. (authors)

  17. Novel metal ion surface modification technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Godechot, X.; Yu, K.M.

    1990-10-01

    We describe a method for applying metal ions to the near-surface region of solid materials. The added species can be energetically implanted below the surface or built up as a surface film with an atomically mixed interface with the substrate; the metal ion species can be the same as the substrate species or different from it, and more than one kind of metal species can be applied, either simultaneously or sequentially. Surface structures can be fabricated, including coatings and thin films of single metals, tailored alloys, or metallic multilayers, and they can be implanted or added onto the surface and ion beam mixed. We report two simple demonstrations of the method: implantation of yttrium into a silicon substrate at a mean energy of 70 keV and a dose of 1 x 10 16 atoms/cm 2 , and the formation of a titanium-yttrium multilayer structure with ion beam mixing to the substrate. 17 refs., 3 figs

  18. Potential problems associated with ion-exchange resins used in the decontamination of light-water reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo, P.; Adams, J.W.; Kempf, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    During a typical decontamination event, ion-exchange resin beds are used to remove corrosion products (radioactive and nonradioactive) and excess decontamination reagents from waste streams. The spent resins may be solidified in a binder, such as cement, or sealed in a high-integrity container (HIC) in order to meet waste stability requirements specified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Lack of stability of low-level waste in a shallow land burial trench may lead to trench subsidence, enhanced water infiltration and waste leaching, which would result in accelerated transport of radionuclides and the complexing agents used for decontamination. The current program is directed at investigating safety problems associated with the handling, solidification and containerization of decontamination resin wastes. The three tasks currently underway include freeze-thaw cycling of cementitious and vinyl ester-styrene forms to determine if mechanical integrity is compromised, a study of the corrosion of container materials by spent decontamination waste resins, and investigations of resin degradation mechanisms

  19. Promising technology for the melting and decontamination of dismantled metal by an induction cold crucible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, M.; Tsurumaki, K.; Akiyama, T.; Fukumura, N.; Tanaka, T.; Yoshida, M.; Ikenaga, Y.

    1998-01-01

    An induction cold crucible melting is one of the most promising technology for the reuse and decontamination of the radioactively contaminated metallic materials generated during the dismantling of nuclear facilities, because the crucible ensures a long life operation without generating the secondary wastes. Based on the knowledge obtained through the fundamental study using the crucible of 45 mm in diameter, the MERC(Melting and Recycling of Metals by -Cold Crucible) process was designed, manufactured and scaled up to 100-140 mm in diameter. Not only cylindrical sectional crucibles but also rectangular slab sectional crucibles were developed. The maximum power of the high frequency generator is 150 kW and the frequency is 25 kHz. In the MERC, either fragments of stainless steel or tubing and pipings with small section, which were the surrogates of contaminated metallic materials, were continuously supplied together with the flux for the decontamination, followed by melting in the crucible and pulling down by the precise withdrawal system ensuring the melt dome to be kept at a suitable level for the melting. The maximal withdrawal velocity employed was 12 mm/min. The Ingot and slab were cut in every 300 mm length by the mechanical saw. They were automatically transported to the outlet of the equipment by the conveying system. Heat efficiency of the MERC was more than 26%. The ingot surface was smooth and crack free, facilitating the removal of radioactive elements concentrated in a slag stuck on the ingot surface. There was no macro segregation inside. Tracer elements of Sr and Hf transferred to the slag, Cs and Zn to the dust. Co and Mn mostly remained in the ingot. However, up to 10% of Co could transfer to the slag. This work was done under the sponsorship of Science and Technology Agency of Japan. (author)

  20. Effects of remediation train sequence on decontamination of heavy metal-contaminated soil containing mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Huang, Yu-Tuan; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    When a contaminated site contains pollutants including both nonvolatile metals and Hg, one single remediation technology may not satisfactorily remove all contaminants. Therefore, in this study, chemical extraction and thermal treatment were combined as a remediation train to remove heavy metals, including Hg, from contaminated soil. A 0.2 M solution of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) was shown to be the most effective reagent for extraction of considerable amounts of Cu, Pb, and Zn (> 50%). Hg removal was ineffective using 0.2 M EDTA, but thermogravimetric analysis suggested that heating to 550 degrees C with a heating rate of 5 degrees C/min for a duration of 1 hr appeared to be an effective approach for Hg removal. With the employment of thermal treatment, up to 99% of Hg could be removed. However executing thermal treatment prior to chemical extraction reduced the effectiveness of the subsequent EDTA extraction because nonvolatile heavy metals were immobilized in soil aggregates after the 550 degrees C treatment. The remediation train of chemical extraction followed by thermal treatment appears to remediate soils that have been contaminated by many nonvolatile heavy metals and Hg. Implications: A remediation train conjoining two or more techniques has been initialized to remove multiple metals. Better understandings of the impacts of treatment sequences, namely, which technique should be employed first on the soil properties and the decontamination efficiency, are in high demand. This study provides a strategy to remove multiple heavy metals including Hg from a contaminated soil. The interactions between thermal treatment and chemical extraction on repartitioning of heavy metals was revealed. The obtained results could offer an integrating strategy to remediate the soil contaminated with both heavy metals and volatile contaminants.

  1. Effective charge of energetic ions in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, M.; Brandt, W.

    1983-01-01

    The effective charge of energetic ion, as derived from stopping power of metals, is calculated by use of a dielectronic-response function method. The electronic distribution in the ion is described through the variational principle in a statistical approximation. The dependences of effective charge on the ion velocity, atomic number and r/sub s/-value of metal are derived at the low-velocity region. The effective charge becomes larger than the real charge of ion due to the close collisions. We obtain the quasi-universal equation of the fractional effective electron number of ion as a function of the ratio between the ionic size and the minimum distance approach. The comparsion between theoretical and experimental results of the effective charge is performed for the cases of N ion into Au, C and Al. We also discuss the equipartition rule of partially ionized ion at the high-velocity region

  2. Decontamination of metals by melt refining/slagging: First year progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizia, R.E.; Worcester, S.A.; Twidwell, L.G.; Paolini, D.J.; Weldon, T.A.

    1994-03-01

    As the number of nuclear installations undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) increases, current radioactive waste storage space is consumed and establishment of new waste storage areas becomes increasingly difficult. The problem of handling and storing radioactive scrap metal (RSM) gains increasing importance in the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. To alleviate present and future waste storage problems, Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) is managing a program for the recycling of RSM for beneficial use within the DOE complex. As part of that effort, Montana Tech has been awarded a contract to help optimize melting and refining technologies for the recycling of stainless steel RSM. The scope of the Montana Tech program includes a literature survey, a decontaminating slag design study, small scale melting studies to determine optimum slag compositions for removal of radioactive contaminant surrogates, analysis of preferred melting techniques, and coordination of pilot scale melting demonstrations (100-500 lbs) to be conducted at selected commercial facilities. This program will identify methods that can be used to recycle stainless steel RSM which will be used to fabricate high and low level waste canisters for the Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility. This report summarizes the results of an extensive literature review and the first year's progress on slag design, small-scale melt refining of surrogate-containing stainless steel (presently only a three month effort), and pilot-scale preparation of surrogate master ingots

  3. Method of processing decontaminating liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusaka, Ken-ichi

    1989-01-01

    When decontaminating liquid wastes are processed by ion exchange resins, radioactive nuclides, metals, decontaminating agents in the liquid wastes are captured in the ion exchange resins. When the exchange resins are oxidatively deomposed, most of the ingredients are decomposed into water and gaseous carbonic acid and discharged, while sulfur ingredient in the resins is converted into sulfuric acid. In this case, even less oxidizable ingredients in the decontaminating agent made easily decomposable by oxidative decomposition together with the resins. The radioactive nuclides and a great amount of iron dissolved upon decontamination in the liquid wastes are dissolved in sulfuric acid formed. When the sulfuric acid wastes are nuetralized with sodium hydroxide, since they are formed into sodium sulfate, which is most popular as wastes from nuclear facilities, they can be condensated and solidified by existent waste processing systms to thereby facilitate the waste processing. (K.M.)

  4. Heavy metals-bioremediation by highly radioresistant Deinococcus radiodurans biofilm prospective use in nuclear reactor decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Sudhir K.; Subba Rao, T.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, rapid growth of chemical industries have enhanced the heavy metal contamination in water, thereby raising environmental concerns. In the nuclear power industry, decontamination procedure also generates radioactive heavy metal containing wastes. Radio-resistant Deinococcus radiodurans R1 is reported to be a potential candidate for the treatment of low active waste material. To use any bacterium for bioremediation purpose, knowledge about its biofilm production characteristics is a prerequisite. This is because biofilm-mediated bioremediation processes are more efficient as compared to processes mediated by their planktonic counterparts. However, so far there are no reports on the biofilm producing capability of D. radiodurans. We observed that tagging of D. radiodurans by a plasmid harbouring gfp and kan R conferred significant biofilm producing property to the bacterium. Chemical analysis of biofilm matrix components produced by D. radiodurans showed that the matrix consists primarily of proteins and carbohydrates with small amount of extracellular DNA (eDNA). Further, we studied the effect of Ca 2+ on D. radiodurans biofilm formation and it was observed that D. radiodurans biofilm formation was enhanced at higher concentrations of Ca 2+ . We investigated the capability of D. radiodurans biofilm to remove the heavy metals Co and Ni from synthetic waste streams. Results showed that Ca 2+ enhanced the bioremediation of both heavy metals (Co, Ni) by D. radiodurans biofilms in a highly significant manner. In the presence of 50 mM Ca 2+ 35% Co removal and 25% Ni removal was observed, when compared to biofilm grown in the absence of Ca 2+ , which showed mere 7% Co and 3% Ni removal, respectively. The results showed that the presence of Ca 2+ significantly enhanced exopolysaccharide and eDNA (both negatively charged) production in the biofilm matrix. This indicated adsorption could be the major mechanism behind enhanced biofilm mediated removal

  5. Effect of pH on the release of radionuclides and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resins collected from operating nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Akers, D.W.; McConnell, J.W.

    1991-06-01

    Data are presented on the physical stability and leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin wastes collected from two operating commercial light water reactors. Small-scale waste--form specimens collected during solidifications performed at the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant Unit 1 and at the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Station were leach-tested and subjected to compressive strength testing in accordance with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's ''Technical Position on Waste Form'' (Revision 1). Samples of untreated resin waste collected from each solidification vessel before the solidification process were analyzed for concentrations of radionuclides, selected transition metals, and chelating agents to determine the quantities of these chemicals in the waste-form specimens. The chelating agents included oxalic, citric, and picolinic acids. In order to determine the effect of leachant chemical composition and pH on the stability and leachability of the waste forms, waste-form specimens were leached in various leachants. Results of this study indicate that differences in pH do not affect releases from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin waste forms, but that differences in leachant chemistry and the presence of chelating agents may affect the releases of radionuclides and chelating agents. Also, this study indicates that the cumulative releases of radionuclides and chelating agents are similar for waste- form specimens that decomposed and those that retained their general physical form. 36 refs., 60 figs., 28 tabs

  6. Modification of metallic corrosion by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    This review will consider some of the properties of surface alloys, formed by ion implantation, which are effective in modifying corrosion behaviour. Examples will be given of the modification of the corrosion behaviour of pure metals, steels and other engineering alloys, resulting from implantation with metals and metalloids. Emphasis will be given to the modification of anodic processes produced by ion implantation since a review will be given elsewhere in the proceedings concerning the modification of cathodic processes. (orig.)

  7. Growth of micrometric oxide layers to explore laser decontamination of metallic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear industry produces a wide range of radioactive waste in terms of hazard level, contaminants and material. For metallic equipment like steam generators, the radioactivity is mainly located in the oxide surface. In order to study and develop safe techniques for dismantling and for decontamination, it is important to have access to oxide layers with a representative distribution of non-radioactive contaminants. In this paper we propose a method for the creation of oxide layers on stainless steel 304L with europium (Eu as contaminant. This technique consists in spraying an Eu-solution on stainless steel samples. The specimens are firstly treated with a pulsed nanosecond laser after which the steel samples are placed in a 873 K furnace for various durations in order to grow an oxide layer. The oxide structure and in-depth distribution of Eu in the oxide layer were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy coupled to an energy-dispersive X-ray microanalyzer, as well as by glow discharge optical emission or mass spectrometry. The oxide layers were grown to thicknesses in the range of 200 nm–4.5 μm depending on the laser treatment parameters and the heating duration. These contaminated oxides had a ‘duplex structure’ with a mean concentration of the order of 6 × 1016 atoms/cm2 (15 μg/cm2 of europium in the volume of the oxide layer. It appears that europium implementation prevented the oxide growth in the furnace. Nevertheless, the presence of the contamination had no impact on the thickness of the oxide layers obtained by preliminary laser treatment. These oxide layers were used to study the decontamination of metallic surfaces such as stainless steel 304L using a nanosecond pulsed laser.

  8. Growth of micrometric oxide layers for the study of metallic surfaces decontamination by laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Luisa; Pacquentin, Wilfried; Tabarant, Michel; Maskrot, Hicham; Semerok, Alexandre

    2017-09-01

    The nuclear industry produces a wide range of radioactive waste in term of level of hazard, contaminants and material. For metallic equipment like steam generators, the radioactivity is mainly located in the oxide surface. In order to study and develop techniques for dismantling and for decontamination in a safe way, it is important to have access to oxide layers with a representative distribution of non-radioactive contaminants. We propose a method of formation of oxide layer on stainless steel 304L with europium (Eu) as contaminant marker. In this method, an Eu-solution is sprayed on the stainless steel samples. The specimen are firstly treated with a pulsed nanosecond laser and secondly the steel samples are exposed to a 600°C furnace for various durations in order to grow an oxide layer. The oxide structure and in-depth distribution of Eu in the oxide layer are analysed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer, and by glow discharge optical emission or mass spectrometry. The oxide layers were grown to thicknesses in the range of 200 nm to 4.5 μm regarding to the laser treatment parameters and the heating duration. These contaminated oxides have a `duplex structure' with a mean weight percentage of 0.5% of europium in the volume of the oxide layer. It appears that europium implementation prevents the oxide growth by furnace but has no impact on laser heating. These oxide layers are used to study the decontamination of metallic surfaces such as stainless steel 304L using a nanosecond pulsed laser.

  9. Growth of micrometric oxide layers for the study of metallic surfaces decontamination by laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear industry produces a wide range of radioactive waste in term of level of hazard, contaminants and material. For metallic equipment like steam generators, the radioactivity is mainly located in the oxide surface. In order to study and develop techniques for dismantling and for decontamination in a safe way, it is important to have access to oxide layers with a representative distribution of non-radioactive contaminants. We propose a method of formation of oxide layer on stainless steel 304L with europium (Eu as contaminant marker. In this method, an Eu-solution is sprayed on the stainless steel samples. The specimen are firstly treated with a pulsed nanosecond laser and secondly the steel samples are exposed to a 600°C furnace for various durations in order to grow an oxide layer. The oxide structure and in-depth distribution of Eu in the oxide layer are analysed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer, and by glow discharge optical emission or mass spectrometry. The oxide layers were grown to thicknesses in the range of 200 nm to 4.5 μm regarding to the laser treatment parameters and the heating duration. These contaminated oxides have a ‘duplex structure’ with a mean weight percentage of 0.5% of europium in the volume of the oxide layer. It appears that europium implementation prevents the oxide growth by furnace but has no impact on laser heating. These oxide layers are used to study the decontamination of metallic surfaces such as stainless steel 304L using a nanosecond pulsed laser.

  10. Gas and metal ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oaks, E.; Yushkov, G.

    1996-01-01

    The positive ion sources are now of interest owing to both their conventional use, e.g., as injectors in charged-particle accelerators and the promising capabilities of intense ion beams in the processes related to the action of ions on various solid surfaces. For industrial use, the sources of intense ion beams and their power supplies should meet the specific requirements as follows: They should be simple, technologically effective, reliable, and relatively low-cost. Since the scanning of an intense ion beam is a complicated problem, broad ion beams hold the greatest promise. For the best use of such beams it is desirable that the ion current density be uniformly distributed over the beam cross section. The ion beam current density should be high enough for the treatment process be accomplished for an acceptable time. Thus, the ion sources used for high-current, high-dose metallurgical implantation should provide for gaining an exposure dose of ∼ 10 17 cm -2 in some tens of minutes. So the average ion current density at the surface under treatment should be over 10 -5 A/cm 2 . The upper limit of the current density depends on the admissible heating of the surface under treatment. The accelerating voltage of an ion source is dictated by its specific use; it seems to lie in the range from ∼1 kV (for the ion source used for surface sputtering) to ∼100 kV and over (for the ion sources used for high-current, high-dose metallurgical implantation)

  11. Metallic ions in the upper atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.

    1979-01-01

    During the past 20 years considerable progress has been made in establishing the presence of metallic ions in the sporadic E layers at mid latitudes and as discrete patches at high altitudes in the equatorial ionosphere. The E-region observations have been based on rocket flights, which represent local conditions faithfully. But the global distribution of metallic ions and variations relating to changes in season, local time, magnetic activity, etc., which require satellite data, have been largely unexamined. This work presents a few aspects of this missing global distribution over an altitude range of 100 to 1000 km, using the data from AE-C, AE-D, and OGO-6 satellites and the rocket flights 18.117 and 18.118 from Wallops Island on July 12 and 13, 1971. The rocket data provide a day-night pair of vertical profiles that include altitudes not covered by the satellites. Results are presented for Mg + , Al + , Si + and Fe + ions in terms of their detection probabilities, median concentrations and relative abundances with respect to Mg + ions as a function of significant geophysical parameters. Na + and K + ions have been excluded from this study because alkali metal ions driven off the spacecraft hamper the measurement of ambient Na + and K + ions. This study has indicated that in general different metallic ions appear together in comparable concentrations except for Al + , which is an order of magnitude smaller than the others

  12. Upgraded vacuum arc ion source for metal ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Savkin, K. P.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Brown, I. G.

    2012-01-01

    Vacuum arc ion sources have been made and used by a large number of research groups around the world over the past twenty years. The first generation of vacuum arc ion sources (dubbed ''Mevva,'' for metal vapor vacuum arc) was developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in the 1980s. This paper considers the design, performance parameters, and some applications of a new modified version of this kind of source which we have called Mevva-V.Ru. The source produces broad beams of metal ions at an extraction voltage of up to 60 kV and a time-averaged ion beam current in the milliampere range. Here, we describe the Mevva-V.Ru vacuum arc ion source that we have developed at Tomsk and summarize its beam characteristics along with some of the applications to which we have put it. We also describe the source performance using compound cathodes.

  13. Dry decontamination for tritiated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhengkun; Wu Tao; Dan Guiping; Xie Yun

    2009-01-01

    To aim at decontamination of tritiated wastes, we have developed and fabricated a dry tritium decontamination system, which is designed to reduce tritium surface contamination of various alloy by UV, ozone and heating. The result indicates that the elevation of temperature can obviously improve decontamination effect. With 3 h irradiation by 365 nm UV at 220 degree C, it has a decontamination rate of 99% to stainless steel surface. Ozone can more obviously improve decontamination effect when metal was heated. Ozone has a decontamination effect beyond 95% to stainless steel, aluminum and brass at 220 degree C. Tritium surface concentration of metal has a little increase after decontamination. (authors)

  14. Bioavailability of Metal Ions and Evolutionary Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando P. Hong Enriquez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of life on earth has been a long process that began nearly 3,5 x 109 years ago. In their initial moments, evolution was mainly influenced by anaerobic environments; with the rise of O2 and the corresponding change in bioavailability of metal ions, new mechanisms of survival were created. Here we review the relationships between ancient atmospheric conditions, metal ion bioavailability and adaptation of metals homeostasis during early evolution. A general picture linking geochemistry, biochemistry and homeostasis is supported by the reviewed literature and is further illustrated in this report using simple database searches.

  15. Metal vapor vacuum arc ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Dickinson, M.R.; Galvin, J.E.; Godechot, X.; MacGill, R.A.

    1990-06-01

    We have developed a family of metal vapor vacuum are (MEVVA) high current metal ion sources. The sources were initially developed for the production of high current beams of metal ions for heavy ion synchrotron injection for basic nuclear physics research; more recently they have also been used for metal ion implantation. A number of different embodiments of the source have been developed for these specific applications. Presently the sources operate in a pulsed mode, with pulse width of order 1 ms and repetition rate up to 100 pps. Beam extraction voltage is up to 100 kV, and since the ions produced in the vacuum arc plasma are in general multiply ionized the ion energy is up to several hundred keV. Beam current is up to several Amperes peak and around 10 mA time averaged delivered onto target. Nearly all of the solid metals of the Periodic Table have been use to produce beam. A number of novel features have been incorporated into the sources, including multiple cathodes and the ability to switch between up to 18 separate cathode materials simply and quickly, and a broad beam source version as well as miniature versions. here we review the source designs and their performance. 45 refs., 7 figs

  16. Preparation of SiO2-KCoFC composite ion-exchanger for removal of Cs in the soil decontamination waste solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Joon; Moon, Jei kwon; Lee, Kune Woo

    2009-01-01

    The soil decontamination process has been developed for remediate the soil wastes excavated from the TRIGA research reactor sites. Even though the process was proven to be very effective for decontaminate the radioactive nuclides such as cesium and cobalt, the secondary spent solution should be treated with an appropriate method to minimize the waste volume. There are mainly two components in the spent decontamination solution of Cs and Co. The Co in the waste solution can be removed easily by precipitation under a basic condition. However, since the Cs is hardly removed by precipitation, an appropriate selective removal method should be employed. In this study, an inorganic composite ion exchanger of SiO 2 -KCoFC was prepared by sol-gel method for a removal of Cs in the decontamination waste solution. An optimum condition for a preparation of the composite ion exchanger and the adsorption performances of the prepared composite ion exchangers were evaluated

  17. Large-scale decontamination and decommissioning technology demonstration project at a former uranium metal production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martineit, R.A.; Borgman, T.D.; Peters, M.S.; Stebbins, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Focus Area, led by the Federal Energy Technology Center, has been charged with improving upon baseline D ampersand D technologies with the goal of demonstrating and validating more cost-effective and safer technologies to characterize, deactivate, survey, decontaminate, dismantle, and dispose of surplus structures, buildings, and their contents at DOE sites. The D ampersand D Focus Area's approach to verifying the benefits of the improved D ampersand D technologies is to use them in large-scale technology demonstration (LSTD) projects at several DOE sites. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) was selected to host one of the first three LSTD's awarded by the D ampersand D Focus Area. The FEMP is a DOE facility near Cincinnati, Ohio, that was formerly engaged in the production of high quality uranium metal. The FEMP is a Superfund site which has completed its RUFS process and is currently undergoing environmental restoration. With the FEMP's selection to host an LSTD, the FEMP was immediately faced with some challenges. The primary challenge was that this LSTD was to be integrated into the FEMP's Plant 1 D ampersand D Project which was an ongoing D ampersand D Project for which a firm fixed price contract had been issued to the D ampersand D Contractor. Thus, interferences with the baseline D ampersand D project could have significant financial implications. Other challenges include defining and selecting meaningful technology demonstrations, finding/selecting technology providers, and integrating the technology into the baseline D ampersand D project. To date, twelve technologies have been selected, and six have been demonstrated. The technology demonstrations have yielded a high proportion of open-quotes winners.close quotes All demonstrated, technologies will be evaluated for incorporation into the FEMP's baseline D ampersand D

  18. Ion beam analysis of metal ion implanted surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, P.J.; Chu, J.W.; Johnson, E.P.; Noorman, J.T.; Sood, D.K.

    1993-01-01

    Ion implantation is an established method for altering the surface properties of many materials. While a variety of analytical techniques are available for the characterisation of implanted surfaces, those based on particle accelerators such as Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) provide some of the most useful and powerful for this purpose. Application of the latter techniques to metal ion implantation research at ANSTO will be described with particular reference to specific examples from recent studies. Where possible, the information obtained from ion beam analysis will be compared with that derived from other techniques such as Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Auger spectroscopies. 4 refs., 5 figs

  19. Ion beam analysis of metal ion implanted surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, P J; Chu, J W; Johnson, E P; Noorman, J T [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Sood, D K [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Ion implantation is an established method for altering the surface properties of many materials. While a variety of analytical techniques are available for the characterisation of implanted surfaces, those based on particle accelerators such as Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) provide some of the most useful and powerful for this purpose. Application of the latter techniques to metal ion implantation research at ANSTO will be described with particular reference to specific examples from recent studies. Where possible, the information obtained from ion beam analysis will be compared with that derived from other techniques such as Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Auger spectroscopies. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Ion beam analysis of metal ion implanted surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, P.J.; Chu, J.W.; Johnson, E.P.; Noorman, J.T. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Sood, D.K. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Ion implantation is an established method for altering the surface properties of many materials. While a variety of analytical techniques are available for the characterisation of implanted surfaces, those based on particle accelerators such as Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) provide some of the most useful and powerful for this purpose. Application of the latter techniques to metal ion implantation research at ANSTO will be described with particular reference to specific examples from recent studies. Where possible, the information obtained from ion beam analysis will be compared with that derived from other techniques such as Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Auger spectroscopies. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Decontamination liquid waste processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enda, Masami; Hosaka, Katsumi.

    1992-01-01

    Liquid wastes after electrolytic reduction are caused to flow through an anionic exchange membrane in a diffusion dialysis step, and liquid wastes and dialyzed water are passed in a countercurrent manner. Since acids in the liquid wastes transfer on the side of the dialyzed water due to the difference of concentration between the liquid wastes and the dialyzed water, acids can be easily recovered from the liquid wastes. If the acid-removed liquid wastes are put to electrodeposition in an electrodepositing step, the electrodepositing reactions between radioactive materials such as Co ion, Mn ion and leached metals such as Fe ions and Cr ions are caused preferentially to hydrogen generation reaction on a metal deposition cathode. Accordingly, metal ions can be easily separated from the liquid wastes. Since the separated liquid wastes are an aqueous solution in which cerium ions as a decontaminant and an acid at low concentration are dissolved, the concentration thereof is controlled by mixing them to acid recovering water after the diffusion dialysis and they can be reused as the decontaminant. (T.M.)

  2. Surface modification of metals by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaki, Masaya

    1988-01-01

    Ion implantation in metals has attracted the attention as a useful technology for the formation of new metastable alloys and compounds in metal surface layers without thermal equilibrium. Current studies of metal surface modification by ion implantation with high fluences have expanded from basic research areas and to industrial applications for the improvement of life time of tools. Many results suggest that the high fluence implantation produces the new surface layers with un-expected microscopic characteristics and macroscopic properties due to implant particles, radiation damage, sputtering, and knock-on doping. In this report, the composition, structure and chemical bonding state in surface layers of iron, iron-based alloy and aluminum sheets implanted with high fluences have been investigated by means of secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Tribological properties such as hardness, friction and wear are introduced. (author)

  3. Chemical decontamination method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Hitoshi.

    1996-01-01

    Metal wastes contaminated by radioactive materials are contained in a rotational decontamination vessel, and the metal wastes are rotated therein while being in contact with a slight amount of a decontamination liquid comprising a mineral acid. As the mineral acid, a mixed acid of nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and fluoric acid is preferably used. Alternatively, chemical decontamination can also be conducted by charging an acid resistant stirring medium in the rotational decontamination vessel. The surface of the metal wastes is uniformly covered by the slight amount of decontamination liquid to dissolve the surface layer. In addition, heat of dissolution generated in this case is accumulated in the inside of the rotational decontamination vessel, the temperature is elevated with no particular heating, thereby enabling to obtain an excellent decontamination effect substantially at the same level as in the case of heating the liquid to 70degC in a conventional immersion decontamination method. Further, although contact areas between the metal wastes and the immersion vessel are difficult to be decontaminated in the immersion decontamination method, all of areas can be dissolved uniformly in the present invention. (T.M.)

  4. Introduction of a cation in aqueous solution by electrolytic dissolution of metal. Applications to the decontamination of radioactive effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauchon, Jean-Paul

    1979-01-01

    This research thesis aims at comparing results obtained in chemical decontamination of radioactive effluents with a metallic cation introduced by metal electro-dissolution or by dose addition. After an overview of methods used for the purification of radioactive effluents and a more precise presentation of chemical co-precipitation, the author reports preliminary tests of the application of chemical co-precipitation to the decontamination of radioactive effluents, reports the analysis of iron, zinc and copper behaviour in aqueous environment by means of thermodynamic diagrams and current-voltage curves. He reports the design and use of two electro-dissolution sets, and the application of copper electrolytic dissolution to the elimination of ruthenium in radioactive effluents. He finally addresses the purification treatment of effluents of nuclear reactors

  5. Applications of ion plating in metals fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, R.T.; Thompson, J.C.

    1974-01-01

    Use of ion plating at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to solve problems encountered in metals fabrication and processing are discussed. Three typical areas are covered. The first is the use of strike coats on various substrates for subsequent electrodeposition. The second area in which ion plating is shown to contribute to a process is in cold welding or room temperature bonding of metals. The third application involves plating U to promote safe handling, fission-product retention, and corrosion protection in nuclear reactors

  6. Radioactive decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    This Code of Practice covers: (a) the decontamination of plant items, buildings and associated equipment; (b) decontamination of protective clothing; (c) simple personal decontamination; and (d) the basic mechanisms of contamination and their influence on decontaminability. (author)

  7. Decontamination of aqueous effluents containing metallic cations or anions by iron oxides under the action of a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, M. A.; Camilo, R. L.; Cohen, V. H.; Yamaura, M.

    1999-01-01

    This work deals with a review of decontamination processes of aqueous effluents containing metallic cations and anions by using iron oxides as adsorber. Conditions to obtain the different iron oxides and adsorption capacities for cations and anions are presented and precipitation and/or adsorption mechanisms studies under the point of view of oxide-interface phenomena are described. Emphasis will be applied to the magnetite combined with inorganic exchanger or liquid extractants which magnetic properties has been used to enhance metals removal. Experimental results of a synthetic magnetite production and its adsorption capacity as a function of a magnetic field intensity are also showed. (authors)

  8. Magnetite Dissolution Performance of HYBRID-II Decontamination Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seonbyeong; Lee, Woosung; Won, Huijun; Moon, Jeikwon; Choi, Wangkyu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we conducted the magnetite dissolution performance test of HYBRID-II (Hydrazine Based Reductive metal Ion Decontamination with sulfuric acid) as a part of decontamination process development. Decontamination performance of HYBRID process was successfully tested with the results of the acceptable decontamination factor (DF) in the previous study. While following-up studies such as the decomposition of the post-decontamination HYBRID solution and corrosion compatibility on the substrate metals of the target reactor coolant system have been continued, we also seek for an alternate version of HYBRID process suitable especially for decommissioning. Inspired by the relationship between the radius of reacting ion and the reactivity, we replaced the nitrate ion in HYBRID with bigger sulfate ion to accommodate the dissolution reaction and named HYBRID-II process. As a preliminary step for the decontamination performance, we tested the magnetite dissolution performance of developing HYBRID-II process and compared the results with those of HYBRID process. HYBRID process developed previously is known have the acceptable decontamination performance, but the relatively larger volume of secondary waste induced by anion exchange resin to treat nitrate ion is the one of the problems related in the development of HYBRID process to be applicable. Therefore we alternatively devised HYBRID-II process using sulfuric acid and tested its dissolution of magnetite in numerous conditions. From the results shown in this study, we can conclude that HYBRID-II process improves the decontamination performance and potentially reduces the volume of secondary waste. Rigorous tests with metal oxide coupons obtained from reactor coolant system will be followed to prove the robustness of HYBRID-II process in the future

  9. Expressing a bacterial mercuric ion binding protein in plant for phytoremediation of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ju-Liang; Chen, Ching-Yi; Chiu, Meng-Hsuen; Chein, Mei-Fang; Chang, Jo-Shu; Endo, Ginro; Huang, Chieh-Chen

    2009-01-30

    A specific mercuric ion binding protein (MerP) originating from transposon TnMERI1 of Bacillus megaterium strain MB1 isolated from Minamata Bay displayed good adsorption capability for a variety of heavy metals. In this study, the Gram-positive MerP protein was expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis to create a model system for phytoremediation of heavy metals. Under control of an actin promoter, the transgenic Arabidpsis showed higher tolerance and accumulation capacity for mercury, cadium and lead when compared with the control plant. Results from confocal microscopy analysis also indicate that MerP was localized at the cell membrane and vesicles of plant cells. The developed transgenic plants possessing excellent metal-accumulative ability could have potential applications in decontamination of heavy metals.

  10. High-current pulsed ion source for metallic ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, B.; Abbott, S.; MacGill, R.; Sorensen, R.; Staples, J.; Thatcher, R.

    1981-03-01

    A new sputter-ion PIG source and magnet system, optimized for intermediate charge states, q/A of 0.02 to 0.03, is described. This source will be used with the new Wideroe-based injector for the SuperHILAC. Pulsed electrical currents of several emA of heavy metal ions have been produced in a normalized emittance area of .05π cm-mr. The source system is comprised of two electrically separate anode chambers, one in operation and one spare, which can be selected by remote control. The entire source head is small and quickly removable

  11. Ion microprobe analysis of metallic pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelicon, P.; Simcic, J.; Budnar, M.; Klanjsek-Gunde, M.; Kunavaer, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Metallic paints consist of metallic flakes dispersed m a resinous binder, i.e. a light-element polymer matrix. The spatial distribution and orientation of metallic flakes inside the matrix determines the covering efficiency of the paint, glossiness, and its angular-dependent properties such as lightness flop or color flop (two-tone). Such coatings are extensively used for a functional (i.e. security) as well as decorative purpose. The ion microbeam analysis of two types of silver paint with imbedded metallic flake has been performed to test the ability of the ion microbeam spectroscopic methods on this type of samples. The average sizes of the aluminium flakes were 23 (size distribution 10-37) and 49 (size distribution 34-75) micrometers, respectively. The proton beam with the size of 2x2 micrometers at Ljubljana ion microprobe has been used to scan the surface of the pigments. PIXE mapping of Al Kα map shows lateral distribution of the aluminum flakes, whereas the RBS slicing method reveals tomographic image of the flakes in uppermost 5 micrometers of the pigment layer. The flake distribution in the larger layer depths has been accessed by RBS analysis in a point mode. (author)

  12. A decontamination technique for decommissioning waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heki, H.; Hosaka, K.; Kuribayashi, N.; Ishikura, T.

    1993-01-01

    A large amount of radioactive metallic waste is generated from decommissioned commercial nuclear reactors. It is necessary from the point of environmental protection and resource utilization to decontaminate the contaminated metallic waste. A decommissioning waste processing system has been previously proposed considering such decommissioning waste characteristics as its large quantity, large radioactivity range, and various shapes and materials. The decontamination process in this system was carried out by abrasive blasting as pretreatment, electrochemical decontamination as the main process, and ultrasonic cleaning in water as post-treatment. For electrochemical decontamination, electrolytic decontamination for simple shaped waste and REDOX decontamination for complicated shaped waste were used as effective decontamination processing. This time, various kinds of actual radioactive contaminated samples were taken from operating power plants to simulate the decontamination of decommissioning waste. After analyzing the composition, morphogenesis and surface observation, electrolytic decontamination, REDOX decontamination, and ultrasonic cleaning experiments were carried out by using these samples. As a result, all the samples were decontaminated below the assumed exemption level(=4 x 10 -2 Bq/g). A maximum decontamination factor of over 104 was obtained by both electrolytic and REDOX decontamination. The stainless steel sample was easy to decontaminate in both electrochemical decontaminations because of its thin oxidized layer. The ultrasonic cleaning process after electrochemical decontamination worked effectively for removing adhesive sludge and the contaminated liquid. It has been concluded from the results mentioned above that electrolytic decontamination and REDOX decontamination are effective decontamination process for decontaminating decommissioning waste

  13. Polyatomic ions from a high current ion implanter driven by a liquid metal ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, W.; Laufer, P.; Tajmar, M.; Böttger, R.; Bischoff, L.

    2017-12-01

    High current liquid metal ion sources are well known and found their first application as field emission electric propulsion thrusters in space technology. The aim of this work is the adaption of such kind of sources in broad ion beam technology. Surface patterning based on self-organized nano-structures on, e.g., semiconductor materials formed by heavy mono- or polyatomic ion irradiation from liquid metal (alloy) ion sources (LMAISs) is a very promising technique. LMAISs are nearly the only type of sources delivering polyatomic ions from about half of the periodic table elements. To overcome the lack of only very small treated areas by applying a focused ion beam equipped with such sources, the technology taken from space propulsion systems was transferred into a large single-end ion implanter. The main component is an ion beam injector based on high current LMAISs combined with suited ion optics allocating ion currents in the μA range in a nearly parallel beam of a few mm in diameter. Different types of LMAIS (needle, porous emitter, and capillary) are presented and characterized. The ion beam injector design is specified as well as the implementation of this module into a 200 kV high current ion implanter operating at the HZDR Ion Beam Center. Finally, the obtained results of large area surface modification of Ge using polyatomic Bi2+ ions at room temperature from a GaBi capillary LMAIS will be presented and discussed.

  14. Engineering of microorganisms towards recovery of rare metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Div. of Applied Life Sciences

    2010-06-15

    The bioadsorption of metal ions using microorganisms is an attractive technology for the recovery of rare metal ions as well as removal of toxic heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. In initial attempts, microorganisms with the ability to accumulate metal ions were isolated from nature and intracellular accumulation was enhanced by the overproduction of metal-binding proteins in the cytoplasm. As an alternative, the cell surface design of microorganisms by cell surface engineering is an emerging strategy for bioadsorption and recovery of metal ions. Cell surface engineering was firstly applied to the construction of a bioadsorbent to adsorb heavy metal ions for bioremediation. Cell surface adsorption of metal ions is rapid and reversible. Therefore, adsorbed metal ions can be easily recovered without cell breakage, and the bioadsorbent can be reused or regenerated. These advantages are suitable for the recovery of rare metal ions. Actually, the cell surface display of a molybdate-binding protein on yeast led to the enhanced adsorption of molybdate, one of the rare metal ions. An additional advantage is that the cell surface display system allows high-throughput screening of protein/peptide libraries owing to the direct evaluation of the displayed protein/peptide without purification and concentration. Therefore, the creation of novel metal-binding protein/ peptide and engineering of microorganisms towards the recovery of rare metal ions could be simultaneously achieved. (orig.)

  15. New developments in metal ion implantation by vacuum arc ion sources and metal plasma immersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Anders, A.; Anders, S.

    1996-01-01

    Ion implantation by intense beams of metal ions can be accomplished using the dense metal plasma formed in a vacuum arc discharge embodied either in a vacuum arc ion source or in a metal plasma immersion configuration. In the former case high energy metal ion beams are formed and implantation is done in a more-or-less conventional way, and in the latter case the substrate is immersed in the plasma and repetitively pulse-biased so as to accelerate the ions at the high voltage plasma sheath formed at the substrate. A number of advances have been made in the last few years, both in plasma technology and in the surface modification procedures, that enhance the effectiveness and versatility of the methods, including for example: controlled increase of the in charge states produced; operation in a dual metal-gaseous ion species mode; very large area beam formation; macroparticle filtering; and the development of processing regimes for optimizing adhesion, morphology and structure. These complementary ion processing techniques provide the plasma tools for doing ion surface modification over a very wide parameter regime, from pure ion implantation at energies approaching the MeV level, through ion mixing at energies in the ∼1 to ∼100 keV range, to IBAD-like processing at energies from a few tens of eV to a few keV. Here the authors review the methods, describe a number of recent developments, and outline some of the surface modification applications to which the methods have been put. 54 refs., 9 figs

  16. Potential of polyaniline modified clay nanocomposite as a selective decontamination adsorbent for Pb(II) ions from contaminated waters; kinetics and thermodynamic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piri, Somayeh; Zanjani, Zahra Alikhani; Piri, Farideh; Zamani, Abbasali; Yaftian, Mohamadreza; Davari, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays significant attention is to nanocomposite compounds in water cleaning. In this article the synthesis and characterization of conductive polyaniline/clay (PANI/clay) as a hybrid nanocomposite with extended chain conformation and its application for water purification are presented. Clay samples were obtained from the central plain of Abhar region, Abhar, Zanjan Province, Iran. Clay was dried and sieved before used as adsorbent. The conductive polyaniline was inflicted into the layers of clay to fabricate a hybrid material. The structural properties of the fabricated nanocomposite are studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The elimination process of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions from synthetics aqueous phase on the surface of PANI/clay as adsorbent were evaluated in batch experiments. Flame atomic absorption instrument spectrophotometer was used for determination of the studied ions concentration. Consequence change of the pH and initial metal amount in aqueous solution, the procedure time and the used adsorbent dose as the effective parameters on the removal efficiency was investigated. Surface characterization was exhibited that the clay layers were flaked in the hybrid nanocomposite. The results show that what happen when a nanocomposite polyaniline chain is inserted between the clay layers. The adsorption of ions confirmed a pH dependency procedure and a maximum removal value was seen at pH 5.0. The adsorption isotherm and the kinetics of the adsorption processes were described by Temkin model and pseudo-second-order equation. Time of procedure, pH and initial ion amount have a severe effect on adsorption efficiency of PANI/clay. By using suggested synthesise method, nano-composite as the adsorbent simply will be prepared. The prepared PANI/clay showed excellent adsorption capability for decontamination of Pb ions from contaminated water. Both of suggested synthesise and

  17. Method of recovering phosphoric acid type decontaminating electrolytes by electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takashi; Wada, Koichi; Kobayashi, Toshio.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To recoving phosphoric acid type highly concentrated decontaminating liquid used for the electrolytic decontamination of contaminated equipments, components, etc in nuclear power plants or the like through electrodeposition by diaphragm electrolysis. Method: Before supplying phosphoric acid decontaminating liquid at high concentration used in the electrolytic decontaminating step to an electrodeposition recovering tank, phosphoric acid in the decontaminating electrolyte is extracted with solvents and decomposed liquid extracts (electrolyte reduced with the phosphoric acid component) are supplied to the cathode chamber of the electrodeposition recovering tank, where phosphoric acid is back-extracted with water from the solvents after extraction of phosphoric acid. Then, the back-extracted liquids (aqueous phosphoric acid solution scarcely containing metal ions) are sent to the anode chamber of the electrodeposition recovering tank. Metal ions in the liquid are captured by electrodeposition in the cathode chamber, as well as phosphoric acid in the liquids is concentrated to the initial concentration of the electrolyte in the anode chamber for reuse as the decontaminating electrolyte. As the phosphoric acid extracting agent used in the electrodeposition recovering step for the decontaminating electrolyte, water-insoluble and non-combustible tributyl phosphate (TBP) is most effective. (Horiuchi, T.)

  18. Decontamination and dismantlement of the building 594 waste ion exchange facility at Argonne National Laboratory-East project final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiese, E. C.

    1998-01-01

    The Building 594 D and D Project was directed toward the following goals: Removal of any radioactive and hazardous materials associated with the Waste Ion Exchange Facility; Decontamination of the Waste Ion Exchange Facility to unrestricted use levels; Demolition of Building 594; and Documentation of all project activities affecting quality (i.e., waste packaging, instrument calibration, audit results, and personnel exposure) These goals had been set in order to eliminate the radiological and hazardous safety concerns inherent in the Waste Ion Exchange Facility and to allow, upon completion of the project, unescorted and unmonitored access to the area. The ion exchange system and the resin contained in the system were the primary areas of concern, while the condition of the building which housed the system was of secondary concern. ANL-E health physics technicians characterized the Building 594 Waste Ion Exchange Facility in September 1996. The characterization identified a total of three radionuclides present in the Waste Ion Exchange Facility with a total activity of less than 5 microCi (175 kBq). The radionuclides of concern were Co 60 , Cs 137 , and Am 241 . The highest dose rates observed during the project were associated with the resin in the exchange vessels. DOE Order 5480.2A establishes the maximum whole body exposure for occupational workers at 5 rem (50 mSv)/yr; the administrative limit at ANL-E is 1 rem/yr (10 mSv/yr)

  19. Ultraviolet spectroscopy and metal ions detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudry, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The spectrochemical analysis is based on the interaction of radiation with the chemical species and depends on their nature, having pi, sigma or electrons, or d and f electrons, UV. Visible spectrophotometry has been used extensively in the detection and determination of both organics and inorganics. In UV detection the sensitivity is proportional to the bath length and the excitation coefficient of the given sample. It may be insensitive to many species unless these are converted to UV, absorbing derivatives. The technique has been applied for the monitoring of the effluents from HPLC, as chlorides or other complexes of various elements in this article the utility of HCl as reagent for the spectrophotometric determination of the metal ions like Al(III), As(III,IV), Ba(II), Cd(II), Ca(II) Ce(III), Cs(i), Cr(III,VI), Co(II), Cu(II), Dy(III), Eu(III), Gd(III), Au(III), Hf(IV), Ho(III), In(III), Fe(III), La(III), Pb(II), Lu (III), Mg(II), Mn(II), Hg(II), Mo(VI), Ni(II), Pd(II), Pt(IV), K(I), Pr(III), Re(VII), Ru(IV), Sm(III), Sc(III), Ag(I), Sr(II) Te(III), Th(IV), Sn(II,IV), Ti(III,IV), W(VI), U(VI), V(IV,V), Yb(III), Zn(II) AND Zr(IV) Ions i.e. for meta ions from d of the most of these metal ions has been found sufficient permit their detection in HPLC. Their molar absorptive have also been reported. Reference has also been provided to post column derivatization of some metal ions from d and f block elements for their detection in HPLC. (author) 12 figs.; 6 tabs.; 27 refs

  20. Potentiometric titration of metal ions in ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Graham T T; Mohamed, Mark F; Neverov, Alexei A; Brown, R S

    2006-09-18

    The potentiometric titrations of Zn2+, Cu2+ and 12 Ln3+ metal ions were obtained in ethanol to determine the titration constants (defined as the at which the [-OEt]/[Mx+]t ratios are 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5) and in two cases (La3+ and Zn2+) a complete speciation diagram. Several simple monobasic acids and aminium ions were also titrated to test the validity of experimental titration measurements and to establish new constants in this medium that will be useful for the preparation of buffers and standard solutions. The dependence of the titration constants on the concentration and type of metal ion and specific counterion effects is discussed. In selected cases, the titration profiles were analyzed using a commercially available fitting program to obtain information about the species present in solution, including La3+ for which a dimer model is proposed. The fitting provides the microscopic values for deprotonation of one to four metal-bound ethanol molecules. Kinetics for the La3+-catalyzed ethanolysis of paraoxon as a function of are presented and analyzed in terms of La3+ speciation as determined by the analysis of potentiometric titration curves. The stability constants for the formation of Zn2+ and Cu2+ complexes with 1,5,9-triazacyclododecane as determined by potentiometric titration are presented.

