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Sample records for metal hydride batteries

  1. Air and metal hydride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, M.; Noponen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Applied Thermodynamics

    1998-12-31

    The main goal of the air and metal hydride battery project was to enhance the performance and manufacturing technology of both electrodes to such a degree that an air-metal hydride battery could become a commercially and technically competitive power source for electric vehicles. By the end of the project it was possible to demonstrate the very first prototype of the air-metal hydride battery at EV scale, achieving all the required design parameters. (orig.)

  2. Anodematerials for Metal Hydride Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the work on development of hydride forming alloys for use as electrode materials in metal hydride batteries. The work has primarily been concentrated on calcium based alloys derived from the compound CaNi5. This compound has a higher capacity compared with alloys used in today...... was developed. The parameters milling time, milling intensity, number of balls and form of the alloying metals were investigated. Based on this a final alloying technique for the subsequent preparation of electrode materials was established. The technique comprises milling for 4 hours twice possibly followed...... by annealing at 700°C for 12 hours. The alloys appeared to be nanocrystalline with an average crystallite size around 10 nm before annealing. Special steel containers was developed for the annealing of the metal powders in inert atmosphere. The use of various annealing temperatures was investigated...

  3. Metal Hydrides for Rechargeable Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valoeen, Lars Ole

    2000-03-01

    Rechargeable battery systems are paramount in the power supply of modern electronic and electromechanical equipment. For the time being, the most promising secondary battery systems for the future are the lithium-ion and the nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries. In this thesis, metal hydrides and their properties are described with the aim of characterizing and improving those. The thesis has a special focus on the AB{sub 5} type hydrogen storage alloys, where A is a rare earth metal like lanthanum, or more commonly misch metal, which is a mixture of rare earth metals, mainly lanthanum, cerium, neodymium and praseodymium. B is a transition metal, mainly nickel, commonly with additions of aluminium, cobalt, and manganese. The misch metal composition was found to be very important for the geometry of the unit cell in AB{sub 5} type alloys, and consequently the equilibrium pressure of hydrogen in these types of alloys. The A site substitution of lanthanum by misch metal did not decrease the surface catalytic properties of AB{sub 5} type alloys. B-site substitution of nickel with other transition elements, however, substantially reduced the catalytic activity of the alloy. If the internal pressure within the electrochemical test cell was increased using inert argon gas, a considerable increase in the high rate charge/discharge performance of LaNi{sub 5} was observed. An increased internal pressure would enable the utilisation of alloys with a high hydrogen equivalent pressure in batteries. Such alloys often have favourable kinetics and high hydrogen diffusion rates and thus have a potential for improving the high current discharge rates in metal hydride batteries. The kinetic properties of metal hydride electrodes were found to improve throughout their lifetime. The activation properties were found highly dependent on the charge/discharge current. Fewer charge/discharge cycles were needed to activate the electrodes if a small current was used instead of a higher

  4. Sealed metal-hydride batteries for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Dwaine; Wright, R. D.

    Nickel and silver-metal hydride batteries are being developed for aerospace applications by Eagle-Picher. Metal hydride batteries offer a number of advantages over other aerospace battery systems. Nickel-metal hydride batteries have twice the gravimetric energy density of nickel-cadmium batteries and twice the volumetric energy density of nickel-hydrogen batteries. Silver-metal hydride batteries have the potential of three times the energy density of nickel-metal hydride. Aerospace metal hydride batteries are hermetically sealed, operate at low pressure and are prismatic in geometry. They exhibit excellent overcharge and overdischarge capability. The objective of current programs at Eagle-Picher is to develop high energy density, long cycle life metal-hydride batteries for the aerospace market and to establish a testing database to support future applications.

  5. Research in Nickel/Metal Hydride Batteries 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwo-Hsiung Young

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Continuing from a special issue in Batteries in 2016, nineteen new papers focusing on recent research activities in the field of nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH batteries have been selected for the 2017 Special Issue of Ni/MH Batteries. These papers summarize the international joint-efforts in Ni/MH battery research from BASF, Wayne State University, Michigan State University, FDK Corp. (Japan, Institute for Energy Technology (Norway, Central South University (China, University of Science and Technology Beijing (China, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry (China, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology (China, Shenzhen Highpower (China, and University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa from 2016–2017 through reviews of AB2 metal hydride alloys, Chinese and EU Patent Applications, as well as descriptions of research results in metal hydride alloys, nickel hydroxide, electrolyte, and new cell type, comparison work, and projections of future works.

  6. Research in Nickel/Metal Hydride Batteries 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwo-Hsiung Young

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen papers focusing on recent research investigations in the field of nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH batteries have been selected for this Special Issue of Batteries. These papers summarize the joint efforts in Ni/MH battery research from BASF, Wayne State University, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Michigan State University, and FDK during 2015–2016 through reviews of basic operational concepts, previous academic publications, issued US Patent and filed Japan Patent Applications, descriptions of current research results in advanced components and cell constructions, and projections of future works.

  7. Mathematical modeling of the nickel/metal hydride battery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paxton, Blaine Kermit [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-09-01

    A group of compounds referred to as metal hydrides, when used as electrode materials, is a less toxic alternative to the cadmium hydroxide electrode found in nickel/cadmium secondary battery systems. For this and other reasons, the nickel/metal hydride battery system is becoming a popular rechargeable battery for electric vehicle and consumer electronics applications. A model of this battery system is presented. Specifically the metal hydride material, LaNi{sub 5}H{sub 6}, is chosen for investigation due to the wealth of information available in the literature on this compound. The model results are compared to experiments found in the literature. Fundamental analyses as well as engineering optimizations are performed from the results of the battery model. In order to examine diffusion limitations in the nickel oxide electrode, a ``pseudo 2-D model`` is developed. This model allows for the theoretical examination of the effects of a diffusion coefficient that is a function of the state of charge of the active material. It is found using present data from the literature that diffusion in the solid phase is usually not an important limitation in the nickel oxide electrode. This finding is contrary to the conclusions reached by other authors. Although diffusion in the nickel oxide active material is treated rigorously with the pseudo 2-D model, a general methodology is presented for determining the best constant diffusion coefficient to use in a standard one-dimensional battery model. The diffusion coefficients determined by this method are shown to be able to partially capture the behavior that results from a diffusion coefficient that varies with the state of charge of the active material.

  8. A study of advanced magnesium-based hydride and development of a metal hydride thermal battery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chengshang

    Metal hydrides are a group of important materials known as energy carriers for renewable energy and thermal energy storage. A concept of thermal battery based on advanced metal hydrides is studied for heating and cooling of cabins in electric vehicles. The system utilizes a pair of thermodynamically matched metal hydrides as energy storage media. The hot hydride that is identified and developed is catalyzed MgH2 due to its high energy density and enhanced kinetics. TiV0.62Mn1.5, TiMn2, and LaNi5 alloys are selected as the matching cold hydride. A systematic experimental survey is carried out in this study to compare a wide range of additives including transitions metals, transition metal oxides, hydrides, intermetallic compounds, and carbon materials, with respect to their effects on dehydrogenation properties of MgH2. The results show that additives such as Ti and V-based metals, hydride, and certain intermetallic compounds have strong catalytic effects. Solid solution alloys of magnesium are exploited as a way to destabilize magnesium hydride thermodynamically. Various elements are alloyed with magnesium to form solid solutions, including indium and aluminum. Thermodynamic properties of the reactions between the magnesium solid solution alloys and hydrogen are investigated, showing that all the solid solution alloys that are investigated in this work have higher equilibrium hydrogen pressures than that of pure magnesium. Cyclic stability of catalyzed MgH2 is characterized and analyzed using a PCT Sievert-type apparatus. Three systems, including MgH2-TiH 2, MgH2-TiMn2, and MgH2-VTiCr, are examined. The hydrogenating and dehydrogenating kinetics at 300°C are stable after 100 cycles. However, the low temperature (25°C to 150°C) hydrogenation kinetics suffer a severe degradation during hydrogen cycling. Further experiments confirm that the low temperature kinetic degradation can be mainly related the extended hydrogenation-dehydrogenation reactions. Proof

  9. Feasibility study for the recycling of nickel metal hydride electric vehicle batteries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabatini, J.C.; Field, E.L.; Wu, I.C.; Cox, M.R.; Barnett, B.M.; Coleman, J.T. [Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This feasibility study examined three possible recycling processes for two compositions (AB{sub 2} and AB{sub 5}) of nickel metal hydride electric vehicle batteries to determine possible rotes for recovering battery materials. Analysts examined the processes, estimated the costs for capital equipment and operation, and estimated the value of the reclaimed material. They examined the following three processes: (1) a chemical process that leached battery powders using hydrochloric acid, (2) a pyrometallurical process, and (3) a physical separation/chemical process. The economic analysis revealed that the physical separation/chemical process generated the most revenue.

  10. Design of Hydrogen Storage Alloys/Nanoporous Metals Hybrid Electrodes for Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M M; Yang, C C; Wang, C C; Wen, Z; Zhu, Y F; Zhao, M; Li, J C; Zheng, W T; Lian, J S; Jiang, Q

    2016-06-07

    Nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries have demonstrated key technology advantages for applications in new-energy vehicles, which play an important role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the world's dependence on fossil fuels. However, the poor high-rate dischargeability of the negative electrode materials-hydrogen storage alloys (HSAs) limits applications of Ni-MH batteries in high-power fields due to large polarization. Here we design a hybrid electrode by integrating HSAs with a current collector of three-dimensional bicontinuous nanoporous Ni. The electrode shows enhanced high-rate dischargeability with the capacity retention rate reaching 44.6% at a discharge current density of 3000 mA g(-1), which is 2.4 times that of bare HSAs (18.8%). Such a unique hybrid architecture not only enhances charge transfer between nanoporous Ni and HSAs, but also facilitates rapid diffusion of hydrogen atoms in HSAs. The developed HSAs/nanoporous metals hybrid structures exhibit great potential to be candidates as electrodes in high-performance Ni-MH batteries towards applications in new-energy vehicles.

  11. Reviews on the Japanese Patent Applications Regarding Nickel/Metal Hydride Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taihei Ouchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese Patent Applications filed on the topic of nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH batteries have been reviewed. Patent applications filed by the top nine battery manufacturers (Matsushita, Sanyo, Hitachi Maxell, Yuasa, Toshiba, FDK, Furukawa, Japan Storage, and Shin-kobe, five component suppliers (Tanaka, Mitsui, Santoku, Japan Metals & Chemicals Co. (JMC, and Shin-Etsu, and three research institutes (Industrial Research Institute (ISI, Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST, and Toyota R & D were chosen as the main subjects for this review, based on their production volume and contribution to the field. By reviewing these patent applications, we can have a clear picture of the technology development in the Japanese battery industry. These patent applications also provide insights, know-how, and future directions for engineers and scientists working in the rechargeable battery field.

  12. Metal hydrides: an innovative and challenging conversion reaction anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Aymard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The state of the art of conversion reactions of metal hydrides (MH with lithium is presented and discussed in this review with regard to the use of these hydrides as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. A focus on the gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities for different examples from binary, ternary and complex hydrides is presented, with a comparison between thermodynamic prediction and experimental results. MgH2 constitutes one of the most attractive metal hydrides with a reversible capacity of 1480 mA·h·g−1 at a suitable potential (0.5 V vs Li+/Li0 and the lowest electrode polarization (2, TiH2, complex hydrides Mg2MHx and other Mg-based hydrides. The reversible conversion reaction mechanism of MgH2, which is lithium-controlled, can be extended to others hydrides as: MHx + xLi+ + xe− in equilibrium with M + xLiH. Other reaction paths—involving solid solutions, metastable distorted phases, and phases with low hydrogen content—were recently reported for TiH2 and Mg2FeH6, Mg2CoH5 and Mg2NiH4. The importance of fundamental aspects to overcome technological difficulties is discussed with a focus on conversion reaction limitations in the case of MgH2. The influence of MgH2 particle size, mechanical grinding, hydrogen sorption cycles, grinding with carbon, reactive milling under hydrogen, and metal and catalyst addition to the MgH2/carbon composite on kinetics improvement and reversibility is presented. Drastic technological improvement in order to the enhance conversion process efficiencies is needed for practical applications. The main goals are minimizing the impact of electrode volume variation during lithium extraction and overcoming the poor electronic conductivity of LiH. To use polymer binders to improve the cycle life of the hydride-based electrode and to synthesize nanoscale composite hydride can be helpful to address these drawbacks. The development of high-capacity hydride anodes should be inspired by the emergent

  13. Metal hydrides: an innovative and challenging conversion reaction anode for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymard, Luc; Oumellal, Yassine; Bonnet, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The state of the art of conversion reactions of metal hydrides (MH) with lithium is presented and discussed in this review with regard to the use of these hydrides as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. A focus on the gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities for different examples from binary, ternary and complex hydrides is presented, with a comparison between thermodynamic prediction and experimental results. MgH2 constitutes one of the most attractive metal hydrides with a reversible capacity of 1480 mA·h·g(-1) at a suitable potential (0.5 V vs Li(+)/Li(0)) and the lowest electrode polarization (lithium are subsequently detailed for MgH2, TiH2, complex hydrides Mg2MH x and other Mg-based hydrides. The reversible conversion reaction mechanism of MgH2, which is lithium-controlled, can be extended to others hydrides as: MH x + xLi(+) + xe(-) in equilibrium with M + xLiH. Other reaction paths-involving solid solutions, metastable distorted phases, and phases with low hydrogen content-were recently reported for TiH2 and Mg2FeH6, Mg2CoH5 and Mg2NiH4. The importance of fundamental aspects to overcome technological difficulties is discussed with a focus on conversion reaction limitations in the case of MgH2. The influence of MgH2 particle size, mechanical grinding, hydrogen sorption cycles, grinding with carbon, reactive milling under hydrogen, and metal and catalyst addition to the MgH2/carbon composite on kinetics improvement and reversibility is presented. Drastic technological improvement in order to the enhance conversion process efficiencies is needed for practical applications. The main goals are minimizing the impact of electrode volume variation during lithium extraction and overcoming the poor electronic conductivity of LiH. To use polymer binders to improve the cycle life of the hydride-based electrode and to synthesize nanoscale composite hydride can be helpful to address these drawbacks. The development of high-capacity hydride anodes should

  14. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of nickel metal-hydride batteries for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbus, D.; Hammel, C.J.; Mark, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies important environment, health, and safety issues associated with nickel metal-hydride (Ni-MH) batteries and assesses the need for further testing and analysis. Among the issues discussed are cell and battery safety, workplace health and safety, shipping requirements, and in-vehicle safety. The manufacture and recycling of Ni-MH batteries are also examined. This report also overviews the ''FH ampersand S'' issues associated with other nickel-based electric vehicle batteries; it examines venting characteristics, toxicity of battery materials, and the status of spent batteries as a hazardous waste

  15. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of nickel metal-hydride batteries for electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D; Hammel, C J; Mark, J

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies important environment, health, and safety issues associated with nickel metal-hydride (Ni-MH) batteries and assesses the need for further testing and analysis. Among the issues discussed are cell and battery safety, workplace health and safety, shipping requirements, and in-vehicle safety. The manufacture and recycling of Ni-MH batteries are also examined. This report also overviews the ``FH&S`` issues associated with other nickel-based electric vehicle batteries; it examines venting characteristics, toxicity of battery materials, and the status of spent batteries as a hazardous waste.

  16. Development of high-capacity nickel-metal hydride batteries using superlattice hydrogen-absorbing alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuoka, Shigekazu; Magari, Yoshifumi; Murata, Tetsuyuki; Tanaka, Tadayoshi; Ishida, Jun; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Nohma, Toshiyuki; Kihara, Masaru; Baba, Yoshitaka; Teraoka, Hirohito

    2006-01-01

    New R-Mg-Ni (R: rare earths) superlattice alloys with higher-capacity and higher-durability than the conventional Mm-Ni alloys with CaCu 5 structure have been developed. The oxidation resistibility of the superlattice alloys has been improved by optimizing the alloy composition by such as substituting aluminum for nickel and optimizing the magnesium content in order to prolong the battery life. High-capacity nickel-metal hydride batteries for the retail market, the Ni-MH2500/900 series (AA size type 2500mAh, AAA size type 900mAh), have been developed and commercialized by using an improved superlattice alloy for negative electrode material. alized by using an improved superlattice alloy for negative electrode material. (author)

  17. Development of high-capacity nickel-metal hydride batteries using superlattice hydrogen-absorbing alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuoka, Shigekazu; Magari, Yoshifumi; Murata, Tetsuyuki; Tanaka, Tadayoshi; Ishida, Jun; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Nohma, Toshiyuki [Mobile Energy Company, Sanyo Electric Co. Ltd., 7-3-2, Ibukidai-higashimachi Nishi-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2242 (Japan); Kihara, Masaru; Baba, Yoshitaka; Teraoka, Hirohito [Sanyo Energy Twicell Co. Ltd., 307-2 Koyagimachi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-0071 (Japan)

    2006-06-01

    New R-Mg-Ni (R: rare earths) superlattice alloys with higher-capacity and higher-durability than the conventional Mm-Ni alloys with CaCu{sub 5} structure have been developed. The oxidation resistibility of the superlattice alloys has been improved by optimizing the alloy composition by such as substituting aluminum for nickel and optimizing the magnesium content in order to prolong the battery life. High-capacity nickel-metal hydride batteries for the retail market, the Ni-MH2500/900 series (AA size type 2500mAh, AAA size type 900mAh), have been developed and commercialized by using an improved superlattice alloy for negative electrode material. alized by using an improved superlattice alloy for negative electrode material. (author)

  18. Hydrogenation of the rare earth alloys for production negative electrodes of nickel-metal hydride batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casini, Julio Cesar Serafim

    2011-01-01

    In this work were studied of La 0.7-x Mg x Pr 0.3 Al 0.3 Mn 0.4 Co 0.5 Ni 3.8 (X = 0 and 0.7) alloys for negative electrodes of the nickel-metal hydride batteries. The hydrogenation of the alloys was performed varying pressing of H 2 (2 and 10 bar) and temperature (room and 500 ℃). The discharge capacity of the nic kel-metal hydride batteries were analyzed in ARBIN BT- 4 electrical test equipment. The as-cast alloys were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy disperse spectroscopy (EDX) and X-Ray diffraction. The increasing Mg addition in the alloy increases maximum discharge capacity but decrease cycle life of the batteries. The maximum discharge capacity was obtained with the Mg 0.7 Pr 0.3 Al 0.3 Mn 0.4 Co 0.5 Ni 3.8 alloy (60 mAh) and the battery which presented the best performance was La 0.4 Mg 0.3 Pr 0.3 Al 0.3 Mn 0.4 Co 0.5 Ni 3.8 alloy (53 mAh and 150 cycles). The H 2 capability of absorption was diminished for increased Mg addition and no such effect occurs for Mg 0.7 Pr 0.3 Al 0.3 Mn 0.4 Co 0.5 Ni 3.8 alloy. (author)

  19. Cobalt-free nickel–metal hydride battery for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasaki, Tomoaki; Nishimura, Kazuya; Saito, Makoto; Fukunaga, Hiroshi; Iwaki, Tsutomu; Sakai, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The development of RE 0.9 Mg 0.1 Ni 3.9 Al 0.2 alloy (alloy no. 1) electrode. ► Good high-rate discharge using alloy no. 1 as negative electrode. ► Effective self-discharge suppression using alloy no. 1 as negative electrode. ► Adequate cycling durability using carbon-coated Ni(OH) 2 as positive electrode. ► Good high-rate characteristics in a large-sized Co-free Ni–MH battery. -- Abstract: A cobalt-free (Co-free) RE 0.9 Mg 0.1 Ni 3.9 Al 0.2 alloy (RE: rare earth) was prepared for use in a nickel–metal hydride (Ni–MH) battery. The use of the alloy as the negative electrode of the Ni–MH battery effectively improved the high-rate discharge and suppressed the self-discharge compared to the conventional AB 5 -type alloy. Moreover, carbon-coated Ni(OH) 2 has been developed to produce a Co-free Ni–MH battery. This material exhibits a capacity retention comparable to that of the conventional CoOOH-coated Ni(OH) 2 . A 205 A h Co-free Ni–MH battery cell was constructed using the Co-free materials, and this cell exhibited a good high-rate discharge performance

  20. Hydrogen /Hydride/-air secondary battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarradin, J.; Bronoel, G.; Percheron-Guegan, A.; Achard, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    The use of metal hydrides as negative electrodes in a hydrogen-air secondary battery seems promising. However, in an unpressurized cell, more stable hydrides that LaNi5H6 must be selected. Partial substitutions of nickel by aluminium or manganese increase the stability of hydrides. Combined with an air reversible electrode, a specific energy close to 100 Wh/kg can be expected.

  1. Development of nickel/metal-hydride batteries for EVs and HEVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Akihiro; Fujioka, Noriyuki; Ikoma, Munehisa; Ohta, Akira

    This paper is to introduce the nickel/metal-hydride (Ni/MH) batteries for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) developed and mass-produced by our company. EV-95 for EVs enables a vehicle to drive approximately 200 km per charge. As the specific power is extremely high, more than 200 W/kg at 80% depth of discharge (DOD), the acceleration performance is equivalent to that of gasoline fuel automobiles. The life characteristic is also superior. This battery gives the satisfactory result of more than 1000 cycles in bench tests and approximately 4-year on-board driving. EV-28 developed for small EVs comprises of a compact and light battery module with high specific power of 300 W/kg at 80% DOD by introducing a new technology for internal cell connection. Meanwhile, our cylindrical battery for the HEV was adopted into the first generation Toyota Prius in 1997 which is the world's first mass-product HEV, and has a high specific power of 600 W/kg. Its life characteristic was found to be equivalent to more than 100,000 km driving. Furthermore, a new prismatic module in which six cells are connected internally was used for the second generation Prius in 2000. The prismatic battery comprises of a compact and light battery pack with a high specific power of 1000 W/kg, which is approximately 1.7 times that of conventional cylindrical batteries, as a consequence of the development of a new internal cell connection and a new current collection structure.

  2. Degradation mechanisms of high-energy bipolar nickel metal hydride battery with AB5 and A2B7 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X.; Young, K.; West, J.; Regalado, J.; Cherisol, K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Failure modes of NiMH battery with AB 5 and A 2 B 7 alloys were reported. •Stable gamma-NiOOH was formed with the incorporation of Al from negative electrode. •The formation of gamma-NiOOH caused capacity degradation in AB 5 -containing battery. •Pulverization of the main A 2 B 7 phase is the main failure mode for A 2 B 7 -containing battery. -- Abstract: The failure modes of nickel/metal hydride batteries made from conventional AB 5 and La-only Mg-containing A 2 B 7 metal hydride alloys were studied at the end of 70% state-of-charge cycle life testing (reaching below 3.1 Ah capacity in a 5.5 Ah design cell) by the combination of inductively coupled plasma, scanning electron microscope, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy and composition mapping, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The capacity degradation of cell with AB 5 alloy was found to have been caused by the combination of metal hydride alloy oxidation and non-reversible γ-NiOOH phase formation, which was promoted by the incorporation of Al leached out from the oxidation product of the Al-containing negative electrode. In the cell with Al-free A 2 B 7 alloy, the end of cycle life was the result of pulverization in the main A 2 B 7 phase

  3. In operando neutron diffraction study of LaNdMgNi9H13 as a metal hydride battery anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazer, N. S.; Denys, R. V.; Yartys, V. A.; Hu, Wei-Kang; Latroche, M.; Cuevas, F.; Hauback, B. C.; Henry, P. F.; Arnberg, L.

    2017-03-01

    La2MgNi9-related alloys are superior metal hydride battery anodes as compared to the commercial AB5 alloys. Nd-substituted La2-yNdyMgNi9 intermetallics are of particular interest because of increased diffusion rate of hydrogen and thus improved performance at high discharge currents. The present work presents in operando characterization of the LaNdMgNi9 intermetallic as anode for the nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery. We have studied the structural evolution of LaNdMgNi9 during its charge and discharge using in situ neutron powder diffraction. The work included experiments using deuterium gas and electrochemical charge-discharge measurements. The alloy exhibited a high electrochemical discharge capacity (373 mAh/g) which is 20% higher than the AB5 type alloys. A saturated β-deuteride synthesized by solid-gas reaction at PD2 = 1.6 MPa contained 12.9 deuterium atoms per formula unit (D/f.u.) which resulted in a volume expansion of 26.1%. During the electrochemical charging, the volume expansion (23.4%) and D-contents were found to be slightly reduced. The reversible electrochemical cycling is performed through the formation of a two-phase mixture of the α-solid solution and β-hydride phases. Nd substitution contributes to the high-rate dischargeability, while maintaining a good cyclic stability. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) was used to characterize the anode electrode on cycling. A mathematical model for the impedance response of a porous electrode was utilized. The EIS showed a decreased hydrogen transport rate during the long-term cycling, which indicated a corresponding slowing down of the electrochemical processes at the surface of the metal hydride anode.

  4. Performance and cycle life test results of a PEVE first-generation prismatic nickel/metal-hydride battery pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, B. G.; Duong, T. Q.; Bloom, I.

    A first-generation, prismatic, nickel/metal-hydride battery pack from Panasonic EV Energy Company Ltd. (PEVE) was characterized following the standard PNGV test procedures and then cycle life tested at 25 °C. The pack met, or exceeded, PNGV power and energy goals at the beginning of life. After more than 500,000 cycles, the data for capacity and discharge pulse power capability showed no measurable fade; similarly, discharge pulse resistance at 60% DOD also showed no measurable change. After the same pack was tested with two size factors, it still met or exceeded the PNGV goals.

  5. Alkali metal hydride formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of producing alkali metal hydrides by absorbing hydrogen gas under pressure into a mixture of lower alkyl mono amines and alkali metal alkyl amides selected from sodium and potassium amides formed from said amines. The present invention also includes purification of a mixture of the amines and amides which contain impurities, such as is used as a catalytic exchange liquid in the enrichment of deuterium, involving the formation of the alkali metal hydride

  6. A new battery capacity indicator for nickel-metal hydride battery powered electric vehicles using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    CERN Document Server

    Chau, K T; Chan, C C; Shen, W X

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to estimate accurately the battery residual capacity (BRC) of the nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery for modern electric vehicles (EVs). The key to this approach is to model the Ni-MH battery in EVs by using the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with newly defined inputs and output. The inputs are the temperature and the discharged capacity distribution describing the discharge current profile, while the output is the state of available capacity (SOAC) representing the BRC. The estimated SOAC from ANFIS model and the measured SOAC from experiments are compared, and the results confirm that the proposed approach can provide an accurate estimation of the SOAC under variable discharge currents.

  7. Life cycle environmental assessment of lithium-ion and nickel metal hydride batteries for plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeau-Bettez, Guillaume; Hawkins, Troy R; Strømman, Anders Hammer

    2011-05-15

    This study presents the life cycle assessment (LCA) of three batteries for plug-in hybrid and full performance battery electric vehicles. A transparent life cycle inventory (LCI) was compiled in a component-wise manner for nickel metal hydride (NiMH), nickel cobalt manganese lithium-ion (NCM), and iron phosphate lithium-ion (LFP) batteries. The battery systems were investigated with a functional unit based on energy storage, and environmental impacts were analyzed using midpoint indicators. On a per-storage basis, the NiMH technology was found to have the highest environmental impact, followed by NCM and then LFP, for all categories considered except ozone depletion potential. We found higher life cycle global warming emissions than have been previously reported. Detailed contribution and structural path analyses allowed for the identification of the different processes and value-chains most directly responsible for these emissions. This article contributes a public and detailed inventory, which can be easily be adapted to any powertrain, along with readily usable environmental performance assessments.

  8. Method for preparing porous metal hydride compacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, M.; Gruen, D.M.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Sheft, I.

    1980-01-21

    A method for preparing porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts which can be repeatedly hydrided and dehydrided without disintegration. A mixture of a finely divided metal hydride and a finely divided matrix metal is contacted with a poison which prevents the metal hydride from dehydriding at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The mixture of matrix metal and poisoned metal hydride is then compacted under pressure at room temperature to form porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts.

  9. Gas atomization processing of tin and silicon modified LaNi5 for nickel-metal hydride battery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, Jason [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-02-12

    Numerous researchers have studied the relevant material properties of so-called AB5 alloys for battery applications. These studies involved LaNi5 substituted alloys which were prepared using conventional cast and crush alloying techniques. While valuable to the understanding of metal hydride effects, the previous work nearly ignored the potential for alternative direct powder production methods, like high pressure gas atomization (HPGA). Thus, there is a need to understand the relationship between gas atomization processes, powder particle solidification phases, and hydrogen absorption properties of ultra fine (< 25 μm) atomized powders with high surface area for enhanced battery performance. Concurrently, development of a gas atomization nozzle that is more efficient than all current designs is needed to increase the yield of ultrafine AB5 alloy powder for further processing advantage. Gas atomization processing of the AB5 alloys was demonstrated to be effective in producing ultrafine spherical powders that were resilient to hydrogen cycling for the benefit of improving corrosion resistance in battery application. These ultrafine powders benefited from the rapid solidification process by having refined solute segregation in the microstructure of the gas atomized powders which enabled a rapid anneal treatment of the powders. The author has demonstrated the ability to produce high yields of ultrafine powder efficiently and cost effectively, using the new HPGA-III technology. Thus, the potential benefits of processing AB5 alloys using the new HPGA technology could reduce manufacturing cost of nickel-metal hydride powder. In the near future, the manufacture of AB5 alloy powders could become a continuous and rapid production process. The economic benefit of an improved AB5 production process may thereby encourage the use of nickel-metal hydride rechargeable batteries in electrical vehicle

  10. Complex metal hydrides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ley, Morten Brix

    2014-01-01

    og batterier de to mest lovende energibærere til mobile applikationer. Komplekse metalhydrider er blevet undersøgt i vid udstrækning over de sidste tyve år, siden de gravimetrisk og volumetrisk kan indeholde store mængder brint. Derfor er metal borhydrider velegnet til faststofopbevaring af brint...

  11. Metal Hydride Compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Bowman, Robert [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, Barton [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Anovitz, Lawrence [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jensen, Craig [Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers LLC, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Conventional hydrogen compressors often contribute over half of the cost of hydrogen stations, have poor reliability, and have insufficient flow rates for a mature FCEV market. Fatigue associated with their moving parts including cracking of diaphragms and failure of seal leads to failure in conventional compressors, which is exacerbated by the repeated starts and stops expected at fueling stations. Furthermore, the conventional lubrication of these compressors with oil is generally unacceptable at fueling stations due to potential fuel contamination. Metal hydride (MH) technology offers a very good alternative to both conventional (mechanical) and newly developed (electrochemical, ionic liquid pistons) methods of hydrogen compression. Advantages of MH compression include simplicity in design and operation, absence of moving parts, compactness, safety and reliability, and the possibility to utilize waste industrial heat to power the compressor. Beyond conventional H2 supplies of pipelines or tanker trucks, another attractive scenario is the on-site generating, pressuring and delivering pure H2 at pressure (≥ 875 bar) for refueling vehicles at electrolysis, wind, or solar generating production facilities in distributed locations that are too remote or widely distributed for cost effective bulk transport. MH hydrogen compression utilizes a reversible heat-driven interaction of a hydride-forming metal alloy with hydrogen gas to form the MH phase and is a promising process for hydrogen energy applications [1,2]. To deliver hydrogen continuously, each stage of the compressor must consist of multiple MH beds with synchronized hydrogenation & dehydrogenation cycles. Multistage pressurization allows achievement of greater compression ratios using reduced temperature swings compared to single stage compressors. The objectives of this project are to investigate and demonstrate on a laboratory scale a two-stage MH hydrogen (H2) gas compressor with a

  12. Complex Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen, Thermal and Electrochemical Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper T. Møller

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen has a very diverse chemistry and reacts with most other elements to form compounds, which have fascinating structures, compositions and properties. Complex metal hydrides are a rapidly expanding class of materials, approaching multi-functionality, in particular within the energy storage field. This review illustrates that complex metal hydrides may store hydrogen in the solid state, act as novel battery materials, both as electrolytes and electrode materials, or store solar heat in a more efficient manner as compared to traditional heat storage materials. Furthermore, it is highlighted how complex metal hydrides may act in an integrated setup with a fuel cell. This review focuses on the unique properties of light element complex metal hydrides mainly based on boron, nitrogen and aluminum, e.g., metal borohydrides and metal alanates. Our hope is that this review can provide new inspiration to solve the great challenge of our time: efficient conversion and large-scale storage of renewable energy.

  13. Pore-Confined Light Metal Hydrides for Energy Storage and Catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bramwell, P.L.

    2017-01-01

    Light metal hydrides have enjoyed several decades of attention in the field of hydrogen storage, but their applications have recently begun to diversify more and more into the broader field of energy storage. For example, light metal hydrides have shown great promise as battery materials, in sensors

  14. Complex metal hydrides for hydrogen, thermal and electrochemical energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kasper T.; Sheppard, Drew; Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B.

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen has a very diverse chemistry and reacts with most other elements to form compounds, which have fascinating structures, compositions and properties. Complex metal hydrides are a rapidly expanding class of materials, approaching multi-functionality, in particular within the energy storage...... field. This review illustrates that complex metal hydrides may store hydrogen in the solid state, act as novel battery materials, both as electrolytes and electrode materials, or store solar heat in a more efficient manner as compared to traditional heat storage materials. Furthermore, it is highlighted...... inspiration to solve the great challenge of our time: efficient conversion and large-scale storage of renewable energy....

  15. Complex Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen, Thermal and Electrochemical Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Kasper T.; Sheppard, Drew; Ravnsbaek, Dorthe B.

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen has a very diverse chemistry and reacts with most other elements to form compounds, which have fascinating structures, compositions and properties. Complex metal hydrides are a rapidly expanding class of materials, approaching multi-functionality, in particular within the energy storage...... field. This review illustrates that complex metal hydrides may store hydrogen in the solid state, act as novel battery materials, both as electrolytes and electrode materials, or store solar heat in a more efficient manner as compared to traditional heat storage materials. Furthermore, it is highlighted...... inspiration to solve the great challenge of our time: efficient conversion and large-scale storage of renewable energy....

  16. Method of making alkali metal hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Gupta, Shalabh; Pruski, Marek; Hlova, Ihor; Castle, Andra

    2017-05-30

    A method is provided for making alkali metal hydrides by mechanochemically reacting alkali metal and hydrogen gas under mild temperature (e.g room temperature) and hydrogen pressure conditions without the need for catalyst, solvent, and intentional heating or cooling.

  17. Disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobile, A.; Motyka, T.

    1991-01-01

    A plan has been established for disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides used in Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium production or Materials Test Facility (MTF) R ampersand D operations. The recommended plan assumes that the first tritium-exposed metal hydrides will be disposed of after startup of the Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF) Expansion Project in 1992, and thus the plan is consistent with the new disposal requiremkents that will be in effect for the SWDF Expansion Project. Process beds containing tritium-exposed metal hydride powder will be disposed of without removal of the powder from the bed; however, disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydride powder that has been removed from its process vessel is also addressed

  18. Complex hydrides as room-temperature solid electrolytes for rechargeable batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongh, P. E. de; Blanchard, D.; Matsuo, M.

    2016-01-01

    with Li-metal anodes, prevent Li dendrite formation, and eliminate risks associated with flammable organic solvents. Less than 10 years ago, LiBH4 was proposed as a solid-state electrolyte. It showed a high ionic conductivity, but only at elevated temperatures. Since then a range of other complex metal......A central goal in current battery research is to increase the safety and energy density of Li-ion batteries. Electrolytes nowadays typically consist of lithium salts dissolved in organic solvents. Solid electrolytes could facilitate safer batteries with higher capacities, as they are compatible...... hydrides has been reported to show similar characteristics. Strategies have been developed to extend the high ionic conductivity of LiBH4 down to room temperature by partial anion substitution or nanoconfinement. The present paper reviews the recent developments in complex metal hydrides as solid...

  19. The Production of Uranium Metal by Metal Hydrides Incorporated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, P. P.

    1943-01-01

    Metal Hydrides Incorporated was a pioneer in the production of uranium metal on a commercial scale and supplied it to all the laboratories interested in the original research, before other methods for its production were developed. Metal Hydrides Inc. supplied the major part of the metal for the construction of the first experimental pile which, on December 2, 1942, demonstrated the feasibility of the self-sustaining chain reaction and the release of atomic energy.

  20. Properties of nanoscale metal hydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtner, Maximilian

    2009-05-20

    Nanoscale hydride particles may exhibit chemical stabilities which differ from those of a macroscopic system. The stabilities are mainly influenced by a surface energy term which contains size-dependent values of the surface tension, the molar volume and an additional term which takes into account a potential reduction of the excess surface energy. Thus, the equilibrium of a nanoparticular hydride system may be shifted to the hydrogenated or to the dehydrogenated side, depending on the size and on the prefix of the surface energy term of the hydrogenated and dehydrogenated material. Additional complexity appears when solid-state reactions of complex hydrides are considered and phase segregation has to be taken into account. In such a case the reversibility of complex hydrides may be reduced if the nanoparticles are free standing on a surface. However, it may be enhanced if the system is enclosed by a nanoscale void which prevents the reaction partners on the dehydrogenated side from diffusing away from each other. Moreover, the generally enhanced diffusivity in nanocrystalline systems may lower the kinetic barriers for the material's transformation and, thus, facilitate hydrogen absorption and desorption.

  1. Are RENiAl hydrides metallic?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eichinger, K.; Havela, L.; Prokleška, J.; Stelmakhovych, O.; Daniš, S.; Šantavá, Eva; Miliyanchuk, K.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 9 (2009), s. 1200-1202 ISSN 1862-5282 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA202/07/0418 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : rare earth metals * magnetism * hydrides Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.862, year: 2009

  2. Nickel metal hydride LEO cycle testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Eric

    1995-01-01

    The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center is working to characterize aerospace AB5 Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) cells. The cells are being evaluated in terms of storage, low earth orbit (LEO) cycling, and response to parametric testing (high rate charge and discharge, charge retention, pulse current ability, etc.). Cells manufactured by Eagle Picher are the subjects of the evaluation. There is speculation that NiMH cells may become direct replacements for current Nickel Cadmium cells in the near future.

  3. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Metal Hydrides

    CERN Document Server

    1981-01-01

    In the last five years, the study of metal hydrides has ex­ panded enormously due to the potential technological importance of this class of materials in hydrogen based energy conversion schemes. The scope of this activity has been worldwide among the industrially advanced nations. There has been a consensus among researchers in both fundamental and applied areas that a more basic understanding of the properties of metal/hydrogen syster;,s is required in order to provide a rational basis for the selection of materials for specific applications. The current worldwide need for and interest in research in metal hydrides indicated the timeliness of an Advanced Study Insti­ tute to provide an in-depth view of the field for those active in its various aspects. The inclusion of speakers from non-NATO coun­ tries provided the opportunity for cross-fertilization of ideas for future research. While the emphasis of the Institute was on basic properties, there was a conscious effort to stimulate interest in the applic...

  4. Process for production of a metal hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Nathan Tait; Butterick, III, Robert; Chin, Arthur Achhing; Millar, Dean Michael; Molzahn, David Craig

    2014-08-12

    A process for production of a metal hydride compound MH.sub.x, wherein x is one or two and M is an alkali metal, Be or Mg. The process comprises combining a compound of formula (R.sup.1O).sub.xM with aluminum, hydrogen and at least one metal selected from among titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, vanadium, tantalum and iron to produce a compound of formula MH.sub.x. R.sup.1 is phenyl or phenyl substituted by at least one alkyl or alkoxy group. A mole ratio of aluminum to (R.sup.1O).sub.xM is from 0.1:1 to 1:1. The catalyst is present at a level of at least 200 ppm based on weight of aluminum.

  5. Effect of preparation method of metal hydride electrode on efficiency of hydrogen electrosorption process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giza, Krystyna [Czestochowa University of Technology (Poland). Faculty of Production Engineering and Materials Technology; Drulis, Henryk [Trzebiatowski Institute of Low Temperatures and Structure Research PAS, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2016-02-15

    The preparation of negative electrodes for nickel-metal hydride batteries using LaNi{sub 4.3}Co{sub 0.4}Al{sub 0.3} alloy is presented. The constant current discharge technique is employed to determine the discharge capacity, the exchange current density and the hydrogen diffusion coefficient of the studied electrodes. The electrochemical performance of metal hydride electrode is strongly affected by preparation conditions. The results are compared and the advantages and disadvantages of preparation methods of the electrodes are also discussed.

  6. Comparison of comprehensive properties of Ni-MH (nickel-metal hydride) and Li-ion (lithium-ion) batteries in terms of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jianqiang; Yan, Fuwu; Zhang, Pei; Du, Changqing

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we successfully proposed a method to compare the comprehensive properties of different battery systems in terms of a parameter, energy efficiency. The quantitative relationship of OCV (open circuit voltage) and SOC (state of charge) for Ni-MH batteries is firstly established to calculate the energy efficiency. Then a comprehensive comparison of the energy efficiency for Ni-MH and Li-ion batteries is systemically analyzed under different operating conditions. The results suggest that the energy efficiency is larger for Li-ion batteries than for Ni-MH batteries under charge and charge–discharge cycles, but lesser under a large current rate discharge. The outcome indicates that Ni-MH batteries are more favorable in the case of large current rates discharge than Li-ion batteries. Under plus current rates, two factors, SOC and current rates are analyzed with respect to energy efficiency. For both the batteries, the energy efficiency is varied slightly with SOC, but declines greatly with increased current rates. - Highlights: • A method to compare the comprehensive property for different battery systems. • The relationship of OCV and SOC for Ni-MH batteries established. • An analysis of energy efficiency for Ni-MH and Li-ion batteries. • Ni-MH batteries are more favorable under large current rates discharge

  7. Hydrogen storage properties of metallic hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latroche, M.; Percheron-Guegan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, energy needs are mainly covered by fossil energies leading to pollutant emissions mostly responsible for global warming. Among the different possible solutions for greenhouse effect reduction, hydrogen has been proposed for energy transportation. Indeed, H 2 can be seen as a clean and efficient energy carrier. However, beside the difficulties related to hydrogen production, efficient high capacity storage means are still to be developed. Many metals and alloys are able to store large amounts of hydrogen. This latter solution is of interest in terms of safety, global yield and long term storage. However, to be suitable for applications, such compounds must present high capacity, good reversibility, fast reactivity and sustainability. In this paper, we will review the structural and thermodynamic properties of metallic hydrides. (authors)

  8. A critical overview of definitions and determination techniques of the internal resistance using lithium-ion, lead-acid, nickel metal-hydride batteries and electrochemical double-layer capacitors as examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piłatowicz, Grzegorz; Marongiu, Andrea; Drillkens, Julia; Sinhuber, Philipp; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2015-11-01

    The internal resistance (Ri) is one of the key parameters that determine the current state of electrochemical storage systems (ESS). It is crucial for estimating cranking capability in conventional cars, available power in modern hybrid and electric vehicles and for determining commonly used factors such as state-of-health (SoH) and state-of-function (SoF). However, ESS are complex and non-linear systems. Their Ri depends on many parameters such as current rate, temperature, SoH and state-of-charge (SoC). It is also a fact that no standardized methodologies exist and many different definitions and ways of Ri determination are being used. Nevertheless, in many cases authors are not aware of the consequences that occur when different Ri definitions are being used, such as possible misinterpretations, doubtful comparisons and false figures of merit. This paper focuses on an application-oriented separation between various Ri definitions and highlights the differences between them. The investigation was based on the following technologies: lead-acid, lithium-ion and nickel metal-hydride batteries as well as electrochemical double-layer capacitors. It is not the target of this paper to provide a standardized definition of Ri but to give researchers, engineers and manufacturers a possibility to understand what the term Ri means in their own work.

  9. Metal Borohydrides synthesized from metal borides and metal hydrides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Sanna

    2014-01-01

    Metal Borohydrides Synthesized from Metal Borides and Metal Hydrides Alexander Fogha, Sanna Sommera, Kasper T. Møllera, T. R. Jensena aCenter for Materials Crystallography (CMC), Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO) and Chemistry Department, Aarhus University, Langelandsgade 140, DK-8000...... Aarhus C, Denmark email: gallafogh@hotmail.com / sanna-sommer@hotmail.com Magnesium boride, MgB2, ball milled with MH (M = Li, Na, Ca) followed by hydrogenation under high hydrogen pressure, readily forms the corresponding metal borohydrides, M(BH4)x (M = Li, Na, Ca) and MgH2 according to reaction scheme...... and Ca(BH4)2, respectively [3,4]. An attempt to synthesize alkali and alkaline earth metal borohydrides from various borides by ball milling under high hydrogen pressure is presented here. MgB2, AlB2 and CaB6 have been milled with MHx (M = Li, Na, Mg, Ca) at p(H2) = 110 bar for 24 hours. All samples were...

  10. Kinetic behaviour of low-Co AB5-type metal hydride electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tliha, M.; Boussami, S.; Mathlouthi, H.; Lamloumi, J.; Percheron-Guegan, A.

    2010-01-01

    The kinetic behaviour of the LaNi 3.55 Mn 0.4 Al 0.3 Co 0.4 Fe 0.35 metal hydride, used as a negative electrode in the nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH) batteries, was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) at different state of charge (SOC). Impedance measurements were performed in the frequency range from 50 kHz to 1 mHz. Electrochemical impedance spectrum of the metal hydride electrode was interpreted by an equivalent circuit including the different electrochemical processes taking place on the interface between the MH electrode and the electrolyte. Electrochemical kinetic parameters such as the charge-transfer resistance R tc , the exchange current density I 0 and the hydrogen diffusion coefficient D H were determined at different state of charge. The results of EIS measurements indicate that the electrochemical reaction activity of the LaNi 3.55 Mn 0.4 Al 0.3 Co 0.4 Fe 0.35 metal hydride electrode was markedly improved with increasing state of charge (SOC). The transformation α-β is probably a limiting step in the mechanisms of hydrogenation of metal hydride electrode.

  11. Hydrogen storage in metal hydrides and complex hydrides; Wasserstoffspeicherung in Metall- und komplexen Hydriden - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielmann, M.; Zuettel, A.

    2007-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), reports on work done in 2007 at the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology EMPA on the storage of hydrogen in metal hydrides and complex hydrides. In particular, the use of tetrahydroborates is noted. The potential of this class of materials is stressed. The structures at room-temperature were examined using neutron and X-ray diffraction methods. Thermodynamic methods helped determine the thermodynamic stability of the materials. Also, a complete energy diagram for the materials was developed. The use of silicon oxide to reduce activation energy and its catalytic effects are discussed. The challenges placed by desorption mechanisms are noted. The authors note that reversibility is basically proven.

  12. Artificial exomuscle investigations for applications-metal hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crevier, Marie-Charlotte; Richard, Martin; Rittenhouse, D Matheson; Roy, Pierre-Olivier; Bedard, Stephane

    2007-01-01

    In pursuing the development of bionic devices, Victhom identified a need for technologies that could replace current motorized systems and be better integrated into the human body motion. The actuators used to obtain large displacements are noisy, heavy, and do not adequately reproduce human muscle behavior. Subsequently, a project at Victhom was devoted to the development of active materials to obtain an artificial exomuscle actuator. An exhaustive literature review was done at Victhom to identify promising active materials for the development of artificial muscles. According to this review, metal hydrides were identified as a promising technology for artificial muscle development. Victhom's investigations focused on determining metal hydride actuator potential in the context of bionics technology. Based on metal hydride properties and artificial muscle requirements such as force, displacement and rise time, an exomuscle was built. In addition, a finite element model, including heat and mass transfer in the metal hydride, was developed and implemented in FEMLAB software. (review article)

  13. The use of metal hydrides in fuel cell applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykhaylo V. Lototskyy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews state-of-the-art developments in hydrogen energy systems which integrate fuel cells with metal hydride-based hydrogen storage. The 187 reference papers included in this review provide an overview of all major publications in the field, as well as recent work by several of the authors of the review. The review contains four parts. The first part gives an overview of the existing types of fuel cells and outlines the potential of using metal hydride stores as a source of hydrogen fuel. The second part of the review considers the suitability and optimisation of different metal hydrides based on their energy efficient thermal integration with fuel cells. The performances of metal hydrides are considered from the viewpoint of the reversible heat driven interaction of the metal hydrides with gaseous H2. Efficiencies of hydrogen and heat exchange in hydrogen stores to control H2 charge/discharge flow rates are the focus of the third section of the review and are considered together with metal hydride – fuel cell system integration issues and the corresponding engineering solutions. Finally, the last section of the review describes specific hydrogen-fuelled systems presented in the available reference data.

  14. Complex Metal Hydrides for hydrogen storage and solid-state ion conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payandeh GharibDoust, SeyedHosein

    Renewable energy, such as sun and wind, are sustainable and clean sources of energy for the future but are unevenly distributed both over time and geographically. Therefore, this type of energy must be converted to a form that can be stored and two of the most promising options are hydrogen...... and electricity in batteries. However, both hydrogen and electricity must be stored in a very dense way to be useful, e.g. for mobile applications. Complex metal hydrides have high hydrogen density and have been studied during the past twenty years in hydrogen storage systems. Moreover, they have shown high ionic...... conductivities which promote their application as solid electrolytes in batteries. This dissertation presents the synthesis and characterization of a variety of complex metal hydrides and explores their hydrogen storage properties and ionic conductivity. Five halide free rare earth borohydrides RE(BH4)3, (RE...

  15. Zr - based alloys as hydride electrodes in Ni-MH batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biris, A.R.; Biris, A.S.; Misan, I.; Lupu, D.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrogen storage alloys, MH, are already used in Ni-MH alkaline batteries conquering an important share of the rechargeable nickel-cadmium battery market. This remarkable success is due not only to the replacement of the toxic material, cadmium, by metal hydrides but also to an increased specific energy, which makes them attractive for electric vehicles. Many research groups are concerned in the improvement of the hydride electrode characteristics: hydrogen storage capacity, high-rate discharge ability, increased cycle life. These properties can be modified by substitution of the base components of a given alloy. A comparison of two types of alloys suitable for MH electrodes LaNi 5 able to store 1.36 w/o hydrogen with Zr(Ti)-Ni alloys of the AB 2 Laves phase type structure showed that the latter could absorb higher amounts of hydrogen. We report part of studies on Zr-V-Cr-Ni of the 15 C type Laves phase structure using our original procedure for pasted electrodes. The substitution of Cr for V atoms in ZrV 0.5 Ni 1 . 5 did not increase the discharge capacity. However, it proved to have a remarkable effect on the discharge capacity C at low temperatures. C at - 12 deg. C as compared to 20 deg.C increases up to ∼ 65 % for Cr containing alloys. (authors)

  16. Hydrogen storage in metallic hydrides: the hydrides of magnesium-nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E.P. da.

    1981-01-01

    The massive and common use of hydrogen as an energy carrier requires an adequate solution to the problem of storing it. High pressure or low temperatures are not entirely satisfactory, having each a limited range of applications. Reversible metal hydrides cover a range of applications intermediate to high pressure gas and low temperature liquid hydrogen, retaining very favorable safety and energy density characteristics, both for mobile and stationary applications. This work demonstrates the technical viability of storing hydrogen in metal hydrides of magnesium-nickel alloys. Also, it shows that technology, a product of science, can be generated within an academic environment, of the goal is clear, the demand outstanding and the means available. We review briefly theoretical models relating to metal hydride properties, specially the thermodynamics properties relevant to this work. We report our experimental results on hydrides of magnesium-nickel alloys of various compositions including data on structure, hydrogen storage capacities, reaction kinetics, pressure-composition isotherms. We selected a promising alloy for mass production, built and tested a modular storage tank based on the hydrides of the alloy, with a capacity for storing 10 Nm sup(3) of hydrogen of 1 atm and 20 sup(0)C. The tank weighs 46,3 Kg and has a volume of 21 l. (author)

  17. Solving crystal structures of metal and chemical hydrides

    OpenAIRE

    Cerny, Radovan

    2008-01-01

    The methods of structural characterization of metal and chemical hydrides are reviewed. The existing difficulties and problems are outlined and possible solutions presented. It is shown that powder diffraction, and especially the Direct Space Method, is essential component of hydride research. Crystal structures containing as many as 55 independent atoms (including hydrogen) have been fully characterized using powder diffraction. This is of great importance, because rapid collection of powder...

  18. Influence of uranium hydride oxidation on uranium metal behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, N.; Hambley, D.; Clarke, S.A.; Simpson, K.

    2013-01-01

    This work addresses concerns that the rapid, exothermic oxidation of active uranium hydride in air could stimulate an exothermic reaction (burning) involving any adjacent uranium metal, so as to increase the potential hazard arising from a hydride reaction. The effect of the thermal reaction of active uranium hydride, especially in contact with uranium metal, does not increase in proportion with hydride mass, particularly when considering large quantities of hydride. Whether uranium metal continues to burn in the long term is a function of the uranium metal and its surroundings. The source of the initial heat input to the uranium, if sufficient to cause ignition, is not important. Sustained burning of uranium requires the rate of heat generation to be sufficient to offset the total rate of heat loss so as to maintain an elevated temperature. For dense uranium, this is very difficult to achieve in naturally occurring circumstances. Areas of the uranium surface can lose heat but not generate heat. Heat can be lost by conduction, through contact with other materials, and by convection and radiation, e.g. from areas where the uranium surface is covered with a layer of oxidised material, such as burned-out hydride or from fuel cladding. These rates of heat loss are highly significant in relation to the rate of heat generation by sustained oxidation of uranium in air. Finite volume modelling has been used to examine the behaviour of a magnesium-clad uranium metal fuel element within a bottle surrounded by other un-bottled fuel elements. In the event that the bottle is breached, suddenly, in air, it can be concluded that the bulk uranium metal oxidation reaction will not reach a self-sustaining level and the mass of uranium oxidised will likely to be small in relation to mass of uranium hydride oxidised. (authors)

  19. High-pressure synthesis of noble metal hydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnerer, Christian; Scheler, Thomas; Gregoryanz, Eugene

    2013-04-07

    The formation of hydride phases in the noble metals copper, silver, and gold was investigated by in situ x-ray diffraction at high hydrogen pressures. In the case of copper, a novel hexagonal hydride phase, Cu2H, was synthesised at pressures above 18.6 GPa. This compound exhibits an anti-CdI2-type structure, where hydrogen atoms occupy every second layer of octahedral interstitial sites. In contrast to chemically produced CuH, this phase does not show a change in compressibility compared to pure copper. Furthermore, repeated compression (after decomposition of Cu2H) led to the formation of cubic copper hydride at 12.5 GPa, a phenomenon attributed to an alteration of the microstructure during dehydrogenation. No hydrides of silver (up to 87 GPa) or gold (up to 113 GPa) were found at both room and high temperatures.

  20. Metal Hydride assited contamination on Ru/Si surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pachecka, Malgorzata; Lee, Christopher James; Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    In extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) residual tin, in the form of particles, ions, and atoms, can be deposited on nearby EUV optics. During the EUV pulse, a reactive hydrogen plasma is formed, which may be able to react with metal contaminants, creating volatile and unstable metal hydrides that

  1. Predicted energy densitites for nickel-hydrogen and silver-hydrogen cells embodying metallic hydrides for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Simplified design concepts were used to estimate gravimetric and volumetric energy densities for metal hydrogen battery cells for assessing the characteristics of cells containing metal hydrides as compared to gaseous storage cells, and for comparing nickel cathode and silver cathode systems. The silver cathode was found to yield superior energy densities in all cases considered. The inclusion of hydride forming materials yields cells with very high volumetric energy densities that also retain gravimetric energy densities nearly as high as those of gaseous storage cells.

  2. Study of hydrogenation for pulverization of rare earth alloys with Nb for metal hydride electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Eliner Affonso

    2013-01-01

    In this work were studied La ,7 Mg 0,3 Al 0,3 Mn 0,4 Co (0.5-x) NbxNi 3.8 (x= 0 - 0.5) and La 0,7 Mg 0,3 Al 0,3 Mn 0.4 Nb (05+x) Co 0,5 Ni (3.8-x) . (x=0.3; 0.5;1.3) alloys for negative electrodes of the Nickel-Metal Hydride batteries. The hydrogenation of the alloys was performed varying pressing of H 2 (2 and 9 bar). The discharge capacity of the nickel-metal hydride batteries were analyzed in the Arbin BT-4 electrical test equipment. The as-cast alloys were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and X-Ray diffraction. The increasing Niobium addition in the alloys decreased cycle life and the maximum discharge capacity of the batteries. The maximum discharge capacity was obtained with the La .7 Mg 0.3 Al 0.3 Mn 0,4 Co 0.5 Ni 3.8 (45.36 mAh) and the battery which presented the best performance was La .7 Mg 0.3 Al 0.3 Mn 0.4 Co 0.5 Nb 0.1 Ni 3.8 (44.94 mAh). (author)

  3. Process of forming a sol-gel/metal hydride composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, James W [Aiken, SC

    2009-03-17

    An external gelation process is described which produces granules of metal hydride particles contained within a sol-gel matrix. The resulting granules are dimensionally stable and are useful for applications such as hydrogen separation and hydrogen purification. An additional coating technique for strengthening the granules is also provided.

  4. New Orbital Hybridization Schemes for Metal Hydrides-Keeping p ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 8. New Orbital Hybridization Schemes for Metal Hydrides - Keeping p Orbitals out of the Picture. J Chandrasekhar. Research News ... J Chandrasekhar1. Department of Organic Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India ...

  5. Activation and discharge kinetics of metal hydride electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, Stein Egil

    2003-07-01

    Potential step chronoamperometry and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (eis) measurements were performed on single metal hydride particles. For the {alpha}-phase, the bulk diffusion coefficient and the absorption/adsorption rate parameters were determined. Materials produced by atomisation, melt spinning and conventional casting were investigated. The melt spun and conventional cast materials were identical and the atomised material similar in composition. The particles from the cast and the melt spun material were shaped like parallelepipeds. A corresponding equation, for this geometry, for diffusion coupled to an absorption/adsorption reaction was developed. It was found that materials produced by melt spinning exhibited lower bulk diffusion (1.7E-14 m2/s) and absorption/adsorption reaction rate (1.0E-8 m/s), compared to materials produced by conventionally casting (1.1E-13 m2/s and 5.5E-8 m/s respectively). In addition, the influence of particle active surface and relative diffusion length were discussed. It was concluded that there are uncertainties connected to these properties, which may explain the large distribution in the kinetic parameters measured on metal hydride particles. Activation of metal hydride forming materials has been studied and an activation procedure, for porous electrodes, was investigated. Cathodic polarisation of the electrode during a hot alkaline surface treatment gave the maximum discharge capacity on the first discharge of the electrode. The studied materials were produced by gas atomisation and the spherical shape was retained during the activation. Both an AB{sub 5} and an AB{sub 2} alloy was successfully activated and discharge rate properties determined. The AB{sub 2} material showed a higher maximum discharge capacity, but poor rate properties, compared to the AB{sub 5} material. Reduction of surface oxides, and at the same time protection against corrosion of active metallic nickel, can explain the satisfying results of

  6. Optimization of Internal Cooling Fins for Metal Hydride Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamsi Krishna Kukkapalli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Metal hydride alloys are considered as a promising alternative to conventional hydrogen storage cylinders and mechanical hydrogen compressors. Compared to storing in a classic gas tank, metal hydride alloys can store hydrogen at nearly room pressure and use less volume to store the same amount of hydrogen. However, this hydrogen storage method necessitates an effective way to reject the heat released from the exothermic hydriding reaction. In this paper, a finned conductive insert is adopted to improve the heat transfer in the cylindrical reactor. The fins collect the heat that is volumetrically generated in LaNi5 metal hydride alloys and deliver it to the channel located in the center, through which a refrigerant flows. A multiple-physics modeling is performed to analyze the transient heat and mass transfer during the hydrogen absorption process. Fin design is made to identify the optimum shape of the finned insert for the best heat rejection. For the shape optimization, use of a predefined transient heat generation function is proposed. Simulations show that there exists an optimal length for the fin geometry.