  1. Ion-induced effects on metallic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimmer, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with the ion-irradiation of metallic nanoparticles in combination with various substrates. Particle diameters were systematically varied within the range of 2.5-14 nm, inter-particle distances range from 30-120 nm. Irradiations were performed with various inert gas ions with energies of 200 keV, resulting in an average ion range larger than the particle dimensions and therefore the effects of irradiation are mainly due to creation of structural defects within the particles and the underlying substrate as well. The main part of this work deals with ion-induced burrowing of metallic nanoparticles into the underlying substrate. The use of micellar nanoparticles with sharp size distribution combined with AFM and TEM analysis allows a much more detailed look at this effect than other works on that topic so far. With respect to the particle properties also a detailed look on the effect of irradiation on the particle structure would be interesting, which might lead to a deliberate influence on magnetic properties, for example. Within the context of this work, first successful experiments were performed on FePt particles, showing a significant reduction of the ordering temperature leading to the magnetically interesting, ordered L1 0 phase. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of complexing agents and column temperature in ion chromatographic separation of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and transition metals ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelkar, Anoop; Pandey, Ashish; Name, Anil B.; Das, D.K.; Behere, P.G.; Mohd Afzal

    2015-01-01

    The aim of ion chromatography method development is the resolution of all metal ions of interests. Resolution can be improved by changing the selectivity. Selectivity in chromatography can be altered by changes in mobile phase (eg eluent type, eluent strength) or through changes in stationary phase. Temperature has been used in altering the selectivity of particularly in reversed phase liquid chromatography and ion exchange chromatography. Present paper describe the retention behaviour of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and transition metal ions on a silica based carboxylate function group containing analyte column. Alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and transition metal ions were detected by ion conductivity and UV-VIS detectors respectively

  3. Analysis of metallic pigments by ion microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelicon, P.; Klanjsek-Gunde, M.; Kunaver, M.; Simcic, J.; Budnar, M.

    2002-01-01

    Metallic paints consist of metallic flakes dispersed in a resinous binder, i.e. a light-element polymer matrix. The spatial distribution and orientation of metallic flakes inside the matrix determines the covering efficiency of the paint, glossiness, and its angular-dependent properties such as lightness flop or color flop (two-tone). Such coatings are extensively used for a functional (i.e. security) as well as decorative purpose. The ion microbeam analysis of two types of silver paint with imbedded metallic flakes has been performed to determine the spatial distribution of the aluminum flakes in paint layer. The average sizes of the aluminum flakes were 23 μm (size distribution 10-37) and 49 μm (size distribution 34-75), respectively. The proton beam with the size of 2x2 μm 2 at Ljubljana ion microprobe has been used to scan the surface of the pigments. PIXE mapping of Al Kα map shows lateral distribution of the aluminum flakes, whereas the RBS slicing method reveals tomograms of the flakes in uppermost 7 μm of the pigment layer. The series of point analysis aligned over the single flake reveal the flake angle in respect to the polymer matrix surface. The angular sensitivity is well below 1 angular degree

  4. Ionic Liquids as Extraction Media for Metal Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Naoki

    In solvent extraction separation of metal ions, recently, many researchers have investigated possible use of hydrophobic ionic liquids as extraction media instead of organic solvents. Ionic liquids are salts of liquid state around room temperature and can act not only as solvents but also as ion-exchangers. Therefore, the extraction mechanism of metal ions into ionic liquids is complicated. This review presents current overview and perspective on evaluation of nature of hydrophobic ionic liquids as extraction media for metal ions.

  5. Environmental decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, G.A.; Jernigan, H.C. (eds.)

    1981-02-01

    The record of the proceedings of the workshop on environmental decontamination contains twenty-seven presentations. Emphasis is placed upon soil and surface decontamination, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and assessments of instrumentation and equipment used in decontamination. (DLS)

  6. Environmental decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, G.A.; Jernigan, H.C.

    1981-02-01

    The record of the proceedings of the workshop on environmental decontamination contains twenty-seven presentations. Emphasis is placed upon soil and surface decontamination, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and assessments of instrumentation and equipment used in decontamination

  7. Metal ion binding to iron oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponthieu, M.; Juillot, F.; Hiemstra, T.; van Riemsdijk, W. H.; Benedetti, M. F.

    2006-06-01

    The biogeochemistry of trace elements (TE) is largely dependent upon their interaction with heterogeneous ligands including metal oxides and hydrous oxides of iron. The modeling of TE interactions with iron oxides has been pursued using a variety of chemical models. The objective of this work is to show that it is possible to model the adsorption of protons and TE on a crystallized oxide (i.e., goethite) and on an amorphous oxide (HFO) in an identical way. Here, we use the CD-MUSIC approach in combination with valuable and reliable surface spectroscopy information about the nature of surface complexes of the TE. The other objective of this work is to obtain generic parameters to describe the binding of the following elements (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) onto both iron oxides for the CD-MUSIC approach. The results show that a consistent description of proton and metal ion binding is possible for goethite and HFO with the same set of model parameters. In general a good prediction of almost all the collected experimental data sets corresponding to metal ion binding to HFO is obtained. Moreover, dominant surface species are in agreement with the recently published surface complexes derived from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data. Until more detailed information on the structure of the two iron oxides is available, the present option seems a reasonable approximation and can be used to describe complex geochemical systems. To improve our understanding and modeling of multi-component systems we need more data obtained at much lower metal ion to iron oxide ratios in order to be able to account eventually for sites that are not always characterized in spectroscopic studies.

  8. The Decontamination Technique for Metal by Using Pressured Solid of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutoto

    1998-01-01

    The decontamination of radioactive deposited in the stainless steel 304l type has been done. The radiation exposure was reduced from 460 to 200 mrem/h. For the supporting of the processes, the compressed air 12 bar was flue in blaster. The various of treatment are blasting time between 15 to 60 seconds. Result of the experiment is decontamination factor (DF) = 0,22 and the consumption of dry ice is 10 kgs needed. The secondary waste generated as aerosol were treated by HEPA Filter

  9. Decontaminating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Toshiharu; Shibuya, Kiichiro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a method of eliminating radioactive contaminations capable of ease treatment for decontaminated liquid wastes and grinding materials. Method: Those organic grinding materials such as fine wall nuts shell pieces cause no secondary contaminations since they are softer as compared with inorganic grinding materials, less pulverizable upon collision against the surface to be treated, being capable of reusing and producing no fine scattering powder. In addition, they can be treated by burning. The organic grinding material and water are sprayed by a nozzle to the surface to be treated, and decontaminated liquid wastes are separated into solid components mainly composed of organic grinding materials and liquid components mainly composed of water by filtering. The thus separated solid components are recovered in a storage tank for reuse as the grinding material and, after repeating use, subjected to burning treatment. While on the other hand, water is recovered into a storage tank and, after repeating use, purified by passing through an ion exchange resin-packed column and decontaminated to discharge. (Horiuchi, T.)

  10. Metal ion levels and lymphocyte counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Ø; Varmarken, Jens-Erik; Ovesen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wear particles from metal-on-metal arthroplasties are under suspicion for adverse effects both locally and systemically, and the DePuy ASR Hip Resurfacing System (RHA) has above-average failure rates. We compared lymphocyte counts in RHA and total hip arthroplasty (THA) an....../ppb. INTERPRETATION: Circulating T-lymphocyte levels may decline after surgery, regardless of implant type. Metal ions-particularly cobalt-may have a general depressive effect on T- and B-lymphocyte levels. Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov under # NCT01113762.......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wear particles from metal-on-metal arthroplasties are under suspicion for adverse effects both locally and systemically, and the DePuy ASR Hip Resurfacing System (RHA) has above-average failure rates. We compared lymphocyte counts in RHA and total hip arthroplasty (THA....... RESULTS: The T-lymphocyte counts for both implant types declined over the 2-year period. This decline was statistically significant for CD3(+)CD8(+) in the THA group, with a regression coefficient of -0.04 × 10(9)cells/year (95% CI: -0.08 to -0.01). Regression analysis indicated a depressive effect...

  11. Accumulation of metal ions by pectinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiana, S.; Deiana, L.; Palma, A.; Premoli, A.; Senette, C.

    2009-04-01

    The knowledge of the mechanisms which regulate the interactions of metal ions with partially methyl esterified linear polymers of α-1,4 linked D-galacturonic acid units (pectinates), well represented in the root inner and outer apoplasm, is of great relevance to understand the processes which control their accumulation at the soil-root interface as well as their mobilization by plant metabolites. Accumulation of a metal by pectinates can be affected by the presence of other metals so that competition or distribution could be expected depending on the similar or different affinity of the metal ions towards the binding sites, mainly represented by the carboxylate groups. In order to better understand the mechanism of accumulation in the apoplasm of several metal ions, the sorption of Cd(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cr(III) by a Ca-polygalacturonate gel, used as model of the soil-root interface, with a degree of esterification of 18% (PGAE1) and 65% (PGAE2) was studied at pH 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 in the presence of CaCl2 2.5 mM.. The results show that sorption increases with increasing both the initial metal concentration and pH. A similar sorption trend was evidenced for Cu(II) and Pb(II) and for Zn(II) and Cd(II), indicating that the mechanism of sorption for these two ionic couples is quite different. As an example, at pH 6.0 and an initial metal concentration equal to 2.0 mM, the amount of Cu(II) and Pb(II) sorbed was about 1.98 mg-1 of PGAE1 while that of Cd(II) and Zn(II) was about 1.2 mg-1. Cr(III) showed a rather different sorption trend and a much higher amount (2.8 mg-1of PGAE1 at pH 6.0) was recorded. The higher affinity of Cr(III) for the polysaccharidic matrix is attributable to the formation of Cr(III) polynuclear species in solution, as shown by the distribution diagrams obtained through the MEDUSA software. On the basis of these findings, the following affinity towards the PGAE1 can be assessed: Cr(III) > Cu(II) ? Pb(II) > Zn (II) ? Cd

  12. Decontamination of metals by melt refining/slagging. An annotated bibliography: Update on stainless steel and steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worchester, S.A.; Twidwell, L.G.; Paolini, D.J.; Weldon, T.A. [Montana Tech of the Univ., of Montana (United States); Mizia, R.E. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The following presentation is an update to a previous annotation, i.e., WINCO-1138. The literature search and annotated review covers all metals used in the nuclear industries but the emphasis of this update is directed toward work performed on mild steels. As the number of nuclear installations undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) increases, current radioactive waste storage space is consumed and establishment of new waste storage areas becomes increasingly difficult, the problem of handling and storing radioactive scrap metal (RSM) gains increasing importance in the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. To alleviate present and future waste problems, Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co (LITCO) is managing a program for the recycling of RSM for beneficial use within the DOE complex. As part of that effort, Montana Tech has been awarded a contract to help optimize melting and refining technology for the recycling of stainless steel RSM. The scope of the Montana Tech program includes a literature survey, a decontaminating slag design study, small wide melting studies to determine optimum slag compositions for removal of radioactive contaminant surrogates, analysis of preferred melting techniques, and coordination of large scale melting demonstrations (100--2,000 lbs) to be conducted at selected facilities. The program will support recycling and decontaminating stainless steel RSM for use in waste canisters for Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility densified high level waste and Pit 9/RWMC boxes. This report is the result of the literature search conducted to establish a basis for experimental melt/slag program development. The program plan will be jointly developed by Montana Tech and LITCO.

  13. Metal ion interaction with phosphorylated tyrosine analogue monolayers on gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petoral, Rodrigo M; Björefors, Fredrik; Uvdal, Kajsa

    2006-11-23

    Phosphorylated tyrosine analogue molecules (pTyr-PT) were assembled onto gold substrates, and the resulting monolayers were used for metal ion interaction studies. The monolayers were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRAS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), both prior to and after exposure to metal ions. XPS verified the elemental composition of the molecular adsorbate and the presence of metal ions coordinated to the phosphate groups. Both the angle-dependent XPS and IRAS results were consistent with the change in the structural orientation of the pTyr-PT monolayer upon exposure to metal ions. The differential capacitance of the monolayers upon coordination of the metal ions was evaluated using EIS. These metal ions were found to significantly change the capacitance of the pTyr-PT monolayers in contrast to the nonphosphorylated tyrosine analogue (TPT). CV results showed reduced electrochemical blocking capabilities of the phosphorylated analogue monolayer when exposed to metal ions, supporting the change in the structure of the monolayer observed by XPS and IRAS. The largest change in the structure and interfacial capacitance was observed for aluminum ions, compared to calcium, magnesium, and chromium ions. This type of monolayer shows an excellent capability to coordinate metal ions and has a high potential for use as sensing layers in biochip applications to monitor the presence of metal ions.

  14. Use of heavy ions to model radiation damage of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirokov, S.V.; Vyshemirskij, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    The methods for modeling radiation damage of metals using heavy ions are reviewed and the results obtained are analyzed. It is shown that irradiation of metals with heavy ion can simulate neutron exposure with the equivalent dose with adequate accuracy and permits a detailed analysis of radiation damage of metals

  15. Development of decontamination methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunze, S.; Dippel, T.; Hentschel, D.

    1976-01-01

    PVC floorings, fabricated by mixing of the basic components, showed no relation between content of fillers and decontamination results. Decontamination results are partly poorer, if the flooring contains a high concentration of the filler, especially if the latter consists mainly of hydrophilic materials. The coloring of the floorings seems to have no influence on the decontamination. Rubber floorings, fabricated by chemical reactions between polymers, vulcanization materials and fillers, show decontamination results depending definitely from the proper choice of the filler. Flooring types, containing lampblack, graphite, kaoline, barium sulfate and titanium oxide are easy to decontaminate. Increasing contents of hydrophilic filler cause a fall off in the decontamination results. The decontamination effectiveness and the homogenity of cleaning pastes based on hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, titanium oxide and polyethylene powders is strongly depended on the content of hydrochloric acid. Reduction of the content of this component to less than 2 w/O remains the effectiveness unchanged only if the titanium oxide-polyethylene powder mixture is substituted by a high density, highly surface active powder material. This type of paste containing no hydrochloric acid shows nearly the same decontamination effectiveness as standard pickling pastes containing about 30% hydrochlorid acid. Properly prepared salt powder turn out to be easily and successfully applied to metal surfaces by a flame spray technique. The thin layer of molten salts is a very effective decontamination to samples contaminated in the primary loop of a PWR. (orig.) [de

  16. Effect of Cerium(IV)-Surfactant Reaction in Foam Decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Han Beom; Jung, Chong-Hun; Yoon, In-Ho; Kim, Chorong; Choi, Wang-Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Using foams allows the decommissioning of complex shaped facilities. The decontamination foam comprises at least one surfactant to generate the foam and one or more chemical reactants to achieve the dissolution of the contaminants at the solid surface. In order to improve the efficiency of decontamination foam, the present study attempts to find the optimum condition of chemical reagents to the foaming solution. The corrosion rate of radioactive nuclides contaminated stainless steel metal is very important factor for the foam decontamination process. The goal of this study is to develop the decontamination process for contaminated stainless steel in medium of nitric acid. Stainless steel needs a strong oxidizing agent such as Ce(IV) ion and the effects of cerium(IV). Surfactant interaction involved in foam decontamination and finally the improvement brought by formulation science. The formulation of foams loaded with strong oxidizing reagents such as Ce(IV) is an important factor. The enhanced decontamination properties of nitric acid with Ce(IV) additive on stainless steel is well known in liquid mediums. stainless steel metal is an important aspect in the foam decontamination process.

  17. Effect of Cerium(IV)-Surfactant Reaction in Foam Decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Han Beom; Jung, Chong-Hun; Yoon, In-Ho; Kim, Chorong; Choi, Wang-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Using foams allows the decommissioning of complex shaped facilities. The decontamination foam comprises at least one surfactant to generate the foam and one or more chemical reactants to achieve the dissolution of the contaminants at the solid surface. In order to improve the efficiency of decontamination foam, the present study attempts to find the optimum condition of chemical reagents to the foaming solution. The corrosion rate of radioactive nuclides contaminated stainless steel metal is very important factor for the foam decontamination process. The goal of this study is to develop the decontamination process for contaminated stainless steel in medium of nitric acid. Stainless steel needs a strong oxidizing agent such as Ce(IV) ion and the effects of cerium(IV). Surfactant interaction involved in foam decontamination and finally the improvement brought by formulation science. The formulation of foams loaded with strong oxidizing reagents such as Ce(IV) is an important factor. The enhanced decontamination properties of nitric acid with Ce(IV) additive on stainless steel is well known in liquid mediums. stainless steel metal is an important aspect in the foam decontamination process

  18. Ion-beam-mixing in metal-metal systems and metal-silicon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, L.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of energetic ion bombardment on the composition and structure of thin film materials and utilization of ion-beam-mixing techniques to modify interfacial reactions are reported in this thesis. The phase formation in metals by using ion mixing techniques has been studied. Upon ion irradiation of Al/Pt, Al/Pd and Al/Ni thin films, only the simplest intermetallic compounds of PdAl and NiAl were formed in crystalline structure, while the amorphous phase has been observed over a large range of composition. Ion mixing of Au/Cu bilayers resulted in the formation of substitutional solid solutions with no trace of ordered compounds. The formation of the ordered compound CuAu was achieved either by irradiation of bilayers with Ar ions at elevated substrate temperature or by irradiation of the mixed layers with He ions at relatively low temperature. In the Au/Al system several crystal compounds existed in the as-deposited samples. These phases remained crystalline or transformed into other equilibrium compounds upon ion irradiation. The results suggest that the phase formation by ion mixing is dependent on the high quench rate in the collision cascade region and the atomic mobility at the irradiation temperature. The argument can be applied to silicide forming systems. With near-noble metals, the mixed atoms are mobile and form metallurgically distinct phases. With refractory metals, amorphous phases are formed due to lack of atomic mobility

  19. Separation of technetium and rare earth metals for co-decontamination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riddle, Catherine; Martin, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    Poster. In the US there are several technologies under consideration for the separation of the useful components in used nuclear fuel. One such process is the co-decontamination process to separate U, Np and Pu in a single step and produce a Np/ Pu and a U product stream. Although the behavior of the actinide elements is reasonably well defined in this system, the same is not true for the fission products, mainly Zr, Mo, Ru and Tc. As these elements are cationic and anionic they may interact with each other to extract in a manner not predicted by empirical models such as AMUSE. This poster presentation will discuss the initial results of batch contact testing under flowsheet conditions and as a function of varying acidity and flowsheet conditions to optimize recovery of Tc and minimize extraction of Mo, Zr and Ru with the goal of developing a better understanding of the behavior of these elements in the co-decontamination process.

  20. Metal ion binding with dehydroannulenes – Plausible two ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Theoretical investigations have been carried out at B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory to study the binding ... Alkali metals; dehydroannulenes; binding energy; penetration barrier. 1. .... can be discriminated from larger metal ions by running.

  1. Plasma immersion ion implantation for reducing metal ion release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, C.; Garcia, J. A.; Maendl, S.; Pereiro, R.; Fernandez, B.; Rodriguez, R. J. [Centro de Ingenieria Avanzada de Superficies AIN, 31191, Cordovilla-Pamplona (Spain); Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Universidad de Oviedo, Departamento Quimica Fisica y Analitica (Spain); Centro de Ingenieria Avanzada de Superficies AIN, 31191, Cordovilla-Pamplona (Spain)

    2012-11-06

    Plasma immersion ion implantation of Nitrogen and Oxygen on CoCrMo alloys was carried out to improve the tribological and corrosion behaviors of these biomedical alloys. In order to optimize the implantation results we were carried experiments at different temperatures. Tribocorrosion tests in bovine serum were used to measure Co, Cr and Mo releasing by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry analysis after tests. Also, X-ray Diffraction analysis were employed in order to explain any obtained difference in wear rate and corrosion tests. Wear tests reveals important decreases in rate of more than one order of magnitude for the best treatment. Moreover decreases in metal release were found for all the implanted samples, preserving the same corrosion resistance of the unimplanted samples. Finally this paper gathers an analysis, in terms of implantation parameters and achieved properties for industrial implementation of these treatments.

  2. The dissolution of metal decontamination sludges stored in tanks and their management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopowicz, R.A.; Phillips, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The decontamination of stainless steel components is accomplished by the use of alkaline permanganate solutions, followed by an application of solutions of complexing agents such as citric acid or oxalic acid. Spent decontamination solutions comprising residues from both steps were combined in several waste storage tanks, where they have been in storage for several years. In those tanks, a reaction between residual permanganate and unreacted complexing agents produced sludges, consisting mainly of manganese dioxide, that reside in the tanks along with supernatant liquid. In a campaign that was conducted a few years ago, the accumulated waste solution was partially treated and disposed. This treatment consisted of decanting only the supernatant liquid and transporting it to a liquid waste treatment facility that employed a Thin Film Evaporator (TFE) to concentrate the liquid and ultimately produce a bitumen-encapsulated solidified waste form for storage. A study of treatment options for the remaining sludge is reported here. The requirement was to determine a simple means of treating the sludge using existing routine processes and equipment. This will be a significant step toward the decommissioning of the decontamination waste storage tanks. The available equipment at the liquid waste treatment facility was not designed to process sludge or slurries containing a large volume fraction of solids. Laboratory testing was carried out to find a means of dissolving the decontamination waste sludges, preferably in situ, and filtering undissolved solids to meet the feed requirements of the TFE in the liquid waste treatment facility. A concentrated citric acid solution was applied to sludge samples, without the use of externally applied mixing of the reagent and sludge. In all of the samples of actual decontamination waste sludge that were tested, a quantity of undissolved material remained after treatment with citric acid. The quantities were relatively small in volume, and

  3. The dissolution of metal decontamination sludges stored in tanks and their management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokopowicz, R.A.; Phillips, B.

    2011-01-01

    The decontamination of stainless steel components is accomplished by the use of alkaline permanganate solutions, followed by an application of solutions of complexing agents such as citric acid or oxalic acid. Spent decontamination solutions comprising residues from both steps were combined in several waste storage tanks, where they have been in storage for several years. In those tanks, a reaction between residual permanganate and unreacted complexing agents produced sludges, consisting mainly of manganese dioxide, that reside in the tanks along with supernatant liquid. In a campaign that was conducted a few years ago, the accumulated waste solution was partially treated and disposed. This treatment consisted of decanting only the supernatant liquid and transporting it to a liquid waste treatment facility that employed a Thin Film Evaporator (TFE) to concentrate the liquid and ultimately produce a bitumen-encapsulated solidified waste form for storage. A study of treatment options for the remaining sludge is reported here. The requirement was to determine a simple means of treating the sludge using existing routine processes and equipment. This will be a significant step toward the decommissioning of the decontamination waste storage tanks. The available equipment at the liquid waste treatment facility was not designed to process sludge or slurries containing a large volume fraction of solids. Laboratory testing was carried out to find a means of dissolving the decontamination waste sludges, preferably in situ, and filtering undissolved solids to meet the feed requirements of the TFE in the liquid waste treatment facility. A concentrated citric acid solution was applied to sludge samples, without the use of externally applied mixing of the reagent and sludge. In all of the samples of actual decontamination waste sludge that were tested, a quantity of undissolved material remained after treatment with citric acid. The quantities were relatively small in volume, and

  4. Plasma immersion surface modification with metal ion plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Yu, K.M.; Godechot, X.

    1991-04-01

    We describe here a novel technique for surface modification in which metal plasma is employed and by which various blends of plasma deposition and ion implantation can be obtained. The new technique is a variation of the plasma immersion technique described by Conrad and co-workers. When a substrate is immersed in a metal plasma, the plasma that condenses on the substrate remains there as a film, and when the substrate is then implanted, qualitatively different processes can follow, including' conventional' high energy ion implantation, recoil implantation, ion beam mixing, ion beam assisted deposition, and metallic thin film and multilayer fabrication with or without species mixing. Multiple metal plasma guns can be used with different metal ion species, films can be bonded to the substrate through ion beam mixing at the interface, and multilayer structures can be tailored with graded or abrupt interfaces. We have fabricated several different kinds of modified surface layers in this way. 22 refs., 4 figs

  5. Long range implantation by MEVVA metal ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tonghe; Wu Yuguang; Ma Furong; Liang Hong

    2001-01-01

    Metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) source ion implantation is a new technology used for achieving long range ion implantation. It is very important for research and application of the ion beam modification of materials. The results show that the implanted atom diffusion coefficient increases in Mo implanted Al with high ion flux and high dose. The implanted depth is 311.6 times greater than that of the corresponding ion range. The ion species, doses and ion fluxes play an important part in the long-range implantation. Especially, thermal atom chemistry have specific effect on the long-range implantation during high ion flux implantation at transient high target temperature

  6. Recent Advances in Antimicrobial Hydrogels Containing Metal Ions and Metals/Metal Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazli Wahid

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens has caused a serious health problem. Scientists respond to the threat by developing new antimicrobial materials to prevent or control infections caused by these pathogens. Polymer-based nanocomposite hydrogels are versatile materials as an alternative to conventional antimicrobial agents. Cross-linking of polymeric materials by metal ions or the combination of polymeric hydrogels with nanoparticles (metals and metal oxide is a simple and effective approach for obtaining a multicomponent system with diverse functionalities. Several metals and metal oxides such as silver (Ag, gold (Au, zinc oxide (ZnO, copper oxide (CuO, titanium dioxide (TiO2 and magnesium oxide (MgO have been loaded into hydrogels for antimicrobial applications. The incorporation of metals and metal oxide nanoparticles into hydrogels not only enhances the antimicrobial activity of hydrogels, but also improve their mechanical characteristics. Herein, we summarize recent advances in hydrogels containing metal ions, metals and metal oxide nanoparticles with potential antimicrobial properties.

  7. Ion Exchange Equilibrium and Kinetic Properties of Polyacrylate Films and Applications to Chemical Analysis and Environmental Decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Stephen P.

    1997-01-01

    One of the goals of the original proposal was to study how cross-linking affects the properties of an ion exchange material(IEM) developed at Lewis Research Center. However, prior to the start of this work, other workers at LERC investigated the effect of cross-linking on the properties of this material. Other than variation in the ion exchange capacity, the chemical characteristics were shown to be independent of the cross-linking agent, and the degree of cross-linking. New physical forms of the film were developed (film, supported film, various sizes of beads, and powder). All showed similar properties with respect to ion exchange equilibria but the kinetics of ion exchange depended on the surface area per unit mass; the powder form of the IEM exchanging much more rapidly than the other forms. The research performed under this grant was directed towards the application of the IEM to the analysis of metal ions at environmental concentrations.

  8. Adsorption of heavy metal ions on different clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruse, K.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the present dissertation is to study the adsorption of heavy metal ions (Cd 2+ , Cu 2+ , Pb 2+ , Zn 2+ ) and their mixtures on clays. Different clays and bentonites (Ca 2+ -bentonite, activated Na + -bentonite, special heavy metal adsorber bentonite, two organophilic bentonites and a mixed layer clay) were used. The adsorbed metal ions were desorbed by appropriate solutions of HCl, EDTA and dioctadecyl dimethylammonium bromide. High concentrations of the heavy metal ions in the solutions can be reached. The desorption guarantees economical recycling. After desorption the clays were used (up to three times) for purification of contaminated water. The best experimental conditions, i.e. the highest adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions was found for the greatest ratio of adsorbent/adsorbate. The adsorption was very fast. Calcium, sodium bentonites and the heavy metal adsorber bentonite attained the highest adsorption and desorption for Cu 2+, Zn 2+ and Pb 2+ ions. Cd 2+ ions were only absorbed by Silitonit, a special heavy metal absorber bentonite. The mixed layer clay (Opalit) ranges in adsorption and desorption properties below the unmodified Ca 2+ -bentonite (Montigel) or the activated Na + -bentonite. Only Tixosorb and Tixogel (organophilic bentonites) reach the lowest value of heavy metal adsorption. Only lead cations which are characterised by good polarizability were adsorbed at higher rates, therefore the organophilic bentonites are not appropriate for adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. Mixing of the metal ions generally decreases the adsorption of Pb 2+ and increases the adsorption of Cd 2+ . From mixtures if heavy metal ions adsorption and desorption of Cu 2+ ions reached a maximum for all clays. (author) figs., tabs., 56 refs

  9. Coordination of cassava starch to metal ions and thermolysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava starch formed Werner-type complexes with ions of metals from the transition groups. This was proven by conductivity and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements. The coordination of starch to central metal ions influenced the thermal decomposition of starch. As a rule complexes started to decompose at ...

  10. Interaction of Hydroxyproline with Bivalent Metal Ions in Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    The stability constants of the ML and ML2 complex species of some metal ions, namely beryllium(II) and cobalt(II), with hydroxyproline were ... metal ions have several significant applications in biological systems.3–20 Beryllium is one ... 1 filter paper for chromatography was used for the purpose of electrophoresis. An Elico ...

  11. Fluorescence signalling of the transition metal ions: Design strategy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    strategy based on the choice of the fluorophore component. N B SANKARAN, S ... skill for the development of fluorosensors of this kind. Further, the ... salts of the transition metal ions have been used for studying the influence of the metal ions.

  12. Metal ion sequestration: An exciting dimension for molecularly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of a tight binding macrocyclic ligand to complex a metal ion so that this serves as receptee on the Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP) receptor as described here affords a sequestration route for a targeted metal ion, with potential for environmental remediation and restoration applications. Ethylene glycol ...

  13. Chromatography Of Metal Ions On Wood Cellulose Impregnated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adsorption chromatography of some heavy metal ions on wood cellulose of saw dust (wood waste dust) modified with hydrochloric acid, urea and thiourea was studied. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) was used to determine the initial concentration of solutions of Zn2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, and Fe3+ metal ions.

  14. Cesium ion bombardment of metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tompa, G.S.

    1986-01-01

    The steady state cesium coverage due to cesium ion bombardment of molybdenum and tungsten was studied for the incident energy range below 500 eV. When a sample is exposed to a positive ion beam, the work function decreases until steady state is reached with a total dose of less than ≅10 16 ions/cm 2 , for both tungsten and molybdenum. A steady state minimum work function surface is produced at an incident energy of ≅100 eV for molybdenum and at an incident energy of ≅45 eV for tungsten. Increasing the incident energy results in an increase in the work function corresponding to a decrease in the surface coverage of cesium. At incident energies less than that giving the minimum work function, the work function approaches that of cesium metal. At a given bombarding energy the cesium coverage of tungsten is uniformly less than that of molybdenum. Effects of hydrogen gas coadsorption were also examined. Hydrogen coadsorption does not have a large effect on the steady state work functions. The largest shifts in the work function due to the coadsorption of hydrogen occur on the samples when there is no cesium present. A theory describing the steady-state coverage was developed is used to make predictions for other materials. A simple sticking and sputtering relationship, not including implantation, cannot account for the steady state coverage. At low concentrations, cesium coverage of a target is proportional to the ratio of (1 - β)/γ where β is the reflection coefficient and γ is the sputter yield. High coverages are produced on molybdenum due to implantation and low backscattering, because molybdenum is lighter than cesium. For tungsten the high backscattering and low implantation result in low coverages

  15. Metal ion-dependent DNAzymes and their applications as biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tian; Lu, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Long considered to serve solely as the genetic information carrier, DNA has been shown in 1994 to be able to act as DNA catalysts capable of catalyzing a trans-esterification reaction similar to the action of ribozymes and protein enzymes. Although not yet found in nature, numerous DNAzymes have been isolated through in vitro selection for catalyzing many different types of reactions in the presence of different metal ions and thus become a new class of metalloenzymes. What remains unclear is how DNA can carry out catalysis with simpler building blocks and fewer functional groups than ribozymes and protein enzymes and how DNA can bind metal ions specifically to perform these functions. In the past two decades, many biochemical and biophysical studies have been carried out on DNAzymes, especially RNA-cleaving DNAzymes. Important insights have been gained regarding their metal-dependent activity, global folding, metal binding sites, and catalytic mechanisms for these DNAzymes. Because of their high metal ion selectivity, one of the most important practical applications for DNAzymes is metal ion detection, resulting in highly sensitive and selective fluorescent, colorimetric, and electrochemical sensors for a wide range of metal ions such as Pb(2+), UO2 2 +,[Formula: see text] including paramagnetic metal ions such as Cu(2+). This chapter summarizes recent progresses in in vitro selection of metal ion-selective DNAzymes, their biochemical and biophysical studies and sensing applications.

  16. Coprecipitation of alkali metal ions with calcium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Minoru; Kitano, Yasushi

    1986-01-01

    The coprecipitation of alkali metal ions Li + , Na + , K + and Rb + with calcium carbonate has been studied experimentally and the following results have been obtained: (1) Alkali metal ions are more easily coprecipitated with aragonite than with calcite. (2) The relationship between the amounts of alkali metal ions coprecipitated with aragonite and their ionic radii shows a parabolic curve with a peak located at Na + which has approximately the same ionic radius as Ca 2+ . (3) However, the amounts of alkali metal ions coprecipitated with calcite decrease with increasing ionic radius of alkali metals. (4) Our results support the hypothesis that (a) alkali metals are in interstitial positions in the crystal structure of calcite and do not substitute for Ca 2+ in the lattice, but (b) in aragonite, alkali metals substitute for Ca 2+ in the crystal structure. (5) Magnesium ions in the parent solution increase the amounts of alkali metal ions (Li + , Na + , K + and Rb + ) coprecipitated with calcite but decrease those with aragonite. (6) Sodium-bearing aragonite decreases the incorporation of other alkali metal ions (Li + , K + and Rb + ) into the aragonite. (author)

  17. Ion implantation enhanced metal-Si-metal photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A. K.; Scott, K. A. M.; Brueck, S. R. J.; Zolper, J. C.; Myers, D. R.

    1994-05-01

    The quantum efficiency and frequency response of simple Ni-Si-Ni metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors at long wavelengths are significantly enhanced with a simple, ion-implantation step to create a highly absorbing region approx. 1 micron below the Si surface. The internal quantum efficiency is improved by a factor of approx. 3 at 860 nm (to 64%) and a full factor of ten at 1.06 microns (to 23%) as compared with otherwise identical unimplanted devices. Dark currents are only slightly affected by the implantation process and are as low as 630 pA for a 4.5-micron gap device at 10-V bias. Dramatic improvement in the impulse response is observed, 100 ps vs. 600 ps, also at 10-V bias and 4.5-micron gap, due to the elimination of carrier diffusion tails in the implanted devices. Due to its planar structure, this device is fully VLSI compatible. Potential applications include optical interconnections for local area networks and multi-chip modules.

  18. State promotion and neutralization of ions near metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinoviev, A.N.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Multiply charged ion and the charge induced in the metal form a dipole. → Dipole states are promoted into continuum with decreasing ion-surface distance. → These states cross the states formed from metal atom. → Proposed model explains the dominant population of deep bound states. → Observed spectra of emitted Auger electrons prove this promotion model. -- Abstract: When a multiply charged ion with charge Z approaches the metal surface, a dipole is formed by the multiply charged ion and the charge induced in the metal. The states for such a dipole are promoted into continuum with decreasing ion-surface distance and cross the states formed from metal atom. The model proposed explains the dominant population of deep bound states in collisions considered.

  19. Decontamination and demolition of concrete and metal structures during the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this report is to give a concise technical description of the techniques and equipment being used or developed for the decontamination and demolition of nuclear facilities in sufficient detail to assist Member States to plan decommissioning operations and make preliminary evaluations of techniques and equipment. This report also reviews new and/or different aspects which have not been well covered previously in readily available review documents or IAEA publications. This report is an up to date review of techniques and equipment being used or developed for decontamination or dismantling work during the decommissioning of all types of nuclear facility except mining and milling sites. Although the information presented is aimed at countries initiating decommissioning programmes, it should also be useful to others who are responsible for or interested in the planning and implementation of decommissioning tasks. This report describes the relevant techniques and equipment, their areas of application and degree of development and the conditions in which they are used, when these details are known. However, this publication should be used in conjunction with other published technical information on these topics, experience gained as a result of previous decommissioning operations and the assistance of experts in the appropriate areas are required. 64 refs, 33 figs, 5 tabs

  20. Analysis of metal ion release from biomedical implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Dimić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Metallic biomaterials are commonly used for fixation or replacement of damaged bones in the human body due to their good combination of mechanical properties. The disadvantage of metals as implant materials is their susceptibility to corrosion and metal ion release, which can cause serious health problems. In certain concentrations metals and metal ions are toxic and their presence can cause diverse inflammatory reactions, genetic mutations or even cancer. In this paper, different approaches to metal ion release examination, from biometallic materials sample preparation to research results interpretation, will be presented. An overview of the analytical techniques, used for determination of the type and concentration of released ions from implants in simulated biofluids, is also given in the paper.

  1. Oxidation of cyclohexane catalyzed by metal-ion-exchanged zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sökmen, Ilkay; Sevin, Fatma

    2003-08-01

    The ion-exchange rates and capacities of the zeolite NaY for the Cu(II), Co(II), and Pb(II) metal ions were investigated. Ion-exchange equilibria were achieved in approximately 72 h for all the metal ions. The maximum ion exchange of metal ions into the zeolite was found to be 120 mg Pb(II), 110 mg Cu(II), and 100 mg Co(II) per gram of zeolite NaY. It is observed that the exchange capacity of a zeolite varies with the exchanged metal ion and the amount of metal ions exchanged into zeolite decreases in the sequence Pb(II) > Cu(II) > Co(II). Application of the metal-ion-exchanged zeolites in oxidation of cyclohexane in liquid phase with visible light was examined and it is observed that the order of reactivity of the zeolites for the conversion of cyclohexane to cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol is CuY > CoY > PbY. It is found that conversion increases by increase of the empty active sites of a zeolite and the formation of cyclohexanol is favored initially, but the cyclohexanol is subsequently converted to cyclohexanone.

  2. Alkali metal ion battery with bimetallic electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Dane A; Bradwell, David J; Jiang, Kai; Kim, Hojong; Ortiz, Luis A; Sadoway, Donald R; Tomaszowska, Alina A; Wei, Weifeng; Wang, Kangli

    2015-04-07

    Electrochemical cells having molten electrodes having an alkali metal provide receipt and delivery of power by transporting atoms of the alkali metal between electrode environments of disparate chemical potentials through an electrochemical pathway comprising a salt of the alkali metal. The chemical potential of the alkali metal is decreased when combined with one or more non-alkali metals, thus producing a voltage between an electrode comprising the molten the alkali metal and the electrode comprising the combined alkali/non-alkali metals.

  3. Heavy metal ion uptake properties of polystyrene-supported ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    concentration on the uptake of metal ions have been studied. The uptake ... employed for the removal of heavy metal pollutants from industrial waste water. ... nitrate, mercuric chloride, cadmium nitrate and potassium dichromate salts. ... polymer resin was determined by reacting 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 ppm of metal.

  4. Sorption of Molecular Oxygen by Metal-Ion Exchanger Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysanov, V. A.; Plotnikova, N. V.; Kravchenko, T. A.

    2018-03-01

    Kinetic features are studied of the chemisorption and reduction of molecular oxygen from water by metal-ion exchanger nanocomposites that differ in the nature of the dispersed metal and state of oxidation. In the Pd equilibrium sorption coefficient for oxygen dissolved in water ranges from 20 to 50, depending on the nature and oxidation state of the metal component.

  5. Decontamination of soils polluted with heavy metals using plants as determined by nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotfy, S.M

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this work were three folds. First, to study the mobility and fate of heavy metals in two polluted sites (Mostorud soil, irrigated with contaminated water for more than 30 years and El-Gabal EL-Asfar soil, subjected to sewage effluent irrigation for more than 50 years) utilizing a modified tessier's sequential extraction procedure to evaluate the effect of total metal concentrations on metal partitioning into different fractions. Second, to evaluate the efficiency of some plant species (sunflower, cotton, penakium, Napier grass, and Squash) to extract heavy metals out of polluted soils. Third, to enhance the phyto-extraction of heavy metals by sunflower plant using some chemical chelators (citric acids, EDTA, and Ammonium nitrate) in order to improve the remediation of pollutants as well as to protect soil quality.It was observed that the distribution of heavy metals in various chemical fractions depends on the total heavy metals content. The distribution of heavy metals forms in the studied soils was in the following decreasing order: residual > Fe-Mn oxides > carbonates > organic > exchangeable > water soluble.Either higher metal accumulation in shoots or enhanced metal accumulation in roots was mainly due to improved phyto-extraction or rhizo-filtration efficiency, respectively. Heavy metals accumulation in shoots and roots of the investigated plant species was as follow: sunflower > cotton > penakium > Napier grass > Squash with a lower order of magnitude. Sunflower showed superiority for heavy metals extraction.Application of chemical chelators (soil amendments) enhanced the phyto-extraction efficiency of heavy metals by sunflower in both Mostorud and El-Gabal El-Asfar soils. Citric acid enhanced metals accumulation in shoots and roots more than EDTA and ammonium nitrate. Citric acid with rate of 20 m mole/kg soil was the best chelators to enhance phyto- extraction of heavy metals by sunflower.

  6. Studies on indigenous ion exchange resins: alkali metal ions-hydrogen ion exchange equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, S.; Kumar, Surender; Venkataramani, B.

    2001-01-01

    With a view to select a suitable ion exchange resin for the removal of radionuclides (such as cesium, strontium etc.) from low level radioactive effluents, alkali metal ion -H' exchanges on nine indigenous gel- and macroporous-type and nuclear grade resins have been studied at a total ionic strength of 0.1 mol dm .3 (in the case ofCs' -H' exchange it was 0.05 mol dm .3 ). The expected theoretical capacities were not attained by all the resins for the alkali metal ions. The water content (moles/equiv.) of the fully swollen resins for different alkali metal ionic forms do not follow the usual sequence of greater the tendency of the cation to hydrate the higher the water uptake, but a reverse trend. The ion exchange isotherms (plots of equivalent fractions of the ion in resin phase, N M1 to that in solution, N M ) were not satisfactory and sorption of cations, for most of the resins, was possible only when the acidity of the solution was lowered. The variations of the selectivity coefficient, K, with N M show that the resins are highly cross linked and the selectivity sequence: Cs + >K + >Na + >Li + , obtained for all the resins indicate that hydrated ions were involved in the exchange process. However, the increase in the selectivity was not accompanied by the release of water, but unusual uptake of water, during the exchange process. The characteristics of macroporous resins were not significantly different from those of the gel-type resins. The results are discussed in terms of heterogeneity in the polymer net work, improper sulphonation process resulting in the formation of functional groups at inaccessible sites with weak acidic character and the overall lack of control in the preparation of different resins. (author)

  7. Emission of positive oxygen ions from ion bombardment of adsorbate-covered metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaurin, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    During ion bombardment of metal surfaces, collision cascades can result in the emission of sputtered secondary ions. Recent experiments, however, have suggested that the emission of positive ions of electronegative adsorbates can result from electronic processes rather than from processes involving elastic collisions. This dissertation presents the results of experiments studying the emission of positive oxygen ions from oxygen- and carbon-monoxide-covered transition metal surfaces during bombardment by 25-250 keV ions of neon, argon, and krypton. The systems studied may be grouped into four categories. For a nickel substrate with adsorbed oxygen, the emission of positive oxygen ions proceeds through collision cascades. For titanium and niobium with adsorbed oxygen, the emission of positive oxygen ions is proportional to the primary ion velocity, consistent with emission from electronic processes; for a given primary ion velocity, the oxygen ion yield is independent of primary ion species. For substrates of molybdenum and tungsten, the oxygen yield is proportional to primary ion velocity, but the yield also depends on the primary ion species for a given primary ion velocity in a manner that is consistent with emission resulting from electronic processes. For these two groups, except for titanium, the yields during neon ion bombardment do not extrapolate (assuming linearity with primary ion velocity) to a nonzero value at zero beam velocity. The magnitude of the oxygen ion yields from these targets is not consistent with that expected if the emission were induced by secondary electrons emitted during the ion bombardment

  8. A new biotechnology for recovering heavy metal ions from wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnall, D.W.; Gabel, A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports that bio-recovery systems has developed a new sorption process for removing toxic metal ions from water. This process is based upon the natural, very strong affinity for biological materials, such as the cell walls of plants and microorganisms, for heavy metal ions such as uranium, cadmium, cobalt, nickel, etc.. Biological materials, primarily algae, have been immobilized in a polymer to produce a biological ion exchange resin, AlgaSORB. The material has a remarkable affinity for heavy metal ions and is capable of concentrating these ions by a factor of may thousand-fold. Additionally, the bound metals can be stripped and recovered from the algal material in a manner similar to conventional resins

  9. Preparation of Dithizone Functionalized Polystyrene for Detecting Heavy Metal Ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyeon Ho; Kim, Younghun [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Colorimetric sensors were usually used to detect specific metal ions using selective color change of solutions. While almost organic dye in colorimetric sensors detected single molecule, dithizone (DTZ) solution could be separately detected above 5 kinds of heavy metal ions by the change of clear color. Namely, DTZ could be used as multicolorimetric sensors. However, DTZ was generally used as aqueous type and paper/pellet-type DTZ was not reported yet. Therefore, in this work, polystyrene (PS) was prepared to composite with DTZ and then DTZ/PS pellet was obtained, which was used to selectively detect 10 kinds of heavy metal ions. When 10 ppm of Hg and Co ions was exposed in DTZ/PS pellets, clear color change was revealed. It is noted that DTZ/PS pellet could be used in detecting of heavy metal ion as dry type.

  10. Immobilisation in cement of ion exchange resins arising from the purification of reagents used for the decontamination of reactor circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.; Lee, D.J.

    1988-04-01

    The aim of the programme is to show that ion exchange resins used to remove activity from decontaminating agents used in water reactors can be successfully immobilised in cement. To achieve this, blends of Ordinary Portland Cement and ground granulated Blast Furnace Slag (ratio 9:1) have been used. Improvements in the properties of the product and the waste loading of 50 w/o damp resin can be achieved using microsilica, a finely divided form of silicon dioxide, as an additive to the blended cement. This report contains data on the effects of anion resins, and mixed anion/cation resins, on the performance of the cemented product. The effects of organic acids, especially picolinic and formic acids, bound to anion resins have also been investigated. In addition, formulations developed have been assessed at commercial scale (200 litres of cemented product) for their process and product characteristics. The final part of the report deals with the long-term product performance of samples prepared from cation resins which are now nearly one year old. (author)

  11. Metallic ion release from biocompatible cobalt-based alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimić Ivana D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallic biomaterials, which are mainly used for the damaged hard tissue replacements, are materials with high strength, excellent toughness and good wear resistance. The disadvantages of metals as implant materials are their susceptibility to corrosion, the elastic modulus mismatch between metals and human hard tissues, relatively high density and metallic ion release which can cause serious health problems. The aim of this study was to examine metallic ion release from Co-Cr-Mo alloy in artificial saliva. In that purpose, alloy samples were immersed into artificial saliva with different pH values (4.0, 5.5 and 7.5. After a certain immersion period (1, 3 and 6 weeks the concentrations of released ions were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS. The research findings were used in order to define the dependence between the concentration of released metallic ions, artificial saliva pH values and immersion time. The determined released metallic ions concentrations were compared with literature data in order to describe and better understand the phenomenon of metallic ion release from the biocompatible cobalt-based alloy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010 i br. ON 174004

  12. Solution chemistry and separation of metal ions in leached solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, J.

    1991-01-01

    The method to presume a dissolved state of metal ions in an aqueous solution and the technology to separate and concentrate metal ions in a leached solution are described in this paper. It is very important for the separation of metal ions to know the dissolved state of metal ions. If we know the composition of an aqueous solution and the stability constants of metal-ligand complexes, we can calculate and estimate the concentration of each species in the solution. Then, we can decide the policy to separate and concentrate metal ions. There are several methods for separation and purification; hydroxide precipitation method, sulfide precipitation method, solvent extraction method and ion exchange resin method. Solvent extraction has been used in purification processes of copper refinery, uranium refinery, platinum metal refinery and rare earth metal refinery. Fundamental process of solvent extraction, a kind of commercial extractants, a way of determining a suitable extractant and an equipment are discussed. Finally, it will be emphasized how the separation of rare earths is improved in solvent extraction. (author) 21 figs., 8 tabs., 8 refs

  13. Progress in metal ion separation and preconcentration : an overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, A. H.

    1998-05-19

    A brief historical perspective covering the most mature chemically-based metal ion separation methods is presented, as is a summary of the recommendations made in the 1987 National Research Council (NRC) report entitled ''Separation and Purification: Critical Needs and Opportunities''. A review of Progress in Metal Ion Separation and Preconcentration shows that advances are occurring in each area of need cited by the NRC. Following an explanation of the objectives and general organization of this book, the contents of each chapter are briefly summarized and some future research opportunities in metal ion separations are presented.

  14. Progress in metal ion separation and preconcentration: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, A. H.

    1998-01-01

    A brief historical perspective covering the most mature chemically-based metal ion separation methods is presented, as is a summary of the recommendations made in the 1987 National Research Council (NRC) report entitled ''Separation and Purification: Critical Needs and Opportunities''. A review of Progress in Metal Ion Separation and Preconcentration shows that advances are occurring in each area of need cited by the NRC. Following an explanation of the objectives and general organization of this book, the contents of each chapter are briefly summarized and some future research opportunities in metal ion separations are presented

  15. Heavy metal ions are potent inhibitors of protein folding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Sandeep K.; Goloubinoff, Pierre; Christen, Philipp

    2008-01-01

    Environmental and occupational exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury and lead results in severe health hazards including prenatal and developmental defects. The deleterious effects of heavy metal ions have hitherto been attributed to their interactions with specific, particularly susceptible native proteins. Here, we report an as yet undescribed mode of heavy metal toxicity. Cd 2+ , Hg 2+ and Pb 2+ proved to inhibit very efficiently the spontaneous refolding of chemically denatured proteins by forming high-affinity multidentate complexes with thiol and other functional groups (IC 50 in the nanomolar range). With similar efficacy, the heavy metal ions inhibited the chaperone-assisted refolding of chemically denatured and heat-denatured proteins. Thus, the toxic effects of heavy metal ions may result as well from their interaction with the more readily accessible functional groups of proteins in nascent and other non-native form. The toxic scope of heavy metals seems to be substantially larger than assumed so far

  16. Rechargeable dual-metal-ion batteries for advanced energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hu-Rong; You, Ya; Yin, Ya-Xia; Wan, Li-Jun; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2016-04-14

    Energy storage devices are more important today than any time before in human history due to the increasing demand for clean and sustainable energy. Rechargeable batteries are emerging as the most efficient energy storage technology for a wide range of portable devices, grids and electronic vehicles. Future generations of batteries are required to have high gravimetric and volumetric energy, high power density, low price, long cycle life, high safety and low self-discharge properties. However, it is quite challenging to achieve the above properties simultaneously in state-of-the-art single metal ion batteries (e.g. Li-ion batteries, Na-ion batteries and Mg-ion batteries). In this contribution, hybrid-ion batteries in which various metal ions simultaneously engage to store energy are shown to provide a new perspective towards advanced energy storage: by connecting the respective advantages of different metal ion batteries they have recently attracted widespread attention due to their novel performances. The properties of hybrid-ion batteries are not simply the superposition of the performances of single ion batteries. To enable a distinct description, we only focus on dual-metal-ion batteries in this article, for which the design and the benefits are briefly discussed. We enumerate some new results about dual-metal-ion batteries and demonstrate the mechanism for improving performance based on knowledge from the literature and experiments. Although the search for hybrid-ion batteries is still at an early age, we believe that this strategy would be an excellent choice for breaking the inherent disadvantages of single ion batteries in the near future.

  17. Solution thermodynamics of rare-earth metal ions - physicochemical study-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amerkhanova, Sh K; Shlyapov, R M; Uali, A S [Buketov Karaganda state university, University str., 28, Karaganda, 100028 (Kazakhstan)], E-mail: amerkhanova_sh@mail.ru

    2009-02-01

    The results of the studying of interactions in multicomponent systems 'polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) - rare-earth element ion - nitrate of sodium - water' are represented. It is established that for rubidium (I) ions temperature and ionic strength is render destroying action, and for yttrium (III) ions the influence of these factors has return character which is connected with features of an electronic structure of metal ion. It is revealed that a dominating role of non-electrostatic formation composed, hence, the formation of donor-acceptor connection of 'metal - ligand' occurs through atom of oxygen.

  18. A Decontamination Process to Remove Metals and Stabilise Montreal Sewage Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mercier

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Montreal Urban Community (MUC treatment plant produces approximately 270 tons of dry sludge daily (tds/day during physicochemical wastewater treatment. The sludges are burned and contribute to the greenhouse effect by producing atmospheric CO2. Moreover, the sludge emanates a nauseating odour during its thermal stabilisation and retains unpleasant odours for the part (25% that is dried and granulated. To solve this particular problem, the treatment plant authorities are currently evaluating an acidic chemical leaching (sulfuric or hydrochloric acid process at a pH between 2 and 3, using an oxidizing agent such as ferric chloride or hydrogen peroxide (METIX-AC technology, patent pending; [20]. They could integrate it to a 70 tds/day granulated sludge production process. Verification of the application of METIX-AC technology was carried out in a pilot plant set up near the sludge production plant of the MUC. The tests showed that METIX-AC technology can be advantageously integrated to the process used at the MUC. The residual copper (274 ± 58 mg/kg and cadmium (5.6 ± 2.9 mg/kg concentrations in the treated sludge meet legislation standards. The results have also shown that odours have been significantly eliminated for the dewatered, decontaminated, and stabilized biosolids (> 97% compared to the non-decontaminated biosolids. A high rate of odour elimination also was obtained for the liquid leached biosolids (> 93%, compared to the untreated liquid biosolids. The fertilising value (N and P is well preserved by the METIX-AC process. Dissolved organic carbon measurements have showed that little organic matter is brought in solution during the treatment. In fact, the average concentration of dissolved organic carbon measured in the treated liquid phase is 966 ± 352 mg/l, whereas it is 1190 ± 325 mg/l in untreated sludge. The treated sludge was first conditioned with an organic polymer and a coagulant aid. It was successfully dewatered with

  19. Yeast enolase: mechanism of activation by metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, J M

    1981-01-01

    Yeast enolase as prepared by current procedures is inherently chemically homogeneous, though deamidation and partial denaturation can produce electrophoretically distinct forms. A true isozyme of the enzyme exists but does not survive the purification procedure. The chemical sequence for both has been established. The enzyme behaves in solution like a compact, nearly spherical molecule of moderate hydration. Strong intramolecular forces maintain the structure of the individual subunits. The enzyme as isolated is dimeric. If dissociated in the presence of magnesium ions and substrate, then the subunits are active, but if the dissociation occurs in the absence of metal ions, they are inactive until they have reassociated and undergone a first order "annealing" process. Magnesium (II) enhances association. The interaction between the subunits is hydrophobic in character. The enzyme can bind up to 2 mol of most metal ions in "conformational" sites which then allows up to 2 mol of substrate or some substrate analogue to bind. This is not sufficient for catalysis, but conformational metal ions do more than just allow substrate binding. A change in the environment of the metal ions occurs on substrate or substrate analogue binding. There is an absolute correlation between the occurrence of a structural change undergone by the 3-amino analogue of phosphoenolpyruvate and whether the metal ions produce any level of enzymatic activity. For catalysis, two more moles of metal ions, called "catalytic", must bind. There is evidence that the enzymatic reaction involves a carbanion mechanism. It is likely that two more moles of metal ion can bind which inhibit the reaction. The requirement for 2 mol of metal ion per subunit which contribute in different ways to catalysis is exhibited by a number of other enzymes.

  20. Ionic liquids used in extraction and separation of metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Xinghai; Xu Chao; Liu Xinqi; Chu Taiwei

    2006-01-01

    Ionic liquids as green solvents now have become a research hotspot in the field of separation of metal ions by solvent extraction. Experimental results of extraction of various metal ions with ionic liquids as solvents, including that of alkali metals, alkaline earths, transition metals rare earths and actinides are introduced. The extraction of uranium, plutonium and fission products that are involved in spent nuclear fuel reprocessing is also reviewed. The possible extraction mechanisms are discussed. Finally, the prospect of replacement of volatile and/or toxic organic solvents with environmentally benign ionic liquids for solvent extraction and the potency of applications of ionic liquids in solvent extraction are also commented. (authors)

  1. Designer ligands: The search for metal ion selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry T. Kaye

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews research conducted at Rhodes University towards the development of metal-selective ligands. The research has focused on the rational design, synthesis and evaluation of novel ligands for use in the formation of copper complexes as biomimetic models of the metalloenzyme, tyrosinase, and for the selective extraction of silver, nickel and platinum group metal ions in the presence of contaminating metal ions. Attention has also been given to the development of efficient, metal-selective molecular imprinted polymers.

  2. Metal ion removal from aqueous solution using physic seed hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Masita; Maitra, Saikat; Ahmad, Naveed; Bustam, Azmi; Sen, T K; Dutta, Binay K

    2010-07-15

    The potential of physic seed hull (PSH), Jantropha curcas L. as an adsorbent for the removal of Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) metal ions from aqueous solution has been investigated. It has been found that the amount of adsorption for both Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) increased with the increase in initial metal ions concentration, contact time, temperature, adsorbent dosage and the solution pH (in acidic range), but decreased with the increase in the particle size of the adsorbent. The adsorption process for both metal ions on PSH consists of three stages-a rapid initial adsorption followed by a period of slower uptake of metal ions and virtually no uptake at the final stage. The kinetics of metal ions adsorption on PSH followed a pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption equilibrium data were fitted in the three adsorption isotherms-Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The data best fit in the Langmuir isotherm indication monolayer chemisorption of the metal ions. The adsorption capacity of PSH for both Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) was found to be comparable with other available adsorbents. About 36-47% of the adsorbed metal could be leached out of the loaded PSH using 0.1M HCl as the eluting medium. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Metallic vapor supplying by the electron bombardment for a metallic ion production with an ECR ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitagawa, Atsushi; Sasaki, Makoto; Muramatsu, Masayuki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Jincho, Kaoru; Sasaki, Noriyuki; Sakuma, Tetsuya; Takasugi, Wataru; Yamamoto, Mitsugu [Accelerator Engineering Corporation, Chiba (Japan)

    2001-11-19

    To produce the metallic ion beam for the injection into the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), a new gas supply method has been developed for an 18 GHz ECR ion source (NIRS-HEC). A metallic target rod at a high positive potential is melted by the electron bombardment technique. The evaporated gas with a maximum flow rate of 50A/sec is supplied into the ECR plasma in case of Fe metal. (author)

  4. Metallic vapor supplying by the electron bombardment for a metallic ion production with an ECR ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Atsushi; Sasaki, Makoto; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Jincho, Kaoru; Sasaki, Noriyuki; Sakuma, Tetsuya; Takasugi, Wataru; Yamamoto, Mitsugu

    2001-01-01

    To produce the metallic ion beam for the injection into the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), a new gas supply method has been developed for an 18 GHz ECR ion source (NIRS-HEC). A metallic target rod at a high positive potential is melted by the electron bombardment technique. The evaporated gas with a maximum flow rate of 50A/sec is supplied into the ECR plasma in case of Fe metal. (author)

  5. Method of continuously regenerating decontaminating electrolytic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takashi; Kobayashi, Toshio; Wada, Koichi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To continuously recover radioactive metal ions from the electrolytic solution used for the electrolytic decontamination of radioactive equipment and increased with the radioactive dose, as well as regenerate the electrolytic solution to a high concentration acid. Method: A liquid in an auxiliary tank is recycled to a cathode chamber containing water of an electro depositing regeneration tank to render pH = 2 by way of a pH controller and a pH electrode. The electrolytic solution in an electrolytic decontaminating tank is introduced by way of an injection pump to an auxiliary tank and, interlocking therewith, a regenerating solution is introduced from a regenerating solution extracting pump by way of a extraction pipeway to an electrolytic decontaminating tank. Meanwhile, electric current is supplied to the electrode to deposit radioactive metal ions dissolved in the cathode chamber on the capturing electrode. While on the other hand, anions are transferred by way of a partition wall to an anode chamber to regenerate the electrolytic solution to high concentration acid solution. While on the other hand, water is supplied by way of an electromagnetic valve interlocking with the level meter to maintain the level meter constant. This can decrease the generation of the liquid wastes and also reduce the amount of the radioactive secondary wastes. (Horiuchi, T.)

  6. Ion-induced electron emission from clean metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baragiola, R.A.; Alonso, E.V.; Ferron, J.; Oliva-Florio, A.; Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, San Carlos de Bariloche

    1979-01-01

    We report recent experimental work on electron emission from clean polycrystalline metal surfaces under ion bombardment. We critically discuss existing theories and point out the presently unsolved problems. (orig.)

  7. Sorption of Heavy Metal Ions from Mine Wastewater by Activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-12-02

    Dec 2, 2016 ... assess their heavy metal ions adsorption potential. The results show that the .... De-ionised water obtained from the Mineral. Engineering Laboratory of ... Batch adsorption experiment for each of the derived activated carbons ...

  8. Synthesis and characterization of metal ion-imprinted polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-03-29

    Mar 29, 2018 ... polymers (CPs) were synthesized through the same method without using metal ion. Characterization of the ... tizanidine obtained from MMIP-NPs showed that signifi- .... C=C vari- able alkene stretching band at 1636 cm. −1.

  9. Extracting metal ions with diphosphonic acid, or derivative thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Earl P.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Nash, Kenneth L.

    1994-01-01

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulphur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described.

  10. Ion-beam modification of properties of metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodasevich, V.V.; Uglov, V.V.; Ponaryadov, V.V.; Zhukova, S.I.

    2002-01-01

    Physical fundaments for ion-beam modification and plasma-vacuum synthesis of new types of coatings and compounds in technically important metals and alloys were development as well as corresponding installation and technologies were created. (authors)

  11. Extracting metal ions with diphosphonic acid, or derivative thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Gatrone, R.C.; Nash, K.L.

    1994-07-26

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulfur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described. 1 fig.

  12. Synthesis, photophysical and metal ion signalling behaviour of mono

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    component systems, ... tion and heavy metal ions, is of considerable interest for various ... cause of the macrocyclic effect, expect to show ... whose chloride salt, mercuric chloride, was used. ... filtered, concentrated, washed with water and ex-.

  13. Metal ion separations using reactive membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Way, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    A membrane is a barrier between two phases. If one component of a mixture moves through the membrane faster than another mixture component, a separation can be accomplished. Membranes are used commercially for many applications including gas separations, water purification, particle filtration, and macromolecule separations (Abelson). There are two points to note concerning this definition. First, a membrane is defined based on its function, not the material used to make the membrane. Secondly, a membrane separation is a rate process. The separation is accomplished by a driving force, not by equilibrium between phases. Liquids that are immiscible with the feed and product streams can also be used as membrane materials. Different solutes will have different solubilities and diffusion coefficients in a liquid. The product of the diffusivity and the solubility is known as the permeability coefficient, which is proportional to the solute flux. Differences in permeability coefficient will produce a separation between solutes at constant driving force. Because the diffusion coefficients in liquids are typically orders of magnitude higher than in polymers, a larger flux can be obtained. Further enhancements can be accomplished by adding a nonvolatile complexation agent to the liquid membrane. One can then have either coupled or facilitated transport of metal ions through a liquid membrane. The author describes two implementations of this concept, one involving a liquid membrane supported on a microporous membrane, and the other an emulsion liquid membrane, where separation occurs to internal receiving phases. Applications and costing studies for this technology are reviewed, and a brief summary of some of the problems with liquid membranes is presented

  14. Adhesive, abrasive and oxidative wear in ion-implanted metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1985-01-01

    Ion implantation is increasingly being used to provide wear resistance in metals and cemented tungsten carbides. Field trials and laboratory tests indicate that the best performance is achieved in mild abrasive wear. This can be understood in terms of the classification of wear modes (adhesive, abrasive, oxidative etc.) introduced by Burwell. Surface hardening and work hardenability are the major properties to be enhanced by ion implantation. The implantation of nitrogen or dual implants of metallic and interstitial species are effective. Recently developed techniques of ion-beam-enhanced deposition of coatings can further improve wear resistance by lessening adhesion and oxidation. In order to support such hard coatings, ion implantation of nitrogen can be used as a preliminary treatment. There is thus emerging a versatile group of related hard vacuum treatments involving intense beams of nitrogen ions for the purpose of tailoring metal surfaces to resist wear. (Auth.)

  15. Biotechnological strategies applied to the decontamination of soils polluted with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavamura, Vanessa Nessner; Esposito, Elisa

    2010-01-01

    Soils have been submitted to several contaminants that vary in concentration and composition. Heavy metals can be widely spread and accumulated in those environments due to some inappropriate actions. In this present review some remediation techniques to remediate soils are presented, focusing on the use of plants that are capable of surviving in soils with heavy metals along with the function of some microorganisms in the restoration process.

  16. Investigation of metal ions in fusion plasmas using emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tale, I.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The Latvian and Portugal Associations are performing development of advanced plasma - facing system using the liquid metal limiter. The objectives of this project require study of the influence of the liquid metal limiter on the main plasma parameters, including concentration of evaporated metal atoms in plasma. The fusion plasmas are related to the dense hot plasmas. The required average ion temperature according to the ITER project (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) is 8,0 keV (9,3 x 10 7 0 K), the average electron temperature - 8,9 keV (1,04 x 10 8 0 K). Plasma temperature operated in the research tokamak ISSTOK, involved in testing of liquid metal limiter concept is considerably less, being of order of 10 50 K. The ionization degree of metal atoms considerably depends on the plasma ion temperature. Density of metal vapours in plasma can be estimated using the following two spectroscopic methods: The fluorescence of the multiple ionised metal ions in steady state concentration; The charge exchange emission during ionisation of evaporated metal ions. In the first step of development of testing system of metal vapours the equipment and instrumentation for charge exchange spectroscopy of Ga and In has been elaborated taking into account the following features of plasma emission. The Ga emission lines occur on the background high temperature plasma black body emission and stray light. Radial distribution of Ga in plasma in the facing plane of Ga flux is desirable

  17. Isotherms of ion exchange on titanates of alkaline metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillina, L.P.; Belinskaya, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    Present article is devoted to isotherms of ion exchange on titanates of alkaline metals. Therefore, finely dispersed hydrated titanates of alkaline metals (lithium, sodium, potassium) with ion exchange properties are obtained by means of alkaline hydrolysis of titanium chloride at high ph rates. Sorption of cations from salts solution of Li 2 SO 4 , NaNO 3 , Ca(NO 3 ) 2 , AgNO 3 by titanates is studied.

  18. Laccase Immobilization by Chelated Metal Ion Coordination Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, amidoxime polyacrylonitrile (AOPAN nanofibrous membrane was prepared by a reaction between PAN nanofibers and hydroxylamine hydrochloride. The AOPAN nanofibrous membranes were used for four metal ions (Fe3+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Cd2+ chelation under different conditions. Further, the competition of different metal ions coordinating with AOPAN nanofibrous membrane was also studied. The AOPAN chelated with individual metal ion (Fe3+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Cd2+ and also the four mixed metal ions were further used for laccase (Lac immobilization. Compared with free laccase, the immobilized laccase showed better resistance to pH and temperature changes as well as improved storage stability. Among the four individual metal ion chelated membranes, the stability of the immobilized enzymes generally followed the order as Fe–AOPAN–Lac > Cu–AOPAN–Lac > Ni–AOPAN–Lac > Cd–AOPAN–Lac. In addition, the immobilized enzyme on the carrier of AOPAN chelated with four mixed metal ions showed the best properties.

  19. Poisoning of liquid membrane carriers in extraction of metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuchun; Wang, Dexian

    1992-01-01

    As means of effective separation and preconcentration, emulsion liquid membranes (ELMs) have found application in many fields including biochemical separation, wastewater treatment, hydrometallurgy, and preconcentration in analytical chemistry. In the extraction of desired metal (scandium, mixed rare earths) ions using chelating extractants (TTA, HDEHP) as liquid membrane carriers, the carriers will become poisoned owing to the presence of even minute quantity of certain high ionic potential ions in the feed solution. The reason for the poisoning of carriers is that those ions have so much greater affinity than the desired ions for the membrane carrier that the ion-carrier coordination compound cannot be stripped at the interior interface of the membrane and gradually no more free carrier transports any metal ions across the membrane. The calculated results are in agreement with the experiments, and methods to avoid the poisoning are given in the paper

  20. Chemical dynamics of acidity and heavy metals in a mine water-polluted soil during decontamination using clean water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, A; Lin, C; Lu, W; Ma, Y; Bai, Y; Chen, H; Li, J

    2010-03-15

    A column leaching experiment was conducted to investigate the chemical dynamics of the percolating water and washed soil during decontamination of an acidic mine water-polluted soil. The results show that leaching of the contaminated soil with clean water rapidly reduced soluble acidity and ion concentrations in the soils. However, only soil column was eliminated after 30 leaching cycles. It is likely that the stored acidity continues to be released to the percolating water over a long period of time. During the column leaching, dissolved Cu and Pb were rapidly leached out, followed by mobilization of colloidal Cu and Pb from the exchangeable and the oxide-bound fractions as a result of reduced ionic strength in the soil solution. The soluble Fe contained in the soil was rare, probably because the soil pH was not sufficiently low; marked mobility of colloidal Fe took place after the ionic strength of the percolating water was weakened and the mobilized Fe was mainly derived from iron oxides. In contrast with Cu, Pb and Fe, the concentration of leachate Zn and Mn showed a continuously decreasing trend during the entire period of the experiment. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemical decontaminating method for stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuma, Tsutomu; Akimoto, Hidetoshi.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactive metal wastes comprising passivated stainless steels are chemically decontaminated to such a radioactivity level as that of usual wastes. The present invention for chemically decontaminating stainless steels comprises a first step of immersing decontaminates into a sulfuric acid solution and a second step of immersing them into an aqueous solution prepared by adding oxidative metal salts to sulfuric acid, in which a portion of the surface of stainless steels as decontaminates are chemically ground to partially expose substrate materials and then the above-mentioned decontamination steps are applied. More than 90% of radioactive materials are removed in this method by the dissolution of the exposed substrate materials and peeling of cruds secured to the surface of the materials upon dissolution. This method is applicable to decontamination of articles having complicate shapes, can reduce the amount of secondary wastes after decontamination and also remarkably shorten the time required for decontamination. (T.M.)

  2. Equilibrium and kinetics studies of metal ion adsorption on dyed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-04-02

    Apr 2, 2007 ... Initial concentration of Cu(II) ions = 20 mg/l, adsorbent dose = 1.0 g. Table 2 Experiment Data of ... diffusivity of the metal ion would be independent of the extent of sorption .... exchange and adsorption. Equilibrium parameter.

  3. The kinetics and thermodynamics of adsorption of heavy metal ions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Titanium-Pillared and Un-Pillared bentonite clays were studied in order to evaluate the thermodynamics and kinetics of heavy metal ion removal from aqueous solutions. The results showed that the maximum sorption of Cu, Cd, Hg and Pb ions occurred within 30 minutes. A pseudo-second order kinetic model was used to ...

  4. Electrical properties of polymer modified by metal ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuguang; Zhang Tonghe; Zhang Huixing; Zhang Xiaoji; Deng Zhiwei; Zhou Gu

    2000-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) has been modified by Ag, Cr, Cu and Si ion implantation with a dose range from 1x10 16 to 2x10 17 ions cm -2 using a metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) source. The electrical properties of PET have been changed after metal ion implantation. The resistivity of implanted PET decreased obviously with an increase of ion dose. When metal ion dose of 2x10 17 cm -2 was selected, the resistivity of PET could be less than 10 Ω cm, but when Si ions are implanted, the resistivity of PET would be up to several hundred Ω cm. The results show that the conductive behavior of a metal ion implanted sample is obviously different from Si implantation one. The changes of the structure and composition have been observed with transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface structure is varying after ion implantation and it is believed that the change would cause the improvement of the conductive properties. The mechanism of electrical conduction will be discussed

  5. Surface decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S. da; Teixeira, M.V.

    1986-06-01

    The general methods of surface decontamination used in laboratory and others nuclear installations areas, as well as the procedures for handling radioactive materials and surfaces of work are presented. Some methods for decontamination of body external parts are mentioned. The medical supervision and assistance are required for internal or external contamination involving or not lesion in persons. From this medical radiation protection decontamination procedures are determined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  6. The study on the ion exchange behavior of metal ions using composite ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kukki; Lee, Kunjai [Nuclear Engineering Department Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youngkyun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sangjin; Yang, Hoyeon; Ha, Jonghyun [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-04-15

    In this study, a series of stepwise procedures to prepare a new organic-inorganic composite magnetic resin with phenol sulphonic-formaldehyde and freshly formed iron ferrite was established, based upon wet-and-neutralization method for synthesizing iron ferrite and pearl-polymerization method for synthesizing rigid bead-type composite resin. And a separation of metal ions in the liquid radioactive waste have been performed using organic-inorganic composite magnetic resin with phenol sulphonic-formaldehyde and freshly formed iron ferrite. The PSF-F (phenol sulphonic formaldehyde-iron ferrite) composite resin prepared by the above method shows stably high removal efficiency to Co(II), Fe, Cs species from wastewater in a wide range of solution pH. The wide range of applicable solution pH (i. e. pH 4.0 to 10.3) implies that the PSF-F composite resin overcomes the limitations of the conventional ferrite process which is practically applicable only to alkaline conditions. The experiment proceeded using batch reactor in a constant temperature with water bath. The experiments divided into three parts. The first one is TG/DTA (Thermogravimetry / Differential Thermal Analysis) which can analyze the trend of pyrolysis of PSF-F ion exchanger. The Second one is equilibrium experiment in which the separation factor of metal ions and Langmuir, Freundlich isotherm was achieved. The last one is kinetics experiment in which the equilibrium reaction time and removal efficiency is estimated.

  7. The study on the ion exchange behavior of metal ions using composite ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kukki; Lee, Kunjai; Kim, Youngkyun; Lee, Sangjin; Yang, Hoyeon; Ha, Jonghyun

    2002-01-01

    In this study, a series of stepwise procedures to prepare a new organic-inorganic composite magnetic resin with phenol sulphonic-formaldehyde and freshly formed iron ferrite was established, based upon wet-and-neutralization method for synthesizing iron ferrite and pearl-polymerization method for synthesizing rigid bead-type composite resin. And a separation of metal ions in the liquid radioactive waste have been performed using organic-inorganic composite magnetic resin with phenol sulphonic-formaldehyde and freshly formed iron ferrite. The PSF-F (phenol sulphonic formaldehyde-iron ferrite) composite resin prepared by the above method shows stably high removal efficiency to Co(II), Fe, Cs species from wastewater in a wide range of solution pH. The wide range of applicable solution pH (i. e. pH 4.0 to 10.3) implies that the PSF-F composite resin overcomes the limitations of the conventional ferrite process which is practically applicable only to alkaline conditions. The experiment proceeded using batch reactor in a constant temperature with water bath. The experiments divided into three parts. The first one is TG/DTA (Thermogravimetry / Differential Thermal Analysis) which can analyze the trend of pyrolysis of PSF-F ion exchanger. The Second one is equilibrium experiment in which the separation factor of metal ions and Langmuir, Freundlich isotherm was achieved. The last one is kinetics experiment in which the equilibrium reaction time and removal efficiency is estimated

  8. Evaluation of a dilute chemical decontaminant for pressurized heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velmurugan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V.; Mathur, P.K.; Venkateswarlu, K.S.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a dilute chemical decontamination formulation based on ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid, oxalic acid, and citric acid is evaluated for its efficacy in removing oxide layers in a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR). An ion exchange system that is specifically suited for fission product-dominated contamination in a PHWR is suggested for the reagent regeneration stage of the decontamination process. An attempt has been made to understand the redeposition behavior of various isotopes during the decontamination process. The polarographic method of identifying the species formed in the dissolution process is explained. Electrochemical measurements are employed to follow the course of oxide removal during the dissolution process. Scanning electron micrographs of metal coupons before and after the dissolution process exemplify the involvement of base metal in the formation of a ferrous oxalate layer. Material compatibility tests between the decontaminant and carbon steel, Monel-400, and Zircaloy-2 are reported

  9. Microstructured liquid metal electron and ion sources (MILMES/MILMIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitterauer, J [Technische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Institut fuer Allgemeine Elektrotechnik und Elektronik

    1997-12-31

    Ion or electron beams can be emitted from liquid metal wetted needles, or from capillaries or slits into which the liquid metal is allowed to flow. Large-area liquid metal field emission sources have been proposed recently, using either two-dimensional, regular arrays of cones or capillaries, or even a substrate with an intrinsically microstructured surface covered by a liquid metal film. This latter concept has been realized in a pilot experiment by in situ wicking and wetting of a porous sintered metal disc. Microstructured liquid metal ion or electron sources are capable of operating in a pulsed mode at a current level which is orders of magnitude above that for steady-state operation. (author). 3 figs., 10 refs.

  10. Comparative study of metal and non-metal ion implantation in polymers: Optical and electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resta, V.; Quarta, G.; Farella, I.; Maruccio, L.; Cola, A.; Calcagnile, L.

    2014-01-01

    The implantation of 1 MeV metal ( 63 Cu + , 107 Ag + , 197 Au + ) and non-metal ( 4 He + , 12 C + ) ions in a polycarbonate (PC) matrix has been studied in order to evaluate the role of ion species in the modification of optical and electrical properties of the polymer. When the ion fluence is above ∼1 × 10 13 ions cm −2 , the threshold for latent tracks overlapping is overcome and π-bonded carbon clusters grow and aggregate forming a network of conjugated C=C bonds. For fluences around 1 × 10 17 ions cm −2 , the aggregation phenomena induce the formation of amorphous carbon and/or graphite like structures. At the same time, nucleation of metal nanoparticles (NPs) from implanted species can take place when the supersaturation threshold is overcome. The optical absorption of the samples increases in the visible range and the optical band gap redshifts from 3.40 eV up to 0.70 eV mostly due to the carbonization process and the formation of C 0x clusters and cluster aggregates. Specific structures in the extinction spectra are observed when metal ions are selected in contrast to the non-metal ion implanted PC, thus revealing the possible presence of noble metal based NPs interstitial to the C 0x cluster network. The corresponding electrical resistance decreases much more when metal ions are implanted with at least a factor of 2 orders of magnitude difference than the non-metal ions based samples. An absolute value of ∼10 7 Ω/sq has been measured for implantation with metals at doses higher than 5 × 10 16 ions cm −2 , being 10 17 Ω/sq the corresponding sheet resistance for pristine PC

  11. Comparative study of metal and non-metal ion implantation in polymers: Optical and electrical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resta, V., E-mail: vincenzo.resta@le.infn.it [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via Monteroni, Lecce I-73100 (Italy); Quarta, G. [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via Monteroni, Lecce I-73100 (Italy); Farella, I. [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems – Unit of Lecce, National Council of Research (IMM/CNR), Lecce I-73100 (Italy); Maruccio, L. [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via Monteroni, Lecce I-73100 (Italy); Cola, A. [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems – Unit of Lecce, National Council of Research (IMM/CNR), Lecce I-73100 (Italy); Calcagnile, L. [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via Monteroni, Lecce I-73100 (Italy)

    2014-07-15

    The implantation of 1 MeV metal ({sup 63}Cu{sup +}, {sup 107}Ag{sup +}, {sup 197}Au{sup +}) and non-metal ({sup 4}He{sup +}, {sup 12}C{sup +}) ions in a polycarbonate (PC) matrix has been studied in order to evaluate the role of ion species in the modification of optical and electrical properties of the polymer. When the ion fluence is above ∼1 × 10{sup 13} ions cm{sup −2}, the threshold for latent tracks overlapping is overcome and π-bonded carbon clusters grow and aggregate forming a network of conjugated C=C bonds. For fluences around 1 × 10{sup 17} ions cm{sup −2}, the aggregation phenomena induce the formation of amorphous carbon and/or graphite like structures. At the same time, nucleation of metal nanoparticles (NPs) from implanted species can take place when the supersaturation threshold is overcome. The optical absorption of the samples increases in the visible range and the optical band gap redshifts from 3.40 eV up to 0.70 eV mostly due to the carbonization process and the formation of C{sub 0x} clusters and cluster aggregates. Specific structures in the extinction spectra are observed when metal ions are selected in contrast to the non-metal ion implanted PC, thus revealing the possible presence of noble metal based NPs interstitial to the C{sub 0x} cluster network. The corresponding electrical resistance decreases much more when metal ions are implanted with at least a factor of 2 orders of magnitude difference than the non-metal ions based samples. An absolute value of ∼10{sup 7} Ω/sq has been measured for implantation with metals at doses higher than 5 × 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup −2}, being 10{sup 17} Ω/sq the corresponding sheet resistance for pristine PC.

  12. Ion irradiation effect on metallic condensate adhesion to glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, V.V.; Upit, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    The ion irradiation effect on metallic condensate adhesion to glass is investigated. It has been found that in case of indium ion deposition the condensate adhesion to glass cleavages being in contact with atmosphere grows up to the level corresponding to a juvenile surface while in case of argon ion irradiation - exceeds it. It is shown that the observed adhesion growth is determined mainly by the surfwce modification comparising charge accumulation on surface, destruction of a subsurface layer and an interlayer formation in the condensate-substrate interface. The role of these factors in the course of various metals deposition is considered

  13. DETERMINATION OF METAL IONS RELEASED BY STAINLESS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The study indicated that the reused wires released more ions than new ones at all time points. ... recycled brackets released more ions than the new ones, reduction of the pH of artificial saliva resulted in ... Nickel(II) and vanadium(V) reduce.

  14. DETERMINATION OF METAL IONS RELEASED BY STAINLESS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The amounts of cobalt, iron, manganese, nickel and chromium ions released from new and reused stainless steel arch bar used for maxillomandibular fixation was determined in Hank's solutions of different hydrogen and chloride ions concentrations, whole blood serum and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) in vitro, over a ...

  15. Hydrolysis of metal ions. Vol. 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Paul L. [Geochem Australia, Kiama, NSW (Australia); Ekberg, Christian [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Nuclear Chemistry/Industrial Materials Recycling

    2016-07-01

    Filling the need for a comprehensive treatment that covers the theory, methods and the different types of metal ion complexes with water (hydrolysis), this handbook and ready reference is authored by a nuclear chemist from academia and an industrial geochemist. The book includes both cation and anion complexes, and approaches the topic of metal ion hydrolysis by first covering the background, before proceeding with an overview of the dissociation of water and then all different metal-water hydrolysis complexes and compounds. A must-have for scientists in academia and industry working on this interdisciplinary topic.

  16. Heavy metal ion adsorption onto polypyrrole-impregnated porous carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Moonjung; Jang, Jyongsik

    2008-09-01

    Polypyrrole-impregnated porous carbon was readily synthesized using vapor infiltration polymerization of pyrrole monomers. The results show that the functionalized polymer layer was successfully coated onto the pore surface of carbon without collapse of mesoporous structure. The modified porous carbon exhibited an improved complexation affinity for heavy metal ions such as mercury, lead, and silver ions due to the amine group of polypyrrole. The introduced polypyrrole layer could provide the surface modification to be applied for heavy metal ion adsorbents. Especially, polymer-impregnated porous carbon has an enhanced heavy metal ion uptake, which is 20 times higher than that of adsorbents with amine functional groups. Furthermore, the relationship between the coated polymer amount and surface area was also investigated in regard to adsorption capacity.

  17. Charge state of ions scattered by metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishinevsky, L.M.; Parilis, E.S.; Verleger, V.K.

    1976-01-01

    A model for description of charge distributions for scattering of heavy ions in the keV region, on metal surfaces developing and improving the method of Van der Weg and Bierman, and taking into account the connection between the ion charge state and scattering kinematics, is proposed. It is shown that multiple charged particles come from ions with a vacancy in the inner shell while the outer shell vacancies give only single charged ions and neutrals. The approximately linear increase of degree of ionization with normal velocity, and the non-monotonic charge dependence of the energy spectrum established by Chicherov and Buck et al is explained by considering irreversible neutralization in the depth of the metal, taking into account the connection of the charge state with the shape of trajectory and its location relative to the metal surface. The dependence of charge state on surface structure is discussed. Some new experiments are proposed. (author)

  18. Ion beam induced nanosized Ag metal clusters in glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahnke, H.-E.; Schattat, B.; Schubert-Bischoff, P.; Novakovic, N.

    2006-01-01

    Silver metal clusters have been formed in soda lime glass by high-energy heavy-ion irradiation at ISL. The metal cluster formation was detected with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS) in fluorescence mode, and the shape of the clusters was imaged with transmission electron microscopy. While annealing in reducing atmosphere alone, leads to the formation of metal clusters in Ag-containing glasses, where the Ag was introduced by ion-exchange, such clusters are not very uniform in size and are randomly distributed over the Ag-containing glass volume. Irradiation with 600-MeV Au ions followed by annealing, however, results in clusters more uniform in size and arranged in chains parallel to the direction of the ion beam

  19. Investigation of metal ions sorption of brown peat moss powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelus, Nadezhda; Blokhina, Elena; Novikov, Dmitry; Novikova, Yaroslavna; Chuchalin, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    For regularities research of sorptive extraction of heavy metal ions by cellulose and its derivates from aquatic solution of electrolytes it is necessary to find possible mechanism of sorption process and to choice a model describing this process. The present article investigates the regularities of aliovalent metals sorption on brown peat moss powder. The results show that sorption isotherm of Al3+ ions is described by Freundlich isotherm and sorption isotherms of Na+ i Ni2+ are described by Langmuir isotherm. To identify the mechanisms of brown peat moss powder sorption the IR-spectra of the initial brown peat moss powder samples and brown peat moss powder samples after Ni (II) sorption were studied. Metal ion binding mechanisms by brown peat moss powder points to ion exchange, physical adsorption, and complex formation with hydroxyl and carboxyl groups.

  20. Means for obtaining a metal ion beam from a heavy-ion cyclotron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, E.D.; Mallory, M.L.

    1975-08-01

    A description is given of a modification to a cyclotron ion source used in producing a high intensity metal ion beam. A small amount of an inert support gas maintains the usual plasma arc, except that it is necessary for the support gas to have a heavy mass, e.g., xenon or krypton as opposed to neon. A plate, fabricated from the metal (or anything that can be sputtered) to be ionized, is mounted on the back wall of the ion source arc chamber and is bombarded by returning energetic low-charged gas ions that fail to cross the initial accelerating gap between the ion source and the accelerating electrode. Some of the atoms that are dislodged from the plate by the returning gas ions become ionized and are extracted as a useful beam of heavy ions. (auth)

  1. Complexation-induced supramolecular assembly drives metal-ion extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Ross J; Meridiano, Yannick; Muller, Julie; Berthon, Laurence; Guilbaud, Philippe; Zorz, Nicole; Antonio, Mark R; Demars, Thomas; Zemb, Thomas

    2014-09-26

    Combining experiment with theory reveals the role of self-assembly and complexation in metal-ion transfer through the water-oil interface. The coordinating metal salt Eu(NO3)3 was extracted from water into oil by a lipophilic neutral amphiphile. Molecular dynamics simulations were coupled to experimental spectroscopic and X-ray scattering techniques to investigate how local coordination interactions between the metal ion and ligands in the organic phase combine with long-range interactions to produce spontaneous changes in the solvent microstructure. Extraction of the Eu(3+)-3(NO3(-)) ion pairs involves incorporation of the "hard" metal complex into the core of "soft" aggregates. This seeds the formation of reverse micelles that draw the water and "free" amphiphile into nanoscale hydrophilic domains. The reverse micelles interact through attractive van der Waals interactions and coalesce into rod-shaped polynuclear Eu(III) -containing aggregates with metal centers bridged by nitrate. These preorganized hydrophilic domains, containing high densities of O-donor ligands and anions, provide improved Eu(III) solvation environments that help drive interfacial transfer, as is reflected by the increasing Eu(III) partitioning ratios (oil/aqueous) despite the organic phase approaching saturation. For the first time, this multiscale approach links metal-ion coordination with nanoscale structure to reveal the free-energy balance that drives the phase transfer of neutral metal salts. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Decontamination of Heavy Metals in Polluted Soil by Phytoremediation Using Bryophyllum Pinnatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekwumemgbo P. A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is the use of specially selected or engineered living green plants for in situ risk reduction and/or removal of pollutants from contaminated media. This process is one of the most rapidly developing components of environmentally friendly (green and cost-effective technology to abate environmental pollution. The risk reduction could be through the process of removal, degradation, containment of a contaminant or a combination of any of these factors. Bryophyllum pinnatum a herbally-accepted plant in some parts of the world was cultivated in ten different plastic buckets containing heavy metal polluted soil and nurtured for 20 months. The plants were left in ambient conditions and watered periodically. After the first 2 weeks, the plant and soil samples were collected and analysed for total concentration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb V and Zn. Subsequently, the plant and soil samples were collected monthly and analysed for the total concentrations of these heavy metals, using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Maximum extracted heavy metals from soil by plant were Cd (3.12±1.03 mg/kg, Cr (32.48±3.21 mg/kg, Cu (81.01±2.3 mg/kg Ni (11.91±2.32 mg/kg, Pb (399.90 ±4.32 mg/kg V (5.81±0.08 mg/kg and Zn (150.51± 0.33 and this occurred in the 4th month of study. This study confirms B. pinnatum as one of the plants that could be employed in phytoremediation of soil polluted by heavy metals.