  7. The electrochemical impedance of metal hydride electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valøen, Lars Ole; Lasia, Andrzej; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    2002-01-01

    , explaining the experimental impedances in a wide frequency range for electrodes of hydride forming materials mixed with copper powder, were obtained. Both charge transfer and spherical diffusion of hydrogen in the particles are important sub processes that govern the total rate of the electrochemical...... hydrogen absorption/desorption reaction. To approximate the experimental data, equations describing the current distribution in porous electrodes were needed. Indications of one or more parallel reduction/oxidation processes competing with the electrochemical hydrogen absorption/desorption reaction were...

  8. Metal hydride-based thermal energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajo, John J.; Fang, Zhigang

    2017-10-03

    The invention provides a thermal energy storage system comprising a metal-containing first material with a thermal energy storage density of about 1300 kJ/kg to about 2200 kJ/kg based on hydrogenation; a metal-containing second material with a thermal energy storage density of about 200 kJ/kg to about 1000 kJ/kg based on hydrogenation; and a hydrogen conduit for reversibly transporting hydrogen between the first material and the second material. At a temperature of 20.degree. C. and in 1 hour, at least 90% of the metal is converted to the hydride. At a temperature of 0.degree. C. and in 1 hour, at least 90% of the metal hydride is converted to the metal and hydrogen. The disclosed metal hydride materials have a combination of thermodynamic energy storage densities and kinetic power capabilities that previously have not been demonstrated. This performance enables practical use of thermal energy storage systems for electric vehicle heating and cooling.

  9. Composite Materials for Hazard Mitigation of Reactive Metal Hydrides.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Joseph William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sartor, George B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dedrick, Daniel E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reeder, Craig L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-02-01

    In an attempt to mitigate the hazards associated with storing large quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. The composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride. Composites with vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were also polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. The composites were found to be initially effective at reducing the amount of heat released during oxidation. However, upon cycling the composites, the mitigating behavior was lost. While the polymer composites we investigated have mitigating potential and are physically robust, they undergo a chemical change upon cycling that makes them subsequently ineffective at mitigating heat release upon oxidation of the metal hydride. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the following people who participated in this project: Ned Stetson (U.S. Department of Energy) for sponsorship and support of the project. Ken Stewart (Sandia) for building the flow-through calorimeter and cycling test stations. Isidro Ruvalcaba, Jr. (Sandia) for qualitative experiments on the interaction of sodium alanate with water. Terry Johnson (Sandia) for sharing his expertise and knowledge of metal hydrides, and sodium alanate in particular. Marcina Moreno (Sandia) for programmatic assistance. John Khalil (United Technologies Research Corp) for insight into the hazards of reactive metal hydrides and real-world accident scenario experiments. Summary In an attempt to mitigate and/or manage hazards associated with storing bulk quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials (a mixture of a mitigating polymer and a metal hydride) were synthesized and tested

  10. Design and integration of a hydrogen storage on metallic hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botzung, M.

    2008-01-01

    This work presents a hydrogen storage system using metal hydrides for a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system. Hydride storage technology has been chosen due to project specifications: high volumetric capacity, low pressures (≤ 3.5 bar) and low temperatures (≤ 75 C: fuel cell temperature). During absorption, heat from hydride generation is dissipated by fluid circulation. An integrated plate-fin type heat exchanger has been designed to obtain good compactness and to reach high absorption/desorption rates. At first, the storage system has been tested in accordance with project specifications (absorption 3.5 bar, desorption 1.5 bar). Then, the hydrogen charge/discharge times have been decreased to reach system limits. System design has been used to simulate thermal and mass comportment of the storage tank. The model is based on the software Fluent. We take in consideration heat and mass transfers in the porous media during absorption/desorption. The hydride thermal and mass behaviour has been integrated in the software. The heat and mass transfers experimentally obtained have been compared to results calculated by the model. The influence of experimental and numerical parameters on the model behaviour has also been explored. (author) [fr

  11. Flywheel-battery hydrid: a new concept for vehicle propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    A new concept was examined for powering the automobile: a flywheel-battery hybrid that can be developed for near-term use from currently available lead-acid batteries and state-of-the-art flywheel designs. To illustrate the concept, a calculation is given of the range and performance of the hybrid power system in a typical commute vehicle, and the results are compared to the measured range and performance of an all-battery vehicle. This comparison shows improved performance and a twofold urban-range increase for the hybrid over the all-battery power system

  12. Thermomechanics of hydrogen storage in metallic hydrides: modeling and analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roubíček, Tomáš; Tomassetti, G.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 7 (2014), s. 2313-2333 ISSN 1531-3492 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0917 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : metal-hydrid phase transformation * hydrogen diffusion * swelling Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.768, year: 2014 http://aimsciences.org/journals/pdfs.jsp?paperID=10195&mode=full

  13. Testing setup for automatic cycling of metal hydride composites

    OpenAIRE

    Dieterich, Mila; Bürger, Inga; Linder, Marc Philipp

    2017-01-01

    In a future hydrogen community, metal hydrides can be used in several new applications. The most common application is as hydrogen storage material for stationary or mobile applications. However, there exist plenty of other applications like heat storage systems, thermal compressors, air conditioning systems, hydrogen purifying systems, etc. For all of these applications cycling stability is a major issue as it determines operational strategies as well as overall lifecycle cost. For pure m...

  14. Hydrogen Storage in Nanostructured Light Metal Hydrides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, S.

    2009-01-01

    The global energy issues can be solved by the abundantly available hydrogen on earth. Light metals are a compact and safe medium for storing hydrogen. This makes them attractive for vehicular use. Unfortunately, hydrogen uptake and release is slow in light metals at practical temperature and

  15. Long-term cycle stability of metal hydride-graphite composites

    OpenAIRE

    Dieterich, Mila; Pohlmann, Carsten; Bürger, Inga; Linder, Marc; Röntzsch, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Recently, metal hydride composites (MHC) have been proposed which consist of a hydride forming metal alloy and a highly heat conduction secondary phase such as expanded natural graphite (ENG) in order to improve the thermal conductivity of metal hydride powder beds. However, only little data is available in the literature on the effects of extensive cycling on technically relevant properties of MHC. In this paper, hydrogenation characteristics, thermal conductivity and geometrical stability o...

  16. Oxidation of Group 8 transition-Metal Hydrides and Ionic Hydrogenation of Ketones and Aldehydes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kjell-Tore

    1996-08-01

    Transition-metal hydrides have received considerable attention during the last decades because of their unusual reactivity and their potential as homogeneous catalysts for hydrogenation and other reactions of organic substrates. An important class of catalytic processes where transition-metal hydrides are involved is the homogeneous hydrogenation of alkenes, alkynes, ketones, aldehydes, arenes and nitro compounds. This thesis studies the oxidation of Group 8 transition-metal hydrides and the ionic hydrogenation of ketones and aldehydes.

  17. Modeling of hydrogen isotopes separation in a metal hydride bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charton, S.; Corriou, J.P.; Schweich, D.

    1999-01-01

    A predictive model for hydrogen isotopes separation in a non-isothermal bed of unsupported palladium hydride particles is derived. It accounts for the non-linear adsorption-dissociation equilibrium, hydrodynamic dispersion, pressure drop, mass transfer kinetics, heat of sorption and heat losses at the bed wall. Using parameters from the literature or estimated with classical correlations, the model gives simulated curves in agreement with previously published experiments without any parameter fit. The non-isothermal behavior is shown to be responsible for drastic changes of the mass transfer rate which is controlled by diffusion in the solid-phase lattice. For a feed at 300 K and atmospheric pressure, the endothermic hydride-to-deuteride exchange is kinetically controlled, whereas the reverse exothermic exchange is nearly at equilibrium. Finally, a simple and efficient thermodynamic model for the dissociative equilibrium between a metal and a diatomic gas is proposed. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. Reactivity patterns of transition metal hydrides and alkyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, W.D. II.

    1979-05-01

    The complex PPN + CpV(CO) 3 H - (Cp=eta 5 -C 5 H 5 and PPN = (Ph 3 P) 2 ) was prepared in 70% yield and its physical properties and chemical reactions investigated. PPN + CpV(CO) 3 H - reacts with a wide range of organic halides. The organometallic products of these reactions are the vanadium halides PPN + [CpV(C) 3 X] - and in some cases the binuclear bridging hydride PPN + [CpV(CO) 3 ] 2 H - . The borohydride salt PPN + [CpV(CO) 3 BH 4 ] - has also been prepared. The reaction between CpV(CO) 3 H - and organic halides was investigated and compared with halide reductions carried out using tri-n-butyltin hydride. Results demonstrate that in almost all cases, the reduction reaction proceeds via free radical intermediates which are generated in a chain process, and are trapped by hydrogen transfer from CpV(CO) 3 H - . Sodium amalgam reduction of CpRh(CO) 2 or a mixture of CpRh(CO) 2 and CpCo(CO) 2 affords two new anions, PPN + [Cp 2 Rh 3 (CO) 4 ] - and PPN + [Cp 2 RhCo(CO) 2 ] - . CpMo(CO) 3 H reacts with CpMo(CO) 3 R (R=CH 3 ,C 2 H 5 , CH 2 C 6 H 5 ) at 25 to 50 0 C to produce aldehyde RCHO and the dimers [CpMo(CO) 3 ] 2 and [CpMo(CO) 2 ] 2 . In general, CpV(CO) 3 H - appears to transfer a hydrogen atom to the metal radical anion formed in an electron transfer process, whereas CpMo(CO) 3 H transfers hydride in a 2-electron process to a vacant coordination site. The chemical consequences are that CpV(CO) 3 H - generally reacts with metal alkyls to give alkanes via intermediate alkyl hydride species whereas CpMo(CO) 3 H reacts with metal alkyls to produce aldehyde, via an intermediate acyl hydride species

  19. Comparison of the interactions in the rare gas hydride and Group 2 metal hydride anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Joe P.; Manship, Daniel R.; Wright, Timothy G.; Breckenridge, W. H.

    2014-01-01

    We study both the rare gas hydride anions, RG–H − (RG = He–Rn) and Group 2 (Group IIa) metal hydride anions, M IIa H − (M IIa = Be–Ra), calculating potential energy curves at the CCSD(T) level with augmented quadruple and quintuple basis sets, and extrapolating the results to the basis set limit. We report spectroscopic parameters obtained from these curves; additionally, we study the Be–He complex. While the RG–H − and Be–He species are weakly bound, we show that, as with the previously studied BeH − and MgH − species, the other M IIa H − species are strongly bound, despite the interactions nominally also being between two closed shell species: M(ns 2 ) and H − (1s 2 ). We gain insight into the interactions using contour plots of the electron density changes and population analyses. For both series, the calculated dissociation energy is significantly less than the ion/induced-dipole attraction term, confirming that electron repulsion is important in these species; this effect is more dramatic for the M IIa H − species than for RG–H − . Our analyses lead us to conclude that the stronger interaction in the case of the M IIa H − species arises from sp and spd hybridization, which allows electron density on the M IIa atom to move away from the incoming H −

  20. Comparison of the interactions in the rare gas hydride and Group 2 metal hydride anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Joe P; Manship, Daniel R; Breckenridge, W H; Wright, Timothy G

    2014-02-28

    We study both the rare gas hydride anions, RG-H(-) (RG = He-Rn) and Group 2 (Group IIa) metal hydride anions, MIIaH(-) (MIIa = Be-Ra), calculating potential energy curves at the CCSD(T) level with augmented quadruple and quintuple basis sets, and extrapolating the results to the basis set limit. We report spectroscopic parameters obtained from these curves; additionally, we study the Be-He complex. While the RG-H(-) and Be-He species are weakly bound, we show that, as with the previously studied BeH(-) and MgH(-) species, the other MIIaH(-) species are strongly bound, despite the interactions nominally also being between two closed shell species: M(ns(2)) and H(-)(1s(2)). We gain insight into the interactions using contour plots of the electron density changes and population analyses. For both series, the calculated dissociation energy is significantly less than the ion/induced-dipole attraction term, confirming that electron repulsion is important in these species; this effect is more dramatic for the MIIaH(-) species than for RG-H(-). Our analyses lead us to conclude that the stronger interaction in the case of the MIIaH(-) species arises from sp and spd hybridization, which allows electron density on the MIIa atom to move away from the incoming H(-).

  1. Oxidation kinetics of hydride-bearing uranium metal corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totemeier, T.C.; Pahl, R.G.; Frank, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of hydride-bearing uranium metal corrosion products from zero power physics reactor (ZPPR) fuel plates was studied using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) in environments of Ar-4%O 2 , Ar-9%O 2 , and Ar-20%O 2 . Ignition of corrosion product samples from two moderately corroded plates was observed between 125 C and 150 C in all environments. The rate of oxidation above the ignition temperature was found to be dependent only on the net flow rate of oxygen in the reacting gas. Due to the higher net oxygen flow rate, burning rates increased with increasing oxygen concentration. Oxidation rates below the ignition temperature were much slower and decreased with increasing test time. The hydride contents of the TGA samples from the two moderately corroded plates, determined from the total weight gain achieved during burning, were 47-61 wt% and 29-39 wt%. Samples from a lightly corroded plate were not reactive; X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed that they contained little hydride. (orig.)

  2. Autocatalytic effects in the mechanically induced hydriding of refractory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bab, M.A.; Baum, L.A.; Mendoza-Zelis, L.

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical milling of powders in a gaseous ambient is an efficient tool to induce gas-solid reactions and several nanocrystalline metallic oxides, nitrides and hydrides may be obtained at room temperature and moderated pressures by this route. We present here a study of the mechanically induced hydriding of Ti, Zr and Hf elemental powders, ground in an oscillatory mill under hydrogen gas at constant volume. The final formation of nanocrystalline cubic δ-MH 2 , together with a varying fraction of tetragonal ε-MH 2 , was verified by X-ray diffraction. From the measured pressure drop during the milling process the hydriding kinetics was determined and two distinct regimes were observed. For Ti and-at low milling frequencies-for Zr and Hf, a normal regime, characterized by a sigmoidal trend and a linear dependence of the rate constant on the milling intensity, was found. Otherwise, a sudden increase in the reacted fraction was observed in the absorption curve, typical of a self-sustained regime. The magnitude of the observed jump increases with the milling intensity and afterwards the reaction proceeds normally until it is completed. This critical behavior is discussed in terms of the reaction rate, the degree of transformation and the ε-phase content

  3. Oxidation kinetics of hydride-bearing uranium metal corrosion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totemeier, Terry C.; Pahl, Robert G.; Frank, Steven M.

    The oxidation behavior of hydride-bearing uranium metal corrosion products from Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) fuel plates was studied using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) in environments of Ar-4%O 2, Ar-9%O 2, and Ar-20%O 2. Ignition of corrosion product samples from two moderately corroded plates was observed between 125°C and 150°C in all environments. The rate of oxidation above the ignition temperature was found to be dependent only on the net flow rate of oxygen in the reacting gas. Due to the higher net oxygen flow rate, burning rates increased with increasing oxygen concentration. Oxidation rates below the ignition temperature were much slower and decreased with increasing test time. The hydride contents of the TGA samples from the two moderately corroded plates, determined from the total weight gain achieved during burning, were 47-61 wt% and 29-39 wt%. Samples from a lightly corroded plate were not reactive; X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed that they contained little hydride.

  4. Low-Cost Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage System for Concentrating Solar Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zidan, Ragaiy [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hardy, B. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Corgnale, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Teprovich, J. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Ward, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Motyka, Ted [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-31

    The objective of this research was to evaluate and demonstrate a metal hydride-based TES system for use with a CSP system. A unique approach has been applied to this project that combines our modeling experience with the extensive material knowledge and expertise at both SRNL and Curtin University (CU). Because of their high energy capacity and reasonable kinetics many metal hydride systems can be charged rapidly. Metal hydrides for vehicle applications have demonstrated charging rates in minutes and tens of minutes as opposed to hours. This coupled with high heat of reaction allows metal hydride TES systems to produce very high thermal power rates (approx. 1kW per 6-8 kg of material). A major objective of this work is to evaluate some of the new metal hydride materials that have recently become available. A problem with metal hydride TES systems in the past has been selecting a suitable high capacity low temperature metal hydride material to pair with the high temperature material. A unique aspect of metal hydride TES systems is that many of these systems can be located on or near dish/engine collectors due to their high thermal capacity and small size. The primary objective of this work is to develop a high enthalpy metal hydride that is capable of reversibly storing hydrogen at high temperatures (> 650 °C) and that can be paired with a suitable low enthalpy metal hydride with low cost materials. Furthermore, a demonstration of hydrogen cycling between the two hydride beds is desired.

  5. Hydrogen isotope exchange in a metal hydride tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, David B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report describes a model of the displacement of one hydrogen isotope within a metal hydride tube by a different isotope in the gas phase that is blown through the tube. The model incorporates only the most basic parameters to make a clear connection to the theory of open-tube gas chromatography, and to provide a simple description of how the behavior of the system scales with controllable parameters such as gas velocity and tube radius. A single tube can be seen as a building block for more complex architectures that provide higher molar flow rates or other advanced design goals.

  6. The renaissance of hydrides as energy materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Rana; Orimo, Shin-Ichi

    2017-02-01

    Materials based on hydrides have been the linchpin in the development of several practical energy storage technologies, of which the most prominent example is nickel-metal hydride batteries. Motivated by the need to meet the future's energy demand, the past decade has witnessed substantial advancements in the research and development of hydrides as media for hydrogen energy storage. More recently, new and rapidly evolving discoveries have positioned hydrides as highly promising materials for future electrochemical energy storage, such as electrolytes for mono- and divalent batteries, and anodes for lithium-ion batteries. In addition, the potential of hydrides in efficient power transmission has been recently revealed. In this Review, we highlight key advances and illustrate how the versatility of hydrides has not only yielded a meaningful past, but also ensures a very bright future.

  7. Experimental comparison on heat transfer-enhancing component of metal hydride bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun-goo, E-mail: hgkang@nfri.re.kr; Chung, Dong-you; Oh, Yun Hee; Chang, Min Ho; Yun, Sei-Hun

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Two small ZrCo metal hydride beds were developed. • Copper foam or fin as heat transfer-enhancing component are experimentally compared. • Copper foam bed is more efficient for uniform and rapid heating of metal hydride. • Copper foam bed is more efficient in removal of reaction heat during absorption. - Abstract: Metal hydride bed will be one of the key components for safe handling of tritium in fusion fuel cycle. In case of normal or emergency shutdown of fuel cycle, metal hydride bed installed in storage and delivery system (SDS) of tritium plant will absorb tritium gas in the system as soon as possible. Supply of hydrogen isotope gas to fueling system of fusion reactor will start from the metal hydride beds. Rapid delivery, rapid recovery including rapid heating and cooling are key issues. For better performance of metal hydride bed, various forms of heat transfer enhancing component or design can be applied. This study aims to help the selection of heat transfer enhancing component. Two small ZrCo beds with copper foam and copper fin were developed and experimented with hydrogen gas. Recovery and delivery performance, heating and cooling performance are compared. Experimental results show metal hydride bed with copper foam has improved performance. Uniform heating of metal hydride during desorption and removal of reaction heat during absorption are more efficient with copper foam bed than copper fin bed.

  8. Hydrogen storage and evolution catalysed by metal hydride complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Suenobu, Tomoyoshi

    2013-01-07

    The storage and evolution of hydrogen are catalysed by appropriate metal hydride complexes. Hydrogenation of carbon dioxide by hydrogen is catalysed by a [C,N] cyclometalated organoiridium complex, [Ir(III)(Cp*)(4-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl-κN(2))benzoic acid-κC(3))(OH(2))](2)SO(4) [Ir-OH(2)](2)SO(4), under atmospheric pressure of H(2) and CO(2) in weakly basic water (pH 7.5) at room temperature. The reverse reaction, i.e., hydrogen evolution from formate, is also catalysed by [Ir-OH(2)](+) in acidic water (pH 2.8) at room temperature. Thus, interconversion between hydrogen and formic acid in water at ambient temperature and pressure has been achieved by using [Ir-OH(2)](+) as an efficient catalyst in both directions depending on pH. The Ir complex [Ir-OH(2)](+) also catalyses regioselective hydrogenation of the oxidised form of β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) to produce the 1,4-reduced form (NADH) under atmospheric pressure of H(2) at room temperature in weakly basic water. In weakly acidic water, the complex [Ir-OH(2)](+) also catalyses the reverse reaction, i.e., hydrogen evolution from NADH to produce NAD(+) at room temperature. Thus, interconversion between NADH (and H(+)) and NAD(+) (and H(2)) has also been achieved by using [Ir-OH(2)](+) as an efficient catalyst and by changing pH. The iridium hydride complex formed by the reduction of [Ir-OH(2)](+) by H(2) and NADH is responsible for the hydrogen evolution. Photoirradiation (λ > 330 nm) of an aqueous solution of the Ir-hydride complex produced by the reduction of [Ir-OH(2)](+) with alcohols resulted in the quantitative conversion to a unique [C,C] cyclometalated Ir-hydride complex, which can catalyse hydrogen evolution from alcohols in a basic aqueous solution (pH 11.9). The catalytic mechanisms of the hydrogen storage and evolution are discussed by focusing on the reactivity of Ir-hydride complexes.

  9. ACCEPTABILITY ENVELOPE FOR METAL HYDRIDE-BASED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, B.; Corgnale, C.; Tamburello, D.; Garrison, S.; Anton, D.

    2011-07-18

    The design and evaluation of media based hydrogen storage systems requires the use of detailed numerical models and experimental studies, with significant amount of time and monetary investment. Thus a scoping tool, referred to as the Acceptability Envelope, was developed to screen preliminary candidate media and storage vessel designs, identifying the range of chemical, physical and geometrical parameters for the coupled media and storage vessel system that allow it to meet performance targets. The model which underpins the analysis allows simplifying the storage system, thus resulting in one input-one output scheme, by grouping of selected quantities. Two cases have been analyzed and results are presented here. In the first application the DOE technical targets (Year 2010, Year 2015 and Ultimate) are used to determine the range of parameters required for the metal hydride media and storage vessel. In the second case the most promising metal hydrides available are compared, highlighting the potential of storage systems, utilizing them, to achieve 40% of the 2010 DOE technical target. Results show that systems based on Li-Mg media have the best potential to attain these performance targets.

  10. Metal hydride hydrogen and heat storage systems as enabling technology for spacecraft applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reissner, Alexander, E-mail: reissner@fotec.at [FOTEC Forschungs- und Technologietransfer GmbH, Viktor Kaplan Straße 2, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Johannes Gutenberg-Straße 3, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Pawelke, Roland H.; Hummel, Stefan; Cabelka, Dusan [FOTEC Forschungs- und Technologietransfer GmbH, Viktor Kaplan Straße 2, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Gerger, Joachim [University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Johannes Gutenberg-Straße 3, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Farnes, Jarle, E-mail: Jarle.farnes@prototech.no [CMR Prototech AS, Fantoftvegen 38, PO Box 6034, 5892 Bergen (Norway); Vik, Arild; Wernhus, Ivar; Svendsen, Tjalve [CMR Prototech AS, Fantoftvegen 38, PO Box 6034, 5892 Bergen (Norway); Schautz, Max, E-mail: max.schautz@esa.int [European Space Agency, ESTEC – Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk Zh (Netherlands); Geneste, Xavier, E-mail: xavier.geneste@esa.int [European Space Agency, ESTEC – Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk Zh (Netherlands)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • A metal hydride tank concept for heat and hydrogen storage is presented. • The tank is part of a closed-loop reversible fuel cell system for space application. • For several engineering issues specific to the spacecraft application, solutions have been developed. • The effect of water contamination has been approximated for Ti-doped NaAlH{sub 4}. • A novel heat exchanger design has been realized by Selective Laser Melting. - Abstract: The next generation of telecommunication satellites will demand a platform payload performance in the range of 30+ kW within the next 10 years. At this high power output, a Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems (RFCS) offers an efficiency advantage in specific energy density over lithium ion batteries. However, a RFCS creates a substantial amount of heat (60–70 kJ per mol H{sub 2}) during fuel cell operation. This requires a thermal hardware that accounts for up to 50% of RFCS mass budget. Thus the initial advantage in specific energy density is reduced. A metal hydride tank for combined storage of heat and hydrogen in a RFCS may overcome this constraint. Being part of a consortium in an ongoing European Space Agency project, FOTEC is building a technology demonstrator for such a combined hydrogen and heat storage system.

  11. Comparison of the interactions in the rare gas hydride and Group 2 metal hydride anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Joe P.; Manship, Daniel R.; Wright, Timothy G., E-mail: Tim.Wright@nottingham.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Breckenridge, W. H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

    2014-02-28

    We study both the rare gas hydride anions, RG–H{sup −} (RG = He–Rn) and Group 2 (Group IIa) metal hydride anions, M{sub IIa}H{sup −} (M{sub IIa} = Be–Ra), calculating potential energy curves at the CCSD(T) level with augmented quadruple and quintuple basis sets, and extrapolating the results to the basis set limit. We report spectroscopic parameters obtained from these curves; additionally, we study the Be–He complex. While the RG–H{sup −} and Be–He species are weakly bound, we show that, as with the previously studied BeH{sup −} and MgH{sup −} species, the other M{sub IIa}H{sup −} species are strongly bound, despite the interactions nominally also being between two closed shell species: M(ns{sup 2}) and H{sup −}(1s{sup 2}). We gain insight into the interactions using contour plots of the electron density changes and population analyses. For both series, the calculated dissociation energy is significantly less than the ion/induced-dipole attraction term, confirming that electron repulsion is important in these species; this effect is more dramatic for the M{sub IIa}H{sup −} species than for RG–H{sup −}. Our analyses lead us to conclude that the stronger interaction in the case of the M{sub IIa}H{sup −} species arises from sp and spd hybridization, which allows electron density on the M{sub IIa} atom to move away from the incoming H{sup −}.

  12. Kinetics and mechanism of the hydridation of uranium and rare-earth metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, J.

    1989-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the rate and the mechanism of the hydridation reaction of uranium and the lanthanide metals. Surface sensitive analysis was used to study the reaction of the metal surface with residual gases of the high vacuum atmosphere. The initial stages of the uranium-hydrogen reaction, taking place on a polished metal surface, were investigated utilizing a hot-stage microscope equipped with TV camera and a video-recorder. The characteristics of formation and advance mechanism of hydride phase in bulk uranium and lanthanide metals were studied utilizing metallographic examination of partially hydrided thin foil samples at different stages of the reaction. The interface velocity of the hydride in uranium was measured as a function of pressure and temprature in a constant volume system. A probabilistic kinetic model for a gas-solid interaction, controlled by a phase transformation step, was developed and applied to the hydridation of uranium and gadolinium

  13. Neutron diffraction studies of transition metal hydride complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koetzle, T.F.; Bau, R.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations of H 3 Ta(C 5 H 5 ) 2 (III), HW 2 (CO) 9 (NO) (IV), and HW 2 (CO) 8 (NO) (P(OCH 3 ) 3 ) (V) have been completed. Preliminary results are available for HFeCo 3 (CO) 9 [P(OCH 3 ) 3 ] 3 (VII). This work, together with studies of HMo 2 (C 5 H 5 ) 2 (CO) 4 (P(CH 3 ) 2 ) (VI) and [(C 2 H 5 ) 4 N] + [HCr 2 (CO) 10 ] - carried out at Argonne has led to some general observations on the geometry and the nature of bonding in these compounds. For example, in the structures of IV and V, both of which have bent W--H--W linkages (less than W--H--W in the range 125-130 0 ), there is conclusive evidence for the existence of a closed three-center W--H--W bond with significant metal-metal interaction. Such is the case, because extensions of the axial W--C and W--N bonds trans to the hydride intersect at a point near the center of the W--H--W triangle. The geometry of VI, which also contains a bent M--H--M bond, is consistent with that of IV and V. Bridging M--H bonds in these second- and third-row hydrides range in length from 1.85 to 1.89 A, compared to 1.75 A in the first-row polynuclear complex VII. For metals of corresponding rows, bridging M--H bonds are about 0.1 A longer than terminal bonds, which are classified as single covalent bonds

  14. Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence Metal Hydride Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motyka, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-05-31

    The Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence (HSECoE) was established in 2009 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to advance the development of materials-based hydrogen storage systems for hydrogen-fueled light-duty vehicles. The overall objective of the HSECoE is to develop complete, integrated system concepts that utilize reversible metal hydrides, adsorbents, and chemical hydrogen storage materials through the use of advanced engineering concepts and designs that can simultaneously meet or exceed all the DOE targets. This report describes the activities and accomplishments during Phase 1 of the reversible metal hydride portion of the HSECoE, which lasted 30 months from February 2009 to August 2011. A complete list of all the HSECoE partners can be found later in this report but for the reversible metal hydride portion of the HSECoE work the major contributing organizations to this effort were the United Technology Research Center (UTRC), General Motors (GM), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Specific individuals from these and other institutions that supported this effort and the writing of this report are included in the list of contributors and in the acknowledgement sections of this report. The efforts of the HSECoE are organized into three phases each approximately 2 years in duration. In Phase I, comprehensive system engineering analyses and assessments were made of the three classes of storage media that included development of system level transport and thermal models of alternative conceptual storage configurations to permit detailed comparisons against the DOE performance targets for light-duty vehicles. Phase 1 tasks also included identification and technical justifications for candidate storage media and configurations that should be capable of reaching or exceeding the DOE targets. Phase 2 involved bench-level testing and

  15. Hydrogen storage material and process using graphite additive with metal-doped complex hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy [Aiken, SC; Ritter, James A [Lexington, SC; Ebner, Armin D [Lexington, SC; Wang, Jun [Columbia, SC; Holland, Charles E [Cayce, SC

    2008-06-10

    A hydrogen storage material having improved hydrogen absorbtion and desorption kinetics is provided by adding graphite to a complex hydride such as a metal-doped alanate, i.e., NaAlH.sub.4. The incorporation of graphite into the complex hydride significantly enhances the rate of hydrogen absorbtion and desorption and lowers the desorption temperature needed to release stored hydrogen.

  16. Final report for the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jay O.; Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the R&D activities within the U.S. Department of Energy Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE) from March 2005 to June 2010. The purpose of the MHCoE has been to conduct highly collaborative and multi-disciplinary applied R&D to develop new reversible hydrogen storage materials that meet or exceed DOE 2010 and 2015 system goals for hydrogen storage materials. The MHCoE combines three broad areas: mechanisms and modeling (which provide a theoretically driven basis for pursuing new materials), materials development (in which new materials are synthesized and characterized) and system design and engineering (which allow these new materials to be realized as practical automotive hydrogen storage systems). This Final Report summarizes the organization and execution of the 5-year research program to develop practical hydrogen storage materials for light duty vehicles. Major results from the MHCoE are summarized, along with suggestions for future research areas.

  17. Shielding efficiency of metal hydrides and borohydrides in fusion reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Vishvanath P.; Badiger, Nagappa M.; Gerward, Leif

    2016-01-01

    at energies 0.015 MeV to15 MeV, and for penetration depths up to 40 mean free paths. Fast-neutron shielding efficiency has been characterized by the effective neutron removal cross-section. It is shown that ZrH2 and VH2 are very good shielding materials for gamma rays and fast neutrons due to their suitable......Mass attenuation coefficients, mean free paths and exposure buildup factors have been used to characterize the shielding efficiency of metal hydrides and borohydrides, with high density of hydrogen. Gamma ray exposure buildup factors were computed using five-parameter geometric progression fitting...... combination of low-and high-Z elements. The present work should be useful for the selection and design of blankets and shielding, and for dose evaluation for components in fusion reactors....

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A FABRICATION PROCESS FOR SOL-GEL/METAL HYDRIDE COMPOSITE GRANULES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E; Eric Frickey, E; Leung Heung, L

    2004-02-23

    An external gelation process was developed to produce spherical granules that contain metal hydride particles in a sol-gel matrix. Dimensionally stable granules containing metal hydrides are needed for applications such as hydrogen separation and hydrogen purification that require columns containing metal hydrides. Gases must readily flow through the metal hydride beds in the columns. Metal hydrides reversibly absorb and desorb hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes. This is accompanied by significant volume changes that cause the metal hydride to break apart or decrepitate. Repeated cycling results in very fine metal hydride particles that are difficult to handle and contain. Fine particles tend to settle and pack making it more difficult to flow gases through a metal hydride bed. Furthermore, the metal hydrides can exert a significant force on the containment vessel as they expand. These problems associated with metal hydrides can be eliminated with the granulation process described in this report. Small agglomerates of metal hydride particles and abietic acid (a pore former) were produced and dispersed in a colloidal silica/water suspension to form the feed slurry. Fumed silica was added to increase the viscosity of the feed slurry which helped to keep the agglomerates in suspension. Drops of the feed slurry were injected into a 27-foot tall column of hot ({approx}70 C), medium viscosity ({approx}3000 centistokes) silicone oil. Water was slowly evaporated from the drops as they settled. The drops gelled and eventually solidified to form spherical granules. This process is referred to as external gelation. Testing was completed to optimize the design of the column, the feed system, the feed slurry composition, and the operating parameters of the column. The critical process parameters can be controlled resulting in a reproducible fabrication technique. The residual silicone oil on the surface of the granules was removed by washing in mineral spirits. The granules were

  19. On the thermodynamics of phase transitions in metal hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Vita, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    Metal hydrides are solutions of hydrogen in a metal, where phase transitions may occur depending on temperature, pressure etc. We apply Le Chatelier's principle of thermodynamics to a particular phase transition in TiH x , which can approximately be described as a second-order phase transition. We show that the fluctuations of the order parameter correspond to fluctuations both of the density of H+ ions and of the distance between adjacent H+ ions. Moreover, as the system approaches the transition and the correlation radius increases, we show -with the help of statistical mechanics-that the statistical weight of modes involving a large number of H+ ions (`collective modes') increases sharply, in spite of the fact that the Boltzmann factor of each collective mode is exponentially small. As a result, the interaction of the H+ ions with collective modes makes a tiny suprathermal fraction of the H+ population appear. Our results hold for similar transitions in metal deuterides, too. A violation of an -insofar undisputed-upper bound on hydrogen loading follows.

  20. Current Compensation of Hydrogen Ion Beam Extracted from PIG with Metal-Hydride Cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisko, V.N.; Sereda, I.N.; Klochko, E.V.; Tseluyko, A.F.; Afanas'eva, I.A.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of extracted hydrogen ion beam compensation from reflective discharge with metal-hydride cathode that sufficiently widens the possible field of applying plasma sources of such type is found. The evolution of energy distribution function of ions extracted along the axial direction from reflective discharge with metal-hydride cathode depending on external parameters of the discharge is investigated. The electron distribution functions which compensate hydrogen ion beam are determined

  1. Experimental study of a metal hydride driven braided artificial pneumatic muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoff, Alexandra; Kim, Kwang J.

    2009-12-01

    This paper reports the experimental study of a new actuation system that couples a braided artificial pneumatic muscle (BAPM) with a metal hydride driven hydrogen compressor to create a compact, lightweight, noiseless system capable of high forces and smooth actuation. The results indicate that the metal hydride-BAPM system has relatively good second law efficiency average of 30% over the desorption cycle. The thermal efficiency is low, due mainly to the highly endothermic chemical reaction that releases the stored hydrogen gas from the metal hydride. The force to metal hydride weight is very high (~14 000 NForce/kgMH) considering that this system has not been optimized to use the minimum amount of metal hydride required for a full actuation stroke of the fluidic muscle. Also, a thermodynamic model for the complete system is developed. The analysis is restricted in some aspects concerning the complexity of the hydriding/dehydriding chemical process of the system and the three-dimensional geometry of the reactor, but it provides a useful comparison to other actuation devices and clearly reveals the parameters necessary for optimization of the actuation system in future work. The system shows comparable work output and has the benefits of biological muscle-like properties for potential use in robotic systems.

  2. The storage of hydrogen in the form of metal hydrides: An application to thermal engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gales, C.; Perroud, P.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using LaNi56, FeTiH2, or MgH2 as metal hydride storage sytems for hydrogen fueled automobile engines is discussed. Magnesium copper and magnesium nickel hydrides studies indicate that they provide more stable storage systems than pure magnesium hydrides. Several test engines employing hydrogen fuel have been developed: a single cylinder motor originally designed for use with air gasoline mixture; a four-cylinder engine modified to run on an air hydrogen mixture; and a gas turbine.

  3. DETERMINATION OF METAL HYDRIDE SYSTEMS CHARACTERISTICS WHILE HEATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Kluchka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental dependence of the pressure of hydrogen in the hydride cartridge when it is heated is obtained. Experimental data prove the theoretical values with an accuracy of ≈ 6%.

  4. Electronic structure and optical properties of lightweight metal hydrides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Setten, M.J.; Popa, V.A.; Popa, V.A.; de Wijs, G.A.; Brocks, G.

    2007-01-01

    We study the dielectric functions of the series of simple hydrides LiH, NaH, MgH2, and AlH3, and of the complex hydrides Li3AlH6, Na3AlH6, LiAlH4, NaAlH4, and Mg(AlH4)2, using first-principles density-functional theory and GW calculations. All compounds are large gap insulators with GW

  5. Standardized hydrogen storage module with high utilization factor based on metal hydride-graphite composites

    OpenAIRE

    Bürger, Inga; Dieterich, Mila; Pohlmann, Carsten; Röntzsch, Lars; Linder, Marc

    2017-01-01

    In view of hydrogen based backup power systems or small-scale power2gas units, hydrogen storages based on metal hydrides offer a safe and reliable solution. By using Hydralloy C5 as suitable hydride forming alloy, the present tank design guarantees very simple operating conditions: pressures between 4 bar and 30 bar, temperatures between 15 C and 40 C and minimal efforts for thermal management in combination with fast and constant charging and discharging capabilities. The modular...

  6. Search for ideal metal hydrides for PEMFC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perng, T.-P.; Shen, C.-C.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Previously, an LmNi5-based alloy was prepared and its hydrogenation properties were studied. In order to make use of such a type of metal hydride for application in PEMFC, the room-temperature desorption pressure has to be adjusted to 1-2atm and the cyclic stability has to be maintained. In this study, the same alloy was partially substituted with Al and cyclic hydrogenation was conducted with different hydrogen loadings up to 3000 cycles at room temperature. The saturated hydrogen loadings in equilibrium were controlled at H/M = 0.75 and 1.0. The P-C-T curves after 1000, 2000, and 3000 cycles of test were collected at T=30, 50, and 70 o C. After 3000 cycles, it is observed that the maximum hydrogenation capacities of the samples for the loadings of 0.75 and 1.0 are reduced to 0.93 and 0.91, respectively. The plateaus do not change much for T=30 and 50 o C, but become little sloped without observable split at 70 o C. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the strains associated with repeated hydrogenation are isotropic for all samples. Both unsubstituted and Al-substituted alloys were then used to store hydrogen in a small cylinder with a diameter 10mm and length of 40 mm. The cylinder was connected to a small PEMFC for discharge test at room temperature. More than 540ml H2 was released at below 2atm and discharged to a capacity of 1200mAh. The hydrogenation properties of the alloys and design of the hydrogen storage cylinder for application in small portable PEMFCs for electronic devices are evaluated. The effect of Al substitution and hydrogen loading on cyclic hydrogenation property of the LmNi5-based alloy is also discussed. (author)

  7. Experimental study of a metal hydride driven braided artificial pneumatic muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderhoff, Alexandra; Kim, Kwang J

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the experimental study of a new actuation system that couples a braided artificial pneumatic muscle (BAPM) with a metal hydride driven hydrogen compressor to create a compact, lightweight, noiseless system capable of high forces and smooth actuation. The results indicate that the metal hydride–BAPM system has relatively good second law efficiency average of 30% over the desorption cycle. The thermal efficiency is low, due mainly to the highly endothermic chemical reaction that releases the stored hydrogen gas from the metal hydride. The force to metal hydride weight is very high (∼14 000 N Force /kg MH ) considering that this system has not been optimized to use the minimum amount of metal hydride required for a full actuation stroke of the fluidic muscle. Also, a thermodynamic model for the complete system is developed. The analysis is restricted in some aspects concerning the complexity of the hydriding/dehydriding chemical process of the system and the three-dimensional geometry of the reactor, but it provides a useful comparison to other actuation devices and clearly reveals the parameters necessary for optimization of the actuation system in future work. The system shows comparable work output and has the benefits of biological muscle-like properties for potential use in robotic systems

  8. Hydrogen generation using silicon nanoparticles and their mixtures with alkali metal hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patki, Gauri Dilip

    mole of Si. We compare our silicon nanoparticles (˜10nm diameter) with commercial silicon nanopowder (<100nm diameter) and ball-milled silicon powder (325 mesh). The increase in rate upon decreasing the particle size to 10 nm was even greater than would be expected based upon the increase in surface area. While specific surface area increased by a factor of 6 in going from <100 nm to ˜10 nm particles, the hydrogen production rate increased by a factor of 150. However, in all cases, silicon requires a base (e.g. NaOH, KOH, hydrazine) to catalyze its reaction with water. Metal hydrides are also promising hydrogen storage materials. The optimum metal hydride would possess high hydrogen storage density at moderate temperature and pressure, release hydrogen safely and controllably, and be stable in air. Alkali metal hydrides have high hydrogen storage density, but exhibit high uncontrollable reactivity with water. In an attempt to control this explosive nature while maintaining high storage capacity, we mixed our silicon nanoparticles with the hydrides. This has dual benefits: (1) the hydride- water reaction produces the alkali hydroxide needed for base-catalyzed silicon oxidation, and (2) dilution with 10nm coating by, the silicon may temper the reactivity of the hydride, making the process more controllable. Initially, we analyzed hydrolysis of pure alkali metal hydrides and alkaline earth metal hydrides. Lithium hydride has particularly high hydrogen gravimetric density, along with faster reaction kinetics than sodium hydride or magnesium hydride. On analysis of hydrogen production we found higher hydrogen yield from the silicon nanoparticle—metal hydride mixture than from pure hydride hydrolysis. The silicon-hydride mixtures using our 10nm silicon nanoparticles produced high hydrogen yield, exceeding the theoretical yield. Some evidence of slowing of the hydride reaction rate upon addition of silicon nanoparticles was observed.

  9. High-efficiency heat pump technology using metal hydrides (eco-energy city project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Y.; Harada, T.; Niikura, J.; Yamamoto, Y.; Suzuki, J. [Human Environmental Systems Development Center, Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd., Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan); Gamo, T. [Corporate Environmental Affairs Div., Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd., Kadoma, Osaka (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Metal hybrides are effective materials for utilizing hydrogen as a clean energy medium. That is, when the metal hydrides absorb or desorb the hydrogen, a large heat output of reaction occurs. So, the metal hydrides can be applied to a heat pump. We have researched on a high efficiency heat pump technology using their metal hydrides. In this report, a double effect type metal hydride heat pump configuration is described in which the waste heat of 160 C is recovered in a factory cite and transported to areas far distant from the industrial district. In the heat recovery unit, a low pressure hydrogen is converted into highly effective high pressure hydrogen by applying the metal hydrides. Other metal hydrides perform the parts of heating by absorbing the hydrogen and cooling by desorbing the hydrogen in the heat supply unit. One unit scale of the system is 3 kW class as the sum of heating and cooling. This system using the hydrogen absorbing alloy also has good energy storage characteristics and ambient hydrogen pressure self-safety control ability. Furthermore, this heating and cooling heat supply system is not harmful to the natural environment because it is a chlorofluorocarbon-free, and low noise type system. We have developed in the following element technologies to attain the above purposes, that is development of hydrogen absorbing alloys with high heat outputs and technologies to construct the heat pump system. This study is proceeded at present as one of the programs in New Sunshine Project, which aims for development of ingenious energy utilization technology to achieve reduction of primary energy consumption with keeping cultural and wealthy life and preventing deterioration of global environment. (orig.)

  10. Adhesion of oxide layer to metal-doped aluminum hydride surface: Density functional calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takezawa, Tomoki; Itoi, Junichi; Kannan, Takashi

    2017-07-01

    The density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out to evaluate the adhesion energy of the oxide layer to the metal-doped surface of hydrogen storage material, aluminum hydride (alane, AlH3). The total energy calculations using slab model revealed that the surface doping of some metals to aluminum hydride weakens the adhesion strength of the oxide layer. The influence of titanium, iron, cobalt, and zirconium doping on adhesion strength were evaluated. Except for iron doping, the adhesion strength becomes weak by the doping.

  11. Effects of electron doping on the stability of the metal hydride NaH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea-Amezcua, M. A.; Rivas-Silva, J. F.; de la Peña-Seaman, O.; Heid, R.; Bohnen, K. P.

    2017-04-01

    Alkali and alkali-earth metal hydrides have high volumetric and gravimetric hydrogen densities, but due to their high thermodynamic stability, they possess high dehydrogenation temperatures which may be reduced by transforming these compounds into less stable states/configurations. We present a systematic computational study of the electron doping effects on the stability of the alkali metal hydride NaH substituted with Mg, using the self-consistent version of the virtual crystal approximation to model the alloy Na1-x Mg x H. The phonon dispersions were studied paying special attention to the crystal stability and the correlations with the electronic structure taking into account the zero point energy contribution. We found that substitution of Na by Mg in the hydride invokes a reduction of the frequencies, leading to dynamical instabilities for Mg content of 25%. The microscopic origin of these instabilities could be related to the formation of ellipsoidal Fermi surfaces centered at the L point due to the metallization of the hydride by the Mg substitution. Applying the quasiharmonic approximation, thermodynamic properties like heat capacities, vibrational entropies and vibrational free energies as a function of temperature at zero pressure are obtained. These properties determine an upper temperature for the thermodynamic stability of the hydride, which decreases from 600 K for NaH to 300 K at 20% Mg concentration. This significant reduction of the stability range indicates that dehydrogenation could be favoured by electron doping of NaH.

  12. AB{sub 2} metal hydrides for high-pressure and narrow temperature interval applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagstroem, M.T.; Vanhanen, J.P.; Lund, P.D. [Helsinki Univ. of Technol., Hut (Finland). Dept. of Eng. Phys. and Math.

    1998-05-01

    AB{sub 2}-based metal hydrides have been studied in order to find high-capacity, low-hysteresis alloy-hydrogen systems for high-pressure applications with strict thermal boundary conditions. TiCrMn{sub 1-3x}Fe{sub 2x}V{sub x} (x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 or 0.2) and Ti{sub 1-y}Zr{sub y}(Cr{sub z}Mn{sub 1-z}){sub 2} (y=0.05 or 0.15 and z=0.5 or 0.6) alloys have been synthesized and characterised by XRD, ICP spectrometry and volumetric PCI measurements. In addition, the PCIs of two commercial (GfE) alloys, Hydralloy C2 and Hydralloy C0, have been measured and a PDSC study on Hydralloy C2 has been performed, in order to assess the feasibility of their basic hydriding properties for narrow temperature interval applications. In the Fe and V containing alloy-hydrogen systems, hysteresis can be overcome at the cost of reduced hydriding capacity, while in the Zr-containing hydrides, at the temperatures of this study (-80 to 60 C), hysteresis is not completely eliminated but the hydriding capacity remains good also at high temperatures. The interplay between these properties of hydrides is discussed, as well as the role of materials characteristics in specially constrained applications. (orig.) 17 refs.

  13. Characterisation of a 3 kW PEFC power system coupled with a metal hydride H 2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, C.; Del Corno, A.; Scagliotti, M.; Valli, C.

    Fuel cells and hydrogen storages, eventually integrated in hybrid power systems with hydrogen production from renewables, represent an interesting option for small stationary applications such as power generation in remote sites beyond the grid or back up power for telecom stations. This paper deals with the CESI RICERCA experiences on a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) power system fuelled with the hydrogen supplied by a metal hydride storage. The power system consists of three ReliOn Independence 1000 PEFC units, a battery bank and a 3.3 kWe DC-AC converter (inverter). The hydrogen storage is made of LaNi 5 type powders and can supply more than 6 Nm 3 of hydrogen per discharge cycle. The PEFC units, the inverter and the hydrogen storage performances were characterised. These subsystems were integrated into an automated power generation system and connected to a local grid including other power generators, power quality analysers, energy storage systems and electrical loads. The main features of the integrated system are analysed herein. In particular the overall system stability upon cycling, the heat transfer issues and the possibility of recovering the fuel cell waste heat to extract hydrogen from the metal hydrides are discussed. Finally, during grid-connected operations, the power quality indexes were measured and found in agreement with the EN 50160 standard.

  14. Efficient hydrogen storage in up-scale metal hydride tanks as possible metal hydride compression agents equipped with aluminium extended surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Gkanas, Evangelos I.; Grant, David M.; Khzouz, Martin; Stuart, Alastair D.; Manickam, Kandavel; Walker, Gavin S.

    2016-01-01

    In the current work, a three-dimensional computational study regarding coupled heat and mass transfer during both the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation process in upscale cylindrical metal hydride reactors is presented, analysed and optimized. Three different heat management scenarios were examined at the degree to which they provide improved system performance. The three scenarios were: 1) plain embedded cooling/heating tubes, 2) transverse finned tubes and 3) longitudinal finned tubes. A de...

  15. Development of Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems Based on Complex Metal Hydrides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten B. Ley

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review describes recent research in the development of tank systems based on complex metal hydrides for thermolysis and hydrolysis. Commercial applications using complex metal hydrides are limited, especially for thermolysis-based systems where so far only demonstration projects have been performed. Hydrolysis-based systems find their way in space, naval, military and defense applications due to their compatibility with proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cells. Tank design, modeling, and development for thermolysis and hydrolysis systems as well as commercial applications of hydrolysis systems are described in more detail in this review. For thermolysis, mostly sodium aluminum hydride containing tanks were developed, and only a few examples with nitrides, ammonia borane and alane. For hydrolysis, sodium borohydride was the preferred material whereas ammonia borane found less popularity. Recycling of the sodium borohydride spent fuel remains an important part for their commercial viability.

  16. Development of Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems Based on Complex Metal Hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Morten B.; Meggouh, Mariem; Moury, Romain; Peinecke, Kateryna; Felderhoff, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This review describes recent research in the development of tank systems based on complex metal hydrides for thermolysis and hydrolysis. Commercial applications using complex metal hydrides are limited, especially for thermolysis-based systems where so far only demonstration projects have been performed. Hydrolysis-based systems find their way in space, naval, military and defense applications due to their compatibility with proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Tank design, modeling, and development for thermolysis and hydrolysis systems as well as commercial applications of hydrolysis systems are described in more detail in this review. For thermolysis, mostly sodium aluminum hydride containing tanks were developed, and only a few examples with nitrides, ammonia borane and alane. For hydrolysis, sodium borohydride was the preferred material whereas ammonia borane found less popularity. Recycling of the sodium borohydride spent fuel remains an important part for their commercial viability. PMID:28793541

  17. Analysis of hydrogen storage in metal hydride tanks introducing an induced phase transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondor, Germain; Lexcellent, Christian [Institut FEMTO-ST, Departement de Mecanique Appliquee (LMARC), Universite de Franche-Comte, UMR CNRS 6174, 24 Chemin de l' Epitaphe, 25000 Besancon (France)

    2009-07-15

    Hydrogen absorption in a metal hydride tank is generally studied based on a heat and mass transfer analysis. The originality of this investigation is that the phase transformation from a solid ({alpha} phase) to hydride ({beta} phase) solution is included in the hydrogen absorption mechanism. Toward this end, a modelling of the equilibrium pressure, composition (absorbed or desorbed hydrogen atoms per metal atoms), and isothermal curves of a LaNi{sub 5} alloy is performed. Moreover, a kinetic model is developed taking into account the steps of hydrogen absorption and desorption (i.e., physisorption, chemisorption, surface penetration, nucleation and growth of the hydride phase and diffusion). Simulations are then performed to show the impact of external conditions (hydrogen gas pressure and temperature) and parameter values (wall heat transfer, conductivities of gas and solid, viscosity, porosity, etc.) on refilling time. The physical nature of the phase transformation associated to the hydrogen storage remains an open problem. (author)

  18. Coated metal hydrides for stationary energy storage applications

    OpenAIRE

    Mistry, Priyen C.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explores suitable materials for energy stores for stationary applications, specifically a prototype hydrogen store, domestic thermal store operating between 25-100 C and a moderate thermal store for a concentrated solar power (CSP) plant operating at 400 C. The approach incorporated a unique coating technique to deliver prototype hydrogen and thermal storage media, where the coating could offer commercial advantages, for example, in the form of hydride activation and enhanced kine...

  19. The impact of carbon materials on the hydrogen storage properties of light metal hydrides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adelhelm, P.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313907854; de Jongh, P.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/186125372

    2011-01-01

    The safe and efficient storage of hydrogen is still one of the remaining challenges towards fuel cell powered cars. Metal hydrides are a promising class of materials as they allow the storage of large amounts of hydrogen in a small volume at room temperature and low pressures. However, usually the

  20. Characterization of the whiskerlike products formed by hydriding magnesium metal powders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herley, P. J.; Jones, W.; Vigeholm, Bjørn

    1985-01-01

    The structure of filamentary crystals produced during the hydriding of magnesium powder has been studies in detail. The needles of small dimensions (typically 0.5 μm in diameter) have been identified by electron analytical techniques to be oriented microcrystals of metallic magnesium...

  1. Heat exchanger selection and design analyses for metal hydride heat pump systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Voskuilen, Tyler G.; Waters, Essene L.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a design analysis for the development of highly efficient heat exchangers within stationary metal hydride heat pumps. The design constraints and selected performance criteria are applied to three representative heat exchangers. The proposed thermal model can be applied to sele...

  2. Variations of structure and magnetic properties in UTGe hydrides (T=late transition metal)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamska, A.M.; Havela, L.; Skourski, Y.; Andreev, Alexander V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 515, FEB (2012), s. 171-179 ISSN 0925-8388 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : actinide allos and compounds * metal hydrides * crystal structure * magnetic meaurements * high magnetic fields Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.390, year: 2012

  3. Hydride Microstructure at the Metal-Oxide Interface of Zircaloy-4 from H.B. Robinson Nuclear Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinbiz, Mahmut N [ORNL; Edmondson, Philip D [ORNL; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the hydride rim microstructure at the metal-oxide interface of Zircaloy-4 cladding segment removed from H.B. Robinson Nuclear Reactor by utilizing high resolution electron microscopy techniques with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the NSUF Rapid Turnout Experiment program. A complex stacking and orientation of hydride platelets has been observed below the sub-oxide layer. Furthermore, radial hydride platelets have been observed. EDS signals of both Fe and Cr has been reduced within hydrides whereas EDS signal of Sn is unaffected.

  4. Interaction of electrons with light metal hydrides in the transmission electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongming; Wakasugi, Takenobu; Isobe, Shigehito; Hashimoto, Naoyuki; Ohnuki, Somei

    2014-12-01

    Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation of light metal hydrides is complicated by the instability of these materials under electron irradiation. In this study, the electron kinetic energy dependences of the interactions of incident electrons with lithium, sodium and magnesium hydrides, as well as the constituting element effect on the interactions, were theoretically discussed, and electron irradiation damage to these hydrides was examined using in situ TEM. The results indicate that high incident electron kinetic energy helps alleviate the irradiation damage resulting from inelastic or elastic scattering of the incident electrons in the TEM. Therefore, observations and characterizations of these materials would benefit from increased, instead decreased, TEM operating voltage. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Numerical simulation of coupled heat and mass transfer in metal hydride-based hydrogen storage reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthukumar, P.; Ramana, S. Venkata

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a numerical investigation of two-dimensional heat and mass transfer during absorption of hydrogen in a cylindrical metal hydride bed containing MmNi 6.4 Al 0.4 is presented. By considering the variation in cooling fluid temperature along the axial direction (variable wall temperature), the changes in hydrogen concentration, hydride equilibrium pressure, and average hydride bed temperature at different axial locations are presented. The average bed temperature profiles and hydrogen storage capacities at different supply pressures showed good agreement with the experimental data reported in the literature. As the absorption progresses, the change in cooling fluid temperature along the axial direction is found to decrease and becomes unchanged at the end of the absorption process. The effect of variable wall temperature on hydrogen absorption rate for different supply pressures and hydride bed thicknesses are presented. The effect of variable wall temperature on absorption time is found to be significant for the hydride beds of thickness of above 7.5 mm. For a supply pressure of 20 bar, the maximum difference in absorption time between variable wall temperature and constant wall temperature boundary conditions is about 300 s for 17.5 mm bed thickness

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Metal Hydride/Carbon Aerogel Composites for Hydrogen Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuen-Song Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two materials currently of interest for onboard lightweight hydrogen storage applications are sodium aluminum hydride (NaAlH4, a complex metal hydride, and carbon aerogels (CAs, a light porous material connected by several spherical nanoparticles. The objectives of the present work have been to investigate the synthesis, characterization, and hydrogenation behavior of Pd-, Ti- or Fe-doped CAs, NaAlH4, and MgH2 nanocomposites. The diameters of Pd nanoparticles onto CA’s surface and BET surface area of CAs were 3–10 nm and 700–900 m2g−1, respectively. The H2 storage capacity of metal hydrides has been studied using high-pressure TGA microbalance and they were 4.0, 2.7, 2.1, and 1.2 wt% for MgH2-FeTi-CAs, MgH2-FeTi, CAs-Pd, and 8 mol% Ti-doped NaAlH4, respectively, at room temperature. Carbon aerogels with higher surface area and mesoporous structures facilitated hydrogen diffusion and adsorption, which accounted for its extraordinary hydrogen storage phenomenon. The hydrogen adsorption abilities of CAs notably increased after inclusion of metal hydrides by the “hydrogen spillover” mechanisms.

  7. Sealed CylindrIcal Silver Metal Hydride Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA Space Science missions require energy systems with high energy density with power levels up to several kW. Advances in mission electronics technology have...

  8. Gas desorption properties of ammonia borane and metal hydride composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matin, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text': Ammonia borane (NH 3 BH 3 ) has been of great interest owing to its ideal combination of low molecular weight and high H 2 storage capacity of 19.6 mass %, which exceeds the current capacity of gasoline. DOE's year 2015 targets involve gravimetric as well as volumetric energy densities. In this work, we have investigated thermal decomposition of ammonia borane and calcium hydride composites at different molar ratio. The samples were prepared by planetary ball milling under hydrogen gas atmosphere pressure of 1Mpa at room temperature for 2, and 10 hours. The gas desorption properties were examined by thermal desorption mass spectroscopy (TDMS). The identification of phases was carried out by X-ray diffraction. The results obtain were shown in fig (a),(b),and (c). Hydrogen desorption properties were observed at all molar ratios, but the desorption temperature is significantly lower at around 70 o C at molar ratio 1:1 as shown in fig (c), and unwanted gas (ammonia) emissions were remarkably suppressed by mixing with the calcium hydride. (author)

  9. Metal hydrides as electrode/catalyst materials for oxygen evolution/reduction in electrochemical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor); Fultz, Brent (Inventor); Witham, Charles K. (Inventor); Bowman, Robert C. (Inventor); Hightower, Adrian (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An at least ternary metal alloy of the formula, AB.sub.(5-Y)X(.sub.y), is claimed. In this formula, A is selected from the rare earth elements, B is selected from the elements of groups 8, 9, and 10 of the periodic table of the elements, and X includes at least one of the following: antimony, arsenic, and bismuth. Ternary or higher-order substitutions, to the base AB.sub.5 alloys, that form strong kinetic interactions with the predominant metals in the base metal hydride are used to form metal alloys with high structural integrity after multiple cycles of hydrogen sorption.