  3. Accumulation of some metal ions on Bacillus licheniformis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafez, M.B.; El-Desouky, W.; Fouad, A.

    2001-01-01

    Pure species of Bacillus licheniformis was used to remove ions from aqueous and simulated waste solutions. Metal ion accumulation on B. licheniformis was fast. Maximum uptake occurred at pH 4± 0.5 and at 25 ± 3 deg C. One gram of dry B. licheniformis was found to accumulate 115 mg cerium, 34 mg copper and 11 mg cobalt from aqueous solutions. The presence of certain foreign ions such as calcium, sodium and potassium decreased the uptake of ions by B. licheniformis, while citrate and EDTA prevent the uptake. Electron microscopic investigations showed that cerium (III), copper (II) and cobalt (II) accumulated extracellulary around the surface wall of B. licheniformis cells. A bio-adsorption mechanism between the metal ions and B. licheniformis cell wall was proposed. (author)

  4. The experience of utilization of electro-migration technology for soil decontamination from cesium-137 under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, I.A.; Prozorov, L.B.; Martyanov, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    The essence of methods for soil decontamination based on electrokinetic processes is that, in the field of constant current, contaminated particles-ions, depending on their charge mark, move to anode or cathode sides. If such a field is created in the soil containing ions of radionuclides or heavy metals, those ions-contaminants will begin to concentrated in the cathode or anode zone, i.e. soil decontamination with ion electric migration process takes place. During the recent tour years specialists from Mos RPA (Moscow Research-and-Production Association) Radon (Russia) have been conducting an extensive investigation on the utilization of electrokinetic processes for decontamination of soils from radionuclides and heavy metals

  5. Softening of metals under hydrogen ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseva, M.I.; Korshunov, S.N.; Martynenko, Yu.V.; Skorlupkin, I.D.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental study results are presented on steel type 18-10 creep under hydrogen ion irradiation. The Irradiation of annealed specimens is accomplished by 15 keV H 2 + ions with a dose up to 10 22 m -2 at current density of 0.6 A/m 2 at temperatures of 570-770 K. Creep tests show that the irradiation at T = 770 K results in a sharp increase of creep rate. At t 570 K the effect of ion-induced creep in steel 18-10 is not observed. The model is proposed which explains the ion-induced creep by accumulation of hydrogen along grain boundaries, their weakening and removal of obstacles to sliding [ru

  6. Decorporation of metal ions by chelating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, T.

    1978-01-01

    Simple model designs to simulate the effect of therapeutical chelating agents on the behaviour of metals in mammal organisms with and without excretion have been derived and analytical solutions given for the corresponding differential equations. The possibilities of these models in the short-term description of plasma kinetics of various metals, the competition of the therapeutical ligands with proteins for the metal and of the metabolism of chelating agents were tested and the properties applying extreme conceivable parameters were analyzed. The simple models were successsively expanded in logical sequence, so that it was possible to qualitatively well describe over a long period of time, the metallic kinetics in plasma, organs and urine, the retention of the ligands and their effect on the metal excretion. Two suggestions were given to describe the so-called after-effect, an increased excretion of the metal at times when the ligand is almost completely excreted and their different behaviour after injecting the metal chelate is given. Calculations on the therapy with several ligand data as well as on dose fractionation are described resting on the ratios in the plutonium-239 chosen model parameters and the determining mechanisms analyzed. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Adsorption of heavy metal ions by sawdust of deciduous trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozic, D.; Stankovic, V.; Gorgievski, M.; Bogdanovic, G.; Kovacevic, R.

    2009-01-01

    The adsorption of heavy metal ions from synthetic solutions was performed using sawdust of beech, linden and poplar trees. The adsorption depends on the process time, pH of the solution, type of ions, initial concentration of metals and the sawdust concentration in suspension. The kinetics of adsorption was relatively fast, reaching equilibrium for less than 20 min. The adsorption equilibrium follows Langmuir adsorption model. The ion exchange mechanism was confirmed assuming that the alkali-earth metals from the adsorbent are substituted by heavy metal ions and protons. On lowering the initial pH, the adsorption capacity decreased, achieving a zero value at a pH close to unity. The maximum adsorption capacity (7-8 mg g -1 of sawdust) was achieved at a pH between 3.5 and 5 for all the studied kinds of sawdust. The initial concentration of the adsorbate and the concentration of sawdust strongly affect the process. No influence of particles size was evidenced. A degree of adsorption higher than 80% can be achieved for Cu 2+ ions but it is very low for Fe 2+ ions, not exceeding 10%.

  8. Ion conducting fluoropolymer carbonates for alkali metal ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimone, Joseph M.; Pandya, Ashish; Wong, Dominica; Balsara, Nitash P.; Thelen, Jacob; Devaux, Didier

    2017-09-05

    Liquid or solid electrolyte compositions are described that comprise a homogeneous solvent system and an alkali metal salt dissolved in said solvent system. The solvent system may comprise a fluoropolymer, having one or two terminal carbonate groups covalently coupled thereto. Batteries containing such electrolyte compositions are also described.

  9. Complexation ion-exchange chromatography of some metal ions on papers impregnated with Ti(IV)-based inorganic ion exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S D; Gupta, R

    2000-02-01

    The chromatographic behavior of 40 metal ions is studied on titanium (IV) arsenate, titanium (IV) phosphate-, titanium (IV) molybdate-, titanium(IV) tungstate-, and titanium(IV) selenite-impregnated papers in 0.1M oxalic, citric, and tartaric acid as mobile phases. Similar studies are carried out on Whatman No. 1 papers for comparison. The ion-exchange capacity of these papers is determined, and their selectivity for different cations is discussed. The mechanism of migration is explained in terms of ion-exchange, precipitation, and adsorption. The prediction of elution sequence from RF values is also checked. The average Ri is found to be almost linearly dependent on the charge of the metal ions. The effect of the pKa of complexing acids on average RF values of 3d series metal ions is explained. A number of binary and ternary separations are achieved.

  10. Electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomasney, H. [ISOTRON Corp., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has assigned a priority to the advancement of technology for decontaminating concrete surfaces which have become contaminated with radionuclides, heavy metals, and toxic organics. This agency is responsible for decontamination and decommissioning of thousands of buildings. Electrokinetic extraction is one of the several innovative technologies which emerged in response to this initiative. This technique utilizes an electropotential gradient and the subsequent electrical transport mechanism to cause the controlled movement of ionics species, whereby the contaminants exit the recesses deep within the concrete. This report discusses the technology and use at the Oak Ridge k-25 plant.

  11. Sensitive Equipment Decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    a ceramic-like material Polonium - 210 Metallic foil Radium-226 Radium bromide or radium chloride Strontium-90 Metallic strontium, strontium...extremely toxic toxins. 3.1.1.5 Routes of Infection Pathogenic microorganisms are transferred to human beings largely via air and food (including...regularly in the pharmaceutical industry to decontaminate manufacturing clean rooms. It is also used to sterilize packages used to store foods . It has

  12. Stainless steel electrochemical behaviour - application to the decontamination of steel parts contaminated by tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellanger, G.

    1991-01-01

    This purpose of this work is the study of an electrochemical decontamination process of stainless steel in which tritium is present on the surface of the metal, in the oxide layer and in the metal. We have first investigated the behaviour of the oxide layer. Then we have studied the hydrogen evolution, its diffusion and retrodiffusion in the metal. The results are applied to the decontamination of steel parts contamined by tritium. Part of the tritium can be eliminated by reducing the oxyde layer, which contains large amounts of tritium. However, it is more beneficial to electrolyse at the potential at which the H + ions are reduced. The hydrogen on the steel surface enters in the metal and displaces most of tritium located in the metallic layers near the surface. The tritium surface elimination rate is about 95%. The tritium eliminated through electrolysis is only a small fraction of all the tritium contained in the metal. However, according to conservation experiments of parts after electrolysis, it can be concluded that hydrogen, probably more strongly bound than tritium to steel, forms near the surface a barrier that prevents tritium retrodiffusion. Electrolysis appears as a satisfactory process for the surface decontamination of slightly tritiated steel parts. A decontamination automaton based on the preceding results is described using a pad electrolyser. This type of decontamination is little polluting, and the parts can be recycled after the in situ treatment [fr

  13. High charge state metal ion production in vacuum arc ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Anders, A.; Anders, S.

    1994-01-01

    The vacuum arc is a rich source of highly ionized metal plasma that can be used to make a high current metal ion source. Vacuum arc ion sources have been developed for a range of applications including ion implantation for materials surface modification, particle accelerator injection for fundamental nuclear physics research, and other fundamental and applied purposes. Typically the source is repetitively pulsed with pulse length of order a millisecond and duty cycle or order 1% and operation of a dc embodiment has been demonstrated also. Beams have been produced from over 50 of the solid metals of the periodic table, with mean ion energy up to several hundred keV and with peak (pulsed) beam current up to several amperes. The ion charge state distribution has been extensively studied. Ion spectra have been measured for a wide range of metallic cathode materials, including Li, C, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ge, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Ir, Pt, Au, Pb, Bi, Th and U, as well as compound and alloy cathode materials such as TiC, SiC, UC, PbS, brass, and stainless steel. The ions generated are in general multiply-stripped with a mean charge state of from 1 to 3, depending on the particular metal species, and the charge state distribution can have components from Q = 1+ to 6+. Here the authors review the characteristics of vacuum arc ion sources from the perspective of their high charge state metal ion production

  14. Fatigue and wear of metalloid-ion-implanted metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohmuth, K.; Richter, E.; Rauschenbach, B.; Blochwitz, C.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of metalloid ion implantation on the fatigue behaviour and wear of nickel and two steels has been investigated. These metals were implanted with boron, carbon and nitrogen ions at energies from 30 to 60 keV and with doses from 1 X 10 16 to 1 X 10 18 ions cm -2 at room temperature. The mechanical behaviour of fatigued nickel was studied in push-pull tests at room temperature. Wear measurements were made using a pin-and-disc technique. The surface structure, dislocation arrangement and modification of the implantation profile resulting from mechanical tests on metals which had been implanted with metalloid ions were examined using high voltage electron microscopy, transmission high energy electron diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. It is reported that nitrogen and boron ion implantation improves the fatigue lifetime, changes the number and density of the slip bands and modifies the dislocation arrangements in nickel. The cyclic deformation leads to recrystallization of the boron-ion-induced amorphous structure of nickel and to diffusion of the boron and nitrogen in the direction of the surface. The wear behaviour of steels was improved by implantation of mass-separated ions and by implantation of ions without mass separation. (Auth.)

  15. The ion implantation of metals and engineering materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1978-01-01

    An entirely new method of metal finishing, by the process of ion implantation, is described. Introduced at first for semiconductor device applications, this method has now been demonstrated to produce major and long-lasting improvements in the durability of material surfaces, as regards both wear and corrosion. The process is distinct from that of ion plating, and it is not a coating technique. After a general description of ion implantation examples are given of its effects on wear behaviour (mostly in steels and cemented carbides) and on corrosion, in a variety of metals and alloys. Its potential for producing decorative finishes is mentioned briefly. The equipment necessary for carrying out ion implantation for engineering applications has now reached the prototype stage, and manufacture of plant for treating a variety of tools and components is about to commence. These developments are outlined. (author)

  16. Decontamination sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Emiko; Kanesaki, Ken.

    1995-01-01

    The decontamination sheet of the present invention is formed by applying an adhesive on one surface of a polymer sheet and releasably appending a plurality of curing sheets. In addition, perforated lines are formed on the sheet, and a decontaminating agent is incorporated in the adhesive. This can reduce the number of curing operation steps when a plurality steps of operations for radiation decontamination equipments are performed, and further, the amount of wastes of the cured sheets, and operator's exposure are reduced, as well as an efficiency of the curing operation can be improved, and propagation of contamination can be prevented. (T.M.)

  17. Metal ion effects on enolase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.E.; Nowak, T.

    1986-01-01

    Most metal binding studies with yeast enolase suggest that two metals per monomer are required for catalytic activity. The functions of metal I and metal II have not been unequivocally defined. In a series of kinetic experiments where the concentration of MgII is kept constant at subsaturating levels (1mM), the addition of MnII or of ZnII gives a hyperbolic decrease in activity. The final velocity of these mixed metal systems is the same velocity obtained with either only MnII or ZnII respectively. The concentration of MnII (40 μM) or of Zn (2μM) which gives half maximal effect in the presence of (1mM) MgII is approximately the same as the Km' value for MnII (9μM) or ZnII (3μM) respectively. Direct binding of MnII to enolase in the absence and presence of MgII shows that MnII and MgII compete for the same metal site on enolase. In the presence of 2-phosphoglycerate (2-PGA) and MgII, only a single site is occupied by MnII. Results suggest MnII at site I and MgII at site II. PRR and high resolution 1 H and 31 P NMR studies of enzyme-ligand complexes containing MnII and MgII and MnII are consistent with this model. 31 P measurements allow a measure of the equilibrium constant (0.36) for enolase. Saturation transfer measurements yield net rate constants (k/sub f/ = 0.49s -1 ; k/sub r/ = 1.3s -1 ) for the overall reaction. These values are smaller than k/sub cat/ (38s -1 ) measured under analogous conditions. The cation at site I appears to determine catalytic activity

  18. Immobilization of transition metal ions on zirconium phosphate monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melezhik, A.V.; Brej, V.V.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that ions of transition metals (copper, iron, vanadyl, titanium) are adsorbed on zirconium phosphate monolayers. The zirconium phosphate threshold capacity corresponds to substitution of all protons of hydroxyphosphate groups by equivalent amounts of copper, iron or vanadyl. Adsorption of polynuclear ions is possible in case of titanium. The layered substance with specific surface up to 300 m 2 /g, wherein ultradispersed titanium dioxide particles are intercalirated between zirconium-phosphate layers, is synthesized

  19. Radiation hardening of metals irradiated by heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didyk, A.Yu.; Skuratov, V.A.; Mikhajlova, N.Yu.; Regel', V.R.

    1988-01-01

    The damage dose dependence in the 10 -4 -10 -2 dpa region of radiation hardening of Al, V, Ni, Cu irradiated by xenon ions with 124 MeV energy is investigated using the microhardness technique and transmission electron microscope. It is shown that the pure metals radiation hardening is stimulated for defects clusters with the typical size less than 5 nm, as in the case of neutron and the light charge ion irradiation

  20. A theoretical model of a liquid metal ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingham, D.R.; Swanson, L.W.

    1984-01-01

    A model of liquid metal ion source (LMIS) operation has been developed which gives a consistent picture of three different aspects of LMI sources: (i) the shape and size of the ion emitting region; (ii) the mechanism of ion formation; (iii) properties of the ion beam such as angular intensity and energy spread. It was found that the emitting region takes the shape of a jet-like protrusion on the end of a Taylor cone with ion emission from an area only a few tens of A across, in agreement with recent TEM pictures by Sudraud. This is consistent with ion formation predominantly by field evaporation. Calculated angular intensities and current-voltage characteristics based on our fluid dynamic jet-like protrusion model agree well with experiment. The formation of doubly charged ions is attributed to post-ionization of field evaporated singly charged ions and an apex field strength of about 2.0 V A -1 was calculated for a Ga source. The ion energy spread is mainly due to space charge effects, it is known to be reduced for doubly charged ions in agreement with this post-ionization mechanism. (author)

  1. Adsorbent for metal ions and method of making and using

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, L.R.; Lundquist, S.H.

    1999-08-10

    A method comprises the step of spray-drying a solution or slurry comprising (alkali metal or ammonium) (metal) hexacyanoferrate particles in a liquid, to provide monodisperse, substantially spherical particles in a yield of at least 70 percent of theoretical yield and having a particle size in the range of 1 to 500 micrometers, said particles being active towards Cs ions. The particles, which can be of a single salt or a combination of salts, can be used free flowing, in columns or beds, or entrapped in a nonwoven, fibrous web or matrix or a cast porous membrane, to selectively remove Cs ions from aqueous solutions. 2 figs.

  2. Defect-impurity interactions in ion-implanted metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turos, A.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of defect-impurity interactions in metals is presented. When point defects become mobile they migrate towards the sinks and on the way can be captured by impurity atoms forming stable associations so-called complexes. In some metallic systems complexes can also be formed athermally during ion implantation by trapping point defects already in the collision cascade. An association of a point defect with an impurity atom leads to its displacement from the lattice site. The structure and stability of complexes are strongly temperature dependent. With increasing temperature they dissociate or grow by multiple defect trapping. The appearance of freely migrating point defects at elevated temperatures, due to ion bombardment or thermal annealing, causes via coupling with defect fluxes, important impurity redistribution. Because of the sensitivity of many metal-in-metal implanted systems to radiation damage the understanding of this processes is essential for a proper interpretation of the lattice occupancy measurements and the optimization of implantation conditions. (author)

  3. Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Shuo-Wei; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Wu, Han-Guang; Xie, Rui; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2010-09-15

    Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions are successfully prepared with oil-in-water-in-oil double emulsions as templates for polymerization in this study. The microcapsules are featured with thin poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-benzo-18-crown-6-acrylamide) (P(NIPAM-co-BCAm)) membranes, and they can selectively recognize special heavy metal ions such as barium(II) or lead(II) ions very well due to the "host-guest" complexation between the BCAm receptors and barium(II) or lead(II) ions. The stable BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes in the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membrane cause a positive shift of the volume phase transition temperature of the crosslinked P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) hydrogel to a higher temperature, and the repulsion among the charged BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes and the osmotic pressure within the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes result in the swelling of microcapsules. Induced by recognizing barium(II) or lead(II) ions, the prepared microcapsules with P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes exhibit isothermal and significant swelling not only in outer and inner diameters but also in the membrane thickness. The proposed microcapsules in this study are highly attractive for developing smart sensors and/or carriers for detection and/or elimination of heavy metal ions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Removal and recovery of toxic metal ions from aqueous waste sites using polymer pendant ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, D.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the use of polymer pendant ligand technology to remove and recover toxic metal ions from DOE aqueous waste sites. Polymer pendant lgiands are organic ligands, anchored to crosslinked, modified divinylbenzene-polystyrene beads, that can selectively complex metal ions. The metal ion removal step usually occurs through a complexation or ion exchange phenomena, thus recovery of the metal ions and reuse of the beads is readily accomplished

  5. Predicting ion exchange resins decontamination factors. Experiments on synthetic primary coolant containing Ni, Co and Ag and modeling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachet, Martin; Schneider, Hélène; Jauberty, Loïc; Windt, Laurent De; Dieuleveult, Caroline de; Tevissen, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    Experiments performed under chemical and flow conditions representative of pressurized water reactors (PWR) primary fluid purification by ion exchange resins (Amberlite IRN9882) are modeled with the OPTIPUR code, considering 1D reactive transport in the mixed-bed column with convective/dispersive transport between beads and electro-diffusive transport within the boundary film around the beads. The effectiveness of the purification in these dilute conditions is highly related to film mass transfer restrictions, which are accounted for by adjustment of a common mass transfer coefficient (MTC) on the experimental initial leakage or modeling of species diffusion through the bead film by the Nernst-Planck equation. A detailed analysis of the modeling against experimental data shows that the Nernst-Planck approach with no adjustable parameters performs as well as, or better, than the MTC approach, particularly to simulate the chromatographic elution of silver by nickel and the subsequent enrichment of the solution in the former metal. (author)

  6. Decontamination of acid mine water from Ronneburg/Thueringen which is high in sulfates and metals using sulfate-reducing bacteria. Final report of the preliminary phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hard, B.; Friedrich, S.

    1995-01-01

    The mining in Eastern Europe, particularly in East-Germany, is a major source of pollution to the surrounding areas of the mines. With the end of the cold war the demand for uranium has drastically declined. Many of the pits have therefore been closed down or are in the process of closure such as the uranium mine in Ronneburg in Thueringen. One major problem is the safe-making of the pits and dumps as they are highly radioactive through naturally occurring uranium and other radioactive elements. Because of the leaching process through bacteria, drainage water is very acidic, with pH-values between 1-2. The water is very rich in magnesium, iron and aluminium sulfate. Here the application of a microbial process to decontaminate acid mine drainage was investigated. Decontamination of the water includes: - Increase in pH - decrease in sulfate concentrations - minimization of the metal and radionuclide load. Sulfate-reducing bacteria seem suitable for this process. In order for such a microbial process to be economically viable a cheap and widely available electron donar has to be used eg. methanol. The work carried out reports on the isolation, characterization and physiology of sulfate-reducing methylotrophic bacteria and their suitability for a decontamination process of sulfuric acid uranium mine water. (orig.) [de

  7. Decontamination method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimura, Hiroshi; Ono, Shigeki; Tada, Nobuo; Tamai, Yasumasa; Okada, Masaya; Kurihara, Masayuki; Onuki, Toyomitsu; Toyota, Seiichi

    1998-01-01

    Before contamination of materials to be decontaminated, a surface of a region where a strippable paint is to be coated is smoothed by an epoxy resin previously. Then, a waterproof sheet is extended to the material to be decontaminated, and the strippable paint is applied to the periphery or the entire surface of the sheet. In order to facilitate peeling, the strippable paint is not applied to a portion of the outer circumference of the sheet. Even if the contaminating circumstance is an air atmosphere or a liquid such as reactor water, since the sheet itself has waterproofness and the strippable paint excellent in gas and water tightness is applied to the periphery, contamination is eliminated. When decontaminating the material to be decontaminated having contaminated surfaces, if the sheet for the start of peeling is picked up and the sheet is peeled, the strippable paint at the periphery thereof can be peeled off together with the sheet. (N.H.)

  8. Decontamination method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, Hiroshi; Ono, Shigeki; Tada, Nobuo; Tamai, Yasumasa; Okada, Masaya; Kurihara, Masayuki [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Onuki, Toyomitsu; Toyota, Seiichi

    1998-10-27

    Before contamination of materials to be decontaminated, a surface of a region where a strippable paint is to be coated is smoothed by an epoxy resin previously. Then, a waterproof sheet is extended to the material to be decontaminated, and the strippable paint is applied to the periphery or the entire surface of the sheet. In order to facilitate peeling, the strippable paint is not applied to a portion of the outer circumference of the sheet. Even if the contaminating circumstance is an air atmosphere or a liquid such as reactor water, since the sheet itself has waterproofness and the strippable paint excellent in gas and water tightness is applied to the periphery, contamination is eliminated. When decontaminating the material to be decontaminated having contaminated surfaces, if the sheet for the start of peeling is picked up and the sheet is peeled, the strippable paint at the periphery thereof can be peeled off together with the sheet. (N.H.)

  9. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide-Soluble Ligands for Extracting Actinide Metal Ions from Porous Solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, Mark L.

    2001-01-01

    Numerous types of actinide-bearing waste materials are found throughout the DOE complex. Most of these wastes consist of large volumes of non-hazardous materials contaminated with relatively small quantities of actinide elements. Separation of these wastes into their inert and radioactive components would dramatically reduce the costs of stabilization and disposal. For example, the DOE is responsible for decontaminating concrete within 7000 surplus contaminated buildings. The best technology now available for removing surface contamination from concrete involves removing the surface layer by grit blasting, which produces a large volume of blasting residue containing a small amount of radioactive material. Disposal of this residue is expensive because of its large volume and fine particulate nature. Considerable cost savings would result from separation of the radioactive constituents and stabilization of the concrete dust. Similarly, gas diffusion plants for uranium enrichment contain valuable high-purity nickel in the form of diffusion barriers. Decontamination is complicated by the extremely fine pores in these barriers, which are not readily accessible by most cleaning techniques. A cost-effective method for the removal of radioactive contaminants would release this valuable material for salvage. The objective of this project is to develop novel, substituted diphosphonic acid ligands that can be used for supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of actinide ions from solid wastes. Specifically, selected diphosphonic acids, which are known to form extremely stable complexes with actinides in aqueous and organic solution, are to be rendered carbon dioxide-soluble by the introduction of appropriate alkyl- or silicon-containing substituents. The metal complexation chemistry of these new ligands in SC-CO2 will then be investigated and techniques for their use in actinide extraction from porous solids developed

  10. Ion beam exposure apparatus using a liquid metal source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komuro, M.

    1982-01-01

    A field effect liquid metal ion source is described. The current-voltage characteristics, the angular intensity distribution and the total energy distribution were measured for gallium, gold and lead sources. The results are presented and the effect of space charge on the emission current is discussed. Optimum working conditions for the use of the ion sources in probe formation are derived. On the basis of the experimental results, an apparatus operating at 50 kV or less was designed. Details of the design, which includes a triode ion gun and an einzel lens, are given together with preliminary results of pattern delineation with the apparatus. (Auth.)

  11. Breast milk metal ion levels in a young and active patient with a metal-on-metal hip prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelis, Raymond; de Waal Malefijt, Jan; Gosens, Taco

    2013-01-01

    Metal-on-metal resurfacing arthroplasty of the hip has been used increasingly over the last 10 years in younger active patients. The dissolution of the metal wear particles results in measurable increases in cobalt and chromium ions in the serum and urine of patients with a metal-on-metal bearing. We measured the cobalt, chromium, and molybdenum ion levels in urine; serum; and breast milk in a young and active patient with a metal-on-metal hip prosthesis after a pathologic fracture of the femoral neck. Metal-on-metal hip prosthesis leads to increasing levels of molybdenum in breast milk in the short-term follow-up. There are no increasing levels of chromium and cobalt ions in breast milk. Besides the already known elevated concentrations in serum of chromium and cobalt after implantation of a metal-on-metal hip prosthesis, we found no increasing levels of chromium and cobalt in urine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Skin decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehrle, G.

    1975-01-01

    A general survey of skin decontamination is given. The success of every decontamination treatments depends mainly on the speed, but also on the care, with which the action is taken. The best way to remove the skin contaminants is thorough washing under lukewarm running water with mild soap and a soft brush. This washing is to be repeated several times for a period of several minutes. If results are not satisfactory, light duty detergents and wetting agents available commercially may also be used. Some solutions which have proved useful are mentioned. The decontamination solutions are best used in the order given. When one has no satisfactory decontamination effect, the next one is to be used. If necessary, these agents must be used several times in the stated order as long as this does not involve too much strain for the skin. All the decontamination measures mentioned refer, of course, to intact healthy skin. After decontamination has been completed, the skin should be treated with a protective cream

  13. A high current metal vapour vacuum arc ion source for ion implantation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, P.J.; Noorman, J.T.; Watt, G.C.; Cohen, D.D.; Bailey, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The main features of the metal vapour vacuum arc(MEVA) as an ion source are presented. The technology utilizes the plasma production capabilities of a vacuum arc cathode. Some of the ions produced in this discharge flow through the anode and the 3 extraction grids to form an extracted ion beam. The high beam current and the potential for generating broad beams, make this technology suitable for implantation of large surface areas. The composition of the vacuum arc cathode determines the particular ions obtained from the MEVA source. 3 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  14. Application of ion implantation in metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1981-01-01

    Ion implantation first became established as a precise method of introducing dopant elements into semiconductors. It is now appreciated that there may be equally important applications in metallic tools or components with the purpose of improving their resistance to wear, fatigue or corrosion. Nitrogen ions implanted into steels pin dislocations and thereby harden the metal. Some metallic ions such as yttrium reduce the tendency for oxidative wear. There is a fairly good understanding of how both treatments can provide a long-lasting protection that extends to many times the original depth of implantation. Nitrogen implantation also improves the wear resistance of Co-cemented tungsten carbide and of hard chromium electroplated coatings. These treatments have wide application in press tools, molds, dies and other metal-forming tools as well as in a more limited variety of cutting tools. Some striking improvements can be achieved in the corrosion field, but there are economic and technical reasons for concluding that practical applications of ion implantation will be more restricted and specialized in this area. The most promising area is that in which mechanical stress and oxidation coexist. When a metallic species has to be introduced, a promising new development is to bombard a thin coating of the metal at an elevated temperature. Several powerful mechanisms of radiation-enhanced diffusion can bring about a complete intermixing. Examples of how this has been used to produce wear resistant surfaces in titanium are given. Finally, the equipment developed for the large scale application of the ion implantation process in the engineering field is described

  15. Adsorption of heavy metals ions on portulaca oleracea plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to report the ability of portulaca oleracea (Fershi in Urdu) biomass grown in uncontaminated soils to adsorb or uptake lead, cadmium, arsenic, cobalt and copper from aqueous solutions. In order to help understand the metal binding mechanism, laboratory experiments performance to determine optimal binding, and binding capacity for each of the above mentioned metals. These experiments were carried out for the mass of crushed portulaca stems. Portulaca is a plant that grows abundantly in temperature climate in the area of Quetta Balochistan. It has reddish stem and thick succulent leaves. This plant has been found to be good adsorbent for heavy metals ions. (author)

  16. Chromium and cobalt ion concentrations in blood and serum following various types of metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Christopher; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Duus, Benn R

    2013-01-01

    Widely different metal ion concentrations in blood and serum have been reported with metal-on-metal (MoM) implants. We reviewed the literature on blood and serum ion concentrations of chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co) following various MoM hip arthroplasties.......Widely different metal ion concentrations in blood and serum have been reported with metal-on-metal (MoM) implants. We reviewed the literature on blood and serum ion concentrations of chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co) following various MoM hip arthroplasties....

  17. Neutralization by metal ions of the toxicity of sodium selenide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Dauplais

    Full Text Available Inert metal-selenide colloids are found in animals. They are believed to afford cross-protection against the toxicities of both metals and selenocompounds. Here, the toxicities of metal salt and sodium selenide mixtures were systematically studied using the death rate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells as an indicator. In parallel, the abilities of these mixtures to produce colloids were assessed. Studied metal cations could be classified in three groups: (i metal ions that protect cells against selenium toxicity and form insoluble colloids with selenide (Ag⁺, Cd²⁺, Cu²⁺, Hg²⁺, Pb²⁺ and Zn²⁺, (ii metal ions which protect cells by producing insoluble metal-selenide complexes and by catalyzing hydrogen selenide oxidation in the presence of dioxygen (Co²⁺ and Ni²⁺ and, finally, (iii metal ions which do not afford protection and do not interact (Ca²⁺, Mg²⁺, Mn²⁺ or weakly interact (Fe²⁺ with selenide under the assayed conditions. When occurring, the insoluble complexes formed from divalent metal ions and selenide contained equimolar amounts of metal and selenium atoms. With the monovalent silver ion, the complex contained two silver atoms per selenium atom. Next, because selenides are compounds prone to oxidation, the stabilities of the above colloids were evaluated under oxidizing conditions. 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB, the reduction of which can be optically followed, was used to promote selenide oxidation. Complexes with cadmium, copper, lead, mercury or silver resisted dissolution by DTNB treatment over several hours. With nickel and cobalt, partial oxidation by DTNB occurred. On the other hand, when starting from ZnSe or FeSe complexes, full decompositions were obtained within a few tens of minutes. The above properties possibly explain why ZnSe and FeSe nanoparticles were not detected in animals exposed to selenocompounds.

  18. Ion beam assisted deposition of metal-coatings on beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashlykov, I.S.; Tul'ev, V.V.

    2015-01-01

    Thin films were applied on beryllium substrates on the basis of metals (Cr, Ti, Cu and W) with method of the ion-assisted deposition in vacuum. Me/Be structures were prepared using 20 kV ions irradiation during deposition on beryllium neutral fraction generated from vacuum arc plasma. Rutherford back scattering and computer simulation RUMP code were applied to investigate the composition of the modified beryllium surface. Researches showed that the superficial structure is formed on beryllium by thickness ~ 50-60 nm. The covering composition includes atoms of the deposited metal (0.5-3.3 at. %), atoms of technological impurity carbon (0.8-1.8 at. %) and oxygen (6.3-9.9 at. %), atoms of beryllium from the substrate. Ion assisted deposition of metals on beryllium substrate is accompanied by radiation enhanced diffusion of metals, oxygen atoms in the substrate, out diffusion of beryllium, carbon atoms in the deposited coating and sputtering film-forming ions assists. (authors)

  19. Utilization of Plant Refuses as Component of Heavy Metal Ion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability of the fabricated sensors to detect the presence of heavy metals was analyzed using electrochemical methods like cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. Results showed that the fabricated electrode were able to detect the presence of mercury and lead ions in aqueous solutions ...

  20. Equilibrium and kinetics studies of metal ion adsorption on dyed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Batch equilibration studies were conducted to determine the nature of adsorption of Zn (II) and Cu (II) onto dyed coconut pollens. The nature of adsorption of metal ions was explained using the Langmuir equation. The calculated values of equilibrium parameter indicated favourable adsorption by the adsorbents. Also the ...

  1. Structure of liquid alkali metals as electron-ion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, D.K.; Senatore, G.; Tosi, M.P.

    1980-08-01

    The static structure factor of liquid alkali metals near freezing, and its dependence on temperature and pressure, are evaluated in an electron-ion plasma model from an accurate theoretical determination of the structure factor of the one-component classical plasma and electron-screening theory. Very good agreement is obtained with the available experimental data. (author)

  2. Modification of metallic surfaces by positive ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickards C, J.

    1989-01-01

    Reported are the fundamentals and recent advances in the use of ion implantation techniques and gaseous emissions to modify metal surfaces. The physical phenomena involved, the necessary equipment and some applications which have been successful on an industrial scale are described. (Author). 13 refs, 1 fig

  3. Dimeric Complexes of Tryptophan with M2+ Metal Ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunbar, R. C.; Steill, J. D.; Polfer, N. C.; Oomens, J.

    2009-01-01

    IRMPD spectroscopy using the FELIX free electron laser and a Fourier transform ICR mass spectrometer was used to characterize the structures of electrosprayed dimer complexes M(2+)Trp(2) of tryptophan with a series of eight doubly charged metal ions, including alkaline earths Ca, Sr, and Ba, and

  4. Electrochemical reduction of metal ions in dilute solution using hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portegies Zwart, I.; Wijnbelt, E.C.W.; Janssen, L.J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Reduction of metal ions in dilute solutions is of great interest for purification of waste waters and process liquids. A new electrochemical cell has been introduced. This cell - a GBC-cell - is a combination of a gasdiffusion electrode in direct contact with a packed bed of carbon particles.

  5. Determination of Heavy Metal Ions in Tobacco and Tobacco Additives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    This paper describes a new method for the simultaneous determination of heavy metal ions in tobacco and tobacco additives by ... The HPLC system consisted of a Waters 2690 Alliance separation ..... 1 Z.H. Shi and C.G. Fu, Talanta, 1997, 44, 593. ... 5 Q.F. Hu, G.Y. Yang, J.Y. Yin and Y. Yao, Talanta, 2002, 57, 751.

  6. Broad-beam, high current, metal ion implantation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Dickinson, M.R.; Galvin, J.E.; Godechot, X.; MacGill, R.A.

    1990-07-01

    We have developed a high current metal ion implantation facility with which high current beams of virtually all the solid metals of the Periodic Table can be produced. The facility makes use of a metal vapor vacuum arc ion source which is operated in a pulsed mode, with pulse width 0.25 ms and repetition rate up to 100 pps. Beam extraction voltage is up to 100 kV, corresponding to an ion energy of up to several hundred keV because of the ion charge state multiplicity; beam current is up to several Amperes peak and around 10 mA time averaged delivered onto target. Implantation is done in a broad-beam mode, with a direct line-of-sight from ion source to target. Here we describe the facility and some of the implants that have been carried out using it, including the 'seeding' of silicon wafers prior to CVD with titanium, palladium or tungsten, the formation of buried iridium silicide layers, and actinide (uranium and thorium) doping of III-V compounds. 16 refs., 6 figs

  7. Do soft drinks affect metal ions release from orthodontic appliances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulewicz, Marcin; Wołowiec, Paulina; Loster, Bartłomiej W; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    The effect of orange juice and Coca Cola(®) on the release of metal ions from fixed orthodontic appliances. A continuous flow system designed for in vitro testing of orthodontic appliances was used. Orange juice/Coca Cola(®) was flowing through the system alternately with artificial saliva for 5.5 and 18.5h, respectively. The collected samples underwent a multielemental ICP-OES analysis in order to determine the metal ions release pattern in time. The total mass of ions released from the appliance into orange juice and Coca Cola(®) (respectively) during the experiment was calculated (μg): Ni (15.33; 37.75), Cr (3.604; 1.052), Fe (48.42; ≥ 156.1), Cu (57.87, 32.91), Mn (9.164; 41.16), Mo (9.999; 30.12), and Cd (0.5967; 2.173). It was found that orange juice did not intensify the release of metal ions from orthodontic appliances, whereas Coca Cola(®) caused increased release of Ni ions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Ion-plated metal/ceramic interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigsbee, J.M.; Scott, P.A.; Knipe, R.K.; Ju, C.P.; Hock, V.F.

    1986-01-01

    Elemental Cu and Ti films have been deposited onto magnesia-alumina-silica ceramic substrates with a plasma-aided physical vapour deposition (ion-plating) process. Modifications in the structure and chemistry of the film, interface and substrate regions were investigated as a function of deposition process parameters (eg applied bias, voltage and current). The strength of the Cu/ceramic interface was found to be strongly influenced by both applied substrate bias voltage and substrate roughness. Films deposited with an applied substrate bias showed increasing adhesive strength with increasing bias. Microchemical analysis indicated that this enhanced adhesion is directly correlated with the development of a chemically graded interface region. The adhesive strength of the ion plated Cu films was also found to be improved with increasing substrate smoothness. The behaviour of Ti was found to be quite different from that of Cu. Ti generally has superior adhesion. This adhesion decreased for films deposited with a high bias voltage/current. From interfacial TEM it is shown that this is due to the formation of a compound at the Ti/ceramic interface. The thickness of this compound is important in adhesion. (UK)

  9. Decontamination of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-seven papers were presented at this conference in five sessions. Topics covered include regulation, control and consequences of decontamination; decontamination of components and facilities; chemical and non-chemical methods of decontamination; and TMI decontamination experience

  10. Metal negative ion beam extraction from a radio frequency ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanda, S.; Yamada, N.; Kasuya, T.; Romero, C. F. P.; Wada, M.

    2015-04-08

    A metal ion source of magnetron magnetic field geometry has been designed and operated with a Cu hollow target. Radio frequency power at 13.56 MHz is directly supplied to the hollow target to maintain plasma discharge and induce self-bias to the target for sputtering. The extraction of positive and negative Cu ion beams have been tested. The ion beam current ratio of Cu{sup +} to Ar{sup +} has reached up to 140% when Ar was used as the discharge support gas. Cu{sup −} ion beam was observed at 50 W RF discharge power and at a higher Ar gas pressure in the ion source. Improvement of poor RF power matching and suppression of electron current is indispensable for a stable Cu{sup −} ion beam production from the source.

  11. Mutations induced by the action of metal ions in Pisum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Rosen, G

    1957-01-01

    Simple metal ions may induce both radiomimetic effects and genuine gene mutations of the same type which occurs from ionizing radiation and from treatment with some chemical agencies as e.g., mustard gas. The main material during the experiments has been species of Pisum. The biochemical principle which lies behind these reactions is the complex-forming ability among those reactive bivalent metal elements. The author assumes that interruptions of the chelate formation in the cell synthesis form the real background to the observed activity of the metal ions. The possible role in the evolution of the plant- and animal kingdom and the probable value for plant-breeding of the mutation activity observed are suggested. A new field for mutation experiments may here be opened and the results must hitherto be judged as interesting and promising. 13 references, 7 figures, 4 tables.

  12. 1/f Fluctuations in ion implanted metal semiconductor contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanovic, M.; Marjanovic, N.; Radojevic, B.

    1998-01-01

    Ion implanted Metal-Semiconductor contacts is the most widely used structures in electrical devices. Weather complete devices or some parts are of interest, properties of metal-semiconductor junction strongly influence the quality and external characteristic of electronic devices. That is the reason why special attention is paid to the investigation of factor (noise for example) that could influence given junction. Low frequency 1/f fluctuations (noise) are constantly present in metal-semiconductor junction, so measurement of their level as well as the dependence on factors such as temperature must be taken into account in detailed analysis of electrical characteristics of devices such as contact, nuclear detector with surface barrier etc. In this paper we present the results of low frequency noise level measurements on TiN-Ti-Si structures produced by As + ion implantation. (author)

  13. Modification of medical metals by ion implantation of copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Y. Z.; Xiong, G. Y.; Liang, H.; Raman, S.; He, F.; Huang, Y.

    2007-10-01

    The effect of copper ion implantation on the antibacterial activity, wear performance and corrosion resistance of medical metals including 317 L of stainless steels, pure titanium, and Ti-Al-Nb alloy was studied in this work. The specimens were implanted with copper ions using a MEVVA source ion implanter with ion doses ranging from 0.5 × 10 17 to 4 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 at an energy of 80 keV. The antibacterial effect, wear rate, and inflexion potential were measured as a function of ion dose. The results obtained indicate that copper ion implantation improves the antibacterial effect and wear behaviour for all the three medical materials studied. However, corrosion resistance decreases after ion implantation of copper. Experimental results indicate that the antibacterial property and corrosion resistance should be balanced for medical titanium materials. The marked deteriorated corrosion resistance of 317 L suggests that copper implantation may not be an effective method of improving its antibacterial activity.

  14. Very broad beam metal ion source for large area ion implantation application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.; Anders, S.; Dickinson, M.R.; MacGill, R.A.; Yao, X.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have made and operated a very broad beam version of vacuum arc ion source and used it to carry out high energy metal ion implantation of a particularly large substrate. A multiple-cathode vacuum arc plasma source was coupled to a 50 cm diameter beam extractor (multiple aperture, accel-decel configuration) operated at a net extraction voltage of up to 50 kV. The metal ion species chosen were Ni and Ta. The mean ion charge state for Ni and Ta vacuum arc plasmas is 1.8 and 2.9, respectively, and so the mean ion energies were up to about 90 and 145 keV, respectively. The ion source was operated in a repetitively pulsed mode with pulse length 250 μs and repetition rate several pulses per second. The extracted beam had a gaussian profile with FWHM about 35 cm, giving a nominal beam area of about 1,000 cm 2 . The current of Ni or Ta metal ions in the beam was up to several amperes. The targets for the ion implantation were a number of 24-inch long, highly polished Cu rails from an electromagnetic rail gun. The rails were located about 80 cm away from the ion source extractor grids, and were moved across a diameter of the vessel in such a way as to maximize the uniformity of the implant along the rail. The saturation retained dose for Ta was limited to about 4 x 10 16 cm -2 because of the rather severe sputtering, in accordance with the theoretical expectations for these implantation conditions. Here they describe the ion source, the implantation procedure, and the kinds of implants that can be produced in this way

  15. Ion spectra of the metal vapor vacuum arc ion source with compound and alloy cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Jun; Brown, Ian G.

    1990-01-01

    In metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion sources, vacuum arc plasma with cathodes of single, pure elements has been utilized for the production of metal ions. In this study, we have investigated the charge state distributions of ions produced in vacuum arc plasmas in a MEVVA ion source for the case when the cathode is an alloy or a compound material. The ion charge state spectra were analyzed by means of a time-of-flight apparatus. We have compared the ion spectra for a cathode of an alloy or a compound material with its constituent elements: TiC/TiN/TiO2/Ti/C, SiC/Si/C, WC/W/C U/UN/(UN-ZrC)/Zr/C, and brass/Zn/Cu. We find that the MEVVA produces ions of all constituent elements in the compound and the alloy cathodes. The charge state distribution of each element differs, however, from the charge state distribution obtained in the vacuum arc with a cathode made of the pure, single constituent element. Fractional values of the total ion numbers of each constituent element in the extracted beam depart from the stoichiometry of the elements in the cathode material. In an operation with a TiC cathode, we irradiated a 304 stainless-steel plate with the extracted beam. Results from glow-discharge spectroscopy (GDS) of the surface show that both titanium and carbon are implanted in the substrate after the irradiation.

  16. Decontamination method for radioactively contaminated material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Yuichi; Mizuguchi, Hiroshi; Sakai, Hitoshi; Komatsubara, Masaru

    1998-01-01

    Radioactively contaminated materials having surfaces contaminated by radioactive materials are dissolved in molten salts by the effect of chlorine gas. The molten salts are brought into contact with a low melting point metal to reduce only radioactive materials by substitution reaction and recover them into the low melting point metal. Then, a low melting point metal phase and a molten salt phase are separated. The low melting point metal phase is evaporated to separate the radioactive materials from molten metals. On the other hand, other metal ions dissolved in the molten salts are reduced into metals by electrolysis at an anode and separated from the molten salts and served for regeneration. The low melting point metals are reutilized together with contaminated lead, after subjected to decontamination, generated from facilities such as nuclear power plant or lead for disposal. Since almost all materials including the molten salts and the molten metals can be enclosed, the amount of wastes can be reduced. In addition, radiation exposure of operators who handle them can be reduced. (T.M.)

  17. Complexation of metal ions with humic acid: charge neutralization model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.; Czerwinski, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    A number of different approaches are being used for describing the complexation equilibrium of actinide ions with humic or fulvic acid. The approach chosen and verified experimentally by Tu Muenchen will be discussed with notable examples from experiment. This approach is based on the conception that a given actinide ion is neutralized upon complexation with functional groups of humic or fulvic acid, e.g. carboxylic and phenolic groups, which are known as heterogeneously cross-linked polyelectrolytes. The photon energy transfer experiment with laser light excitation has shown that the actinide ion binding with the functional groups is certainly a chelation process accompanied by metal ion charge neutralization. This fact is in accordance with the experimental evidence of the postulated thermodynamic equilibrium reaction. The experimental results are found to be independent of origin of humic or fulvic acid and applicable for a broad range of pH. (authors). 23 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  18. Kinetic study of heavy metal ions removal by ion exchange in batch conical air spouted bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Zewail

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spouted bed contactor is a hybrid of fixed and fluidized bed contactors, which retains the advantages of each with good hydrodynamic conditions. The aim of the present study is to investigate the performance of a batch conical air spouted vessel for heavy metal removal by strong cation exchange resins (AMBERJET 1200 Na. The effect of various parameters such as type of heavy metal ions (Ni+2 and Pb+2, contact time, superficial air velocity and initial heavy metal ion concentration on % heavy metal ion removal has been investigated. It has been found that under optimum conditions 98% and 99% removal of Ni+2 and Pb+2 were achieved respectively. Several kinetic models were used to test the experimental data and to examine the controlling mechanism of the sorption process. The present results of Ni+2 and Pb+2 well fit pseudo second order kinetic model with a high correlation coefficient. Both film diffusion and intra-particle diffusion contribute to the ion exchange process. The present study revealed that spouted bed vessel may provide an effective alternative for conducting ion exchange reactions.

  19. Ion implantation and ion assisted coatings for wear resistance in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1986-01-01

    The implantation of electrically accelerated ions of chosen elements into the surface of material provides a method for improving surface properties such as wear resistance. High concentrations of nitrogen implanted into metals create obstacles to dislocation movement, and certain combinations of metallic and non-metallic species will also strengthen the surface. The process is best applied to situations involving mild abrasive wear and operating temperatures that are not too high. Some dramatic increases in life have been reported under such favourable conditions. A more recent development has been the combination of a thin coating with reactive ion bombardment designed to enhance adhesion by ion mixing at the interface and so provide hardness by the formation of finely dispersed nitrides, including cubic boron nitride. These coatings often possess vivid and decorative colours as an added benefit. Developments in the equipment for industrial ion implantation now offer more attractive costs per unit area and a potentially greater throughput of work. A versatile group of related hard vacuum treatments is now emerging, involving the use of intense beams of nitrogen ions for the purpose of tailoring metal surfaces to resist wear. (author)

  20. Ion conducting polymers and polymer blends for alkali metal ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimone, Joseph M.; Pandya, Ashish; Wong, Dominica; Vitale, Alessandra

    2017-08-29

    Electrolyte compositions for batteries such as lithium ion and lithium air batteries are described. In some embodiments the compositions are liquid compositions comprising (a) a homogeneous solvent system, said solvent system comprising a perfluropolyether (PFPE) and polyethylene oxide (PEO); and (b) an alkali metal salt dissolved in said solvent system. In other embodiments the compositions are solid electrolyte compositions comprising: (a) a solid polymer, said polymer comprising a crosslinked product of a crosslinkable perfluropolyether (PFPE) and a crosslinkable polyethylene oxide (PEO); and (b) an alkali metal ion salt dissolved in said polymer. Batteries containing such compositions as electrolytes are also described.

  1. Development of a four-zone carousel process packed with metal ion-imprinted polymer for continuous separation of copper ions from manganese ions, cobalt ions, and the constituent metal ions of the buffer solution used as eluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Se-Hee; Park, Chanhun; Yi, Sung Chul; Kim, Dukjoon; Mun, Sungyong

    2011-08-19

    A three-zone carousel process, in which Cu(II)-imprinted polymer (Cu-MIP) and a buffer solution were employed as adsorbent and eluent respectively, has been developed previously for continuous separation of Cu²⁺ (product) from Mn²⁺ and Co²⁺ (impurities). Although this process was reported to be successful in the aforementioned separation task, the way of using a buffer solution as eluent made it inevitable that the product stream included the buffer-related metal ions (i.e., the constituent metal ions of the buffer solution) as well as copper ions. For a more perfect recovery of copper ions, it would be necessary to improve the previous carousel process such that it can remove the buffer-related metal ions from copper ions while maintaining the previous function of separating copper ions from the other 2 impure heavy-metal ions. This improvement was made in this study by proposing a four-zone carousel process based on the following strategy: (1) the addition of one more zone for performing the two-step re-equilibration tasks and (2) the use of water as the eluent of the washing step in the separation zone. The operating conditions of such a proposed process were determined on the basis of the data from a series of single-column experiments. Under the determined operating conditions, 3 runs of carousel experiments were carried out. The results of these experiments revealed that the feed-loading time was a key parameter affecting the performance of the proposed process. Consequently, the continuous separation of copper ions from both the impure heavy-metal ions and the buffer-related metal ions could be achieved with a purity of 91.9% and a yield of 92.8% by using the proposed carousel process based on a properly chosen feed-loading time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ion beam mixing isotopic metal bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fell, C J [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics; Kenny, M J [CSIRO, Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics

    1994-12-31

    In order to obtain an insight into the mechanisms of ion-solid interactions, bilayer targets can be prepared from two different isotopes. A mixing study SIMS is to be carried out using specially grown monocrystalline bilayers of {sup 58}Ni / {sup 60}Ni. An important aspect of the work is the preparation of high quality single-crystal thin films. The Ni layers will be grown on the (110) surface of pure Ni and verified for crystallinity using Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction and Rutherford Backscattering channelling analysis. The Pd bilayers will be grown on a Pd (100) surface. RHEED will be used to confirm the two-dimensional crystallinity of the surface before and after deposition of each layer, and channelling used to confirm bulk film crystallinity. Single crystal substrates are currently being prepared. Analysis of the Ni (110) surface using RHEED at 9 kV shows a streak spacing which corresponds to a lattice spacing of 2.47 {+-} 0.09 Angstroms. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Ion beam mixing isotopic metal bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fell, C.J. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics; Kenny, M.J. [CSIRO, Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics

    1993-12-31

    In order to obtain an insight into the mechanisms of ion-solid interactions, bilayer targets can be prepared from two different isotopes. A mixing study SIMS is to be carried out using specially grown monocrystalline bilayers of {sup 58}Ni / {sup 60}Ni. An important aspect of the work is the preparation of high quality single-crystal thin films. The Ni layers will be grown on the (110) surface of pure Ni and verified for crystallinity using Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction and Rutherford Backscattering channelling analysis. The Pd bilayers will be grown on a Pd (100) surface. RHEED will be used to confirm the two-dimensional crystallinity of the surface before and after deposition of each layer, and channelling used to confirm bulk film crystallinity. Single crystal substrates are currently being prepared. Analysis of the Ni (110) surface using RHEED at 9 kV shows a streak spacing which corresponds to a lattice spacing of 2.47 {+-} 0.09 Angstroms. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Combined transmission electron microscope and ion channeling study of metastable metal alloys formed by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullis, A.G.; Borders, J.A.; Hirvonen, J.K.; Poate, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    Recently, ion implantation has been used to produce metastable alloy layers with a range of structures from crystalline substitutional solid solutions to amorphous. The technique offers the possibility of producing metastable metal layers with unique physical properties. Its application in the formation of alloys exhibiting different although complementary types of metastability is described. The metal combinations chosen (Ag-Cu and Ta-Cu) show little mutual solubility under equilibrium conditions

  5. Polymer Catalysts Imprinted with Metal Ions as Biomimics of Metalloenzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Czulak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the preparation and properties of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs with catalytic centers that mimic the active sites of metalloenzymes. The MIP synthesis was based on suspension polymerization of functional monomers (4-vinylpyridine and acrylonitrile with trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate as a crosslinker in the presence of transition metal ions and 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol as a template. Four metal ions have been chosen for imprinting from among the microelements that are the most essential in the native enzymes: Cu2+, Co2+, Mn2+, and Zn2+. To prepare catalysts, the required loading of metal ions was obtained during sorption process. The catalysts imprinted with Cu2+, Co2+, and Zn2+ were successfully used for hydroquinone oxidation in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The Mn2+-imprinted catalyst showed no activity due to the insufficient metal loading. Cu2+ MIP showed the highest efficiency. In case of Cu- and Co-MIP catalysts, their activity was additionally increased by the use of surface imprinting technique.

  6. Metal ions to affect thyroid functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Mikio

    1994-01-01

    The mechanism of physiological action of the trace elements that exert effects to internal secretion organs has not much been specified. The reasons are presumed as the elements exert effects to many enzyme groups, change the structural constitution, or modify the permeability of matters. As the metallic elements that exert effects to thyroid, there are more than ten kinds including Li, Ca, Co, Br, I, Hg, Pb and Se. In this report, the knowledge that the authors observed about the effects of Mn, I and Li which are apt to accumulate on thyroid is introduced. Mn and I were quantitatively determined by activation analysis, and Li by atomic absorption spectrometry. There is the report that the excessive intake of Mn causes human thyroid tumor. By the shortage of Mn, the restriction of energy metabolism, growth delay, sterility, bone abnormality and motion disorder arise. The contents of Mn and I in the periphery of thyroid tumors were examined by activation analysis. When an antipsychotic Li is administered, the function of thyroid is often lowered. Those effects are explained. In the case of Mn excess and Mn shortage, the new problem that the hormone residue in globulin tended to increase arose. The similar phenomenon occurred also in the case of I. The reason is unknown at present. (K.I.)

  7. Study of Soil Decontamination Method Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and TBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jihye; Park, Kwangheon; Jung, Wonyoung

    2014-01-01

    The result of this study means that we have a possible new method for cheap and less wasteful nuclear waste decontamination. When severe accidents such as the incident at the Fukushima nuclear site occur, the soil near the power plant is contaminated with fission products or the activation metal structure of the power plant. The soil pollution form depends on the environment and soil characteristics of the contaminated areas. Thus, a- single-decontamination method is not effective for site cleanup. In addition, some soil decontamination methods are expensive and large amounts of secondary waste are generated. Therefore, we need new soil decontamination methods. In this study, instead of using a conventional solvent method that generates secondary waste, supercritical carbon dioxide was used to remove metal ions from the soil. Supercritical carbon dioxide is known for good permeation characteristics. We expect that we will reduce the cost of soil pollution management. Supercritical carbon dioxide can decontaminate soil easily, as it has the ability to penetrate even narrow gaps with very good moisture permeability. We used TBP, which is a known for extractant of actinium metal. TBP is usually used for uranium and strontium extraction. Using TBP-HNO 3 complex and supercritical carbon dioxide, we did extraction experiments for several heavy metals in contaminated soil

  8. Study of Soil Decontamination Method Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and TBP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jihye; Park, Kwangheon; Jung, Wonyoung [Kyunghee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The result of this study means that we have a possible new method for cheap and less wasteful nuclear waste decontamination. When severe accidents such as the incident at the Fukushima nuclear site occur, the soil near the power plant is contaminated with fission products or the activation metal structure of the power plant. The soil pollution form depends on the environment and soil characteristics of the contaminated areas. Thus, a- single-decontamination method is not effective for site cleanup. In addition, some soil decontamination methods are expensive and large amounts of secondary waste are generated. Therefore, we need new soil decontamination methods. In this study, instead of using a conventional solvent method that generates secondary waste, supercritical carbon dioxide was used to remove metal ions from the soil. Supercritical carbon dioxide is known for good permeation characteristics. We expect that we will reduce the cost of soil pollution management. Supercritical carbon dioxide can decontaminate soil easily, as it has the ability to penetrate even narrow gaps with very good moisture permeability. We used TBP, which is a known for extractant of actinium metal. TBP is usually used for uranium and strontium extraction. Using TBP-HNO{sub 3} complex and supercritical carbon dioxide, we did extraction experiments for several heavy metals in contaminated soil.

  9. Site decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicker, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Among the several DOE sites that have been radiologically decontaminated under the auspices of the Nevada Operations Office are three whose physical characteristics are unique. These are the Tatum Dome Test Site (TDTS) near Hattiesburg, Mississippi; a location of mountainous terrain (Pahute Mesa) on the Nevada Test Site; and the GNOME site near Carlsbad, New Mexico. In each case the contamination, the terrain, and the climate conditions were different. This presentation includes a brief description of each site, the methods used to perform radiological surveys, the logistics required to support the decontamination (including health physics and sample analysis), and the specific techniques used to reduce or remove the contamination

  10. Dilute chemical decontamination resins and the mixed waste issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denault, R.P.; Hallman, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    The decontamination of reactor primary systems, sub-systems and components is an important method used to reduce the occupational radiation exposure of nuclear plant personnel. The waste produced by the application of this technology is mainly solid in the form of ion exchange resins. As a result of a recent agreement between the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), all radioactive waste must meet EPA burial criteria. The chemicals used in a decontamination and certain metals dissolved during the process, primarily chromium, could render the waste hazardous as well as radioactive or more commonly called a mixed waste. This paper defines mixed waste as described in the EPA directive 9432.00-2, and examine the criteria by which waste is categorized as hazardous. The decontamination waste resin generated by two processes, the CAN-DEREM and the LOMI process, is described in detail. Waste data obtained from decontaminations performed by LN Technologies Corporation including chemical, metal and radionuclide loadings on resins from both PWR and BWR applications are presented

  11. Electron emission during multicharged ion-metal surface interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A.; Havener, C.C.; Hughes, I.G.; Overbury, S.H.; Robinson, M.T.; Zehner, D.M.; Meyer, F.W.

    1992-01-01

    The electron emission during multicharged ion-metal surface interactions will be discussed. The interactions lead to the emission of a significant number of electrons. Most of these electrons have energies below 30 eV. For incident ions with innershell vacancies the emission of Auger electrons that fill these vacancies has been found to occur mainly below the surface. We will present recently measured electron energy distributions which will be used to discuss the mechanisms that lead to the emission of Auger and of low-energy electrons

  12. Wear properties of metal ion implanted 4140 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, P.J.; Paoloni, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    AISI type 4140 (high tensile) steel has been implanted with tungsten and titanium using a metal vapour vacuum arc ion source. Doses in the range (1-5)x10 16 ionscm -2 were implanted to a depth of approximately 30nm. The relative wear resistance between non-implanted and implanted specimens has been estimated using pin-on-disc and abrasive wear tests. Implantation of titanium decreased the area of wear tracks by a factor of 5 over unimplanted steel. In some cases the steel was also hardened by a liquid carburization treatment before implantation. Abrasion tests revealed a further improvement in wear resistance on this material following ion irradiation. ((orig.))

  13. Metal ion toxins and brain aquaporin-4 expression: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana eXimenes-Da-Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Metal ions such as iron, zinc, and manganese are essential to metabolic functions, protein synthesis, neurotransmission, and antioxidant neuroprotective mechanisms. Conversely, non-essential metals such as mercury and lead are sources of human intoxication due to occupational activities or environmental contamination. Essential or non-essential metal accumulation in the central nervous system (CNS results in changes in blood-brain barrier (BBB permeability, as well as triggering microglia activation and astrocyte reactivity and changing water transport through the cells, which could result in brain swelling. Aquaporin-4 is the main water channel in the CNS, is expressed in astrocyte foot processes in brain capillaries and along the circumventricular epithelium in the ventricles, and has important physiological functions in maintaining brain osmotic homeostasis and supporting brain excitability through regulation of the extracellular space. Some evidence has pointed to a role of AQP4 during metal intoxication in the brain, where it may act in a dual form as a neuroprotector or a mediator of the development of oxidative stress in neurons and astrocytes, resulting in brain swelling and neuronal damage. This mini-review presents the way some metal ions affect changes in AQP4 expression in the CNS and discuss the ways in which water transport in brain cells can be involved in brain damage.

  14. The Corrosion Protection of Metals by Ion Vapor Deposited Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.

    1993-01-01

    A study of the corrosion protection of substrate metals by ion vapor deposited aluminum (IVD Al) coats has been carried out. Corrosion protection by both anodized and unanodized IVD Al coats has been investigated. Base metals included in the study were 2219-T87 Al, 7075-T6 Al, Titanium-6 Al-4 Vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V), 4130 steel, D6AC steel, and 4340 steel. Results reveal that the anodized IVD Al coats provide excellent corrosion protection, but good protection is also achieved by IVD Al coats that have not been anodized.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Magnetic Nano-Materials and Studying Their Potential Application in Recovery of Metal Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, S.I.M.

    2013-01-01

    The release of hazardous pollutants and their dispersion in the environment can cause adverse impacts on both environment and public health. These pollutants are more easily controlled when they are generated than after they are dispersed. Therefore, it is necessity of prime to design treatment processes can remove the contaminants at their source. Recently, many industrial and nuclear activities produce large amounts of wastewaters that contains a variety of contaminants. These contaminants may include toxic metals or radioactive isotopes. The efforts in this work are firstly directed to prepare some materials to be used as sorbents for removal of Sr(II), Cd(II) and Eu(III) radionuclide from waste solutions. The study concerned with the characterization of the prepared sorbents using surface area (BET), FTIR, X-Ray, TG/DTA, SEM and magnetic properties to throw light on its sense when practically used as a decontaminating material in aqueous systems. Also, the work involves the sorption of Sr(II), Cd(II) and Eu(III) ions from aqueous solutions under different experimental conditions to clarify the affinity of these sorbents and to assess main factors affecting the sorption behavior of these species. This is to evaluate the efficiency of these sorbents to be used as decontaminating materials for treatment of hazard wastes and finally to judge the criteria of sorbents selectivity towards the studies solutes.

  16. Colored cool colorants based on rare earth metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreeram, Kalarical Janardhanan; Aby, Cheruvathoor Poulose; Nair, Balachandran Unni; Ramasami, Thirumalachari [Chemical Laboratory, Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Adyar, Chennai 600 020 (India)

    2008-11-15

    Colored pigments with high near infrared reflectance and not based on toxic metal ions like cadmium, lead and cobalt are being sought as cool colorants. Through appropriate doping two pigments Ce-Pr-Mo and Ce-Pr-Fe have been developed to offer a reddish brown and reddish orange color, respectively. These pigments have been characterized and found to be highly crystalline with an average size of 300 nm. A shift in band gap energy from 2.21 to 2.18 eV has been observed when Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was used as a mineralizer. Scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDAX) measurement indicate a uniform grind shape and distribution of metal ion, with over 65% reflectance in the NIR region, these pigments can well serve as cool colorants. (author)

  17. Chromatography of metal ions with a triazine chelating resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.N.

    1979-05-01

    The synthesis, characterization, and some analytical applications of a new triazine resin are described. Separation of group IB, IIB, VIB, and VIIB metal ions from group VIII metal ions is achieved by this PDT-4 resin. Calcium(II) and magnesium(II) are taken up at pH = 6, 0.1 M acetate and are eluted at pH = 6, 0.1 M sodium nitrate. Copper(II) is retained at pH = 6, 0.1 M acetate and pH = 1 hydrochloric acid and is eluted subsequently by 5 M perchloric acid. Molybdenum(VI) is sorbed selectively from 0.1 N sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid and is eluted in a tight band by 0.1 N sodium hydroxide. Numerous rapid column chromatographic separations are reported using this new resin, including analysis of NBS standard samples

  18. Contamination and decontamination of skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, J.; Knajfl, J.

    1983-01-01

    In external contamination the beta radiation dose is the prevalent component of the total dose absorbed by the skin. There exist four types of radionUclide bonds to the skin: mechanical retention of solid particles or solution on the surface and in the pores, physical adsorption of nondissociated molecules or colloids, the ion exchange effect, and chemisorption. Radionuclides then penetrate the skin by transfollicular transfer. The total amount of radioactive substances absorbed into the skin depends on the condition of the skin. Skin is decontaminated by washing with lukewarm water and soap or with special decontamination solutions. The most widely used components of decontamination solutions are detergents, chelaton, sodium hexametaphosphate, oxalic acid, citric acid. The main principles of the decontamination of persons are given. (M.D.)

  19. Adsorption of heavy metal ions by activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Mitsuo

    1978-01-01

    The adsorption effect was measured for several kinds of heavy metal ions, Pb 2+ , Cd 2+ , Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ by passing them through activated charcoal beds and changing the pH values of solutions. The test procedure is to keep the pH value of solution more than 10 at first, filter heavy metal hydroxide deposit, measure the remaining ion concentration in filtrate, and also test the influence of the addition of alkali to each kind of ions. The individual test procedure for each kind of ions is explained. As for the Cd ions, after the detailed experimental procedure is explained, the adsorption characteristic line is shown as the relation between the adsorption quantity and the equilibrium concentration of Cd 2+ . The similar test procedure and the adsorption characteristic lines are shown and evaluated about Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ . These lines are all linear, but have different adsorption quantity and inclination in relation to heavy metal ion concentration. Concerning the influence of pH to adsorption, the characteristics of pH increase are presented, when alkali is added by various quantities to Zn 2+ , Cu 2+ , Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ . The pH of Pb 2+ increased to about 10 by adding 0.4 cc alkali and saturates, but the pH of the other ions did not saturate by adding less than 1.5 cc alkali. When the water containing heavy metals are treated, Cd 2+ , Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ are removed almost satisfactorily by passing them through active charcoal filters and keeping pH at 10. The experimental concentrations are 0.05 ppm at pH 10 in Cd, 0.86 ppm at 10.3 in Pb, 0 ppm at pH 9.6 in Cu, 0.06 ppm at pH 8.8 and 12.4 ppm at pH 9.8 in Zn. (Nakai, Y.)

  20. DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR FACILITY REUSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossart, Steven J.; Blair, Danielle M.

    2003-01-01

    As nuclear research and production facilities across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex are slated for deactivation and decommissioning (D and D), there is a need to decontaminate some facilities for reuse for another mission or continued use for the same mission. Improved technologies available in the commercial sector and tested by the DOE can help solve the DOE's decontamination problems. Decontamination technologies include mechanical methods, such as shaving, scabbling, and blasting; application of chemicals; biological methods; and electrochemical techniques. Materials to be decontaminated are primarily concrete or metal. Concrete materials include walls, floors, ceilings, bio-shields, and fuel pools. Metallic materials include structural steel, valves, pipes, gloveboxes, reactors, and other equipment. Porous materials such as concrete can be contaminated throughout their structure, although contamination in concrete normally resides in the top quarter-inch below the surface. Metals are normally only contaminated on the surface. Contamination includes a variety of alpha, beta, and gamma-emitting radionuclides and can sometimes include heavy metals and organic contamination regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This paper describes several advanced mechanical, chemical, and other methods to decontaminate structures, equipment, and materials

  1. Spectrophotometric study of some metal ions using some Schiff's bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnager, Nawal Mohomed Ibrahim

    2000-05-01

    In this work two schiff bases namely N,N Bis(benzoyl acetone)-o-phenylene diamine (NNBBPD) and N,N Bis(benzoyl acetone)-isopropylene diamine (NNBBAID) were prepared by direct coupling of benzoyl acetone with o-phenylene and isopropylene diamine respectively. The two reagents were identified by IR spectra, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and determination of the percentage of nitrogen contents (N%). It is found that the two reagents form coloured chelates with Fe (II), Fe (III), Cu (II), U (VI), Ni (II) and Co (II). The two reagents were used for the determination of Fe (II), Fe (III) and U (VI). The formulate of these metal ion complexes were obtained using continuous variations, mole ratio and slope ratio methods. Effect of two micelles, namely sodium n-dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and hexadecyl pyridinum broinide monohydrate (HPB) on metal ion complexes were studied. It is found that both of them increase the solubility and the absorbances of the metal ion complexes with variable effects of the absorption maxima. Calibration curves for Fe (II), Fe (II) and U (VI) were obtained in optimum conditions of pH and micelles solutions. (Author)

  2. Spectrophotometric determination of some metal ions using hydrazones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, M. S.

    2000-05-01

    In this research many starting materials were prepared, like methyl salicylate and salicylic acid hydrazide from which different derivatives of hydrazones were synthesized by coupling with carbonyl compounds like benzil monoxime and benzil mono hydrazone which are prepared and others like salicylaldehyde and benzoin. The hydrazones that were synthesized are salicylaldehyde salicylic acid hydrazone, benzoin salicylic acid hydrazone, benzil mono hydrazone salicylic acid hydrazone and benzil monoxime salicylic acid hydrazone. These reagents were determined by different methods, IR spectrophotometric determination, the nitrogen content method and melting point determination. These hydrazones act as ligands for determination of some metal ions by making different coloured complexes that were prepared for eight hydrazones with eight metal ions U (VI), Fe (II), Fe (III), Co (II), V (II), Mo (VI), Ni (II) and Cu (II). These complexes were determined by ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer (UV/VIS) to detect their absorbance and wavelengths (λ max). The two hydrazones salicylaldehyde salicylic acid-hydrazone and benzoin salicylic acid hydrazone, were selected for determination of five metal ions (Fe (II), Fe (III), U (VI), Ni (II) and Cu (II)), using two micelles sodium n-dodecyl sulphate and pyridinium hexa decyl bromide mono hydrate. Their absorbance and wavelengths were detected using UV/VIS spectrophotometer. (Author)

  3. Adsorption of heavy metal ions on activated carbon, (5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hisayoshi; Kamegawa, Katsumi; Arita, Seiji

    1978-01-01

    The adsorption effect of heavy metal ions Cd 2+ , Zn 2+ and Hg 2+ on activated carbon by adding EDTA is reported, utilizing the experimental data. The activated carbons used for the experiment are mostly D, and B, C and F partly. As for the experimental procedure, the solutions of 100 ml which are composed of activated carbon, pH adjusting liquid, EDTA solution and solutions of heavy metals Cd, Zn and Hg, are shaken for 24 hours at 20 deg C, and after the activated carbon is centrifuged and separated for 15 minutes at 3000 rpm, the remaining heavy metal concentrations and pH in the supernatant are measured. The experimental results showed the useful effect on the adsorption of heavy metal ions of Cd, Zn and Hg by adding about 1 mol ratio of (EDTA/heavy metals). The individual experimental results are presented in detail. Concerning the adsorption quantity, 83% of Cd ions remained in the supernatant without addition of EDTA, but less than 1% with addition of about 1 to 5 mol ratio of (EDTA/Cd), and this adsorption effect was almost similar to Zn and Hg, i.e. 100% to 1% in Zn and 70% to 2 or 3% in Hg, under the condition written above. As for the influence of pH on Cd adsorption, the remaining Cd ratio is less than 10%, when pH is 7 to 10.5 at the mol ratio of 1 and 5.5 to 9 at the mol ratio of 10. The adsorption effect was different according to the kinds of activated carbon. The influencing factors for adsorption effect are the concentration of coexisting cations in the solution and the mixing time, etc. The effects of pH on Zn and Hg adsorption were almost similar to Cd. (Nakai, Y.)

  4. Chemical decontamination of stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuma, Tsutomu; Akimoto, Hidetoshi

    1991-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method for chemical decontamination of radioactive metal waste materials contaminated with radioactive materials on the surface, generated in radioactive materials-handling facilities. The invention is comprised of a method of chemical decontamination of stainless steel, characterized by comprising a first process of immersing a stainless steel-based metal waste material contaminated by radioactive materials on the surface in a sulfuric acid solution and second process of immersing in an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid and oxidizing metal salt, in which a portion of the surface of the stainless steel to be decontaminated is polished mechanically to expose a portion of the base material before the above first and second processes. 1 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Separation of strontium ions from other alkaline earth metal ions using masking reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Cs + and Sr 2+ have been well known as serious elements in high level radioactive waste. Separation of Cs + has already been successful when using an ion-exchange method from solution in the presence of other alkali metal ions. The separation of Sr 2+ is, however, not so easy by any known separation method such as solvent-extraction and ion-exchange methods. This is because Sr 2+ is in the middle of the selectivity series, which is Mg 2+ > Ca 2+ > Sr 2+ > Ba 2+ for the solvent-extraction method and Ba 2+ > Sr 2+ > Ca 2+ > Mg 2+ for the ion- exchange method. In the present study, separation of strontium from other alkaline earth metal ions was studied by a combined use of three types of separation methods at 298 K: the solvent-extraction method was applied for the first separation, in which thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA, extractant) and trioctylphosphine oxide ( TOPO, adduct forming ligand) were used for the organic phase of the system. The separation factors for each combination of four alkaline earth metal ions were determined by the values of the distribution ratio. The Mg 2+ was well separated from Sr 2+ by the TTA-TOPO system. However, the separation of the combinations of Ca 2+ -Sr 2+ and Sr 2+ -Ba 2+ was not complete by the above solvent-extraction system. The second separation method, an ion-exchange method was applied using dihydrogen tetratitanate hydrate fibers (H 2 Ti 4 O 9 nH 2 O) as an ion exchanger to separate Sr 2+ and Ba 2+ . The separation factors for each combination of four alkaline earth metal ions were calculated by the values of the distribution coefficients. Ba 2+ was well separated from Sr 2+ by the ion-exchange method. To separate Ca 2+ and Sr 2+ , however, a modified solvent-extraction method was finally used in which H 2 Ti 4 O 9 nH 2 O was used as a masking reagent of Sr 2+ . After the dihydrogen tetratitanate hydrate fibers were contacted with the aqueous solution containing Ca 2+ and Sr 2+ , the organic solution containing TTA and TOPO

  6. Template-directed synthesis of oligoguanylic acids - Metal ion catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridson, P. K.; Fakhrai, H.; Lohrmann, R.; Orgel, L. E.; Van Roode, M.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of Zn(2+), Pb(2+) and other metal ions on the efficiency and stereo-selectivity of the template-directed oligomerization of guanosine 5'-phosphorimidazolide are investigated. Reactions were run in the presence of a polyC template in a 2,6-lutidine buffer, and products analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography on an RPC-5 column. The presence of the Pb(2+) ion is found to lead to the formation of 2'-5' linked oligomers up to the 40-mer, while Zn(2+) favors the formation of predominantly 3'-5' linked oligomers up to the 35-mer. When amounts of uracil, cytidine or adenosine 5'-phosphorimidazole equal to those of the guanosine derivative are included in the reaction mixture, the incorrect base is incorporated into the oligomer about 10% of the time with a Pb(2+) catalyst, but less than 0.5% of the time with Zn(2+). The Sn(2+), Sb(3+) and Bi(3+) ions are also found to promote the formation of 2'-5' oligomers, although not as effectively as Pb(2+), while no metal ions other than Zn(2+) promote the formation of the 3'-5' oligomers. The results may be important for the understanding of the evolution of nucleic acid replication in the absence of enzymes.

  7. Extraction of metal ions by neutral β-diphosphoramides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.

    1990-01-01

    The extracting ability of β-diphosphoramides of the type R-N[P(O)(NMe 2 ) 2 ] 2 with R=-CH 3 (NIPA), -C 12 H 25 (ODIPA), or -C 16 H 33 (OHDIPA) for metal ions such as lanthanides, uranyl, and the transuranium elements Am(III) and Pu(IV) has been studied. Extraction yields depend on the nature of the ligand, the organic diluent (nitromethane, kerosene, tert-butylbenzene), the concentration of nitric acid in the aqueous phase, and the ligand-to-metal ratio, Q. The results show that the bidentate phosphoramides are very efficient extractants for all of the metals studied, even at low ratios Q. The presence of nitric acid generally enhances the extraction yields. On the other hand, selectivity is rather poor with these ligands. A particular effort has been made to determine the nature of extracted species by NMR spectroscopy

  8. Molten salt oxidation of ion-exchange resins doped with toxic metals and radioactive metal surrogates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hee-Chul; Cho, Yong-Jun; Yoo, Jae-Hyung; Kim, Joon-Hyung; Eun, Hee-Chul

    2005-01-01

    Ion-exchange resins doped with toxic metals and radioactive metal surrogates were test-burned in a bench-scale molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor system. The purposes of this study are to confirm the destruction performance of the two-stage MSO reactor system for the organic ion-exchange resin and to obtain an understanding of the behavior of the fixed toxic metals and the sulfur in the cationic exchange resins. The destruction of the organics is very efficient in the primary reactor. The primarily destroyed products such as carbon monoxide are completely oxidized in the secondary MSO reactor. The overall collection of the sulfur and metals in the two-stage MSO reactor system appeared to be very efficient. Over 99.5% of all the fixed toxic metals (lead and cadmium) and radioactive metal surrogates (cesium, cobalt, strontium) remained in the MSO reactor bottom. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and the XRD patterns of the spent salt samples revealed that the collected metals existed in the form of each of their carbonates or oxides, which are non-volatile species at the MSO system operating conditions. (author)

  9. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry: From Cluster Ions to Toxic metal Ions in Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz, Nicholas B. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation focused on using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to study cluster ions and toxic metal ions in biology. In Chapter 2, it was shown that primary, secondary and quarternary amines exhibit different clustering characteristics under identical instrument conditions. Carbon chain length also played a role in cluster ion formation. In Chapters 3 and 4, the effects of solvent types/ratios and various instrumental parameters on cluster ion formation were examined. It was found that instrument interface design also plays a critical role in the cluster ion distribution seen in the mass spectrum. In Chapter 5, ESI-MS was used to investigate toxic metal binding to the [Gln11]-amyloid β-protein fragment (1-16). Pb and Cd bound stronger than Zn, even in the presence of excess Zn. Hg bound weaker than Zn. There are endless options for future work on cluster ions. Any molecule that is poorly ionized in positive ion mode can potentially show an increase in ionization efficiency if an appropriate anion is used to produce a net negative charge. It is possible that drug protein or drug/DNA complexes can also be stabilized by adding counter-ions. This would preserve the solution characteristics of the complex in the gas phase. Once in the gas phase, CID could determine the drug binding location on the biomolecule. There are many research projects regarding toxic metals in biology that have yet to be investigated or even discovered. This is an area of research with an almost endless future because of the changing dynamics of biological systems. What is deemed safe today may show toxic effects in the future. Evolutionary changes in protein structures may render them more susceptible to toxic metal binding. As the understanding of toxicity evolves, so does the demand for new toxic metal research. New instrumentation designs and software make it possible to perform research that could not be done in the past. What was undetectable yesterday will

  10. Multi stage electrodialysis for separation of two metal ion species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K.; Sakurai, H.; Nii, S.; Sugiura, K. [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan)

    1995-04-20

    In this article, separation of two metal ions by electrodialysis with a cation exchange membrane has been investigated. In other words, separation of potassium ion and sodium ion has been investigated by using batch dialysis with and without an electric field and continuous electrodialysis with a four-stage dialyzer. As a result, the difference in the permselectivity between the dialysis with and without an electric field has not been appreciable for the system of potassium and sodium ions with the cation exchange membrane. Concerning the continuous electrodialysis, the concentration ratio between potassium and sodium ions in the outlet solution from the recovery side of the dialyzer has increased with the reflux flow rate and the number of stages. In case when the reflux flow rate has been zero, the concentration ratio with the four-stage dialyzer has become 1.5 which is almost the same as with that with a two-stage dialyzer consisting of a simple membrane. When the reflux flow ratio has been 0.7, the concentration ratio has reached 3.6. 20 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Nuclear decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeSurf, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    Decontamination may be accomplished by chemical, electrical, or mechanical means. Recently there have been significant developments in all three categories as well as an increased tendency to combine techniques, either simultaneously (e.g. by adding chemicals to water jets) or sequentially (e.g. by using a mechanical method to remove loose contamination, followed by a chemical method for more tightly bound activity). Some developments in the different techniques are discussed, together with typical applications of each. (author)

  12. A simple alkali-metal and noble gas ion source for SIMS equipments with mass separation of the primary ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duesterhoeft, H.; Pippig, R.

    1986-01-01

    An alkali-metal ion source working without a store of alkali-metals is described. The alkali-metal ions are produced by evaporation of alkali salts and ionization in a low-voltage arc discharge stabilized with a noble gas plasma or in the case of small alkali-metal ion currents on the base of the well known thermic ionization at a hot tungsten wire. The source is very simple in construction and produces a stable ion current of 0.3 μA for more than 100 h. It is possible to change the ion species in a short time. This source is applicable to all SIMS equipments using mass separation for primary ions. (author)

  13. Portable Multispectral Colorimeter for Metallic Ion Detection and Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Mauro S; Jaimes, Ruth F V V; Borysow, Walter; Gomes, Osmar F; Salcedo, Walter J

    2017-07-28

    This work deals with a portable device system applied to detect and classify different metallic ions as proposed and developed, aiming its application for hydrological monitoring systems such as rivers, lakes and groundwater. Considering the system features, a portable colorimetric system was developed by using a multispectral optoelectronic sensor. All the technology of quantification and classification of metallic ions using optoelectronic multispectral sensors was fully integrated in the embedded hardware FPGA ( Field Programmable Gate Array) technology and software based on virtual instrumentation (NI LabView ® ). The system draws on an indicative colorimeter by using the chromogen reagent of 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN). The results obtained with the signal processing and pattern analysis using the method of the linear discriminant analysis, allows excellent results during detection and classification of Pb(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), Fe(III) and Ni(II) ions, with almost the same level of performance as for those obtained from the Ultravioled and visible (UV-VIS) spectrophotometers of high spectral resolution.

  14. Portable Multispectral Colorimeter for Metallic Ion Detection and Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro S. Braga

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with a portable device system applied to detect and classify different metallic ions as proposed and developed, aiming its application for hydrological monitoring systems such as rivers, lakes and groundwater. Considering the system features, a portable colorimetric system was developed by using a multispectral optoelectronic sensor. All the technology of quantification and classification of metallic ions using optoelectronic multispectral sensors was fully integrated in the embedded hardware FPGA ( Field Programmable Gate Array technology and software based on virtual instrumentation (NI LabView®. The system draws on an indicative colorimeter by using the chromogen reagent of 1-(2-pyridylazo-2-naphthol (PAN. The results obtained with the signal processing and pattern analysis using the method of the linear discriminant analysis, allows excellent results during detection and classification of Pb(II, Cd(II, Zn(II, Cu(II, Fe(III and Ni(II ions, with almost the same level of performance as for those obtained from the Ultravioled and visible (UV-VIS spectrophotometers of high spectral resolution.

  15. New Catalytic DNA Biosensors for Radionuclides and Metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yi

    2003-01-01

    The goals of the project are to develop new catalytic DNA biosensors for simultaneous detection and quantification of bioavailable radionuclides and metal ions, and apply the sensors for on-site, real-time assessment of concentration, speciation and stability of the individual contaminants during and after bioremediation. A negative selection strategy was tested and validated. In vitro selection was shown to yield highly active and specific transition metal ion-dependent catalytic DNA/RNA. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) study of in vitro selected DNA demonstrated that the trifluorophore labeled system is a simple and powerful tool in studying complex biomolecules structure and dynamics, and is capable of revealing new sophisticated structural changes. New fluorophore/quenchers in a single fluorosensor yielded improved signal to noise ratio in detection, identification and quantification of metal contaminants. Catalytic DNA fluorescent and colorimetric sensors were shown useful in sensing lead in lake water and in leaded paint. Project results were described in two papers and two patents, and won an international prize

  16. Adsorption of Heavy Metal Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Bentonite Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Su, Guojun; Zhang, Xueping; Huang, Wen

    2016-08-01

    A series of bentonite nanocomposites have been synthesized by modifying bentonite with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB) and the common complexing agents, complexone (ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid, EDTA) or mercaptocomplexant (2-Mercaptobenzothiazole, MBT). These adsorbents are used to remove heavy metal ions (Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+),Co(2+)). The Bent-CTMAB-MBT adsorbed metal ions are higher than Bent-CTMAB-EDTA under the same ion concentration in AAS. Compared with the single ion system, the adsorption of the mixed ion system of Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+), Co(2+) had decreased differently. In the mixed system, the adsorption of Mn(2+) is significantly lower, but the adsorption of Cu(2+) was highest. The adsorption sequence of these four metal ions was Cu(2+) > Zn(2+) > Co(2+) > Mn(2+), and the selective adsorption was closely related to the hydration energy of heavy metal ions. We could remove more metal ions in different stages with the adsorption sequence.

  17. Effect of transition metal ions on the conductivity and stability of stabilized zirconia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybye, D.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2007-01-01

    the effect of co-doping with smaller transition metal ions such as Ti-, Fe- and Mn-ions. Many of the ionic radii of the transition metal ions are too small compared to the host lattice ionic radius of zirconium. Here we explore the effect of a) the small ionic radii compared to the large ionic radii...

  18. Chemical Gel for Surface Decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Chong Hun; Moon, J. K.; Won, H. J.; Lee, K. W.; Kim, C. K.

    2010-01-01

    Many chemical decontamination processes operate by immersing components in aggressive chemical solutions. In these applications chemical decontamination technique produce large amounts of radioactive liquid waste. Therefore it is necessary to develop processes using chemical gels instead of chemical solutions, to avoid the well-known disadvantages of chemical decontamination techniques while retaining their high efficiency. Chemical gels decontamination process consists of applying the gel by spraying it onto the surface of large area components (floors, walls, etc) to be decontaminated. The gel adheres to any vertical or complex surface due to their thixotropic properties and operates by dissolving the radioactive deposit, along with a thin layer of the gel support, so that the radioactivity trapped at the surface can be removed. Important aspects of the gels are that small quantities can be used and they show thixitropic properties : liquid during spraying, and solid when stationary, allowing for strong adherence to surfaces. This work investigates the decontamination behaviors of organic-based chemical gel for SS 304 metallic surfaces contaminated with radioactive materials

  19. Metal-organic frameworks for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Fu-Sheng; Wu, Yu-Shan; Deng, Hexiang

    2015-01-01

    Porous materials have been widely used in batteries and supercapacitors attribute to their large internal surface area (usually 100–1000 m 2 g −1 ) and porosity that can favor the electrochemical reaction, interfacial charge transport, and provide short diffusion paths for ions. As a new type of porous crystalline materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received huge attention in the past decade due to their unique properties, i.e. huge surface area (up to 7000 m 2 g −1 ), high porosity, low density, controllable structure and tunable pore size. A wide range of applications including gas separation, storage, catalysis, and drug delivery benefit from the recent fast development of MOFs. However, their potential in electrochemical energy storage has not been fully revealed. Herein, the present mini review appraises recent and significant development of MOFs and MOF-derived materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors, to give a glimpse into these potential applications of MOFs. - Graphical abstract: MOFs with large surface area and high porosity can offer more reaction sites and charge carriers diffusion path. Thus MOFs are used as cathode, anode, electrolyte, matrix and precursor materials for lithium ion battery, and also as electrode and precursor materials for supercapacitors. - Highlights: • MOFs have potential in electrochemical area due to their high porosity and diversity. • We summarized and compared works on MOFs for lithium ion battery and supercapacitor. • We pointed out critical challenges and provided possible solutions for future study

  20. Metal-organic frameworks for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Fu-Sheng; Wu, Yu-Shan; Deng, Hexiang, E-mail: hdeng@whu.edu.cn

    2015-03-15

    Porous materials have been widely used in batteries and supercapacitors attribute to their large internal surface area (usually 100–1000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and porosity that can favor the electrochemical reaction, interfacial charge transport, and provide short diffusion paths for ions. As a new type of porous crystalline materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received huge attention in the past decade due to their unique properties, i.e. huge surface area (up to 7000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), high porosity, low density, controllable structure and tunable pore size. A wide range of applications including gas separation, storage, catalysis, and drug delivery benefit from the recent fast development of MOFs. However, their potential in electrochemical energy storage has not been fully revealed. Herein, the present mini review appraises recent and significant development of MOFs and MOF-derived materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors, to give a glimpse into these potential applications of MOFs. - Graphical abstract: MOFs with large surface area and high porosity can offer more reaction sites and charge carriers diffusion path. Thus MOFs are used as cathode, anode, electrolyte, matrix and precursor materials for lithium ion battery, and also as electrode and precursor materials for supercapacitors. - Highlights: • MOFs have potential in electrochemical area due to their high porosity and diversity. • We summarized and compared works on MOFs for lithium ion battery and supercapacitor. • We pointed out critical challenges and provided possible solutions for future study.