  10. Composite metal-hydrogen electrodes for metal-hydrogen batteries. Final report, October 1, 1993 - April 15, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruckman, M.W.; Strongin, M.; Weismann, H.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop and conduct a feasibility study of metallic thin films (multilayered and alloy composition) produced by advanced sputtering techniques for use as anodes in Ni-metal hydrogen batteries that would be deposited as distinct anode, electrolyte and cathode layers in thin film devices. The materials could also be incorporated in secondary consumer batteries (i.e. type AF(4/3 or 4/5)) which use electrodes in the form of tapes. The project was based on pioneering studies of hydrogen uptake by ultra-thin Pd-capped Nb films, these studies suggested that materials with metal-hydrogen ratios exceeding those of commercially available metal hydride materials and fast hydrogen charging and discharging kinetics could be produced. The project initially concentrated on gas phase and electrochemical studies of Pd-capped niobium films in laboratory-scale NiMH cells. This extended the pioneering work to the wet electrochemical environment of NiMH batteries and exploited advanced synchrotron radiation techniques not available during the earlier work to conduct in-situ studies of such materials during hydrogen charging and discharging. Although batteries with fast charging kinetics and hydrogen-metal ratios approaching unity could be fabricated, it was found that oxidation, cracking and corrosion in aqueous solutions made pure Nb films and multilayers poor candidates for battery application. The project emphasis shifted to alloy films based on known elemental materials used for NiMH batteries. Although commercial NiMH anode materials contain many metals, it was found that 0.24 μm thick sputtered Zr-Ni films cycled at least 50 times with charging efficiencies exceeding 95% and [H]/[M] ratios of 0.7-1.0. Multilayered or thicker Zr-Ni films could be candidates for a thin film NiMH battery that may have practical applications as an integrated power source for modern electronic devices

  11. Interface Enthalpy-Entropy Competition in Nanoscale Metal Hydrides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Patelli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the effect of the interfacial free energy on the thermodynamics of hydrogen sorption in nano-scaled materials. When the enthalpy and entropy terms are the same for all interfaces, as in an isotropic bi-phasic system, one obtains a compensation temperature, which does not depend on the system size nor on the relative phase abundance. The situation is different and more complex in a system with three or more phases, where the interfaces have different enthalpy and entropy. We also consider the possible effect of elastic strains on the stability of the hydride phase and on hysteresis. We compare a simple model with experimental data obtained on two different systems: (1 bi-phasic nanocomposites where ultrafine TiH2 crystallite are dispersed within a Mg nanoparticle and (2 Mg nanodots encapsulated by different phases.

  12. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  13. Feasibility study of a metal hydride hydrogen store for a self-sufficient solar hydrogen energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.P.; Lund, P.D.; Hagstroem, M.T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Dept. of Technical Physics

    1996-10-01

    The feasibility of using metal hydride-hydrogen storage in a self-sufficient solar hydrogen energy system is studied. Several potential commercial and non-commercial metal hydrides are considered to find a material having a low {Delta}H value, a low hysteresis effect, gentle P-C -T, plateau slopes and a high hydrogen storage capacity. A 1 N m{sup 3} metal hydride container employing a commercial Hydralloy C15 metal hydride with the proper P-C-T curves is analysed in more detail. As the thermal behaviour of the container is crucial in our application, steady-state and time-dependent thermal properties of the container are measured and the respective models are derived. The metal hydride container is also tested under realistic conditions to get further operational experience on its technical feasibility. Based on this study, low-temperature metal hydrides seem to be technically and economically feasible for small-scale self-sufficient solar hydrogen systems in which high volumetric energy density is needed due to limited space. (Author)

  14. In-bed accountability of tritium in production scale metal hydride storage beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    An ''in-bed accountability'' (IBA) flowing gas calorimetric measurement method has been developed and implemented to eliminate the need to remove tritium from production scale metal hydride storage beds for inventory measurement purposes. Six-point tritium IBA calibration curves have been completed for two, 390 gram tritium metal hydride storage beds. The calibration curves for the two tritium beds are similar to those obtained from the ''cold'' test program. Tritium inventory errors at the 95 percent confidence level ranged from ± 7.3 to 8.6 grams for the cold test results compared to ± 4.2 to 7.5 grams obtained for the two tritium calibrated beds

  15. Study of the factors influencing the metals solubilisation from a mixture of waste batteries by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanong, Kulchaya; Coudert, Lucie; Chartier, Myriam; Mercier, Guy; Blais, Jean-François

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents an innovative process for the recovery of valuable metals from a mixture of spent batteries. Different types of batteries, including alkaline, zinc-carbon (Zn-C), nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd), nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH), lithium ion (Li-ion) and lithium metallic (Li-M) batteries, were mixed according to the proportion of the Canadian sales of batteries. A Box-Behnken design was applied to find the optimum leaching conditions allowing a maximum of valuable metal removals from a mixture of spent batteries in the presence of an inorganic acid and a reducing agent. The results highlighted the positive effect of sodium metabisulfite on the performance of metals removal, especially for Mn. The solid/liquid ratio and the concentration of H 2 SO 4 were the main factors affecting the leaching behavior of valuable metals (Zn, Mn, Cd, Ni) present in spent batteries. Finally, the optimum leaching conditions were found as follows: one leaching step, solid/liquid ratio = 10.9%, [H 2 SO 4 ] = 1.34 M, sodium metabisulfite (Na 2 S 2 O 5 ) = 0.45 g/g of battery powder and retention time = 45 min. Under such conditions, the removal yields achieved were 94% for Mn, 81% for Cd, 99% for Zn, 96% for Co and 68% for Ni.

  16. High Density Hydrogen Storage in Metal Hydride Composites with Air Cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Dieterich, Mila; Bürger, Inga; Linder, Marc

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In order to combine fluctuating renewable energy sources with the actual demand of electrical energy, storages are essential. The surplus energy can be stored as hydrogen to be used either for mobile use, chemical synthesis or reconversion when needed. One possibility to store the hydrogen gas at high volumetric densities, moderate temperatures and low pressures is based on a chemical reaction with metal hydrides. Such storages must be able to absorb and desorb the hydrogen qu...

  17. Generalized computational model for high-pressure metal hydrides with variable thermal properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rokni, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    This study considers a detailed 1D fueling model applied to a metal hydride system, with Ti1.1CrMn as the absorbing alloy, to predict the weight fraction of the absorbed hydrogen and the solid bed temperature. Dependencies of thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity upon pressure...... is estimated to be approximately 10%. Copyright (C) 2015, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  18. Alternatives for metal hydride storage bed heating and cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, I.A.; Ramirez, F.B.; Koonce, J.E.; Ward, D.E.; Heung, L.K.; Weimer, M.; Berkebile, W.; French, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    The reaction of hydrogen isotopes with the storage bed hydride material is exothermic during absorption and endothermic during desorption. Therefore, storage bed operation requires a cooling system to remove heat during absorption, and a heating system to add the heat needed for desorption. Three storage bed designs and their associated methods of heating and cooling and accountability are presented within. The first design is the current RTF (Replacement Tritium Facility) nitrogen heating and cooling system. The second design uses natural convection cooling with ambient glove box nitrogen and electrical resistance for heating. This design is referred to as the Naturally Cooled/Electrically Heated (NCEH) design. The third design uses forced convection cooling with ambient glove box nitrogen and electrical resistance for heating. The design is referred to as the Forced Convection Cooled/Electrically Heated (FCCEH) design. In this report the operation, storage bed design, and equipment required for heating, cooling, and accountability of each design are described. The advantages and disadvantages of each design are listed and discussed. Based on the information presented within, it is recommended that the NCEH design be selected for further development

  19. Experimental investigations of adsorption characteristics and porosity of activated metal hydride powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, A. N.; Romanov, I. A.; Kuleshov, V. N.; Dunikov, D. O.

    2017-11-01

    In the present work non-uniformities of microstructure, porosity and adsorption characteristics of La0.9Ce0.1Ni5 metal hydride by the height of the bed are investigated. A 500 g metal hydride bed was cycled inside a vertical metal hydride reactor and three samples was taken from top, middle and bottom of the bed. Non-uniform particle distributions and bed densification were observed, the bed porosity is around 0.58-0.67 at the top and middle parts of the bed and 0.46-0.54 at the bottom, where a dense and robust agglomerate was formed during the cycling. Specific surface area measured by nitrogen adsorption methods is 1.8-2.1 m2/g at the top of the bed, 4.2-5.4 m2/g in the middle and 1.1-1.5 m2/g at the bottom. The maximum is connected with higher degree of particle dispersion without effects from particle agglomeration.

  20. Minimum Entropy Generation Theorem Investigation and Optimization of Metal Hydride Alloy Hydrogen Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chang Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to carry out numerical simulation of the hydrogen storage on exothermic reaction of metal hydride LaNi5 alloy container. In addition to accelerating the reaction speed of the internal metal hydride by internal control tube water-cooled mode, analyze via the application of second law of thermodynamics the principle of entropy generation. Use COMSOL Mutilphysics 4.3 a to engage in finite element method value simulation on two-dimensional axisymmetric model. Also on the premise that the internal control tube parameters the radius ri, the flow rate U meet the metal hydride saturation time, observe the reaction process of two parameters on the tank, entropy distribution and the results of the accumulated entropy. And try to find the internal tube parameter values of the minimum entropy, whose purpose is to be able to identify the reaction process and the reaction results of internal tank’s optimum energy conservation.

  1. Metal-air battery research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrin, E.; Cooper, J. F.

    1982-05-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Metal-air Battery Program during the calendar year 1981. The principal objective is to develop a refuelable battery as an automotive energy source for general-purpose electric vehicles and to conduct engineering demonstrations of its ability to provide vehicles with the range, acceleration, and rapid refueling capability of current internal-combustion-engine automobiles. The second objective is to develop an electrically-rechargeable battery for specific-mission electric vehicles, such as commuter vehicles, that can provide low-cost transportation. The development progression is to: (1) develop a mechanically rechargeable aluminum-air power cell using model electrodes, (2) develop cost-effective anode and cathode materials and structures as required to achieve reliability and efficiency goals, and to establish the economic competitiveness of this technology, and (3) develop and integrated propulsion system utilizing the power cell.

  2. Topotactic Solid-State Metal Hydride Reductions of Sr2MnO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernden, Bradley C; Lussier, Joey A; Bieringer, Mario

    2015-05-04

    We report novel details regarding the reactivity and mechanism of the solid-state topotactic reduction of Sr2MnO4 using a series of solid-state metal hydrides. Comprehensive details describing the active reducing species are reported and comments on the reductive mechanism are provided, where it is shown that more than one electron is being donated by H(-). Commonly used solid-state hydrides LiH, NaH, and CaH2, were characterized in terms of reducing power. In addition the unexplored solid-state hydrides MgH2, SrH2, and BaH2 are evaluated as potential solid-state reductants and characterized in terms of their reductive reactivities. These 6 group I and II metal hydrides show the following trend in terms of reactivity: MgH2 < SrH2 < LiH ≈ CaH2 ≈ BaH2 < NaH. The order of the reductants are discussed in terms of metal electronegativity and bond strengths. NaH and the novel use of SrH2 allowed for targeted synthesis of reduced Sr2MnO(4-x) (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.37) phases. The enhanced control during synthesis demonstrated by this soft chemistry approach has allowed for a more comprehensive and systematic evaluation of Sr2MnO(4-x) phases than previously reported phases prepared by high temperature methods. Sr2MnO3.63(1) has for the first time been shown to be monoclinic by powder X-ray diffraction and the oxidative monoclinic to tetragonal transition occurs at 450 °C.

  3. Standardized hydrogen storage module with high utilization factor based on metal hydride-graphite composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürger, Inga; Dieterich, Mila; Pohlmann, Carsten; Röntzsch, Lars; Linder, Marc

    2017-02-01

    In view of hydrogen based backup power systems or small-scale power2gas units, hydrogen storages based on metal hydrides offer a safe and reliable solution. By using Hydralloy C5 as suitable hydride forming alloy, the present tank design guarantees very simple operating conditions: pressures between 4 bar and 30 bar, temperatures between 15 °C and 40 °C and minimal efforts for thermal management in combination with fast and constant charging and discharging capabilities. The modular tank consists of 4 layers with 5 reactor tubes each that are filled with metal hydride-graphite composites of a diameter of 21 mm. Experiments show that each layer of this tank is able to desorb the desired amount of hydrogen for a fuel cell operation at electrical power of 160 Wel for 100 min reaching a utilization factor of 93% of the stored hydrogen at RC. Furthermore, the experimental results of modularity, increasing loads and the electric air ventilation are presented.

  4. Stability of alkali-metal hydrides: effects of n-type doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea Amezcua, Monica Araceli; de La Peña Seaman, Omar; Rivas Silva, Juan Francisco; Heid, Rolf; Bohnen, Klaus-Peter

    Metal hydrides could be considered ideal solid-state hydrogen storage systems, they have light weight and high hydrogen volumetric densities, but the hydrogen desorption process requires excessively high temperatures due to their high stability. Efforts have been performed to improve their dehydrogenation properties, based on the introduction of defects, impurities and doping. We present a systematic study of the n-type (electronic) doping effects on the stability of two alkali-metal hydrides: Na1-xMgxH and Li1-xBexH. These systems have been studied within the framework of density functional perturbation theory, using a mixed-basis pseudopotential method and the self-consistent version of the virtual crystal approximation to model the doping. The full-phonon dispersions are analyzed for several doping content, paying special attention to the crystal stability. It is found a doping content threshold for each system, where they are close to dynamical instabilities, which are related to charge redistribution in interstitial zones. Applying the quasiharmonic approximation, the vibrational free energy, the linear thermal expansion and heat capacities are obtained for both hydrides systems and are analyzed as a function of the doping content. This work is partially supported by the VIEP-BUAP 2016 and CONACYT-México (No.221807) projects.

  5. Complex hydrides as room-temperature solid electrolytes for rechargeable batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, P. E.; Blanchard, D.; Matsuo, M.; Udovic, T. J.; Orimo, S.

    A central goal in current battery research is to increase the safety and energy density of Li-ion batteries. Electrolytes nowadays typically consist of lithium salts dissolved in organic solvents. Solid electrolytes could facilitate safer batteries with higher capacities, as they are compatible with

  6. Performance analysis of a single stage four bed metal hydride cooling system, part A: Influence of mass recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Kevin; Prakash Maiya, M.; Srinivasa Murthy, S. [Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, 600036, Chennai (India)

    2003-01-01

    The concept of mass recovery in metal hydride systems is studied with a single stage multi-bed cooling system as example. Mass recovery results in variation of bed temperatures due to removal or addition of heat of desorption or absorption respectively. Coefficient of performance and cold output increase while required heat input decreases for the mass recovery cycle. Thus mass recovery between hydride reactors is found to improve system performance compared to that of a basic system. (authors)

  7. Development of complex hydride-based all-solid-state lithium ion battery applying low melting point electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shohei; Kawaji, Jun; Yoshida, Koji; Unemoto, Atsushi; Orimo, Shin-ichi

    2017-08-01

    A thermally durable all-solid-state lithium ion battery composed of a complex hydride, oxide electrolytes, and LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 active material is developed. This battery exhibits a discharge capacity of 56 mAh g-1, and the tenth capacity retention ratio is 29% at 150 °C owing to the large contact resistance between the electrolyte layer and the composite positive electrode layer. This large contact resistance is reduced by introducing an adhesive layer comprised of a mixture of LiBH4 and LiNH2 that is easily melted by thermal treatment and fills the voids and pores at the interface between the two layers. As a result, repeated charge-discharge cycles are successfully demonstrated at 150 °C with a high discharge capacity and discharge capacity retention ratio. The first discharge capacity is enhanced to 114 mAh g-1 and the capacity retention ratio at the tenth cycle is improved to 71%. These results demonstrate that using an adhesive layer is an effective measure to reduce the contact resistance and thereby enhance the performance of the battery.

  8. OPTIMIZATION OF INTERNAL HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE TANKS UTILIZING METAL HYDRIDES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, S.; Tamburello, D.; Hardy, B.; Anton, D.; Gorbounov, M.; Cognale, C.; van Hassel, B.; Mosher, D.

    2011-07-14

    Two detailed, unit-cell models, a transverse fin design and a longitudinal fin design, of a combined hydride bed and heat exchanger are developed in COMSOL{reg_sign} Multiphysics incorporating and accounting for heat transfer and reaction kinetic limitations. MatLab{reg_sign} scripts for autonomous model generation are developed and incorporated into (1) a grid-based and (2) a systematic optimization routine based on the Nelder-Mead downhill simplex method to determine the geometrical parameters that lead to the optimal structure for each fin design that maximizes the hydrogen stored within the hydride. The optimal designs for both the transverse and longitudinal fin designs point toward closely-spaced, small cooling fluid tubes. Under the hydrogen feed conditions studied (50 bar), a 25 times improvement or better in the hydrogen storage kinetics will be required to simultaneously meet the Department of Energy technical targets for gravimetric capacity and fill time. These models and methodology can be rapidly applied to other hydrogen storage materials, such as other metal hydrides or to cryoadsorbents, in future work.

  9. Non-stoichiometric AB5 alloys for metal hydride electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, James J.; Adzic, Gordana D.; Johnson, John R.; Vogt, Thomas; McBreen, James

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a non-stoichiometric alloy comprising a composition having the formula AB.sub.5+X an atomic ratio wherein A is selected from the group consisting of the rare earth metals, yttrium, mischmetal, or a combination thereof; B is nickel and tin, or nickel and tin and at least a third element selected from the group consisting of the elements in group IVA of the periodic table, aluminum, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper, antimony or a combination thereof; X is greater than 0 and less than or equal to about 2.0; and wherein at least one substituted A site is occupied by at least one of the B elements. An electrode incorporating said alloy and an electrochemical cell incorporating said electrode are also described.

  10. Experimental Hydrogen Plant with Metal Hydrides to Store and Generate Electrical Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzatti, Frank; Nizolli, Vinícius; Ferrigolo, Fredi Zancan; Farret, Felix Alberto; de Mello, Marcos Augusto Silva

    2016-02-01

    Generation of electrical energy with renewable sources is interruptible due to the primary energy characteristics (sun, wind, hydro, etc.). In these cases, it is necessary to use energy storage so increasing penetrability of these sources connected to the distribution system. This paper discusses in details some equipment and accessories of an integrated power plant using fuel cell stack, electrolyzer and metal hydrides. During the plant operation were collected the power consumption data and established the efficiency of each plant component. These data demonstrated an overall efficiency of about 11% due to the low efficiencies of the commercial electrolyzers and power inverters used in the experiments.

  11. Pressure-induced hydrogen-dominant metallic state in aluminum hydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharenko, Igor; Eremets, M I; Hanfland, M; Tse, J S; Amboage, M; Yao, Y; Trojan, I A

    2008-02-01

    Two structural transitions in covalent aluminum hydride AlH3 were characterized at high pressure. A metallic phase stable above 100 GPa is found to have a remarkably simple cubic structure with shortest first-neighbor H-H distances ever measured except in H2 molecule. Although the high-pressure phase is predicted to be superconductive, this was not observed experimentally down to 4 K over the pressure range 120-164 GPa. The results indicate that the superconducting behavior may be more complex than anticipated.

  12. Cathode architectures for alkali metal / oxygen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, Steven J; Nimon, Vitaliy; De Jonghe, Lutgard C; Volfkovich, Yury; Bograchev, Daniil

    2015-01-13

    Electrochemical energy storage devices, such as alkali metal-oxygen battery cells (e.g., non-aqueous lithium-air cells), have a cathode architecture with a porous structure and pore composition that is tailored to improve cell performance, especially as it pertains to one or more of the discharge/charge rate, cycle life, and delivered ampere-hour capacity. A porous cathode architecture having a pore volume that is derived from pores of varying radii wherein the pore size distribution is tailored as a function of the architecture thickness is one way to achieve one or more of the aforementioned cell performance improvements.

  13. Mathematical model of a NiOOH/metal hydride cell. Final report, September 15, 1993--November 14, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R.E.; Popov, B.N.

    1996-12-31

    One of the objectives of work on the nickel/metal hydride cell has been to develop a mathematical model of the performance of the cell. This is a summary of work to date and is meant to be a Final Report of the BES project. Mathematical model of the nickel/metal hydride cell depends on the kinetics, thermodynamics, and transport properties of the metal hydride electrode. Consequently, investigations were carried out to determine: (1) the exchange current density and the equilibrium potential as a function of hydrogen content in the electrode; (2) the hydrogen diffusion coefficient in the bulk of the alloy; (3) the hydrogen reaction rate order; (4) the symmetry factor for hydrogen evolution reaction and (5) to determine the reaction mechanisms of the hydrogen charge and discharge processes including overcharge and overdischarge mechanism.

  14. Metal hydride/chemical heat-pump development project. Phase I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argabright, T.A.

    1982-02-01

    The metal hydride/chemical heat pump (MHHP) is a chemical heat pump containing two hydrides for the storage and/or recovery of thermal energy. It utilizes the heat of reaction of hydrogen with specific metal alloys. The MHHP design can be tailored to provide heating and/or cooling or temperature upgrading over a wide range of input and ambient temperatures. The system can thus be used with a variety of heat sources including waste heat, solar energy or a fossil fuel. The conceptual design of the MHHP was developed. A national market survey including a study of applications and market sectors was conducted. The technical tasks including conceptual development, thermal and mechanical design, laboratory verification of design and material performance, cost analysis and the detailed design of the Engineering Development Test Unit (EDTU) were performed. As a result of the market study, the temperature upgrade cycle of the MHHP was chosen for development. Operating temperature ranges for the upgrader were selected to be from 70 to 110/sup 0/C (160 to 230/sup 0/F) for the source heat and 140 to 190/sup 0/C (280 to 375/sup 0/F) for the product heat. These ranges are applicable to many processes in industries such as food, textile, paper and pulp, and chemical. The hydride pair well suited for these temperatures is LaNi/sub 5//LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 5/Al/sub 0/ /sub 5/. The EDTU was designed for the upgrade cycle. It is a compact finned tube arrangement enclosed in a pressure vessel. This design incorporates high heat transfer and low thermal mass in a system which maximizes the coefficient of performance (COP). It will be constructed in Phase II. Continuation of this effort is recommended.

  15. Design and fabricate a metallic hydride heat pump with a cooling capacity of 9000 BTU/H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golben, P. M.; Huston, E. L.

    1989-02-01

    Existing Environmental Control Equipment (ECE) for truck mounted electronic communication shelters are powered by Army generator sets. Fully 50 percent of the generated power is consumed by the ECE. Innovative ECE technology was sought to reduce this electrical load. The heat content of the diesel generator exhaust gas was viewed as a potential waste heat source for thermally driven ECE systems. Metal hydride heat pumps were proposed as for this application. The purpose of this contract was to produce a prototype metal hydride air conditioner of 9000 BTU/H capacity and compare system size, weight, electric power requirements and performance with a standard Army air conditioner of the same capacity.

  16. Bed geometries, fueling strategies and optimization of heat exchanger designs in metal hydride storage systems for automotive applications: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Dornheim, Martin; Sloth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This review presents recent developments for effective heat management systems to be integrated in metal hydride storage tanks, and investigates the performance improvements and limitations of each particular solution. High pressures and high temperatures metal hydrides can lead to different design...... considerations, which are discussed in the paper. Studies analyzing design procedures based upon different geometrical solutions and/or operation strategies are considered, and their related advantages are explained. Restrictions to the validity of particular results are also evaluated.Major attention is here...... to the reader as a helpful tool for future design considerations....

  17. First-Principles Modeling of Hydrogen Storage in Metal Hydride Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Karl Johnson

    2011-05-20

    The objective of this project is to complement experimental efforts of MHoCE partners by using state-of-the-art theory and modeling to study the structure, thermodynamics, and kinetics of hydrogen storage materials. Specific goals include prediction of the heats of formation and other thermodynamic properties of alloys from first principles methods, identification of new alloys that can be tested experimentally, calculation of surface and energetic properties of nanoparticles, and calculation of kinetics involved with hydrogenation and dehydrogenation processes. Discovery of new metal hydrides with enhanced properties compared with existing materials is a critical need for the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence. New materials discovery can be aided by the use of first principles (ab initio) computational modeling in two ways: (1) The properties, including mechanisms, of existing materials can be better elucidated through a combined modeling/experimental approach. (2) The thermodynamic properties of novel materials that have not been made can, in many cases, be quickly screened with ab initio methods. We have used state-of-the-art computational techniques to explore millions of possible reaction conditions consisting of different element spaces, compositions, and temperatures. We have identified potentially promising single- and multi-step reactions that can be explored experimentally.

  18. Metal hydride/chemical heat-pump development project, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argabright, T. A.

    1982-02-01

    The metal hydride/chemical heat pump (MHHP) is a chemical heat pump containing two hydrides for the storage and/or recovery of thermal energy. It utilizes the heat of reaction of hydrogen with specific metal alloys. The MHHP design can be tailored to provide heating and/or cooling or temperature upgrading over a wide range of input and ambient temperatures. The system can thus be used with a variety of heat sources including waste heat, solar energy or a fossil fuel. The conceptual design of the MHHP was developed. A national market survey including a study of applications and market sectors was conducted. The technical tasks including conceptual development, thermal and mechanical design, laboratory verification of design and material performance, cost analysis and the detailed design of the Engineering Development Test Unit (EDTU) were performed. As a result of the market study, the temperature upgrade cycle of the MHHP was chosen for development. Operating temperature ranges for the upgrader were selected to be from 70 to 1100 C (160 to 2300 F) for the source heat and 140 to 1900 C (280 to 3750 F) for the product heat.

  19. Effects of the Electronic Doping In the Stability of the Metal Hydride NaH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea-Amezcua, Monica-Araceli; Rivas-Silva, Juan-Francisco; de La Peña-Seaman, Omar; Heid, Rolf; Bohnen, Klaus-Peter

    2015-03-01

    Despite metal hydrides light weight and high hydrogen volumetric densities, the Hydrogen desorption process requires excessively high temperatures due to their high stability. Attempts for improvement the hydrogenation properties have been focus on the introduction of defects, impurities and doping on the metal hydride. We present a systematic study of the electronic doping effects on the stability of a model system, NaH doped with magnesium, forming the alloying system Na1-xMgxH. We use the density functional theory (DFT) and the self-consistent version of the virtual crystal approximation (VCA) to model the doping of NaH with Mg. The evolution of the ground state structural and electronic properties is analyzed as a function of Mg-content. The full-phonon dispersion, calculated by the linear response theory (LRT) and density functional perturbation theory (DFPT), is analyzed for several Mg-concentrations, paying special attention to the crystal stability and the correlations with the electronic structure. Applying the quasiharmonic approximation (QHA), the free energy from zero-point motion is obtained, and its influence on the properties under study is analyzed. This work is partially supported by the VIEP-BUAP (OMPS-EXC14-I) and CONACYT-Mexico (No. 221807) projects.

  20. Determination of phosphorus in metals by neutron activation and chemical separation as hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouchaud, J.C.; Fedoroff, M.

    1993-01-01

    Phosphorous at trace levels alters the properties of metals and alloys. Its determination was investigated by radiochemical neutron activation analysis. Separation by solvent extraction or by evolution as P 0 showed to be neither selective nor quantitative in presence of a metallic matrix. Therefore, a new method of separation by reduction to phosphorous hydride followed by liquid scintillation counting was investigated. This method is quantitative in the case of non-radioactive iron doped with radioactive phosphorus. At present, the separation is not quantitative for irradiation iron samples, owing probably to hot atom or radiation effects. A detection limit of 0.002 μg is expected. (author) 10 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  1. Metal Hydrides, MOFs, and Carbon Composites as Space Radiation Shielding Mitigators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, William; Rojdev, Kristina; Liang, Daniel; Hill, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Recently, metal hydrides and MOFs (Metal-Organic Framework/microporous organic polymer composites - for their hydrogen and methane storage capabilities) have been studied with applications in fuel cell technology. We have investigated a dual-use of these materials and carbon composites (CNT-HDPE) to include space radiation shielding mitigation. In this paper we present the results of a detailed study where we have analyzed 64 materials. We used the Band fit spectra for the combined 19-24 October 1989 solar proton events as the input source term radiation environment. These computational analyses were performed with the NASA high energy particle transport/dose code HZETRN. Through this analysis we have identified several of the materials that have excellent radiation shielding properties and the details of this analysis will be discussed further in the paper.

  2. Progress towards a process for the recycling of nickel metal hydride electric cells using a deep eutectic solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R.StJ. Foreman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Solvent extraction experiments relating to the recycling of the transition metals and lanthanides in nickel metal hydride cells are presented. The metal extraction is occurring from a deep eutectic solvent which is formed from chemicals suitable for use in food and related products. While it has been shown that the water content of the DES has a large effect on the extraction of transition metals by a mixture of chloride ionic liquid (Aliquat 336 and an aromatic solvent, the water content has a smaller effect on the solvent extraction of lanthanides with a solution of di(2-ethylhexyl hydrogen phosphate (DEHPA in a saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon. This study suggests that an industrial scale solvent extraction process for the recycling of metals from nickel hydride electrical cells will be feasible.

  3. Technical and economic evaluation of hydrogen storage systems based on light metal hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jepsen, Julian

    2014-07-01

    -up storage systems are designed, tested and described numerically by finite elements simulation. The influence of the tank diameter on sorption rates, hydrogen capacities and temperature profiles inside the material beds is demonstrated. Key aspects for the design of future light metal hydride storage tank systems were derived from the experimental obtained results and the theoretical simulation of Li-RHC as a representative model system for RHCs.

  4. Bond Formation in Diatomic Transition Metal Hydrides: Insights from the Analysis of Domain-Averaged Fermi Holes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cooper, D.L.; Ponec, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 2 (2013), s. 102-111 ISSN 0020-7608 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0118 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : transition metal hydrides * bond formation * analysis of domain averaged Fermi holes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.166, year: 2013

  5. Reduced enthalpy of metal hydride formation for Mg-Ti nanocomposites produced by spark discharge generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasopol, Anca; Pfeiffer, Tobias V; Middelkoop, Joost; Lafont, Ugo; Canales-Perez, Roger J; Schmidt-Ott, Andreas; Mulder, Fokko M; Eijt, Stephan W H

    2013-05-29

    Spark discharge generation was used to synthesize Mg-Ti nanocomposites consisting primarily of a metastable body-centered-cubic (bcc) alloy of Mg and Ti. The bcc Mg-Ti alloy transformed upon hydrogenation into the face-centered-cubic fluorite Mg1-yTiyHx phase with favorable hydrogen storage properties. Both metal and metal hydride nanocomposites showed a fractal-like porous morphology, with a primary particle size of 10-20 nm. The metal content of 70 atom % (at %) Mg and 30 at % Ti, consistently determined by XRD, TEM-EDS, and ICP-OES, was distributed uniformly across the as-prepared sample. Pressure-composition isotherms for the Mg-Ti-H nanocomposites revealed large differences in the thermodynamics relative to bulk MgH2, with a much less negative enthalpy of formation of the hydride as small as -45 ± 3 kJ/molH2 as deduced from van't Hoff plots. The plateau pressures of hydrogenation were substantially higher than those for bulk MgH2 in the low temperature range from 150 to 250 °C. The reaction entropy was simultaneously reduced to values down to 84 ± 5 J/K mol H2, following a linear relationship between the enthalpy and entropy. Plausible mechanisms for the modified thermodynamics are discussed, including the effect of lattice strains, the presence of interfaces and hydrogen vacancies, and the formation of excess free volume due to local deformations. These mechanisms all rely on the finely interdispersed nanocomposite character of the samples which is maintained by grain refinement.

  6. Research and development of peripheral technology for photovoltaic power systems. Study of nickel-hydride storage battery for photovoltaic generation systems; Shuhen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. Taiyoko hatsuden`yo suiso denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on R and D of nickel-hydride storage battery for photovoltaic generation systems in fiscal 1994. (1) On the study on low-cost electrode materials, the physical properties and electrode characteristics were studied of the prototype hydrogen absorbing alloys prepared by substituting Cu or Ni for Co in Mm(Ni-Co-Mn-Al)5 (Mm: mixture of rare earth elements). The result clarified that it is difficult to reduce Co content in the alloy to 0.4 atom or less. Simple heat treatment and milling processes in production of hydrogen absorbing alloy electrodes were achieved by adopting an improved metal mold and gas atomization method. Characteristics and cycle life of the Ni positive electrode prepared by applying active paste material of Ni(OH)2 were studied, however, the result showed only lives of nearly 300 cycles. (2) On the study on electrode structure for high-performance (long-life) battery, the 3-D porous metal electrode support was evaluated, and various battery configurations were studied. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Metal hydride and pyrophoric fuel additives for dicyclopentadiene based hybrid propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shark, Steven C.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of reactive energetic fuel additives that have the potential to increase the combustion performance of hybrid rocket propellants in terms of solid fuel regression rate and combustion efficiency. Additives that can augment the combustion flame zone in a hybrid rocket motor by means of increased energy feedback to the fuel grain surface are of great interest. Metal hydrides have large volumetric hydrogen densities, which gives these materials high performance potential as fuel additives in terms of specifc impulse. The excess hydrogen and corresponding base metal may also cause an increase in the hybrid rocket solid fuel regression rate. Pyrophoric additives also have potential to increase the solid fuel regression rate by reacting more readily near the burning fuel surface providing rapid energy feedback. An experimental performance evaluation of metal hydride fuel additives for hybrid rocket motor propulsion systems is examined in this study. Hypergolic ignition droplet tests and an accelerated aging study revealed the protection capabilities of Dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) as a fuel binder, and the ability for unaided ignition. Static hybrid rocket motor experiments were conducted using DCPD as the fuel. Sodium borohydride (NabH4) and aluminum hydride (AlH3) were examined as fuel additives. Ninety percent rocket grade hydrogen peroxide (RGHP) was used as the oxidizer. In this study, the sensitivity of solid fuel regression rate and characteristic velocity (C*) efficiency to total fuel grain port mass flux and particle loading is examined. These results were compared to HTPB combustion performance as a baseline. Chamber pressure histories revealed steady motor operation in most tests, with reduced ignition delays when using NabH4 as a fuel additive. The addition of NabH4 and AlH3 produced up to a 47% and 85% increase in regression rate over neat DCPD, respectively. For all test conditions examined C* efficiency ranges

  8. A high-efficiency power cycle in which hydrogen is compressed by absorption in metal hydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J R; Salzano, F J; Yu, W S; Milau, J S

    1976-07-23

    A high-efficiency power cycle is proposed in which molecular hydrogen gas is used as a working fluid in a regenerative closed Brayton cycle. The hydrogen gas is compressed by an absorption-desorption cycle on metal hydride (FeTiH(x)) beds. Low-temperature solar or geothermal heat (temperature about 100 degrees C) is used for the compression process, and high-temperature fossil fuel or nuclear heat (temperature about 700 degrees C) supplies the expansion work in the turbine. Typically, about 90 percent of the high-temperature heat input is converted to electricity, while about 3 kilowatts of low-temperature heat is required per kilowatt of electrical output.

  9. Mound Laboratory activities in chemical and physical research: July--December 1976. [Isotope separation; metal hydride research, separation chemistry and separation research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-05-04

    The status of the following programs is reported: isotope separation of carbon, argon, helium, krypton, neon, xenon, oxygen, and sulfur; metal hydride research; separation chemistry; and separation research. (LK)

  10. A review of recent advances on the effects of microstructural refinement and nano-catalytic additives on the hydrogen storage properties of metal and complex hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varin, R. A.; Zbroniec, L. [University of Waterloo, Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Polanski, M.; Bystrzycki, J. [Faculty of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    The recent advances on the effects of microstructural refinement and various nano-catalytic additives on the hydrogen storage properties of metal and complex hydrides obtained in the last few years in the allied laboratories at the University of Waterloo (Canada) and Military University of Technology (Warsaw, Poland) are critically reviewed in this paper. The research results indicate that microstructural refinement (particle and grain size) induced by ball milling influences quite modestly the hydrogen storage properties of simple metal and complex metal hydrides. On the other hand, the addition of nanometric elemental metals acting as potent catalysts and/or metal halide catalytic precursors brings about profound improvements in the hydrogen absorption/desorption kinetics for simple metal and complex metal hydrides alike. In general, catalytic precursors react with the hydride matrix forming a metal salt and free nanometric or amorphous elemental metals/intermetallics which, in turn, act catalytically. However, these catalysts change only kinetic properties i.e. the hydrogen absorption/desorption rate but they do not change thermodynamics (e.g., enthalpy change of hydrogen sorption reactions). It is shown that a complex metal hydride, LiAlH{sub 4}, after high energy ball milling with a nanometric Ni metal catalyst and/or MnCl{sub 2} catalytic precursor, is able to desorb relatively large quantities of hydrogen at room temperature, 40 and 80 {sup o}C. This kind of behavior is very encouraging for the future development of solid state hydrogen systems. (authors)

  11. Critical length scales for flow phenomena in liquid metal batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Douglas; Weier, Tom

    2017-11-01

    Liquid metal batteries, a new technology for grid-scale energy storage, are composed of three liquid layers and therefore subject to a wide variety of fluid dynamical phenomena, both beneficial and detrimental. Some, like thermal convection and electrovortex flow, drive finite flow regardless of the size, current density, and temperature of the battery. Others, like the Tayler instability and the metal pad instability, occur only in certain parameter regimes - almost always dependent on length scale. I will discuss critical length scales, considering implications for battery design in light of fundamental fluid dynamics. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Award Number CBET-1552182.

  12. The Importance of Rare-Earth Additions in Zr-Based AB2 Metal Hydride Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwo-Hsiung Young

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of substitutions of rare earth (RE elements (Y, La, Ce, and Nd to the Zr-based AB2 multi-phase metal hydride (MH alloys on the structure, gaseous phase hydrogen storage (H-storage, and electrochemical properties were studied and compared. Solubilities of the RE atoms in the main Laves phases (C14 and C15 are very low, and therefore the main contributions of the RE additives are through the formation of the RENi phase and change in TiNi phase abundance. Both the RENi and TiNi phases are found to facilitate the bulk diffusion of hydrogen but impede the surface reaction. The former is very effective in improving the activation behaviors. −40 °C performances of the Ce-doped alloys are slightly better than the Nd-doped alloys but not as good as those of the La-doped alloys, which gained the improvement through a different mechanism. While the improvement in ultra-low-temperature performance of the Ce-containing alloys can be associated with a larger amount of metallic Ni-clusters embedded in the surface oxide, the improvement in the La-containing alloys originates from the clean alloy/oxide interface as shown in an earlier transmission electron microscopy study. Overall, the substitution of 1 at% Ce to partially replace Zr gives the best electrochemical performances (capacity, rate, and activation and is recommended for all the AB2 MH alloys for electrochemical applications.

  13. Rare earth metals, rare earth hydrides, and rare earth oxides as thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasgnier, M.

    1980-01-01

    The review deals with pure rare earth materials such as rare earth metals, rare earth hydrides, and rare earth oxides as thin films. Several preparation techniques, control methods, and nature of possible contaminations of thin films are described. These films can now be produced in an extremely well-known state concerning chemical composition, structure and texture. Structural, electric, magnetic, and optical properties of thin films are studied and discussed in comparison with the bulk state. The greatest contamination of metallic rare earth thin films is caused by reaction with hydrogen or with water vapour. The compound with an f.c.c. structure is the dihydride LnH 2 (Ln = lanthanides). The oxygen contamination takes place after annealing at higher temperatures. Then there appears a compound with a b.c.c. structure which is the C-type sesquioxide C-Ln 2 O 3 . At room atmosphere dihydride light rare earth thin films are converted to hydroxide Ln(OH) 3 . For heavy rare earth thin films the oxinitride LnNsub(x)Osub(y) is observed. The LnO-type compound was never seen. The present review tries to set the stage anew for the investigations to be undertaken in the future especially through the new generations of electron microscopes

  14. Scattering influences in quantitative fission neutron radiography for the in situ analysis of hydrogen distribution in metal hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Börries, S., E-mail: stefan.boerries@hzg.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Centre for Materials and Coastal Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Metz, O.; Pranzas, P.K. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Centre for Materials and Coastal Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Bücherl, T. [ZTWB Radiochemie München (RCM), Technische Universität München (TUM), Walther-Meissner-Str. 3, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Söllradl, S. [Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRMII), Technische Universität München (TUM), Lichtenbergstr. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Dornheim, M.; Klassen, T.; Schreyer, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Centre for Materials and Coastal Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2015-10-11

    In situ neutron radiography allows for the time-resolved study of hydrogen distribution in metal hydrides. However, for a precise quantitative investigation of a time-dependent hydrogen content within a host material, an exact knowledge of the corresponding attenuation coefficient is necessary. Additionally, the effect of scattering has to be considered as it is known to violate Beer's law, which is used to determine the amount of hydrogen from a measured intensity distribution. Within this study, we used a metal hydride inside two different hydrogen storage tanks as host systems, consisting of steel and aluminum. The neutron beam attenuation by hydrogen was investigated in these two different setups during the hydrogen absorption process. A linear correlation to the amount of absorbed hydrogen was found, allowing for a readily quantitative investigation. Further, an analysis of scattering contributions on the measured intensity distributions was performed and is described in detail.

  15. Scattering influences in quantitative fission neutron radiography for the in situ analysis of hydrogen distribution in metal hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börries, S.; Metz, O.; Pranzas, P. K.; Bücherl, T.; Söllradl, S.; Dornheim, M.; Klassen, T.; Schreyer, A.

    2015-10-01

    In situ neutron radiography allows for the time-resolved study of hydrogen distribution in metal hydrides. However, for a precise quantitative investigation of a time-dependent hydrogen content within a host material, an exact knowledge of the corresponding attenuation coefficient is necessary. Additionally, the effect of scattering has to be considered as it is known to violate Beer's law, which is used to determine the amount of hydrogen from a measured intensity distribution. Within this study, we used a metal hydride inside two different hydrogen storage tanks as host systems, consisting of steel and aluminum. The neutron beam attenuation by hydrogen was investigated in these two different setups during the hydrogen absorption process. A linear correlation to the amount of absorbed hydrogen was found, allowing for a readily quantitative investigation. Further, an analysis of scattering contributions on the measured intensity distributions was performed and is described in detail.

  16. Rechargeable Metal-Air Proton-Exchange Membrane Batteries for Renewable Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Kazuyo; Yamamoto, Yuta; Yamaguchi, Togo; Oogushi, Akihide; Hibino, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Rechargeable proton-exchange membrane batteries that employ organic chemical hydrides as hydrogen-storage media have the potential to serve as next-generation power sources; however, significant challenges remain regarding the improvement of the reversible hydrogen-storage capacity. Here, we address this challenge through the use of metal-ion redox couples as energy carriers for battery operation. Carbon, with a suitable degree of crystallinity and surface oxygenation, was used as an effective anode material for the metal redox reactions. A Sn 0.9 In 0.1 P 2 O 7 -based electrolyte membrane allowed no crossover of vanadium ions through the membrane. The V 4+ /V 3+ , V 3+ /V 2+ , and Sn 4+ /Sn 2+ redox reactions took place at a more positive potential than that for hydrogen reduction, so that undesired hydrogen production could be avoided. The resulting electrical capacity reached 306 and 258 mAh g -1 for VOSO 4 and SnSO 4 , respectively, and remained at 76 and 91 % of their respective initial values after 50 cycles.

  17. Hydrogenation of cyclohexene with LaNi5−xAlxHn metal hydrides suspended in cyclohexane or ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, E.D.; Versteeg, G.F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van

    1993-01-01

    The hydrogenation of cyclohexene on the metal hydride forming alloys LaNi4.8Al0.2, LaNi4.9Al0.1 and LaNi5, all suspended in cyclohexane and LaNi5 suspended in ethanol, has been investigated. Two sources for hydrogen are recognized: hydrogen supplied by the gas phase and hydrogen which is available

  18. Hydrogenation of cyclohexene with LaNi@#5@#-@#x@#Al@#x@#Hn metal hydrides, suspended in cyclohexane or ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, E.D.; Snijder, E.D.; Versteeg, Geert; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1993-01-01

    The hydrogenation of cyclohexene on the metal hydride forming alloys LaNi4.8Al0.2, LaNi4.9Al0.1 and LaNi5, all suspended in cyclohexane and LaNi5 suspended in ethanol, has been investigated. Two sources for hydrogen are recognized: hydrogen supplied by the gas phase and hydrogen which is available

  19. Hydrogen storage properties of carbon nanomaterials and carbon containing metal hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehlen, Jan Petter

    2003-07-01

    The topic of this thesis is structural investigations of carbon containing materials in respect to their hydrogen storage properties. This work was initially triggered by reports of extremely high hydrogen storage capacities of specific carbon nanostructures. It was decided to try to verify and understand the mechanisms in play in case of the existence of such high hydrogen densities in carbon. Two different routes towards the goal were employed; by studying selected hydrides with carbon as one of its constituents (mainly employing powder diffraction techniques in combination with hydrogen absorption and desorption measurements) and by carefully conducting hydrogen sorption experiments on what was believed to be the most ''promising'' carbon nanomaterial sample. In the latter case, a lot of effort was attributed to characterisations of different carbon nanomaterial containing samples with the aid of electron microscopy. Three different carbon-containing metal hydride systems, Y2C-H, YCoC-H and Y5SiC0.2-H, were examined. A relation between hydrogen occupation and the local arrangement of metal and carbon atoms surrounding the hydrogen sites was established. Several characteristic features of the compounds were noted in addition to solving the structure of the former unknown deuterideY5Si3C0.2D2.0 by the use of direct methods. Several carbon-nanomaterial containing samples were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy and powder diffraction, thus gaining knowledge concerning the structural aspects of nanomaterials. Based on these investigations, a specific sample containing a large amount of open-ended single-wall carbon nanotubes was chosen for subsequent hydrogen storage experiments. The latter experiments revealed moderate hydrogen storage capacities of the nanotubes not exceeding the values obtained for more conventional forms of carbon. These two different routes in investigating the hydrogen storage properties of carbon and

  20. Sodium-metal halide and sodium-air batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seongmin; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Aram; Kim, Youngsik; Lee, Kyu Tae

    2014-07-21

    Impressive developments have been made in the past a few years toward the establishment of Na-ion batteries as next-generation energy-storage devices and replacements for Li-ion batteries. Na-based cells have attracted increasing attention owing to low production costs due to abundant sodium resources. However, applications of Na-ion batteries are limited to large-scale energy-storage systems because of their lower energy density compared to Li-ion batteries and their potential safety problems. Recently, Na-metal cells such as Na-metal halide and Na-air batteries have been considered to be promising for use in electric vehicles owing to good safety and high energy density, although less attention is focused on Na-metal cells than on Na-ion cells. This Minireview provides an overview of the fundamentals and recent progress in the fields of Na-metal halide and Na-air batteries, with the aim of providing a better understanding of new electrochemical systems. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Alkali metal ion battery with bimetallic electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Dane A; Bradwell, David J; Jiang, Kai; Kim, Hojong; Ortiz, Luis A; Sadoway, Donald R; Tomaszowska, Alina A; Wei, Weifeng; Wang, Kangli

    2015-04-07

    Electrochemical cells having molten electrodes having an alkali metal provide receipt and delivery of power by transporting atoms of the alkali metal between electrode environments of disparate chemical potentials through an electrochemical pathway comprising a salt of the alkali metal. The chemical potential of the alkali metal is decreased when combined with one or more non-alkali metals, thus producing a voltage between an electrode comprising the molten the alkali metal and the electrode comprising the combined alkali/non-alkali metals.

  2. Discovery of Novel Complex Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage through Molecular Modeling and Combinatorial Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesch, David A; Adriaan Sachtler, J.W. J.; Low, John J; Jensen, Craig M; Ozolins, Vidvuds; Siegel, Don; Harmon, Laurel

    2011-02-14

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, Ford Motor Company, and Striatus, Inc., collaborated with Professor Craig Jensen of the University of Hawaii and Professor Vidvuds Ozolins of University of California, Los Angeles on a multi-year cost-shared program to discover novel complex metal hydrides for hydrogen storage. This innovative program combined sophisticated molecular modeling with high throughput combinatorial experiments to maximize the probability of identifying commercially relevant, economical hydrogen storage materials with broad application. A set of tools was developed to pursue the medium throughput (MT) and high throughput (HT) combinatorial exploratory investigation of novel complex metal hydrides for hydrogen storage. The assay programs consisted of monitoring hydrogen evolution as a function of temperature. This project also incorporated theoretical methods to help select candidate materials families for testing. The Virtual High Throughput Screening served as a virtual laboratory, calculating structures and their properties. First Principles calculations were applied to various systems to examine hydrogen storage reaction pathways and the associated thermodynamics. The experimental program began with the validation of the MT assay tool with NaAlH4/0.02 mole Ti, the state of the art hydrogen storage system given by decomposition of sodium alanate to sodium hydride, aluminum metal, and hydrogen. Once certified, a combinatorial 21-point study of the NaAlH4 LiAlH4Mg(AlH4)2 phase diagram was investigated with the MT assay. Stability proved to be a problem as many of the materials decomposed during synthesis, altering the expected assay results. This resulted in repeating the entire experiment with a mild milling approach, which only temporarily increased capacity. NaAlH4 was the best performer in both studies and no new mixed alanates were observed, a result consistent with the VHTS. Powder XRD suggested that the reverse reaction, the regeneration of the

  3. Electron Backscatter Diffraction Studies on the Formation of Superlattice Metal Hydride Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuli Yan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Microstructures of a series of La-Mg-Ni-based superlattice metal hydride alloys produced by a novel method of interaction of a LaNi5 alloy and Mg vapor were studied using a combination of X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. The conversion rate of LaNi5 increased from 86.8% into 98.2%, and the A2B7 phase abundance increased from 42.5 to 45.8 wt % and reduced to 39.2 wt % with the increase in process time from four to 32 h. During the first stage of reaction, Mg formed discrete grains with the same orientation, which was closely related to the orientation of the host LaNi5 alloy. Mg then diffused through the ab-phase of LaNi5 and formed the AB2, AB3, and A2B7 phases. Diffusion of Mg stalled at the grain boundary of the host LaNi5 alloy. Good alignments in the c-axis between the newly formed superlattice phases and LaNi5 were observed. The density of high-angle grain boundary decreased with the increase in process time and was an indication of lattice cracking.

  4. Studies on MgNi-Based Metal Hydride Electrode with Aqueous Electrolytes Composed of Various Hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Nei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Compositions of MgNi-based amorphous-monocrystalline thin films produced by radio frequency (RF sputtering with a varying composition target have been optimized. The composition Mg52Ni39Co3Mn6 is identified to possess the highest initial discharge capacity of 640 mAh·g−1 with a 50 mA·g−1 discharge current density. Reproduction in bulk form of Mg52Ni39Co3Mn6 alloy composition was prepared through a combination of melt spinning (MS and mechanical alloying (MA, shows a sponge-like microstructure with >95% amorphous content, and is chosen as the metal hydride (MH alloy for a sequence of electrolyte experiments with various hydroxides including LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH, and (C2H54N(OH. The electrolyte conductivity is found to be closely related to cation size in the hydroxide compound used as 1 M additive to the 4 M KOH aqueous solution. The degradation performance of Mg52Ni39Co3Mn6 alloy through cycling demonstrates a strong correlation with the redox potential of the cation in the alkali hydroxide compound used as 1 M additive to the 5 M KOH aqueous solution. NaOH, CsOH, and (C2H54N(OH additions are found to achieve a good balance between corrosion and conductivity performances.

  5. Alkali Metal Cation Affinities of Anionic Main Group-Element Hydrides Across the Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughlala, Zakaria; Fonseca Guerra, Célia; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias

    2017-10-05

    We have carried out an extensive exploration of gas-phase alkali metal cation affinities (AMCA) of archetypal anionic bases across the periodic system using relativistic density functional theory at ZORA-BP86/QZ4P//ZORA-BP86/TZ2P. AMCA values of all bases were computed for the lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium cations and compared with the corresponding proton affinities (PA). One purpose of this work is to provide an intrinsically consistent set of values of the 298 K AMCAs of all anionic (XH n-1 - ) constituted by main group-element hydrides of groups 14-17 along the periods 2-6. In particular, we wish to establish the trend in affinity for a cation as the latter varies from proton to, and along, the alkali cations. Our main purpose is to understand these trends in terms of the underlying bonding mechanism using Kohn-Sham molecular orbital theory together with a quantitative bond energy decomposition analyses (EDA). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Application of direct numerical analysis by Fast Fourier Transform to isotopic exchange process in a metal hydride particle bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukada, Satoshi; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Mitsuishi, Nobuo

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogen isotope separation based on isotopic exchange on metal hydride surfaces has been proposed. In this paper, the material balance equation of deuterium in a particle bed of a metal hydride and the diffusion equation are solved in a Laplace domain, and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is adopted to invert Laplace transforms numerically. The system considered includes steps of fluid-film diffusion, isotopic exchange reaction on surfaces and diffusion in solid particles. The effects of each mass-transfer resistance and axial dispersion on the shape of effluent curves are revealed under two different boundary conditions. Experimental effluent curves were obtained using the pulse-change of an influent deuterium concentration in a LaNi 3 Al 2 hydride bed. The exchange capacity and the overall mass-transfer capacity coefficient were determined from fitting in the time domain and were compared with those by Fourier and moment analyses in terms of the time and accuracy of the calculations. The Fourier analysis gave almost the same values of the mass-transfer quantities in shorter time compared with the analysis by FFT and gave the values of up to the third moment more accurately than those by the moment definition. (author)

  7. Cesium Platinide Hydride 4Cs 2 Pt-CsH: An Intermetallic Double Salt Featuring Metal Anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smetana, Volodymyr [Ames Laboratory, US Department of Energy, and Critical Materials Institute, Ames Iowa 50011-3020 USA; Mudring, Anja-Verena [Ames Laboratory, US Department of Energy, and Critical Materials Institute, Ames Iowa 50011-3020 USA; Department of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames Iowa 50011-3111 USA

    2016-10-24

    With Cs9Pt4H a new representative of ionic compounds featuring metal anions can be added to this rare-membered family. Cs9Pt4H exhibits a complex crystal structure containing Cs+ cations, Pt2- and H- anions. Being a red, transparent compound its band gap is in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum and the ionic type of bonding is confirmed by quantum chemical calculations. This cesium platinide hydride can formally be considered as a double salt of the “alloy” cesium–platinum, or better cesium platinide, Cs2Pt, and the salt cesium hydride CsH according to Cs9Pt4H≡4 Cs2Pt∙CsH.

  8. Cesium platinide hydride 4Cs{sub 2}Pt.CsH: an intermetallic double salt featuring metal anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smetana, Volodymyr [Ames Laboratory, US Department of Energy, and Critical Materials Institute, Ames, Iowa, 50011-3020 (United States); Mudring, Anja-Verena [Ames Laboratory, US Department of Energy, and Critical Materials Institute, Ames, Iowa, 50011-3020 (United States); Department of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, 50011-3111 (United States)

    2016-11-14

    With Cs{sub 9}Pt{sub 4}H a new representative of ionic compounds featuring metal anions can be added to this rare-membered family. Cs{sub 9}Pt{sub 4}H exhibits a complex crystal structure containing Cs{sup +} cations, Pt{sup 2-} and H{sup -} anions. Being a red, transparent compound its band gap is in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum and the ionic type of bonding is confirmed by quantum chemical calculations. This cesium platinide hydride can formally be considered as a double salt of the ''alloy'' cesium-platinum, or better cesium platinide, Cs{sub 2}Pt, and the salt cesium hydride CsH according to Cs{sub 9}Pt{sub 4}H≡4 Cs{sub 2}Pt.CsH. (copyright 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Cesium platinide hydride 4Cs2Pt.CsH: an intermetallic double salt featuring metal anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetana, Volodymyr; Mudring, Anja-Verena

    2016-01-01

    With Cs 9 Pt 4 H a new representative of ionic compounds featuring metal anions can be added to this rare-membered family. Cs 9 Pt 4 H exhibits a complex crystal structure containing Cs + cations, Pt 2- and H - anions. Being a red, transparent compound its band gap is in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum and the ionic type of bonding is confirmed by quantum chemical calculations. This cesium platinide hydride can formally be considered as a double salt of the ''alloy'' cesium-platinum, or better cesium platinide, Cs 2 Pt, and the salt cesium hydride CsH according to Cs 9 Pt 4 H≡4 Cs 2 Pt.CsH. (copyright 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. High-Energy-Density Metal-Oxygen Batteries: Lithium-Oxygen Batteries vs Sodium-Oxygen Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyeongse; Agyeman, Daniel Adjei; Park, Mihui; Yang, Junghoon; Kang, Yong-Mook

    2017-12-01

    The development of next-generation energy-storage devices with high power, high energy density, and safety is critical for the success of large-scale energy-storage systems (ESSs), such as electric vehicles. Rechargeable sodium-oxygen (Na-O 2 ) batteries offer a new and promising opportunity for low-cost, high-energy-density, and relatively efficient electrochemical systems. Although the specific energy density of the Na-O 2 battery is lower than that of the lithium-oxygen (Li-O 2 ) battery, the abundance and low cost of sodium resources offer major advantages for its practical application in the near future. However, little has so far been reported regarding the cell chemistry, to explain the rate-limiting parameters and the corresponding low round-trip efficiency and cycle degradation. Consequently, an elucidation of the reaction mechanism is needed for both lithium-oxygen and sodium-oxygen cells. An in-depth understanding of the differences and similarities between Li-O 2 and Na-O 2 battery systems, in terms of thermodynamics and a structural viewpoint, will be meaningful to promote the development of advanced metal-oxygen batteries. State-of-the-art battery design principles for high-energy-density lithium-oxygen and sodium-oxygen batteries are thus reviewed in depth here. Major drawbacks, reaction mechanisms, and recent strategies to improve performance are also summarized. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Dehydrogenation in lithium borohydride/conventional metal hydride composite based on a mutual catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, X.B.; Shi, Qing; Vegge, Tejs

    2009-01-01

    The dehydrogenation of LiBH4 ball-milled with hydrogenated 40Ti–15Mn–15Cr–30V alloy was investigated. It was found that there is a mutual catalysis between the two hydrides, lowering the temperature of hydrogen release from both hydrides. In the case of 1h milled LiBH4/40Ti–15Mn–15Cr–30V...