  1. Formation of negative ions on a metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amersfoort, P.W. van.

    1987-01-01

    In this thesis a fundamental study of the charge exchange process of positive ions on the converter surface is presented. Beams of hydrogen ad cesium ions are scattered from a thoroughly cleaned W(110) surface, under ultra-high vacuum conditions. The cesium coverage of the surface is a controlled parameter. Ch. 2 deals with the negative-ion formation probability for hydrogen atoms. The influence of coabsorption of hydrogen is studied in Ch. 3. These measurements are important for understanding the formation process in plasma sources, because the converter surface is expected to be strongly contaminated with hydrogen. The charge state of scattered cesium particles is investigated in Ch. 4. Knowledge of this parameter is essential for Ch. 5, in which a model study of adsorption of cesium on a metal surface in contact with a plasma is presented. Finally, the negative-ion formation process in a plasma environment is studied in Ch. 6. Measurements done on a hollow-cathode discharge equipped with a novel type of converter, a porous tungsten button, are discussed. Liquid cesium diffuses through this button towards the side in contact with the plasma. (Auth.)

  2. Separation of metal ions using an o-hydroxypropiophenoxime resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.N.

    1977-12-01

    A chelating ion-exchange resin incorporating an o-hydroxypropiophenoxime functional group onto an XAD-4 polymer matrix has been synthesized. This resin has been used for the separation and quantitative determination of both copper and molybdenum by high-speed liquid chromatography. Iron, uranium, citrate, and fluoride were found to interfere in the determination of copper. Of the ions tested, none were found to interfere with the determination of molybdenum. Several NBS Standard samples were successfully analyzed for copper and molybdenum. The new method is both accurate and fast. Most samples can be analyzed in less than ten minutes. Bis(2-hydroxyethyl) dithiocarbamate was shown to be superior to PAR as a color-forming reagent for the continuous spectrophotometric detection of copper. Thiolactic acid was shown to be adaptable to the continuous spectrophotometric detection of molybdenum. Both dyes gave linear responses when peak height was plotted against micrograms of metal

  3. Heating effects in a liquid metal ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mair, G.L.R.; Aitken, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    A reassessment is made of the heating occurring at the anode of a liquid metal ion source, in the light of new microscopic observations. The apex region of the cones is in the form of a cusp, or jet, even at very low currents. The calculation for ohmic heating is conclusive for low currents; no heating occurs at the anode; for high currents (approx. 50-100 μA), substantial heating is conceivable, if a long, very thin, cylindrical jet exists at the apex of the anode. The answer to the problem of external heating, in the form of electrons bombarding the anode, is not quite conclusive; this is because of the impossibility of correctly assessing the electron flux entering the anode. However, it would appear to be a definite conclusion that for reasons of self-consistency field-ionisation of thermally released atoms cannot be a significant ion emission mechanism. (author)

  4. Wear properties of metal ion implanted 4140 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, P.J. (Applications of Nuclear Physics, Ansto, Private Mail Bag 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)); Paoloni, F.J. (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wollongong, GPO Box 1144, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia))

    1994-07-01

    AISI type 4140 (high tensile) steel has been implanted with tungsten and titanium using a metal vapour vacuum arc ion source. Doses in the range (1-5)x10[sup 16]ionscm[sup -2] were implanted to a depth of approximately 30nm. The relative wear resistance between non-implanted and implanted specimens has been estimated using pin-on-disc and abrasive wear tests. Implantation of titanium decreased the area of wear tracks by a factor of 5 over unimplanted steel. In some cases the steel was also hardened by a liquid carburization treatment before implantation. Abrasion tests revealed a further improvement in wear resistance on this material following ion irradiation. ((orig.))

  5. Modification of solid surface by intense pulsed light-ion and metal-ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Y.; Ariyoshi, T.; Hanjo, H.; Tsutsumi, S.; Fujii, Y.; Itami, M.; Okamoto, A.; Ogawa, S.; Hamada, T.; Fukumaru, F.

    1989-03-01

    Metal surfaces of Al, stainless-steel and Ti were bombarded with focused intense pulsed proton and carbon ion beams (energy ˜ 80 keV, current density ≲ 1000 A/cm 2, pulse width ˜ 300 ns). Thin titanium carbide layers were produced by carbon-ion irradiation on the titanium surface. The observed molten surface structures and recrystallized layer (20 μm depth) indicated that the surfaces reached high temperatures as a result of the irradiation. The implantation of intense pulsed metal ion beams (Al +, ˜ 20 A/cm 2) with simultaneous deposition of anode metal vapor on Ti and Fe made a mixed layer of AlTi and AlFe of about 0.5 μm depth. Ti and B multilayered films evaporated on glass substrates were irradiated by intense pulsed proton beams of relatively lower current density (10-200 A/cm 2). Ti films containing B atoms above 10 at.% were obtained. When the current density was about 200 A/cm 2 diffraction peaks of TiB 2 appeared.

  6. Acetabular bone density and metal ions after metal-on-metal versus metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty; short-term results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Wierd P.; van der Veen, Hugo C.; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Zee, Mark J. M.; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; van Raay, Jos J. A. M.

    Information on periprosthetic acetabular bone density is lacking for metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties. These bearings use cobalt-chromium instead of titanium acetabular components, which could lead to stress shielding and hence periprosthetic bone loss. Cobalt and chromium ions have

  7. Local coordination of polyvalent metal ions in molten halide mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akdeniz, Z.; Tosi, M.P.

    1989-07-01

    Ample experimental evidence is available in the literature on the geometry and the stability of local coordination for polyvalent metal ions in molten mixtures of their halides with alkali halides. Recent schemes for classifying this evidence are discussed. Dissociation of tetrahedral halocomplexes in good ionic systems can be viewed as a classical Mott problem of bound-state stability in a conducting matrix. More generally, structural coordinates can be constructed from properties of the component elements, to separate out systems with long-lived fourfold or sixfold coordination and to distinguish between these. (author). 11 refs, 1 fig

  8. Studies on the dryolysis reactions of metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baes, C.F. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Research is reported on metallic ions produced in solutions at low concentrations as mononuclear hydrolysis products. The method for studying the mononuclear species is to measure the solubility of the oxide or hydroxide solid phase that is stable under the conditions of interest. Column solubility measurements of Al(OH) 3 (Gibbsite) in NaCl solution as a function of pH, temperature, and ionic strength are being conducted in order to better establish the stability of the intermediate species Al(OH) 2 + and Al(OH) 3 (aq)

  9. Removal and recovery of metal ions from process and waste streams using polymer filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvinen, G.D.; Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Kraus, K.M.; Thompson, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Polymer Filtration (PF) is an innovative, selective metal removal technology. Chelating, water-soluble polymers are used to selectively bind the desired metal ions and ultrafiltration is used to concentrate the polymer-metal complex producing a permeate with low levels of the targeted metal ion. When applied to the treatment of industrial metal-bearing aqueous process streams, the permeate water can often be reused within the process and the metal ions reclaimed. This technology is applicable to many types of industrial aqueous streams with widely varying chemistries. Application of PF to aqueous streams from nuclear materials processing and electroplating operations will be described

  10. Metal ion interaction of an oligopeptide fragment representing the regulatory metal binding site of a CueR protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jancsó, Attila; Szokolai, Hajnalka; Roszahegyi, Livia

    2013-01-01

    Metalloregulatory proteins of the MerR family are transcriptional activators that sense/control the concentration of various metal ions inside bacteria.1 The Cu+ efflux regulator CueR, similarly to other MerR proteins, possesses a short multiple Cys-containing metal binding loop close to the C...... of cognate metal ions.2 Nevertheless, it is an interesting question whether the same sequence, when removed from the protein, shows a flexibility to adopt different coordination environments and may efficiently bind metal ions having preferences for larger coordination numbers....

  11. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions. This dataset is associated with the following...

  12. Novel forward osmosis process to effectively remove heavy metal ions

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Yue; Ge, Qingchun; Liu, Xiangyang; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a novel forward osmosis (FO) process for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater was demonstrated for the first time. The proposed FO process consists of a thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane made from interfacial polymerization on a macrovoid-free polyimide support and a novel bulky hydroacid complex Na4[Co(C6H4O7)2]·r2H2O (Na-Co-CA) as the draw solute to minimize the reverse solute flux. The removal of six heavy metal solutions, i.e., Na2Cr2O7, Na2HAsO4, Pb(NO3)2, CdCl2, CuSO4, Hg(NO3)2, were successfully demonstrated. Water fluxes around 11L/m2/h (LMH) were harvested with heavy metals rejections of more than 99.5% when employing 1M Na-Co-CA as the draw solution to process 2000ppm(1 ppm=1 mg/L) heavy metal solutions at room temperature. This FO performance outperforms most nanofiltration (NF) processes. In addition, the high rejections were maintained at 99.5% when a more concentrated draw solution (1.5M) or feed solution (5000ppm) was utilized. Furthermore, rejections greater than 99.7% were still achieved with an enhanced water flux of 16.5LMH by operating the FO process at 60°C. The impressive heavy metal rejections and satisfactory water flux under various conditions suggest great potential of the newly developed FO system for the treatment of heavy metal wastewater. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Novel forward osmosis process to effectively remove heavy metal ions

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Yue

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a novel forward osmosis (FO) process for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater was demonstrated for the first time. The proposed FO process consists of a thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane made from interfacial polymerization on a macrovoid-free polyimide support and a novel bulky hydroacid complex Na4[Co(C6H4O7)2]·r2H2O (Na-Co-CA) as the draw solute to minimize the reverse solute flux. The removal of six heavy metal solutions, i.e., Na2Cr2O7, Na2HAsO4, Pb(NO3)2, CdCl2, CuSO4, Hg(NO3)2, were successfully demonstrated. Water fluxes around 11L/m2/h (LMH) were harvested with heavy metals rejections of more than 99.5% when employing 1M Na-Co-CA as the draw solution to process 2000ppm(1 ppm=1 mg/L) heavy metal solutions at room temperature. This FO performance outperforms most nanofiltration (NF) processes. In addition, the high rejections were maintained at 99.5% when a more concentrated draw solution (1.5M) or feed solution (5000ppm) was utilized. Furthermore, rejections greater than 99.7% were still achieved with an enhanced water flux of 16.5LMH by operating the FO process at 60°C. The impressive heavy metal rejections and satisfactory water flux under various conditions suggest great potential of the newly developed FO system for the treatment of heavy metal wastewater. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Excimer laser decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentis, Marc L.; Delaporte, Philippe C.; Marine, Wladimir; Uteza, Olivier P.

    2000-04-01

    The application of excimer laser ablation process to the decontamination of radioactive surfaces is discussed. This technology is very attractive because it allows to efficiently remove the contaminated particles without secondary waste production. To demonstrate the capability of such technology to efficiently decontaminate large area, we studied and developed a prototype which include a XeCl laser, an optical fiber delivery system and an ablated particles collection cell. The main physical processes taking place during UV laser ablation will be explained. The influence of laser wavelength, pulse duration and absorption coefficient of material will be discussed. Special studies have been performed to understand the processes which limit the transmission of high average power excimer laser through optical fiber, and to determine the laser conditions to optimize the value of this transmission. An in-situ spectroscopic analysis of laser ablation plasma allows the real time control of the decontamination. The results obtained for painting or metallic oxides removal from stainless steel surfaces will be presented.

  15. Laws of phase formation in ion-implanted metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazdaev, H.R.; Abylkhalykova, R.B.; Skakov, M.K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Main laws of ordered structures formation at molybdenum implantation by elements forming phases of introduction (B, C, N, 0, Si, P, S) are discovered in this work. According to them the character of structural and phase transformations in molybdenum at ion implantation is determined not by kinetic parameters of bombarding particles and their chemical activity but by size factor η x/Me (ratio of nuclear radii of introduced elements and atoms of a matrix). At change of its meaning in the certain limits the following can be observed: superstructures formation (η x/Mo x/Mo x/Mo >0.69). In the latter case at the further implantation doze increasing recrystallization of molybdenum monocrystalline layers amorphized during previous bombarding with chemical connection formation takes place, characterized by us as ion-inducted synthesis. The phenomenon discovered on the samples implanted by phosphorus ions. As the result, the high-temperature phase of molybdenum monophosphide MoP having densely situated lattice was synthesized. The complete confirmation of the main laws of structural and phased transformations at ion implantation established by results on molybdenum monocrystals with OCC lattice was achieved at realization of similar researches on the other transitive metal - zirconium which differs from molybdenum according to a number of attributes: a type of an initial lattice structural condition (large scaled polycrystal), presence of interparticle borders and high solubility of atmospheric impurities (nitrogen, carbon, oxygen). The discovered laws have proved to be true also according to ion implanted samples of monocrystal tungsten and polycrystal tantalum

  16. ORNL decontamination and decommissioning program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    A program has been initiated at ORNL to decontaminate and decommission surplus or abandoned nuclear facilities. Program planning and technical studies have been performed by UCC-ND Engineering. A feasibility study for decommissioning the Metal Recovery Facility, a fuel reprocessing pilot plant, has been completed

  17. Continuum radiation emitted from transition metals under ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Boujlaidi, A.; Kaddouri, A.; Ait El Fqih, M.; Hammoum, K.; Aouchiche, H.

    2012-01-01

    Optical emission of transition metals has been studied during 5 keV Kr + ions bombardment within and without oxygen atmosphere in the colliding chamber. The observed spectra consist of a series of discrete lines superimposed on a broad continuum. Generally, the emission intensity was influenced by the presence of oxygen giving rise to transient effects as well as to an increase in the line intensity. The behaviours of spectral lines were successfully explained in term of electron-transfer process between the excited sputtered atom and the solid surface. In this work, we have focused our study on the continuous radiation emitted during ion bombardment. The experimental results suggest that the continuum emission depends on the nature of metal and very probably related to its electronic structure. The collective deactivation of 3d-shell electrons appears to play a role in the emission of this radiation. The observed enhancement in the presence of oxygen is probably due to a significant contribution of the oxide molecules. (authors)

  18. PROCESS OF DECONTAMINATING MATERIAL CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, D.C.; Peterson, M.D.; Acken, M.F.

    1958-09-16

    A process is described for decontaminating metallic objects, such as stainless steel equipment, which consists in contacting such objects with nltric acid in a concentration of 35 to 60% to remove the major portion of the contamination; and thereafter contacting the partially decontaminated object with a second solution containing up to 20% of alkali metal hydroxide and up to 20% sodium tartrate to remove the remaining radioactive contaminats.

  19. Highly sensitive colour change system within slight differences in metal ion concentrations based on homo-binuclear complex formation equilibrium for visual threshold detection of trace metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuguchi, Hitoshi; Atsumi, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Keigo; Shimada, Yasuhiro; Kudo, Yuki; Endo, Masatoshi; Yokota, Fumihiko; Shida, Junichi; Yotsuyanagi, Takao

    2004-01-01

    A new technique of expressing slight differences in metal ion concentrations by clear difference in colour was established for visual threshold detection of trace metal ions. The proposed method is based on rapid change of the mole fraction of the homo-binuclear complex (M 2 L) about a ligand in a narrow range of the total metal ion concentration (M T ) in a small excess, in case the second metal ion is bound to the reagent molecule which can bind two metal ions. Theoretical simulations showed that the highly sensitive colour change within slight differences in metal ion concentrations would be realized under the following conditions: (i) both of the stepwise formation constants of complex species are sufficiently large; (ii) the stepwise formation constant of the 1:1 complex (ML) is larger than that of M 2 L; and (iii) the absorption spectrum of M 2 L is far apart from the other species in the visible region. Furthermore, the boundary of the colour region in M T would be readily controlled by the total ligand concentration (L T ). Based on this theory, the proposed model was verified with the 3,3'-bis[bis(carboxymethyl)amino]methyl derivatives of sulphonephthalein dyes such as xylenol orange (XO), methylthymol blue (MTB), and methylxylenol blue (MXB), which can bind two metal ions at both ends of a π-electron conjugated system. The above-mentioned model was proved with the iron(III)-XO system at pH 2. In addition, MTB and MXB were suitable reagents for the visual threshold detection of trivalent metal ions such as iron(III), aluminium(III), gallium(III) and indium(III) ion in slightly acidic media. The proposed method has been applied successfully as a screening test for aluminium(III) ion in river water sampled at the downstream area of an old mine

  20. Electrospray droplet exposure to organic vapors: metal ion removal from proteins and protein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMuth, J Corinne; McLuckey, Scott A

    2015-01-20

    The exposure of aqueous nanoelectrospray droplets to various organic vapors can dramatically reduce sodium adduction on protein ions in positive ion mass spectra. Volatile alcohols, such as methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol lead to a significant reduction in sodium ion adduction but are not as effective as acetonitrile, acetone, and ethyl acetate. Organic vapor exposure in the negative ion mode, on the other hand, has essentially no effect on alkali ion adduction. Evidence is presented to suggest that the mechanism by which organic vapor exposure reduces alkali ion adduction in the positive mode involves the depletion of alkali metal ions via ion evaporation of metal ions solvated with organic molecules. The early generation of metal/organic cluster ions during the droplet desolvation process results in fewer metal ions available to condense on the protein ions formed via the charged residue mechanism. These effects are demonstrated with holomyoglobin ions to illustrate that the metal ion reduction takes place without detectable protein denaturation, which might be revealed by heme loss or an increase in charge state distribution. No evidence is observed for denaturation with exposure to any of the organic vapors evaluated in this work.

  1. Immobilisation in cement of ion exchange resins arising from the purification of reagents used for the decontamination of reactor circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1988-09-01

    The process developed previously for the immobilisation of Ion Exchange resin in cement has been scaled up to 200 litres. Large scale samples produced exhibit acceptable compressive strengths and dimensional stabilities. Destructive examination has shown that these samples are homogeneous and monolithic. A number of samples have been stored under water, this appears to have no detrimental effects on the dimensional stability and elastic modulus when compared to samples stored in air. Finally, a description of leach test work initiated using waste ion exchange resin treated with LOMI from the reactor at Winfrith is given. This work will be performed in accordance with the ISO leach test procedure. (author)

  2. Removal of heavy-metal ions from dilute waste streams using membrane-based hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesen, D.T.; Edlund, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    At Bend research, the authors have developed hybrid systems that couple a process that removes solvent (water) and a process that removes solute (metal ions) such that toxic heavy-metal ions can be efficiently and selectively removed to very low levels while simultaneously concentrating the heavy-metal ions in relatively pure form. Although this technology is broadly applicable, the authors are focusing on the development of a system to treat groundwater that is contaminated with heavy-metal ions. The process utilizes coupled transport and reverse osmosis to reduce chromium and uranium concentration down to parts-per-billion levels

  3. Application of monocarboxylic acids for the extraction of metal ions-literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzozka, Z.; Rozycki, C.

    1980-01-01

    In the paper there is presented a literature review concerning the application of monocarboxylic acids for extraction of metal ions. The following problems are discussed: characteristic of monocarboxylic acids and their mixtures, the equilibria between the acid solution in organic solvent and aqueous phase, the mechanism of acid partition, complexes of carboxylic acids and metal ions in aqueous phase, mechanism of extraction by means of carboxylic acids as well as the problems concerning the extraction of individual metal ions. Data about the extraction of metal ions are presented in table. The 138 references are given. (author)

  4. Accelerated electron exchange between U4+ and UO22+ by foreign metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obanawa, Heiichiro; Onitsuka, Hatsuki; Takeda, Kunihiko

    1990-01-01

    The rate constant of U 4+ -UO 2 2+ electron exchange (k et ) was increased by more than 100 times in the presence of various metal ions. The larger rate constant was observed for the smaller difference of the standard reduction potential strength between metal ion and UO 2 2+ ion (Δμ θ e ). Detailed investigation of the electron exchange reaction in the presence of Mo 5+ suggested that the mechanism of the electron transfer reaction catalyzed by metal ions is the outer-sphere type independent of U-Clcomplex ions. (author)

  5. New Proton-Ionizable, Calixarene-Based Ligands for Selective Metal Ion Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, Richard A.

    2012-06-04

    The project objective was the discovery of new ligands for performing metal ion separations. The research effort entailed the preparation of new metal ion complexing agents and polymers and their evaluation in metal ion separation processes of solvent extraction, synthetic liquid membrane transport, and sorption. Structural variations in acyclic, cyclic, and bicyclic organic ligands were used to probe their influence upon the efficiency and selectivity with which metal ion separations can be performed. A unifying feature of the ligand structures is the presence of one (or more) side arm with a pendent acidic function. When a metal ion is complexed within the central cavity of the ligand, ionization of the side arm(s) produces the requisite anion(s) for formation of an overall electroneutral complex. This markedly enhances extraction/transport efficiency for separations in which movement of aqueous phase anions of chloride, nitrate, or sulfate into an organic medium would be required. Through systematic structural variations, new ligands have been developed for efficient and selective separations of monovalent metal ions (e.g., alkali metal, silver, and thallium cations) and of divalent metal ion species (e.g., alkaline earth metal, lead, and mercury cations). Research results obtained in these fundamental investigations provide important insight for the design and development of ligands suitable for practical metal ion separation applications.

  6. Prostate cancer outcome and tissue levels of metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafanov, A.G.; Todorov, T.I.; Centeno, J.A.; MacIas, V.; Gao, W.; Liang, W.-M.; Beam, C.; Gray, Marion A.; Kajdacsy-Balla, A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUNDThere are several studies examining prostate cancer and exposure to cadmium, iron, selenium, and zinc. Less data are available on the possible influence of these metal ions on prostate cancer outcome. This study measured levels of these ions in prostatectomy samples in order to examine possible associations between metal concentrations and disease outcome.METHODSWe obtained formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks of prostatectomy samples of 40 patients with PSA recurrence, matched 1:1 (for year of surgery, race, age, Gleason grading, and pathology TNM classification) with tissue blocks from 40 patients without recurrence (n = 80). Case–control pairs were compared for the levels of metals in areas adjacent to tumors. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for quantification of Cd, Fe, Zn, and Se.RESULTSPatients with biochemical (PSA) recurrence of disease had 12% lower median iron (95 µg/g vs. 111 µg/g; P = 0.04) and 21% lower zinc (279 µg/g vs. 346 µg/g; P = 0.04) concentrations in the normal-appearing tissue immediately adjacent to cancer areas. Differences in cadmium (0.489 µg/g vs. 0.439 µg/g; 4% higher) and selenium (1.68 µg/g vs. 1.58 µg/g; 5% higher) levels were not statistically significant in recurrence cases, when compared to non-recurrences (P = 0.40 and 0.21, respectively).CONCLUSIONSThere is an association between low zinc and low iron prostate tissue levels and biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer. Whether these novel findings are a cause or effect of more aggressive tumors, or whether low zinc and iron prostatic levels raise implications for therapy, remains to be investigated. 

  7. Surface modification by metal ion implantation forming metallic nanoparticles in an insulating matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvadori, M.C.; Teixeira, F.S.; Sgubin, L.G.; Cattani, M.; Brown, I.G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Metal nanoparticles can be produced through metallic ion implantation in insulating substrate, where the implanted metal self-assembles into nanoparticles. • The nanoparticles nucleate near the maximum of the implantation depth profile, that can be estimated by computer simulation using the TRIDYN. • Nanocomposites, obtained by this way, can be produced in different insulator materials. More specifically we have studied Au/PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate), Pt/PMMA, Ti/alumina and Au/alumina systems. • The nanocomposites were characterized by measuring the resistivity of the composite layer as function of the dose implanted, reaching the percolation threshold. • Excellent agreement was found between the experimental results and the predictions of the theory. - Abstract: There is special interest in the incorporation of metallic nanoparticles in a surrounding dielectric matrix for obtaining composites with desirable characteristics such as for surface plasmon resonance, which can be used in photonics and sensing, and controlled surface electrical conductivity. We have investigated nanocomposites produced by metal ion implantation into insulating substrates, where the implanted metal self-assembles into nanoparticles. The nanoparticles nucleate near the maximum of the implantation depth profile (projected range), which can be estimated by computer simulation using the TRIDYN code. TRIDYN is a Monte Carlo simulation program based on the TRIM (Transport and Range of Ions in Matter) code that takes into account compositional changes in the substrate due to two factors: previously implanted dopant atoms, and sputtering of the substrate surface. Our study show that the nanoparticles form a bidimentional array buried a few nanometers below the substrate surface. We have studied Au/PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate), Pt/PMMA, Ti/alumina and Au/alumina systems. Transmission electron microscopy of the implanted samples show that metallic nanoparticles form in

  8. Study of highly charged ion production by electron cyclotron resonance ion source. Interactions of Argon 17+ ions with metallic surface at grazing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, G.

    1992-04-01

    In this thesis divided in 2 parts, the author first presents the operating of MiniMafios 16/18 GHz ECR ion sources and methods of extracted multicharged ion identification and then, studies the highly charged ion interactions with a metallic surface and the formation of 'hollow atoms'. 556 figs., 17 tabs

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOTYPE TITANATE ION EXCHANGE LOADED MEMBRANES FOR STRONTIUM, CESIUM AND ACTINIDE DECONTAMINATION FROM AQUEOUS MEDIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L; Keisha Martin, K; David Hobbs, D

    2008-05-30

    We have successfully incorporated high surface area particles of titanate ion exchange materials (monosodium titanate and crystalline silicotitanate) with acceptable particle size distribution into porous and inert support membrane fibrils consisting of polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon{reg_sign}), polyethylene and cellulose materials. The resulting membrane sheets, under laboratory conditions, were used to evaluate the removal of surrogate radioactive materials for cesium-137 and strontium-90 from high caustic nuclear waste simulants. These membrane supports met the nominal requirement for nonchemical interaction with the embedded ion exchange materials and were porous enough to allow sufficient liquid flow. Some of this 47-mm size stamped out prototype titanium impregnated ion exchange membrane discs was found to remove more than 96% of dissolved cesium-133 and strontium-88 from a caustic nuclear waste salt simulants. Since in traditional ion exchange based column technology monosodium titanate (MST) is known to have great affinity for the sorbing of other actinides like plutonium, neptunium and even uranium, we expect that the MST-based membranes developed here, although not directly evaluated for uptake of these three actinides because of costs associated with working with actinides which do not have 'true' experimental surrogates, would also show significant affinity for these actinides in aqueous media. It was also observed that crystalline silicotitanate impregnated polytetrafluoroethylene or polyethylene membranes became less selective and sorbed both cesium and strontium from the caustic aqueous salt simulants.

  10. Towards metals analysis using corona discharge ionization ion mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mohammad T; Saraji, Mohammad; Sherafatmand, Hossein

    2016-02-25

    For the first time, the capability of corona discharge ionization ion mobility spectrometry (CD-IMS) in the determination of metal complex was evaluated. The extreme simplicity of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled to the high sensitivity of CD-IMS measurement could make this combination really useful for simple, rapid, and sensitive determination of metals in different samples. In this regard, mercury, as a model metal, was complexed with diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDTC), and then extracted into the carbon tetrachloride using DLLME. Some parameters affecting the extraction efficiency, including the type and volume of the extraction solvent, the type and volume of the disperser solvent, the concentration of the chelating agent, salt addition and, pH were exhaustively investigated. Under the optimized condition, the enrichment factor was obtained to be 142. The linear range of 0.035-10.0 μg mL(-1) with r(2) = 0.997 and the detection limit of 0.010 μg mL(-1) were obtained. The relative standard deviation values were calculated to be lower than 4% and 8% for intra-day and inter-day, respectively. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied for the extraction and determination of mercury in various real samples. The satisfactory results revealed the capability of the proposed method in trace analysis without tedious derivatization or hydride generation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Heavy metal ion removal by adsorption on to biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson-Charrier, M.; Guibal, E.; Le Cloirec, P.; Surjous, R.

    1994-01-01

    The development of regulations constraints in the industrial waste-waters management leads to the study of new treatment processes, using raw or functionalized biological materials. These processes show competitive performances in metal ion sorption efficiency for the low metal content effluents. Uptake capacities of Uranium as high as 400 mg.g -1 chitosan, equivalent to the double of the uptake capacity of fungal origin biomass, can be reached. The application of these processes to real mine wastewaters gives efficiency coefficient upper to 90%, the residual concentrations are compatible to a direct injection into the environment. The grafting of functional groups onto the chitosan scales up the sorption performances to uptake capacity upper than 600 mg.g -1 polymer. pH, metal concentration are cited as major parameters, particle size influences both uptake kinetics and sorption equilibrium, in the case of the uranium accumulation by chitosan. The desorption of uranium from the sorbent allows the valorization of uranium and the re-use of the sorbent. (authors). 21 refs., 10 figs

  12. High intensity metallic ion beams from an ecr ion source at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leherissier, P.; Barue, C.; Canet, C.; Dupuis, M.; Flambard, J.L.; Gaubert, G.; Gibouin, S.; Huguet, Y.; Jardin, P.; Lecesne, N.; Lemagnen, F.; Leroy, R.; Pacquet, J.Y.; Pellemoine-Landre, F.; Rataud, J.P.; Jaffres, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    In the recent years, progress concerning the production of high intensity of metallic ions beams ( 58 Ni, 48 Ca, 76 Ge) at Ganil have been performed. The MIV0C method has been successfully used to produce a high intensity nickel beam with the ECR4 ion source: 20 eμA of 58 Ni 11+ at 24 kV extraction voltage. This beam has been maintained for 8 days and accelerated up to 74.5 MeV/u by our cyclotrons with a mean intensity of 0.13 pμA on target. This high intensity, required for experiment, led to the discovery of the doubly magic 48 Ni isotope. The oven method has been first tested with natural metallic calcium on the ECR4 ion source, then used to produce a high power beam (740 W on target i.e. 0.13 pμA accelerated up to 60 MeV/u) of 48 Ca still keeping a low consumption (0.09 mg/h). A germanium beam is now under development, using the oven method with germanium oxide. The ionization efficiencies have been measured and compared. (authors)

  13. Method for Cs-137 separation from the decontamination solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropov, I.G.; Efremenkov, V.M.; Toropova, V.V.; Satsukevich, V.M.; Davidov, Yu.P.

    1995-01-01

    In this work results of investigations are presented on separation of radiocaesium from the decontamination solutions containing reducing agents (thiocarbamide). The scientific basis for radiocaesium removal from the solution focuses on the state of the radionuclide and its sorption behavior in the solution with a complicated composition. Then using a combination of sorption and ultrafiltration methods it would be possible to concentrate the radionuclide in a small volume and to purify the main part of the solution. As a sorbent for radiocaesium removal from the solution, a ferrocyanide based sorbent is proposed. Use of this sorbent is justified since its high selectivity and effectiveness for radiocaesium sorption from the solutions of different composition is well known. When synthesis of the sorbent is performed directly in the treating solution, two components as a minimum should be added to it, namely K 4 Fe(CN) 6 and metal ions of Ni-II, Co-II, Cu-II, etc. The results are presented which show the possibility of radiocaesium separation from the decontamination solutions (containing 60--100 g/l of salts) using sorption and membrane separation methods without the use of metal salts. At the same time by using FE-2 in solution in the presence of cyanide ions and thiocarbamide, it is possible to avoid the addition of metal salts (Ni, Cu, etc.). Utilization of the proposed method for spent decontamination solution treatment allows a relatively easy way to reduce the concentration of radiocaesium in solution on 2--4 orders of magnitudes, and to exclude the utilization of relatively expensive metal salts

  14. Precipitation process for supernate decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.M.; Kilpatrick, L.L.

    1982-11-01

    A precipitation and adsorption process has been developed to remove cesium, strontium, and plutonium from water-soluble, high-level radioactive waste. An existing waste tank serves as the reaction vessel and the process begins with the addition of a solution of sodium tetraphenylborate and a slurry of sodium titanate to the contained waste salt solution. Sodium tetraphenylborate precipitates the cesium and sodium titanate adsorbs the strontium and plutonium. The precipitate/adsorbate is then separated from the decontaminated salt solution by crossflow filtration. This new process offers significant capital savings over an earlier ion exchange process for salt decontamination. Chemical and small-scale engineering studies with actual waste are reported. The effect of many variables on the decontamination factors and filter performance are defined

  15. Reactions of metal ions and their clusters in the gas phase using laser ionization: ion cyclotron resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiser, B.S.

    1981-04-01

    Two subjects are discussed in this report: advances in proposed studies on metal ion chemistry and expansion of laboratory facilities. The development of a combined pulsed laser source-ion cyclotron resonance spectrometer has proven to be a convenient and powerful method for generating metal ions and for studying their subsequent chemistry in the gas phase. The main emphasis of this research has been on the application of metal ions as a selective chemical ionization reagents and progress in this area are discussed. The goal is to identify trends in reactivity i.e. mechanisms useful in interpreting the chemical ionization spectra of unknown compounds and to test for the functional group selectivity of the various metal ions. The feasibility of these goals have been demonstrated in extensive studies on Cu + with esters and ketones, on Fe + with ethers, ketones, and hydrocarbons, and on Ti + with hydrocarbons. In addition, preliminary results on sulfur containing compounds and on a variety of other metallic ions have been obtained. Laboratory facilities were expanded from one ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) spectrometer to two, plus a third instrument the Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FTICR) spectrometer

  16. Decontamination efficiency of some polymer protective coverings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simova, G.; Shopov, N.

    1989-01-01

    Investigated are 4 water-soluble polymers: polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and latexes 2000, 2150 and 2155, as well as mixtures on their base with pulverized synthetic ion exchangers in relation 4:1. The radioactive contamination of metal samples has been made with water solutions of chlorides of 106 Ru, 144 Ce and 137 Cs with 2-hours exposition. The Relative Decontamination Efficiency (RDE) has been measured radiometrically. Elasticity and strippability has been given a qualitative appraisal. The most promissing proves to be the mixture on PVA-base, with excellent results for RDE-coefficient (51.8±4.6 for ruthenium, 32.8±4.6 for cerium and 2.6±0.6 for cesium), but with limited duration term (2 h)

  17. Metal is not inert: role of metal ions released by biocorrosion in aseptic loosening--current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadosch, Dieter; Chan, Erwin; Gautschi, Oliver P; Filgueira, Luis

    2009-12-15

    Metal implants are essential therapeutic tools for the treatment of bone fractures and joint replacements. The metals and metal alloys used in contemporary orthopedic and trauma surgery are well tolerated by the majority of patients. However, complications resulting from inflammatory and immune reactions to metal implants have been well documented. This review briefly discusses the different mechanisms of metal implant corrosion in the human body, which lead to the release of significant levels of metal ions into the peri-implant tissues and the systemic blood circulation. Additionally, this article reviews the effects of the released ions on bone metabolism and the immune system and discusses their involvement in the pathophysiological mechanisms of aseptic loosening and metal hypersensitivity in patients with metal implants.

  18. Radioactive decontamination through UV laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaporte, Ph.; Gastaud, M.; Sentis, M.; Uteza, O.; Marine, W.; Thouvenot, P.; Alcaraz, J.L.; Le Samedy, J.M.; Blin, D.

    2003-01-01

    A device allowing the radioactive decontamination of metal surfaces through the use of a pulsed UV laser has been designed and tested. This device is composed of a 1 kW excimer laser linked to a bundle of optic fibers and of a system to recover particles and can operate in active zones. Metal surfaces have the peculiarities to trap radio-elements in a superficial layer of oxide that can be eaten away by laser radiation. Different contaminated metals (stainless steels, INCONEL and aluminium) issued from the nuclear industry have been used for the testing. The most important contaminants were 60 Co, 137 Cs, 154-155 Eu and 125 Sb. The ratio of decontamination was generally of 10 and the volume of secondary wastes generating during the process was very low compared with other decontamination techniques. A decontamination speed of 1 m 2 /h has been reached for aluminium. The state of the surface is an important parameter because radio-elements trapped in micro-cracks are very difficult to remove. (A.C.)

  19. Some aspects of metallic ion chemistry and dynamics in the mesosphere and thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, J. D.

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between the formation of sporadic layers of metallic ion and the dumping of these ions into the upper mesosphere is discussed in terms of the tidal wind, classical (i.e., windshear) and other more complex, perhaps highly nonlinear layer formation mechanisms, and a possible circulation mechanism for these ions. Optical, incoherent scatter radar, rocket, and satellite derived evidence for various layer formation mechanisms and for the metallic ion circulation system is reviewed. The results of simple one dimensional numerical model calculations of sporadic E and intermediate layer formation are presented along with suggestions for more advanced models of intense or blanketing sporadic E. The flux of metallic ions dumped by the tidal wind system into the mesosphere is estimated and compared with estimates of total particle flux of meteoric origin. Possible effects of the metallic ion flux and of meteoric dust on D region ion chemistry are discussed.

  20. Salt decontamination demonstration test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, E.B.; Heng, C.J.

    1983-06-01

    The Salt Decontamination Demonstration confirmed that the precipitation process could be used for large-scale decontamination of radioactive waste sale solution. Although a number of refinements are necessary to safely process the long-term requirement of 5 million gallons of waste salt solution per year, there were no observations to suggest that any fundamentals of the process require re-evaluation. Major accomplishments were: (1) 518,000 gallons of decontaminated filtrate were produced from 427,000 gallons of waste salt solution from tank 24H. The demonstration goal was to produce a minimum of 200,000 gallons of decontaminated salt solution; (2) cesium activity in the filtrate was reduced by a factor of 43,000 below the cesium activity in the tank 24 solution. This decontamination factor (DF) exceeded the demonstration goal of a DF greater than 10,000; (3) average strontium-90 activity in the filtrate was reduced by a factor of 26 to less than 10 3 d/m/ml versus a goal of less than 10 4 d/m/ml; and (4) the concentrated precipitate was washed to a final sodium ion concentration of 0.15 M, well below the 0.225 M upper limit for DWPF feed. These accomplishments were achieved on schedule and without incident. Total radiation exposure to personnel was less than 350 mrem and resulted primarily from sampling precipitate slurry inside tank 48. 3 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  1. An Aqueous Metal-Ion Capacitor with Oxidized Carbon Nanotubes and Metallic Zinc Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Yuheng; Amal, Rose; Wang, Da-Wei, E-mail: da-wei.wang@unsw.edu.au [School of Chemical Engineering, The University of New South Wales (UNSW), Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2016-10-03

    An aqueous metal ion capacitor comprising of a zinc anode, oxidized carbon nanotubes (oCNTs) cathode, and a zinc sulfate electrolyte is reported. Since the shuttling cation is Zn{sup 2+}, this typical metal ion capacitor is named as zinc-ion capacitor (ZIC). The ZIC integrates the divalent zinc stripping/plating chemistry with the surface-enabled pseudocapacitive cation adsorption/desorption on oCNTs. The surface chemistry and crystallographic structure of oCNTs were extensively characterized by combining X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The function of the surface oxygen groups in surface cation storage was elucidated by a series of electrochemical measurement and the surface-enabled ZIC showed better performance than the ZIC with an un-oxidized CNT cathode. The reaction mechanism at the oCNT cathode involves the additional reversible Faradaic process, while the CNTs merely show electric double layer capacitive behavior involving a non-Faradaic process. The aqueous hybrid ZIC comprising the oCNT cathode exhibited a specific capacitance of 20 mF cm{sup −2} (corresponding to 53 F g{sup −1}) in the range of 0–1.8 V at 10 mV s{sup −1} and a stable cycling performance up to 5000 cycles.

  2. An Aqueous Metal-ion Capacitor with Oxidised Carbon Nanotubes and Metallic Zinc Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuheng Tian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An aqueous metal ion capacitor comprising of a zinc anode, an oxidized carbon nanotubes (oCNTs cathode and a zinc sulfate electrolyte is reported. Since the shuttling cation is Zn2+, this typical metal ion capacitor is named as zinc-ion capacitor (ZIC. The ZIC integrates the divalent zinc stripping/plating chemistry with the surface-enabled pseudocapacitive cation adsorption/desorption on oCNTs. The surface chemistry and crystallographic structure of oCNTs were extensively characterized by combining X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The function of the surface oxygen groups in surface cation storage was elucidated by a series of electrochemical measurement and the surface-enabled ZIC showed better performance than the ZIC with an un-oxidized CNT cathode. The reaction mechanism at the oCNT cathode involves the additional reversible Faradaic process, while the CNTs merely show electric double layer capacitive behavior involving a non-Faradaic process. The aqueous hybrid ZIC comprising the oCNT cathode exhibited a specific capacitance of 20 mF cm-2 (corresponding to 53 F g-1 in the range of 0-1.8 V at 10 mV s-1 and a stable cycling performance up to 5000 cycles.

  3. Ion-irradiation studies of cascade damage in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averback, R.S.

    1982-03-01

    Ion-irradiation studies of the fundamental aspects of cascade damage in metals are reviewed. The emphasis of these studies has been the determination of the primary state of damage (i.e. the arrangement of atoms in the cascade region prior to thermal migration of defects). Progress has been made towards understanding the damage function (i.e. the number of Frenkel pairs produced as a function of primary recoil atom energy), the spatial configuration of vacancies and interstitials in the cascade and the cascade-induced mixing of atoms. It is concluded for these studies that the agitation of the lattice in the vicinity of energetic displacement cascades stimulates the defect motion and that such thermal spike motion induces recombination and clustering of Frenkel defects. 9 figures

  4. Cleavage reactions of the complex ions derived from self-complementary deoxydinucleotides and alkali-metal ions using positive ion electrospray ionization with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yun; Abliz, Zeper; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2004-05-01

    The dissociation reactions of the adduct ions derived from the four self-complementary deoxydinucleotides, d(ApT), d(TpA), d(CpG), d(GpC), and alkali-metal ions were studied in detail by positive ion electrospray ionization multiple-stage mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)). For the [M + H](+) ions of the four deoxydinucleotides, elimination of 5'-terminus base or loss of both of 5'-terminus base and a deoxyribose were the major dissociation pathway. The ESI-MS(n) spectra showed that Li(+), Na(+), and Cs(+) bind to deoxydinucleotides mainly by substituting the H(+) of phosphate group, and these alkali-metal ions preferred to bind to pyrimidine bases rather than purine bases. For a given deoxydinucleotide, the dissociation pathway of [M + K](+) ions differed clearly from that of [M + Li](+), [M + Na](+), and [M + Cs](+) ions. Some interesting and characteristic cleavage reactions were observed in the product-ion spectra of [M + K](+) ions, including direct elimination of deoxyribose and HPO(3) from molecular ions. The fragmentation behavior of the [M + K](+) and [M + W](+) (W = Li, Na, Cs) adduct ions depend upon the sequence of bases, the interaction between alkali-metal ions and nucleobases, and the steric hindrance caused by bases.

  5. Preferential solvation, ion pairing, and dynamics of concentrated aqueous solutions of divalent metal nitrate salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sushma; Chandra, Amalendu

    2017-12-01

    We have investigated the characteristics of preferential solvation of ions, structure of solvation shells, ion pairing, and dynamics of aqueous solutions of divalent alkaline-earth metal nitrate salts at varying concentration by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Hydration shell structures and the extent of preferential solvation of the metal and nitrate ions in the solutions are investigated through calculations of radial distribution functions, tetrahedral ordering, and also spatial distribution functions. The Mg2+ ions are found to form solvent separated ion-pairs while the Ca2+ and Sr2+ ions form contact ion pairs with the nitrate ions. These findings are further corroborated by excess coordination numbers calculated through Kirkwood-Buff G factors for different ion-ion and ion-water pairs. The ion-pairing propensity is found to be in the order of Mg(NO3) 2 lead to the presence of substantial dynamical heterogeneity in these solutions of strongly interacting ions. The current study helps us to understand the molecular details of hydration structure, ion pairing, and dynamics of water in the solvation shells and also of ion diffusion in aqueous solutions of divalent metal nitrate salts.

  6. High energy metal ion implantation using 'Magis', a novel, broad-beam, Marx-generator-based ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, A.; Brown, I.G.; Dickinson, M.R.; MacGill, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    Ion energy of the beam formed by an ion source is proportional to extractor voltage and ion charge state. Increasing the voltage is difficult and costly for extraction voltage over 100 kV. Here we explore the possibility of increasing the charge states of metal ions to facilitate high-energy, broad beam ion implantation at a moderate voltage level. Strategies to enhance the ion charge state include operating in the regimes of high-current vacuum sparks and short pulses. Using a time-of-flight technique we have measured charge states as high as 7+ (73 kA vacuum spark discharge) and 4+ (14 kA short pulse arc discharge), both for copper, with the mean ion charge states about 6.0 and 2.5, respectively. Pulsed discharges can conveniently be driven by a modified Marx generator, allowing operation of ''Magis'' with a single power supply (at ground potential) for both plasma production and ion extraction

  7. Ion mobility studies of carbohydrates as group I adducts: isomer specific collisional cross section dependence on metal ion radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuting; Dodds, Eric D

    2013-10-15

    Carbohydrates play numerous critical roles in biological systems. Characterization of oligosaccharide structures is essential to a complete understanding of their functions in biological processes; nevertheless, their structural determination remains challenging in part due to isomerism. Ion mobility spectrometry provides the means to resolve gas phase ions on the basis of their shape-to-charge ratios, thus providing significant potential for separation and differentiation of carbohydrate isomers. Here, we report on the determination of collisional cross sections for four groups of isomeric carbohydrates (including five isomeric disaccharides, four isomeric trisaccharides, two isomeric pentasaccharides, and two isomeric hexasaccharides) as their group I metal ion adducts (i.e., [M + Li](+), [M + Na](+), [M + K](+), [M + Rb](+), and [M + Cs](+)). In all, 65 collisional cross sections were measured, the great majority of which have not been previously reported. As anticipated, the collisional cross sections of the carbohydrate metal ion adducts generally increase with increasing metal ion radius; however, the collisional cross sections were found to scale with the group I cation size in isomer specific manners. Such measurements are of substantial analytical value, as they illustrate how the selection of charge carrier influences carbohydrate ion mobility determinations. For example, certain pairs of isomeric carbohydrates assume unique collisional cross sections upon binding one metal ion, but not another. On the whole, these data suggest a role for the charge carrier as a probe of carbohydrate structure and thus have significant implications for the continued development and application of ion mobility spectrometry for the distinction and resolution of isomeric carbohydrates.

  8. Hierarchically Nanostructured Transition Metal Oxides for Lithium‐Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Mingbo; Tang, Hao; Li, Lulu; Hu, Qin; Zhang, Li; Xue, Huaiguo

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Lithium‐ion batteries (LIBs) have been widely used in the field of portable electric devices because of their high energy density and long cycling life. To further improve the performance of LIBs, it is of great importance to develop new electrode materials. Various transition metal oxides (TMOs) have been extensively investigated as electrode materials for LIBs. According to the reaction mechanism, there are mainly two kinds of TMOs, one is based on conversion reaction and the other is based on intercalation/deintercalation reaction. Recently, hierarchically nanostructured TMOs have become a hot research area in the field of LIBs. Hierarchical architecture can provide numerous accessible electroactive sites for redox reactions, shorten the diffusion distance of Li‐ion during the reaction, and accommodate volume expansion during cycling. With rapid research progress in this field, a timely account of this advanced technology is highly necessary. Here, the research progress on the synthesis methods, morphological characteristics, and electrochemical performances of hierarchically nanostructured TMOs for LIBs is summarized and discussed. Some relevant prospects are also proposed. PMID:29593962

  9. The ion-electron correlation function in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, S.; Tamaki, S.; Waseda, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The structure factors of liquid Zn at 723 K, Sn at 523 K and Bi at 573 K have been determined by neutron diffraction with sufficient accuracy and compared with those of X-ray diffraction. A remarkable difference in the structural information between the two methods is clearly found around the first peak region as well as in the slightly varied peak positions, and it is apparently larger than the experimental errors. With these facts in mind, a new method evaluating the ion-electron correlation function in liquid metals has been proposed by using the measured structural data of X-rays and neutrons, with the help of theoretical values of the electron-electron correlation function by he Utsumi-Ichimaru scheme. This method has been applied to liquid Zn, Sn and Bi, and the radial distribution function of valence electrons around an ion has been estimated, from which the ionic radius and the schematic diagram of the electron distribution map are obtained. The ionic radii evaluated in this work have been found to agree well with those proposed by Pauling. (author)

  10. Partitioning-separation of metal ions using heterocyclic ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, M.J.; Drew, M.G.B.; Iveson, P.B.; Russell, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    Some guidelines are proposed for the effective design of heterocyclic ligands for partitioning because there is no doubt that the correct design of a molecular extractant is required for the effective separation of metal ions such as actinides(III) from lanthanides(III). Heterocyclic ligands with aromatic ring systems have a rich chemistry, which is only now becoming sufficiently well understood in relation to the partitioning process. The synthesis, characterisation and structures of some chosen molecules will be introduced in order to illustrate some important features. For example, the molecule N-carboxy-butyl-2-amino-4,6-di (2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (BADPTZ), which is an effective solvent extraction reagent for actinides and lanthanides, has been synthesised, characterised and its interaction with lanthanide ions studied. The interesting and important features of this molecule will be compared with those of other heterocyclic molecules such as 2,6-bis(5-butyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-yl) pyridine (DBTZP), which is a candidate molecule for the commercial separation of actinides and lanthanide elements. (author)

  11. On the possibility of removing of transition metal ions from sewage using polymeric complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazhibaeva, S.M.; Abilov, Zh.A.; Musabekov, K.V.

    1997-01-01

    The possibility of using of complexation in the system polyethylene-imine transition metal ions (Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ , Co 2+ )-surface active substance for removing of metal ions from solution and sewage has been investigated. It is shown, that pH of medium, hydro-fugitive of system and ratio between component of the triply complex effect on purification of solution. (author)

  12. The use of natural and industrial aluminosilicates in the process of adsorption of heavy metals ions

    OpenAIRE

    Tsvetkova, A.; Akayev, O.

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of periodic scientific publications and patent literature was made, in which the possibilities of using natural and industrial silicon-containing compounds as adsorbents of ions of heavy metals are generalized. The conditions of adsorption, as well as the numerical values of the adsorption capacity of the studied materials are described Key words: adsorption, natural and industrial aluminosilicates, heavy metals ions.

  13. Effect of metal ions on the growth and metabolites production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of metal ions on the growth and metabolites production of Ganoderma lucidum in submerged culture. YH Cui, KC Zhang. Abstract. The effects of several metal ions on the cell growth, production of polysaccharides by Ganoderma lucidum in submerged fermentation were studied. The results showed that 50 ppm Se2+ ...

  14. The Evaluation of Crevice Corrosion of Inconel-600 and 304 Stainless Steel in Reductive Decontamination Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Junyoung; Park, Sangyoon; Won, Huijun; Choi, Wangkyu; Moon, Jeikwon; Park, Sojin

    2014-01-01

    In this sturdy, we investigated the characteristics of corrosion to Inconel-600 and type 304 stainless steel which are mainly used for the steam generator and primary system of PWR reactor respectively. We conducted the corrosion test for the HYBRID (HYdrazine Based metal Ion Reductive decontamination) which was developed in KAERI, Citrox and Oxalic acid solutions used in reductive decontamination of the inner surface of PWR. Since Citrox and oxalic acid solution were well-known conventional decontamination solutions, it is meaningful to compare the corrosion result of HYBRID with those solutions to confirm the corrosion compatibility. In order to obtain visible results in a limited time, we conducted the crevice corrosion tests under harsh condition. According to the results of crevice corrosion tests, we can conclude that metals such as type 304 stainless steel and Inconel-600 in HYBRID are very stable against crevice corrosion. On the other hand, those metals in Citrox and oxalic acid solutions were very susceptible to the crevice corrosion. Especially when using the oxalic acid solution, severe corrosion was observed not only Inconel-600 but also 304 stainless steel. The degree of corrosion can be expressed as; HYBRID << Citrox < OA. Conclusively, our results support that the HYBRID is more stable to the corrosion of structural materials in primary system than other Citrox and oxalic acid solutions. This finding will appoint the HYBRID solution as a candidate to solve the corrosion problem which is often issued by existing chemical decontamination processes

  15. Ion neutralization at metal surfaces by surface-plasmon excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almulhem, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Electron capture by ions scattered from metal surfaces is usually assumed to occur via resonance tunneling or Auger neutralization. A new mechanism is proposed, wherein a surface plasmon is excited during the electron capture. The Fock-Tani transformation is used to transform the Hamiltonian into a form which explicitly contains a term that corresponds to this process. Using this term, the matrix elements are calculated analytically and used to evaluate the transition rate as a function of distance from the surface. Since this is a rearrangement process, the matrix element contains an orthogonalization term. The theory is applied to the scattering of protons from an aluminum surface in which the proton captures an electron into the 1s state. From the results obtained for the transition rate and neutral fractions, it is concluded that this process is important, at least in the low energy region. When the calculations are done with the orthogonalization term in the matrix element neglected, the transition rate and neutral fraction increased appreciably. This shows the importance of this term, and implies that it cannot be neglected as was done in other theories of neutralization at metal surfaces

  16. Interaction of antihypertensive drug amiloride with metal ions in micellar medium using fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gujar, Varsha; Pundge, Vijaykumar; Ottoor, Divya

    2015-01-01

    Steady state and life time fluorescence spectroscopy have been employed to study the interaction of antihypertensive drug amiloride with biologically important metal ions i.e. Cu 2+ , Fe 2+ , Ni 2+ and Zn 2+ in various micellar media (anionic SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate), nonionic TX-100 (triton X-100) and cationic CTAB (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide)). It was observed that fluorescence properties of drug remain unaltered in the absence of micellar media with increasing concentration of metal ions. However, addition of Cu 2+ , Fe 2+ and Ni 2+ caused fluorescence quenching of amiloride in the presence of anionic micelle, SDS. Binding of drug with metal ions at the charged micellar interface could be the possible reason for this pH-dependent metal-mediated fluorescence quenching. There were no remarkable changes observed due to metal ions addition when drug was present in cationic and nonionic micellar medium. The binding constant and bimolecular quenching constant were evaluated and compared for the drug–metal complexes using Stern–Volmer equation and fluorescence lifetime values. - Highlights: • Interaction of amiloride with biologically important metal ions, Fe 2+ , Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ and Zn 2+ . • Monitoring the interaction in various micelle at different pH by fluorescence spectroscopy. • Micelles acts as receptor, amiloride as transducer and metal ions as analyte in the present system. • Interaction study provides pH dependent quenching and binding mechanism of drug with metal ions

  17. Decontamination Technology Development for Nuclear Research Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, W. K.; Jung, C. H.; Oh, W. Z.

    2007-06-01

    The originative CO 2 pellet blasting equipment was developed by improving additional components such as feed screw, idle roller and air-lock feeder to clear up the problems of freezing and discontinuity of blasting and by adopting pneumatically operated vacuum suction head and vacuum cup to prevent recontamination by collecting contaminant particulates simultaneously with the decontamination. The optimum decontamination process was established according to the kind of materials such as metal, concrete and plastic and the type of contaminants such as particulate, fixed chemical compound and oil. An excellent decontamination performances were verified by means of the lab-scale hot test with radioactive specimen and the technology demonstration in IMEF hot cell. The PFC dry decontamination equipment applicable to the surface contaminated with high radioactive particulate was developed. This equipment consists of the unit processes such as spray, collection, filtration and dry distillation designed originatively applicable to inside of dry hot cell. Through the demonstration of PFC spray decontamination process in IMEF hot cell, we secured on-site applicability and the decontamination efficiency more than 90 %. We investigated the characteristics of dismantled metal waste melting and the radionuclide(Co, Cs, U) distribution into ingot and slag by melting decontamination experiments using electric arc melter. We obtained the decontamination factors greater than 100 for Cs and of 10∼100 for uranium. The pilot scale(200 kg/batch) demonstration for melting decontamination was carried out successfully using high temperature melting facility at KAERI. The volume reduction factor of 1/7 and the economical feasibility of the melting decontamination were verified.

  18. Multiheteromacrocycles that Complex Metal Ions. Sixth Progress Report, 1 May 1979-30 April 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, D. J.

    1980-01-15

    Objective is to design synthesize, and evaluate cyclic and polycyclic host organic compounds for their abilities to complex and lipophilize guest metal ions, their complexes, and their clusters. Host organic compounds consist of strategically placed solvating, coordinating, and ion-pairing sites tied together by covalent bonds through hydrocarbon units around cavities shaped to be occupied by guest metal ions or by metal ions plus their ligands. Specificity in complexation is sought by matching the following properties of host and guest: cavity and metal ion sizes; geometric arrangements of binding sites; number of binding sites; character of binding sites; and valences. During this period, hemispherands based on an aryloxy or cyclic urea unit, spherands based on aryloxyl units only, and their complexes with alkali metals and alkaline earths were investigated. An attempt to separate {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li by gel permeation chromatography of lithiospherium chloride failed. (DLC)

  19. Selective transport of metal ions through cation exchange membrane in the presence of a complexing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingchia Huang; Jaukai Wang (National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China))

    1993-01-01

    Selective transport of metal ions through a cation exchange membrane was studied in stirred batch dialyzer for the systems Ni[sup 2+]-Cu[sup 2+] and Cu[sup 2+]-Fe[sup 3+]. Oxalic acid, malonic acid, citric acid, glycine, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid were employed as the complexing agents added in the feed solution in order to increase the permselectivity of metal ions. The experimental results show that the selective transport behavior of metal ions depends on the valence and the concentration of metal ions, the stoichiometric ratio of complexing agent to metal ions, and the pH value of the feed solution, but is independent of the concentration of counterion in the stripping phase. A theoretical approach was formulated on the basis of the Nernst-Planck equation and interface quasi-equilibrium. Theoretical solutions obtained from numerical calculation were in agreement with the experimental data.

  20. Metal ion transport quantified by ICP-MS in intact cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Julio A. Landero; Stiner, Cory A.; Radzyukevich, Tatiana L.; Heiny, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of ICP-MS to measure metal ion content in biological tissues offers a highly sensitive means to study metal-dependent physiological processes. Here we describe the application of ICP-MS to measure membrane transport of Rb and K ions by the Na,K-ATPase in mouse skeletal muscles and human red blood cells. The ICP-MS method provides greater precision and statistical power than possible with conventional tracer flux methods. The method is widely applicable to studies of other metal ion transporters and metal-dependent processes in a range of cell types and conditions. PMID:26838181

  1. Field-emission liquid-metal ion source and triode ion gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komuro, M.; Kawakatsu, H.

    1981-01-01

    A pointed-filament-type field-emission liquid-metal ion source is designed and employed as a gold ion source. By adding a crossbar across a hairpin bend, the amount of the gold adhering on the filament is increased. The lifetime is estimated to be over 200 h at 10-mA emission current. The emission current increases with increasing extraction voltage up to a saturation value which is ascribed to a limitation of the supply of liquid gold to the needle apex. The value of current density per unit solid angle is 30 mA/sr at a total current of 30 mA, which is of the same order as that obtained from a gallium ion source previously reported. Emission current fluctuations of a few tens of percent of the dc component are observed. In order to regulate the emission current and suppress current fluctuations, a bias electrode in addition to a counterelectrode is placed close to the needle apex. With such a triode structure, the emission current is regulated by a bias voltage of several hundred volts and stabilized to within 1% by means of feedback to the bias voltage of a current monitor output

  2. Linen Fire as Biosorbent to Remove Heavy Metal Ions From Wastewater Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Ildar G. Shaikhiev

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of using linen fires – lnopererabotk i waste as a sorption material for the extraction of heavy metal ions from wastewater modeling. It is shown that treatment with acid solutions linen fires a low concentration increases the surface area of linen fires and thus sorption capacity for heavy metal ions. The values of the maximum sorption capacity ions Fe (III), Co (II), Ni (II) and Zn (II) under static and dynamic conditions. IR spectroscopy...

  3. Divalent metal ion removal from aqueous solution by acid-treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ions determined from the Langmuir isotherm showed that C. indica had the largest sorption capacity for Pb2+ ions and the least sorption for Ni2+. The results also showed that garlic-treatment of C. indica biomass enhanced its sorption capacity for the divalent metal ions, with the enhancement factor varying from 1.22 to 1.44 ...

  4. Metal ion separations with proton-ionizable Lariat Ethers and their polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartsch, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    The preparation of novel and specific organic complexing agents may lead to the development of new separation systems for aqueous metal ions. Thus the introduction of highly lipophilic oximes led to the current utilization of these compounds as commercial extractants for the hydrometallurgy of nonferrous metals. Crown ethers (macrocyclic polyethers) have been employed in the laboratory-scale solvent extraction of alkali-metal, alkaline-earth, and other metal cations into organic phases. Attachment of side arms to crown ethers gives lariat ethers. The presence of one or more potential coordination sites in the side arm of the lariat ether may produce substantial changes in the selectivity and efficiency of metal ion complexation. It has been demonstrated that concomitant transfer of an aqueous phase anion into the organic medium is not required for metal ion extraction. This factor is of immense importance to potential practical applications of these proton-ionizable crown ethers in which the common, hard, aqueous phase anions would be involved. Another advantage of proton-ionizable lariat ethers is the ease with which extracted metal ions may be stripped from the organic phase by shaking with aqueous mineral acid. Thus both metal ion extraction and stripping are facilitated by pendent proton-ionizable groups. Most of the hazardous metal ion species in the Hanford Site tank wastes are members of the alkali-metal, alkaline-earth, lanthanide, and actinide families. These hard metal ion species prefer association with hard donor atoms, such as oxygens. Therefore, crown and lariat ethers are well-suited for complexation with such metal ion species

  5. Importance of diffuse metal ion binding to RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhi-Jie; Chen, Shi-Jie

    2011-01-01

    RNAs are highly charged polyanionic molecules. RNA structure and function are strongly correlated with the ionic condition of the solution. The primary focus of this article is on the role of diffusive ions in RNA folding. Due to the long-range nature of electrostatic interactions, the diffuse ions can contribute significantly to RNA structural stability and folding kinetics. We present an overview of the experimental findings as well as the theoretical developments on the diffuse ion effects in RNA folding. This review places heavy emphasis on the effect of magnesium ions. Magnesium ions play a highly efficient role in stabilizing RNA tertiary structures and promoting tertiary structural folding. The highly efficient role goes beyond the mean-field effect such as the ionic strength. In addition to the effects of specific ion binding and ion dehydration, ion-ion correlation for the diffuse ions can contribute to the efficient role of the multivalent ions such as the magnesium ions in RNA folding.

  6. The influence of heavy metals on the production of extracellular polymer substances in the processes of heavy metal ions elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikes, J; Siglova, M; Cejkova, A; Masak, J; Jirku, V

    2005-01-01

    Wastewaters from a chemical industry polluted by heavy metal ions represent a hazard for all living organisms. It can mean danger for ecosystems and human health. New methods are sought alternative to traditional chemical and physical processes. Active elimination process of heavy metals ions provided by living cells, their components and extracellular products represents a potential way of separating toxic heavy metals from industrial wastewaters. While the abilities of bacteria to remove metal ions in solution are extensively used, fungi have been recognized as a promising kind of low-cost adsorbents for removal of heavy-metal ions from aqueous waste sources. Yeasts and fungi differ from each other in their constitution and in their abilities to produce variety of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) with different mechanisms of metal interactions. The accumulation of Cd(2+), Cr(6+), Pb(2+), Ni(2+) and Zn(2+) by yeasts and their EPS was screened at twelve different yeast species in microcultivation system Bioscreen C and in the shaking Erlenmayer's flasks. This results were compared with the production of yeast EPS and the composition of yeast cell walls. The EPS production was measured during the yeast growth and cell wall composition was studied during the cultivations in the shaking flasks. At the end of the process extracellular polymers and their chemical composition were isolated and amount of bound heavy metals was characterized. The variable composition and the amount of the EPS were found at various yeast strains. It was influenced by various compositions of growth medium and also by various concentrations of heavy metals. It is evident, that the amount of bound heavy metals was different. The work reviews the possibilities of usage of various yeast EPS and components of cell walls in the elimination processes of heavy metal ions. Further the structure and properties of yeasts cell wall and EPS were discussed. The finding of mechanisms mentioned

  7. Decontamination of metals, pentachlorophenol, and polychlorined dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans polluted soil in alkaline conditions using an amphoteric biosurfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynier, Nicolas; Blais, Jean-François; Mercier, Guy; Besner, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, flotation in acidic conditions and alkaline leaching soil washing processes were compared to decontaminate four soils with variable contamination with metals, pentachlorophenol (PCP), and polychlorodibenzo dioxins and furans (PCDD/F). The measured concentrations of the four soils prior treatment were between 50 and 250 mg/kg for As, 35 and 220mg/kg for Cr, 80 and 350mg/kg for Cu, and 2.5 and 30mg/kg for PCP. PCDD/F concentrations reached 1394, 1375, 3730, and 6289ng/kg for F1, S1, S2, and S3 soils, respectively. The tests were carried out with masses of 100g of soil (fraction 0-2 mm) in a 2 L beaker or in a 1 L flotation cell. Soil flotation in sulphuric acid for 1 h at 60 degreeC with three flotation cycles using the surfactant cocamidopropyl betaine (BW) at 1% allows the solubilization of metals and PCP with average removal yields of 85%, 51%, 90%, and 62% for As, Cr, Cu, and PCP, respectively. The alkaline leaching for 2 h at 80 degreeC solubilizes As, Cr, Cu, and PCP with average removal yields of 60%, 32%, 77%, and 87%, respectively. Tests on PCDD/F solubilization with different surfactants were carried out in combination with the alkaline leaching process. PCDD/F removal yields of 25%, 72%, 70%, and 74% for F1, S1, S2, and S3 soils, respectively, were obtained using the optimized conditions.

  8. Chemical decontamination method for stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yomo, Nobuo; Onuma, Tsutomu; Akimoto, Hidetoshi.

    1991-01-01

    In a case where an object to be decontaminated has a restricted portion in which the passage of liquids is difficult, decontamination liquids are not circulated effectively upon decontamination for the inner surfaces, and it requires a quite long period of time. In view of the above, through holes are perforated by, for example, a drill in the restricted portion of metal wastes made of stainless steels. Then, they are immersed in a sulfuric acid solution, and further immersed in an aqueous solution in which oxidative metal salts are added to the sulfuric acid. With such procedures, substrates are exposed at the inner circumference of the holes even if they are fine holes, and a local cell is formed between the substrate and an oxidized membranes, which may cause dissolution due to the reduction of the oxidized membranes. Further, since it is possible to discharge bubbles formed upon the solution, even from such fine holes, decontamination can be conducted effectively. (T.M.)

  9. Interaction of Cr (III), Ni (II), Pb (II) with DTPA complexes of essential metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulzar, S.; Zahida; Maqsood, T.; Naqvi, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    With the increase of anthropogenic activities in the environment, heavy metal toxicity (Chromium, Nickel and Lead) is more common now. DTPA (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid) a polyamino carboxylic acid is widely used to form hydrophilic and stable complexes with most of the metal ions. In this spectrophotometric study, concentration of Cr(III), Ni(II) and Pb(II) (toxic metal ions) exchanged with Fe(III), Zn(II) and Ca(II) from their DTPA complexes were estimated at pH 4,7 and 9. Concentration of added metal was varied from 1-4 times to that of complexed metal. (author)

  10. The main mechanisms of flotation extraction of heavy metal ions out of water solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubareva, G.I.

    2002-01-01

    Flotation extraction of heavy metal ions out of water solutions using reagent EMKO (sodium soaps of vat residues of C grade) is presented. It is established that it is related to hydration energy and stability of sublates being formed. These two parameters affect contrariwise. A difference of molar ratios [EMKO]:[Me] in the course of extracting metals into froth can be explained by their different aggregative state, and a proportion of ionic form of metals and hydroxides being formed. Metal flotation rate is different for each of metal cations to be floated and is dependant on hydrogen ion concentrations [ru

  11. Simultaneous decontamination of cross-polluted soils with heavy metals and PCBs using a nano-metallic Ca/CaO dispersion mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Okuda, Tetsuji; Sakita, Shogo; Simion, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we investigated the use of nano-metallic calcium (Ca) and calcium oxide (CaO) dispersion mixture for the simultaneous remediation of contaminated soils with both heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, and Pb) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Regardless of soil moisture content, nano-metallic Ca/CaO dispersion mixture achieved about 95-99% of heavy metal immobilization by a simple grinding process. During the same treatment, reasonable PCB hydrodechlorination efficiencies were obtained (up to 97%), though higher hydrodechlorination efficiency by preliminary drying of soil was observed.

  12. Validation of ion chromatography for the determination of transition metal ions along with alkali, alkaline earth metal elements for uranium oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelkar, Anoop; Prakash, Amrit; Afzal, Mohd.; Panakkal, J.P.

    2009-02-01

    The present report describes the use of Ion chromatography (IC) methods with spectrophotometric and direct conductivity detection for the determination of transition metal elements and alkali alkaline earth metal ions in UO 2 pellets. Transmet analytical column and Metrosep- cation 1-2 column were used for the separation of transition metal elements and alkali and alkaline earth metal elements respectively. Oxalic acid and mixture of pyridine 2,6-dicarboxylic acid (PDCA), Na 2 SO 4 and NaCl were used as mobile phase for the separation of transition metal ions and monitored after post - column reaction with 4,2-pyridylazo resorcinol (PAR) at 520nm spectrophotometrically. In the determination of alkali and alkaline earth metal ions the interference of transition metals are removed by complexing them with PDCA. Mixture of tartaric acid and PDCA employed in the separation of alkali and alkaline earth metal ions and monitored on direct conductivity detector. Mobile phase composition was optimised for the base line separation. Calibration plots of Fe 3+ , Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ , Co 2+ , Cd 2+ , Mn 2+ , Li + , Na + , K + , Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ and Sr 2+ were linear over a wide dynamic range with regression coefficient better than 0.999. Detection limit of above ions were between 5-30ppb. To prevent the overloading of the cation exchange column, uranium matrix was removed from UO 2 sample by solvent extraction with 30% TBP - TOPO/CCl 4 . Ten sintered UO2 pellets of same lot were analysed and R.S.D. ±10% was obtained. These methods were validated by analysis of ILCE standards of UO 2 . (author)

  13. Synthesis, Characterizations, and Applications of Metal-Ions Incorporated High Quality MCM-41 Catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Steven S.; Haller, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Various metal ions (transition and base metals) incorporated MCM-41 catalysts can be synthesized using colloidal and soluble silica with non-sodium involved process. Transition metal ion-typically V 5+ , Co 2+ , and Ni 2+ -incorporated MCM-41 catalysts were synthesized by isomorphous substitution of Si ions in the framework. Each incorporated metal ion created a single species in the silica framework, single-site solid catalyst, showing a substantial stability in reduction and catalytic activity. Radius of pore curvature effect was investigated with Co-MCM-41 by temperature programmed reduction (TPR). The size of metallic Co clusters, sub-nanometer, could be controlled by a proper reduction treatment of Co-MCM-41 having different pore size and the initial pH adjustment of the Co-MCM-41 synthesis solution. These small metallic clusters showed a high stability under a harsh reaction condition without serious migration, resulting from a direct anchoring of small metallic clusters to the partially or unreduced metal ions on the surface. After a complete reduction, partial occlusion of the metallic cluster surface by amorphous silica stabilized the particles against aggregations. As a probe reaction of particle size sensitivity, carbon single wall nanotubes (SWNT) were synthesized using Co-MCM-41. A metallic cluster stability test was performed by CO methanation using Co- and Ni-MCM-41. Methanol and methane partial oxidations were carried out with V-MCM-41, and the radius of pore curvature effect on the catalytic activity was investigated

  14. Metal ion protection of DNA to fast neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Bugoi, R.; Radulescu, I.; Radu, L.

    1998-01-01

    The most important effects of the ionising radiation are the single and double strand breaks (SSB and DBS), modifications of the DNA bases and deoxyribose, as well as the occurrence of alkali and heat labile sites (revealed as strand breaks after alkaline or thermic treatment of irradiated DNA). The ionising particles can have either direct effects on the DNA constituents or indirect effects, mediated by the OH - radicals, produced by water radiolysis. The occurrence of SSB and DSB in the chromatin DNA strands is supposed to hinder the DNA-dye complex formation. Usually, the dyes present different fluorescence parameters in the two possible states, so one can correlate the lifetime or the quantum yield with the extent of the damage. We took into account the protective effect offered both by histones, which behave as 'scavenger molecules' for OH - radicals and by the high compactness of DNA chromatin. Similar protective effects might be the results of the metallic ion addition which triggers some conformational transitions of the chromatin DNA towards a highly compacted structure. In this paper we present a study of the complexes of fast neutron irradiated chromatin with proflavine. Fluorimetric and time resolved spectroscopic determinations (single photon counting method) of chromatin-Pr complexes were realised. Information regarding the chromatin protein damage were obtained by monitoring the fluorescence of Trp. The chromatin was irradiated (20-100 Gy) with fast neutrons, obtained by the reaction of 13.5 MeV deuterons on a thick beryllium target at the IFIN-HH U-120 Cyclotron. The dose mean lineal energy in water at the point of interest was 50 keV/m and the mean dose rate was 1.5 Gy/min. By fluorescence determinations, changes of the Pr intercalation parameters in fast neutron irradiated chromatin DNA have been observed. Fluorescence techniques provide valuable information on the binding equilibrium by considering the radiation deexcitation of the complex. The

  15. Method of melting and decontaminating radioactive contaminated aluminum material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, Tatsuhiko; Miura, Noboru; Kawasaki, Katsuo; Iba, Hajime.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the decontaminating efficiency upon melting decontamination of radioactive-contaminated aluminum materials. Method: This invention concerns an improvement for the method of melting decontamination by adding slug agent composed of organic compound to contaminated aluminum material and extracting the radioactive materials into the slug thereby decontaminating the aluminum material. Specifically metals effective for reducing the active amount of aluminum are added such that the content is greater than a predetermined value in the heat melting process. The metal comprises Mg, Cu or a mixture thereof and the content is more than 4 % including those previously contained in the aluminum material. (Ikeda, J.)

  16. Application of Sargassum biomass to remove heavy metal ions from synthetic multi-metal solutions and urban storm water runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Teo, Ting Ting; Balasubramanian, R; Joshi, Umid Man

    2009-05-30

    The ability of Sargassum sp. to biosorb four metal ions, namely lead, copper, zinc, and manganese from a synthetic multi-solute system and real storm water runoff has been investigated for the first time. Experiments on synthetic multi-solute systems revealed that Sargassum performed well in the biosorption of all four metal ions, with preference towards Pb, followed by Cu, Zn, and Mn. The solution pH strongly affected the metal biosorption, with pH 6 being identified as the optimal condition for achieving maximum biosorption. Experiments at different biosorbent dosages revealed that good biosorption capacity as well as high metal removal efficiency was observed at 3g/L. The biosorption kinetics was found to be fast with equilibrium being attained within 50 min. According to the Langmuir isotherm model, Sargassum exhibited maximum uptakes of 214, 67.5, 24.2 and 20.2mg/g for lead, copper, zinc, and manganese, respectively in single-solute systems. In multi-metal systems, strong competition between four metal ions in terms of occupancy binding sites was observed, and Sargassum showed preference in the order of Pb>Cu>Zn>Mn. The application of Sargassum to remove four heavy metal ions in real storm water runoff revealed that the biomass was capable of removing the heavy metal ions. However, the biosorption performance was slightly lower compared to that of synthetic metal solutions. Several factors were responsible for this difference, and the most important factor is the presence of other contaminants such as anions, organics, and other trace metals in the runoff.

  17. Adaptation of metal arc plasma source to plasma source ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim, M.M.; Fetherston, R.P.; Conrad, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    In Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) a target is immersed in a plasma and a train of high negative voltage pulses is applied to accelerate ions into the target and to modify the properties in the near surface region. In PSII, until now the authors have been using gaseous species to generate plasmas. However metal ion plasma may be used to modify the surface properties of material for industrial applications. Conventionally the ion implantation of metal ions is performed using beam line accelerators which have complex engineering and high cost. The employment of a metal arc source to PSII has tremendous potential due to its ability to process the conformal surfaces, simple engineering and cost effectiveness. They have installed metal arc source for generation of titanium plasma. Currently, they are investigating the properties of titanium plasma and material behavior of titanium implanted aluminum and 52100 steel. The recent results of this investigation are presented

  18. Multiheteromacrocycles that complex metal ions. Third progress report, 1 May 1976--30 April 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cram, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    The overall objective of this research is to design, synthesize and evaluate cyclic and polycyclic host organic compounds for their abilities to complex and lipophilize guest metal ions, their complexes and clusters. Host organic compounds consist of strategically placed solvating, coordinating and ion-pairing sites tied together by covalent bonds through hydrocarbon units around cavities shaped to be occupied by guest metal ions, or metal ions plus their ligands. Specificity in complexation is sought by matching the following properties of host and guest: cavity and metal ion sizes; geometric arrangements of binding sites; numbers of binding sites; characters of binding sites; and valences. The specific compounds synthesized and their complexing and lipophilizing properties are summarized

  19. Heavy-Ion-Induced Electronic Desorption of Gas from Metals

    CERN Document Server

    Molvik, A W; Mahner, E; Kireeff Covo, M; Bellachioma, M C; Bender, M; Bieniosek, F M; Hedlund, E; Krämer, A; Kwan, J; Malyshev, O B; Prost, L; Seidl, P A; Westenskow, G; Westerberg, L

    2007-01-01

    During heavy-ion operation in several particle accelerators worldwide, dynamic pressure rises of orders of magnitude were triggered by lost beam ions that bombarded the vacuum chamber walls. This ion-induced molecular desorption, observed at CERN, GSI, and BNL, can seriously limit the ion beam lifetime and intensity of the accelerator. From dedicated test stand experiments we have discovered that heavy-ion-induced gas desorption scales with the electronic energy loss (dEe/dx) of the ions slowing down in matter; but it varies only little with the ion impact angle, unlike electronic sputtering.

  20. Method of chemical decontamination of stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuma, Tsutomu; Akimoto, Hidetoshi.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention concerns a decontamination method of chemically decontaminating radioactive metal wastes of passivated stainless steels to a radioactivity level identical with usual wastes, in which the amount of oxidizable metal salts used is decreased. Metal wastes of stainless steels contaminated at their surface with radioactive materials are immersed in a sulfuric acid solution. In this case, a voltage is applied for a certain period of time so that the potential of the stainless steels comes to an active region. Then, oxidizable metal salt (tetravalent cerium) is added into the sulfuric acid solution. According to this method, since most of radioactive materials are removed in the immersing step to the sulfuric acid solution, the amount of the tetravalent cerium used is as less as 1/700 and the decontamination time is as short as 1/4 as compared with those in the conventional method. (K.M.)

  1. The difference between the metal ion extracted from the R.F. ion source by applying plasma chemistry reaction and by non-plasma range chemistry reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Gui Bin

    1987-01-01

    The paper introduced the difference between using plasma chemistry reaction draw metal ion and non-plasma range chemistry reaction in the R.F. ion source. By using of the plasma chemistry reaction draw metal ion higher percentage than non-plasma range chemistry reaction in the R.F. ion source. The authors plasma chemistry reaction to R.F. ion source and implanter successfully. The effect is very well, it has its own characteristic

  2. Development of a method employing chitosan to remove metallic ions from wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janegitz, Bruno Campos; Lourencao, Bruna Claudia; Lupetti, Karina Omuro; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2007-01-01

    In this work a method was developed for removing metallic ions from wastewaters by co-precipitation of Cu 2+ , Pb 2+ , Cd 2+ , Cr 3+ and Hg 2+ with chitosan and sodium hydroxide solution. Solutions of these metallic ions in the range from 0.55 to 2160 mg L -1 were added to chitosan dissolved in 0.05 mol L -1 HCl. For the co-precipitation of metal-chitosan-hydroxide a 0.17 mol L -1 NaOH solution was added until pH 8.5-9.5. A parallel study was carried out applying a 0.17 mol L -1 NaOH solution to precipitate those metallic ions. Also, a chitosan solid phase column was used for removing those metallic ions from wastewaters. (author)

  3. Effects of metal-ion replacement on pyrazinamidase activity: A quantum mechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadem-Maaref, Mahmoud; Mehrnejad, Faramarz; Phirouznia, Arash

    2017-05-01

    Pyrazinamidase (PZase), a metalloenzyme, is responsible for acidic modification of pyrazinamide (PZA), a drug used in tuberculosis treatment. The metal coordination site of the enzyme is able to coordinate various divalent metal cofactors. Previous experimental studies have demonstrated that metal ions, such as Co 2+ , Mn 2+ , and Zn 2+ , are able to reactivate metal-depleted PZase, while others including Cu 2+ , Fe 2+ , and Mg 2+ , cannot restore activity. In this study, we investigated binding of various metal ions to the metal coordination site (MCS) of the enzyme using quantum mechanical calculations. We calculated the metal-ligand (residue) binding energy and the atomic partial charges in the presence of various ions. The results indicated that the tendency of alkaline earth metals to bind to PZase MCS is very low and not suitable for enzyme structural and catalytic function. In contrast, Co 2+ and Ni 2+ ions have very high binding affinity and are favorable to the structural and functional properties of the enzyme. Furthermore, we observed that the rate at which Ni 2+ , Co 2+ and Fe 2+ ions in PZase MCS polarize the OH bond of coordinated water molecules is much higher than the polarization rate created by other ions. This finding suggests that the coordination of Ni 2+ , Co 2+ , or Fe 2+ to PZase facilitates the deprotonation of coordinated water molecules to generate a nucleophile that catalyzes the enzymatic reaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sensing of heavy metal ions by intrinsic TMV coat protein fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Serene S.; Green, Philippe; Blum, Amy Szuchmacher

    2018-04-01

    We propose the use of a cysteine mutant of TMV coat protein as a signal transducer for the selective sensing and quantification of the heavy metal ions, Cd2+, Pb2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ based on intrinsic tryptophan quenching. TMV coat protein is inexpensive, can be mass-produced since it is expressed and extracted from E-coli. It also displays several different functional groups, enabling a wide repertoire of bioconjugation chemistries; thus it can be easily integrated into functional devices. In addition, TMV-ion interactions have been widely reported and utilized for metallization to generate organic-inorganic hybrid composite novel materials. Building on these previous observations, we herein determine, for the first time, the TMV-ion binding constants assuming the static fluorescence quenching model. We also show that by comparing TMV-ion interactions between native and denatured coat protein, we can distinguish between chemically similar heavy metal ions such as cadmium and zinc ions.

  5. Formation of biaxial texture in metal films by selective ion beam etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, 106 Rhines Hall, P.O. Box 116400, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Norton, D.P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, 106 Rhines Hall, P.O. Box 116400, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)]. E-mail: dnort@mse.ufl.edu; Selvamanickam, Venkat [IGC-SuperPower, LLC, 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    The formation of in-plane texture via ion bombardment of uniaxially textured metal films was investigated. In particular, selective grain Ar ion beam etching of uniaxially textured (0 0 1) Ni was used to achieve in-plane aligned Ni grains. Unlike conventional ion beam assisted deposition, the ion beam irradiates the uniaxially textured film surface with no impinging deposition flux. The initial uniaxial texture is established via surface energy minimization with no ion irradiation. Within this sequential texturing method, in-plane grain alignment is driven by selective etching and grain overgrowth. Biaxial texture was achieved for ion beam irradiation at elevated temperature.

  6. Formation of biaxial texture in metal films by selective ion beam etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.J.; Norton, D.P.; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2006-01-01

    The formation of in-plane texture via ion bombardment of uniaxially textured metal films was investigated. In particular, selective grain Ar ion beam etching of uniaxially textured (0 0 1) Ni was used to achieve in-plane aligned Ni grains. Unlike conventional ion beam assisted deposition, the ion beam irradiates the uniaxially textured film surface with no impinging deposition flux. The initial uniaxial texture is established via surface energy minimization with no ion irradiation. Within this sequential texturing method, in-plane grain alignment is driven by selective etching and grain overgrowth. Biaxial texture was achieved for ion beam irradiation at elevated temperature

  7. Development of sensitive holographic devices for physiological metal ion detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabad-e.-Gul; Martin, Suzanne; Cassidy, John; Naydenova, Izabela

    2017-08-01

    The development of selective alkali metal ions sensors in particular is a subject of significant interest. In this respect, the level of blood electrolytes, particularly H+, Na+, K+ and Cl- , is widely used to monitor aberrant physiologies associated with pulmonary emphysema, acute and chronic renal failure, heart failure, diabetes. The sensors reported in this paper are created by holographic recording of surface relief structures in a self-processing photopolymer material. The structures are functionalized by ionophores dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DC) and tetraethyl 4-tert-butylcalix[4]arene (TBC) in plasticised polyvinyl chloride (PVC) matrix. Interrogation of these structures by light allows indirect measurements of chemical analytes' concentration in real time. We present results on the optimisation and testing of the holographic sensor. A self-processing acrylamide-based photopolymer was used to fabricate the required photonic structures. The performance of the sensors for detection of K+ and Na+ was investigated. It was observed that the functionalisation with DC provides a selective response of the devices to K+ over Na+ and TBC coated surface structures are selectively sensitive to Na+. The sensor responds to Na+ within the physiological ranges. Normal levels of Na+ and K+ in human serum lie within the ranges 135-148mM and 3.5-5.3 mM respectively.