  12. Thin-film silicon for flexible metal-air batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garamoun, Ahmed; Schubert, Markus B; Werner, Jürgen H

    2014-12-01

    Due to its high energy density, theoretical studies propose silicon as a promising candidate material for metal-air batteries. Herein, for the first time, experimental results detail the use of n-type doped amorphous silicon and silicon carbide as fuel in Si-air batteries. Thin-film silicon is particularly interesting for flexible and rolled batteries with high specific energies. Our Si-air batteries exhibit a specific capacity of 269 Ah kg(-1) and an average cell voltage of 0.85 V at a discharge current density of 7.9 μA cm(-2) , corresponding to a specific energy of 229 Wh kg(-1) . Favorably in terms of safety, low concentrated alkaline solution serves as electrolyte. Discharging of the Si-air cells continues as long as there is silicon available for oxidation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Mechanistic aspects of dinitrogen cleavage and hydrogenation to produce ammonia in catalysis and organometallic chemistry: relevance of metal hydride bonds and dihydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hong-Peng; Quadrelli, Elsje Alessandra

    2014-01-21

    Dinitrogen cleavage and hydrogenation by transition-metal centers to produce ammonia is central in industry and in Nature. After an introductory section on the thermodynamic and kinetic challenges linked to N2 splitting, this tutorial review discusses three major classes of transition-metal systems (homogeneous, heterogeneous and biological) capable of achieving dissociation and hydrogenation of dinitrogen. Molecular complexes, solid-state Haber-Bosch catalytic systems, silica-supported tantalum hydrides and nitrogenase will be discussed. Emphasis is focused on the reaction mechanisms operating in the process of dissociation and hydrogenation of dinitrogen, and in particular on the key role played by metal hydride bonds and by dihydrogen in such reactions.

  14. Ion conducting fluoropolymer carbonates for alkali metal ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimone, Joseph M.; Pandya, Ashish; Wong, Dominica; Balsara, Nitash P.; Thelen, Jacob; Devaux, Didier

    2017-09-05

    Liquid or solid electrolyte compositions are described that comprise a homogeneous solvent system and an alkali metal salt dissolved in said solvent system. The solvent system may comprise a fluoropolymer, having one or two terminal carbonate groups covalently coupled thereto. Batteries containing such electrolyte compositions are also described.

  15. Energy and environmental impacts of electric vehicle battery production and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, L.; Singh, M.

    1995-01-01

    Electric vehicle batteries use energy and generate environmental residuals when they are produced and recycled. This study estimates, for 4 selected battery types (advanced lead-acid, sodium-sulfur, nickel-cadmium, and nickel-metal hydride), the impacts of production and recycling of the materials used in electric vehicle batteries. These impacts are compared, with special attention to the locations of the emissions. It is found that the choice among batteries for electric vehicles involves tradeoffs among impacts. For example, although the nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries are similar, energy requirements for production of the cadmium electrodes may be higher than those for the metal hydride electrodes, but the latter may be more difficult to recycle

  16. Clean Grain Boundary Found in C14/Body-Center-Cubic Multi-Phase Metal Hydride Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Ting Shen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The grain boundaries of three Laves phase-related body-center-cubic (bcc solid-solution, metal hydride (MH alloys with different phase abundances were closely examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and more importantly, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD techniques. By using EBSD, we were able to identify the alignment of the crystallographic orientations of the three major phases in the alloys (C14, bcc, and B2 structures. This finding confirms the presence of crystallographically sharp interfaces between neighboring phases, which is a basic assumption for synergetic effects in a multi-phase MH system.

  17. Modifications of the hydriding kinetics of a metallic surface, using ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crusset, D.

    1992-10-01

    Uranium reacts with hydrogen to form an hydride: this reaction leads to the total destruction of the material. To modify the reactivity of an uranium surface towards hydrogen, ion implantation was selected, among surface treatments techniques. Four elements (carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur) were implanted to different doses. The results show a modification of the hydriding mechanism and a significant increase in the reaction induction times, notably at high implantation doses. Several techniques (SIMS, X-rays phases analysis and residual stresses determination) were used to characterize the samples and understand the different mechanisms involved

  18. Garnet Solid Electrolyte Protected Li-Metal Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boyang; Gong, Yunhui; Fu, Kun; Han, Xiaogang; Yao, Yonggang; Pastel, Glenn; Yang, Chunpeng; Xie, Hua; Wachsman, Eric D; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-06-07

    Garnet-type solid state electrolyte (SSE) is a promising candidate for high performance lithium (Li)-metal batteries due to its good stability and high ionic conductivity. One of the main challenges for garnet solid state batteries is the poor solid-solid contact between the garnet and electrodes, which results in high interfacial resistance, large polarizations, and low efficiencies in batteries. To address this challenge, in this work gel electrolyte is used as an interlayer between solid electrolyte and solid electrodes to improve their contact and reduce their interfacial resistance. The gel electrolyte has a soft structure, high ionic conductivity, and good wettability. Through construction of the garnet/gel interlayer/electrode structure, the interfacial resistance of the garnet significantly decreased from 6.5 × 10 4 to 248 Ω cm 2 for the cathode and from 1.4 × 10 3 to 214 Ω cm 2 for the Li-metal anode, successfully demonstrating a full cell with high capacity (140 mAh/g for LiFePO 4 cathode) over 70 stable cycles in room temperature. This work provides a binary electrolyte consisting of gel electrolyte and solid electrolyte to address the interfacial challenge of solid electrolyte and electrodes and the demonstrated hybrid battery presents a promising future for battery development with high energy and good safety.

  19. Blistering and hydride embrittlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of metals have been categorized into several groups. Two of the groups, hydrogen blistering and hydride embrittlement, are reasonably well understood, and problems relating to their occurrence may be avoided if that understanding is used as a basis for selecting alloys for hydrogen service. Blistering and hydride embrittlement are described along with several techniques of materials selection and used to minimize their adverse effects. (U.S.)

  20. Cathode Composition in a Saltwater Metal-Air Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal-air batteries consist of a solid metal anode and an oxygen cathode of ambient air, typically separated by an aqueous electrolyte. Here, simple saltwater-based models of aluminum-air and zinc-air cells are used to determine the differences between theoretical cell electric potentials and experimental electric potentials. A substantial difference is observed. It is also found that the metal cathode material is crucial to cell electric potential, despite the cathode not participating in the net reaction. Finally, the material composition of the cathode appears to have a more significant impact on cell potential than the submerged surface area of the cathode.

  1. Metal and Metal Alloy Hydride Nuclear Acoustic Resonance and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Rebecca Scholz

    Effects of interstitial hydrogen on the quadrupole coupled nuclear acoustic resonance (NAR) and the (skin depth) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) line shapes and magnetic field positions of ('51)V and ('93)Nb were studied at 300K and 1 tesla in annealed single crystals of the transition metal alloys Nb(,.96)V(,.04)H(,x) (x (LESSTHEQ) .07), V(,.96)Nb(,.04)H(,x) (x (LESSTHEQ) .04), Ta(,.96)Nb(,.07)H(,x) (x (LESSTHEQ) .20) and Ta(,.68)Nb.04H(,x) (x (LESSTHEQ) .23), with the hydrogen in the gaseous (alpha) phase. This work was undertaken to further the understanding of the role of hydrogen in alloys. Static quadrupole effects dominate the line widths, with the ('51)V NMR in the NbV alloys exhibiting first order broadening, the ('93)Nb NMR line width broadened in second order in Nb(,.96)V(,.04),Ta(,.68)Nb(,.32) and Ta(,.93)Nb(,.07), and the ('93)Nb NAR in Nb(,.96)V(,.04) broadened more than an order of magnitude over the pure niobium NAR. No ('181)Ta NAR was observed, due to severe quadrupole effects coupled with its large quadrupole moment. As hydrogen is absorbed by Nb(,.96)V(,.04), the ('93)Nb NMR and NAR line widths narrow and the ('51)V Knight shift increases, in accord with a previous study which proposes the vanadium atoms trap hydrogen in their nearest neighboring tetrahedral sites. This is compatible with the increase seen in the ('51)V line width, thought to arise from the sharing of trapped hydrogen by neighboring vanadium atoms. The absorption of hydrogen by V(,.96)Nb(,.04) initially relieves the quadrupole broadening of ('51)V NMR but finally broadens the line width, while causing the ('51)V Knight shift to increase. This is consistent with a model in which hydrogen avoids sites near the Nb atoms. The absorption of hydrogen narrows the ('93)Nb line width in Ta(,93)Nb(,.07) but appears to have no effect on it in Ta(,.68)Nb(,.32), while the ('93)Nb Knight shift is increased slightly in both alloys. Also, the first measurement of the dipole coupled NAR of ('25

  2. Activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrock, Gary; Reilly, James; Graetz, Jason; Wegrzyn, James E.

    2010-11-23

    In one aspect, the invention relates to activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions containing aluminum hydride in the presence of, or absence of, hydrogen desorption stimulants. The invention particularly relates to such compositions having one or more hydrogen desorption stimulants selected from metal hydrides and metal aluminum hydrides. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for generating hydrogen from such hydrogen storage compositions.

  3. Installing a Test Tap on a Metal Battery Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Daniel R.; Rybicki, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    A mechanical fitting and relatively simple and safe method of installing it on the metal case of a battery have been devised to provide access to the interior of the battery to perform inspection and/or to measure such internal conditions as temperature and pressure. A metal boss or stud having an exterior thread is attached to the case by capacitor-discharge stud welding (CDSW), which takes only 3 to 6 milliseconds and in which the metallurgical bond (weld) and the heat-affected zone are limited to a depth of a few thousandths of an inch (a few hundredths of a millimeter). These characteristics of CDSW prevent distortion of the case and localized internal heating that could damage the chemical components inside of the battery. An access hole is then drilled through the stud and case, into the interior of the battery. A mechanical fitting having a matching thread is installed on the stud and the interior end of the fitting is sealed with a pressure-sealing washer/gasket. The exterior end of the fitting is configured for attachment of whatever instrumentation is required for the selected inspection or measurement.

  4. Using magnetization measurements to detect small amounts of plutonium hydride formation in plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Wook [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Mielke, Charles H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zapf, Vivien [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baiardo, Joseph P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mitchell, Jeremy N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Richmond, Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mun, Eun D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Alice Iulia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-10-20

    We report the formation of plutonium hydride in 2 at % Ga-stabilized δ-Pu, with 1 atomic % H charging. We show that magnetization measurements are a sensitive, quantitative measure of ferromagnetic plutonium hydride against the nonmagnetic background of plutonium. It was previously shown that at low hydrogen concentrations, hydrogen forms super-abundant vacancy complexes with plutonium, resulting in a bulk lattice contraction. Here we use magnetization, X-ray and neutron diffraction measurements to show that in addition to forming vacancy complexes, at least 30% of the H atoms bond with Pu to precipitate PuHx, largely on the surface of the sample with x ~ 1.9. We observe magnetic hysteresis loops below 40 K with magnetic remanence, consistent with precipitates of ferromagnetic PuH1.9.

  5. Nanoporous Polymer-Ceramic Composite Electrolytes for Lithium Metal Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Zhengyuan

    2013-09-16

    A nanoporous composite material that offers the unique combination of high room-temperature ionic conductivity and high mechanical modulus is reported. When used as the separator/electrolyte in lithium batteries employing metallic lithium as anode, the material displays unprecedented cycling stability and excellent ability to prevent premature cell failure by dendrite-induced short circuits © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. How to Analyse Metal Hydride Decomposition Temperatures Using a Sieverts’ Type Hydriding-Dehydriding Apparatus and Hydrogen-Storage Characteristics for an MgH2–Based Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Jun KWAK

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a method to analyze metal hydride decomposition temperatures (the onset temperature of the metal hydride decomposition and the temperature for the maximum ratio of released gas quantity change with temperature change, of prepared samples were investigated using a Sieverts’ type hydriding-dehydriding apparatus, in which a back-pressure regulator was employed. The quantity of the gas released under 1.0 bar H2 was measured as the temperature was increased with a heating rate of 4 K/min. The variation in the ratio of released hydrogen quantity Hd change with temperature T change, dHd/dT, as a function of temperature was obtained and from the variation in dHd/dT with T, the metal hydride decomposition temperatures were analyzed. This analysis method can be used instead of thermal analysis methods such as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analysis, differential thermal analysis (DTA, and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS analysis. For this analysis, a sample with a composition of 89 wt.% MgH2 + 4.9 wt.% Ni + 1.7 wt.% Zn(BH42 + 1.0 wt% NaCl + 1.7 wt.% Ti + 1.7 wt % Fe (named MgH2-Ni-Zn(BH42-NaCl-Ti-Fe sample was prepared by planetary ball milling. In the prepared MgH2-Ni-Zn(BH42-NaCl-Ti-Fe sample, it is believed that MgH2 begins to decompose at about 575 K and dHd/dT reaches its peak at about 610 K.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.24.1.17664

  7. Recovering metal values hydrometallurgically from spent dry battery cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabah, M. A.; Barakat, M. A.; Mahrous, Y. Sh.

    1999-12-01

    A hydro-pyrometallurgical method was used to recover metal values from spent dry battery cells. Water-soluble ingredients were filtered, and solid residue was sorted by magnetic separation and water flotation. Parameters affecting the recovery efficiency were also studied. Results revealed that metallic parts, carbon rods, and paper were safely recovered; pure NH4Cl, MnO2, and ZnCl2 salts were obtained. Maximum recovery efficiencies reached 93 percent for manganese and 99.5 percent for zinc and NH4.

  8. Thermodynamic System Studies for a Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Plant with CO2 Capture and Hydrogen Storage with Metal Hydrides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thallam Thattai, A.; Wittebrood, B.J.; Woudstra, T.; Geerlings, J.J.C.; Aravind, P.V.

    2014-01-01

    Flexibility in natural gas combined cycle power plants (NGCC) with pre-combustion CO2 capture could be introduced with co-production of hydrogen and subsequent hydrogen storage with metal hydrides (MH). The current work presents a thermodynamic analysis and comparison between steady state ASPEN Plus

  9. Comparative study of In-Out and Out-In hydrogen reaction alternatives for metal hydride beds using RET 1 computer code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Osery, I.A.

    1984-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a comparative study of two alternatives for progress for hydrogen reaction in metal hydride hydrogen storage beds namely In-Out and Out-In through the application of a space-time dependent computer code RET 1 for the solution of the associated mass and heat transfer problem. The reference model for the metal hydride storage bed is considered of cylindrical shape and composed of a multiple of a cylindrical cell, that either consists of a coaxial fluid tube surrounded by the granular iron-titanium metal hydride called In-Out cell or consists of a coaxial rod of the granular iron-titanium metal hydride surrounded by an annular fluid tube called Out-In cell. The results of the study lead to the conclusion that for the same operating and physical conditions, the rate of hydrogen reaction in the Out-In cell is many times higher than that in the In-Out one.

  10. Effect of variable thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity on the calculation of the critical metal hydride thickness for Ti1.1CrMn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    model is applied to the metal hydride system, with Ti 1.1 CrMn as the absorbing alloy, to predict the weight fraction of absorbed hydrogen and solid bed temperat ure . Dependencies of thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity upon pressure and hydrogen content respectively , are accounted for...

  11. Metals recovery of spent household batteries using a hydrometallurgical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, K.P.; Tenorio, J.A.S.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the work is to study a method for metals recovery from a sample composed by a mixture of the main types of spent household batteries. Segregation of the main metals is investigated using a treatment route consisting of the following steps: manual identified and dismantling, grinding, electric furnace reduction, acid leaching and selective precipitation with sodium hydroxide with and without hydrogen peroxide. Before and after precipitations the solutions had been analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP/OES) and the precipitated analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with Spectrometry of Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (EDS). The results had indicated that the great majority of metals had been precipitated in pHs studied, also had co-precipitation or simultaneous precipitation of metals in some pHs. (author)

  12. Hydrogenation using hydrides and acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, R. Morris

    1990-10-30

    A process for the non-catalytic hydrogenation of organic compounds, which contain at least one reducible functional group, which comprises reacting the organic compound, a hydride complex, preferably a transition metal hydride complex or an organosilane, and a strong acid in a liquid phase.

  13. A metal-free organic-inorganic aqueous flow battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huskinson, B; Marshak, MP; Suh, C; Er, S; Gerhardt, MR; Galvin, CJ; Chen, XD; Aspuru-Guzik, A; Gordon, RG; Aziz, MJ

    2014-01-08

    As the fraction of electricity generation from intermittent renewable sources-such as solar or wind-grows, the ability to store large amounts of electrical energy is of increasing importance. Solid-electrode batteries maintain discharge at peak power for far too short a time to fully regulate wind or solar power output(1,2). In contrast, flow batteries can independently scale the power (electrode area) and energy (arbitrarily large storage volume) components of the system by maintaining all of the electro-active species in fluid form(3-5). Wide-scale utilization of flow batteries is, however, limited by the abundance and cost of these materials, particularly those using redox-active metals and precious-metal electrocatalysts(6,7). Here we describe a class of energy storage materials that exploits the favourable chemical and electro-chemical properties of a family of molecules known as quinones. The example we demonstrate is ametal-free flow battery based on the redox chemistry of 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulphonic acid (AQDS). AQDS undergoes extremely rapid and reversible two-electron two-proton reduction on a glassy carbon electrode in sulphuric acid. An aqueous flow battery with inexpensive carbon electrodes, combining the quinone/hydroquinone couple with the Br-2/Br- redox couple, yields a peak galvanic power density exceeding 0.6 W cm(-2) at 1.3 A cm(-2). Cycling of this quinone-bromide flow battery showed >99 per cent storage capacity retention per cycle. The organic anthraquinone species can be synthesized from inexpensive commodity chemicals(8). This organic approach permits tuning of important properties such as the reduction potential and solubility by adding functional groups: for example, we demonstrate that the addition of two hydroxy groups to AQDS increases the open circuit potential of the cell by 11% and we describe a pathway for further increases in cell voltage. The use of p-aromatic redox-active organic molecules instead of redox-active metals

  14. Metal-organic frameworks for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Fu-Sheng; Wu, Yu-Shan; Deng, Hexiang, E-mail: hdeng@whu.edu.cn

    2015-03-15

    Porous materials have been widely used in batteries and supercapacitors attribute to their large internal surface area (usually 100–1000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and porosity that can favor the electrochemical reaction, interfacial charge transport, and provide short diffusion paths for ions. As a new type of porous crystalline materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received huge attention in the past decade due to their unique properties, i.e. huge surface area (up to 7000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), high porosity, low density, controllable structure and tunable pore size. A wide range of applications including gas separation, storage, catalysis, and drug delivery benefit from the recent fast development of MOFs. However, their potential in electrochemical energy storage has not been fully revealed. Herein, the present mini review appraises recent and significant development of MOFs and MOF-derived materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors, to give a glimpse into these potential applications of MOFs. - Graphical abstract: MOFs with large surface area and high porosity can offer more reaction sites and charge carriers diffusion path. Thus MOFs are used as cathode, anode, electrolyte, matrix and precursor materials for lithium ion battery, and also as electrode and precursor materials for supercapacitors. - Highlights: • MOFs have potential in electrochemical area due to their high porosity and diversity. • We summarized and compared works on MOFs for lithium ion battery and supercapacitor. • We pointed out critical challenges and provided possible solutions for future study.

  15. Analysis of Hazards Associated with a Process Involving Uranium Metal and Uranium Hydride Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullock, J.S.

    2000-05-01

    An analysis of the reaction chemistry and operational factors associated with processing uranium and uranium hydride powders is presented, focusing on a specific operation in the Development Division which was subjected to the Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) process. Primary emphasis is on the thermodynamic factors leading to pyrophoricity in common atmospheres. The discussion covers feed powders, cold-pressed and hot-pressed materials, and stray material resulting from the operations. The sensitivity of the various forms of material to pyrophoricity in common atmospheres is discussed. Operational recommendations for performing the work described are given.

  16. Reversible Hydride Transfer to N,N'-Diarylimidazolinium Cations from Hydrogen Catalyzed by Transition Metal Complexes Mimicking the Reaction of [Fe]-Hydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatazawa, Masahiro; Yoshie, Naoko; Seino, Hidetake

    2017-07-17

    [Fe]-hydrogenase is a key enzyme involved in methanogenesis and facilitates reversible hydride transfer from H 2 to N 5 ,N 10 -methenyltetrahydromethanopterin (CH-H 4 MPT + ). In this study, a reaction system was developed to model the enzymatic function of [Fe]-hydrogenase by using N,N'-diphenylimidazolinium cation (1 + ) as a structurally related alternative to CH-H 4 MPT + . In connection with the enzymatic mechanism via heterolytic cleavage of H 2 at the single metal active site, several transition metal complex catalysts capable of such activation were utilized in the model system. Reduction of 1[BF 4 ] to N,N'-diphenylimidazolidine (2) was achieved under 1 atm H 2 at ambient temperature in the presence of an equimolar amount of NEt 3 as a proton acceptor. The proposed catalytic pathways involved the generation of active hydride complexes and subsequent intermolecular hydride transfer to 1 + . The reverse reaction was accomplished by treatment of 2 with HNMe 2 Ph + as the proton source, where [(η 5 -C 5 Me 5 )Ir{(p-MeC 6 H 4 SO 2 )NCHPhCHPhNH}] was found to catalyze the formation of 1 + and H 2 with high efficiency. These results are consistent with the fact that use of 2,6-lutidine in the forward reaction or 2,6-lutidinium in the reverse reaction resulted in incomplete conversion. By combining these reactions using the above Ir amido catalyst, the reversible hydride transfer interconverting 1 + /H 2 and 2/H + was performed successfully. This system demonstrated the hydride-accepting and hydride-donating modes of biologically relevant N-heterocycles coupled with proton concentration. The influence of substituents on the forward and reverse reactivities was examined for the derivatives of 1 + and 2 bearing one para-substituted N-phenyl group.

  17. Anode properties of magnesium hydride catalyzed with niobium oxide for an all solid-state lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Suguru; Ichikawa, Takayuki; Kawahito, Koji; Hirabayashi, Kazuhiro; Miyaoka, Hiroki; Kojima, Yoshitsugu

    2013-08-18

    The anode properties of pristine MgH2 and MgH2 catalyzed with Nb2O5 have been investigated for an all solid-state lithium-ion battery. The catalytic effect stabilizes the plateau voltage as a result of kinetic improvement of the hydrogen transfer from the Mg phase to the Li phase.

  18. Metal carbonates as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Lianyi; Ma, Rui; Wu, Kaiqiang; Shui, Miao; Lao, Mengmeng; Wang, Dongjie; Long, Nengbing; Ren, Yuanlong; Shu, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Metal carbonates are probable anode materials for lithium ion batteries. •CoCO 3 /C composite can deliver an initial discharge capacity of 2096.6 mAh g −1 . •Co, Li 2 CO 3 , Li 2 O, and low-valence carbon are final lithiated products for CoCO 3 . -- Abstract: Six metal carbonates (Li 2 CO 3 , Na 2 CO 3 , SrCO 3 , BaCO 3 , K 2 CO 3 , CoCO 3 ) are tested and compared as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The electrochemical results show that only CoCO 3 is electrochemically active material and can deliver a high initial capacity of 1425.9 mAh g −1 . The lithium storage mechanism in CoCO 3 is studied by ex situ X-ray diffraction technique, ex situ infrared method, ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and in situ X-ray diffraction technique. It is found that the electrochemical reactions between CoCO 3 and Li firstly result in the formation of metal Co and Li 2 CO 3 , and then partial Li 2 CO 3 is further reduced into carbon (C 0 ), low-valence carbon (C 2+ ), and Li 2 O. It also demonstrates that the electrochemical reaction between CoCO 3 and Li is a partially reversible process. Based on these electrochemical results, it is obvious that narrow potential range can acquire a better reversibility for CoCO 3 /Li batteries by suppressing particle pulverization. Besides, the comparison of CoCO 3 , ball-milled CoCO 3 and ball-milled CoCO 3 /C composite also indicates that smaller active particle and carbon buffer are beneficial to obtain better cycling performance and higher reversible capacity

  19. Metal-air flow batteries using oxygen enriched electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jian-ping; Andrei, Petru; Shellikeri, Annadanesh; Chen, Xujie

    2017-08-01

    A metal air flow battery includes an electrochemical reaction unit and an oxygen exchange unit. The electrochemical reaction unit includes an anode electrode, a cathode electrode, and an ionic conductive membrane between the anode and the cathode, an anode electrolyte, and a cathode electrolyte. The oxygen exchange unit contacts the cathode electrolyte with oxygen separate from the electrochemical reaction unit. At least one pump is provided for pumping cathode electrolyte between the electrochemical reaction unit and the oxygen exchange unit. A method for producing an electrical current is also disclosed.

  20. Hydrometallurgical Recovery of Metal Values From Spent Dry Battery Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabah, M.A.; Barakat, M.A.; Mahrous, Y.Sh.

    1999-01-01

    This study focuses on the recovery of metal values from spent dry battery cells (DBC) applying a hydro-pyrometallurgical method. A process flow sheet was followed up starting with cutting the DBC with toothed cutter disc followed by water soaking and rinsing. Water soluble ingredients were filtered. Solid residue was assorted with the help of magnetic separation and water flotation.The method utilizes hydrogen peroxide to enhance dissolution of these metals in acidic or alkaline leachants. Parameters affecting the recovery efficiency such as stoichiometric ratio, solid: liquid ratio, temperature, time and ph of the system were investigated. In this concern, experiments were executed with a battery sample weighing up to 15 kg. Atomic absorption analysis showed that the input DBC contain appreciable amounts of metal zinc, zinc chloride and manganese that are recoverable.Results obtained revealed that metallic parts, carbon rods and paper were safely separated for recycling. From the water-soluble salts, pure NH 4 CI, MnO 2 and ZnCI 2 salts are obtained meeting the standard specifications. Temperature up to 55 degree enhances the recovery process. Under the optimum conditions, maximum recovery efficiency obtained amounts to 93% for Mn, and 99.5% for Zn and NH 4 CI. A model for explaining the obtained results was also given. Dissolution of metals concerned increases in the order nitric> hydrochloric acid. Results were explained in the premise of the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of the reactions involved. Cost estimate of the products shows that the prices of the products are competitive to those of the market prices

  1. Hydrogen Outgassing from Lithium Hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, L N; Schildbach, M A; Smith, R A; Balazs1, B; McLean II, W

    2006-04-20

    Lithium hydride is a nuclear material with a great affinity for moisture. As a result of exposure to water vapor during machining, transportation, storage and assembly, a corrosion layer (oxide and/or hydroxide) always forms on the surface of lithium hydride resulting in the release of hydrogen gas. Thermodynamically, lithium hydride, lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide are all stable. However, lithium hydroxides formed near the lithium hydride substrate (interface hydroxide) and near the sample/vacuum interface (surface hydroxide) are much less thermally stable than their bulk counterpart. In a dry environment, the interface/surface hydroxides slowly degenerate over many years/decades at room temperature into lithium oxide, releasing water vapor and ultimately hydrogen gas through reaction of the water vapor with the lithium hydride substrate. This outgassing can potentially cause metal hydriding and/or compatibility issues elsewhere in the device. In this chapter, the morphology and the chemistry of the corrosion layer grown on lithium hydride (and in some cases, its isotopic cousin, lithium deuteride) as a result of exposure to moisture are investigated. The hydrogen outgassing processes associated with the formation and subsequent degeneration of this corrosion layer are described. Experimental techniques to measure the hydrogen outgassing kinetics from lithium hydride and methods employing the measured kinetics to predict hydrogen outgassing as a function of time and temperature are presented. Finally, practical procedures to mitigate the problem of hydrogen outgassing from lithium hydride are discussed.

  2. Ceramic/metal seals. [refractory materials for hermetic seals for lighium-metal sulfide batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredbenner, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    Design criteria are discussed for a hermetic seal capable of withstanding the 450 C operating temperature of a lithium-metal sulfide battery system. A mechanical seal consisting of two high strength alloy metal sleeves welded or brazed to a conductor assembly and pressed onto a ceramic is described. The conductor center passes through the ceramic but is not sealed to it. The seal is effected on the outside of the taper where the tubular part is pressed down over and makes contact.

  3. Low temperature hydrogenolysis of waxes to diesel range gasoline and light alkanes: Comparison of catalytic properties of group 4, 5 and 6 metal hydrides supported on silica-alumina

    KAUST Repository

    Norsic, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    A series of metal hydrides (M = Zr, Hf, Ta, W) supported on silica-alumina were studied for the first time in hydrogenolysis of light alkanes in a continuous flow reactor. It was found that there is a difference in the reaction mechanism between d 0 metal hydrides of group 4 and d 0 ↔ d 2 metal hydrides of group 5 and group 6. Furthermore, the potential application of these catalysts has been demonstrated by the transformation of Fischer-Tropsch wax in a reactive distillation set-up into typical gasoline and diesel molecules in high selectivity (up to 86 wt%). Current results show that the group 4 metal hydrides have a promising yield toward liquid fuels.

  4. Final Report: DE- FC36-05GO15063, Fundamental Studies of Advanced High-Capacity, Reversible Metal Hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Craig [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); McGrady, Sean [Univ. of New Brunswick, Fredericton NB (Canada); Severa, Godwin [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Eliseo, Jennifer [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Chong, Marina [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2013-05-31

    The project was component of the US DOE, Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE). The Sandia National Laboratory led center was established to conduct highly collaborative and multi-disciplinary applied R&D to develop new reversible hydrogen storage materials that meet or exceed DOE/FreedomCAR 2010 and 2015 system targets for hydrogen storage materials. Our approach entailed a wide variety of activities ranging from synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of new candidate hydrogen storage materials; screening of catalysts for high capacity materials requiring kinetics enhancement; development of low temperature methods for nano-confinement of hydrides and determining its effects on the kinetics and thermodynamics of hydrides; and development of novel processes for the direct re-hydrogenation of materials. These efforts have resulted in several advancements the development of hydrogen storage materials. We have greatly extended the fundamental knowledge about the highly promising hydrogen storage carrier, alane (AlH3), by carrying out the first crystal structure determinations and the first determination of the heats of dehydrogenation of β–AlH3 and γ-AlD3. A low-temperature homogenous organometallic approach to incorporation of Al and Mg based hydrides into carbon aerogels has been developed that that allows high loadings without degradation of the nano-porous scaffold. Nano-confinement was found to significantly improve the dehydrogenation kinetics but not effect the enthalpy of dehydrogenation. We conceived, characterized, and synthesized a novel class of potential hydrogen storage materials, bimetallic borohydrides. These novel compounds were found to have many favorable properties including release of significant amounts of hydrogen at moderate temperatures (75-190 º C). However, in situ IR studies in tandem with thermal gravimetric analysis have shown that about 0.5 equivalents of diborane are released during the

  5. Understanding the molecular mechanism of pulse current charging for stable lithium-metal batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qi; Tan, Shen; Li, Linlin; Lu, Yingying; He, Yi

    2017-01-01

    High energy and safe electrochemical storage are critical components in multiple emerging fields of technologies. Rechargeable lithium-metal batteries are considered to be promising alternatives for current lithium-ion batteries, leading to as much as a 10-fold improvement in anode storage capacity (from 372 to 3860 mAh g?1). One of the major challenges for commercializing lithium-metal batteries is the reliability and safety issue, which is often associated with uneven lithium electrodeposit...

  6. Progress and recent developments in sodium, metal chloride batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratnakumar, B.V.; Attia, A.I.; Halpert, G.

    1991-01-01

    A new class of rechargeable sodium batteries emerged in the last decade mainly due to the efforts in South Africa and the United Kingdom. These systems include solid transition metal chlorides in sodium tetrachloroaluminates as cathodes. Significant developments have been made on two systems, i.e., Na/NiCl 2 and Na/FeCl 2 ; high energy densities of the order of 130 Wh/Kg have been demonstrated at the cell level both with FeCl 2 and NiCl 2 cathodes. Long cycle life of over 2000 cycles was demonstrated with NiCl 2 , especially with a sulfur additive to the electrolyte to retain the sintered structure of the NiCl 2 electrode. Various environmental and safety tests have been successfully performed on the cells. Scale up efforts resulted in cells of 40 - 100 Ah, which were evaluated in an electric vehicle application. Additionally, it appears from a recent evaluation study carried out by European Space Agency on Na/NiCl 2 for GEO and LEO applications that energy densities of the order of 120 Wh/Kg and 100 Wh/Kg respectively at the cell level are feasible and long cycle lives (beyond 2800 cycles are possible). Several fundamental and developmental studies have been carried out at other laboratories aimed at understanding the reaction mechanisms, determining the kinetics and identifying various rate governing processes, and screening various other metal chlorides. Finally, the specific energies and especially the power densities projected for Na/FeCl 2 and Na/NiCl 2 systems based on alternate designs for beta alumina solid electrolyte, i.e., multiple tubes and flat plates are very attractive for electric vehicle and space applications. In this paper, the authors propose to present a detailed account of the developments made hither to as well as the key research issues being addressed in the sodium - metal chloride battery technology

  7. Environmental impact assessment and end-of-life treatment policy analysis for Li-ion batteries and Ni-MH batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yajuan; Chen, Bo; Huang, Kai; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Dong

    2014-03-18

    Based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Eco-indicator 99 method, a LCA model was applied to conduct environmental impact and end-of-life treatment policy analysis for secondary batteries. This model evaluated the cycle, recycle and waste treatment stages of secondary batteries. Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) batteries and Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries were chosen as the typical secondary batteries in this study. Through this research, the following results were found: (1) A basic number of cycles should be defined. A minimum cycle number of 200 would result in an obvious decline of environmental loads for both battery types. Batteries with high energy density and long life expectancy have small environmental loads. Products and technology that help increase energy density and life expectancy should be encouraged. (2) Secondary batteries should be sorted out from municipal garbage. Meanwhile, different types of discarded batteries should be treated separately under policies and regulations. (3) The incineration rate has obvious impact on the Eco-indicator points of Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) batteries. The influence of recycle rate on Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries is more obvious. These findings indicate that recycling is the most promising direction for reducing secondary batteries' environmental loads. The model proposed here can be used to evaluate environmental loads of other secondary batteries and it can be useful for proposing policies and countermeasures to reduce the environmental impact of secondary batteries.

  8. Thermodynamic System Studies for a Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Plant with CO2 Capture and Hydrogen Storage with Metal Hydrides

    OpenAIRE

    Thallam Thattai, A.; Wittebrood, B.J.; Woudstra, T.; Geerlings, J.J.C.; Aravind, P.V.

    2014-01-01

    Flexibility in natural gas combined cycle power plants (NGCC) with pre-combustion CO2 capture could be introduced with co-production of hydrogen and subsequent hydrogen storage with metal hydrides (MH). The current work presents a thermodynamic analysis and comparison between steady state ASPEN Plus models of a reference case NGCC plant with no capture and H2 storage, an NGCC plant with pre-combustion capture using gas heated - auto thermal reformer (GHR-ATR) combined with a sorption enhanced...

  9. Accurate Determination of Coulombic Efficiency for Lithium Metal Anodes and Lithium Metal Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Brian DG; Zheng, Jianming; Ren, Xiaodi; Xu, Wu; Zhang, Jiguang

    2018-03-05

    Lithium (Li) metal is an ideal anode material for high energy density batteries. However, its low Coulombic efficiency (CE) and formation of dendrites during the plating and stripping processes has hindered its applications in rechargeable Li metal batteries. The accurate measurement of Li CE is a critical factor to predict the cycle life of Li metal batteries, but the measurement of Li CE is affected by various factors that often leads to conflicting values reported in the literature. Here, we investigate various factors that affect the measurement of Li CE and propose a more accurate method of determining Li CE. It was also found that the capacity used for cycling greatly affects the stabilization cycles and the average CE. A higher cycling capacity leads to a shorter number of stabilization cycles and higher average CE. With a proper high-concentration ether-based electrolyte, Li metal can be cycled with a high average CE of 99.5 % for over 100 cycles at a high capacity of 6 mAh cm-2 suitable for practical applications.

  10. A review of flexible lithium-sulfur and analogous alkali metal-chalcogen rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hong-Jie; Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-08-29

    Flexible energy storage systems are imperative for emerging flexible devices that are revolutionizing our life. Lithium-ion batteries, the current main power sources, are gradually approaching their theoretical limitation in terms of energy density. Therefore, alternative battery chemistries are urgently required for next-generation flexible power sources with high energy densities, low cost, and inherent safety. Flexible lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries and analogous flexible alkali metal-chalcogen batteries are of paramount interest owing to their high energy densities endowed by multielectron chemistry. In this review, we summarized the recent progress of flexible Li-S and analogous batteries. A brief introduction to flexible energy storage systems and general Li-S batteries has been provided first. Progress in flexible materials for flexible Li-S batteries are reviewed subsequently, with a detailed classification of flexible sulfur cathodes as those based on carbonaceous (e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene, and carbonized polymers) and composite (polymers and inorganics) materials and an overview of flexible lithium anodes and flexible solid-state electrolytes. Advancements in other flexible alkali metal-chalcogen batteries are then introduced. In the next part, we emphasize the importance of cell packaging and flexibility evaluation, and two special flexible battery prototypes of foldable and cable-type Li-S batteries are highlighted. In the end, existing challenges and future development of flexible Li-S and analogous alkali metal-chalcogen batteries are summarized and prospected.

  11. Competing forces in liquid metal electrodes and batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Rakan F.; Kelley, Douglas H.; Salas, Alejandro; Starace, Marco; Weber, Norbert; Weier, Tom

    2018-02-01

    Liquid metal batteries are proposed for low-cost grid scale energy storage. During their operation, solid intermetallic phases often form in the cathode and are known to limit the capacity of the cell. Fluid flow in the liquid electrodes can enhance mass transfer and reduce the formation of localized intermetallics, and fluid flow can be promoted by careful choice of the locations and topology of a battery's electrical connections. In this context we study four phenomena that drive flow: Rayleigh-Bénard convection, internally heated convection, electro-vortex flow, and swirl flow, in both experiment and simulation. In experiments, we use ultrasound Doppler velocimetry (UDV) to measure the flow in a eutectic PbBi electrode at 160 °C and subject to all four phenomena. In numerical simulations, we isolate the phenomena and simulate each separately using OpenFOAM. Comparing simulated velocities to experiments via a UDV beam model, we find that all four phenomena can enhance mass transfer in LMBs. We explain the flow direction, describe how the phenomena interact, and propose dimensionless numbers for estimating their mutual relevance. A brief discussion of electrical connections summarizes the engineering implications of our work.

  12. Three-dimensional metal scaffold supported bicontinuous silicon battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huigang; Braun, Paul V

    2012-06-13

    Silicon-based lithium ion battery anodes are attracting significant attention because of silicon's exceptionally high lithium capacity. However, silicon's large volume change during cycling generally leads to anode pulverization unless the silicon is dispersed throughout a matrix in nanoparticulate form. Because pulverization results in a loss of electric connectivity, the reversible capacity of most silicon anodes dramatically decays within a few cycles. Here we report a three-dimensional (3D) bicontinuous silicon anode formed by depositing a layer of silicon on the surface of a colloidal crystal templated porous nickel metal scaffold, which maintains electrical connectivity during cycling due to the scaffold. The porous metal framework serves to both impart electrical conductivity to the anode and accommodate the large volume change of silicon upon lithiation and delithiation. The initial capacity of the bicontinuous silicon anode is 3568 (silicon basis) and 1450 mAh g(-1) (including the metal framework) at 0.05C. After 100 cycles at 0.3C, 85% of the capacity remains. Compared to a foil-supported silicon film, the 3D bicontinuous silicon anode exhibits significantly improved mechanical stability and cycleability.

  13. Thermochemical Energy Storage through De/Hydrogenation of Organic Liquids: Reactions of Organic Liquids on Metal Hydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Ulrich; Cholewa, Martin; Diemant, Thomas; Bonatto Minella, Christian; Dittmeyer, Roland; Behm, R Jürgen; Fichtner, Maximilian

    2016-06-08

    A study of the reactions of liquid acetone and toluene on transition metal hydrides, which can be used in thermal energy or hydrogen storage applications, is presented. Hydrogen is confined in TiFe, Ti0.95Zr0.05Mn1.49V0.45Fe0.06 ("Hydralloy C5"), and V40Fe8Ti26Cr26 after contact with acetone. Toluene passivates V40Fe8Ti26Cr26 completely for hydrogen desorption while TiFe is only mildly deactivated and desorption is not blocked at all in the case of Hydralloy C5. LaNi5 is inert toward both organic liquids. Gas chromatography (GC) investigations reveal that CO, propane, and propene are formed during hydrogen desorption from V40Fe8Ti26Cr26 in liquid acetone, and methylcyclohexane is formed in the case of liquid toluene. These reactions do not occur if dehydrogenated samples are used, which indicates an enhanced surface reactivity during hydrogen desorption. Significant amounts of carbon-containing species are detected at the surface and subsurface of acetone- and toluene-treated V40Fe8Ti26Cr26 by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The modification of the surface and subsurface chemistry and the resulting blocking of catalytic sites is believed to be responsible for the containment of hydrogen in the bulk. The surface passivation reactions occur only during hydrogen desorption of the samples.

  14. Sorption properties of nanocrystalline metal hydrides for the storage of hydrogen; Sorptionseigenschaften von nanokristallinen Metallhydriden fuer die Wasserstoffspeicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelerich, W.

    2000-07-01

    For the utilisation of hydrogen in emission-free automobiles new nanostructured Mg-based metal hydrides were developed. These materials show significantly faster absorption and desorption kinetics, which can be even further enhanced by additions of suitable catalysts. Contrary to conventional magnesium powder, hydrogenation at room temperature is demonstrated for the first time. During dehydrogenation at 250 C a desorption rate of 3 to 8 kW/kg with a capacity of 2.5 kWh/kg is achieved, that fulfills the technical requirements for automobile application. (orig.) [German] Im Hinblick auf den Einsatz von Wasserstoff in emissionsfreien Kraftfahrzeugen wurden neuartige nanostrukturierte Metallhydride auf Basis von Magnesium hergestellt. Diese Materialien zeigen eine deutlich schnellere Absorptions- und Desorptionskinetik, die sich durch den Zusatz von geeigneten Katalysatoren noch weiter steigern laesst. Im Gegensatz zu konventionellem Magnesiumpulver konnte erstmals eine Hydrierung bei Raumtemperatur demonstriert werden. Bei der Dehydrierung bei 250 C wird eine Desorptionsrate von 3 bis 8 kW/kg bei einer Kapazitaet von 2,5 kWh/kg erreicht, die die technischen Leistungsanforderungen von Kraftfahrzeugen erfuellt. (orig.)

  15. Actuation of Pneumatic Artificial Muscle via Hydrogen Absorption/Desorption of Metal Hydride-LaNi5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanana Nuchkrua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental studies on mechanical actuations of a pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM, which is driven by hydrogen gas based metal hydride (MH. The dynamic performances of hydrogen absorption/desorption, taking place within a MH reactor, are controlled via implementing cooling/heating effects of a thermoelectric module (TEM. Hydrogen pressure is applied as a driving force to commanding work outputs of the PAM as desired mechanical actuations. Due to strong inherent nonlinearity, a conventional proportional integral derivative (PID control law is not capable of regulating thermodynamic variables of the HM reaction according to desired performances of the PAM. In this study, the fuzzy adaptive PID control is proposed in manipulating the MH reaction via the TEM. This viability of the proposed methodology is confirmed by the fact that the gains of PID control law are adapted by fuzzy rule-based tuning scheme at various operating conditions of the MH reactor. The experimental results show that the proposed control technique is much more effective than a PID control in both transient and steady state performances of the MH reactor for servo mechanical actuation of the PAM.

  16. Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Trickett

    1998-01-01

    This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH ampersand S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design com- pels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective

  17. Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trickett, D.

    1998-12-15

    This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design compels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective.

  18. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study of the metal hydride alloy/electrolyte junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaldi, Chokri; Mathlouthi, Hamadi; Lamloumi, Jilani

    2009-01-01

    The behaviour of the LaNi 3.55 Mn 0.4 Al 0.3 Co 0.75 alloy, used as a negative electrode in the Ni-MH batteries, was studied by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), measured at different potentials. The modeling of the EIS spectra allows us to model the interface electrolyte/Ni-MH electrode by a succession of interfaces electrolyte/corrosion film/alloy particles. The various processes and the physics parameters of each interface are discussed and evaluated. When the potential shifts to more negative values, two reactions are in competition: the hydrogen molecular evolution and the hydrogen atomic absorption. The hydrogen diffuses in the bulk of the alloy and the diffusion is not the limiting factor for the hydrogen absorption.

  19. Solid State NMR Characterization of Complex Metal Hydrides systems for Hydrogen Storage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son-Jong Hwang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid state NMR is widely applied in studies of solid state chemistries for hydrogen storage reactions. Use of 11B MAS NMR in studies of metal borohydrides (BH4 is mainly focused, revisiting the issue of dodecaborane formation and observation of 11B{1H} Nuclear Overhauser Effect.

  20. Alkali Metal Cation Affinities of Anionic Main Group-Element Hydrides Across the Periodic Table

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boughlala, Zakaria; Fonseca Guerra, Célia; Bickelhaupt, F. Matthias

    2017-01-01

    We have carried out an extensive exploration of gas-phase alkali metal cation affinities (AMCA) of archetypal anionic bases across the periodic system using relativistic density functional theory at ZORA-BP86/QZ4P//ZORA-BP86/TZ2P. AMCA values of all bases were computed for the lithium, sodium,

  1. Influence of heavy metals pollution in borehole water collected within abandoned battery industry, Essien Udim, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Uffia, I. Dan; Etim D. E

    2013-01-01

    Physico-chemical and heavy metals analyses of water samples from three boreholes located within abandoned battery company in Essien Udim LGA, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria was carried out to ascertain the impact of pollution from battery industry on groundwater quality. Borehole locations were at different distances of 0km, 2km, and 5km (X1, X11 and X111) respectively away from the abandoned battery vicinity. The parameters determined included; turbidity, temperature, pH, Dissolved oxygen (DO), ...

  2. Anthraquinone with Tailored Structure for Nonaqueous Metal-Organic Redox Flow Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-06-08

    A nonaqueous, hybrid metal-organic redox flow battery based on tailored anthraquinone structure is demonstrated to have an energy efficiency of {approx}82% and a specific discharge energy density similar to aqueous redox flow batteries, which is due to the significantly improved solubility of anthraquinone in supporting electrolytes.

  3. Hydrid Antibiotics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Běhal, Vladislav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2003), s. 17-25 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/01/1004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : hydrid * antibiotics Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.857, year: 2003

  4. Metal hydride differential scanning calorimetry as an approach to compositional determination of mixtures of hydrogen isotopologues and helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, David B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Luo, Weifang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Cai, Trevor Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Stewart, Kenneth D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-26

    Gaseous mixtures of diatomic hydrogen isotopologues and helium are often encountered in the nuclear energy industry and in analytical chemistry. Compositions of stored mixtures can vary due to interactions with storage and handling materials. When tritium is present, it decays to form ions and helium-3, both of which can lead to further compositional variation. Monitoring of composition is typically achieved by mass spectrometry, a method that is bulky and energy-intensive. Mass spectrometers disperse sample material through vacuum pumps, which is especially troublesome if tritium is present. Moreover, our ultimate goal is to create a compact, fast, low-power sensor that can determine composition with minimal gas consumption and waste generation, as a complement to mass spectrometry that can be instantiated more widely. We propose calorimetry of metal hydrides as an approach to this, due to the strong isotope effect on gas absorption, and demonstrate the sensitivity of measured heat flow to atomic composition of the gas. Peak shifts are discernible when mole fractions change by at least 1%. A mass flow restriction results in a unique dependence of the measurement on helium concentration. We present a mathematical model as a first step toward prediction of the peak shapes and positions. The model includes a useful method to compute estimates of phase diagrams for palladium in the presence of arbitrary mixtures of hydrogen isotopologues. As a result, we expect that this approach can be used to deduce unknown atomic compositions from measured calorimetric data over a useful range of partial pressures of each component.

  5. Composition design of Ti–Cr–Mn–Fe alloys for hybrid high-pressure metal hydride tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Zhijie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Storage Materials of Guangdong Province, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); China-Australia Joint Laboratory for Energy & Environmental Materials, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Ouyang, Liuzhang, E-mail: meouyang@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Storage Materials of Guangdong Province, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); China-Australia Joint Laboratory for Energy & Environmental Materials, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Key Laboratory for Fuel Cell Technology in Guangdong Province, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Wang, Hui; Liu, Jiangwen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Storage Materials of Guangdong Province, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); China-Australia Joint Laboratory for Energy & Environmental Materials, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Sun, Lixian [Guangxi Collaborative Innovation Center of Structure and Property for New Energy and Materials, Guilin 541004 (China); Zhu, Min, E-mail: memzhu@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Storage Materials of Guangdong Province, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); China-Australia Joint Laboratory for Energy & Environmental Materials, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China)

    2015-08-05

    Highlights: • New non-stoichiometric Ti–Cr–Mn–Fe alloys are prepared for the hybrid tank. • (Ti{sub 0.85}Zr{sub 0.15}){sub 1.1}Cr{sub 0.925}MnFe{sub 0.075} has the best overall properties. • The desorption pressure at 0 °C is 10.6 atm. • The reversible gravimetric density remains as a high value of 1.49 wt%. - Abstract: (Ti{sub 0.85}Zr{sub 0.15}){sub 1.1}Cr{sub 1−x}MnFe{sub x} (x = 0, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1, 0.15) alloys with a C14-type Laves structure have been investigated for potential application in hybrid high-pressure metal hydride tanks used for fuel cell vehicles. The effects of the partial substitution of Cr with Fe on the hydrogen storage properties of (Ti{sub 0.85}Zr{sub 0.15}){sub 1.1}CrMn have been systematically investigated. Results show that the desorption plateau pressure increases with increasing the Fe content in (Ti{sub 0.85}Zr{sub 0.15}){sub 1.1}Cr{sub 1−x}MnFe{sub x} alloys, whereas the hydrogen capacity decreases. Among these alloys, (Ti{sub 0.85}Zr{sub 0.15}){sub 1.1}Cr{sub 0.925}MnFe{sub 0.075} has the best overall properties, with a hydrogen desorption pressure of 10.6 atm and a reversible capacity of 1.54 wt% at 0 °C under the pressure range between 0.1 atm and 120 atm.

  6. Evaluation of heavy metal leaching from spent household batteries disposed in municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnchanawong, Somjai; Limpiteeprakan, Pawena

    2009-02-01

    Batch leaching tests and simulated landfill lysimeter tests were performed to evaluate the contents of heavy metals leached from spent batteries in the municipal solid waste. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure was utilized to perform the batch leaching tests of 36 spent batteries. Four lysimeters were prepared with battery contents ranging from 0% to 100% by weight for column tests, and the experiments were performed at ambient temperature. The age of all the batteries used in the study ranged from freshly disposed up to approximately 3 years old. The results from the batch tests showed that the type of battery influenced the heavy metal concentrations in the leached solutions. The lysimeter experiment results illustrated that at lower pH levels more metals are leached than at higher pH levels. The increasing amount of batteries disposed in landfills can contribute to the leaching of more metals, especially Mn and Zn, into the environment. These results indicate that the direct disposal of spent household batteries into a MSW landfill can increase the heavy metal contents in the landfill leachate.

  7. Piperidinium tethered nanoparticle-hybrid electrolyte for lithium metal batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Korf, Kevin S.

    2014-06-23

    We report on the synthesis of novel piperidinium-based ionic liquid tethered nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes and investigate their physical and electrochemical properties. Hybrid electrolytes based on the ionic liquid 1-methyl-1-propylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfone) imide covalently tethered to silica nanoparticles (SiO2-PP-TFSI) were blended with propylene carbonate-1 M lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfone) imide (LiTFSI). We employed NMR analysis to confirm the successful creation of the hybrid material. Dielectric and rheological measurements show that these electrolytes exhibit exceptional room-temperature DC ionic conductivity (10-2 to 10 -3 S cm-1) as well as high shear mechanical moduli (105 to 106 Pa). Lithium transference numbers were found to increase with particle loading and to reach values as high as 0.22 at high particle loadings where the particle jam to form a soft glassy elastic medium. Analysis of lithium electrodeposits obtained in the hybrid electrolytes using SEM and EDX spectra show that the SiO2-PP-TFSI nanoparticles are able to smooth lithium deposition and inhibit lithium dendrite proliferation in Li metal batteries. LTOSiO2-PP-TFSI/PC in 1 M LiTFSILi half-cells based on the SiO2-PP-TFSI hybrid electrolytes exhibit attractive voltage profiles and trouble-free extended cycling behavior over more than 1000 cycles of charge and discharge. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  8. Faradaically selective membrane for liquid metal displacement batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Huayi; Chung, Brice; Chen, Fei; Ouchi, Takanari; Zhao, Ji; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2018-02-01

    In the realm of stationary energy storage, a plurality of candidate chemistries continues to vie for acceptance, among them the Na-NiCl2 displacement battery, which has eluded widespread adoption owing to the fragility of the β″-Al2O3 membrane. Here we report a porous electronically conductive membrane, which achieves chemical selectivity by preferred faradaic reaction instead of by regulated ionic conduction. Fitted with a porous membrane of TiN, a displacement cell comprising a liquid Pb positive electrode, a liquid Li-Pb negative electrode and a molten-salt electrolyte of PbCl2 dissolved in LiCl-KCl eutectic was cycled at a current density of 150 mA cm-2 at a temperature of 410 °C and exhibited a coulombic efficiency of 92% and a round-trip energy efficiency of 71%. As an indication of industrial scalability, we show comparable performance in a cell fitted with a faradaic membrane fashioned out of porous metal.

  9. Matrix infrared spectroscopic and computational investigation of late lanthanide metal hydride species MHx(H2)y (M = Tb-Lu, x = 1-4, y = 0-3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xuefeng; Andrews, Lester; Infante, Ivan; Gagliardi, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Laser-ablated late lanthanide metal atoms were condensed with pure hydrogen at 4 K, and new infrared absorptions are assigned to binary metal hydrides on the basis of deuterium substitution and density functional theory frequency calculations. The dominant absorptions in the 1330-1400 cm(-1) region

  10. Polynomial-interpolation algorithm for van der Pauw Hall measurement in a metal hydride film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, D. W.; Ares, J. R.; Leardini, F.; Fernández, J. F.; Ferrer, I. J.

    2008-10-01

    We apply a four-term polynomial-interpolation extension of the van der Pauw Hall measurement technique to a 330 nm Mg-Pd bilayer during both absorption and desorption of hydrogen at room temperature. We show that standard versions of the van der Pauw DC Hall measurement technique produce an error of over 100% due to a drifting offset signal and can lead to unphysical interpretations of the physical processes occurring in this film. The four-term technique effectively removes this source of error, even when the offset signal is drifting by an amount larger than the Hall signal in the time interval between successive measurements. This technique can be used to increase the resolution of transport studies of any material in which the resistivity is rapidly changing, particularly when the material is changing from metallic to insulating behavior.

  11. Cell overcharge testing inside sodium metal halide battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutschy, Kris; Chatwin, Troy; Bull, Roger

    2015-09-01

    Testing was conducted to measure electrical performance and safety of the General Electric Durathon™ E620 battery module (600 V class 20 kWh) during cell overcharge. Data gathered from this test was consistent with SAE Electric Vehicle Battery Abuse Testing specification J2464 [1]. After cell overcharge failure and 24 A current flow for additional 60 minutes, battery was then discharged at 7.5 KW average power to 12% state of charge (SOC) and recharged back to 100% SOC. This overcharging test was performed on two cells. No hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas was detected during front cell (B1) test, and small amount (6.2 ppm peak) was measured outside the battery after center cell (F13) overcharge. An additional overcharge test was performed per UL Standard 1973 - Batteries for Use in Light Electric Rail (LER) Applications and Stationary Applications[2]. With the battery at 11% SOC and 280 °C float temperature, an individual cell near the front (D1) was deliberately imbalanced by charging it to 62% SOC. The battery was then recharged to 100% SOC. In all three tests, the battery cell pack was stable and individual cell failure did not propagate to other cells. Battery discharge performance, charge performance, and electrical isolation were normal after all three tests.

  12. Effects of Nd-addition on the structural, hydrogen storage, and electrochemical properties of C14 metal hydride alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, D.F. [BASF/Battery Materials-Ovonic, 2983 Waterview Drive, Rochester Hills, MI 48309 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Young, K., E-mail: kwo.young@basf.com [BASF/Battery Materials-Ovonic, 2983 Waterview Drive, Rochester Hills, MI 48309 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Nei, J.; Wang, L. [BASF/Battery Materials-Ovonic, 2983 Waterview Drive, Rochester Hills, MI 48309 (United States); Ng, K.Y.S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)

    2015-10-25

    Nd-addition to the AB{sub 2}-based alloy Ti{sub 12}Zr{sub 22.8−x}V{sub 10}Cr{sub 7.5}Mn{sub 8.1}Co{sub 7.0}Ni{sub 32.2}Al{sub 0.4}Nd{sub x} is studied for its effects on the structure, gaseous-phase hydrogen storage, and electrochemical properties. This study follows a series of Cu, Mo, Fe, Y, Si, and La doping studies in similar AB{sub 2}-based alloys. Limited solubility of Nd in the main Laves phase promotes the formation of secondary phases (AB and Zr{sub 7}Ni{sub 10}) to provide catalytic effects and synergies for improved capacity and high-rate dischargeability (HRD) performance. The main C14 storage phase has smaller lattice constants and cell volumes, and these effects reduce the storage capacity at higher Nd levels. Different hydrogen absorption mechanisms can occur in these multi-component, multi-phase alloys depending on the interfaces of the phases, and they have effects on the alloy properties. Higher Nd-levels improve the HRD performance despite having lower bulk diffusion and surface exchange current. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate large percentage of larger metallic nickel clusters are present in the surface oxide of alloys with higher Nd-content, and AC impedance studies show very low charge-transfer resistance with high catalytic capability in the alloys. The −40 °C charge-transfer resistance of 8.9 Ω g in this Nd-series of alloys is the lowest measured out of the studies investigating doped AB{sub 2}-based MH alloys for improved low-temperature characteristics. The improvement in HRD and low-temperature performance appears to be related to the proportion of the highly catalytic NdNi-phase at the surface, which must offset the increased bulk diffusion resistance in the alloy. - Graphical abstract: Schematics of hydrogen flow and corresponding PCT isotherms in funneling mode. - Highlights: • Structural and hydrogen storage properties of Nd-substituted AB{sub 2} metal hydride are reported. • Nd contributes to the lowest

  13. Ion conducting polymers and polymer blends for alkali metal ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimone, Joseph M.; Pandya, Ashish; Wong, Dominica; Vitale, Alessandra

    2017-08-29

    Electrolyte compositions for batteries such as lithium ion and lithium air batteries are described. In some embodiments the compositions are liquid compositions comprising (a) a homogeneous solvent system, said solvent system comprising a perfluropolyether (PFPE) and polyethylene oxide (PEO); and (b) an alkali metal salt dissolved in said solvent system. In other embodiments the compositions are solid electrolyte compositions comprising: (a) a solid polymer, said polymer comprising a crosslinked product of a crosslinkable perfluropolyether (PFPE) and a crosslinkable polyethylene oxide (PEO); and (b) an alkali metal ion salt dissolved in said polymer. Batteries containing such compositions as electrolytes are also described.

  14. Direct synthesis of catalyzed hydride compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Karl J.; Majzoub, Eric

    2004-09-21

    A method is disclosed for directly preparing alkali metal aluminum hydrides such as NaAlH.sub.4 and Na.sub.3 AlH.sub.6 from either the alkali metal or its hydride, and aluminum. The hydride thus prepared is doped with a small portion of a transition metal catalyst compound, such as TiCl.sub.3, TiF.sub.3, or a mixture of these materials, in order to render them reversibly hydridable. The process provides for mechanically mixing the dry reagents under an inert atmosphere followed by charging the mixed materials with high pressure hydrogen while heating the mixture to about 125.degree. C. The method is relatively simple and inexpensive and provides reversible hydride compounds which are free of the usual contamination introduced by prior art wet chemical methods.

  15. Oxygen electrocatalysts in metal-air batteries: from aqueous to nonaqueous electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Li; Xu, Dan; Xu, Ji-Jing; Zhang, Xin-Bo

    2014-11-21

    With the development of renewable energy and electrified transportation, electrochemical energy storage will be more important in the future than it has ever been in the past. Although lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are traditionally considered to be the most likeliest candidate thanks to their relatively long cycle life and high energy efficiency, their limited energy density as well as cost are still causing a bottleneck for their long-term application. Alternatively, metal-air batteries have been proposed as a very promising large-scale electricity storage technology with the replacement of the intercalation reaction mechanism by the catalytic redox reaction of a light weight metal-oxygen couple. Generally, based on the electrolyte, these metal-air batteries can be divided into aqueous and nonaqueous systems, corresponding to two typical batteries of Zn-air and Li-air, respectively. The prominent feature of both batteries are their extremely high theoretical energy density, especially for nonaqueous Li-air batteries, which far exceeds the best that can be achieved with LIBs. In this review, we focus on the major obstacle of sluggish kinetics of the cathode in both batteries, and summarize the fundamentals and recent advances related to the oxygen catalyst materials. According to the electrolyte, the aqueous and nonaqueous electrocatalytic mechanisms of the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions are discussed. Subsequently, seven groups of oxygen catalysts, which have played catalytic roles in both systems, are selectively reviewed, including transition metal oxides (single-metal oxides and mixed-metal oxides), functional carbon materials (nanostructured carbons and doped carbons), metal oxide-nanocarbon hybrid materials, metal-nitrogen complexes (non-pyrolyzed and pyrolyzed), transition metal nitrides, conductive polymers, and precious metals (alloys). Nonaqueous systems have the advantages of energy density and rechargeability over aqueous systems and have

  16. The effect of compositional changes on the structural and hydrogen storage properties of (La–Ce)Ni5 type intermetallics towards compounds suitable for metal hydride hydrogen compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odysseos, M.; De Rango, P.; Christodoulou, C.N.; Hlil, E.K.; Steriotis, T.; Karagiorgis, G.; Charalambopoulou, G.; Papapanagiotou, T.; Ampoumogli, A.; Psycharis, V.; Koultoukis, E.; Fruchart, D.; Stubos, A.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The effect of the partial substitution of La with Ce on the crystal structure and the final hydrogen storage properties of the alloys. Highlights: ► Absorption-based systems exploit the properties of reversible metal hydrides. ► AB5 intermetallics are mostly popular for thermal desorption compressors. ► Investigation of H2 absorption/desorption properties of LaNi5 and its derivatives. ► LaNi5 thermodynamic properties adjustment by partially replacing La with rare earths. -- Abstract: The present work has been aiming at the synthesis and study of a series of La 1−x Ce x Ni 5 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8) alloys in an attempt to investigate possible alterations of the hydrogen absorption/desorption properties The alloys were prepared by induction melting of the constituent elements. The systematic characterization of all new compounds by means of XRD and hydrogen sorption measurements revealed the effect of the partial substitution of La with Ce on the crystal structure and the final hydrogen storage properties of the alloys. Extensive absorption/desorption experiments (Van’t Hoff diagrams) have shown that such alloys can be used to build a metal hydride compressor (MHC), compressing H 2 gas from 0.2 MPa to 4.2 MPa using cold (20 °C) and hot (80 °C) water

  17. Li Metal Protection for High Energy Space Batteries, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NOHMs propose to develop, demonstrate, and deliver high energy, lightweight, safe lithium sulfur (Li-S) batteries for use in space applications. During the Phase II...

  18. Boron Hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    1946-07-01

    of direct interest could be b.P.4d. ’Thus the discovory of a now proj.ect, since silano is probably too readily infla-zmablo for practical usc’ this...devoted, ho specc4fie compounds vhitih a’-ould be tocdte at prescnt arc: nron tiy * silano , %;2.SiFi3 , diothyl sila~no, (C2 115 )2 Si112, mono r.-rop; ! (n...Bcrohydrido or Li h.... I .A-4A- The prepuation of Silano med of Stannane by the interaction or lithium aluzirun hydride v-ithl silicon tetrtchiorido and

  19. Research on Computer Integrated Manufacturing of Sheet Metal Parts for Lithium Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Wei-Min

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium battery has been widely used as the main driving force of the new energy vehicle in recent years. Sheet metal parts are formed by means of pressure forming techniques with the characteristics of light weight, small size and high structural strength. The sheet metal forming has higher productivity and material utilization than the mechanical cutting, therefore sheet metal parts are widely used in many fields, such as modern automotive industry, aviation, aerospace, machine tools, instruments and household appliances. In this paper, taking a complex lithium battery box as an example, the integrated manufacturing of sheet metal parts is studied, and the digital integrated design and manufacturing process system is proposed. The technology is studied such as sheet metal design, unfolding, sheet nesting and laser cutting, CNC turret punch stamping programming, CNC bending etc. The feasibility of the method is verified through the examples of products and the integrated manufacturing of sheet metal box is completed.

  20. Challenges and issues facing lithium metal for solid-state rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauger, A.; Armand, M.; Julien, C. M.; Zaghib, K.

    2017-06-01

    The commercial use of lithium metal batteries was delayed because of dendrite formation on the surface of the lithium electrode, and the difficulty finding a suitable electrolyte that has both the mechanical strength and ionic conductivity required for solid electrolytes. Recently, strategies have developed to overcome these difficulties, so that these batteries are currently an option for different applications, including electric cars. In this work, we review these strategies, and discuss the different routes that are promising for progress in the near future.

  1. Ionic Liquid-Nanoparticle Hybrid Electrolytes and their Application in Secondary Lithium-Metal Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying

    2012-07-12

    Ionic liquid-tethered nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes comprised of silica nanoparticles densely grafted with imidazolium-based ionic liquid chains are shown to retard lithium dendrite growth in rechargeable batteries with metallic lithium anodes. The electrolytes are demonstrated in full cell studies using both high-energy Li/MoS2 and high-power Li/TiO2 secondary batteries. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Recovery concept of value metals from automotive lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traeger, Thomas; Friedrich, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    A recycling process for automotive lithium-ion batteries was developed. The process combines a mechanical pretreatment with pyrometallurgical recycling process step to recover all battery components, and realize cost-neutral and sustainable recycling. The focus of the research work is the development of a pyrometallurgical process step to recover especially Li out of electrode mass powder which is the fine fraction extracted mechanically from spent Li-ion batteries. Two metallurgical treatment technologies were investigated: direct vacuum evaporation of Li and recovery of metallic Li by distillation, and a selective entraining gas evaporation of Li and recovery of lithium oxide.

  3. Lithium/metal sulfide cells and battery development progress at Eagle-Picher Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupp, E. B.

    A program aimed at the design, development, and fabrication of lithium/metal sulfide secondary batteries with a molten-salt electrolyte that has been under way since 1975 is reviewed. The goals of the program are to develop a long-life, high-power, high-energy-density battery for electric-vehicle applications. The tasks accomplished so far are discussed with particular attention given to the development of current collectors for both FeS and FeS2 cells, separator improvements, sealing techniques, and active-material balances. The present state-of-the-art Li/MS(x) molten-salt batteries are characterized.

  4. Research on Computer Integrated Manufacturing of Sheet Metal Parts for Lithium Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Pan Wei-Min; Li Guo-Hua; Li Meng-Han

    2016-01-01

    Lithium battery has been widely used as the main driving force of the new energy vehicle in recent years. Sheet metal parts are formed by means of pressure forming techniques with the characteristics of light weight, small size and high structural strength. The sheet metal forming has higher productivity and material utilization than the mechanical cutting, therefore sheet metal parts are widely used in many fields, such as modern automotive industry, aviation, aerospace, machine tools, instr...

  5. Challenges and Prospect of Non-aqueous Non-alkali (NANA) Metal-Air Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Danny; Shvartsev, Boris; Ein-Eli, Yair

    2016-12-01

    Non-aqueous non-alkali (NANA) metal-air battery technologies promise to provide electrochemical energy storage with the highest specific energy density. Metal-air battery technology is particularly advantageous being implemented in long-range electric vehicles. Up to now, almost all the efforts in the field are focused on Li-air cells, but other NANA metal-air battery technologies emerge. The major concern, which the research community should be dealing with, is the limited and rather poor rechargeability of these systems. The challenges we are covering in this review are related to the initial limited discharge capacities and cell performances. By comprehensively reviewing the studies conducted so far, we show that the implementation of advanced materials is a promising approach to increase metal-air performance and, particularly, metal surface activation as a prime achievement leading to respectful discharge currents. In this review, we address the most critical areas that need careful research attention in order to achieve progress in the understanding of the physical and electrochemical processes in non-aqueous electrolytes applied in beyond lithium and zinc air generation of metal-air battery systems.

  6. A comparative study of ''In-Out'' and ''Out-In'' hydrogen reaction alternatives for metal hydride beds using RET 1 computer code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Osery, I.A.

    1984-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a comparative study of two alternatives for progress for hydrogen reaction in metal hydride hydrogen storage beds; namely ''In-Out'' and ''Out-In'' through the application of a space-time dependent computer code ''RET 1'' for the solution of the associated mass and heat transfer problem. The reference model for the metal hydride storage bed is considered of cylindrical shape and composed of a multiple of a cylindrical cell, that either consists of a coaxial fluid tube surrounded by the granular iron-titanium metal hydride; called ''In-Out'' cell; or consists of a coaxial rod of the granular iron-titanium metal hydride surrounded by an annular fluid tube; called ''Out-In'' cell. The results of the study lead to the conclusion that for the same operating and physical conditions, the rate of hydrogen reaction in the ''Out-In'' cell is many times higher than that in the ''In-Out'' one.

  7. C(sp₃)-H bond activation with triel metals: indium and gallium zwitterions through internal hydride abstraction in rigid salan ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudoux, Nicolas; Fang, Jian; Roisnel, Thierry; Dorcet, Vincent; Maron, Laurent; Carpentier, Jean-François; Sarazin, Yann

    2014-06-16

    The hydropyrimidine salan (salan=N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-bis[(2-hydroxyphenyl)methylene]-1,2-diaminoethane) proteo-ligands with a rigid backbone {ON^(CH2)^NO}H2 react with M(CH2SiMe3)3 (M=Ga, In) to yield the zwitterions {ON^(CH(+))^NO}M(-)(CH2SiMe3)2 (M=Ga, 2; In, 3) by abstraction of a hydride from the ligand backbone followed by elimination of dihydrogen. By contrast, with Al2Me6, the neutral-at-metal bimetallic complex [{ON^(CH2)^NO}AlMe]2 ([1]2) is obtained quantitatively. The formation of indium zwitterions is also observed with sterically more encumbered ligands containing o-Me substituents on the phenolic rings, or an N (CHPh) N moiety in the heterocyclic core. Overall, the ease of C(sp3)-H bond activation follows the order Al≪Gahydride species. DFT calculations indicate that the systems {ON^(CH2)^NO}H2+M(CH2SiMe3)3 (M=Al, Ga, In) all initially lead to the formation of the neutral monophenolate dihydrocarbyl species through a single protonolysis. From here, the thermodynamic product, the model neutral-at-metal complex 1, is formed in the case of aluminum after a second protonolysis. On the other hand, lower activation energy pathways lead to the generation of zwitterionic complexes 2 and 3 in the cases of gallium and indium, and the formation of these zwitterions obeys a strict kinetic control; the computations suggest that, as inferred from the experimental data, the reaction proceeds through an instable metal-hydride species, which could not be isolated synthetically. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Computational Analysis and Design of New Materials for Metal-Air Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekonnen, Yedilfana Setarge; Hummelshøj, Jens Strabo

    , an accessible energy barrier for sodium ion diffusion is obtained in Na2O2 and in NaO2 (main discharge products in Na-O2 batteries). The transport mechanisms at the cathode-electrolyte interfaces, i.e. Li2O2@Li2CO3 interface, are also examined. Lithium vacancies accumulate at the peroxide side of this interface...... gravimetric energy. In the case of Li-O2, it is comparable to that of gasoline. Thus, Li-O2 batteries could be attractive for electric vehicle manufacturers since the energy storage capacity accessible by commercially available Li-ion technology is too low to solve increasing capacity demands. However......In the last decade, great effort has been paid to the development of next generation batteries. Metal-O2 /Air batteries (Li-, Na-, Mg-, Al-, Fe- and Zn-O2 batteries) in both aqueous and nonaqueous (aprotic) electrolytes have gained much attention. Metal-air batteries have high theoretical specific...

  9. Preparation, characterization, and use of metal hydrides for fuel systems. Progress report, September 1, 1976--May 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herley, P.J.

    1977-05-01

    The isothermal decomposition kinetics of unirradiated and irradiated powdered lithium aluminum hydride have been determined in the temperature range 125 to 155 0 C. The resulting activation energies for unirradiated material for the induction, acceleratory, decay and slow final rate were, respectively, 116.8, 94.3, 87.1 and 12.9 +- 4.6 KJ/mole. For preirradiated powders (1.25 x 10 5 rad) activation energies for the same periods were 119.0, 99.5, 80.5 and 10.0 +- 4.6 KJ/mole, respectively. Admixture with powdered aluminum, nickel and final reaction product did not affect the subsequent thermal decomposition. Exposure to dry air and carbon dioxide do not affect the decomposition, but 2 minute exposure to saturated water vapor reduces the percentage decomposition by almost 50%. An extensive differential scanning calorimeter study has been made of LiAlH 4 (irradiation and water vapor effects), AlH 3 and NaAlH 3 (irradiation effects). The results indicate that irradiation tends to move the existing peaks to lower temperatures and at higher doses may even introduce additional peaks. The data above were analyzed using a cubic acceleratory period equation and a monomolecular decay law. In addition the analysis shows that irradiation increased the concentration of decomposition nuclei and the rate that potential decomposition sites are converted to active sites. These observations suggest that the same process is occurring in both irradiated and unirradiated lithium aluminum hydride, but that the rate constants are increased by prior irradiation. The photolytic decomposition of powdered LiAlH 4 and AlH 3 is markedly reproducible with no dark rate occurring in both instances. Magnesium hydride is also readily photolyzed with the BH 6 lamp and the actinic wavelength and intensity-rate relationships are being determined

  10. Free radical route to formation of the metal hydride complex hydridoaquobis(2,2'-bipyridine)cobalt(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, C.; Schwarz, H.A.; Sutin, N.

    1984-01-01

    The formation of Co(bpy) 2 (H 2 O)H 2+ (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) for high spin d 8 Co(I)bipyridine complexes in aqueous solutions is reported. The cobalt(I) bipyridine complexes were produced by the pulse radiolysis of aqueous CoSO 4 -2,2'-bipyridine mixtures. No reaction pathway attributable to a proton transfer in the complex formation was detected, and it is concluded that the hydride is formed entirely through reactions of Co(II) complexes and (bpy)H radicals

  11. Theoretical study of temperature dependent acoustic attenuation and non-linearity parameters in alkali metal hydride and deuteride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Rishi Pal [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Singh, Rajendra Kumar, E-mail: rksingh_17@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2010-11-01

    Temperature dependence of acoustic attenuation and non-linearity parameters in lithium hydride and lithium deuteride have been studied for longitudinal and shear modes along various crystallographic directions of propagation in a wide temperature range. Lattice parameter and repulsive parameters have been used as input data and interactions up to next nearest neighbours have been considered to calculate second and third order elastic constants which in turn have been used for evaluating acoustic attenuation and related parameters. The results have been discussed and compared with available data. It is hoped that the present results will serve to stimulate the determination of the acoustic attenuation of these compounds at different temperatures.

  12. Impedance-Based Battery Management for Metal-O2 Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Elkjær; Højberg, Jonathan; Norby, Poul

    2015-01-01

    In electric vehicles, reliable estimation of the state-of-charge (SoC) is crucial to determine the remaining capacity, but the electrochemical processes in metal-O2 batteries are very different to the Li-ion batteries used today, and current SoC-estimation methods prove insufficient. In Li-O2...... batteries, the capacity is highly dependent on the discharge rate, since different current densities enable different growth mechanisms of Li2O2, and an on-board calibration of the SoC is therefore needed. Such a calibration is typically performed by measuring the open-circuit voltage (OCV), but as the OCV...... of many metal-O2 battery does not change as a function of capacity, this method cannot be used. In this manuscript, we propose a method, based on a single-frequency electrochemical impedance measurement, to estimate the remaining capacity and assess the state-of-health of reversible metal-O2 batteries...

  13. Research Update: A hafnium-based metal-organic framework as a catalyst for regioselective ring-opening of epoxides with a mild hydride source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, Casey J.; Hassan Beyzavi, M.; Klet, Rachel C.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.

    2014-01-01

    Reaction of styrene oxide with sodium cyanoborohydride and a catalytic amount of Hf-NU-1000 yields the anti-Markovnikov product, 2-phenylethanol, with over 98% regioselectivity. On the other hand, propylene oxide is ring opened in a Markovnikov fashion to form 2-propanol with 95% regioselectivity. Both styrene oxide and propylene oxide failed to react with sodium cyanoborohydride without the addition of Hf-NU-1000 indicative of the crucial role of Hf-NU-1000 as a catalyst in this reaction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of a metal-organic framework material as a catalyst for ring-opening of epoxides with hydrides

  14. Theory of the computer code RET 1 for the calculation of space-time dependent temperature and composition properties of metal hydride hydrogen storage beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Osery, I.A.

    1983-01-01

    The work presented is a part of an extensive hydrogen energy research program conducted by the Inshas Nuclear Research Center (Egypt). The physical and mathematical modelling of the metal hydride hydrogen storage beds considered in the RET 1 computer code is described. A cylindrical conduction bed model is used. Two alternatives are considered for heat exchange: either fluid is passing through tubes surrounded by solid alloy, or solid alloy rods surrounded by annular fluid tubes. The numerical solution of the associated mass and heat transfer problem is discussed. In this solution, implicit finite difference approximations derived by Taylor expansions are applied. Some of the numerical results obtained by the RET 1 computer code are interpreted. (12 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.)

  15. Demonstration of a metal hydride storage system in a hydrogen-fuelled snow-cat; Demonstration eines Metallhybrid Speichers in einem mit Wasserstoff angetriebenen Pistenfahrzeug - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuettel, A.

    2004-07-01

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project that developed and tested a metal-hydride storage system that was tested in a snow-cat. The storage unit that was developed at the University of Fribourg, Switzerland, consists of three series-connected modules, each with 25 litres capacity. A total of 7 kg of hydrogen can be stored, with which the vehicle can be driven for 1 to 1.5 hours. The functioning of the storage unit is described in detail, as is the operation of the hydrogen-fuelled engine of the vehicle. Similar storage units tested on a light-weight road-vehicle and a motorboat are mentioned.

  16. Used battery collection in central Mexico: metal content, legislative/management situation and statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-García, José Antonio; Montiel-Corona, Virginia

    2012-03-01

    A statistical analysis of a used battery collection campaign in the state of Tlaxcala, Mexico, is presented. This included a study of the metal composition of spent batteries from formal and informal markets, and a critical discussion about the management of spent batteries in Mexico with respect to legislation. A six-month collection campaign was statistically analyzed: 77% of the battery types were "AA" and 30% of the batteries were from the informal market. A substantial percentage (36%) of batteries had residual voltage in the range 1.2-1.4 V, and 70% had more than 1.0 V; this may reflect underutilization. Metal content analysis and recovery experiments were performed with the five formal and four more frequent informal trademarks. The analysis of Hg, Cd and Pb showed there is no significant difference in content between formal and informal commercialized batteries. All of the analyzed trademarks were under the permissible limit levels of the proposed Mexican Official Norm (NOM) NMX-AA-104-SCFI-2006 and would be classified as not dangerous residues (can be thrown to the domestic rubbish); however, compared with the EU directive 2006/66/EC, 8 out of 9 of the selected battery trademarks would be rejected, since the Mexican Norm content limit is 20, 7.5 and 5 fold higher in Hg, Cd and Pb, respectively, than the EU directive. These results outline the necessity for better regulatory criteria in the proposed Mexican NOM in order to minimize the impact on human health and the environment of this type of residues. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Oxide nanostructures hyperbranched with thin and hollow metal shells for high-performance nanostructured battery electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xinhui; Xiong, Qinqin; Zhang, Yongqi; Tu, Jiangping; Ng, Chin Fan; Fan, Hong Jin

    2014-06-25

    High-performance electrochemical energy storage (EES) devices require the ability to modify and assemble electrode materials with superior reactivity and structural stability. The fabrication of different oxide/metal core-branch nanoarrays with adjustable components and morphologies (e.g., nanowire and nanoflake) is reported on different conductive substrates. Hollow metal branches (or shells) wrapped around oxide cores are realized by electrodeposition using ZnO nanorods as a sacrificial template. In battery electrode application, the thin hollow metal branches can provide a mechanical protection of the oxide core and a highly conductive path for charges. As a demonstration, arrays of Co3O4/Ni core-branch nanowires are evaluated as the anode for lithium ion batteries. The thin metal branches evidently improve the electrochemical performance with higher specific capacity, rate capability, and capacity retention than the unmodified Co3O4 counterparts. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. A highly reversible room-temperature lithium metal battery based on crosslinked hairy nanoparticles.

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis

    2015-12-04

    Rough electrodeposition, uncontrolled parasitic side-reactions with electrolytes and dendrite-induced short-circuits have hindered development of advanced energy storage technologies based on metallic lithium, sodium and aluminium electrodes. Solid polymer electrolytes and nanoparticle-polymer composites have shown promise as candidates to suppress lithium dendrite growth, but the challenge of simultaneously maintaining high mechanical strength and high ionic conductivity at room temperature has so far been unmet in these materials. Here we report a facile and scalable method of fabricating tough, freestanding membranes that combine the best attributes of solid polymers, nanocomposites and gel-polymer electrolytes. Hairy nanoparticles are employed as multifunctional nodes for polymer crosslinking, which produces mechanically robust membranes that are exceptionally effective in inhibiting dendrite growth in a lithium metal battery. The membranes are also reported to enable stable cycling of lithium batteries paired with conventional intercalating cathodes. Our findings appear to provide an important step towards room-temperature dendrite-free batteries.

  19. A Review of Model-Based Design Tools for Metal-Air Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Clark

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of large-scale renewable energy generation and electric mobility is driving a growing need for new electrochemical energy storage systems. Metal-air batteries, particularly zinc-air, are a promising technology that could help address this need. While experimental research is essential, it can also be expensive and time consuming. The utilization of well-developed theory-based models can improve researchers’ understanding of complex electrochemical systems, guide development, and more efficiently utilize experimental resources. In this paper, we review the current state of metal-air batteries and the modeling methods that can be implemented to advance their development. Microscopic and macroscopic modeling methods are discussed with a focus on continuum modeling derived from non-equilibrium thermodynamics. An applied example of zinc-air battery engineering is presented.

  20. The Effect of Hydrogen and Hydrides on the Integrity of Zirconium Alloy Components Delayed Hydride Cracking

    CERN Document Server

    Puls, Manfred P

    2012-01-01

    By drawing together the current theoretical and experimental understanding of the phenomena of delayed hydride cracking (DHC) in zirconium alloys, The Effect of Hydrogen and Hydrides on the Integrity of Zirconium Alloy Components: Delayed Hydride Cracking provides a detailed explanation focusing on the properties of hydrogen and hydrides in these alloys. Whilst the focus lies on zirconium alloys, the combination of both the empirical and mechanistic approaches creates a solid understanding that can also be applied to other hydride forming metals.   This up-to-date reference focuses on documented research surrounding DHC, including current methodologies for design and assessment of the results of periodic in-service inspections of pressure tubes in nuclear reactors. Emphasis is placed on showing that our understanding of DHC is supported by progress across a broad range of fields. These include hysteresis associated with first-order phase transformations; phase relationships in coherent crystalline metallic...

  1. Understanding the molecular mechanism of pulse current charging for stable lithium-metal batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Tan, Shen; Li, Linlin; Lu, Yingying; He, Yi

    2017-07-01

    High energy and safe electrochemical storage are critical components in multiple emerging fields of technologies. Rechargeable lithium-metal batteries are considered to be promising alternatives for current lithium-ion batteries, leading to as much as a 10-fold improvement in anode storage capacity (from 372 to 3860 mAh g -1 ). One of the major challenges for commercializing lithium-metal batteries is the reliability and safety issue, which is often associated with uneven lithium electrodeposition (lithium dendrites) during the charging stage of the battery cycling process. We report that stable lithium-metal batteries can be achieved by simply charging cells with square-wave pulse current. We investigated the effects of charging period and frequency as well as the mechanisms that govern this process at the molecular level. Molecular simulations were performed to study the diffusion and the solvation structure of lithium cations (Li + ) in bulk electrolyte. The model predicts that loose association between cations and anions can enhance the transport of Li + and eventually stabilize the lithium electrodeposition. We also performed galvanostatic measurements to evaluate the cycling behavior and cell lifetime under pulsed electric field and found that the cell lifetime can be more than doubled using certain pulse current waveforms. Both experimental and simulation results demonstrate that the effectiveness of pulse current charging on dendrite suppression can be optimized by choosing proper time- and frequency-dependent pulses. This work provides a molecular basis for understanding the mechanisms of pulse current charging to mitigating lithium dendrites and designing pulse current waveforms for stable lithium-metal batteries.

  2. Thermal battery. [solid metal halide electrolytes with enhanced electrical conductance after a phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsten, R.W.; Nissen, D.A.

    1973-03-06

    The patent describes an improved thermal battery whose novel design eliminates various disadvantages of previous such devices. Its major features include a halide cathode, a solid metal halide electrolyte which has a substantially greater electrical conductance after a phase transition at some temperature, and a means for heating its electrochemical cells to activation temperature.

  3. Metal interferences and their removal prior to the determination of As(T) and As(III) in acid mine waters by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Ball, James W.

    2003-01-01

    Hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) is a sensitive and selective method for the determination of total arsenic (arsenic(III) plus arsenic(V)) and arsenic(III); however, it is subject to metal interferences for acid mine waters. Sodium borohydride is used to produce arsine gas, but high metal concentrations can suppress arsine production. This report investigates interferences of sixteen metal species including aluminum, antimony(III), antimony(V), cadmium, chromium(III), chromium(IV), cobalt, copper(II), iron(III), iron(II), lead, manganese, nickel, selenium(IV), selenium(VI), and zinc ranging in concentration from 0 to 1,000 milligrams per liter and offers a method for removing interfering metal cations with cation exchange resin. The degree of interference for each metal without cation-exchange on the determination of total arsenic and arsenic(III) was evaluated by spiking synthetic samples containing arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) with the potential interfering metal. Total arsenic recoveries ranged from 92 to 102 percent for all metals tested except antimony(III) and antimony(V) which suppressed arsine formation when the antimony(III)/total arsenic molar ratio exceeded 4 or the antimony(V)/total arsenic molar ratio exceeded 2. Arsenic(III) recoveries for samples spiked with aluminum, chromium(III), cobalt, iron(II), lead, manganese, nickel, selenium(VI), and zinc ranged from 84 to 107 percent over the entire concentration range tested. Low arsenic(III) recoveries occurred when the molar ratios of metals to arsenic(III) were copper greater than 120, iron(III) greater than 70, chromium(VI) greater than 2, cadmium greater than 800, antimony(III) greater than 3, antimony(V) greater than 12, or selenium(IV) greater than 1. Low recoveries result when interfering metals compete for available sodium borohydride, causing incomplete arsine production, or when the interfering metal oxidizes arsenic(III). Separation of interfering metal cations using

  4. Recovery of metals from a mixture of various spent batteries by a hydrometallurgical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanong, Kulchaya; Coudert, Lucie; Mercier, Guy; Blais, Jean-Francois

    2016-10-01

    Spent batteries contain hazardous materials, including numerous metals (cadmium, lead, nickel, zinc, etc.) that are present at high concentrations. Therefore, proper treatment of these wastes is necessary to prevent their harmful effects on human health and the environment. Current recycling processes are mainly applied to treat each type of spent battery separately. In this laboratory study, a hydrometallurgical process has been developed to simultaneously and efficiently solubilize metals from spent batteries. Among the various chemical leaching agents tested, sulfuric acid was found to be the most efficient and cheapest reagent. A Box-Behnken design was used to identify the influence of several parameters (acid concentration, solid/liquid ratio, retention time and number of leaching steps) on the removal of metals from spent batteries. According to the results, the solid/liquid ratio and acid concentration seemed to be the main parameters influencing the solubilization of zinc, manganese, nickel, cadmium and cobalt from spent batteries. According to the results, the highest metal leaching removals were obtained under the optimal leaching conditions (pulp density = 180 g/L (w/v), [H2SO4] = 1 M, number of leaching step = 3 and leaching time = 30 min). Under such optimum conditions, the removal yields obtained were estimated to be 65% for Mn, 99.9% for Cd, 100% for Zn, 74% for Co and 68% for Ni. Further studies will be performed to improve the solubilization of Mn and to selectively recover the metals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Metal | polypyrrole battery with the air regenerated positive electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgur, Branimir N.

    2014-12-01

    Recharge characteristics of the battery based on the electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole cathode and aluminum, zinc, or magnesium anode in 2 M NH4Cl are investigated. It is shown that polypyrrole electrode can be regenerated by the reoxidation with the dissolved oxygen from the air. Using the polypyrrole synthesized on high surface graphite-felt electrode under modest discharge conditions, stable discharge voltage of 1.1 V is obtained. Such behavior is explained by the complex interaction of polypyrrole and hydrogen peroxide produced by the oxygen reduction reaction. The electrochemical characteristics are compared with the zinc-manganese dioxide and zinc-air systems.

  6. NASICON Open Framework Structured Transition Metal Oxides for Lithium Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Begam, K.M.; Michael, M.S.; Prabaharan, S.R.S.

    2010-01-01

    We identified a group of NASICON open framework structured polyanion materials and examined the materials for rechargeable lithium battery application. We found that the open framework structure of these materials facilitated easy insertion/extraction of lithium into/from their structure. We synthesized the materials in lithium-rich [Li2M2(MoO4)3] and lithium-free [LixM2(MoO4)3] (M= Ni, Co) phases, for the first time, by means of a low temperature soft-combustion technique. The soft-combustio...

  7. Hydraulically refueled battery employing a packed bed metal particle electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Stanley C.; Evans, James W.

    1998-01-01

    A secondary zinc air cell, or another selected metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode. More specifically, two embodiments of a cell, one that is capable of being hydraulically recharged, and a second that is capable of being either hydraulically or electrically recharged. Additionally, each cell includes a sloped bottom portion to cause stirring of the electrolyte/metal particulate slurry when the cell is being hydraulically emptied and refilled during hydraulically recharging of the cell.

  8. Li metal protection for High Energy Space Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NOHMs Technologies proposes to develop a novel ionic liquid electrolyte formulation developed for the Lithium-Sulfur chemistry that can protect the lithium metal and...

  9. Electrolyte additive enabled fast charging and stable cycling lithium metal batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Engelhard, Mark H.; Mei, Donghai; Jiao, Shuhong; Polzin, Bryant J.; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2017-03-01

    Lithium (Li) metal battery is an attractive energy storage system owing to the ultrahigh specific capacity and the lowest redox potential of Li metal anode. However, safety concern associated with dendrite growth and limited cycle life especially at a high charge current density are two critical challenges hindering the practical applications of rechargeable Li metal batteries. Here, we report for the first time that an optimal amount (0.05 M) of LiPF6 as additive in the LiTFSI-LiBOB dual-salt/carbonate-based electrolyte can significantly enhance the charging capability and the long-term cycle life of Li metal batteries with a moderately high cathode loading of 1.75 mAh cm-2. Unprecedented stable-cycling (97.1% capacity retention after 500 cycles) along with very limited increase in electrode over-potential has been achieved at a high current density of 1.75 mA cm-2. This unparalleled fast charging and stable cycling performance is contributed from both the stabilized Al cathode current collector, and, more importantly, the robust and conductive SEI layer formed on Li metal anode in the presence of the LiPF6 additive.

  10. Facile synthesis of nanostructured transition metal oxides as electrodes for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opra, Denis P.; Gnedenkov, Sergey V.; Sokolov, Alexander A.; Minaev, Alexander N.; Kuryavyi, Valery G.; Sinebryukhov, Sergey L.

    2017-09-01

    At all times, energy storage is one of the greatest scientific challenge. Recently, Li-ion batteries are under special attention due to high working voltage, long cycle life, low self-discharge, reliability, no-memory effect. However, commercial LIBs usage in medium- and large-scale energy storage are limited by the capacity of lithiated metal oxide cathode and unsafety of graphite anode at high-rate charge. In this way, new electrode materials with higher electrochemical performance should be designed to satisfy a requirement in both energy and power. As it known, nanostructured transition metal oxides are promising electrode materials because of their elevated specific capacity and high potential vs. Li/Li+. In this work, the perspective of an original facile technique of pulsed high-voltage plasma discharge in synthesis of nanostructured transition metal oxides as electrodes for lithium-ion batteries has been demonstrated.

  11. Energy analysis of batteries in photovoltaic systems. Part II: Energy return factors and overall battery efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydh, Carl Johan; Sanden, Bjoern A.

    2005-01-01

    Energy return factors and overall energy efficiencies are calculated for a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV)-battery system. Eight battery technologies are evaluated: lithium-ion (nickel), sodium-sulphur, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, lead-acid, vanadium-redox, zinc-bromine and polysulphide-bromide. With a battery energy storage capacity three times higher than the daily energy output, the energy return factor for the PV-battery system ranges from 2.2 to 10 in our reference case. For a PV-battery system with a service life of 30 yr, this corresponds to energy payback times between 2.5 and 13 yr. The energy payback time is 1.8-3.3 yr for the PV array and 0.72-10 yr for the battery, showing the energy related significance of batteries and the large variation between different technologies. In extreme cases, energy return factors below one occur, implying no net energy output. The overall battery efficiency, including not only direct energy losses during operation but also energy requirements for production and transport of the charger, the battery and the inverter, is 0.41-0.80. For some batteries, the overall battery efficiency is significantly lower than the direct efficiency of the charger, the battery and the inverter (0.50-0.85). The ranking order of batteries in terms of energy efficiency, the relative importance of different battery parameters and the optimal system design and operation (e.g. the use of air conditioning) are, in many cases, dependent on the characterisation of the energy background system and on which type of energy efficiency measure is used (energy return factor or overall battery efficiency)

  12. Functional materials for rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fangyi; Liang, Jing; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2011-04-19

    There is an ever-growing demand for rechargeable batteries with reversible and efficient electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Rechargeable batteries cover applications in many fields, which include portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, and large-scale electricity storage in smart or intelligent grids. The performance of rechargeable batteries depends essentially on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions involved in the components (i.e., the anode, cathode, electrolyte, and separator) of the cells. During the past decade, extensive efforts have been dedicated to developing advanced batteries with large capacity, high energy and power density, high safety, long cycle life, fast response, and low cost. Here, recent progress in functional materials applied in the currently prevailing rechargeable lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, lead acid, vanadium redox flow, and sodium-sulfur batteries is reviewed. The focus is on research activities toward the ionic, atomic, or molecular diffusion and transport; electron transfer; surface/interface structure optimization; the regulation of the electrochemical reactions; and the key materials and devices for rechargeable batteries. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Comparison of Different Battery Types for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iclodean, C.; Varga, B.; Burnete, N.; Cimerdean, D.; Jurchiş, B.

    2017-10-01

    Battery powered Electric Vehicles are starting to play a significant role in today’s automotive industry. There are many types of batteries found in the construction of today’s Electric Vehicles, being hard to decide which one fulfils best all the most important characteristics, from different viewpoints, such as energy storage efficiency, constructive characteristics, cost price, safety and utilization life. This study presents the autonomy of an Electric Vehicle that utilizes four different types of batteries: Lithium Ion (Li-Ion), Molten Salt (Na-NiCl2), Nickel Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) and Lithium Sulphur (Li-S), all of them having the same electric energy storage capacity. The novelty of this scientific work is the implementation of four different types of batteries for Electric Vehicles on the same model to evaluate the vehicle’s autonomy and the efficiency of these battery types on a driving cycle, in real time, digitized by computer simulation.

  14. Electrolyte additive enabled fast charging and stable cycling lithium metal batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Engelhard, Mark H.; Mei, Donghai; Jiao, Shuhong; Polzin, Bryant J.; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2017-03-01

    Batteries using lithium (Li) metal as anodes are considered promising energy storage systems because of their high energy densities. However, safety concerns associated with dendrite growth along with limited cycle life, especially at high charge current densities, hinder their practical uses. Here we report that an optimal amount (0.05 M) of LiPF6 as an additive in LiTFSI-LiBOB dual-salt/carbonate-solvent-based electrolytes significantly enhances the charging capability and cycling stability of Li metal batteries. In a Li metal battery using a 4-V Li-ion cathode at a moderately high loading of 1.75mAh cm(-2), a cyclability of 97.1% capacity retention after 500 cycles along with very limited increase in electrode overpotential is accomplished at a charge/discharge current density up to 1.75 mA cm(-2). The fast charging and stable cycling performances are ascribed to the generation of a robust and conductive solid electrolyte interphase at the Li metal surface and stabilization of the Al cathode current collector.

  15. Electrochemical and Optical Properties of Magnesium-Alloy Hydrides Reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirugnasambandam G. Manivasagam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As potential hydrogen storage media, magnesium based hydrides have been systematically studied in order to improve reversibility, storage capacity, kinetics and thermodynamics. The present article deals with the electrochemical and optical properties of Mg alloy hydrides. Electrochemical hydrogenation, compared to conventional gas phase hydrogen loading, provides precise control with only moderate reaction conditions. Interestingly, the alloy composition determines the crystallographic nature of the metal-hydride: a structural change is induced from rutile to fluorite at 80 at.% of Mg in Mg-TM alloy, with ensuing improved hydrogen mobility and storage capacity. So far, 6 wt.% (equivalent to 1600 mAh/g of reversibly stored hydrogen in MgyTM(1-yHx (TM: Sc, Ti has been reported. Thin film forms of these metal-hydrides reveal interesting electrochromic properties as a function of hydrogen content. Optical switching occurs during (dehydrogenation between the reflective metal and the transparent metal hydride states. The chronological sequence of the optical improvements in optically active metal hydrides starts with the rare earth systems (YHx, followed by Mg rare earth alloy hydrides (MgyGd(1-yHx and concludes with Mg transition metal hydrides (MgyTM(1-yHx. In-situ optical characterization of gradient thin films during (dehydrogenation, denoted as hydrogenography, enables the monitoring of alloy composition gradients simultaneously.

  16. Surface modification of a proton exchange membrane and hydrogen storage in a metal hydride for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Lisa

    promising option. Effective hydrogen storage methods must be used as sources of available hydrogen. One possibility is to use hydrogen stored in a solid chemical compound such as magnesium hydride. The kinetics of hydrogen release from the hydrolysis of magnesium hydride with 2 wt% acetic acid was examined. The hydrogen produced was supplied to a fuel cell and the amount of hydrogen consumed by the fuel cell was determined. Carbon nanotubes also can play a role in energy sources and as components in fuel cells. VUV photo-oxidized single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) paper was grafted with polyacrylic acid and analyzed using XPS.

  17. Recycling readiness of advanced batteries for electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungst, R.G.

    1997-09-01

    Maximizing the reclamation/recycle of electric-vehicle (EV) batteries is considered to be essential for the successful commercialization of this technology. Since the early 1990s, the US Department of Energy has sponsored the ad hoc advanced battery readiness working group to review this and other possible barriers to the widespread use of EVs, such as battery shipping and in-vehicle safety. Regulation is currently the main force for growth in EV numbers and projections for the states that have zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) programs indicate about 200,000 of these vehicles would be offered to the public in 2003 to meet those requirements. The ad hoc Advanced Battery Readiness Working Group has identified a matrix of battery technologies that could see use in EVs and has been tracking the state of readiness of recycling processes for each of them. Lead-acid, nickel/metal hydride, and lithium-ion are the three EV battery technologies proposed by the major automotive manufacturers affected by ZEV requirements. Recycling approaches for the two advanced battery systems on this list are partly defined, but could be modified to recover more value from end-of-life batteries. The processes being used or planned to treat these batteries are reviewed, as well as those being considered for other longer-term technologies in the battery recycling readiness matrix. Development efforts needed to prepare for recycling the batteries from a much larger EV population than exists today are identified.

  18. Environmental characteristics comparison of Li-ion batteries and Ni–MH batteries under the uncertainty of cycle performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yajuan; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Dong; Huang, Kai; Wang, Lijing; Bao, Liying; Wu, Feng

    2012-01-01

    An environmental impact assessment model for secondary batteries under uncertainty is proposed, which is a combination of the life cycle assessment (LCA), Eco-indicator 99 system and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). The LCA can describe the environmental impact mechanism of secondary batteries, whereas the cycle performance was simulated through MCS. The composite LCA–MCS model was then carried out to estimate the environmental impact of two kinds of experimental batteries. Under this kind of standard assessment system, a comparison between different batteries could be accomplished. The following results were found: (1) among the two selected batteries, the environmental impact of the Li-ion battery is lower than the nickel–metal hydride (Ni–MH) battery, especially with regards to resource consumption and (2) the lithium ion (Li-ion) battery is less sensitive to cycle uncertainty, its environmental impact fluctuations are small when compared with the selected Ni–MH battery and it is more environmentally friendly. The assessment methodology and model proposed in this paper can also be used for any other secondary batteries and they can be helpful in the development of environmentally friendly secondary batteries.

  19. Stability of Polymeric Separators in Lithium Metal Batteries in a Low Voltage Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xing; Tao, Jinhui; Hu, Dehong; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhao, Wengao; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2018-03-20

    The separator is an important component in rechargeable lithium (Li) metal batteries, however, less attention has been focused on it. In this work, several representative separators, such as polyethylene, polypropylene, and such polyolefin separators with coatings of ceramic and polymeric materials, were selected to assemble into Li||Cu and Li||Li coin cells to test the Coulombic efficiency values of Li metal and the cycling stability in a low voltage environment less than 1 V. Moreover, two representative electrolytes of LiPF6 and LiTFSI-LiBOB in carbonate solvent mixture were also employed to systematically study their interactions with the separators in Li metal cells. It was found that the separators could largely affect the Coulombic efficiency values and cycling stability of Li metal cells, especially when using the LiPF6 electrolyte, which is probably due to the effect of the trace amount of HF in the LiPF6 electrolyte. Among these separators, polyethylene separator is the most stable one with Li metal. This work gave some reasonable explanations for the above phenomena, which could provide references for Li metal battery studies when employing Li||Cu and Li||Li cells conducted in the low voltage environment.

  20. Biologically activated noble metal alloys at the nanoscale: for lithium ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Jung; Lee, Youjin; Oh, Dahyun; Chen, Tiffany; Ceder, Gerbrand; Belcher, Angela M

    2010-07-14

    We report the synthesis and electrochemical activity of gold and silver noble metals and their alloy nanowires using multiple virus clones as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. Using two clones, one for specificity (p8#9 virus) and one versatility (E4 virus), noble metal nanowires of high-aspect ratio with diameters below 50 nm were successfully synthesized with control over particle sizes, morphologies, and compositions. The biologically derived noble metal alloy nanowires showed electrochemical activities toward lithium even when the electrodes were prepared from bulk powder forms. The improvement in capacity retention was accomplished by alloy formation and surface stabilization. Although the cost of noble metals renders them a less ideal choice for lithium ion batteries, these noble metal/alloy nanowires serve as great model systems to study electrochemically induced transformation at the nanoscale. Given the demonstration of the electrochemical activity of noble metal alloy nanowires with various compositions, the M13 biological toolkit extended its utility for the study on the basic electrochemical property of materials.

  1. Composite Li metal anode with vertical graphene host for high performance Li-S batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. J.; Liu, S. F.; Wang, X. L.; Zhong, Y.; Xia, X. H.; Wu, J. B.; Tu, J. P.

    2018-01-01

    Efficient and stable operation of a lithium metal anode has become the enabling factor for next-generation high energy density storage system. Here, vertical graphene (VG) arrays are used as the scaffold structure for high performance Li metal batteries. The melt infusion method is employed to encapsulate Li inside the VG scaffold structure, and the lithiophilic Si layer is coated onto the array surface by magnetron sputtering to assist this melt-infusion process. The porous scaffold structure can control the volume expansion and inhibit the formation of dendritic lithium significantly, leading to the excellent electrochemical performance of the Li composite anode. In addition, the Li-S full batteries with the composite anode display enhanced cycling reversibility.

  2. Improved Accuracy of Density Functional Theory Calculations for CO2 Reduction and Metal-Air Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rune; Hansen, Heine Anton; Vegge, Tejs

    2015-01-01

    , Nano Lett., 14, 1016 (2014) [6] J. Wellendorff, K. T. Lundgaard, A. Møgelhøj, V. Petzold, D. D. Landis, J. K. Nørskov, T. Bligaard, and K. W. Jacobsen, Phys. Rev. B, 85, 235149 (2012) Figure 1: Calculated enthalpies of reaction from CO2 to CH3OH (x axis) and HCOOH (y axis). Functional variations.......e. the electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 and metal-air batteries. In theoretical studies of electrocatalytic CO2 reduction, calculated DFT-level enthalpies of reaction for CO2reduction to various products are significantly different from experimental values[1-3]. In theoretical studies of metal-air battery reactions...... through first principle methods. Ensembles generated using a Bayesian error estimation functional, in this case the BEEF-vdW functional[6], are used for the error identification. The ensembles, which consist of perturbations of the main van der Waals density functional, can be generated at low...

  3. NANOSTRUCTURED METAL OXIDES FOR ANODES OF LI-ION RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Au, M.

    2009-12-04

    The aligned nanorods of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and nanoporous hollow spheres (NHS) of SnO{sub 2} and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} were investigated as the anodes for Li-ion rechargeable batteries. The Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods demonstrated 1433 mAh/g reversible capacity. The NHS of SnO{sub 2} and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} delivered 400 mAh/g and 250 mAh/g capacities respectively in multiple galvonastatic discharge-charge cycles. It was found that high capacity of NHS of metal oxides is sustainable attributed to their unique structure that maintains material integrity during cycling. The nanostructured metal oxides exhibit great potential as the new anode materials for Li-ion rechargeable batteries with high energy density, low cost and inherent safety.

  4. Low temperature sulfur and sodium metal battery for grid-scale energy storage application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Wang, Dongdong

    2018-03-27

    A re-chargeable battery comprising a non-dendrite forming sodium (Na)/potassium (K) liquid metal alloy anode, a sulfur and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) conductive polymer composite cathode, a polyethyleneoxide (PEO) solid electrolyte, a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formed on the PEO solid electrolyte; and a cell housing, wherein the anode, cathode, and electrolyte are assembled into the cell housing with the PEO solid electrolyte disposed between the cathode and anode.

  5. Bioleaching of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion mobile phone batteries using Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horeh, N. Bahaloo; Mousavi, S. M.; Shojaosadati, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a bio-hydrometallurgical route based on fungal activity of Aspergillus niger was evaluated for the detoxification and recovery of Cu, Li, Mn, Al, Co and Ni metals from spent lithium-ion phone mobile batteries under various conditions (one-step, two-step and spent medium bioleaching). The maximum recovery efficiency of 100% for Cu, 95% for Li, 70% for Mn, 65% for Al, 45% for Co, and 38% for Ni was obtained at a pulp density of 1% in spent medium bioleaching. The HPLC results indicated that citric acid in comparison with other detected organic acids (gluconic, oxalic and malic acid) had an important role in the effectiveness of bioleaching using A. niger. The results of FTIR, XRD and FE-SEM analysis of battery powder before and after bioleaching process confirmed that the fungal activities were quite effective. In addition, bioleaching achieved higher removal efficiency for heavy metals than the chemical leaching. This research demonstrated the great potential of bio-hydrometallurgical route to recover heavy metals from spent lithium-ion mobile phone batteries.

  6. Lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery for grid-level energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kangli; Jiang, Kai; Chung, Brice; Ouchi, Takanari; Burke, Paul J; Boysen, Dane A; Bradwell, David J; Kim, Hojong; Muecke, Ulrich; Sadoway, Donald R

    2014-10-16

    The ability to store energy on the electric grid would greatly improve its efficiency and reliability while enabling the integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies (such as wind and solar) into baseload supply. Batteries have long been considered strong candidate solutions owing to their small spatial footprint, mechanical simplicity and flexibility in siting. However, the barrier to widespread adoption of batteries is their high cost. Here we describe a lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery that potentially meets the performance specifications for stationary energy storage applications. This Li||Sb-Pb battery comprises a liquid lithium negative electrode, a molten salt electrolyte, and a liquid antimony-lead alloy positive electrode, which self-segregate by density into three distinct layers owing to the immiscibility of the contiguous salt and metal phases. The all-liquid construction confers the advantages of higher current density, longer cycle life and simpler manufacturing of large-scale storage systems (because no membranes or separators are involved) relative to those of conventional batteries. At charge-discharge current densities of 275 milliamperes per square centimetre, the cells cycled at 450 degrees Celsius with 98 per cent Coulombic efficiency and 73 per cent round-trip energy efficiency. To provide evidence of their high power capability, the cells were discharged and charged at current densities as high as 1,000 milliamperes per square centimetre. Measured capacity loss after operation for 1,800 hours (more than 450 charge-discharge cycles at 100 per cent depth of discharge) projects retention of over 85 per cent of initial capacity after ten years of daily cycling. Our results demonstrate that alloying a high-melting-point, high-voltage metal (antimony) with a low-melting-point, low-cost metal (lead) advantageously decreases the operating temperature while maintaining a high cell voltage. Apart from the fact that this

  7. Behavior of Lithium Metal Anodes under Various Capacity Utilization and High Current Density in Lithium Metal Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Shuhong; Zheng, Jianming; Li, Qiuyan; Li, Xing; Engelhard, Mark H.; Cao, Ruiguo; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2018-01-01

    Lithium (Li) metal batteries (LMBs) are regarded as the most promising power sources for electric vehicles. Besides the Li dendrite growth and low Li Coulombic efficiency, how to well match Li metal anode with a high loading (normally over 3.0 mAh cm-2) cathode is another key challenge to achieve the real high energy density battery. In this work, we systematically investigate the effects of the Li metal capacity usage in each cycle, manipulated by varying the cathode areal loading, on the stability of Li metal anode and the cycling performance of LMBs using the LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) cathode and an additive-containing dual-salt/carbonate-solvent electrolyte. It is demonstrated that the Li||NMC cells show decent long-term cycling performance even with NMC areal capacity loading up to ca. 4.0 mAh cm-2 and at a charge current density of 1.0 mA cm-2. The increase of the Li capacity usage in each cycle causes variation in the components of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer on Li metal anode and generates more ionic conductive species from this electrolyte. Further study reveals for the first time that the degradation of Li metal anode and the thickness of SEI layer on Li anode show linear relationship with the areal capacity of NMC cathode. Meanwhile, the expansion rate of consumed Li and the ratio of SEI thickness to NMC areal loading are kept almost the same value with increasing cathode loading, respectively. These fundamental findings provide new perspectives on the rational evaluation of Li metal anode stability for the development of rechargeable LMBs.

  8. Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe3O4/carbon microspheres (Fe3O4/C were prepared by a facile hydrothermal reaction using cellulose and ferric trichloride as precursors. The resultant composite spheres have been investigated as anode materials for the lithium-ion batteries, and they show high capacity and good cycle stability (830mAhg−1 at a current density of 0.1C up to 70 cycles, as well as enhanced rate capability. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the high structural stability and high rate of ionic/electronic conduction arising from the porous character and the synergetic effect of the carbon coated Fe3O4 structure and conductive carbon coating.

  9. The Incorporation of Lithium Alloying Metals into Carbon Matrices for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Kevin A.

    An increased interest in renewable energies and alternative fuels has led to recognition of the necessity of wide scale adoption of the electric vehicle. Automotive manufacturers have striven to produce an electric vehicle that can match the range of their petroleum-fueled counterparts. However, the state-of-the-art lithium ion batteries used to power the current offerings still do not come close to the necessary energy density. The energy and power densities of the lithium ion batteries must be increased significantly if they are going to make electric vehicles a viable option. The chemistry of the lithium ion battery, based on lithium cobalt oxide cathodes and graphite anodes, is limited by the amount of lithium the cathode can provide and the anode will accept. While these materials have proven themselves in portable electronics over the past two decades, plausible higher energy alternatives do exist. The focus is of this study is on anode materials that could achieve a capacity of more than 3 times greater than that of graphite anodes. The lithium alloying anode materials investigated and reported herein include tin, arsenic, and gallium arsenide. These metals were synthesized with nanoscale dimensions, improving their electrochemical and mechanical properties. Each exhibits their own benefits and challenges, but all display opportunities for incorporation in lithium ion batteries. Tin is incorporated in multilayer graphene nanoshells by introducing small amounts of metal in the core and, separately, on the outside of these spheres. Electrolyte decomposition on the anode limits cycle life of the tin cores, however, tin vii oxides introduced outside of the multilayer graphene nanoshells have greatly improved long term battery performance. Arsenic is a lithium alloying metal that has largely been ignored by the research community to date. One of the first long term battery performance tests of arsenic is reported in this thesis. Anodes were made from nanoscale

  10. A review of nickel hydrogen battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithrick, John J.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design which has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a

  11. Transition-metal chlorides as conversion cathode materials for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ting; Chen, Zhong X.; Cao, Yu L.; Ai, Xin P.; Yang, Han X.

    2012-01-01

    Insoluble AgCl and soluble CuCl 2 were selected and investigated as model compounds of transition-metal chlorides for electrochemical conversion cathode materials. The experimental results demonstrated that the AgCl nanocrystals can convert reversibly to metallic Ag with nearly full utilization of its one-electron redox capacity (187 mAh g −1 ). Similarly, the CuCl 2 -filled mesoporous carbon can realize a reversible two-electron transfer reaction, giving a very high reversible capacity of 466 mAh g −1 after 20 cycles. These data imply that the metal chlorides can undergo complete electrochemical conversion utilizing their full oxidation states for electrical energy storage as previously reported metal fluorides, possibly being used as high capacity cathode materials for Li-ion batteries.

  12. Pyrophoric behaviour of uranium hydride and uranium powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guyadec, F.; Génin, X.; Bayle, J. P.; Dugne, O.; Duhart-Barone, A.; Ablitzer, C.

    2010-01-01

    Thermal stability and spontaneous ignition conditions of uranium hydride and uranium metal fine powders have been studied and observed in an original and dedicated experimental device placed inside a glove box under flowing pure argon. Pure uranium hydride powder with low amount of oxide (Oxidation mechanisms are proposed.

  13. Comparison of Hydrogen Elimination from Molecular Zinc and Magnesium Hydride Clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Intemann, J.; Sirsch, Peter; Harder, Sjoerd

    2014-01-01

    In analogy to the previously reported tetranuclear magnesium hydride cluster with a bridged dianionic bis-beta-diketiminate ligand, a related zinc hydride cluster has been prepared. The crystal structures of these magnesium and zinc hydride complexes are similar: the metal atoms are situated at the

  14. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 3, Transport of sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal-chloride batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammel, C J

    1992-09-01

    This report examines the shipping regulations that govern the shipment of dangerous goods. Since the elemental sodium contained in both sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal-chloride batteries is classified as a dangerous good, and is listed on both the national and international hazardous materials listings, both national and international regulatory processes are considered in this report The interrelationships as well as the differences between the two processes are highlighted. It is important to note that the transport regulatory processes examined in this report are reviewed within the context of assessing the necessary steps needed to provide for the domestic and international transport of sodium-beta batteries. The need for such an assessment was determined by the Shipping Sub-Working Group (SSWG) of the EV Battery Readiness Working Group (Working Group), created in 1990. The Working Group was created to examine the regulatory issues pertaining to in-vehicle safety, shipping, and recycling of sodium-sulfur batteries, each of which is addressed by a sub-working group. The mission of the SSWG is to establish basic provisions that will ensure the safe and efficient transport of sodium-beta batteries. To support that end, a proposal to the UN Committee of Experts was prepared by the SSWG, with the goal of obtaining a proper shipping name and UN number for sodium-beta batteries and to establish the basic transport requirements for such batteries (see the appendix for the proposal as submitted). It is emphasized that because batteries are large articles containing elemental sodium and, in some cases, sulfur, there is no existing UN entry under which they can be classified and for which modal transport requirements, such as the use of packaging appropriate for such large articles, are provided for. It is for this reason that a specific UN entry for sodium-beta batteries is considered essential.

  15. Metal-Free Aqueous Flow Battery with Novel Ultrafiltered Lignin as Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Alolika [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, 334 Snell Engineering, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, United States; Hamel, Jonathan [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, 334 Snell Engineering, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, United States; Katahira, Rui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Zhu, Hongli [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, 334 Snell Engineering, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, United States

    2018-03-05

    As the number of generation sources from intermittent renewable technologies on the electric grid increases, the need for large-scale energy storage devices is becoming essential to ensure grid stability. Flow batteries offer numerous advantages over conventional sealed batteries for grid storage. In this work, for the first time, we investigated lignin, the second most abundant wood derived biopolymer, as an anolyte for the aqueous flow battery. Lignosulfonate, a water-soluble derivative of lignin, is environmentally benign, low cost and abundant as it is obtained from the byproduct of paper and biofuel manufacturing. The lignosulfonate utilizes the redox chemistry of quinone to store energy and undergoes a reversible redox reaction. Here, we paired lignosulfonate with Br2/Br-, and the full cell runs efficiently with high power density. Also, the large and complex molecular structure of lignin considerably reduces the electrolytic crossover, which ensures very high capacity retention. The flowcell was able to achieve current densities of up to 20 mA/cm2 and charge polarization resistance of 15 ohm cm2. This technology presents a unique opportunity for a low-cost, metal-free flow battery capable of large-scale sustainable energy storage.

  16. Characterization and electrochemical activities of nanostructured transition metal nitrides as cathode materials for lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavati, Negar; Salley, Steven O.; Ng, K. Y. Simon

    2017-02-01

    The Lithium Sulfur (Li-S) battery system is one of the most promising candidates for electric vehicle applications due to its higher energy density when compared to conventional lithium ion batteries. However, there are some challenges facing Li-S battery commercialization, such as: low active material utilization, high self-discharge rate, and high rate of capacity fade. In this work, a series of transition metal nitrides: Tungsten nitride (WN), Molybdenum Nitride (Mo2N), and Vanadium Nitride (VN) was investigated as cathode materials for lithium polysulfide conversion reactions. Capacities of 697, 569, and 264 mAh g-1 were observed for WN, Mo2N, VN, respectively, with 8 mg cm-2 loading, after 100 cycles at a 0.1 C rate. WN higher electrochemical performance may be attributed to a strong reversible reaction between nitrides and polysulfide, which retains the sulfur species on the electrode surface, and minimizes the active material and surface area loss. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was performed to gain a better understanding of the mechanism underlying each metal nitride redox reactions.