  8. Stability of metal ions in aqueous environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rattonetti, A.

    1976-01-01

    The time lapse between the collection of aqueous environmental samples and the analysis affects the original ionic concentration. Studies have proven the nonionic species in a water sample have more of an effect on the veracity of an analysis than the ''container wall'' effect, and that adjustment to a pH of 2 at sample collection time is a ''Pyrrhic victory.'' Lead, for example, will commonly increase an order of magnitude when unfiltered samples are adjusted to a pH of 2 upon collection. This effect is greatest when elemental ions are present in the ng ml -1 range and lessens as the original ionic concentration increases. Data are presented that behooves filtration of stream water and rainwater samples prior to any acidification step. The need to acidify the resulting filtrate is also discussed. Lithium, sodium, potassium, cesium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, manganese, iron, copper, silver, zinc, cadmium, aluminum, indium, and lead are examined. The insoluble phase retained on the filter can be digested with acid and also analyzed. The separate analysis of the filtrate and filter will give a true representation of the occurrence of these metals in nature. Flame and flameless atomic aborption and emission are used to perform the trace analyses

  9. Organodioxygen complexes of some group 4B metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarafder, M.T.H.; Akhter Hossain; Gino Mariotto

    2003-09-01

    Organodioxygen complexes of some group 4B metal ions, viz., zirconium(IV), tin(IV) and lead(II) containing monodentate, bidentate and tridentate ligands were synthesized and characterized. The complexes have the compositions of [Zr(O)(O 2 )2C 5 H 5 N.H 2 O], [Zr(O)(O 2 - ) 2 .2OPPh 3 ], [Sn(O 2 )(C 9 H 6 NO) 2 ], [Sn(0 2 ) 2 .(CH 2 ) 2 (NH 2 ) 2 ], [Pb(O 2 - )(C 5 H 5 N) 2 NO 3 ], [Pb(O 2 )(C 8 H 6 NOH)], [Pb(O 2 - )(det)NO 3 ] and [PbO 2 - ) (C 5 H 4 NCOOH)NO 3 .H 2 O]. Because of apparent linearity of M- O 2 grouping, the V 1 (O-O) stretching modes were only Raman active, giving bands at 810- 841 cm 1 for the peroxo complexes (1, 3, ,4 and 6), while the bands in the superoxo complexes (2, 5, 7 and 8) appeared at 1020- 1100 cm -1 . The peroxo complex of Zr(IV) containing monodentate ligands were found to oxidize trans-stilbene to trans-stilbene oxide under stoichiometric conditions. The organoperoxo complexes of tin and lead were insensitive to oxidative processes. (author)

  10. Metal Ion Concentrations in Body Fluids after Implantation of Hip Replacements with Metal-on-Metal Bearing – Systematic Review of Clinical and Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Albrecht; Hannemann, Franziska; Lützner, Jörg; Seidler, Andreas; Drexler, Hans; Günther, Klaus-Peter; Schmitt, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The use of metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) increased in the last decades. A release of metal products (i.e. particles, ions, metallo-organic compounds) in these implants may cause local and/or systemic adverse reactions. Metal ion concentrations in body fluids are surrogate measures of metal exposure. Objective To systematically summarize and critically appraise published studies concerning metal ion concentrations after MoM THA. Methods Systematic review of clinical trials (RCTs) and epidemiological studies with assessment of metal ion levels (cobalt, chromium, titanium, nickel, molybdenum) in body fluids after implantation of metalliferous hip replacements. Systematic search in PubMed and Embase in January 2012 supplemented by hand search. Standardized abstraction of pre- and postoperative metal ion concentrations stratified by type of bearing (primary explanatory factor), patient characteristics as well as study quality characteristics (secondary explanatory factors). Results Overall, 104 studies (11 RCTs, 93 epidemiological studies) totaling 9.957 patients with measurement of metal ions in body fluids were identified and analyzed. Consistently, median metal ion concentrations were persistently elevated after implantation of MoM-bearings in all investigated mediums (whole blood, serum, plasma, erythrocytes, urine) irrespective of patient characteristics and study characteristics. In several studies very high serum cobalt concentrations above 50 µg/L were measured (detection limit typically 0.3 µg/L). Highest metal ion concentrations were observed after treatment with stemmed large-head MoM-implants and hip resurfacing arthroplasty. Discussion Due to the risk of local and systemic accumulation of metallic products after treatment with MoM-bearing, risk and benefits should be carefully balanced preoperatively. The authors support a proposed „time out“ for stemmed large-head MoM-THA and recommend a restricted indication for hip

  11. Metal ion concentrations in body fluids after implantation of hip replacements with metal-on-metal bearing--systematic review of clinical and epidemiological studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht Hartmann

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The use of metal-on-metal (MoM total hip arthroplasty (THA increased in the last decades. A release of metal products (i.e. particles, ions, metallo-organic compounds in these implants may cause local and/or systemic adverse reactions. Metal ion concentrations in body fluids are surrogate measures of metal exposure. OBJECTIVE: To systematically summarize and critically appraise published studies concerning metal ion concentrations after MoM THA. METHODS: Systematic review of clinical trials (RCTs and epidemiological studies with assessment of metal ion levels (cobalt, chromium, titanium, nickel, molybdenum in body fluids after implantation of metalliferous hip replacements. Systematic search in PubMed and Embase in January 2012 supplemented by hand search. Standardized abstraction of pre- and postoperative metal ion concentrations stratified by type of bearing (primary explanatory factor, patient characteristics as well as study quality characteristics (secondary explanatory factors. RESULTS: Overall, 104 studies (11 RCTs, 93 epidemiological studies totaling 9.957 patients with measurement of metal ions in body fluids were identified and analyzed. Consistently, median metal ion concentrations were persistently elevated after implantation of MoM-bearings in all investigated mediums (whole blood, serum, plasma, erythrocytes, urine irrespective of patient characteristics and study characteristics. In several studies very high serum cobalt concentrations above 50 µg/L were measured (detection limit typically 0.3 µg/L. Highest metal ion concentrations were observed after treatment with stemmed large-head MoM-implants and hip resurfacing arthroplasty. DISCUSSION: Due to the risk of local and systemic accumulation of metallic products after treatment with MoM-bearing, risk and benefits should be carefully balanced preoperatively. The authors support a proposed "time out" for stemmed large-head MoM-THA and recommend a restricted

  12. A review on various electrochemical techniques for heavy metal ions detection with different sensing platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansod, BabanKumar; Kumar, Tejinder; Thakur, Ritula; Rana, Shakshi; Singh, Inderbir

    2017-08-15

    Heavy metal ions are non-biodegradable and contaminate most of the natural resources occurring in the environment including water. Some of the heavy metals including Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Chromium (Cr) and Cadmium (Cd) are considered to be highly toxic and hazardous to human health even at trace levels. This leads to the requirement of fast, accurate and reliable techniques for the detection of heavy metal ions. This review presents various electrochemical detection techniques for heavy metal ions those are user friendly, low cost, provides on-site and real time monitoring as compared to other spectroscopic and optical techniques. The categorization of different electrochemical techniques is done on the basis of different types of detection signals generated due to presence of heavy metal ions in the solution matrix like current, potential, conductivity, electrochemical impedance, and electrochemiluminescence. Also, the recent trends in electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions with various types of sensing platforms including metals, metal films, metal oxides, nanomaterials, carbon nano tubes, polymers, microspheres and biomaterials have been evoked. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. MCTBI: a web server for predicting metal ion effects in RNA structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Zhen; Zhang, Jing-Xiang; Chen, Shi-Jie

    2017-08-01

    Metal ions play critical roles in RNA structure and function. However, web servers and software packages for predicting ion effects in RNA structures are notably scarce. Furthermore, the existing web servers and software packages mainly neglect ion correlation and fluctuation effects, which are potentially important for RNAs. We here report a new web server, the MCTBI server (http://rna.physics.missouri.edu/MCTBI), for the prediction of ion effects for RNA structures. This server is based on the recently developed MCTBI, a model that can account for ion correlation and fluctuation effects for nucleic acid structures and can provide improved predictions for the effects of metal ions, especially for multivalent ions such as Mg 2+ effects, as shown by extensive theory-experiment test results. The MCTBI web server predicts metal ion binding fractions, the most probable bound ion distribution, the electrostatic free energy of the system, and the free energy components. The results provide mechanistic insights into the role of metal ions in RNA structure formation and folding stability, which is important for understanding RNA functions and the rational design of RNA structures. © 2017 Sun et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  14. The deposition of thin metal films at the high-intensity pulsed-ion-beam influence on the metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remnev, G.E.; Zakoutaev, A.N.; Grushin, I.I.; Matvenko, V.M.; Potemkin, A.V.; Ryzhkov, V.A.; Chernikov, E.V.

    1996-01-01

    A high-intensity pulsed ion beam with parameters: ion energy 350-500 keV, ion current density at a target > 200 A/cm 2 , pulse duration 60 ns, was used for metal deposition. The film deposition rate was 0.6-4.0 mm/s. Transmission electron microscopy/transmission electron diffraction investigations of the copper target-film system were performed. The impurity content in the film was determined by x-ray fluorescence analysis and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The angular distributions of the ablated plasma were measured. (author). 2 figs., 7 refs

  15. The deposition of thin metal films at the high-intensity pulsed-ion-beam influence on the metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remnev, G E; Zakoutaev, A N; Grushin, I I; Matvenko, V M; Potemkin, A V; Ryzhkov, V A [Tomsk Polytechnic Univ. (Russian Federation). Nuclear Physics Inst.; Ivanov, Yu F [Construction Academy, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Chernikov, E V [Siberian Physical Technical Institute, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    A high-intensity pulsed ion beam with parameters: ion energy 350-500 keV, ion current density at a target > 200 A/cm{sup 2}, pulse duration 60 ns, was used for metal deposition. The film deposition rate was 0.6-4.0 mm/s. Transmission electron microscopy/transmission electron diffraction investigations of the copper target-film system were performed. The impurity content in the film was determined by x-ray fluorescence analysis and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The angular distributions of the ablated plasma were measured. (author). 2 figs., 7 refs.

  16. The effects of heavy metal ions on the chlorophyll content and cell membrane permeability of charophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Hualong; Chen Hao; Dong Bin; Qing Renwei

    2001-01-01

    The authors studied the effects of several heavy metal ions in different concentrations (Cd 2+ , Hg 2+ , Pb 2+ , Cr 6+ ) on the chlorophyll content and cell membrane permeability of Chara vulgaris L. It was discovered that the effects of heavy metal ions on the chlorophyll content and cell membrane permeability of Chara vulgaris L. changed with their different concentration. The trend was that the chlorophyll content and cell membrane permeability were decreased with the increase of the heavy metal ions. The degree of chlorophyll content affected was Cr 6+ , Cd 2+ , Hg 2+ , Pb 2+ , and that of cell membrane permeability affected was Cd 2+ , Cr 6+ , Hg 2+ , Pb 2+

  17. Ion exchange system design for removal of heavy metals from acid mine drainage wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Sapkal

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the methodology used to determine the optimal ion-exchange column size to process all separate batchesof feeds from acid mine drainage wastewater.The optimal design ensures the best utilization of resin material and therefore results in a minimum amount of spent resins.Ion exchanger materials have been studied for removing heavy metals from a metal bearing wastes. For the current treatment,a facility has been designed for the removal of heavy metals from the acid mine drainage (AMD waste by the ion-exchange technology.

  18. Nanodiamonds act as Trojan horse for intracellular delivery of metal ions to trigger cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Zhang, Yu; Shi, Guosheng; Yang, Jinrong; Zhang, Jichao; Li, Wenxin; Li, Aiguo; Tai, Renzhong; Fang, Haiping; Fan, Chunhai; Huang, Qing

    2015-02-05

    Nanomaterials hold great promise for applications in the delivery of various molecules with poor cell penetration, yet its potential for delivery of metal ions is rarely considered. Particularly, there is limited insight about the cytotoxicity triggered by nanoparticle-ion interactions. Oxidative stress is one of the major toxicological mechanisms for nanomaterials, and we propose that it may also contribute to nanoparticle-ion complexes induced cytotoxicity. To explore the potential of nanodiamonds (NDs) as vehicles for metal ion delivery, we used a broad range of experimental techniques that aimed at getting a comprehensive assessment of cell responses after exposure of NDs, metal ions, or ND-ion mixture: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Trypan blue exclusion text, optical microscope observation, synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and micro X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) microscopy, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation. In addition, theoretical calculation and molecular dynamics (MD) computation were used to illustrate the adsorption properties of different metal ion on NDs as well as release profile of ion from ND-ion complexes at different pH values. The adsorption capacity of NDs for different metal ions was different, and the adsorption for Cu2+ was the most strong among divalent metal ions. These different ND-ion complexes then had different cytotoxicity by influencing the subsequent cellular responses. Detailed investigation of ND-Cu2+ interaction showed that the amount of released Cu2+ from ND-Cu2+ complexes at acidic lysosomal conditions was much higher than that at neutral conditions, leading to the elevation of intracellular ROS level, which triggered cytotoxicity. By theoretical approaches, we demonstrated that the functional carbon surface and cluster structures of NDs made them

  19. Plastic flow produced by single ion impacts on metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birtcher, R. C.

    1998-01-01

    Single ion impacts have been observed using in situ transmission electron microscopy and video recording with a time resolution of 33 milliseconds. Gold was irradiated at 50 K and room temperature. Single ion impacts produce holes, modify existing holes, and extrude material into the initial specimen hole and holes formed by other ion impacts. The same behavior is observed at both temperatures. At both temperatures, ion impacts result in craters and ejected material. Ion impacts produce more small craters than large ones for all ion masses, while heavier mass ions produce more and larger craters than lighter mass ions. This comparison is affected by the ion energy. As the energy of an ion is increased, the probability for deposition near the surface decreases and fewer craters are formed. For a given ion mass, crater production depends on the probability for displacement cascade production in the near surface region. Crater and holes are stable at room temperature, however, ion impacts near an existing crater may cause flow of material into the crater either reshaping or annihilating it. Holes and craters result from the explosive outflow of material from the molten zone of near-surface cascades. The outflow may take the form of molten material, a solid lid or an ejected particle. The surface is a major perturbation on displacement cascades resulting from ion impacts

  20. Adsorption preference for divalent metal ions by Lactobacillus casei JCM1134.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Rin; Aoyagi, Hideki

    2018-05-09

    The removal of harmful metals from the intestinal environment can be inhibited by various ions which can interfere with the adsorption of target metal ions. Therefore, it is important to understand the ion selectivity and adsorption mechanism of the adsorbent. In this study, we estimated the adsorption properties of Lactobacillus casei JCM1134 by analyzing the correlation between its maximum adsorption level (q max ) for seven metals and their ion characteristics. Some metal ions showed altered adsorption levels by L. casei JCM1134 as culture growth time increased. Although it was impossible to identify specific adsorption components, adsorption of Sr and Ba may depend on capsular polysaccharide levels. The maximum adsorption of L. casei JCM1134 (9 h of growth in culture) for divalent metal ions was in the following order: Cu 2+  > Ba 2+  > Sr 2+  > Cd 2+  > Co 2+  > Mg 2+  > Ni 2+ . The q max showed a high positive correlation with the ionic radius. Because this tendency is similar to adsorption occurring through an ion exchange mechanism, it was inferred that an ion exchange mechanism contributed greatly to adsorption by L. casei JCM1134. Because the decrease in the amount of adsorption due to prolonged culture time was remarkable for metals with a large ion radius, it is likely that the adsorption components involved in the ion exchange mechanism decomposed over time. These results and analytical concept may be helpful for designing means to remove harmful metals from the intestinal tract.

  1. Cooperative adsorption of critical metal ions using archaeal poly-γ-glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakumai, Yuichi; Oike, Shota; Shibata, Yuka; Ashiuchi, Makoto

    2016-06-01

    Antimony, beryllium, chromium, cobalt (Co), gallium (Ga), germanium, indium (In), lithium, niobium, tantalum, the platinoids, the rare-earth elements (including dysprosium, Dy), and tungsten are generally regarded to be critical (rare) metals, and the ions of some of these metals are stabilized in acidic solutions. We examined the adsorption capacities of three water-soluble functional polymers, namely archaeal poly-γ-glutamate (L-PGA), polyacrylate (PAC), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), for six valuable metal ions (Co(2+), Ni(2+), Mn(2+), Ga(3+), In(3+), and Dy(3+)). All three polymers showed apparently little or no capacity for divalent cations, whereas L-PGA and PAC showed the potential to adsorb trivalent cations, implying the beneficial valence-dependent selectivity of anionic polyelectrolytes with multiple carboxylates for metal ions. PVA did not adsorb metal ions, indicating that the crucial role played by carboxyl groups in the adsorption of crucial metal ions cannot be replaced by hydroxyl groups under the conditions. In addition, equilibrium studies using the non-ideal competitive adsorption model indicated that the potential for L-PGA to be used for the removal (or collection) of water-soluble critical metal ions (e.g., Ga(3+), In(3+), and Dy(3+)) was far superior to that of any other industrially-versatile PAC materials.

  2. Ontario Hydro decontamination experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacy, C S; Patterson, R W; Upton, M S [Chemistry and Metallurgy Department, Central Production Services, Ontario Hydro, ON (Canada)

    1991-04-01

    Ontario Hydro currently operates 18 nuclear electric generating units of the CANDU design with a net capacity of 12,402 MW(e). An additional 1,762 MW(e) is under construction. The operation of these facilities has underlined the need to have decontamination capability both to reduce radiation fields, as well as to control and reduce contamination during component maintenance. This paper presents Ontario Hydro decontamination experience in two key areas - full heat transport decontamination to reduce system radiation fields, and component decontamination to reduce loose contamination particularly as practised in maintenance and decontamination centres. (author)

  3. Reactive decontamination formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giletto, Anthony [College Station, TX; White, William [College Station, TX; Cisar, Alan J [Cypress, TX; Hitchens, G Duncan [Bryan, TX; Fyffe, James [Bryan, TX

    2003-05-27

    The present invention provides a universal decontamination formulation and method for detoxifying chemical warfare agents (CWA's) and biological warfare agents (BWA's) without producing any toxic by-products, as well as, decontaminating surfaces that have come into contact with these agents. The formulation includes a sorbent material or gel, a peroxide source, a peroxide activator, and a compound containing a mixture of KHSO.sub.5, KHSO.sub.4 and K.sub.2 SO.sub.4. The formulation is self-decontaminating and once dried can easily be wiped from the surface being decontaminated. A method for decontaminating a surface exposed to chemical or biological agents is also disclosed.

  4. Ontario Hydro decontamination experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, C.S.; Patterson, R.W.; Upton, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Ontario Hydro currently operates 18 nuclear electric generating units of the CANDU design with a net capacity of 12,402 MW(e). An additional 1,762 MW(e) is under construction. The operation of these facilities has underlined the need to have decontamination capability both to reduce radiation fields, as well as to control and reduce contamination during component maintenance. This paper presents Ontario Hydro decontamination experience in two key areas - full heat transport decontamination to reduce system radiation fields, and component decontamination to reduce loose contamination particularly as practised in maintenance and decontamination centres. (author)

  5. Removal of metal ions using dead-end filtration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-07-03

    Jul 3, 2005 ... The zeta potential of lecithin was determined to be -79 mV whilst the critical micelle ... been widely used in the medical, cosmetic and food industry. ..... lead ion copper ion cadmium ion. Figure 10. Effect of mixtures of Pb and ...

  6. Liquid alkali metals and alkali-based alloys as electron-ion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, M.P.

    1981-06-01

    The article reviews the theory of thermodynamic and structural properties of liquid alkali metals and alkali-based alloys, within the framework of linear screening theory for the electron-ion interactions. (author)

  7. Photodetachment of negative ion in a gradient electric field near a metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tian-Qi; Wang De-Hua; Han Cai; Liu Jiang; Liang Dong-Qi; Xie Si-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Based on closed-orbit theory, the photodetachment of H − in a gradient electric field near a metal surface is studied. It is demonstrated that the gradient electric field has a significant influence on the photodetachment of negative ions near a metal surface. With the increase of the gradient of the electric field, the oscillation in the photodetachment cross section becomes strengthened. Besides, in contrast to the photodetachment of H − near a metal surface in a uniform electric field, the oscillating amplitude and the oscillating region in the cross section of a gradient electric field also become enlarged. Therefore, we can use the gradient electric field to control the photodetachment of negative ions near a metal surface. We hope that our results will be useful for understanding the photodetachment of negative ions in the vicinity of surfaces, cavities, and ion traps. (atomic and molecular physics)

  8. P and Si functionalized MXenes for metal-ion battery applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2017-01-01

    MXenes are a family of two-dimensional materials, composed of early transition metal carbides, nitrides, and carbonitrides, with great potential in energy storage systems, in particular in electrodes for Li, Na, K-ion batteries. However, so far

  9. A computational study of adsorption of divalent metal ions on graphene oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somphob Thompho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of divalent metal ions (Pb2+,Cd2+, Zn2+,Cu2+ on graphene oxide (GO was studied using density functional theory (DFT. Adsorption geometries and energies, as well as the nature of the binding energy, were calculated for the interaction of divalent metal ions with oxygen-containing groups on the surface of GO. The configurations of the complexes were modeled by placing the divalent metal ions above the center and perpendicular to the surface. Binding of Cu2+ to the GO sheet was predicted to be much stronger than that for other divalent metal ions. Calculated results show good agreement with experimental observations and provide useful information for environmental pollution cleanup.

  10. Factorial experimental design for recovering heavy metals from sludge with ion-exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, I.H.; Kuan, Y.-C.; Chern, J.-M.

    2006-01-01

    Wastewaters containing heavy metals are usually treated by chemical precipitation method in Taiwan. This method can remove heavy metals form wastewaters efficiently, but the resultant heavy metal sludge is classified as hazardous solid waste and becomes another environmental problem. If we can remove heavy metals from sludge, it becomes non-hazardous waste and the treatment cost can be greatly reduced. This study aims at using ion-exchange resin to remove heavy metals such as copper, zinc, cadmium, and chromium from sludge generated by a PCB manufacturing plant. Factorial experimental design methodology was used to study the heavy metal removal efficiency. The total metal concentrations in the sludge, resin, and solution phases were measured respectively after 30 min reaction with varying leaching agents (citric acid and nitric acid); ion-exchange resins (Amberlite IRC-718 and IR-120), and temperatures (50 and 70 deg. C). The experimental results and statistical analysis show that a stronger leaching acid and a higher temperature both favor lower heavy metal residues in the sludge. Two-factors and even three-factor interaction effects on the heavy metal sorption in the resin phase are not negligible. The ion-exchange resin plays an important role in the sludge extraction or metal recovery. Empirical regression models were also obtained and used to predict the heavy metal profiles with satisfactory results

  11. Adsorption of Cd(II) Metal Ion on Adsorbent beads from Biomass Saccharomycess cereviceae - Chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasri; Mudasir

    2018-01-01

    The adsorbent beads that was preparation from Saccharomycess cereviceae culture strain FN CC 3012 and shrimp shells waste and its application for adsorption of Cd (II) metal ion has been studied. The study start with combination of Saccharomycess cereviceae biomass to chitosan (Sc-Chi), contact time, pH of solution and initial concentration of cations. Total Cd(II) metal ion adsorbed was calculated from the difference of metal ion concentration before and after adsorption by AAS. The results showed that optimum condition for adsorption of Cd(II) ions by Sc-Chi beads was achieved with solution pH of 4, contact time of 60 minutes and initial concentration adsorption 100mg/L. The hydroxyl (-OH) and amino (-NH2) functional groups were believed to be responsible for the adsorption of Cd(II) ions.

  12. Separation and Extraction of Some Heavy and Toxic Metal Ions from Their Wastes by Ionic Membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed Hegazy, A.; Kamal, H.; Mahmoud, Gh. A.; Khalifa, N.A.

    1999-01-01

    Preparation and characterisation of a series of ion-exchange membranes for the purpose of separation and extraction of some heavy and toxic metal ions from their wastes have been studied. Such ion exchange membranes prepared by γ-radiation grafting of acrylonitrile (AN) and vinyl acetate (VAc) in a binary monomers mixture onto low density polyethylene (LDPE) using direct technique of grafting. The reaction conditions at which grafting process proceeds successfully have been determined. Many modification treatments have been attempted for the prepared membranes to improve their ion-exchange properties. The possibility of their practical use in waste water treatment from some heavy and toxic metal ions such as Pb 2+ , Cd 2+ ,Cu 2+ ,Fe 3+ ,Sr 2+ and Li + have been investigated. These grafted membranes showed great promise for its use in the field of extraction and removal of some heavy and toxic metals from their wastes

  13. Irradiation of tungsten with metallic diatomic molecular ions: atomic-resolution observations of depleted zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pramanik, D.; Seidman, D.N.

    1982-08-01

    Direct evidence, on an atomic scale, is presented for the enhancement of damage production per projectile ion in diatomic metallic molecular ion (dimer) irradiations of tungsten as compared to monatomic metallic ion (monomer) irradiations. Irradiations were performed in situ at less than or equal to 10 K, in a field-ion microscope, employing 20 keV Ag + or W + monomer ions and the results are compared with 40 keV W 2 + or Ag 2 + dimer ion bombardments; the average energy per ion was 20 keV. First, in the near-surface region the depleted zones produced by the W 2 + dimer ions give rise to void-like contrast effects. The W + monomer ions do not produce this void-like damage. The existence of voids was explained employing a nucleation and diffusion-limited growth model which suggests that the growth can occur on a time scale -9 s, if the effective diffusivity of an atom in the fully-developed collision cascade is > 3 x 10 -4 cm 2 s -1 . Second, by counting the number of vacancies in individual depleted zones, produced by the different ions, it was demonstrated that the number of vacancies produced per incoming ion of the dimer is 1.55 times greater than the number of vacancies produced per monomer ion

  14. Understanding interaction of curcumin and metal ions on electrode surfaces using EDXRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Daisy; Kumar, K. Krishna; Narayanan, S. Sriman

    2018-04-01

    A chemically modified electrode was developed for determination of metal ions (Cd, Pb, Zn, Co, Hg). The modifier used for the study was Curcumin. Curcumin acts as a complexing agent at the surface of the electrode for preconcentration of metal ions from electrolyte to electrode surface and stripped back to electrolyte during analysis. EDXRF was used to analyze these electrodes and it was concluded that the PCR modified electrode favored effective chelation for lead and mercury.

  15. Integrated Microanalytical System for Simultaneous Voltammetric Measurements of Free Metal Ion Concentrations in Natural Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Noël, Stéphane; Tercier-Waeber, Mary-Lou; Lin, Lin; Buffle, Jacques; Guenat, Olivier; Koudelka-Hep, Milena

    2007-01-01

    A complexing gel integrated microelectrode (CGIME) for direct measurements of free metal ion concentrations in natural waters has been developed. It is prepared by the successive deposition of microlayers of a chelating resin, an antifouling agarose gel and Hg on a 100-interconnected Ir-based microelectrode array. The trace metals of interest are in a first step accumulated on the chelating resin in proportion to their free ion concentration in solution, then released in acidic solution and d...

  16. Silica coated magnetite nanoparticles for removal of heavy metal ions from polluted waters

    CERN Document Server

    Dash, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic removal of Hg2+ and other heavy metal ions like Cd2+, Pb2+ etc. using silica coated magnetite particles from polluted waters is a current topic of active research to provide efficient water recycling and long term high quality water. The technique used to study the bonding characteristics of such kind of nanoparticles with the heavy metal ions is a very sensitive hyperfine specroscopy technique called the perturbed angular correlation technique (PAC).

  17. Characterization of copper thin films prepared by metal self-ion beam sputter deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotoh, Yasuhito; Amioka, Takao; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Junzo

    1994-01-01

    New deposition technique, 'metal-ion beam self-sputtering' method has been developed. Using metal ions which is the same element with the target material, no contamination with noble gas atoms, which are often used in the conventional sputtering, will occur. In this paper, fundamental measurement of the film purity is reported. As a result of PIXE measurements, it was clarified that only slight amount of iron is incorporated in the films. (author)

  18. Infrared Spectroscopy of Metal Ion Complexes: Models for Metal Ligand Interactions and Solvation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael

    2006-03-01

    Weakly bound complexes of the form M^+-Lx (M=Fe, Ni, Co, etc.; L=CO2, C2H2, H2O, benzene, N2) are prepared in supersonic molecular beams by laser vaporization in a pulsed-nozzle cluster source. These species are mass analyzed and size-selected in a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Clusters are photodissociated at infrared wavelengths with a Nd:YAG pumped infrared optical parametric oscillator/amplifier (OPO/OPA) laser or with a tunable infrared free-electron laser. M^+-(CO2)x complexes absorb near the free CO2 asymmetric stretch near 2349 cm-1 but with an interesting size dependent variation in the resonances. Small clusters have blue-shifted resonances, while larger complexes have additional bands due to surface CO2 molecules not attached to the metal. M^+(C2H2)n complexes absorb near the C-H stretches in acetylene, but resonances in metal complexes are red-shifted with repect to the isolated molecule. Ni^+ and Co^+ complexes with acetylene undergo intracluster cyclization reactions to form cyclobutadiene. Transition metal water complexes are studied in the O-H stretch region, and partial rotational structure can be measured. M^+(benzene) and M^+(benzene)2 ions (M=V, Ti, Al) represent half-sandwich and sandwich species, whose spectra are measured near the free benzene modes. These new IR spectra and their assignments will be discussed as well as other new IR spectra for similar complexes.

  19. Uptake of metal ions by a silica-based tetraphenylporphyrin sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyrzynska, K.; Sadowska, M.; Trojanowicz, M.

    1999-09-01

    The [5-p-carboxyphenyl-10,15,20-triphenyl]porphyrin (TPP) covalently attached to aminopropyl silica gel was examined with respect to the sorption of transition metal ions. The distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) are reported for some metal ions with this new sorbent as a function of pH. It was found that in optimum pH conditions the sorption of Cu(II) and Fe(III) is much faster than that of Co(II) and Cr(III). The binding of metal ions is strongly affected by the presence of various species accelerating the complex formation. The application of porphyrin ligands for preconcentration and metal-matrix separation was also examined using complex formation in solution coupled with an anion exchange resin and column chelation procedure, e.g. sorption of metal on an anion exchanger previously loaded with tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin.

  20. Sorption of toxic metal ions in aqueous environment using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carbodithioate and imidazole-1-carbodithioate were employed as sorbents for heavy metals from aqueous environments. The equilibrating time, initial metal concentrations and sorbent mass for optimal adsorption were 40 min, 5 mg/ℓ and 8 mg, ...

  1. Interaction of antihypertensive drug amiloride with metal ions in micellar medium using fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gujar, Varsha; Pundge, Vijaykumar; Ottoor, Divya, E-mail: divya@chem.unipune.ac.in

    2015-05-15

    Steady state and life time fluorescence spectroscopy have been employed to study the interaction of antihypertensive drug amiloride with biologically important metal ions i.e. Cu{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} in various micellar media (anionic SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate), nonionic TX-100 (triton X-100) and cationic CTAB (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide)). It was observed that fluorescence properties of drug remain unaltered in the absence of micellar media with increasing concentration of metal ions. However, addition of Cu{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} caused fluorescence quenching of amiloride in the presence of anionic micelle, SDS. Binding of drug with metal ions at the charged micellar interface could be the possible reason for this pH-dependent metal-mediated fluorescence quenching. There were no remarkable changes observed due to metal ions addition when drug was present in cationic and nonionic micellar medium. The binding constant and bimolecular quenching constant were evaluated and compared for the drug–metal complexes using Stern–Volmer equation and fluorescence lifetime values. - Highlights: • Interaction of amiloride with biologically important metal ions, Fe{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+}. • Monitoring the interaction in various micelle at different pH by fluorescence spectroscopy. • Micelles acts as receptor, amiloride as transducer and metal ions as analyte in the present system. • Interaction study provides pH dependent quenching and binding mechanism of drug with metal ions.

  2. Rod-shaped ion exchanger useful for purifying liquids or recovering components from liquids comprises a metal wire core surrounded by an ion-exchange resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, C.; Witkamp, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Rod-shaped ion exchanger comprises a metal wire core surrounded by an ion-exchange resin. Independent claims are also included for: (1) a module comprising a housing with an inlet and outlet and one or more ion exchangers as above; (2) a process for producing an ion exchanger as above, comprising

  3. Effects of metal ions on the catalytic degradation of dicofol by cellulase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Zihan; Yang, Ting; Zhang, Boya; Zhang, Jianbo

    2015-07-01

    A new technique whereby cellulase immobilized on aminated silica was applied to catalyze the degradation of dicofol, an organochlorine pesticide. In order to evaluate the performance of free and immobilized cellulase, experiments were carried out to measure the degradation efficiency. The Michaelis constant, Km, of the reaction catalyzed by immobilized cellulase was 9.16 mg/L, and the maximum reaction rate, Vmax, was 0.40 mg/L/min, while that of free cellulase was Km=8.18 mg/L, and Vmax=0.79 mg/L/min, respectively. The kinetic constants of catalytic degradation were calculated to estimate substrate affinity. Considering that metal ions may affect enzyme activity, the effects of different metal ions on the catalytic degradation efficiency were explored. The results showed that the substrate affinity decreased after immobilization. Monovalent metal ions had no effect on the reaction, while divalent metal ions had either positive or inhibitory effects, including activation by Mn2+, reversible competition with Cd2+, and irreversible inhibition by Pb2+. Ca2+ promoted the catalytic degradation of dicofol at low concentrations, but inhibited it at high concentrations. Compared with free cellulase, immobilized cellulase was affected less by metal ions. This work provided a basis for further studies on the co-occurrence of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and heavy metal ions in the environment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Biosorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution by red macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Wael M

    2011-09-15

    Biosorption is an effective process for the removal and recovery of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. The biomass of marine algae has been reported to have high biosorption capacities for a number of heavy metal ions. In this study, four species of red seaweeds Corallina mediterranea, Galaxaura oblongata, Jania rubens and Pterocladia capillacea were examined to remove Co(II), Cd(II), Cr(III) and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution. The experimental parameters that affect the biosorption process such as pH, contact time and biomass dosage were studied. The maximum biosorption capacity of metal ions was 105.2mg/g at biomass dosage 10 g/L, pH 5 and contact time 60 min. The biosorption efficiency of algal biomass for the removal of heavy metal ions from industrial wastewater was evaluated for two successive cycles. Galaxaura oblongata biomass was relatively more efficient to remove metal ions with mean biosorption efficiency of 84%. This study demonstrated that these seaweeds constitute a promising, efficient, cheap and biodegradable sorbent biomaterial for lowering the heavy metal pollution in the environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Improving Passivation Process of Si Nanocrystals Embedded in SiO2 Using Metal Ion Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhovani Bornacelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the photoluminescence (PL of Si nanocrystals (Si-NCs embedded in SiO2 obtained by ion implantation at MeV energy. The Si-NCs are formed at high depth (1-2 μm inside the SiO2 achieving a robust and better protected system. After metal ion implantation (Ag or Au, and a subsequent thermal annealing at 600°C under hydrogen-containing atmosphere, the PL signal exhibits a noticeable increase. The ion metal implantation was done at energies such that its distribution inside the silica does not overlap with the previously implanted Si ion . Under proper annealing Ag or Au nanoparticles (NPs could be nucleated, and the PL signal from Si-NCs could increase due to plasmonic interactions. However, the ion-metal-implantation-induced damage can enhance the amount of hydrogen, or nitrogen, that diffuses into the SiO2 matrix. As a result, the surface defects on Si-NCs can be better passivated, and consequently, the PL of the system is intensified. We have selected different atmospheres (air, H2/N2 and Ar to study the relevance of these annealing gases on the final PL from Si-NCs after metal ion implantation. Studies of PL and time-resolved PL indicate that passivation process of surface defects on Si-NCs is more effective when it is assisted by ion metal implantation.

  6. Polyrhodanine modified anodic aluminum oxide membrane for heavy metal ions removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jooyoung; Oh, Hyuntaek; Kong, Hyeyoung; Jang, Jyongsik

    2011-03-15

    Polyrhodanine was immobilized onto the inner surface of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane via vapor deposition polymerization method. The polyrhodanine modified membrane was applied to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous solution because polyrhodanine could be coordinated with specific metal ions. Several parameters such as initial metal concentration, contact time and metal species were evaluated systematically for uptake efficiencies of the fabricated membrane under continuous flow condition. Adsorption isotherms of Hg(II) ion on the AAO-polyrhodanine membrane were analyzed with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The adsorption rate of Hg(II) ion on the membrane was obeyed by a pseudo-second order equation, indicating the chemical adsorption. The maximum removal capacity of Hg(II) ion onto the fabricated membrane was measured to be 4.2 mmol/g polymer. The AAO-polyrhodanine membrane had also remarkable uptake performance toward Ag(I) and Pb(II) ions. Furthermore, the polyrhodanine modified membrane could be recycled after recovery process. These results demonstrated that the polyrhodanine modified AAO membrane provided potential applications for removing the hazardous heavy metal ions from wastewater. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Selective transport and incorporation of highly charged metal and metal complex ions in self-assembled polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toutianoush, Ali; Tieke, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    The transport of aqueous salts containing mono-, di- and trivalent metal and tetravalent metal complex ions across ultrathin polyvinylammonium/polyvinylsulphate (PVA/PVS) membranes is described. The membranes were prepared by electrostatic layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of the two polyelectrolytes. Using spectroscopic measurements and permeability studies, it is demonstrated that the transport of copper(II) chloride, lanthanum(III) chloride, barium chloride and potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) is accompanied by the permanent incorporation of the metal and metal complex ions in the membrane. Upon the uptake of copper, lanthanum and hexacyanoferrate ions, the membranes become cross-linked so that the permeation rates of other salts not taken up by the membrane, e.g. sodium chloride, potassium chloride and magnesium chloride, are decreased. The uptake of barium ions leads to a decrease of the cross-linking density of the membrane so that the permeation rate of NaCl is increased. Possible mechanisms for the ion uptake are discussed

  8. Heavy ion time-of-flight ERDA of high dose metal implanted germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dytlewski, N.; Evans, P.J.; Noorman, J.T. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Wielunski, L.S. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics; Bunder, J. [New South Wales Univ., Wollongong, NSW (Australia). Wollongong Univ. Coll

    1996-12-31

    With the thick Ge substrates used in ion implantation, RBS can have difficulty in resolving the mass-depth ambiguities when analysing materials composed of mixtures of elements with nearly equal masses. Additional, and complimentary techniques are thus required. This paper reports the use of heavy ion time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (ToF- ERDA), and conventional RBS in the analysis of Ge(100) implanted with high dose Ti and Cu ions from a MEWA ion source . Heavy ion ToF ERDA has been used to resolve, and profile the implanted transition metal species, and also to study any oxygen incorporation into the sample resulting from the implantation, or subsequential reactions with air or moisture. This work is part of a study on high dose metal ion implantation of medium atomic weight semiconductor materials. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Heavy ion time-of-flight ERDA of high dose metal implanted germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dytlewski, N; Evans, P J; Noorman, J T [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Wielunski, L S [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics; Bunder, J [New South Wales Univ., Wollongong, NSW (Australia). Wollongong Univ. Coll

    1997-12-31

    With the thick Ge substrates used in ion implantation, RBS can have difficulty in resolving the mass-depth ambiguities when analysing materials composed of mixtures of elements with nearly equal masses. Additional, and complimentary techniques are thus required. This paper reports the use of heavy ion time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (ToF- ERDA), and conventional RBS in the analysis of Ge(100) implanted with high dose Ti and Cu ions from a MEWA ion source . Heavy ion ToF ERDA has been used to resolve, and profile the implanted transition metal species, and also to study any oxygen incorporation into the sample resulting from the implantation, or subsequential reactions with air or moisture. This work is part of a study on high dose metal ion implantation of medium atomic weight semiconductor materials. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  10. The fabrication of metal silicide nanodot arrays using localized ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jin; Kim, Tae-Gon; Min, Byung-Kwon; Lee, Sang Jo

    2010-01-01

    We propose a process for fabricating nanodot arrays with a pitch size of less than 25 nm. The process consists of localized ion implantation in a metal thin film on a Si wafer using a focused ion beam (FIB), followed by chemical etching. This process utilizes the etching resistivity changes of the ion beam irradiated region that result from metal silicide formation by ion implantation. To control the nanodot diameter, a threshold ion dose model is proposed using the Gaussian distribution of the ion beam intensities. The process is verified by fabricating nanodots with various diameters. The mechanism of etching resistivity is investigated via x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES).

  11. Extraction of alginate biopolymer present in marine alga sargassum filipendula and bioadsorption of metallic ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirlei Jaiana Kleinübing

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the bioadsorption of Pb2+, Cu2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ ions by marine alga Sargassum filipendula and by the alginate biopolymer extracted from this alga. The objective is to evaluate the importance of this biopolymer in removing different metallic ions by the marine alga S. filipendula. In the equilibrium study, the same affinity order was observed for both bioadsorbents: Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Zn2+ > Cd2+. For Pb2+ and Cu2+ ions when the alginate is isolated and acting as bioadsorbents, adsorption capacities greater than those found for the alga were observed, indicating that it is the main component responsible for the removal of metallic ions. For Zn2+ and Cd2+ ions, greater bioadsorption capacities were observed for the alga, indicating that other functional groups of the alga, such as sulfates and amino, are also important in the bioadsorption of these ions.

  12. Effects of low-energy ion beam bombardment on metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, J.L.; Saied, S.O.; Choudhury, T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a study of Ar ion bombardment damage in metal oxides. In the energy range 1 to 5 keV, preferential oxygen removal and reduction of the oxides was found to depend on ion current density, but to be independent of beam energy. (author)

  13. On the single-ion Magnetic Anisotropy of the Rare-Earth Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmakova, N.P.; Tishin, A.M.; Bohr, Jakob

    1996-01-01

    The temperature dependences of the single-ion magnetic anisotropy constants for Tb and Dy metals are calculated in terms of the multipole moments of the rare-earth ions utilizing the available crystal-field parameters. The results are compared with the existing experimental data....

  14. A novel approach for predicting the uptake and toxicity of metallic and metalloid ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng

    2011-01-01

    Electrostatic nature of plant plasma membrane (PM) plays significant roles in the ion uptake and toxicity. Electrical potential at the PM exterior surface (ψ0o) influences ion distribution at the PM exterior surface, and the depolarization of ψ0o negativity increases the electrical driving force for cation transport, but decreases the driving force for anion transport across the PMs. Assessing environmental risks of toxic ions has been a difficult task because the ion concentration (activity) in medium is not directly corrected to its potential effects. Medium characteristics like the content of major cations have important influences on the bioavailability and toxicity of ions in natural waters and soils. Models such as the Free Ion Activity Model (FIAM) and the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM), as usually employed, neglect the ψ0o and hence often lead to false conclusions about interaction mechanisms between toxic ions and major cations for biology. The neglect of ψ0o is not inconsistent with its importance, and possibly reflects the difficulty in the measurement of ψ0o. Based on the dual effects of the ψ0o, electrostatic models were developed to better predict the uptake and toxicity of metallic and metalloid ions. These results suggest that the electrostatic models provides a more robust mechanistic framework to assess metal(loid) ecotoxicity and predict critical metal(loid) concentrations linked to a biological effect, indicating its potential utility in risk assessment of metal(loid)s in water and terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:21386661

  15. Some ENDOR studies of 3d transition metal ions in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelen, P.P.J.

    1980-01-01

    The author considers 3d transition metal ions substituted in covalent semiconducting crystals. The magnitude of the contact hyperfine field at the 59 Co nucleus in cobalt doped CdS is determined. The results of an ENDOR study of supertransferred hyperfine interactions with nearest neighbour Ga ions in Mn doped GaP are presented. (G.T.H.)

  16. Treatment of wastes arising from decontamination process using citric acid as a decontaminate agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mierzwa, J.C.; Riella, H.G.; Carvalho, E.U. de

    1993-01-01

    Wastes arising from equipment decontamination processes from nuclear fuel cycle facilities at Coordenacao de Projetos Especiais - Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Sao Paulo (COPESP-CNEN/SP) has been studied after using citric acid as a decontaminate agent. Precipitation of uranium and metallic impurities resulted from use of sodium hydroxide or calcium oxide plus a flocculation agent. The removal efficient of uranium was 95% and 99% for sodium hydroxide and calcium oxide respectively. The results shows that this process can be used to test wastes from decontamination processes which use citric acid. (B.C.A.). 03 refs, 08 figs, 04 tabs

  17. No Giant Two-Ion Anisotropy in the Heavy-Rare-Earth Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1976-01-01

    A new Bose-operator expansion of tensor operators is applied to the heavy-rare-earth metals. The Er data for the cone phase have been analyzed successfully with single-ion anisotropy and isotropic exchange interaction. The Tb data can be understood on the same basis. The previously found large two......-ion anisotropy was due to an inadequate treatment of the large single-ion anisotropy leading to an incorrect expression for the spin-wave energy....

  18. Effects of complexing compounds on sorption of metal ions to cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loevgren, Lars [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Inorganic chemistry

    2005-12-15

    This present report is a literature review addressing the effects of complexing ligands on the sorption of radionuclides to solid materials of importance for repositories of radioactive waste. Focus is put on laboratory studies of metal ion adsorption to cement in presence of chelating agents under strongly alkaline conditions. As background information, metal sorption to different mineral and cement phases in ligand free systems is described. Furthermore, surface complexation model (SCM) theories are introduced. According to surface complexation theories these interactions occur at specific binding sites at the particle/water interface. Adsorption of cationic metals is stronger at high pH, and the adsorption of anions occurs preferentially at low pH. The adsorption of ions to mineral surfaces is a result of both chemical bonding and electrostatic attraction between the ions and charged mineral surfaces. By combining uptake data with spectroscopic information the sorption can be explained on a molecular level by structurally sound surface complexation models. Most of the metal sorption studies reviewed are dealing with minerals exhibiting oxygen atoms at their surfaces, mainly oxides of Fe(II,III) and Al(III), and aluminosilicates. Investigations of radionuclides are focused on clay minerals, above all montmorillonite and illite. Which mechanism that is governing the metal ion adsorption to a given mineral is to a large extent depending on the metal adsorbed. For instance, sorption of Ni to montmorillonite can occur by formation of inner-sphere mononuclear surface complexes located at the edges of montmorillonite platelets and by formation of a Ni phyllosilicate phase parallel to montmorillonite layers. Also metal uptake to cement materials can occur by different mechanisms. Cationic metals can both be attached to cement (calcium silicate hydrate, CSH) and hardened cement paste (HCP) by formation of inner-sphere complexes at specific surface sites and by

  19. Lithium alloys and metal oxides as high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Chu; Gao, Mingxia; Pan, Hongge; Liu, Yongfeng; Yan, Mi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Progress in lithium alloys and metal oxides as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries is reviewed. •Electrochemical characteristics and lithium storage mechanisms of lithium alloys and metal oxides are summarized. •Strategies for improving electrochemical lithium storage properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides are discussed. •Challenges in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for lithium-ion batteries are pointed out. -- Abstract: Lithium alloys and metal oxides have been widely recognized as the next-generation anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and high power density. A variety of lithium alloys and metal oxides have been explored as alternatives to the commercial carbonaceous anodes. The electrochemical characteristics of silicon, tin, tin oxide, iron oxides, cobalt oxides, copper oxides, and so on are systematically summarized. In this review, it is not the scope to retrace the overall studies, but rather to highlight the electrochemical performances, the lithium storage mechanism and the strategies in improving the electrochemical properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides. The challenges and new directions in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries are also discussed

  20. Poultry litter-based activated carbon for removing heavy metal ions in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingxin; Qiu, Guannan; Song, Weiping

    2010-02-01

    Utilization of poultry litter as a precursor material to manufacture activated carbon for treating heavy metal-contaminated water is a value-added strategy for recycling the organic waste. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to investigate kinetics, isotherms, and capacity of poultry litter-based activated carbon for removing heavy metal ions in water. It was revealed that poultry litter-based activated carbon possessed significantly higher adsorption affinity and capacity for heavy metals than commercial activated carbons derived from bituminous coal and coconut shell. Adsorption of metal ions onto poultry litter-based carbon was rapid and followed Sigmoidal Chapman patterns as a function of contact time. Adsorption isotherms could be described by different models such as Langmuir and Freundlich equations, depending on the metal species and the coexistence of other metal ions. Potentially 404 mmol of Cu2+, 945 mmol of Pb2+, 236 mmol of Zn2+, and 250-300 mmol of Cd2+ would be adsorbed per kg of poultry litter-derived activated carbon. Releases of nutrients and metal ions from litter-derived carbon did not pose secondary water contamination risks. The study suggests that poultry litter can be utilized as a precursor material for economically manufacturing granular activated carbon that is to be used in wastewater treatment for removing heavy metals.