  17. Capacity extended bismuth-antimony cathode for high-performance liquid metal battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Tao; Zhao, Yue; Ning, Xiao-Hui; Lakshmi Narayan, R.; Li, Ju; Shan, Zhi-wei

    2018-03-01

    Li-Bi based liquid metal batteries (LMBs) have attracted interest due to their potential for solving grid scale energy storage problems. In this study, the feasibility of replacing the bismuth cathode with a bismuth-antimony alloy cathode in lithium based LMBs is investigated. The influence of the Bi:Sb ratio on voltage characteristics is evaluated via the constant current discharge method and electrochemical titration. On observing the cross section of the electrode at various stages of discharge, it is determined that both Sb and Bi form solid intermetallics with Li on the cathode. Additionally, the addition of Bi not only reduces the melting temperature of the Bi:Sb intermetallic but also actively contributes to the electrode capacity. Thereafter, a Li|LiCl-LiF|Sb-Bi liquid metal battery with 3 A h nameplate capacity, assembled and cycled at 1 C rate, is found to possess a stable capacity for over 160 cycles. The overall performance of this battery is discussed in the context of cost effectiveness, energy and coulombic efficiencies.

  18. Hydrometallurgical recovery of metal values from sulfuric acid leaching liquor of spent lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangping; Chen, Yongbin; Zhou, Tao; Liu, Depei; Hu, Hang; Fan, Shaoyun

    2015-04-01

    Environmentally hazardous substances contained in spent Li-ion batteries, such as heavy metals and nocuous organics, will pose a threat to the environment and human health. On the other hand, the sustainable recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries may bring about environmental and economic benefits. In this study, a hydrometallurgical process was adopted for the comprehensive recovery of nickel, manganese, cobalt and lithium from sulfuric acid leaching liquor from waste cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries. First, nickel ions were selectively precipitated and recovered using dimethylglyoxime reagent. Recycled dimethylglyoxime could be re-used as precipitant for nickel and revealed similar precipitation performance compared with fresh dimethylglyoxime. Then the separation of manganese and cobalt was conducted by solvent extraction method using cobalt loaded D2EHPA. And McCabe-Thiele isotherm was employed for the prediction of the degree of separation and the number of extraction stages needed at specific experimental conditions. Finally, cobalt and lithium were sequentially precipitated and recovered as CoC2O4 ⋅ 2H2O and Li2CO3 using ammonium oxalate solution and saturated sodium carbonate solution, respectively. Recovery efficiencies could be attained as follows: 98.7% for Ni; 97.1% for Mn, 98.2% for Co and 81.0% for Li under optimized experimental conditions. This hydrometallurgical process may promise a candidate for the effective separation and recovery of metal values from the sulfuric acid leaching liquor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of perfluoropolyether-based electrolytes in lithium metal batteries: Implication for suppressed Al current collector corrosion and the stability of Li metal/electrolytes interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Lina; Liu, Jia; Armand, Michel; Mauger, Alain; Julien, Christian M.; Xie, Haiming; Sun, Liqun

    2018-03-01

    The development of safe and high performance lithium metal batteries represents a major technological challenge for this new century. Historically, intrinsic instabilities of conventional liquid organic electrolytes induced battery failures and safety issues that hinder the practical utilization of advanced rechargeable lithium metal batteries. Herein, we report a multifunctional perfluoropolyether-based liquid polymer electrolyte (PFPE-MC/LiTFSI), presenting a unique "anion-solvent" interaction. This interaction optimizes the interfacial chemistry of lithium metal batteries, which effectively inhibits the corrosion of aluminum current collectors, suppresses lithium dendrite growth, and also facilitates the formation of a thin and stable SEI layer on Li anode. Even at a high current density of 0.7 mA cm-2, the lithium dendrites do not form after 1360 h of continuous operation. The LiFePO4|PFPE-MC/LiTFSI|Li cell delivers a stable cycling performance with over 99.9% columbic efficiency either at ambient temperature or high temperature, which is significantly superior to those using traditional carbonate electrolytes. In addition, PFPE-MC/LiTFSI electrolyte also possesses eye-catching properties, such as being non-flammable, non-volatile, non-hygroscopic, and existing in the liquid state between -90 °C and 200 °C, which further ensures the high safety of the lithium metal batteries, making this electrolyte promising for the development of high energy lithium metal batteries.

  20. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange of the anionic group 6B transition-metal hydrides. Convenient, in-situ-deuterium transfer reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaus, P.L.; Kao, S.C.; Darensbourg, M.Y.; Arndt, L.W.

    1984-01-01

    The facile exchange of hydrogen for detuerium in the anionic group 6B carbonyl hydrides HM(CO) 4 L - (M = Cr, W; L = CO P(OMe) 3 ) has been studied in THF 4 (tetrahydrofuran) with CH 3 OD, D 2 O, and CH 3 CO 2 D. This has provided a synthesis of the deuterides, DM(CO) 4 L - , as well as a convenient in situ source of deuteride reducing reagents for organic halides. A number of such reductions are described, using 2 H NMR to demonstrate both selectivity and stereospecificity for certain systems. The carbonyl region of the infrared spectra of the hydrides is not affected by deuteration of the hydrides, suggesting that the M-H or M-D vibrational modes are not coupled significantly to CO vibrations in these hydrides. The mechanism of the H/D exchange and of a related H 2 elimination reaction is discussed

  1. Novel method to deposit metal particles on transition metal oxide films and its application in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Qinmin; Wang Min; Wang Hongbo; Zhao Jianwei; Yin Geping

    2008-01-01

    A novel method to modify the surfaces of transition metal oxides (MO) film-electrode was proposed in this study. At first, a monolayer of terephthalic acid was covalently bonded to the surfaces of Cu 2 O films. Then silver (Ag) particles were electrodeposited on the monolayer-grafted films by a potential-step process. The resulting Ag-Cu 2 O films exhibited improved electrochemical performance as negative electrodes in lithium-ion batteries compared to the original Cu 2 O films. An increase in electrical contact between Cu 2 O particles was considered to be responsible for the improvement in the electrochemical properties

  2. Coupled electro-thermal field in a high current electrolysis cell or liquid metal batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Liwei; Ni, Haiou; Lu, Gui-Min; Yu, Jian-Guo

    2018-01-01

    Coupled electro-thermal field exists widely in chemical batteries and electrolysis industry. In this study, a three-dimensional numerical model, which is based on the finite-element software ANSYS, has been built to simulate the electro-thermal field in a magnesium electrolysis cell. The adjustment of the relative position of the anode and cathode can change the energy consumption of the magnesium electrolysis process significantly. Besides, the current intensity has a nonlinear effect on heat balance, and the effects of heat transfer coefficients, electrolysis and air temperature on the heat balance have been released to maintain the thermal stability in a magnesium electrolysis cell. The relationship between structure as well as process parameters and electro-thermal field has been obtained and the simulation results can provide experience for the scale-up design in liquid metal batteries. PMID:29515848

  3. Coupled electro-thermal field in a high current electrolysis cell or liquid metal batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ze; Cai, Liwei; Ni, Haiou; Lu, Gui-Min; Yu, Jian-Guo

    2018-02-01

    Coupled electro-thermal field exists widely in chemical batteries and electrolysis industry. In this study, a three-dimensional numerical model, which is based on the finite-element software ANSYS, has been built to simulate the electro-thermal field in a magnesium electrolysis cell. The adjustment of the relative position of the anode and cathode can change the energy consumption of the magnesium electrolysis process significantly. Besides, the current intensity has a nonlinear effect on heat balance, and the effects of heat transfer coefficients, electrolysis and air temperature on the heat balance have been released to maintain the thermal stability in a magnesium electrolysis cell. The relationship between structure as well as process parameters and electro-thermal field has been obtained and the simulation results can provide experience for the scale-up design in liquid metal batteries.

  4. Applications of porous electrodes to metal-ion removal and the design of battery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trost, G.G.

    1983-09-01

    This dissertation treats the use of porous electrodes as electrochemical reactors for the removal of dilute metal ions. A methodology for the scale-up of porous electrodes used in battery applications is given. Removal of 4 μg Pb/cc in 1 M sulfuric acid was investigated in atmospheric and high-pressure, flow-through porous reactors. The atmospheric reactor used a reticulated vitreous carbon porous bed coated in situ with a mercury film. Best results show 98% removal of lead from the feed stream. Results are summarized in a dimensionless plot of Sherwood number vs Peclet number. High-pressure, porous-electrode experiments were performed to investigate the effect of pressure on the current efficiency. Pressures were varied up to 120 bar on electrode beds of copper or lead-coated spheres. The copper spheres showed high hydrogen evolution rates which inhibited lead deposition, even at high cathodic overpotentials. Use of lead spheres inhibited hydrogen evolution but often resulted in the formation of lead sulfate layers; these layers were difficult to reduce back to lead. Experimental data of one-dimensional porous battery electrodes are combined with a model for the current collector and cell connectors to predict ultimate specific energy and maximum specific power for complete battery systems. Discharge behavior of the plate as a whole is first presented as a function of depth of discharge. These results are combined with the voltage and weight penalties of the interconnecting bus and post, positive and negative active material, cell container, etc. to give specific results for the lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide high-temperature battery. Subject to variation is the number of positive electrodes, grid conductivity, minimum current-collector weight, and total delivered capacity. The battery can be optimized for maximum energy or power, or a compromise design may be selected

  5. Determination of a massive zirconium hydride production cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loche, J.-P.

    1979-06-01

    This note includes: a bibliographical study on the physical, chemical and metallurgical properties of zirconium and its hydride, a brief review of the different methods of zirconium hydride conditioning and a more detailed study of the conditioning process by massive hydride formation. A systematic study was devoted to the thermal method of hydrogen incorporation with a view to obtaining articles of homogeneous composition and of hydrogen concentration as close as possible to the formula ZrH 2 . This was achieved by original tests designed to measure the plasticity of the metal or of its hydride during the process. The hydride formation cycle considered optimum is described for an initial metal of carefully selected chemical and metallurgical properties [fr

  6. Theoretical investigation of the use of nanocages with an adsorbed halogen atom as anode materials in metal-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Razieh; Abrishamifar, Seyyed Milad; Rajaei, Gholamreza Ebrahimzadeh; Kahkha, Mohammad Reza Rezaei; Najafi, Meysam

    2018-02-21

    The applicability of C 44 , B 22 N 22 , Ge 44 , and Al 22 P 22 nanocages, as well as variants of those nanocages with an adsorbed halogen atom, as high-performance anode materials in Li-ion, Na-ion, and K-ion batteries was investigated theoretically via density functional theory. The results obtained indicate that, among the nanocages with no adsorbed halogen atom, Al 22 P 22 would be the best candidate for a novel anode material for use in metal-ion batteries. Calculations also suggest that K-ion batteries which utilize these nanocages as anode materials would give better performance and would yield higher cell voltages than the corresponding Li-ion and Na-ion batteries with nanocage-based anodes. Also, the results for the nanocages with an adsorbed halogen atom imply that employing them as anode materials would lead to higher cell voltages and better metal-ion battery performance than if the nanocages with no adsorbed halogen atom were to be used as anode materials instead. Results further implied that nanocages with an adsorbed F atom would give higher cell voltages and better battery performance than nanocages with an adsorbed Cl or Br atom. We were ultimately able to conclude that a K-ion battery that utilized Al 21 P 22 with an adsorbed F atom as its anode material would afford the best metal-ion battery performance; we therefore propose this as a novel highly efficient metal-ion battery. Graphical abstract The results of a theoretical investigation indicated that Al 22 P 22 is a better candidate for a high-performance anode material in metal-ion batteries than Ge 44 is. Calculations also showed that K-ion batteries with nanocage-based anodes would produce higher cell voltages and perform better than the equivalent Li-ion and Na-ion batteries with nanocage-based anodes, and that anodes based on nanocages with an adsorbed F atom would perform better than anodes based on nanocages with an adsorbed Cl or Br atom.

  7. Hydrogen vibrations in nickel hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, J.; Daniels, W.B.; Kitchens, T.A.; Majkrzak, C.F.; Passell, L.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter examines nickel hydride which was prepared in a BeCu high pressure cell at room temperature by applying a hydrogen gas pressure of 7kbar to pellets pressed from fine nickel powder. It explains that the rate and degree of completion of the hydride formation was first checked by neutron diffraction using deuterium gas with the result that a deuterium to metal ratio of approximately 0.75 was reached. It points out that after desorption of the deuterium, the nickel sample was charged with hydrogen for the inelastic incoherent neutron scattering measurements. The chapter notes that measurements were performed with the Be filter technique at the Brookhaven High Flux Beam Reactor, and finds that the optic modes appear as a broad band in the phonon density of states from about 70 to 110 MeV with peaks at approximately 88 and 108 MeV. It finally discusses the effect of hydride formation on the acoustic phonon density of states

  8. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in vegetables grown around battery production area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Battery production is one of the main sources of heavy metals that present great harm to human health even in low concentrations. Chromium (Cr, Cadmium (Cd and Lead (Pb were measured in edible portions of vegetables and soils around a battery production area in China, and the potential health risk of heavy metal contamination to the local population via vegetable consumption was evaluated. Their concentrations in edible portions of vegetables were 2.354 (0.078-14.878, 0.035 (0.003-0.230 and 0.039 (0.003-0.178 mg kg-1, respectively. Approximately 3 % of the Cd in the vegetable samples exceeded the maximum concentration allowable by national food safety criteria, although Pb content in all samples were within the criteria. Transfer factors (TF from soils to vegetables were dependent on vegetable species. Leguminous vegetables were more likely to accumulate Cr, while leaf vegetables tended to show higher levels of concentration of Cd and Pb. Melon vegetables demonstrated a relatively low capacity for accumulating the heavy metals studied. TF were positively correlated with soil organic matter and negatively correlated with soil pH. The mean estimated daily intake of Cr, Cd and Pb via dietary consumption of vegetables was 0.011, 1.65 × 10-4 and 1.84 × 10-4 mg kg-1 of body weight per day, respectively, levels that were much lower than the reference doses recommended by USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, indicating that the potential health risk of Cr, Cd and Pb exposure via vegetable consumption to the local population around this battery production area could be negligible.

  9. Hydrometallurgical recovery of metal values from sulfuric acid leaching liquor of spent lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiangping; Chen, Yongbin; Zhou, Tao; Liu, Depei; Hu, Hang; Fan, Shaoyun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Selective precipitation and solvent extraction were adopted. • Nickel, cobalt and lithium were selectively precipitated. • Co-D2EHPA was employed as high-efficiency extraction reagent for manganese. • High recovery percentages could be achieved for all metal values. - Abstract: Environmentally hazardous substances contained in spent Li-ion batteries, such as heavy metals and nocuous organics, will pose a threat to the environment and human health. On the other hand, the sustainable recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries may bring about environmental and economic benefits. In this study, a hydrometallurgical process was adopted for the comprehensive recovery of nickel, manganese, cobalt and lithium from sulfuric acid leaching liquor from waste cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries. First, nickel ions were selectively precipitated and recovered using dimethylglyoxime reagent. Recycled dimethylglyoxime could be re-used as precipitant for nickel and revealed similar precipitation performance compared with fresh dimethylglyoxime. Then the separation of manganese and cobalt was conducted by solvent extraction method using cobalt loaded D2EHPA. And McCabe–Thiele isotherm was employed for the prediction of the degree of separation and the number of extraction stages needed at specific experimental conditions. Finally, cobalt and lithium were sequentially precipitated and recovered as CoC 2 O 4 ⋅2H 2 O and Li 2 CO 3 using ammonium oxalate solution and saturated sodium carbonate solution, respectively. Recovery efficiencies could be attained as follows: 98.7% for Ni; 97.1% for Mn, 98.2% for Co and 81.0% for Li under optimized experimental conditions. This hydrometallurgical process may promise a candidate for the effective separation and recovery of metal values from the sulfuric acid leaching liquor

  10. Hydrometallurgical recovery of metal values from sulfuric acid leaching liquor of spent lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiangping; Chen, Yongbin; Zhou, Tao, E-mail: zhoutao@csu.edu.cn; Liu, Depei; Hu, Hang; Fan, Shaoyun

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Selective precipitation and solvent extraction were adopted. • Nickel, cobalt and lithium were selectively precipitated. • Co-D2EHPA was employed as high-efficiency extraction reagent for manganese. • High recovery percentages could be achieved for all metal values. - Abstract: Environmentally hazardous substances contained in spent Li-ion batteries, such as heavy metals and nocuous organics, will pose a threat to the environment and human health. On the other hand, the sustainable recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries may bring about environmental and economic benefits. In this study, a hydrometallurgical process was adopted for the comprehensive recovery of nickel, manganese, cobalt and lithium from sulfuric acid leaching liquor from waste cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries. First, nickel ions were selectively precipitated and recovered using dimethylglyoxime reagent. Recycled dimethylglyoxime could be re-used as precipitant for nickel and revealed similar precipitation performance compared with fresh dimethylglyoxime. Then the separation of manganese and cobalt was conducted by solvent extraction method using cobalt loaded D2EHPA. And McCabe–Thiele isotherm was employed for the prediction of the degree of separation and the number of extraction stages needed at specific experimental conditions. Finally, cobalt and lithium were sequentially precipitated and recovered as CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4}⋅2H{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} using ammonium oxalate solution and saturated sodium carbonate solution, respectively. Recovery efficiencies could be attained as follows: 98.7% for Ni; 97.1% for Mn, 98.2% for Co and 81.0% for Li under optimized experimental conditions. This hydrometallurgical process may promise a candidate for the effective separation and recovery of metal values from the sulfuric acid leaching liquor.

  11. Nanostructured metal oxide-based materials as advanced anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao Bin; Chen, Jun Song; Hng, Huey Hoon; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2012-04-21

    The search for new electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has been an important way to satisfy the ever-growing demands for better performance with higher energy/power densities, improved safety and longer cycle life. Nanostructured metal oxides exhibit good electrochemical properties, and they are regarded as promising anode materials for high-performance LIBs. In this feature article, we will focus on three different categories of metal oxides with distinct lithium storage mechanisms: tin dioxide (SnO(2)), which utilizes alloying/dealloying processes to reversibly store/release lithium ions during charge/discharge; titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), where lithium ions are inserted/deinserted into/out of the TiO(2) crystal framework; and transition metal oxides including iron oxide and cobalt oxide, which react with lithium ions via an unusual conversion reaction. For all three systems, we will emphasize that creating nanomaterials with unique structures could effectively improve the lithium storage properties of these metal oxides. We will also highlight that the lithium storage capability can be further enhanced through designing advanced nanocomposite materials containing metal oxides and other carbonaceous supports. By providing such a rather systematic survey, we aim to stress the importance of proper nanostructuring and advanced compositing that would result in improved physicochemical properties of metal oxides, thus making them promising negative electrodes for next-generation LIBs.

  12. Facile preparation of an immobilized surfactant-free palladium nanocatalyst for metal hydride trapping: a novel sensing platform for TXRF analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, V.; Costas-Mora, I.; Lavilla, I.; Bendicho, C.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a simple route for the synthesis of surfactant-free immobilized palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) and their use as effective nanocatalysts for metal hydride decomposition is described. A mixture of ethanol : water was used as the reducing agent. Ethanol was added in a large excess to reduce the ionic Pd and stabilize the obtained Pd NPs. Ethanol is adsorbed on the surface of Pd allowing steric stabilization. Freshly prepared Pd NPs were immobilized onto quartz substrates modified with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane. Pd interacts with the thiol group of the alkoxysilane that is adsorbed on the surface of NPs without the dissociation of the S-H bond. Different parameters affecting the synthesis of Pd NPs and their immobilization onto quartz substrates were evaluated. A comprehensive characterization of the synthesized Pd NPs was carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), whereas total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry was applied in order to evaluate their catalytic activity for solid-gas reactions. Immobilized Pd NPs were applied as nanocatalysts for the dissociative chemisorption of arsine at room temperature, yielding the formation of As-Pd bonds. Quartz substrates coated with nanosized Pd could be used as novel sensing platforms for total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis. Arsenic can be detected in situ in natural water with a limit of detection of 0.08 μg L-1.In this work, a simple route for the synthesis of surfactant-free immobilized palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) and their use as effective nanocatalysts for metal hydride decomposition is described. A mixture of ethanol : water was used as the reducing agent. Ethanol was added in a large excess to reduce the ionic Pd and stabilize the obtained Pd NPs. Ethanol is adsorbed on the surface of Pd allowing steric stabilization. Freshly prepared Pd NPs were immobilized onto quartz substrates modified with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane. Pd interacts with the thiol

  13. Lithium salts for advanced lithium batteries: Li–metal, Li–O2, and Li–S

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younesi, Reza; Veith, Gabriel M.; Johansson, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Presently lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) is the dominant Li-salt used in commercial rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on a graphite anode and a 3–4 V cathode material. While LiPF6 is not the ideal Li-salt for every important electrolyte property, it has a uniquely suitable...... combination of properties (temperature range, passivation, conductivity, etc.) rendering it the overall best Li-salt for LIBs. However, this may not necessarily be true for other types of Li-based batteries. Indeed, next generation batteries, for example lithium–metal (Li–metal), lithium–oxygen (Li–O2......), and lithium–sulfur (Li–S), require a re-evaluation of Li-salts due to the different electrochemical and chemical reactions and conditions within such cells. This review explores the critical role Li-salts play in ensuring in these batteries viability....

  14. Hierarchical Chitin Fibers with Aligned Nanofibrillar Architectures: A Nonwoven-Mat Separator for Lithium Metal Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joong-Kwon; Kim, Do Hyeong; Joo, Se Hun; Choi, Byeongwook; Cha, Aming; Kim, Kwang Min; Kwon, Tae-Hyuk; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Kang, Seok Ju; Jin, Jungho

    2017-06-27

    Here, we introduce regenerated fibers of chitin (Chiber), the second most abundant biopolymer after cellulose, and propose its utility as a nonwoven fiber separator for lithium metal batteries (LMBs) that exhibits an excellent electrolyte-uptaking capability and Li-dendrite-mitigating performance. Chiber is produced by a centrifugal jet-spinning technique, which allows a simple and fast production of Chibers consisting of hierarchically aligned self-assembled chitin nanofibers. Following the scrutinization on the Chiber-Li-ion interaction via computational methods, we demonstrate the potential of Chiber as a nonwoven mat-type separator by monitoring it in Li-O 2 and Na-O 2 cells.

  15. Effect of pressure on structural, elastic and mechanical properties of transition metal hydrides Mg7TMH16 (TM = Sc, Ti, V, Y, Zr and Nb): First-principles investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyelloul, Kamel; Seddik, Larbi; Bouhadda, Youcef; Bououdina, Mohamed; Aourag, Hafid; Khodja, Khadidja

    2017-12-01

    The effect of pressure on structural stability, elastic properties and Debye temperature of face centered cubic Mg7TMH16 (TM = Sc, Ti, V, Y, Zr and Nb) hydrides, was investigated by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The obtained equilibrium lattice parameters and elastic properties at zero pressure for MgH2 and Mg7TMH16 hydrides, are in good agreement with other experimental and theoretical values. The calculations of the bulk modulus and the ductility factors (B/G) show that mixing (MgH2) with small amount of transition metal (TM = Sc, Ti, V, Y, Zr and Nb) can enhance the resistance to volume change and transform it from a brittle to a ductile material (brittle → ductile). The elastic constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, anisotropy factor and hardness have been studied under pressure. These mechanical quantities are found to increase with increasing pressure. While the B/G and Poisson's ratios (v) undergo an inverse behaviour. In addition to that, the studied hydrides are found stable with a ductile behaviour under a pressure between 0 and 20 GPa. Furthermore, the effect of pressure on Debye temperature and sound velocity, was also investigated and discussed.

  16. Improved performance of Li/SOCl2 batteries using binuclear metal azaphthalocyanines as electrocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiang; Huang, Xinyue; Gao, Ruimin; Zhang, Ronglan; Zhao, Jianshe

    2016-01-01

    A total of twenty four binuclear metal azaphthalocyanine compounds in four series of M 2 (azaPc) 2 Me, M 2 (azaPc) 2 SO 2 , M 2 (azaPc) 2 , M 2 (azaPc) 2 CO (M = Mn 2+ , Fe 2+ , Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ ) were synthesized by solid phase method, which were applied for Li/SOCl 2 battery as electrocatalysts to enhance its capacity and discharge voltage. In all cases, the electrochemical performances of Li/SOCl 2 batteries were improved compared with controls. It is worth mentioning that Mn 2 (azaPc) 2 SO 2 increased the discharge voltage to 3.3485 V, rising by 0.1570 V compared with that of the blank. Co 2 (azaPc) 2 CO lengthened the discharge time to 1821 s, rising by 75.80%. And Co 2 (azaPc) 2 raised battery capacity to 35.24 mA h, increasing by 79.56%. Based on cyclic voltammetry measurements, the reaction mechanism was found to involve an irreversible two-step electron transfer process and a hypothesis was conjectured. All the azaphthalocyanine compounds were characterized by element analysis, IR analysis, and UV-Vis absorption.

  17. Recovery of metal values from spent lithium-ion batteries with chemical deposition and solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nan, Junmin; Han, Dongmei; Zuo, Xiaoxi [Department of Chemistry, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)

    2005-12-01

    This paper describes a new recycling process of metal values from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). After the dismantling of the spent batteries steel crusts, the leaching of battery internal substances with alkaline solution and the dissolving of the residues with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution were carried out. Then mass cobalt was chemically deposited as oxalate, and Acorga M5640 and Cyanex272 extracted the small quantities of copper and cobalt, respectively. Lithium was recovered as deposition of lithium carbonate. It is shown that about 90% cobalt was deposited as oxalate with less than 0.5% impurities, and Acorga M5640 and Cyanex272 were efficient and selective for the extraction of copper and cobalt in sulfate solution. Over 98% of the copper and 97% of the cobalt was recovered in the given process. In addition, the waste solution was treated innocuously, and LiCoO{sub 2} positive electrode material with good electrochemical performance was also synthesized by using the recovered compounds of cobalt and lithium as precursors. The process is feasible for the recycling of spent LIBs in scale-up. (author)

  18. Magnesium hydrides and their phase transitions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paidar, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 23 (2016), s. 9769-9773 ISSN 0360-3199 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13069 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : hydrogen * magnesium and transition metal hydrides * crystal structure stability * displacive phase transformations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.582, year: 2016

  19. Oxidized graphene as an electrode material for rechargeable metal-ion batteries – a DFT point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrota, Ana S.; Pašti, Igor A.; Skorodumova, Natalia V.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: In line with a growing interest in the use of graphene-based materials for energy storage applications and active research in the field of rechargeable metal-ion batteries we have performed a DFT based computational study of alkali metal atoms (Li, Na and K) interaction with an oxidized graphene. The presence of oxygen surface groups (epoxy and hydroxyl) alters the chemisorption properties of graphene. In particular, we observe that the epoxy groups are redox active and enhance the alkali metal adsorption energies by a factor of 2 or more. When an alkali metal atom interacts with hydroxyl-graphene the formation of metal-hydroxide is observed. In addition to a potential boost of metal ion storage capability, oxygen functional groups also prevent the precipitation of the metal phase. By simulating lithiation/de-lithiation process on epoxy-graphenes, it was concluded that the oxidized graphene can undergo structural changes during battery operation. Our results suggest that the content and the type of oxygen surface groups should be carefully tailored to maximize the performance of metal-ion batteries. This is mainly related to the control of the oxidation level in order to provide enough active centers for metal ion storage while preserving sufficient electrical conductivity

  20. Effect of Different Binders on the Electrochemical Performance of Metal Oxide Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Feng, Lili; Yang, Wenrong; Zhang, Yinyin; Zhang, Yanli; Bai, Wei; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Wei; Chuan, Yongming; Zheng, Ziguang; Guan, Hongjin

    2017-10-30

    When testing the electrochemical performance of metal oxide anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), binder played important role on the electrochemical performance. Which binder was more suitable for preparing transition metal oxides anodes of LIBs has not been systematically researched. Herein, five different binders such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) HSV900, PVDF 301F, PVDF Solvay5130, the mixture of styrene butadiene rubber and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SBR+CMC), and polyacrylonitrile (LA133) were studied to make anode electrodes (compared to the full battery). The electrochemical tests show that using SBR+CMC and LA133 binder which use water as solution were significantly better than PVDF. The SBR+CMC binder remarkably improve the bonding capacity, cycle stability, and rate performance of battery anode, and the capacity retention was about 87% after 50th cycle relative to the second cycle. SBR+CMC binder was more suitable for making transition metal oxides anodes of LIBs.

  1. P and Si functionalized MXenes for metal-ion battery applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie

    2017-04-10

    MXenes are a family of two-dimensional materials, composed of early transition metal carbides, nitrides, and carbonitrides, with great potential in energy storage systems, in particular in electrodes for Li, Na, K-ion batteries. However, so far the capacities are not competitive. In this context, we investigate P and Si functionalized MXenes for metal-ion battery applications, using first-principles calculations, since P and Si provide reaction products with high ion content. Replacement of the F and OH ligands of Ti2C and V2C with P and Si is demonstrated to be feasible (energy barriers of less than 0.128 eV) and the ion diffusion barriers turn out to be less than 0.32 eV. Importantly, the Li, Na, and K capacities are predicted to be 1767 mAh g−1, 711 mAh g−1, and 711 mAh g−1, respectively, thus being much higher than in the case of F and OH functionalization.

  2. Comprehensive evaluation on effective leaching of critical metals from spent lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenfang; Liu, Chenming; Cao, Hongbin; Zheng, Xiaohong; Lin, Xiao; Wang, Haijuan; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Zhi

    2018-02-16

    Recovery of metals from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has attracted worldwide attention because of issues from both environmental impacts and resource supply. Leaching, for instance using an acidic solution, is a critical step for effective recovery of metals from spent LIBs. To achieve both high leaching efficiency and selectivity of the targeted metals, improved understanding on the interactive features of the materials and leaching solutions is highly required. However, such understanding is still limited at least caused by the variation on physiochemical properties of different leaching solutions. In this research, a comprehensive investigation and evaluation on the leaching process using acidic solutions to recycle spent LIBs is carried out. Through analyzing two important parameters, i.e. leaching speed and recovery rate of the corresponding metals, the effects of hydrogen ion concentration, acid species and concentration on these two parameters were evaluated. It was found that a leachant with organic acids may leach Co and Li from the cathode scrap and leave Al foil as metallic form with high leaching selectivity, while that with inorganic acids typically leach all metals into the solution. Inconsistency between the leaching selectivity and efficiency during spent LIBs recycling is frequently noticed. In order to achieve an optimal status with both high leaching selectivity and efficiency (especially at high solid-to-liquid ratios), it is important to manipulate the average leaching speed and recovery rate of metals to optimize the leaching conditions. Subsequently, it is found that the leaching speed is significantly dependent on the hydrogen ion concentration and the capability of releasing hydrogen ions of the acidic leachant during leaching. With this research, it is expected to improve understanding on controlling the physiochemical properties of a leaching solution and to potentially design processes for spent LIBs recycling with high industrial

  3. Obtaining zircaloy powder through hydriding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupim, Ivaldete da Silva; Moreira, Joao M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Zirconium alloys are good options for the metal matrix in dispersion fuels for power reactors due to their low thermal neutron absorption cross-section, good corrosion resistance, good mechanical strength and high thermal conductivity. A necessary step for obtaining such fuels is producing Zr alloy powder for the metal matrix composite material. This article presents results from the Zircaloy-4 hydrogenation tests with the purpose to embrittle the alloy as a first step for comminuting. Several hydrogenation tests were performed and studied through thermogravimetric analysis. They included H 2 pressures of 25 and 50 kPa and temperatures ranging between from 20 to 670 deg C. X-ray diffraction analysis showed in the hydrogenated samples the predominant presence of ZrH 2 and some ZrO 2 . Some kinetics parameters for the Zircaloy-4 hydrogenation reaction were obtained: the time required to reach the equilibrium state at the dwell temperature was about 100 minutes; the hydrogenation rate during the heating process from 20 to 670 deg C was about 21 mg/h, and at constant temperature of 670 deg C, the hydride rate was about 1.15 mg/h. The hydrogenation rate is largest during the heating process and most of it occurs during this period. After hydrogenated, the samples could easily be comminuted indicating that this is a possible technology to obtain Zircaloy powder. The results show that only few minutes of hydrogenation are necessary to reach the hydride levels required for comminuting the Zircaloy. The final hydride stoichiometry was between 2.7 and 2.8 H for each Zr atom in the sample (author)

  4. A review of battery life-cycle analysis : state of knowledge and critical needs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, J. L.; Gaines, L.; Energy Systems

    2010-12-22

    A literature review and evaluation has been conducted on cradle-to-gate life-cycle inventory studies of lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, sodium-sulfur, and lithium-ion battery technologies. Data were sought that represent the production of battery constituent materials and battery manufacture and assembly. Life-cycle production data for many battery materials are available and usable, though some need updating. For the remaining battery materials, lifecycle data either are nonexistent or, in some cases, in need of updating. Although battery manufacturing processes have occasionally been well described, detailed quantitative information on energy and material flows is missing. For all but the lithium-ion batteries, enough constituent material production energy data are available to approximate material production energies for the batteries, though improved input data for some materials are needed. Due to the potential benefit of battery recycling and a scarcity of associated data, there is a critical need for life-cycle data on battery material recycling. Either on a per kilogram or per watt-hour capacity basis, lead-acid batteries have the lowest production energy, carbon dioxide emissions, and criteria pollutant emissions. Some process-related emissions are also reviewed in this report.

  5. Reviving Lithium-Metal Anodes for Next-Generation High-Energy Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanpeng; Li, Huiqiao; Zhai, Tianyou

    2017-08-01

    Lithium-metal batteries (LMBs), as one of the most promising next-generation high-energy-density storage devices, are able to meet the rigid demands of new industries. However, the direct utilization of metallic lithium can induce harsh safety issues, inferior rate and cycle performance, or anode pulverization inside the cells. These drawbacks severely hinder the commercialization of LMBs. Here, an up-to-date review of the behavior of lithium ions upon deposition/dissolution, and the failure mechanisms of lithium-metal anodes is presented. It has been shown that the primary causes consist of the growth of lithium dendrites due to large polarization and a strong electric field at the vicinity of the anode, the hyperactivity of metallic lithium, and hostless infinite volume changes upon cycling. The recent advances in liquid organic electrolyte (LOE) systems through modulating the local current density, anion depletion, lithium flux, the anode-electrolyte interface, or the mechanical strength of the interlayers are highlighted. Concrete strategies including tailoring the anode structures, optimizing the electrolytes, building artificial anode-electrolyte interfaces, and functionalizing the protective interlayers are summarized in detail. Furthermore, the challenges remaining in LOE systems are outlined, and the future perspectives of introducing solid-state electrolytes to radically address safety issues are presented. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Electrochemical properties of hypo-stoichiometric Y-doped AB{sub 2} metal hydride alloys at ultra-low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, K., E-mail: kwo.young@basf.com [BASF/Battery Materials-Ovonic, 2983 Waterview Drive, Rochester Hills, MI 48309 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Wong, D.F. [BASF/Battery Materials-Ovonic, 2983 Waterview Drive, Rochester Hills, MI 48309 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Nei, J.; Reichman, B. [BASF/Battery Materials-Ovonic, 2983 Waterview Drive, Rochester Hills, MI 48309 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • By altering the stoichiometry, the abundance of secondary phases can be engineered. • While TiNi is beneficial, YNi is detrimental to low temperature performance. • By increasing TiNi to YNi ratio, the −40 °C low temperature performance is improved. • Y element has a limited solubility in AB{sub 2} Laves phase. - Abstract: The structure, gaseous phase, and electrochemical hydrogen storage properties of two series of Y-doped AB{sub 2} metal hydride alloys were compared. While the stoichiometry (B/A ratio) of the average alloy composition of the first series is maintained at 1.99 (Ti{sub 12}Zr{sub 21.5}V{sub 10}Cr{sub 7.5}Mn{sub 8.1}Co{sub 8.0−x}Ni{sub 32.2}Y{sub x}Sn{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.4}), those in the second series decrease from 1.99 to 1.83 ((TiZr)(VCrMnNiSnAl){sub 1.75}Co{sub 0.24−3x}Y{sub x}). Since the solubility of Y in the main phase (C14) is limited (0.1–0.2 at.%), the influences of Y are through the changes in the composition and abundance of the main and secondary phases. While TiNi phase is considered beneficial to activation, surface reaction area, and surface charge-transfer, YNi phase is on the contrary. By adjusting the stoichiometry, we were able to increase the TiNi-to-YNi ratio and lower the −40 °C charge-transfer resistance by increasing the surface reaction area while maintaining the same surface catalytic ability. The lowest −40 °C charge-transfer resistance was obtained through an AB{sub 2} alloy with 0.4 at.% Y and a B/A ratio of 1.93. Further improvement in the ultra-low temperature performance of the AB{sub 1.93} alloy is expected by combining the current result with other modifiers, such as Si, to improve the surface catalytic ability.

  7. Highly active and durable core-corona structured bifunctional catalyst for rechargeable metal-air battery application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhu; Yu, Aiping; Higgins, Drew; Li, Hui; Wang, Haijiang; Chen, Zhongwei

    2012-04-11

    A new class of core-corona structured bifunctional catalyst (CCBC) consisting of lanthanum nickelate centers supporting nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNT) has been developed for rechargeable metal-air battery application. The nanostructured design of the catalyst allows the core and corona to catalyze the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), respectively. These materials displayed exemplary OER and ORR activity through half-cell testing, comparable to state of the art commercial lanthanum nickelate (LaNiO(3)) and carbon-supported platinum (Pt/C), with added bifunctional capabilities allowing metal-air battery rechargeability. LaNiO(3) and Pt/C are currently the most accepted benchmark electrocatalyst materials for the OER and ORR, respectively; thus with comparable activity toward both of these reactions, CCBC are presented as a novel, inexpensive catalyst component for the cathode of rechargeable metal-air batteries. Moreover, after full-range degradation testing (FDT) CCBC retained excellent activity, retaining 3 and 13 times greater ORR and OER current upon comparison to state of the art Pt/C. Zinc-air battery performances of CCBC is in good agreement with the half-cell experiments with this bifunctional electrocatalyst displaying high activity and stability during battery discharge, charge, and cycling processes. Owing to its outstanding performance toward both the OER and ORR, comparable with the highest performing commercial catalysts to date for each of the respective reaction, coupled with high stability and rechargeability, CCBC is presented as a novel class of bifunctional catalyst material that is very applicable to future generation rechargeable metal-air batteries. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  8. Solution-Processed Metal Coating to Nonwoven Fabrics for Wearable Rechargeable Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyulin; Choi, Jin Hyeok; Lee, Hye Moon; Kim, Ki Jae; Choi, Jang Wook

    2017-12-27

    Wearable rechargeable batteries require electrode platforms that can withstand various physical motions, such as bending, folding, and twisting. To this end, conductive textiles and paper have been highlighted, as their porous structures can accommodate the stress built during various physical motions. However, fabrics with plain weaves or knit structures have been mostly adopted without exploration of nonwoven counterparts. Also, the integration of conductive materials, such as carbon or metal nanomaterials, to achieve sufficient conductivity as current collectors is not well-aligned with large-scale processing in terms of cost and quality control. Here, the superiority of nonwoven fabrics is reported in electrochemical performance and bending capability compared to currently dominant woven counterparts, due to smooth morphology near the fiber intersections and the homogeneous distribution of fibers. Moreover, solution-processed electroless deposition of aluminum and nickel-copper composite is adopted for cathodes and anodes, respectively, demonstrating the large-scale feasibility of conductive nonwoven platforms for wearable rechargeable batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Metallic MoN layer and its application as anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiaoxuan; Ma, Jiachen; Lei, Ming; Quhe, Ruge

    2018-04-01

    Recently, two-dimensional (2D) metallic MoN was manufactured successfully in experiment. Its intrinsic properties remain to be explored theoretically, in depth. The intrinsic properties of a MoN monolayer are investigated by first-principles calculations. The distinct geometric properties of the outermost Mo and N surfaces are discovered. We predict an extremely high work function of 6.3 eV of the N surface, which indicates the great value of the 2D MoN for application in the semiconductor industry. We further explore the potential of 2D MoN as anode material for lithium-ion batteries. It is found that the adsorption energy of a single Li atom on an MoN surface can be as low as -4.04 eV. The small diffusion barriers (0.41 eV) and high theoretical maximum capacity (406 mAh · g-1 with the inclusion of multilayer adsorption) all imply an outstanding lithium-ion battery performance by 2D MoN.

  10. Metallic MoN Layer and its Application as Anode for Lithium-ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiaoxuan; Ma, Jiachen; Lei, Ming; Quhe, Ruge

    2018-02-06

    Recently, two-dimensional (2D) metallic MoN was manufactured successfully in experiment, while its intrinsic properties remain to be explored theoretically in depth. The intrinsic properties of MoN monolayer are investigated by first-principles calculations. Distinct geometric properties of the outmost Mo and N surfaces are discovered. We predict an extremely high work function of 6.3 eV of the N surface, which indicates great value of the 2D MoN for application in the semiconductor industry. We further explore the potential of 2D MoN as anode material for lithium-ion batteries. It is found that adsorption energy of the single Li atom on MoN surface can be as low as - 4.04 eV. The small diffusion barriers (0.41 eV) and high theoretical maximum capacity (406 mAh∙g-1 with the inclusion of multilayer adsorption) all imply the outstanding lithium-ion batteries performance by 2D MoN. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  11. Kinetic study on recovery of metal values in anode slime from used lead batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, S.; Nagasaka, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Environmental Studies; Ono, J.; Hino, M. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Metallurgy

    2004-07-01

    Oxidation experiments were conducted with pure antimony and antimony-lead bismuth alloys to examine the oxidation kinetics and mechanisms used to treat the anode slime produced during lead electrorefining and recovery of antimony from used lead batteries. In order to recycle and recover valuable metals from the used lead batteries, the oxidation experiments were conducted with pure liquid antimony at temperatures between 973 and 1373 K. The study showed that the gas phase mass transfer step is the basic mechanisms that controls the oxidation rate for pure antimony. It was noted that the oxidation rate of the alloy was identical to that of the pure antimony, suggesting that an oxidation reaction of the anode slime proceeds at the same rate as pure antimony. This is one of the advantages of treating anode slime through oxidation. Mass transfer in the gas phase was the rate-determining step in the alloy oxidation reaction. It was concluded that a higher oxygen partial pressure and sufficient gas flow rate at temperature of 1073 K is needed to conserve energy and recovery antimony oxide. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs.

  12. Recent Progress in Self‐Supported Metal Oxide Nanoarray Electrodes for Advanced Lithium‐Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The rational design and fabrication of electrode materials with desirable architectures and optimized properties has been demonstrated to be an effective approach towards high‐performance lithium‐ion batteries (LIBs). Although nanostructured metal oxide electrodes with high specific capacity have been regarded as the most promising alternatives for replacing commercial electrodes in LIBs, their further developments are still faced with several challenges such as poor cycling stability and unsatisfying rate performance. As a new class of binder‐free electrodes for LIBs, self‐supported metal oxide nanoarray electrodes have many advantageous features in terms of high specific surface area, fast electron transport, improved charge transfer efficiency, and free space for alleviating volume expansion and preventing severe aggregation, holding great potential to solve the mentioned problems. This review highlights the recent progress in the utilization of self‐supported metal oxide nanoarrays grown on 2D planar and 3D porous substrates, such as 1D and 2D nanostructure arrays, hierarchical nanostructure arrays, and heterostructured nanoarrays, as anodes and cathodes for advanced LIBs. Furthermore, the potential applications of these binder‐free nanoarray electrodes for practical LIBs in full‐cell configuration are outlined. Finally, the future prospects of these self‐supported nanoarray electrodes are discussed. PMID:27711259

  13. Investigation of Impedance-Based Parameters in Metal-O2 Batteries for Next Generation of Battery Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Elkjær; Højberg, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    -of-health of lithium-ion batteries. Applied Energy, 86(9), 1506–1511. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2008.11.021 [4] McCloskey, B. D., Garcia, J. M., & Luntz, A. C. (2014). Chemical and Electrochemical Differences in Nonaqueous Li–O 2and Na–O2 Batteries. The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 5(7), 1230–1235. doi:10...... electrolyte. Journal of Power Sources, 272(c), 415–421. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.08.056 [Figure]...

  14. Finite difference program for calculating hydride bed wall temperature profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A QuickBASIC finite difference program was written for calculating one dimensional temperature profiles in up to two media with flat, cylindrical, or spherical geometries. The development of the program was motivated by the need to calculate maximum temperature differences across the walls of the Tritium metal hydrides beds for thermal fatigue analysis. The purpose of this report is to document the equations and the computer program used to calculate transient wall temperatures in stainless steel hydride vessels. The development of the computer code was motivated by the need to calculate maximum temperature differences across the walls of the hydrides beds in the Tritium Facility for thermal fatigue analysis

  15. Applications of metallic hydrides technology in solar energy conversion and application, and industrial thermic wastes; Aplicacao da tecnologia dos hidretos metalicos na conversao e aproveitamento da energia solar e residuos termicos industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, E.P. da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Hidrogenio

    1990-12-31

    The conversion and utilization of solar energy and of industrial thermic wastes may be attained through innumerable types of thermic machines. This paper describes one of these machines, based on metallic hydrides technology (compounds formed by reversible chemistry reaction of certain metals with hydrogen), in which the gas is absorbed at low pressure and temperature (10 atm; 30-50 deg C) and, by means of any thermic source, it is liberated at high pressure and temperature (50-100 atm; 200-300 deg C). The cyclic operation of the process enables various uses of these machines, either in open circuits (compression and hydrogen pumping) or closed circuits (refrigeration systems or electricity generation). 13 refs., 6 figs

  16. Advanced nickel-hydrogen spacecraft battery development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Dwaine K.; Fox, Chris L.; Standlee, D. J.; Grindstaff, B. K.

    1994-02-01

    Eagle-Picher currently has several advanced nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) cell component and battery designs under development including common pressure vessel (CPV), single pressure vessel (SPV), and dependent pressure vessel (DPV) designs. A CPV NiH2 battery, utilizing low-cost 64 mm (2.5 in.) cell diameter technology, has been designed and built for multiple smallsat programs, including the TUBSAT B spacecraft which is currently scheduled (24 Nov. 93) for launch aboard a Russian Proton rocket. An advanced 90 mm (3.5 in.) NiH2 cell design is currently being manufactured for the Space Station Freedom program. Prototype 254 mm (10 in.) diameter SPV batteries are currently under construction and initial boilerplate testing has shown excellent results. NiH2 cycle life testing is being continued at Eagle-Picher and IPV cells have currently completed more than 89,000 accelerated LEO cycles at 15% DOD, 49,000 real-time LEO cycles at 30 percent DOD, 37,800 cycles under a real-time LEO profile, 30 eclipse seasons in accelerated GEO, and 6 eclipse seasons in real-time GEO testing at 75 percent DOD maximum. Nickel-metal hydride battery development is continuing for both aerospace and electric vehicle applications. Eagle-Picher has also developed an extensive range of battery evaluation, test, and analysis (BETA) measurement and control equipment and software, based on Hewlett-Packard computerized data acquisition/control hardware.

  17. All-solid-state lithium-ion and lithium metal batteries - paving the way to large-scale production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Joscha; Günther, Till; Knoche, Thomas; Vieider, Christoph; Köhler, Larissa; Just, Alexander; Keller, Marlou; Passerini, Stefano; Reinhart, Gunther

    2018-04-01

    Challenges and requirements for the large-scale production of all-solid-state lithium-ion and lithium metal batteries are herein evaluated via workshops with experts from renowned research institutes, material suppliers, and automotive manufacturers. Aiming to bridge the gap between materials research and industrial mass production, possible solutions for the production chains of sulfide and oxide based all-solid-state batteries from electrode fabrication to cell assembly and quality control are presented. Based on these findings, a detailed comparison of the production processes for a sulfide based all-solid-state battery with conventional lithium-ion cell production is given, showing that processes for composite electrode fabrication can be adapted with some effort, while the fabrication of the solid electrolyte separator layer and the integration of a lithium metal anode will require completely new processes. This work identifies the major steps towards mass production of all-solid-state batteries, giving insight into promising manufacturing technologies and helping stakeholders, such as machine engineering, cell producers, and original equipment manufacturers, to plan the next steps towards safer batteries with increased storage capacity.

  18. A Stable, Magnetic, and Metallic Li3O4 Compound as a Discharge Product in a Li-Air Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guochun; Wang, Yanchao; Ma, Yanming

    2014-08-07

    The Li-air battery with the specific energy exceeding that of a Li ion battery has been aimed as the next-generation battery. The improvement of the performance of the Li-air battery needs a full resolution of the actual discharge products. Li2O2 has been long recognized as the main discharge product, with which, however, there are obvious failures on the understanding of various experimental observations (e.g., magnetism, oxygen K-edge spectrum, etc.) on discharge products. There is a possibility of the existence of other Li-O compounds unknown thus far. Here, a hitherto unknown Li3O4 compound as a discharge product of the Li-air battery was predicted through first-principles swarm structure searching calculations. The new compound has a unique structure featuring the mixture of superoxide O2(-) and peroxide O2(2-), the first such example in the Li-O system. The existence of superoxide O2(-) creates magnetism and hole-doped metallicity. Findings of Li3O4 gave rise to direct explanations of the unresolved experimental magnetism, triple peaks of oxygen K-edge spectra, and the Raman peak at 1125 cm(-1) of the discharge products. Our work enables an opportunity for the performance of capacity, charge overpotential, and round-trip efficiency of the Li-air battery.

  19. Low Cost Metal Carbide Nanocrystals as Binding and Electrocatalytic Sites for High Performance Li-S Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fei; Li, Zheng; Luo, Xuan; Wu, Tong; Jiang, Bin; Lu, Lei-Lei; Yao, Hong-Bin; Antonietti, Markus; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2018-02-14

    Lithium sulfur (Li-S) batteries are considered as promising energy storage systems for the next generation of batteries due to their high theoretical energy densities and low cost. Much effort has been made to improve the practical energy densities and cycling stability of Li-S batteries via diverse designs of materials nanostructure. However, achieving simultaneously good rate capabilities and stable cycling of Li-S batteries is still challenging. Herein, we propose a strategy to utilize a dual effect of metal carbide nanoparticles decorated on carbon nanofibers (MC NPs-CNFs) to realize high rate performance, low hysteresis, and long cycling stability of Li-S batteries in one system. The adsorption experiments of lithium polysulfides (LiPS) to MC NPs and corresponding theoretical calculations demonstrate that LiPS are likely to be adsorbed and diffused on the surface of MC NPs because of their moderate chemical bonding. MC NPs turn out to have also an electrocatalytic role and accelerate electrochemical redox reactions of LiPS, as proven by cyclic voltammetry analysis. The fabricated Li-S batteries based on the W 2 C NPs-CNFs hybrid electrodes display not only high specific capacity of 1200 mAh/g at 0.2C but also excellent rate performance and cycling stability, for example, a model setup can be operated at 1C for 500 cycles maintaining a final specific capacity of 605 mAh/g with a degradation rate as low as 0.06%/cycle.

  20. Rhodium complexes of a chelating ligand with imidazol-2-ylidene and pyridin-2-ylidene donors: the effect of C-metalation of nicotinamide groups on uptake of hydride ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSkimming, Alex; Ball, Graham E; Bhadbhade, Mohan M; Colbran, Stephen B

    2012-02-20

    Rhodium complexes of the imidazolylidene (C-im) N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand, C-im-pyH(+), bearing a nicotinamide cation substituent (pyH(+)) have been targeted for ligand-centered uptake and delivery of hydride ion. This work reveals that rhodium(I) complexes such as [Rh(C-im-pyH(+))(COD)X][PF(6)] (1, a: X = Cl, b: X = I) undergo facile C-metalation of the nicotinamide ring to afford rhodium complexes of a novel chelate ligand, C,C'-im-py, with coordinated imidazolylidene (C(im)) and pyridylidene (C(py)) NHC-donors. Seven examples were characterized and include rhodium(III) monomers of the general formula [Rh(C,C'-im-py)L(x)I(2)](z+) (2: z = 1, L = H(2)O or solvent, x = 2; 3, 5, 7: z = 0, L = carboxylate, x = 1) and novel rhodium(II) dimers, the anti/syn-isomers of [Rh(2)(C,C'-im-py)(2)(μOAc)(2)I(2)] (4-anti/syn). The NMR data, backed by DFT calculations, is consistent with attribution of the C,C'-im-py ligand as a bis(carbene) donor. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies are reported for 2, 3, 4-anti, 4-syn and 7. Consistently, within the each complex, the Rh-C(im) bond length is shorter than the Rh-C(py) bond length, which is the opposite trend to that expected based on simple electronic considerations. It is proposed that intramolecular steric interactions imposed by different rings in the rigid C,C'-im-py chelate ligand dictate the observed Rh-C(NHC) bond lengths. Attempts to add hydride to the C-metalated nicotinamide ring in 3 were unsuccessful. The redox behavior of 3 and 4 and, for comparison, an analogous bis(imidazolylidene)rhodium(III) monomer (8), were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and UV-vis spectroelectrochemistry. In 3 and 4, the C-metalated nicotinamide ring is found to exhibit a one-electron reduction process at far lower potential (-2.34 V vs. Fc(+)/Fc in acetonitrile) than the two-electron nicotinamide cation-dihydronicotinamide couple found for the corresponding nonmetalated ring (-1.24 V

  1. Controlling the hydrogenolysis of silica-supported tungsten pentamethyl leads to a class of highly electron deficient partially alkylated metal hydrides

    KAUST Repository

    Maity, Niladri

    2015-11-30

    The well-defined single-site silica-supported tungsten complex [([triple bond, length as m-dash]Si–O–)W(Me)5], 1, is an excellent precatalyst for alkane metathesis. The unique structure of 1 allows the synthesis of unprecedented tungsten hydrido methyl surface complexes via a controlled hydrogenolysis. Specifically, in the presence of molecular hydrogen, 1 is quickly transformed at −78 °C into a partially alkylated tungsten hydride, 4, as characterized by 1H solid-state NMR and IR spectroscopies. Species 4, upon warming to 150 °C, displays the highest catalytic activity for propane metathesis yet reported. DFT calculations using model systems support the formation of [([triple bond, length as m-dash]Si–O–)WH3(Me)2], as the predominant species at −78 °C following several elementary steps of hydrogen addition (by σ-bond metathesis or α-hydrogen transfer). Rearrangement of 4 occuring between −78 °C and room temperature leads to the formation of an unique methylidene tungsten hydride [([triple bond, length as m-dash]Si–O–)WH3([double bond, length as m-dash]CH2)], as determined by solid-state 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopies and supported by DFT. Thus for the first time, a coordination sphere that incorporates both carbene and hydride functionalities has been observed.

  2. Acquisition of Co metal from spent lithium-ion battery using emulsion liquid membrane technology and emulsion stability test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliusman; Wulandari, P. T.; Amiliana, R. A.; Huda, M.; Kusumadewi, F. A.

    2018-03-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are the most common type to be used as energy source in mobile phone. The amount of lithium-ion battery wastes is approximated by 200 – 500 ton/year. In one lithium-ion battery, there are 5 – 20% of cobalt metal, depend on the manufacturer. One of the way to recover a valuable metal from waste is leaching process then continued with extraction, which is the aim of this study. Spent lithium-ion batteries will be characterized with EDX and AAS, the result will show the amount of cobalt metal with form of LiCoO2 in the cathode. Hydrochloric acid concentration used is 4 M, temperature 80°C, and reaction time 1 hour. This study will discuss the emulsion stability test on emulsion liquid membrane. The purpose of emulsion stability test in this study was to determine optimum concentration of surfactant and extractant to produce a stable emulsion. Surfactant and extractant used were SPAN 80 and Cyanex 272 respectively with both concentrations varied. Membrane and feed phase ratios used in this experiment was 1 : 2. The optimum results of this study were SPAN 80 concentrations of 10% w/v and Cyanex 272 0.7 M.

  3. Exceptional Lithium Storage in a Co(OH) 2 Anode: Hydride Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyunchul; Choi, Woon Ih [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Samsung Electronics, 130 Samsung-ro, Suwon 16678, South Korea; Jang, Yoonjung; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Lee, Wontae; Park, Gwi Ok; Park, Su Bin; Yoo, Jaeseung; Hong, Jin Seok [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Samsung Electronics, 130 Samsung-ro, Suwon 16678, South Korea; Choi, Youn-Suk [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Samsung Electronics, 130 Samsung-ro, Suwon 16678, South Korea; Lee, Hyo Sug [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Samsung Electronics, 130 Samsung-ro, Suwon 16678, South Korea; Bae, In Tae; Kim, Ji Man; Yoon, Won-Sub

    2018-02-26

    Current lithium ion battery technology is tied in with conventional reaction mechanisms such as insertion, conversion, and alloying reactions even though most future applications like EVs demand much higher energy densities than current ones. Exploring the exceptional reaction mechanism and related electrode materials can be critical for pushing current battery technology to a next level. Here, we introduce an exceptional reaction with a Co(OH)(2) material which exhibits an initial charge capacity of 1112 mAh g(-1), about twice its theoretical value based on known conventional conversion reaction, and retains its first cycle capacity after 30 cycles. The combined results of synchrotron X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicate that nanosized Co metal particles and LiOH are generated by conversion reaction at high voltages, and CoxHy, Li2O, and LiH are subsequently formed by hydride reaction between Co metal, LiOH, and other lithium species at low voltages, resulting in a anomalously high capacity beyond the theoretical capacity of Co(OH)(2). This is further corroborated by AIMD simulations, localized STEM, and XPS. These findings will provide not only further understanding of exceptional lithium storage of recent nanostructured materials but also valuable guidance to develop advanced electrode materials with high energy density for next-generation batteries.

  4. A bifunctional electrolyte additive for separator wetting and dendrite suppression in lithium metal batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Hao; Xie, Yong; Xiang, Hongfa; Shi, Pengcheng; Liang, Xin; Xu, Wu

    2018-04-01

    Reformulation of electrolyte systems and improvement of separator wettability are vital to electrochemical performances of rechargeable lithium (Li) metal batteries, especially for suppressing Li dendrites. In this work we report a bifunctional electrolyte additive that improves separator wettability and suppresses Li dendrite growth in LMBs. A triblock polyether (Pluronic P123) was introduced as an additive into a commonly used carbonate-based electrolyte. It was found that addition of 0.2~1% (by weight) P123 into the electrolyte could effectively enhance the wettability of polyethylene separator. More importantly, the adsorption of P123 on Li metal surface can act as an artificial solid electrolyte interphase layer and contribute to suppress the growth of Li dendrites. A smooth and dendritic-free morphology can be achieved in the electrolyte with 0.2% P123. The Li||Li symmetric cells with the 0.2% P123 containing electrolyte exhibit a relatively stable cycling stability at high current densities of 1.0 and 3.0 mA cm-2.

  5. Nanostructured Perovskite LaCo1-xMnxO3 as Bifunctional Catalysts for Rechargeable Metal-Air Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiaoming; Li, Bing; Wuu, Delvin; Sumboja, Afriyanti; An, Tao; Hor, T. S. Andy; Zong, Yun; Liu, Zhaolin

    2015-09-01

    Bifunctional catalyst that is active for both oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is one of the most important components of rechargeable metal-air batteries. Nanostructured perovskite bifunctional catalysts comprising La, Co and Mn(LaCo1-xMnxO3, LCMO) are synthesized by hydrothermal methods. The morphology, structure and electrochemical activity of the perovskite bifunctional catalysts are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and rotating disk electrode (RDE) techniques. Nanorod, nanodisc and nanoparticle are typical morphologies of LCMO. The electrocatalytic activity of LCMO is significantly improved by the addition of conductive materials such as carbon nanotube. To demonstrate the practical utilization, LCMO in the composition of LaCo0.8Mn0.2O3(LCMO82) is used as air cathode catalysts for rechargeable zinc-air batteries. The battery prototype can sustain 470 h or 40 discharge-charge cycles equivalent.

  6. Analysis of the hydridation dynamics of metals by gaseous impedance spectroscopy. Application to electrolytic hydrogen storage; Analyse de la dynamique d'hydruration des metaux par spectroscopie d'impedance gazeuse. Application au stockage de l'hydrogene electrolytique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millet, P. [Paris-11 Univ., Institut de Chimie Moleculaire et des Materiaux, UMR CNRS 8182, 91 - Orsay (France); Guymont, M.; Korobtsev, S. [Institut of Russian Research Center, Hydrogen Energy and Plasma Technology, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    In this work, the hydridation dynamics in presence of impurities is analyzed by pneumato-chemical impedance spectroscopy. The measurements are carried out with a Sieverts volumetric frame. The obtention conditions of the experimental impedances are discussed in relation with the thermodynamic states of the metal-H studied systems. A software of specific modelling has been developed: with this software, it is possible to calculate the experimental impedances and, from model equations, to accede to the microscopic kinetic parameters bound to the hydridation reactions. The results obtained on different materials, in presence of oxygen, are presented and analyzed. (O.M.)

  7. Toward garnet electrolyte–based Li metal batteries: An ultrathin, highly effective, artificial solid-state electrolyte/metallic Li interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Kun (Kelvin); Gong, Yunhui; Liu, Boyang; Zhu, Yizhou; Xu, Shaomao; Yao, Yonggang; Luo, Wei; Wang, Chengwei; Lacey, Steven D.; Dai, Jiaqi; Chen, Yanan; Mo, Yifei; Wachsman, Eric; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-01-01

    Solid-state batteries are a promising option toward high energy and power densities due to the use of lithium (Li) metal as an anode. Among all solid electrolyte materials ranging from sulfides to oxides and oxynitrides, cubic garnet–type Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) ceramic electrolytes are superior candidates because of their high ionic conductivity (10−3 to 10−4 S/cm) and good stability against Li metal. However, garnet solid electrolytes generally have poor contact with Li metal, which causes high resistance and uneven current distribution at the interface. To address this challenge, we demonstrate a strategy to engineer the garnet solid electrolyte and the Li metal interface by forming an intermediary Li-metal alloy, which changes the wettability of the garnet surface (lithiophobic to lithiophilic) and reduces the interface resistance by more than an order of magnitude: 950 ohm·cm2 for the pristine garnet/Li and 75 ohm·cm2 for the surface-engineered garnet/Li. Li7La2.75Ca0.25Zr1.75Nb0.25O12 (LLCZN) was selected as the solid-state electrolyte (SSE) in this work because of its low sintering temperature, stabilized cubic garnet phase, and high ionic conductivity. This low area-specific resistance enables a solid-state garnet SSE/Li metal configuration and promotes the development of a hybrid electrolyte system. The hybrid system uses the improved solid-state garnet SSE Li metal anode and a thin liquid electrolyte cathode interfacial layer. This work provides new ways to address the garnet SSE wetting issue against Li and get more stable cell performances based on the hybrid electrolyte system for Li-ion, Li-sulfur, and Li-oxygen batteries toward the next generation of Li metal batteries. PMID:28435874

  8. 3D Fiber-Network-Reinforced Bicontinuous Composite Solid Electrolyte for Dendrite-free Lithium Metal Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Chen, Long; Wang, Tianshi; Fan, Li-Zhen

    2018-02-28

    Replacement of flammable organic liquid electrolytes with solid Li + conductors is a promising approach to realize excellent performance of Li metal batteries. However, ceramic electrolytes are either easily reduced by Li metal or penetrated by Li dendrites through their grain boundaries, and polymer electrolytes are also faced with instability on the electrode/electrolyte interface and weak mechanical property. Here, we report a three-dimensional fiber-network-reinforced bicontinuous solid composite electrolyte with flexible Li + -conductive network (lithium aluminum titanium phosphate (LATP)/polyacrylonitrile), which helps to enhance electrochemical stability on the electrode/electrolyte interface by isolating Li and LATP and suppress Li dendrites growth by mechanical reinforcement of fiber network for the composite solid electrolyte. The composite electrolyte shows an excellent electrochemical stability after 15 days of contact with Li metal and has an enlarged tensile strength (10.72 MPa) compared to the pure poly(ethylene oxide)-bistrifluoromethanesulfonimide lithium salt electrolyte, leading to a long-term stability and safety of the Li symmetric battery with a current density of 0.3 mA cm -2 for 400 h. In addition, the composite electrolyte also shows good electrochemical and thermal stability. These results provide such fiber-reinforced membranes that present stable electrode/electrolyte interface and suppress lithium dendrite growth for high-safety all-solid-state Li metal batteries.

  9. Method and apparatus for preparation of spherical metal carbonates and lithium metal oxides for lithium rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sun-Ho [Naperville, IL; Amine, Khalil [Downers Grove, IL

    2008-10-14

    A number of materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.Co.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.2-- zF.sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti) for use with rechargeable batteries, wherein x is between about 0 and 0.3, .alpha. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .beta. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .gamma. is between about 0 and 0.3, .delta. is between about 0 and 0.15, and z is between about 0 and 0.2. Adding the above metal and fluorine dopants affects capacity, impedance, and stability of the layered oxide structure during electrochemical cycling. Another aspect of the invention includes materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Co.sub..beta.Mn.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.yF- .sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti), where the x is between 0 and 0.2, the .alpha. between 0 and 1, the .beta. between 0 and 1, the .gamma. between 0 and 2, the .delta. between about 0 and about 0.2, the y is between 2 and 4, and the z is between 0 and 0.5.

  10. Bandstructure calculations for metal hydrogen systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Switendick, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    The factors contributing to hydride stability are discussed for a variety of metal hydride systems. The formation of a low-lying hydrogen associated state is a common feature. A significant transition metal character is also found in these states

  11. Bonding of xenon hydrides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez-Peralta, N.; Juarez, R.; Cerpa, E.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.; Merino, G.

    2009-01-01

    We have computed the structure and stability of the xenon hydrides HXeY (with Y = F, Cl, Br, I, CCH, CN, NC) using relativistic density functional theory (DFT) at ZORA-BP86/TZ2P level. All model systems HXeY studied here are bound equilibrium structures, but they are also significantly destabilized

  12. Battery with a microcorrugated, microthin sheet of highly porous corroded metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFollette, Rodney M.

    2005-09-27

    Microthin sheet technology is disclosed by which superior batteries are constructed which, among other things, accommodate the requirements for high load rapid discharge and recharge, mandated by electric vehicle criteria. The microthin sheet technology has process and article overtones and can be used to form thin electrodes used in batteries of various kinds and types, such as spirally-wound batteries, bipolar batteries, lead acid batteries silver/zinc batteries, and others. Superior high performance battery features include: (a) minimal ionic resistance; (b) minimal electronic resistance; (c) minimal polarization resistance to both charging and discharging; (d) improved current accessibility to active material of the electrodes; (e) a high surface area to volume ratio; (f) high electrode porosity (microporosity); (g) longer life cycle; (h) superior discharge/recharge characteristics; (i) higher capacities (A.multidot.hr); and (j) high specific capacitance.

  13. Status and challenges in enabling the lithium metal electrode for high-energy and low-cost rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertus, Paul; Babinec, Susan; Litzelman, Scott; Newman, Aron

    2018-01-01

    Enabling the reversible lithium metal electrode is essential for surpassing the energy content of today's lithium-ion cells. Although lithium metal cells for niche applications have been developed already, efforts are underway to create rechargeable lithium metal batteries that can significantly advance vehicle electrification and grid energy storage. In this Perspective, we focus on three tasks to guide and further advance the reversible lithium metal electrode. First, we summarize the state of research and commercial efforts in terms of four key performance parameters, and identify additional performance parameters of interest. We then advocate for the use of limited lithium (≤30 μm) to ensure early identification of technical challenges associated with stable and dendrite-free cycling and a more rapid transition to commercially relevant designs. Finally, we provide a cost target and outline material costs and manufacturing methods that could allow lithium metal cells to reach 100 US kWh-1.

  14. Combinatorial electrochemical cell array for high throughput screening of micro-fuel-cells and metal/air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rongzhong

    2007-07-01

    An electrochemical cell array was designed that contains a common air electrode and 16 microanodes for high throughput screening of both fuel cells (based on polymer electrolyte membrane) and metal/air batteries (based on liquid electrolyte). Electrode materials can easily be coated on the anodes of the electrochemical cell array and screened by switching a graphite probe from one cell to the others. The electrochemical cell array was used to study direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), including high throughput screening of electrode catalysts and determination of optimum operating conditions. For screening of DMFCs, there is about 6% relative standard deviation (percentage of standard deviation versus mean value) for discharge current from 10to20mA/cm2. The electrochemical cell array was also used to study tin/air batteries. The effect of Cu content in the anode electrode on the discharge performance of the tin/air battery was investigated. The relative standard deviations for screening of metal/air battery (based on zinc/air) are 2.4%, 3.6%, and 5.1% for discharge current at 50, 100, and 150mA/cm2, respectively.

  15. Ternary alkali-metal and transition metal or metalloid acetylides as alkali-metal intercalation electrodes for batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Karoly; Srajer, George; Harkay, Katherine C; Terdik, Joseph Z

    2015-02-10

    Novel intercalation electrode materials including ternary acetylides of chemical formula: A.sub.nMC.sub.2 where A is alkali or alkaline-earth element; M is transition metal or metalloid element; C.sub.2 is reference to the acetylide ion; n is an integer that is 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 when A is alkali element and 0, 1, or 2 when A is alkaline-earth element. The alkali elements are Lithium (Li), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Rubidium (Rb), Cesium (Cs) and Francium (Fr). The alkaline-earth elements are Berilium (Be), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca), Strontium (Sr), Barium (Ba), and Radium (Ra). M is a transition metal that is any element in groups 3 through 12 inclusive on the Periodic Table of Elements (elements 21 (Sc) to element 30 (Zn)). In another exemplary embodiment, M is a metalloid element.

  16. Solid hydrides as hydrogen storage reservoirs; Hidruros solidos como acumuladores de hidrogeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A.; Sanchez, C.; Friedrichs, O.; Ares, J. R.; Leardini, F.; Bodega, J.; Fernandez, J. F.

    2010-07-01

    Metal hydrides as hydrogen storage materials are briefly reviewed in this paper. Fundamental properties of metal-hydrogen (gas) system such as Pressure-Composition-Temperature (P-C-T) characteristics are discussed on the light of the metal-hydride thermodynamics. Attention is specially paid to light metal hydrides which might have application in the car and transport sector. The pros and cons of MgH{sub 2} as a light material are outlined. Researches in course oriented to improve the behaviour of MgH{sub 2} are presented. Finally, other very promising alternative materials such as Al compounds (alanates) or borohydrides as light hydrogen accumulators are also considered. (Author)

  17. The effect of compositional changes on the structural and hydrogen storage properties of (La–Ce)Ni{sub 5} type intermetallics towards compounds suitable for metal hydride hydrogen compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odysseos, M., E-mail: marios.odysseos@grenoble.cnrs.fr [Hystore Technologies Ltd., 30, Spyrou Kyprianou, 2643 Ergates, Nicosia-Cyprus (France); De Rango, P. [Institut NEEL and CRETA, CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Christodoulou, C.N. [Hystore Technologies Ltd., 30, Spyrou Kyprianou, 2643 Ergates, Nicosia-Cyprus (France); Hlil, E.K. [Institut NEEL and CRETA, CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Steriotis, T. [National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, 15310 Agia Paraskevi Attikis, Athens (Greece); Karagiorgis, G. [Hystore Technologies Ltd., 30, Spyrou Kyprianou, 2643 Ergates, Nicosia-Cyprus (France); Charalambopoulou, G. [National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, 15310 Agia Paraskevi Attikis, Athens (Greece); Papapanagiotou, T. [Hystore Technologies Ltd., 30, Spyrou Kyprianou, 2643 Ergates, Nicosia-Cyprus (France); Ampoumogli, A.; Psycharis, V. [National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, 15310 Agia Paraskevi Attikis, Athens (Greece); Koultoukis, E. [McPhy Energy S.A., Z.A. Quartier Rietiere, 26190 La Motte-Fanjas (France); Fruchart, D. [Institut NEEL and CRETA, CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Stubos, A. [National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, 15310 Agia Paraskevi Attikis, Athens (Greece)

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The effect of the partial substitution of La with Ce on the crystal structure and the final hydrogen storage properties of the alloys. Highlights: ► Absorption-based systems exploit the properties of reversible metal hydrides. ► AB5 intermetallics are mostly popular for thermal desorption compressors. ► Investigation of H2 absorption/desorption properties of LaNi5 and its derivatives. ► LaNi5 thermodynamic properties adjustment by partially replacing La with rare earths. -- Abstract: The present work has been aiming at the synthesis and study of a series of La{sub 1−x}Ce{sub x}Ni{sub 5} (x = 0, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8) alloys in an attempt to investigate possible alterations of the hydrogen absorption/desorption properties The alloys were prepared by induction melting of the constituent elements. The systematic characterization of all new compounds by means of XRD and hydrogen sorption measurements revealed the effect of the partial substitution of La with Ce on the crystal structure and the final hydrogen storage properties of the alloys. Extensive absorption/desorption experiments (Van’t Hoff diagrams) have shown that such alloys can be used to build a metal hydride compressor (MHC), compressing H{sub 2} gas from 0.2 MPa to 4.2 MPa using cold (20 °C) and hot (80 °C) water.

  18. A Metal-Amino Acid Complex-Derived Bifunctional Oxygen Electrocatalyst for Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yanjun; Niu, Yuchen; Yang, Jia; Ma, Liang; Liu, Jianguo; Xiong, Yujie; Xu, Hangxun

    2016-10-01

    Bifunctional oxygen electrocatalyst: A metal-amino acid complex is developed to prepare high-performance mesoporous carbon electrocatalyst for both oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions. Such prepared catalyst can be used to assemble rechargeable zinc-air batteries with excellent durability. This work represents a new route toward low-cost, highly active, and durable bifunctional electrocatalysts for cutting-edge energy conversion devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Attainable gravimetric and volumetric energy density of Li-S and li ion battery cells with solid separator-protected Li metal anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Bryan D

    2015-11-19

    As a result of sulfur's high electrochemical capacity (1675 mA h/gs), lithium-sulfur batteries have received significant attention as a potential high-specific-energy alternative to current state-of-the-art rechargeable Li ion batteries. For Li-S batteries to compete with commercially available Li ion batteries, high-capacity anodes, such as those that use Li metal, will need to be enabled to fully exploit sulfur's high capacity. The development of Li metal anodes has focused on eliminating Coulombically inefficient and dendritic Li cycling, and to this end, an interesting direction of research is to protect Li metal by employing mechanically stiff solid-state Li(+) conductors, such as garnet phase Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO), NASICON-type Li1+xAlxTi2-x(PO4)3 (LATP), and Li2S-P2S5 glasses (LPS), as electrode separators. Basic calculations are used to quantify useful targets for solid Li metal protective separator thickness and cost to enable Li metal batteries in general and Li-S batteries specifically. Furthermore, maximum electrolyte-to-sulfur ratios that allow Li-S batteries to compete with Li ion batteries are calculated. The results presented here suggest that controlling the complex polysulfide speciation chemistry in Li-S cells with realistic, minimal electrolyte loading presents a meaningful opportunity to develop Li-S batteries that are competitive on a specific energy basis with current state-of-the-art Li ion batteries.

  20. Spent lithium-ion battery recycling - Reductive ammonia leaching of metals from cathode scrap by sodium sulphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaohong; Gao, Wenfang; Zhang, Xihua; He, Mingming; Lin, Xiao; Cao, Hongbin; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Zhi

    2017-02-01

    Recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries has attracted wide attention because of their high content of valuable and hazardous metals. One of the difficulties for effective metal recovery is the separation of different metals from the solution after leaching. In this research, a full hydrometallurgical process is developed to selectively recover valuable metals (Ni, Co and Li) from cathode scrap of spent lithium ion batteries. By introducing ammonia-ammonium sulphate as the leaching solution and sodium sulphite as the reductant, the total selectivity of Ni, Co and Li in the first-step leaching solution is more than 98.6% while it for Mn is only 1.36%. In detail understanding of the selective leaching process is carried out by investigating the effects of parameters such as leaching reagent composition, leaching time (0-480min), agitation speed (200-700rpm), pulp density (10-50g/L) and temperature (323-353K). It was found that Mn is primarily reduced from Mn 4+ into Mn 2+ into the solution as [Formula: see text] while it subsequently precipitates out into the residue in the form of (NH 4 ) 2 Mn(SO 3 ) 2 ·H 2 O. Ni, Co and Li are leached and remain in the solution either as metallic ion or amine complexes. The optimised leaching conditions can be further obtained and the leaching kinetics is found to be chemical reaction control under current leaching conditions. As a result, this research is potentially beneficial for further optimisation of the spent lithium ion battery recycling process after incorporating with metal extraction from the leaching solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nickel based alloys as electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution from alkaline solutions. [Metal--air batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, P.W.T.; Srinivasan, S.

    1977-01-01

    The slowness of the oxygen evolution reaction is one of the main reasons for significant energy losses in water electrolysis cells and secondary air--metal batteries. To date, data on the kinetics of this reaction on alloys and intermetallic compounds are sparse. In this work, mechanically polished alloys of nickel with Ir, Ru or W and Ni--Ti intermetallic compounds were studied as oxygen electrodes. Since the oxygen evolution reaction always takes place on oxide-film covered surfaces, the nature of oxide films formed on these alloys were investigated using cyclic voltametric techniques. Steady-state potentiostatic and slow potentiodynamic (at 0.1 mV/s) methods were employed to obtain the electrode kinetic parameters for the oxygen evolution reaction in 30 wt. percent KOH at 80/sup 0/C, the conditions normally used in water electrolysis cells. The peaks for the formation or reduction of oxygen-containing layers appearing on the pure metals are not always found on the alloys. The maximum decreases in oxygen overpotential at an apparent current density of 20 mA cm/sup -2/ (as compared with that on Ni) were found for the alloys of 50Ni--50Ir and 75Ni--25Ru and the intermetallic compound Ni/sub 3/Ti, these decreases being about 40, 30, and 20 mV, respectively. On the long-term polarization in the potential region of oxygen evolution, the oxygen-containing layers on Ni--Ir or Ni--Ru alloys are essentially composed of nickel oxides instead of true mixed oxide films of two components. The present work confirms that, possibly because of coverage by oxide films, there is no direct dependence of the electrocatalytic activities of the alloys on their electronic properties. 11 figures, 1 table.

  2. Electrochemical behavior of lithium imide/cyclic ether electrolytes for 4 V lithium metal rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Yasukawa, Eiki; Mori, Shoichiro

    1999-11-01

    To develop organic electrolytes for 4 V lithium metal rechargeable batteries, LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} electrolytes with five-, six-, and seven-membered cyclic ether solvents were characterized. Among these examined electrolytes, LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2}/tetrahydropyran (THP) electrolyte was found to possess the most advantages, such as high cycling efficiency, good oxidation stability, and high boiling point. Furthermore, lithium cycling efficiency and conductivity were improved by mixing 50% ethylene carbonate (EC) in 1 mol/dm{sup 3} LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2}/THP electrolyte. By using LiN(SO{sub 2}C{sub 2}F{sub 5}){sub 2} solute as an alternative to LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} in EC + THP (1:1) electrolyte, corrosion of the aluminum current collector was inhibited and therefore, excellent cycling performance of a Li/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} coin cell was realized. It was also found that lithium cycling efficiency increased with decreasing deposition current density or increasing dissolution current density. Especially at deposition/dissolution current densities of 0.2/0.6 mA/cm{sup 2}, the observed lithium cycling efficiency in 1 mol/dm{sup 3} LiN(SO{sub 2}C{sub 2}F{sub 5}){sub 2}/EC + THP (1:1) electrolyte was above 99%. Thermal tests further disclosed that this mixed electrolyte has good thermal stability even in the presence of lithium metal or cathode materials.

  3. Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) as Sandwich Coating Cushion for Silicon Anode in Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuzhen; Qi, Pengfei; Zhou, Junwen; Feng, Xiao; Li, Siwu; Fu, Xiaotao; Zhao, Jingshu; Yu, Danni; Wang, Bo

    2015-12-09

    A novel metal-organic framework (MOF) sandwich coating method (denoted as MOF-SC) is developed for hybrid Li ion battery electrode preparation, in which the MOF films are casted on the surface of a silicon layer and sandwiched between the active silicon and the separator. The obtained electrodes show improved cycling performance. The areal capacity of the cheap and readily available microsized Si treated with MOF-SC can reach 1700 μAh cm(-2) at 265 μA cm(-2) and maintain at 850 μAh cm(-2) after 50 cycles. Beyond the above, the commercial nanosized Si treated by MOF-SC also shows greatly enhanced areal capacity and outstanding cycle stability, 600 μAh cm(-2) for 100 cycles without any apparent fading. By virtue of the novel structure prepared by the MOFs, this new MOF-SC structure serves as an efficient protection cushion for the drastic volume change of silicon during charge/discharge cycles. Furthermore, this MOF layer, with large pore volume and high surface area, can adsorb electrolyte and allow faster diffusion of Li(+) as evidenced by decreased impedance and improved rate performance.

  4. Nanoscale zinc-based metal-organic framework with high capacity for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Changdong [Changzhou University, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, and Advanced Catalysis and Green Manufacturing Collaborative Innovation Center (China); Gao, Yuanrui; Liu, Lili [Shanghai University, Department of Chemistry, College of Science (China); Song, Yidan; Wang, Xianmei [Changzhou University, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, and Advanced Catalysis and Green Manufacturing Collaborative Innovation Center (China); Liu, Hong-Jiang, E-mail: liuhj@shu.edu.cn [Shanghai University, Department of Chemistry, College of Science (China); Liu, Qi, E-mail: liuqi62@163.com [Changzhou University, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, and Advanced Catalysis and Green Manufacturing Collaborative Innovation Center (China)

    2016-12-15

    Layered zinc-based metal-organic framework ([Zn(4,4′-bpy)(tfbdc)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}], Zn-LMOF) nanosheets were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method (4,4′-bpy = 4,4′-bipyridine, H{sub 2}tfbdc = tetrafluoroterephthalic acid). The materials were characterized by IR spectrum, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface. When the Zn-LMOF nanosheets with the thickness of about 24 ± 8 nm were used as an anode material of lithium-ion batteries, not only the Zn-LMOF electrode shows a high reversible capacity, retaining 623 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g{sup −1} but also exhibits an excellent cyclic stability and a higher rate performance.

  5. Pomegranate-Inspired Design of Highly Active and Durable Bifunctional Electrocatalysts for Rechargeable Metal-Air Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ge; Wang, Xiaolei; Fu, Jing; Li, Jingde; Park, Moon Gyu; Zhang, Yining; Lui, Gregory; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-04-11

    Rational design of highly active and durable electrocatalysts for oxygen reactions is critical for rechargeable metal-air batteries. Herein, we report the design and development of composite electrocatalysts based on transition metal oxide nanocrystals embedded in a nitrogen-doped, partially graphitized carbon framework. Benefiting from the unique pomegranate-like architecture, the composite catalysts possess abundant active sites, strong synergetic coupling, enhanced electron transfer, and high efficiencies in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The Co3O4-based composite electrocatalyst exhibited a high half-wave potential of 0.842 V for ORR, and a low overpotential of only 450 mV at the current density of 10 mA cm(-2) for OER. A single-cell zinc-air battery was also fabricated with superior durability, holding great promise in the practical implementation of rechargeable metal-air batteries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Sodium-based hydrides for thermal energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, D. A.; Humphries, T. D.; Buckley, C. E.

    2016-04-01

    Concentrating solar-thermal power (CSP) with thermal energy storage (TES) represents an attractive alternative to conventional fossil fuels for base-load power generation. Sodium alanate (NaAlH4) is a well-known sodium-based complex metal hydride but, more recently, high-temperature sodium-based complex metal hydrides have been considered for TES. This review considers the current state of the art for NaH, NaMgH3- x F x , Na-based transition metal hydrides, NaBH4 and Na3AlH6 for TES and heat pumping applications. These metal hydrides have a number of advantages over other classes of heat storage materials such as high thermal energy storage capacity, low volume, relatively low cost and a wide range of operating temperatures (100 °C to more than 650 °C). Potential safety issues associated with the use of high-temperature sodium-based hydrides are also addressed.

  7. Electrolytic hydriding and hydride distribution in zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, M.H.L.

    1974-01-01

    A study has been made of the electrolytic hydriding of zircaloy-4 in the range 20-80 0 C, for reaction times from 5 to 30 hours, and the effect of potential, pH and dissolved oxygen has been investigated. The hydriding reaction was more sensitive to time and temperature conditions than to the electrochemical variables. It has been shown that a controlled introduction of hydrides in zircaloy is feasible. Hydrides were found to be plate like shaped and distributed mainly along grain-boundaries. It has been shown that hydriding kinetics do not follow a simple law but may be described by a Johnson-Mehl empirical equation. On the basis of this equation an activation energy of 9.400 cal/mol has been determined, which is close to the activation energy for diffusion of hydrogen in the hydride. (author)

  8. Effect of hydrogenation conditions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of zirconium hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muta, Hiroaki; Nishikane, Ryoji; Ando, Yusuke; Matsunaga, Junji; Sakamoto, Kan; Harjo, Stefanus; Kawasaki, Takuro; Ohishi, Yuji; Kurosaki, Ken; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2018-03-01

    Precipitation of brittle zirconium hydrides deteriorate the fracture toughness of the fuel cladding tubes of light water reactor. Although the hydride embrittlement has been studied extensively, little is known about physical properties of the hydride due to the experimental difficulties. In the present study, to elucidate relationship between mechanical properties and microstructure, two δ-phase zirconium hydrides and one ε-phase zirconium hydride were carefully fabricated considering volume changes at the metal-to-hydride transformation. The δ-hydride that was fabricated from α-zirconium exhibits numerous inner cracks due to the large volume change. Analyses of the neutron diffraction pattern and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) data show that the sample displays significant stacking faults in the {111} plane and in the pseudo-layered microstructure. On the other hand, the δ-hydride sample fabricated from β-zirconium at a higher temperature displays equiaxed grains and no cracks. The strong crystal orientation dependence of mechanical properties were confirmed by indentation test and EBSD observation. The δ-hydride hydrogenated from α-zirconium displays a lower Young's modulus than that prepared from β-zirconium. The difference is attributed to stacking faults within the {111} plane, for which the Young's modulus exhibits the highest value in the perpendicular direction. The strong influence of the crystal orientation and dislocation density on the mechanical properties should be considered when evaluating hydride precipitates in nuclear fuel cladding.

  9. Alkali Metal-O2 Batteries. Performance and Lifetime Limiting Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Kristian Bastholm

    The rechargeable Na-O2 and Li-O2 batteries are attractive battery technologies as they potentially are very cheap and as they theoretically possess about 3 and 10 times higher energy density than the current Li-ion technologies. This PhD thesis is dedicated to studying the effects that limit cell...

  10. Influence of surface coating on structure and properties of metallic lithium anode for rechargeable Li-O2 battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Q.; Wang, Q.; Ma, Q.; Song, Q.; Chen, Q.

    2017-07-01

    Amorphous lithium phosphorous oxynitride film was coated directly on pre-treated lithium metal as anode of lithium air battery by radio-frequency sputtering technique from a Li3PO4 target. The structure and composition of modified anode was analyzed before and after charge/discharge test in a lithium-air battery, which comprises 0.5M LiNO3/TEGDME as the electrolyte and super P carbon as cathode. Batteries were galvanostatically discharged by an Arbin BT-2000 battery tester between open current voltage and 2.15V vs. Li+/Li at various current regimes ranging from 0.1–0.4mA/cm2. Compared with fresh lithium, LIPON-coated anode exhibited better electrochemical performance. Good charging efficiency of 90% at a narrower voltage gap with high ionic conductivity of 9.4×10−5S/cm was achieved through optimizing lithium pre-treated conditions, sputtering N2 flows and suitable solute for electrolyte. (Author)

  11. Perspectives on Li and transition metal fluoride phosphates as cathode materials for a new generation of Li-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny V. Antipov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To satisfy the needs of rapidly growing applications, Li-ion batteries require further significant improvements of their key properties: specific energy and power, cyclability, safety and costs. The first generation of cathode materials for Li-ion batteries based on mixed oxides with either spinel or rock-salt derivatives has already been widely commercialized, but the potential to improve the performance of these materials further is almost exhausted. Li and transition metal inorganic compounds containing different polyanions are now considered as the most promising cathode materials for the next generation of Li-ion batteries. Further advances in cathode materials are considered to lie in combining different anions [such as (XO4n− and F−] in the anion sublattice, which is expected to enhance the specific energy and power of these materials. This review focuses on recent advances related to the new class of cathode materials for Li-ion batteries containing phosphate and fluoride anions. Special attention is given to their crystal structures and the relationships between structure and properties, which are important for their possible practical applications.

  12. Influence of surface coating on structure and properties of metallic lithium anode for rechargeable Li-O2 battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuling Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous lithium phosphorous oxynitride film was coated directly on pre-treated lithium metal as anode of lithium air battery by radio-frequency sputtering technique from a Li3PO4 target. The structure and composition of modified anode was analyzed before and after charge/discharge test in a lithium-air battery, which comprises 0.5 M LiNO3/TEGDME as the electrolyte and super P carbon as cathode. Batteries were galvanostatically discharged by an Arbin BT-2000 battery tester between open current voltage and 2.15 V vs. Li+/Li at various current regimes ranging from 0.1–0.4 mA/cm2. Compared with fresh lithium, LIPON-coated anode exhibited better electrochemical performance. Good charging efficiency of 90% at a narrower voltage gap with high ionic conductivity of 9.4 × 10−5 S/cm was achieved through optimizing lithium pre-treated conditions, sputtering N2 flows and suitable solute for electrolyte.

  13. Tuning the Morphology of Li2O2by Noble and 3d metals: A Planar Model Electrode Study for Li-O2Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yao; Liu, Wei; Wu, Nian; Wang, Xiaochen; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Linfeng; Zeng, Rui; Wang, Yingming; Lu, Juntao; Fu, Lei; Xiao, Li; Zhuang, Lin

    2017-06-14

    In this work, a planar model electrode method has been used to investigate the structure-activity relationship of multiple noble and 3d metal catalysts for the cathode reaction of Li-O 2 battery. The result shows that the battery performance (discharge/charge overpotential) strongly depends not only on the type of catalysts but also on the morphology of the discharge product (Li 2 O 2 ). Specifically, according to electrochemical characterization and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation, noble metals (Pd, Pt, Ru, Ir, and Au) show excellent battery performance (smaller discharge/charge overpotential), with wormlike Li 2 O 2 particles with size less than 200 nm on their surfaces. On the other hand, 3d metals (Fe, Co, Ni, and Mn) offered poor battery performance (larger discharge/charge overpotential), with much larger Li 2 O 2 particles (1 μm to a few microns) on their surfaces after discharging. Further research shows that a "volcano plot" is found by correlating the discharging/charging plateau voltage with the adsorption energy of LiO 2 on different metals. The metals with better battery performance and worm-like-shaped Li 2 O 2 are closer to the top of the "volcano", indicating adsorption energy of LiO 2 is one of the key characters for the catalyst to reach a good performance for the oxygen electrode of Li-O 2 battery, and it has a strong influence on the morphology of the discharge product on the electrode surface.

  14. Mechanism of Nitrogenase H 2 Formation by Metal-Hydride Protonation Probed by Mediated Electrocatalysis and H/D Isotope Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khadka, Nimesh [Department of Chemistry; Milton, Ross D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, United States; Shaw, Sudipta [Department of Chemistry; Lukoyanov, Dmitriy [Department; Dean, Dennis R. [Department of Biochemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, United States; Minteer, Shelley D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, United States; Raugei, Simone [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Hoffman, Brian M. [Department; Seefeldt, Lance C. [Department of Chemistry

    2017-09-15

    Nitrogenase catalyzes the reduction of dinitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3) with obligatory reduction of protons (H+) to dihydrogen (H2) through a mechanism involving reductive elimination of two [Fe-H-Fe] bridging hydrides at its active site FeMo-cofactor. The overall rate-limiting step is associated with ATP-driven electron delivery from Fe protein, precluding isotope effect measurements on substrate reduction steps. Here, we use mediated bioelectrocatalysis to drive electron delivery to MoFe protein without Fe protein and ATP hydrolysis, thereby eliminating the normal rate-limiting step. The ratio of catalytic current in mixtures of H2O and D2O, the proton inventory, changes linearly with the D2O/H2O ratio, revealing that a single H/D is involved in the rate limiting step. Kinetic models, along with measurements that vary the electron/proton delivery rate and use different substrates, reveal that the rate-limiting step under these conditions is the H2 formation reaction. Altering the chemical environment around the active site FeMo-cofactor in the MoFe protein either by substituting nearby amino acids or transferring the isolated FeMo-cofactor into a different peptide matrix, changes the net isotope effect, but the proton inventory plot remains linear, consistent with an unchanging rate-limiting step. Density functional theory predicts a transition state for H2 formation where the proton from S-H+ moves to the hydride in Fe-H-, predicting the number and magnitude of the observed H/D isotope effect. This study not only reveals the mechanism of H2 formation, but also illustrates a strategy for mechanistic study that can be applied to other enzymes and to biomimetic complexes.

  15. Analysis of a hydrometallurgical route to recover base metals from spent rechargeable batteries by liquid-liquid extraction with Cyanex 272

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantuano, Danuza Pereira; Dorella, Germano; Elias, Renata Cristina Alves; Mansur, Marcelo Borges

    A hydrometallurgical route is proposed to recover zinc and manganese from spent alkaline batteries in order to separate base metals such as nickel, copper, aluminium, cadmium, lithium and cobalt which constitute the main metallic species of spent NiCd, NiMH and Li-ion rechargeable batteries. The route comprises the following main steps: (1) sorting batteries by type, (2) battery dismantling to separate the spent battery dust from plastic, iron scrap and paper, (3) leaching of the dust with sulphuric acid and (4) metal separation by a liquid-liquid extraction using Cyanex 272 (bis-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid) as extractant. The metal content of NiCd, NiMH and Li-ion batteries from three distinct manufacturers has been evaluated. A factorial design of experiments was used to investigate the leaching step using operational variables such as temperature, H 2SO 4 concentration, S/L ratio and H 2O 2 concentration. Analysis of metal separation by the liquid-liquid extraction with Cyanex 272 identified a pH 1/2 2.5-3.0 for zinc and aluminium, pH 1/2 4.0-4.5 for manganese, cadmium, copper and cobalt, pH 1/2 6.5 for nickel and pH 1/2 8.0 for lithium. These results indicate that batteries must be previously sorted by type and treated separately. In addition, data fitting to an equilibrium model proposed for the reactive test system by the European Federation of Chemical Engineering (EFChE) have indicated that MR 2(RH) 2 and MR 2 complexes (where M = Zn, Mn, Co, Cd and Cu) co-exist in the organic phase with Cyanex 272 depending on the loading conditions. The route has been found technically viable to separate the main metallic species of all batteries considered in this study.

  16. Recovery of metals from simulant spent lithium-ion battery as organophosphonate coordination polymers in aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Emilie; Andre, Marie-Laure; Navarro Amador, Ricardo [ICSM, Institut de Chimie Séparative de Marcoule, UMR 5257, CEA/CNRS/ENSCM/UM, Bât 426, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France); Hyvrard, François; Borrini, Julien [SARPI VEOLIA, Direction Technique et Innovations, Zone portuaire de Limay-Porcheville, 427 route du Hazay, 78520 Limay (France); Carboni, Michaël, E-mail: michael.carboni@cea.fr [ICSM, Institut de Chimie Séparative de Marcoule, UMR 5257, CEA/CNRS/ENSCM/UM, Bât 426, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France); Meyer, Daniel [ICSM, Institut de Chimie Séparative de Marcoule, UMR 5257, CEA/CNRS/ENSCM/UM, Bât 426, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Original waste disposal strategies for battery. • Precipitation of metals as coordination polymers. • Organo-phosphonate coordination polymers. • Selective extraction of manganese or co-precipitation of manganese/cobalt. • The recycling process give a promising application on any waste solution. - Abstract: An innovative approach is proposed for the recycling of metals from a simulant lithium-ion battery (LIBs) waste aqueous solution. Phosphonate organic linkers are introduced as precipitating agents to selectively react with the metals to form coordination polymers from an aqueous solution containing Ni, Mn and Co in a hydrothermal process. The supernatant is analyzed by ICP-AES to quantify the efficiency and the selectivity of the precipitation and the materials are characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD), Thermogravimetric Analyses (TGA) and nitrogen gas sorption (BET). Conditions have been achieved to selectively precipitate Manganese or Manganese/Cobalt from this solution with a high efficiency. This work describes a novel method to obtain potentially valuable coordination polymers from a waste metal solution that can be generalized on any waste solution.

  17. General synthesis of vanadium-based mixed metal oxides hollow nanofibers for high performance lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Juan; Yu, Xin-Yao; Paik, Ungyu

    2016-10-01

    Hollow nanostructured mixed metal oxides have recently been intensively investigated as electrode materials for energy storage and conversion due to their remarkable electrochemical properties. Although great efforts have been made, the synthesis of hollow nanostructured vanadium-based mixed metal oxides especially those with one dimensional structure is rarely reported. Vanadium-based mixed metal oxides are promising electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries with high capacity and good rate capability. Here, we develop a facile and general method for the synthesis of one dimensional MxV2O8 (M = Co, Ni, Fe) tubular structure through a simple single-spinneret electrospinning technique followed by a calcination process. As a demonstration, Co3V2O8 hollow nanofibers are evaluated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. As expected, benefiting from their unique one dimensional tubular structure, the as-synthesized Co3V2O8 exhibits excellent electrochemical properties for lithium storage. To be specific, it can deliver a high specific capacity of 900 mAh g-1 at 5 A g-1, and long cycling stability up to 2000 cycles. The present work makes a significant contribution to the design and synthesis of mixed metal oxides with one dimensional tubular structure, as well as their potential applications in electrochemical energy storage.

  18. A Metal-Organic-Framework-Based Electrolyte with Nanowetted Interfaces for High-Energy-Density Solid-State Lithium Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziqi; Tan, Rui; Wang, Hongbin; Yang, Luyi; Hu, Jiangtao; Chen, Haibiao; Pan, Feng

    2018-01-01

    Solid-state batteries (SSBs) are promising for safer energy storage, but their active loading and energy density have been limited by large interfacial impedance caused by the poor Li + transport kinetics between the solid-state electrolyte and the electrode materials. To address the interfacial issue and achieve higher energy density, herein, a novel solid-like electrolyte (SLE) based on ionic-liquid-impregnated metal-organic framework nanocrystals (Li-IL@MOF) is reported, which demonstrates excellent electrochemical properties, including a high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 3.0 × 10 -4 S cm -1 , an improved Li + transference number of 0.36, and good compatibilities against both Li metal and active electrodes with low interfacial resistances. The Li-IL@MOF SLE is further integrated into a rechargeable Li|LiFePO 4 SSB with an unprecedented active loading of 25 mg cm -2 , and the battery exhibits remarkable performance over a wide temperature range from -20 up to 150 °C. Besides the intrinsically high ionic conductivity of Li-IL@MOF, the unique interfacial contact between the SLE and the active electrodes owing to an interfacial wettability effect of the nanoconfined Li-IL guests, which creates an effective 3D Li + conductive network throughout the whole battery, is considered to be the key factor for the excellent performance of the SSB. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Alloying in an Intercalation Host: Metal Titanium Niobates as Anodes for Rechargeable Alkali-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suman; Swain, Diptikanta; Araujo, Rafael B; Shi, Songxin; Ahuja, Rajeev; Row, Tayur N Guru; Bhattacharyya, Aninda J

    2018-02-02

    We discuss here a unique flexible non-carbonaceous layered host, namely, metal titanium niobates (M-Ti-niobate, M: Al 3+ , Pb 2+ , Sb 3+ , Ba 2+ , Mg 2+ ), which can synergistically store both lithium ions and sodium ions via a simultaneous intercalation and alloying mechanisms. M-Ti-niobate is formed by ion exchange of the K + ions, which are specifically located inside galleries between the layers formed by edge and corner sharing TiO 6 and NbO 6 octahedral units in the sol-gel synthesized potassium titanium niobate (KTiNbO 5 ). Drastic volume changes (approximately 300-400 %) typically associated with an alloying mechanism of storage are completely tackled chemically by the unique chemical composition and structure of the M-Ti-niobates. The free space between the adjustable Ti/Nb octahedral layers easily accommodates the volume changes. Due to the presence of an optimum amount of multivalent alloying metal ions (50-75 % of total K + ) in the M-Ti-niobate, an efficient alloying reaction takes place directly with ions and completely eliminates any form of mechanical degradation of the electroactive particles. The M-Ti-niobate can be cycled over a wide voltage range (as low as 0.01 V) and displays remarkably stable Li + and Na + ion cyclability (>2 Li + /Na + per formula unit) for widely varying current densities over few hundreds to thousands of successive cycles. The simultaneous intercalation and alloying storage mechanisms is also studied within the density functional theory (DFT) framework. DFT expectedly shows a very small variation in the volume of Al-titanium niobate following lithium alloying. Moreover, the theoretical investigations also conclusively support the occurrence of the alloying process of Li ions with the Al ions along with the intercalation process during discharge. The M-Ti-niobates studied here demonstrate a paradigm shift in chemical design of electrodes and will pave the way for the development of a multitude of improved electrodes

  20. General Synthesis of Transition-Metal Oxide Hollow Nanospheres/Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Hybrids by Metal-Ammine Complex Chemistry for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiayuan; Wu, Xiaofeng; Gong, Yan; Wang, Pengfei; Li, Wenhui; Mo, Shengpeng; Peng, Shengpan; Tan, Qiangqiang; Chen, Yunfa

    2018-02-09

    We present a general and facile synthesis strategy, on the basis of metal-ammine complex chemistry, for synthesizing hollow transition-metal oxides (Co 3 O 4 , NiO, CuO-Cu 2 O, and ZnO)/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids, potentially applied in high-performance lithium-ion batteries. The oxygen-containing functional groups of graphene oxide play a prerequisite role in the formation of hollow transition-metal oxides on graphene nanosheets, and a significant hollowing process occurs only when forming metal (Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , or Zn 2+ )-ammine complex ions. Moreover, the hollowing process is well correlated with the complexing capacity between metal ions and NH 3 molecules. The significant hollowing process occurs for strong metal-ammine complex ions including Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Zn 2+ ions, and no hollow structures formed for weak and/or noncomplex Mn 2+ and Fe 3+ ions. Simultaneously, this novel strategy can also achieve the direct doping of nitrogen atoms into the graphene framework. The electrochemical performance of two typical hollow Co 3 O 4 or NiO/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids was evaluated by their use as anodic materials. It was demonstrated that these unique nanostructured hybrids, in contrast with the bare counterparts, solid transition-metal oxides/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids, perform with significantly improved specific capacity, superior rate capability, and excellent capacity retention. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Analytical and numerical models of uranium ignition assisted by hydride formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totemeier, T.C.; Hayes, S.L.

    1996-01-01

    Analytical and numerical models of uranium ignition assisted by the oxidation of uranium hydride are described. The models were developed to demonstrate that ignition of large uranium ingots could not occur as a result of possible hydride formation during storage. The thermodynamics-based analytical model predicted an overall 17 C temperature rise of the ingot due to hydride oxidation upon opening of the storage can in air. The numerical model predicted locally higher temperature increases at the surface; the transient temperature increase quickly dissipated. The numerical model was further used to determine conditions for which hydride oxidation does lead to ignition of uranium metal. Room temperature ignition only occurs for high hydride fractions in the nominally oxide reaction product and high specific surface areas of the uranium metal

  2. New Alkali Metal Flow Battery for Terrestrial and Aerospace Energy Storage Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This seedling task is to develop new lithium-based flow batteries that will provide several fold improvements in specific energy, cost, simplicity and lifetimes,...

  3. Energy analysis of batteries in photovoltaic systems. Part I: Performance and energy requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydh, Carl Johan; Sanden, Bjoern A.

    2005-01-01

    The technical performance and energy requirements for production and transportation of a stand alone photovoltaic (PV)-battery system at different operating conditions are presented. Eight battery technologies are evaluated: lithium-ion (Li-ion), sodium-sulphur (NaS), nickel-cadmium (NiCd), nickel-metal hydride (NiMH), lead-acid (PbA), vanadium-redox (VRB), zinc-bromine (ZnBr) and polysulfide-bromide (PSB). In the reference case, the energy requirements for production and transport of PV-battery systems that use the different battery technologies differ by up to a factor of three. Production and transport of batteries contribute 24-70% to the energy requirements, and the PV array contributes 26-68%. The contribution from other system components is less than 10%. The contribution of transport to energy requirements is 1-9% for transportation by truck, but may be up to 73% for air transportation. The energy requirement for battery production and transport is dominant for systems based on NiCd, NiMH and PbA batteries. The energy requirements for these systems are, therefore, sensitive to changes in battery service life and gravimetric energy density. For systems with batteries with relatively low energy requirement for production and transportation (Li-ion, NaS, VRB, ZnBr, PSB), the battery charge-discharge efficiency has a larger impact. In Part II, the data presented here are used to calculate energy payback times and overall battery efficiencies of the PV-battery systems

  4. Assembling metal oxide nanocrystals into dense, hollow, porous nanoparticles for lithium-ion and lithium-oxygen battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Jun; Wu, Yingqiang; Park, Jin-Bum; Lee, Joong Kee; Zhao, Fengyu; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2013-10-01

    New dense hollow porous (DHP) metal oxide nanoparticles that are smaller than 100 nm and composed of Co3O4, FeOx, NiO and MnOx were prepared by densely assembling metal oxide nanocrystals based on the hard-template method using a carbon colloid as a sacrificial core. These nanoparticles are quite different from the traditional particles as their hollow interior originates from the stacking of nanocrystals rather than a spherical shell. The DHP nanoparticles preserve the intriguing properties of nanocrystals and possess desirable surface area and pore volume that enhance the active surface, which ultimately benefits applications such as lithium-ion batteries. The DHP Co3O4 nanoparticles demonstrated an enhanced capacity of 1168 mA h g-1 at 100 mA g-1vs. 590 mA h g-1 of powders and stable cycling performance greater than 250 cycles when used as an anode material. Most importantly, the electrochemical performance of DHP Co3O4 nanoparticles in a lithium-O2 battery was also investigated for the first time. A low charge potential of ~4.0 V, a high discharge voltage near 2.74 V and a long cycle ability greater than 100 cycles at a delivered capacity of 2000 mA h g-1 (current density, 200 mA g-1) were observed. The performances were considerably improved compared to recent results of mesoporous Co3O4, Co3O4 nanoparticles and a composite of Co3O4/RGO and Co3O4/Pd. Therefore, it would be promising to investigate such properties of DHP nanoparticles or other hollow metal (oxide) particles for the popular lithium-air battery.New dense hollow porous (DHP) metal oxide nanoparticles that are smaller than 100 nm and composed of Co3O4, FeOx, NiO and MnOx were prepared by densely assembling metal oxide nanocrystals based on the hard-template method using a carbon colloid as a sacrificial core. These nanoparticles are quite different from the traditional particles as their hollow interior originates from the stacking of nanocrystals rather than a spherical shell. The DHP

  5. A simplified equivalent circuit model for simulation of Pb-acid batteries at load for energy storage application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wenhua H.; Zhu Ying; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Pb-acid battery is reexamined in electrode structure and capacitance enhancement. → Pb-acid batteries were tested through the electrochemical impedance at loads. → Electrode behaviors are evaluated by simulation using an equivalent circuit model. → A defective and a failed Pb-acid battery was used in non-destructive analysis. → Potential applications are for power reserve and sustainable electricity storage. - Abstract: Three main types of battery chemistries in consideration for vehicle applications are Pb-acid, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium-ion batteries. Lead-acid batteries are widely used in traditional automotive applications for many years. Higher voltage, high-rate discharge capability, good specific energy, lower temperature performance, lower thermal management requirement, and low-cost in both manufacturing and recycling are the advantages of the rechargeable battery. Disadvantages of the lead-acid battery are: weight concerns of lead metal (lower energy density and lower power density) and limited cycle-life (especially in deep-cycle duties). If two major disadvantages have been significantly changed to a proper state to compete with other battery chemistries, the Pb-acid battery is still a good candidate in considering of cost/performance ratio. The lead-acid battery is always a good power source for fast starting of cold vehicles, for recharging from either a stop-start braking system, or for a charge from the engine itself, which consumes battery energy or stores electricity back into chemical energy. The main reasons for reexamining this battery chemistry are cost-savings and life-cycling considerations upon advances in electrode structure design and enhancement of capacitance behavior inside the battery pack. Several Pb-acid batteries were evaluated and tested through a unique method, i.e., the electrochemical impedance method at different loads, in order to characterize and further understand the improved electrode

  6. Nitrogen-modified carbon nanostructures derived from metal-organic frameworks as high performance anodes for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Cai; Zhao, Chongchong; Xin, Fengxia; Cao, Can; Han, Wei-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report preparation of nitrogen-modified nanostructure carbons through carbonization of Cu-based metal organic nanofibers at 700 °C under argon gas atmosphere. After removal of copper through chemical treatment with acids, pure N-modified nanostructure carbon with a nitrogen content of 8.62 wt% is obtained. When use as anodes for lithium-ion battery, the nanostructure carbon electrode has a discharge capacity of 853.1 mAh g −1 measured at a current of 500 mA g −1 after 800 cycles.

  7. Self-assembled nitrogen-doped fullerenes and their catalysis for fuel cell and rechargeable metal-air battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Seung Hyo; Kwon, Choah; Hwang, Jeemin; Ohsaka, Takeo; Kim, Beom-Jun; Kim, Tae-Young; Yoon, Young-Gi; Chen, Zhongwei; Seo, Min Ho; Han, Byungchan

    2017-06-08

    In this study, we report self-assembled nitrogen-doped fullerenes (N-fullerene) as non-precious catalysts, which are active for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), and thus applicable for energy conversion and storage devices such as fuel cells and metal-air battery systems. We screen the best N-fullerene catalyst at the nitrogen doping level of 10 at%, not at the previously known doping level of 5 or 20 at% for graphene. We identify that the compressive surface strain induced by doped nitrogen plays a key role in the fine-tuning of catalytic activity.

  8. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClaine, Andrew W

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston

  9. Multiple Electron Charge Transfer Chemistries for Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems: The Metal Boride and Metal Air Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Jessica F.

    The primary focus of this work has been to develop high-energy capacity batteries capable of undergoing multiple electron charge transfer redox reactions to address the growing demand for improved electrical energy storage systems that can be applied to a range of applications. As the levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) increase in the Earth's atmosphere, the effects on climate change become increasingly apparent. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the U.S. electric power sector is responsible for the release of 2,039 million metric tons of CO2 annually, equating to 39% of total U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions. Both nationally and abroad, there are numerous issues associated with the generation and use of electricity aside from the overwhelming dependence on fossil fuels and the subsequent carbon emissions, including reliability of the grid and the utilization of renewable energies. Renewable energy makes up a relatively small portion of total energy contributions worldwide, accounting for only 13% of the 3,955 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity produced each year, as reported by the EIA. As the demand to reduce our dependence on fossils fuels and transition to renewable energy sources increases, cost effective large-scale electrical energy storage must be established for renewable energy to become a sustainable option for the future. A high capacity energy storage system capable of leveling the intermittent nature of energy sources such as solar, wind, and water into the electric grid and provide electricity at times of high demand will facilitate this transition. In 2008, the Licht Group presented the highest volumetric energy capacity battery, the vanadium diboride (VB2) air battery, exceedingly proficient in transferring eleven electrons per molecule. This body of work focuses on new developments to this early battery such as fundamentally understanding the net discharge mechanism of the system, evaluation of the properties and

  10. Graphene-wrapped sulfur/metal organic framework-derived microporous carbon composite for lithium sulfur batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjie Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional hierarchical sandwich-type graphene sheet-sulfur/carbon (GS-S/CZIF8-D composite for use in a cathode for a lithium sulfur (Li-S battery has been prepared by an ultrasonic method. The microporous carbon host was prepared by a one-step pyrolysis of Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8 (ZIF-8, a typical zinc-containing metal organic framework (MOF, which offers a tunable porous structure into which electro-active sulfur can be diffused. The thin graphene sheet, wrapped around the sulfur/zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 derived carbon (S/CZIF8-D composite, has excellent electrical conductivity and mechanical flexibility, thus facilitating rapid electron transport and accommodating the changes in volume of the sulfur electrode. Compared with the S/CZIF8-D sample, Li-S batteries with the GS-S/CZIF8-D composite cathode showed enhanced capacity, improved electrochemical stability, and relatively high columbic efficiency by taking advantage of the synergistic effects of the microporous carbon from ZIF-8 and a highly interconnected graphene network. Our results demonstrate that a porous MOF-derived scaffold with a wrapped graphene conductive network structure is a potentially efficient design for a battery electrode that can meet the challenge arising from low conductivity and volume change.

  11. Mechanochemical processing for metals and metal alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froes, Francis H.; Eranezhuth, Baburaj G.; Prisbrey, Keith

    2001-01-01

    A set of processes for preparing metal powders, including metal alloy powders, by ambient temperature reduction of a reducible metal compound by a reactive metal or metal hydride through mechanochemical processing. The reduction process includes milling reactants to induce and complete the reduction reaction. The preferred reducing agents include magnesium and calcium hydride powders. A process of pre-milling magnesium as a reducing agent to increase the activity of the magnesium has been established as one part of the invention.

  12. Recycling metals from lithium ion battery by mechanical separation and vacuum metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jiefeng; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhengming

    2017-09-15

    The large-batch application of lithium ion batteries leads to the mass production of spent batteries. So the enhancement of disposal ability of spent lithium ion batteries is becoming very urgent. This study proposes an integrated process to handle bulk spent lithium manganese (LiMn 2 O 4 ) batteries to in situ recycle high value-added products without any additives. By mechanical separation, the mixed electrode materials mainly including binder, graphite and LiMn 2 O 4 are firstly obtained from spent batteries. Then, the reaction characteristics for the oxygen-free roasting of mixed electrode materials are analyzed. And the results show that mixed electrode materials can be in situ converted into manganese oxide (MnO) and lithium carbonate (Li 2 CO 3 ) at 1073K for 45min. In this process, the binder is evaporated and decomposed into gaseous products which can be collected to avoid disposal cost. Finally, 91.30% of Li resource as Li 2 CO 3 is leached from roasted powders by water and then high value-added Li 2 CO 3 crystals are further gained by evaporating the filter liquid. The filter residues are burned in air to remove the graphite and the final residues as manganous-manganic oxide (Mn 3 O 4 ) is obtained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Discharge performance of solid-state oxygen shuttle metal-air battery using Ca-stabilized ZrO2 electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoishi, Atsushi; Kim, Hack-Ho; Sakai, Takaaki; Ju, Young-Wan; Ida, Shintaro; Ishihara, Tatsumi

    2015-04-13

    The effects of metal choice on the electrochemical performance of oxygen-shuttle metal-air batteries with Ca-stabilized ZrO2 (CSZ) as the electrolyte and various metals as the anodes were studied at 1073 K. The equilibrium oxygen partial pressure (P O 2) in the anode chamber was governed by the metal used in the anode chamber. A lower-P O 2 environment in the anode decreased the polarization resistance of the anode. The oxidation of oxide ions to oxygen in the anode is drastically enhanced by the n-type conduction generated in the CSZ electrolyte when it is exposed to a reducing atmosphere. A high discharge potential and high capacity can be achieved in an oxygen-shuttle battery with a Li or Mg anode because of the fast anode reaction compared to that of cells with a Zn, Fe, or Sn anode. However, only the mildly reducing metals (Zn, Si, Fe, and Sn) can potentially be used in rechargeable metal-air batteries because the transport number of the CSZ electrolyte must be unity during charge and discharge. Oxygen shuttle rechargeable batteries with Fe, and Sn electrodes are demonstrated. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Microcapsulated rare earth - nickel hydride-forming materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, H.; Oguro, K.; Kato, A.; Suzuki, H.; Ishii, E.

    1985-01-01

    Fine particles of hydride-forming alloys such as LaNi/sub 5/ and MmNi/sub 4.5/Mn/sub 0.5/ (MM : mischmetal) were coated with metallic copper thin layer by chemical plating method. Hydrogen storage capacities of alloys were not appreciably affected by the plating treatment. The capsulated alloy powders were easily pressed into pellets. The pellets obtained had high thermal conductivity and porosity enough to permeate hydrogen, leading to fast reaction kinetics. These were able to withstand more than 5,000 repeated hydriding-dehydriding cycles without disintegrating

  15. The progress of nanocrystalline hydride electrode materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurczyk, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews research at the Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, on the synthesis of nanocrystalline hydride electrode materials. Nanocrystalline materials have been synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA) followed by annealing. Examples of the materials include TiFe - , ZrV 2- , LaNi 5 and Mg 2 Ni-type phases. Details on the process used and the enhancement of properties due to the nanoscale structures are presented. The synthesized alloys were used as negative electrode materials for Ni-MH battery. The properties of hydrogen host materials can be modified substantially by alloying to obtain the desired storage characteristics. For example, it was found that the respective replacement of Fe in TiFe by Ni and/or by Cr, Co, Mo improved not only the discharge capacity but also the cycle life of these electrodes. The hydrogen storage properties of nanocrystalline ZrV 2 - and LaNi 5 -type powders prepared by mechanical alloying and annealing show no big difference with those of melt casting (polycrystalline) alloys. On the other hand, a partial substitution of Mg by Mn or Al in Mg 2 Ni alloy leads to an increase in discharge capacity, at room temperature. Furthermore, the effect of the nickel and graphite coating on the structure of some nanocrystalline alloys and the electrodes characteristics were investigated. In the case of Mg 2 Ni-type alloy mechanical coating with graphite effectively reduced the degradation rate of the studied electrode materials. The combination of a nanocrystalline TiFe - , ZrV 2 - and LaNi 5 -type hydride electrodes and a nickel positive electrode to form a Ni-MH battery, has been successful. (authors)

  16. Cumulative effects of using pin fin heat sink and porous metal foam on thermal management of lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadian, Shahabeddin K.; Zhang, Yuwen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D transient thermal analysis of a pouch Li-ion cell has been carried out. • Using pin fin heat sink improves the temperature reduction at low pumping powers. • Using pin fin heat sink enhances the temperature uniformity at low air flow rates. • Porous aluminum foam insertion with pin fins improves temperature reduction. • Porous aluminum foam insertion with pin fins enhances temperature uniformity. - Abstract: Three-dimensional transient thermal analysis of an air-cooled module was carried out to investigate cumulative effects of using pin fin heat sink and porous metal foam on thermal management of a Li-ion (lithium-ion) battery pack. Five different cases were designed as Case 1: flow channel without any pin fin or porous metal foam insertion, Case 2: flow channel with aluminum pin fins, Case 3: flow channel with porous aluminum foam pin fins, Case 4: fully inserted flow channel with porous aluminum foam, and Case 5: fully inserted flow channel with porous aluminum foam and aluminum pin fins. The effects of porous aluminum insertions, pin fin types, air flow inlet temperature, and air flow inlet velocity on the temperature uniformity and maximum temperature inside the battery pack were systematically investigated. The results showed that using pin fin heat sink (Case 2) is appropriate only for low air flow velocities. In addition, the use of porous aluminum pin fins or embedding porous aluminum foam inside the air flow channel (Cases 3 and 4) are not beneficial for thermal management improvement. The combination of aluminum pin fins and porous aluminum foam insertion inside the air flow channel (Case 5) is a proper option that improves both temperature reduction and temperature uniformity inside the battery cell.

  17. Hierarchical structured graphene/metal oxide/porous carbon composites as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Rong; Yue, Wenbo; Ren, Yu; Zhou, Wuzong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CeO 2 and Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles display different behavior within CMK-3. • CMK-3-CeO 2 and Co 3 O 4 show various electrochemical properties • CMK-3-CeO 2 and Co 3 O 4 are further wrapped by graphene nanosheets. • Graphene-encapsulated composites show better electrochemical performances. - Abstract: As a novel anode material for lithium-ion batteries, CeO 2 displays imperceptible volumetric and morphological changes during the lithium insertion and extraction processes, and thereby exhibits good cycling stability. However, the low theoretical capacity and poor electronic conductivity of CeO 2 hinder its practical application. In contrast, Co 3 O 4 possesses high theoretical capacity, but undergoes huge volume change during cycling. To overcome these issues, CeO 2 and Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles are formed inside the pores of CMK-3 and display various electrochemical behaviors due to the different morphological structures of CeO 2 and Co 3 O 4 within CMK-3. Moreover, the graphene/metal oxide/CMK-3 composites with a hierarchical structure are then prepared and exhibit better electrochemical performances than metal oxides with or without CMK-3. This novel synthesis strategy is hopefully employed in the electrode materials design for Li-ion batteries or other energy conversion and storage devices.

  18. Metal current collector-free freestanding silicon–carbon 1D nanocomposites for ultralight anodes in lithium ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Jang Wook

    2010-12-15

    Although current collectors take up more weight than active materials in most lithium ion battery cells, so far research has been focused mainly on improving gravimetric capacities of active materials. To address this issue of improving gravimetric capacities based on overall cell components, we develop freestanding nanocomposites made of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and silicon nanowires (SiNWs) as metal current collector-free anode platforms. Intrinsically large capacities of SiNWs as active materials in conjunction with the light nature of freestanding CNF films allow the nanocomposites to achieve 3-5 times improved gravimetric capacities compared to what have been reported in the literature. Moreover, three-dimensional porous structures in the CNF films facilitate increased mass loadings of SiNWs when compared to flat substrates and result in good cycle lives over 40 cycles. This type of nanocomposite cell suggests that 3D porous platforms consisting of light nanomaterials can provide for higher gravimetric and areal capacities when compared to conventional battery cells based on flat, heavy metal substrates. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Z-H Bond Activation in (Di)hydrogen Bonding as a Way to Proton/Hydride Transfer and H2Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkova, Natalia V; Filippov, Oleg A; Shubina, Elena S

    2018-02-01

    The ability of neutral transition-metal hydrides to serve as a source of hydride ion H - or proton H + is well appreciated. The hydride ligands possessing a partly negative charge are proton accepting sites, forming a dihydrogen bond, M-H δ- ⋅⋅⋅ δ+ HX (M=transition metal or metalloid). On the other hand, some metal hydrides are able to serve as a proton source and give hydrogen bond of M-H δ+ ⋅⋅⋅X type (X=organic base). In this paper we analyse recent works on transition-metal and boron hydrides showing i) how formation of an intermolecular complex between the reactants changes the Z-H (M-H and X-H) bond polarity and ii) what is the implication of such activation in the mechanisms of hydrides reactions. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Erbium hydride decomposition kinetics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrizz, Robert Matthew

    2006-11-01

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition kinetics of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report are analyzed quantitatively using Redhead's method to yield kinetic parameters (E{sub A} {approx} 54.2 kcal/mol), which are then utilized to predict hydrogen outgassing in vacuum for a variety of thermal treatments. Interestingly, it was found that the activation energy for desorption can vary by more than 7 kcal/mol (0.30 eV) for seemingly similar samples. In addition, small amounts of less-stable hydrogen were observed for all erbium dihydride films. A detailed explanation of several approaches for analyzing thermal desorption spectra to obtain kinetic information is included as an appendix.

  1. The role of transition metal interfaces on the electronic transport in lithium–air batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jingzhe; Hummelshøj, Jens S.; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2011-01-01

    Low electronic conduction is expected to be a main limiting factor in the performance of reversible lithium–air, Li–O2, batteries. Here, we apply density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function calculations to determine the electronic transport through lithium peroxide, Li2O2, form...

  2. Metal oxides and lithium alloys as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kebede, M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available -generation anode materials for lithium–ion batteries with high prospect of replacing graphite. Most of these anode materials have higher specific capacities between the range of 600-1000 mA h g(sup-1) compared with 340 mA h g(sup-1) of graphite. These high...

  3. Si composite electrode with Li metal doping for advanced lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent

    2015-12-15

    A silicon electrode is described, formed by combining silicon powder, a conductive binder, and SLMP.TM. powder from FMC Corporation to make a hybrid electrode system, useful in lithium-ion batteries. In one embodiment the binder is a conductive polymer such as described in PCT Published Application WO 2010/135248 A1.

  4. Mechanisms of hydrogen induced delayed cracking in hydride forming materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, R.; Nuttall, K.; Puls, M.P.; Simpson, L.A.

    1977-01-01

    Mechanisms which have been formulated to describe delayed hydrogen cracking in hydride-forming metals are reviewed and discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the commercial alloy Zr--2.5% Nb (Cb) which is extensively used in nuclear reactor core components. A quantitative model for hydrogen cracking in this material is presented and compared with available experimental data. The kinetics of crack propagation are controlled by the growth of hydrides at the stressed crack tip by the diffusive ingress of hydrogen into this region. The driving force for the diffusion flux is provided by the local stress gradient which interacts with both hydrogen atoms in solution and hydrogen atoms being dissolved and reprecipitated at the crack tip. The model is developed using concepts of elastoplastic fracture mechanics. Stage I crack growth is controlled by hydrides growing in the elastic stress gradient, while Stage II is controlled by hydride growth in the plastic zone at the crack tip. Recent experimental observations are presented which indicate that the process occurs in an intermittent fashion; hydride clusters accumulate at the crack tip followed by unstable crack advance and subsequent crack arrest in repeated cycles

  5. Modular hydride beds for mobile applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinowski, M.E.; Stewart, K.D.

    1997-08-01

    Design, construction, initial testing and simple thermal modeling of modular, metal hydride beds have been completed. Originally designed for supplying hydrogen to a fuel cell on a mobile vehicle, the complete bed design consists of 8 modules and is intended for use on the Palm Desert Vehicle (PDV) under development at the Schatz Energy Center, Humbolt State University. Each module contains approximately 2 kg of a commercially available, low temperature, hydride-forming metal alloy. Waste heat from the fuel cell in the form of heated water is used to desorb hydrogen from the alloy for supplying feed hydrogen to the fuel cell. In order to help determine the performance of such a modular bed system, six modules were constructed and tested. The design and construction of the modules is described in detail. Initial testing of the modules both individually and as a group showed that each module can store {approximately} 30 g of hydrogen (at 165 PSIA fill pressure, 17 C), could be filled with hydrogen in 6 minutes at a nominal, 75 standard liters/min (slm) fueling rate, and could supply hydrogen during desorption at rates of 25 slm, the maximum anticipated hydrogen fuel cell input requirement. Tests made of 5 modules as a group indicated that the behavior of the group run in parallel both in fueling and gas delivery could be directly predicted from the corresponding, single module characteristics by using an appropriate scaling factor. Simple thermal modeling of a module as an array of cylindrical, hydride-filled tubes was performed. The predictions of the model are in good agreement with experimental data.

  6. Spatially resolved surface valence gradient and structural transformation of lithium transition metal oxides in lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanshuo; Bugnet, Matthieu; Tessaro, Matteo Z; Harris, Kristopher J; Dunham, Mark J R; Jiang, Meng; Goward, Gillian R; Botton, Gianluigi A

    2016-10-26

    Layered lithium transition metal oxides are one of the most important types of cathode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) that possess high capacity and relatively low cost. Nevertheless, these layered cathode materials suffer structural changes during electrochemical cycling that could adversely affect the battery performance. Clear explanations of the cathode degradation process and its initiation, however, are still under debate and not yet fully understood. We herein systematically investigate the chemical evolution and structural transformation of the LiNi x Mn y Co 1-x-y O 2 (NMC) cathode material in order to understand the battery performance deterioration driven by the cathode degradation upon cycling. Using high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HR-EELS) we clarify the role of transition metals in the charge compensation mechanism, particularly the controversial Ni 2+ (active) and Co 3+ (stable) ions, at different states-of-charge (SOC) under 4.6 V operation voltage. The cathode evolution is studied in detail from the first-charge to long-term cycling using complementary diagnostic tools. With the bulk sensitive 7 Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements, we show that the local ordering of transition metal and Li layers (R3[combining macron]m structure) is well retained in the bulk material upon cycling. In complement to the bulk measurements, we locally probe the valence state distribution of cations and the surface structure of NMC particles using EELS and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The results reveal that the surface evolution of NMC is initiated in the first-charging step with a surface reduction layer formed at the particle surface. The NMC surface undergoes phase transformation from the layered structure to a poor electronic and ionic conducting transition-metal oxide rock-salt phase (R3[combining macron]m → Fm3[combining macron]m), accompanied by irreversible lithium and oxygen loss. In addition to

  7. Complex rare-earth aluminum hydrides: mechanochemical preparation, crystal structure and potential for hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenthaler, Claudia; Pommerin, André; Felderhoff, Michael; Sun, Wenhao; Wolverton, Christopher; Bogdanović, Borislav; Schüth, Ferdi

    2009-11-25

    A novel type of complex rare-earth aluminum hydride was prepared by mechanochemical preparation. The crystal structure of the REAlH(6) (with RE = La, Ce, Pr, Nd) compounds was calculated by DFT methods and confirmed by preliminary structure refinements. The trigonal crystal structure consists of isolated [AlH(6)](3-) octahedra bridged via [12] coordinated RE cations. The investigation of the rare-earth aluminum hydrides during thermolysis shows a decrease of thermal stability with increasing atomic number of the RE element. Rare-earth hydrides (REH(x)) are formed as primary dehydrogenation products; the final products are RE-aluminum alloys. The calculated decomposition enthalpies of the rare-earth aluminum hydrides are at the lower end for reversible hydrogenation under moderate conditions. Even though these materials may require somewhat higher pressures and/or lower temperatures for rehydrogenation, they are interesting examples of low-temperature metal hydrides for which reversibility might be reached.

  8. A study of fundamental reaction pathways for transition metal alkyl complexes. I. The reaction of a nickel methyl complex with alkynes. Ii. The mechanism of aldehyde formation in the reaction of a molybdenum hydride with molybdenum alkyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huggins, John Mitchell [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1980-06-12

    it was possible to show that the mixed dimers MeCpMo(CO)3-(CO)3MoCp (3b) and MeCpMo(CO)2≡(CO)2 MoCp (4b) are the predominant kinetic products of the reaction. Additionally labeling the carbonyl ligands of 1a with 13CO led to the conclusion that all three of the carbonyl ligands in 1a end up in the tetracarbonyl dimers 4a if the reaction is carried out under a continuous purge of argon Trapping studies failed to find any evidence for the intermediacy of either [CpMo(CO)3] - or [CpMo(CO)3] + in this reaction. A mechanism is proposed that involves the initial migration of the alkyl ligand in 2 to CO forming an unsaturated acyl complex which reacts with 1a to give a binuclear complex containing a three center-two electron Mo-H-Mo bond. This complex then selectively looses a carbonyl from the acyl molybdenum, migrates the hydride to that same metal, and forms a metal-metal bond. This binuclear complex with the hydride and acyl ligands on one metal reductively eliminates aldehyde, and migrates a carbonyl ligand, to give 4a directly. The other product 3a is formed by addition of two molecules of free CO to 4a.

  9. Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slattery, Darlene; Hampton, Michael

    2003-03-10

    This report describes research into the use of complex hydrides for hydrogen storage. The synthesis of a number of alanates, (AIH4) compounds, was investigated. Both wet chemical and mechano-chemical methods were studied.

  10. Electrochemical Characteristics of Layered Transition Metal Oxide Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries: Surface, Bulk Behavior, and Thermal Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chixia; Lin, Feng; Doeff, Marca M

    2018-01-16

    Layered lithium transition metal oxides, in particular, NMCs (LiNi x Co y Mn z O 2 ) represent a family of prominent lithium ion battery cathode materials with the potential to increase energy densities and lifetime, reduce costs, and improve safety for electric vehicles and grid storage. Our work has focused on various strategies to improve performance and to understand the limitations to these strategies, which include altering compositions, utilizing cation substitutions, and charging to higher than usual potentials in cells. Understanding the effects of these strategies on surface and bulk behavior and correlating structure-performance relationships advance our understanding of NMC materials. This also provides information relevant to the efficacy of various approaches toward ensuring reliable operation of these materials in batteries intended for demanding traction and grid storage applications. In this Account, we start by comparing NMCs to the isostructural LiCoO 2 cathode, which is widely used in consumer batteries. Effects of changing the metal content (Ni, Mn, Co) upon structure and performance of NMCs are briefly discussed. Our early work on the effects of partial substitution of Al, Fe, and Ti for Co on the electrochemical and bulk structural properties is then covered. The original aim of this work was to reduce the Co content (and thus the raw materials cost) and to determine the effect of the substitutions on the electrochemical and bulk structural properties. More recently, we have turned to the application of synchrotron and advanced microscopy techniques to understand both bulk and surface characteristics of the NMCs. Via nanoscale-to-macroscale spectroscopy and atomically resolved imaging techniques, we were able to determine that the surfaces of NMC undergo heterogeneous reconstruction from a layered structure to rock salt under a variety of conditions. Interestingly, formation of rock salt also occurs under abuse conditions. The surface

  11. Terahertz spectroscopy of 25MgH (X2Σ+) and (67)ZnH (X2Σ+): bonding in simple metal hydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucchino, Matthew P; Ziurys, Lucy M

    2013-10-03

    Pure rotational spectra of (25)MgH (X(2)Σ(+)) and (67)ZnH (X(2)Σ(+)) were recorded using direct absorption techniques. These free radicals were synthesized by the reaction of metal vapor, generated in a Broida-type oven, with H2 in a dc discharge. The N = 0 → 1 and N = 1 → 2 transitions were recorded for both species in the frequency range 342-789 GHz. Spin-rotation and metal and proton hyperfine interactions were resolved in the spectra. From these data, rotational, fine structure, and hyperfine constants were determined, including the Fermi contact, dipolar, and electric quadrupole parameters of the (25)Mg and (67)Zn nuclei. Comparison of the metal and proton hyperfine terms suggests that the unpaired electron resides in a σ molecular orbital that has significant s contributions from both the metal and the hydrogen atoms. The dipolar terms for both metals are relatively large, in contrast to those of the proton, and indicate spσ and possibly sdσ (zinc only) orbital hybridization. The quadrupole constants arise principally from the p/d orbital character of the unpaired electron, although there is a non-negligible polarization contribution. These results suggest significant covalent character in both MgH and ZnH, in contrast to their fluoride analogs.

  12. 2D MoS2 as an efficient protective layer for lithium metal anodes in high-performance Li-S batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Eunho; Patel, Mumukshu D.; Park, Juhong; Hwang, Jeongwoon; Prasad, Vish; Cho, Kyeongjae; Choi, Wonbong

    2018-04-01

    Among the candidates to replace Li-ion batteries, Li-S cells are an attractive option as their energy density is about five times higher ( 2,600 Wh kg-1). The success of Li-S cells depends in large part on the utilization of metallic Li as anode material. Metallic lithium, however, is prone to grow parasitic dendrites and is highly reactive to several electrolytes; moreover, Li-S cells with metallic Li are also susceptible to polysulfides dissolution. Here, we show that 10-nm-thick two-dimensional (2D) MoS2 can act as a protective layer for Li-metal anodes, greatly improving the performances of Li-S batteries. In particular, we observe stable Li electrodeposition and the suppression of dendrite nucleation sites. The deposition and dissolution process of a symmetric MoS2-coated Li-metal cell operates at a current density of 10 mA cm-2 with low voltage hysteresis and a threefold improvement in cycle life compared with using bare Li-metal. In a Li-S full-cell configuration, using the MoS2-coated Li as anode and a 3D carbon nanotube-sulfur cathode, we obtain a specific energy density of 589 Wh kg-1 and a Coulombic efficiency of 98% for over 1,200 cycles at 0.5 C. Our approach could lead to the realization of high energy density and safe Li-metal-based batteries.

  13. Redox‐Flow Batteries: From Metals to Organic Redox‐Active Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsberg, Jan; Hagemann, Tino; Janoschka, Tobias; Hager, Martin D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Research on redox‐flow batteries (RFBs) is currently experiencing a significant upturn, stimulated by the growing need to store increasing quantities of sustainably generated electrical energy. RFBs are promising candidates for the creation of smart grids, particularly when combined with photovoltaics and wind farms. To achieve the goal of “green”, safe, and cost‐efficient energy storage, research has shifted from metal‐based materials to organic active materials in recent years. This Review presents an overview of various flow‐battery systems. Relevant studies concerning their history are discussed as well as their development over the last few years from the classical inorganic, to organic/inorganic, to RFBs with organic redox‐active cathode and anode materials. Available technologies are analyzed in terms of their technical, economic, and environmental aspects; the advantages and limitations of these systems are also discussed. Further technological challenges and prospective research possibilities are highlighted. PMID:28070964

  14. Hydriding failure in water reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, D.N.; Ramadasan, E.; Unnikrishnan, K.

    1980-01-01

    Hydriding of the zircaloy cladding has been one of the important causes of failure in water reactor fuel elements. This report reviews the causes, the mechanisms and the methods for prevention of hydriding failure in zircaloy clad water reactor fuel elements. The different types of hydriding of zircaloy cladding have been classified. Various factors influencing zircaloy hydriding from internal and external sources in an operating fuel element have been brought out. The findings of post-irradiation examination of fuel elements from Indian reactors, with respect to clad hydriding and features of hydriding failure are included. (author)

  15. Effects of variability and rate on battery charge storage and lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Elena Marie

    The growing prevalence of hybrid and electric vehicles, intermittent renewable energy sources, and other complex power systems has triggered a rapid increase in demand for energy storage. Unlike portable electronic devices, whose batteries can be recharged according to a pre-determined protocol simply by plugging them into the wall, many of these applications are characterized by highly variable charge and demand profiles. The central objective of this work is to assess the impact of power distribution and frequency on battery behavior in order to improve overall system efficiency and lifespan in these variable power applications. We first develop and experimentally verify a model to describe the trade-off between battery charging power and energy stored to assess how varying power input affects battery efficiency. This relationship is influenced both by efficiency losses at high powers and by premature voltage cutoffs, which contribute to incomplete battery charging and discharging. We experimentally study the impact of variable power on battery aging in lead-acid, nickel metal hydride, lithium-ion and lithium iron phosphate batteries. As a case study we focus on off-grid wind systems, and analyze the impact of both power distribution and frequency on charge acceptance and degradation in each of these chemistries. We suggest that lithium iron phosphate batteries may be more suitable for off-grid electrification projects than standard lead-acid batteries. We experimentally assess the impact of additional variable charging parameters on battery performance, including the interplay between efficiency, frequency of power oscillations, state-of-charge, incomplete charging and path dependence. We develop a frequency-domain model for hybrid energy storage systems that couples non-stationary frequency analysis of variable power signals to a frequency-based metric for energy storage device performance. The experimental and modeling work developed herein can be utilized to

  16. Silver decorated LaMnO3 nanorod/graphene composite electrocatalysts as reversible metal-air battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jie; Liu, Qiunan; Shi, Lina; Shi, Ziwei; Huang, Hao

    2017-04-01

    Perovskite LaMnO3 nanorod/reduced graphene oxides (LMO-NR/RGO) decorated with Ag nanoparticles are studied as a bifunctional catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline electrolyte. LMO-NR/RGO composites are synthesized by using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as template via a simple hydrothermal reaction followed by heat treatment; overlaying of Ag nanoparticles is obtained through a traditional silver mirror reaction. Electron microscopy reveals that LMO-NR is embedded between the sheets of RGO, and the material is homogeneously overlaid with Ag nanoparticles. The unique composite morphology of Ag/LMO-NR/RGO not only enhances the electron transport property by increasing conductivity but also facilitates the diffusion of electrolytes and oxygen. As confirmed by electrochemical testing, Ag/LMO-NR/RGO exhibits very strong synergy with Ag nanoparticles, LMO-NR, and RGO, and the catalytic activities of Ag/LMO-NR/RGO during ORR and OER are significantly improved. With the novel catalyst, the homemade zinc-air battery can be reversibly charged and discharged and display a stable cycle performance, indicating the great potential of this composite as an efficient bifunctional electrocatalyst for metal-air batteries.

  17. Hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of metal values from spent lithium-ion batteries in citric acid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangping; Zhou, Tao

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, a hydrometallurgical process has been proposed to recover valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries in citric acid media. Leaching efficiencies as high as 97%, 95%, 94%, and 99% of Ni, Co, Mn, and Li were achieved under the optimal leaching experimental conditions of citric acid concentration of 2 mol L(-1), leaching temperature of 80 °C, leaching time of 90 min, liquid-solid ratio of 30 ml g(-1), and 2 vol. % H2O2. For the metals recovery process, nickel and cobalt were selectively precipitated by dimethylglyoxime reagent and ammonium oxalate sequentially. Then manganese was extracted by Na-D2EHPA and the manganese-loaded D2EHPA was stripped with sulfuric acid. The manganese was recovered as MnSO4 in aqueous phase and D2EHPA could be reused after saponification. Finally, lithium was precipitated by 0.5 mol L(-1) sodium phosphate. Under their optimal conditions, the recovery percentages of Ni, Co, Mn, and Li can reach 98%, 97%, 98%, and 89%, respectively. This is a relatively simple route in which all metal values could be effectively leached and recovered in citric acid media. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Nanoparticle Cookies Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks: Controlled Synthesis and Application in Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuhai; Chen, Minqi; Xie, Yanyu; Fan, Yanan; Wang, Dawei; Jiang, Ji-Jun; Li, Yongguang; Grützmacher, Hansjörg; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2016-05-01

    The capacity of anode materials plays a critical role in the performance of lithium-ion batteries. Using the nanocrystals of oxygen-free metal-organic framework ZIF-67 as precursor, a one-step calcination approach toward the controlled synthesis of CoO nanoparticle cookies with excellent anodic performances is developed in this work. The CoO nanoparticle cookies feature highly porous structure composed of small CoO nanoparticles (≈12 nm in diameter) and nitrogen-rich graphitic carbon matrix (≈18 at% in nitrogen content). Benefiting from such unique structure, the CoO nanoparticle cookies are capable of delivering superior specific capacity and cycling stability (1383 mA h g(-1) after 200 runs at 100 mA g(-1) ) over those of CoO and graphite. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Hierarchical nanostructured NiCo2O4 as an efficient bifunctional non-precious metal catalyst for rechargeable zinc-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabu, Moni; Ketpang, Kriangsak; Shanmugam, Sangaraju

    2014-02-01

    A nickel-doped cobalt oxide spinel structure is a promising non-precious metal electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction in rechargeable metal-air batteries and water electrolyzers operating with alkaline electrolytes. One dimensional NiCo2O4 (NCO) nanostructures were prepared by using a simple electrospinning technique with two different metal precursors (metal nitrate/PAN and metal acetylacetonate/PAN). The effect of precursor concentration on the morphologies was investigated. Single-phase, NCO with an average diameter of 100 nm, porous interconnected fibrous morphology was revealed by FESEM and FETEM analysis. The hierarchical nanostructured 1D-spinel NiCo2O4 materials showed a remarkable electrocatalytic activity towards oxygen reduction and evolution in an aqueous alkaline medium. The extraordinary bi-functional catalytic activity towards both ORR and OER was observed by the low over potential (0.84 V), which is better than that of noble metal catalysts [Pt/C (1.16 V), Ru/C (1.01 V) and Ir/C (0.92 V)], making them promising cathode materials for metal-air batteries. Furthermore, the rechargeable zinc-air battery with NCO-A1 as a bifunctional electrocatalyst displays high activity and stability during battery discharge, charge, and cycling processes.A nickel-doped cobalt oxide spinel structure is a promising non-precious metal electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction in rechargeable metal-air batteries and water electrolyzers operating with alkaline electrolytes. One dimensional NiCo2O4 (NCO) nanostructures were prepared by using a simple electrospinning technique with two different metal precursors (metal nitrate/PAN and metal acetylacetonate/PAN). The effect of precursor concentration on the morphologies was investigated. Single-phase, NCO with an average diameter of 100 nm, porous interconnected fibrous morphology was revealed by FESEM and FETEM analysis. The hierarchical nanostructured 1D-spinel NiCo2O4 materials showed a

  20. Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of some hydrides of the lanthanides and actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintz, M.H.

    1976-06-01

    This work deals mainly with the thermodynamic and physical properties of the hydrides of the lanthanides and actinides. In addition, statistical models have been developed and applied to metal-hydrogen systems. A kinetic study of the uranium-hydrogen system was performed. The thermodynamic properties of the hydrides of neptunium, thorium, praseodymium, neodymium, samarium and europium were determined. In addition the samarium-europium-hydrogen ternary system was investigated. Moessbauer effect measurements of cubic neptunium hydrides were interpreted according to a model presented. A comparison. (author)

  1. Development and Testing of an UltraBattery-Equipped Honda Civic Hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sally (Xiaolei) Sun; Tyler Gray; Pattie Hovorka; Jeffrey Wishart; Donald Karner; James Francfort

    2012-08-01

    The UltraBattery Retrofit Project DP1.8 and Carbon Enriched Project C3, performed by ECOtality North America (ECOtality) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), are established to demonstrate the suitability of advanced lead battery technology in hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs). A profile, termed the “Simulated Honda Civic HEV Profile” (SHCHEVP) has been developed in Project DP1.8 in order to provide reproducible laboratory evaluations of different battery types under real-world HEV conditions. The cycle is based on the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycles and simulates operation of a battery pack in a Honda Civic HEV. One pass through the SHCHEVP takes 2,140 seconds and simulates 17.7 miles of driving. A complete nickel metal hydride (NiMH) battery pack was removed from a Honda Civic HEV and operated under SHCHEVP to validate the profile. The voltage behavior and energy balance of the battery during this operation was virtually the same as that displayed by the battery when in the Honda Civic operating on the dynamometer under the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycles, thus confirming the efficacy of the simulated profile. An important objective of the project has been to benchmark the performance of the UltraBatteries manufactured by both Furukawa Battery Co., Ltd., Japan (Furakawa) and East Penn Manufacturing Co., Inc. (East Penn). Accordingly, UltraBattery packs from both Furakawa and East Penn have been characterized under a range of conditions. Resistance measurements and capacity tests at various rates show that both battery types are very similar in performance. Both technologies, as well as a standard lead-acid module (included for baseline data), were evaluated under a simple HEV screening test. Both Furakawa and East Penn UltraBattery packs operated for over 32,000 HEV cycles, with minimal loss in performance; whereas the

  2. Luminescent properties of aluminum hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baraban, A.P.; Gabis, I.E.; Dmitriev, V.A. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Dobrotvorskii, M.A., E-mail: mstislavd@gmail.com [Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, V.G. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Matveeva, O.P. [National Mineral Resources University, Saint Petersburg 199106 (Russian Federation); Titov, S.A. [Petersburg State University of Railway Transport, Saint-Petersburg 190031 (Russian Federation); Voyt, A.P.; Elets, D.I. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    We studied cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence of α-AlH{sub 3}– a likely candidate for use as possible hydrogen carrier in hydrogen-fueled vehicles. Luminescence properties of original α-AlH{sub 3} and α-AlH{sub 3} irradiated with ultraviolet were compared. The latter procedure leads to activation of thermal decomposition of α-AlH{sub 3} and thus has a practical implementation. We showed that the original and UV-modified aluminum hydride contain luminescence centers ‐ structural defects of the same type, presumably hydrogen vacancies, characterized by a single set of characteristic bands of radiation. The observed luminescence is the result of radiative intracenter relaxation of the luminescence center (hydrogen vacancy) excited by electrons or photons, and its intensity is defined by the concentration of vacancies, and the area of their possible excitation. UV-activation of the dehydrogenation process of aluminum hydride leads to changes in the spatial distribution of the luminescence centers. For short times of exposure their concentration increases mainly in the surface regions of the crystals. At high exposures, this process extends to the bulk of the aluminum hydride and ends with a decrease in concentration of luminescence centers in the surface region. - Highlights: • Aluminum hydride contains hydrogen vacancies which serve as luminescence centers. • The luminescence is the result of radiative relaxation of excited centers. • Hydride UV-irradiation alters distribution and concentration of luminescence centers.

  3. Passive film formation on metals in thionyl-chloride electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslak, W. R.; Delnick, F. M.; Peebles, D. E.; Rogers, J. W., Jr.

    We have studied the anodic behavior of Pt, Mo, Ni, and stainless steel (SS) electrodes in 1.5M LiAlCl/SOCl solution in order to determine the mechanisms by which these metals resist corrosion. Polarization and complex impedance indicate that Pt and Mo behave as inert electrodes, while Ni and SS form passive films in this electrolyte. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) confirms the lack of oxidized metal species on the Pt and Mo surfaces following anodic polarization. XPS results also show that the Ni and SS do form passive layers, and identifies these layers as predominantly metal chlorides.

  4. Passive film formation on metals in thionyl-chloride electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieslak, W.R.; Delnick, F.M.; Peebles, D.E.; Rogers, J.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    We have studied the anodic behavior of Pt, Mo, Ni, and stainless steel (SS) electodes in 1.5M LiAlCl/sub 4//SOCl/sub 2/ solution in order to determine the mechanisms by which these metals resist corrosion. Polarization and complex impedance indicate that Pt and Mo behave as inert electrodes, while Ni and SS form passive films in this electrolyte. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) confirms the lack of oxidized metal species on the Pt and Mo surfaces following anodic polarization. XPS results also show that the Ni and SS do form passive layers, and identifies these layers as predominantly metal chlorides.

  5. Passive film formation on metals in thionyl-chloride electrolytes for lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieslak, W.R.; Delnick, F.M.; Peebles, D.E.; Rogers, J.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have studied the anodic behavior of Pt, Mo, Ni, and stainless steel (SS) electrodes in 1.5M LiAlCl/sub 4//SOCl/sub 2/ solution in order to determine the mechanisms by which these metals resist corrosion. Polarization and complex impedance indicate that Pt and Mo behave as inert electrodes, while Ni and SS form passive films in this electrolyte. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) confirms the lack of oxidized metal species on the Pt and Mo surfaces following anodic polarization. XPS results also show that the Ni and SS do form passive layers, and identifies these layers as predominantly metal chlorides

  6. An Investigation on the Persistence of Uranium Hydride during Storage of Simulant Nuclear Waste Packages

    OpenAIRE

    Stitt , C. A.; Harker , N. J.; Hallam , K. R.; Paraskevoulakos , C.; Banos , A.; Rennie , S.; Jowsey , J.; Scott , T. B.

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Synchrotron X-rays have been used to study the oxidation of uranium and uranium hydride when encapsulated in grout and stored in de-ionised water for 10 months. Periodic synchrotron X-ray tomography and X-ray powder diffraction have allowed measurement and identification of the arising corrosion products and the rates of corrosion. The oxidation rates of the uranium metal and uranium hydride were slower than empirically derived rates previously reported for each reacta...

  7. Thermomechanical properties of hafnium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masato; Kurosaki, Ken; Muta, Hiroaki; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Uno, Masayoshi; Konashi, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Fine bulk samples of delta-phase Hf hydride with various hydrogen contents (C H ) ranging from 1.62 to 1.72 in the atomic ratio (H/Hf) were prepared, and their thermomechanical properties were characterized. At room temperature, the sound velocity and Vickers hardness were measured. The elastic modulus was calculated from the measured sound velocity. In the temperature range from room temperature to 673 K, the thermal expansion was measured by using a dilatometer, and the linear thermal expansion coefficient was calculated. Empirical equations describing the thermomechanical properties of Hf hydride as a function of C H were proposed. (author)

  8. LiCl-LiI molten salt electrolyte with bismuth-lead positive electrode for liquid metal battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junsoo; Shin, Donghyeok; Jung, Youngjae; Hwang, Soo Min; Song, Taeseup; Kim, Youngsik; Paik, Ungyu

    2018-02-01

    Liquid metal batteries (LMBs) are attractive energy storage device for large-scale energy storage system (ESS) due to the simple cell configuration and their high rate capability. The high operation temperature caused by high melting temperature of both the molten salt electrolyte and metal electrodes can induce the critical issues related to the maintenance cost and degradation of electrochemical properties resulting from the thermal corrosion of materials. Here, we report a new chemistry of LiCl-LiI electrolyte and Bi-Pb positive electrode to lower the operation temperature of Li-based LMBs and achieve the long-term stability. The cell (Li|LiCl-LiI|Bi-Pb) is operated at 410 °C by employing the LiCl-LiI (LiCl:LiI = 36:64 mol %) electrolyte and Bi-Pb alloy (Bi:Pb = 55.5:44.5 mol %) positive electrode. The cell shows excellent capacity retention (86.5%) and high Coulombic efficiencies over 99.3% at a high current density of 52 mA cm-2 during 1000th cycles.

  9. Simulations of thermal Rayleigh-Marangoni convection in a three-layer liquid-metal-battery model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köllner, Thomas; Boeck, Thomas; Schumacher, Jörg

    2017-11-01

    Operating a liquid-metal battery produces Ohmic losses in the electrolyte layer that separates both metal electrodes. As a consequence, temperature gradients establish which potentially cause thermal convection since density and interfacial tension depend on the local temperature. In our numerical investigations, we considered three plane, immiscible layers governed by the Navier-Stokes-Boussinesq equations held at a constant temperature of 500°C at the bottom and top. A homogeneous current is applied that leads to a preferential heating of the mid electrolyte layer. We chose a typical material combination of Li separated by LiCl-KCl (a molten salt) from Pb-Bi for which we analyzed the linear stability of pure thermal conduction and performed three-dimensional direct-numerical simulations by a pseudospectral method probing different: electrolyte layer heights, overall heights, and current densities. Four instability mechanisms are identified, which are partly coupled to each other: buoyant convection in the upper electrode, buoyant convection in the molten salt layer, and Marangoni convection at both interfaces between molten salt and electrode. The global turbulent heat transfer follows scaling predictions for internally heated buoyant convection. Financial support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under Grant No. KO 5515/1-1 is gratefully acknowledged.

  10. Single-ion triblock copolymer electrolytes based on poly(ethylene oxide) and methacrylic sulfonamide blocks for lithium metal batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcarelli, Luca; Aboudzadeh, M. Ali; Rubatat, Laurent; Nair, Jijeesh R.; Shaplov, Alexander S.; Gerbaldi, Claudio; Mecerreyes, David

    2017-10-01

    Single-ion conducting polymer electrolytes represent the ideal solution to reduce concentration polarization in lithium metal batteries (LMBs). This paper reports on the synthesis and characterization of single-ion ABA triblock copolymer electrolytes comprising PEO and poly(lithium 1-[3-(methacryloyloxy)propylsulfonyl]-1-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) blocks, poly(LiMTFSI). Block copolymers are prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, showing low glass transition temperature (-55 to 7 °C) and degree of crystallinity (51-0%). Comparatively high values of ionic conductivity are obtained (up to ≈ 10-4 S cm-1 at 70 °C), combined with a lithium-ion transference number close to unity (tLi+ ≈ 0.91) and a 4 V electrochemical stability window. In addition to these promising features, solid polymer electrolytes are successfully tested in lithium metal cells at 70 °C providing long lifetime up to 300 cycles, and stable charge/discharge cycling at C/2 (≈100 mAh g-1).

  11. Enhanced recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries through optimization of organic acids produced by Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaloo-Horeh, Nazanin; Mousavi, Seyyed Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, spent medium bioleaching method was performed using organic acids produced by Aspergillus niger to dissolve Ni, Co, Mn, Li, Cu and Al from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects and interactions between the effective factors of sucrose concentration, initial pH, and inoculum size to optimize organic acid production. Maximum citric acid, malic acid, and gluconic acid concentrations of 26,478, 1832.53 and 8433.76ppm, respectively, and a minimum oxalic acid concentration of 305.558ppm were obtained under optimal conditions of 116.90 (gl -1 ) sucrose concentration, 3.45% (vv -1 ) inoculum size, and a pH value of 5.44. Biogenically-produced organic acids are used for leaching of spent LIBs at different pulp densities. The highest metal recovery of 100% Cu, 100% Li, 77% Mn, and 75% Al occurred at 2% (wv -1 ) pulp density; 64% Co and 54% Ni recovery occurred at 1% (wv -1 ) pulp density. The bioleaching of metals from spent LIBs can decrease the environmental impact of this waste. The results of this study suggest that the process can be used for large scale industrial purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel Solid Polymer Nanocomposite Electrolyte to Enable Lithium Metal Safely Cycling for Next Generation High Energy Battery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA future missions demand safe, high specific energy (>400 Wh/kg) batteries. Current state-of-the-art (SOA) lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) can only provide...

  13. An in situ method of creating metal oxide–carbon composites and their application as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zichao

    2011-01-01

    Transition metal oxides are actively investigated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), and their nanocomposites with carbon frequently show better performance in galvanostatic cycling studies, compared to the pristine metal oxide. An in situ, scalable method for creating a variety of transition metal oxide-carbon nanocomposites has been developed based on free-radical polymerization and cross-linking of poly(acrylonitrile) in the presence of the metal oxide precursor containing vinyl groups. The approach yields a cross-linked polymer network, which uniformly incorporates nanometre-sized transition metal oxide particles. Thermal treatment of the organic-inorganic hybrid material produces nearly monodisperse metal oxide nanoparticles uniformly embedded in a porous carbon matrix. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cycling electrochemical measurements in a lithium half-cell are used to evaluate the electrochemical properties of a Fe3O 4-carbon composite created using this approach. These measurements reveal that when used as the anode in a lithium battery, the material exhibits stable cycling performance at both low and high current densities. We further show that the polymer/nanoparticle copolymerization approach can be readily adapted to synthesize metal oxide/carbon nanocomposites based on different particle chemistries for applications in both the anode and cathode of LIBs. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  14. Saturated ablation in metal hydrides and acceleration of protons and deuterons to keV energies with a soft-x-ray laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasson, J; Iwan, B; Andrejczuk, A; Abreu, E; Bergh, M; Caleman, C; Nelson, A J; Bajt, S; Chalupsky, J; Chapman, H N; Fäustlin, R R; Hajkova, V; Heimann, P A; Hjörvarsson, B; Juha, L; Klinger, D; Krzywinski, J; Nagler, B; Pálsson, G K; Singer, W; Seibert, M M; Sobierajski, R; Toleikis, S; Tschentscher, T; Vinko, S M; Lee, R W; Hajdu, J; Tîmneanu, N

    2011-01-01

    Studies of materials under extreme conditions have relevance to a broad area of research, including planetary physics, fusion research, materials science, and structural biology with x-ray lasers. We study such extreme conditions and experimentally probe the interaction between ultrashort soft x-ray pulses and solid targets (metals and their deuterides) at the FLASH free-electron laser where power densities exceeding 10(17) W/cm(2) were reached. Time-of-flight ion spectrometry and crater analysis were used to characterize the interaction. The results show the onset of saturation in the ablation process at power densities above 10(16) W/cm(2). This effect can be linked to a transiently induced x-ray transparency in the solid by the femtosecond x-ray pulse at high power densities. The measured kinetic energies of protons and deuterons ejected from the surface reach several keV and concur with predictions from plasma-expansion models. Simulations of the interactions were performed with a nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium code with radiation transfer. These calculations return critical depths similar to the observed crater depths and capture the transient surface transparency at higher power densities.

  15. Effect of partial substitution of nickel by tin, aluminum, manganese and palladium on the properties of LaNi5-type metal hydride alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Elki C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports studies on the electrochemical behavior of AB5-type hydrogen storage alloys, formed by LaNi(5-xZx, where Z is a metallic element partially replacing Ni, which included Sn, Al, Mn, and Pd. In the case of Mn, some AB6-type structures were also considered. Substitution of a small fraction of Ni by Al, Sn, and Mn (x @ 0.3 leads to an increase of the hydrogen storage capability (HSC, while for Pd there is a decrease of this property. Generally all alloys presenting larger initial HSC exhibit lower stability. A decrease of the hydrogen equilibrium pressure as a function of Mn content is observed for the AB5 alloys and this is related to an increase of the crystalline unit cell volume. Electrochemical impedance measurements show a significant increase of the hydration/dehydration reaction kinetics due to a raise on the active area as a function of the charge/discharge cycle number. It is also seen that the alloys presenting larger HSC are those showing smaller activation energies for the hydrogen oxidation reaction.

  16. Sustainable recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries using DL-malic acid: Leaching and kinetics aspect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Conghao; Xu, Liping; Chen, Xiangping; Qiu, Tianyun; Zhou, Tao

    2018-02-01

    An eco-friendly and benign process has been investigated for the dissolution of Li, Co, Ni, and Mn from the cathode materials of spent LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 batteries, using DL-malic acid as the leaching agent in this study. The leaching efficiencies of Li, Co, Ni, and Mn can reach about 98.9%, 94.3%, 95.1%, and 96.4%, respectively, under the leaching conditions of DL-malic acid concentration of 1.2 M, hydrogen peroxide content of 1.5 vol.%, solid-to-liquid ratio of 40 g l -1 , leaching temperature of 80°C, and leaching time of 30 min. In addition, the leaching kinetic was investigated based on the shrinking model and the results reveal that the leaching reaction is controlled by chemical reactions within 10 min with activation energies (Ea) of 21.3 kJ·mol -1 , 30.4 kJ·mol -1 , 27.9 kJ·mol -1 , and 26.2 kJ·mol -1 for Li, Co, Ni, and Mn, respectively. Diffusion process becomes the controlled step with a prolonged leaching time from 15 to 30 min, and the activation energies (Ea) are 20.2 kJ·mol -1 , 28.9 kJ·mol -1 , 26.3 kJ·mol -1 , and 25.0 kJ·mol -1 for Li, Co, Ni, and Mn, respectively. This hydrometallurgical route was found to be effective and environmentally friendly for leaching metals from spent lithium batteries.

  17. Silver decorated LaMnO3 nanorod/graphene composite electrocatalysts as reversible metal-air battery electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jie; Liu, Qiunan; Shi, Lina; Shi, Ziwei; Huang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Silver decorated LaMnO 3 nanorod/reduced graphene oxide composite possess excellent bifunctional electrocatalytic activity and good electrochemical stability in alkaline medium. - Highlights: • Silver decorated LaMnO 3 nanorod/graphene composite were synthesized for the first time. • The ORR and OER of composite in alkaline medium were evaluated. • This composite as an efficient bifunctional catalyst has a good cycle performance. - Abstract: Perovskite LaMnO 3 nanorod/reduced graphene oxides (LMO-NR/RGO) decorated with Ag nanoparticles are studied as a bifunctional catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline electrolyte. LMO-NR/RGO composites are synthesized by using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as template via a simple hydrothermal reaction followed by heat treatment; overlaying of Ag nanoparticles is obtained through a traditional silver mirror reaction. Electron microscopy reveals that LMO-NR is embedded between the sheets of RGO, and the material is homogeneously overlaid with Ag nanoparticles. The unique composite morphology of Ag/LMO-NR/RGO not only enhances the electron transport property by increasing conductivity but also facilitates the diffusion of electrolytes and oxygen. As confirmed by electrochemical testing, Ag/LMO-NR/RGO exhibits very strong synergy with Ag nanoparticles, LMO-NR, and RGO, and the catalytic activities of Ag/LMO-NR/RGO during ORR and OER are significantly improved. With the novel catalyst, the homemade zinc-air battery can be reversibly charged and discharged and display a stable cycle performance, indicating the great potential of this composite as an efficient bifunctional electrocatalyst for metal-air batteries.

  18. Silver decorated LaMnO{sub 3} nanorod/graphene composite electrocatalysts as reversible metal-air battery electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jie [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science & Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, 066004 (China); Hebei Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Department of Environment and Chemistry, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, 066004 (China); Liu, Qiunan; Shi, Lina; Shi, Ziwei [Hebei Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Department of Environment and Chemistry, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, 066004 (China); Huang, Hao, E-mail: huanghao@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science & Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, 066004 (China); Henan Huanghe Whirlwind Co. Ltd., Changge, 461500 (China)

    2017-04-30

    Graphical abstract: Silver decorated LaMnO{sub 3} nanorod/reduced graphene oxide composite possess excellent bifunctional electrocatalytic activity and good electrochemical stability in alkaline medium. - Highlights: • Silver decorated LaMnO{sub 3} nanorod/graphene composite were synthesized for the first time. • The ORR and OER of composite in alkaline medium were evaluated. • This composite as an efficient bifunctional catalyst has a good cycle performance. - Abstract: Perovskite LaMnO{sub 3} nanorod/reduced graphene oxides (LMO-NR/RGO) decorated with Ag nanoparticles are studied as a bifunctional catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline electrolyte. LMO-NR/RGO composites are synthesized by using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as template via a simple hydrothermal reaction followed by heat treatment; overlaying of Ag nanoparticles is obtained through a traditional silver mirror reaction. Electron microscopy reveals that LMO-NR is embedded between the sheets of RGO, and the material is homogeneously overlaid with Ag nanoparticles. The unique composite morphology of Ag/LMO-NR/RGO not only enhances the electron transport property by increasing conductivity but also facilitates the diffusion of electrolytes and oxygen. As confirmed by electrochemical testing, Ag/LMO-NR/RGO exhibits very strong synergy with Ag nanoparticles, LMO-NR, and RGO, and the catalytic activities of Ag/LMO-NR/RGO during ORR and OER are significantly improved. With the novel catalyst, the homemade zinc-air battery can be reversibly charged and discharged and display a stable cycle performance, indicating the great potential of this composite as an efficient bifunctional electrocatalyst for metal-air batteries.

  19. Highly Conductive Porous Transition Metal Dichalcogenides via Water Steam Etching for High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhubing; Yang, Zhi; Zhou, Liujiang; Zhang, Linjie; Wang, Ruihu

    2017-06-07

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries show significant advantages for next-generation energy storage systems owing to their high energy density and cost effectiveness. The main challenge in the development of long-life and high-performance Li-S batteries is to simultaneously facilitate the redox kinetics of sulfur species and suppress the shuttle effect of polysulfides. In this contribution, we present a general and green water-steam-etched approach for the fabrication of H- and O-incorporated porous TiS 2 (HOPT). The conductivity, porosity, chemisorptive capability, and electrocatalytic activity of HOPT are enhanced significantly when compared with those of raw TiS 2 . The synthetic method can be expanded to the fabrication of other highly conductive transition metal dichalcogenides such as porous NbS 2 and CoS 2 . The as-obtained HOPT can serve as both a substitute of conductive agents and an additive of interlayer materials. The optimal electrode delivers discharge capacities of 950 mA h g -1 after 300 cycles at 0.5 C and 374 mA h g -1 after 1000 cycles at 10 C. Impressively, an unprecedented reversible capacity of 172 mA h g -1 is achieved after 2500 cycles at 30 C, and the average capacity fading rate per cycle is as low as 0.015%. Importantly, four half-cells based on this electrode in series could drive 60 light-emitting diode indicator modules (the nominal power 3 W) after 20 s of charging. The instantaneous current and power of this device on reaching 275 A g -1 and 2611 W g -1 , respectively, indicate outstanding high-power discharge performance and potential applications in electric vehicles and other large-scale energy storage systems.

  20. Organic reductants based leaching: A sustainable process for the recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangping; Guo, Chunxiu; Ma, Hongrui; Li, Jiazhu; Zhou, Tao; Cao, Ling; Kang, Duozhi

    2018-01-20

    It is significant to recover metal values from spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs) for the alleviation or prevention of potential risks towards environmental pollution and public health, as well as for the conservation of valuable metals. Herein a hydrometallurgical process was proposed to explore the possibility for the leaching of different metals from waste cathodic materials (LiCoO 2 ) of spent LIBs using organics as reductant in sulfuric acid medium. According to the leaching results, about 98% Co and 96% Li can be leached under the optimal experimental conditions of reaction temperature - 95 °C, reaction time - 120 min, reductive agent dosage - 0.4 g/g, slurry density - 25 g/L, concentration of sulfuric acid-3 mol/L in H 2 SO 4  + glucose leaching system. Similar results (96% Co and 100% Li) can be obtained in H 2 SO 4  + sucrose leaching system under optimized leaching conditions. Despite a complete leaching of Li (∼100%), only 54% Co can be dissolved in the H 2 SO 4  + cellulose leaching system under optimized leaching conditions. Finally, different characterization methods, including UV-Vis, FT-IR, SEM and XRD, were employed for the tentative exploration of reductive leaching reactions using organic as reductant in sulfuric acid medium. All the leaching and characterization results confirm that both glucose and sucrose are effective reductants during leaching, while cellulose should be further degraded to organics with low molecular weights to achieve a satisfactory leaching performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nickel hydroxide positive electrode for alkaline rechargeable battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Kwo; Wang, Lixin; Mays, William; Reichman, Benjamin; Chao-Ian, Hu; Wong, Diana; Nei, Jean

    2018-04-03

    Certain nickel hydroxide active cathode materials for use in alkaline rechargeable batteries are capable of transferring >1.3 electrons per Ni atom under reversible electrochemical conditions. The specific capacity of the nickel hydroxide active materials is for example .gtoreq.325 mAh/g. The cathode active materials exhibit an additional discharge plateau near 0.8 V vs. a metal hydride (MH) anode. Ni in an oxidation state of less than 2, such as Ni.sup.1+, is able to participate in electrochemical reactions when using the present cathode active materials. It is possible that up to 2.3 electrons, up to 2.5 electrons or more may be transferred per Ni atom under electrochemical conditions.

  2. Nickel hydroxide positive electrode for alkaline rechargeable battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Kwo; Wang, Lixin; Mays, William; Reichman, Benjamin; Chao-Ian, Hu; Wong, Diana; Nei, Jean

    2018-02-20

    Certain nickel hydroxide active cathode materials for use in alkaline rechargeable batteries are capable of transferring >1.3 electrons per Ni atom under reversible electrochemical conditions. The specific capacity of the nickel hydroxide active materials is for example .gtoreq.325 mAh/g. The cathode active materials exhibit an additional discharge plateau near 0.8 V vs. a metal hydride (MH) anode. Ni in an oxidation state of less than 2, such as Ni.sup.1+, is able to participate in electrochemical reactions when using the present cathode active materials. It is possible that up to 2.3 electrons, up to 2.5 electrons or more may be transferred per Ni atom under electrochemical conditions.

  3. Boron hydride analogues of the fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quong, A.A.; Pederson, M.R.; Broughton, J.Q.

    1994-01-01

    The BH moiety is isoelectronic with C. We have studied the stability of the (BH) 60 analogue of the C 60 fullerene as well as the dual-structure (BH) 32 icosahedron, both of them being putative structures, by performing local-density-functional electronic calculations. To aid in our analysis, we have also studied other homologues of these systems. We find that the latter, i.e., the dual structure, is the more stable although the former is as stable as one of the latter's lower homologues. Boron hydrides, it seems, naturally form the dual structures used in algorithmic optimization of complex fullerene systems. Fully relaxed geometries are reported as well as electron affinities and effective Hubbard U parameters. These systems form very stable anions and we conclude that a search for BH analogues of the C 60 alkali-metal supeconductors might prove very fruitful

  4. Facile and large-scale preparation of sandwich-structured graphene-metal oxide composites as anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Hongmei; Zhao, Li; Yue, Wenbo; Wang, Yuan; Jiang, Yang; Zhang, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Graphene-based metal oxides are desirable as potential anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) owing to their superior electrochemical properties. In this work, sandwich-structured graphene-metal oxide (ZnO, NiO) composites are facilely synthesized on a large scale through self-assembly of graphene oxide nanosheets and metal ammine complexes, and then thermal decomposition of the self-assembled products. ZnO or NiO nanoparticles with diameters of 5∼10 nm are immobilized between the layers of graphene nanosheets, which may provide the space for accommodating the volume change of metal oxides during cycles, and highly improve the electronic conductivity of the composites. Accordingly, these sandwich-structured composites exhibit enhanced electrochemical performances compared to metal oxide particles or stacked graphene nanosheets. This facile synthesis method is very suitable for the large-scale production of three-dimensional graphene-based composites as high-performance anodes for LIBs.

  5. The Oxidation Products of Aluminum Hydride and Boron Aluminum Hydride Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-04

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0075 The Oxidation Products of Aluminum Hydride and Boron Aluminum Hydride Clusters KIT BOWEN JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV BALTIMORE MD... Hydride and Boron Aluminum Hydride Clusters 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550-14-1-0324 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) KIT...of both Aluminum Hydride Cluster Anions and Boron Aluminum Hydride Cluster Anions with Oxygen: Anionic Products The anionic products of reactions

  6. First-Principles Investigations of the Working Mechanism of 2D h-BN as an Interfacial Layer for the Anode of Lithium Metal Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Le; Xu, Ao; Zhao, Tianshou

    2017-01-18

    An issue with the use of metallic lithium as an anode material for lithium-based batteries is dendrite growth, causing a periodic breaking and repair of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. Adding 2D atomic crystals, such as h-BN, as an interfacial layer between the lithium metal anode and liquid electrolyte has been demonstrated to be effective to mitigate dendrite growth, thereby enhancing the Columbic efficiency of lithium metal batteries. But the underlying mechanism leading to the reduced dendrite growth remains unknown. In this work, with the aid of first-principle calculations, we find that the interaction between the h-BN and lithium metal layers is a weak van der Waals force, and two atomic layers of h-BN are thick enough to block the electron tunneling from lithium metal to electrolyte, thus prohibiting the decomposition of electrolyte. The interlayer spacing between the h-BN and lithium metal layers can provide larger adsorption energies toward lithium atoms than that provided by bare lithium or h-BN, making lithium atoms prefer to intercalate under the cover of h-BN during the plating process. The combined high stiffness of h-BN and the low diffusion energy barriers of lithium at the Li/h-BN interfaces induce a uniform distribution of lithium under h-BN, therefore effectively suppressing dendrite growth.

  7. Corrosion behavior of Zircaloy 4 cladding material. Evaluation of the hydriding effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blat, M. [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Dept. Etudes des Materiaux Les Renardieres; Bourgoin, J. [Electricite de France, 37 - Avoine (France)

    1997-04-01

    In this work, particular attention has been paid to the hydriding effect in PIE and laboratory test to validate a detrimental hydrogen contribution on Zircaloy 4 corrosion behavior at high burnup. Laboratory corrosion tests results confirm that hydrides have a detrimental role on corrosion kinetics. This effect is particularly significant for cathodic charged samples with a massive hydride outer layer before corrosion test. PIE show that at high burnup a hydride layer is formed underneath the metal/oxide interface. The results of the metallurgical examinations are discussed with respect to the possible mechanisms involved in this detrimental effect of hydrogen. Therefore, according to the laboratory tests results and PIE, hydrogen could be a strong contributor to explain the increase in corrosion rate at high burnup. (author) 12 refs.

  8. New lithium metal polymer solid state battery for an ultrahigh energy: nano C-LiFePO₄ versus nano Li1.2V₃O₈.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovington, P; Lagacé, M; Guerfi, A; Bouchard, P; Mauger, A; Julien, C M; Armand, M; Zaghib, K

    2015-04-08

    Novel lithium metal polymer solid state batteries with nano C-LiFePO4 and nano Li1.2V3O8 counter-electrodes (average particle size 200 nm) were studied for the first time by in situ SEM and impedance during cycling. The kinetics of Li-motion during cycling is analyzed self-consistently together with the electrochemical properties. We show that the cycling life of the nano Li1.2V3O8 is limited by the dissolution of the vanadium in the electrolyte, which explains the choice of nano C-LiFePO4 (1300 cycles at 100% DOD): with this olivine, no dissolution is observed. In combination with lithium metal, at high loading and with a stable SEI an ultrahigh energy density battery was thus newly developed in our laboratory.

  9. Non-Precious Bimetallic Catalysts for Selective Dehydrogenation of an Organic Chemical Hydride System

    KAUST Repository

    Shaikh Ali, Anaam

    2015-07-06

    Methylcyclohexane (MCH)-Toluene (TOL) chemical hydride cycles as a hydrogen carrier system is successful with the selective dehydrogenation reaction of MCH to TOL, which has been achieved only using precious Pt-based catalysts. Herein, we report improved selectivity using non-precious metal nickel-based bimetallic catalysts, where the second metal occupies the unselective step sites.

  10. Monitoring the solid-state electrochemistry of Cu(2,7-AQDC) (AQDC = anthraquinone dicarboxylate) in a lithium battery: coexistence of metal and ligand redox activities in a metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongyue; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Awaga, Kunio

    2014-11-19

    By adopting a facile synthetic strategy, we obtained a microporous redox-active metal-organic framework (MOF), namely, Cu(2,7-AQDC) (2,7-H2AQDC = 2,7-anthraquinonedicarboxylic acid) (1), and utilized it as a cathode active material in lithium batteries. With a voltage window of 4.0-1.7 V, both metal clusters and anthraquinone groups in the ligands exhibited reversible redox activity. The valence change of copper cations was clearly evidenced by in situ XANES analysis. By controlling the voltage window of operation, extremely high recyclability of batteries was achieved, suggesting the framework was robust. This MOF is the first example of a porous material showing independent redox activity on both metal cluster nodes and ligand sites.

  11. Inert blanketing of a hydride bed using typical grade protium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J.E. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken (United States)

    2015-03-15

    This paper describes the impact of 500 ppm (0.05%) impurities in protium on the absorption rate of a 9.66 kg LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} (LANA0.75) metal hydride bed. The presence of 500 ppm or less inerts (i.e. non-hydrogen isotopes) can significantly impact hydrogen bed absorption rates. The impact on reducing absorption rates is significantly greater than predicted assuming uniform temperature, pressure, and compositions throughout the bed. Possible explanations are discussed. One possibility considered was the feed gas contained impurity levels higher than 500 ppm. It was shown that a level of 5000 ppm of inerts would have been necessary to fit the experimental result so this possibility wa dismissed. Another possibility is that the impurities in the protium supply reacted with the hydride material and partially poisoned the hydride. If the hydride were poisoned with CO or another impurity, the removal of the over-pressure gas in the bed would not be expected to allow the hydride loading of the bed to continue as the experimental results showed, so this possibility was also dismissed. The last possibility questions the validity of the calculations. It is assumed in all the calculations that the gas phase composition, temperature, and pressure are uniform throughout the bed. These assumptions are less valid for large beds where there can be large temperature, pressure, and composition gradients throughout the bed. Eventually the impact of 0.05% inerts in protium on bed absorption rate is shown and explained in terms of an increase in inert partial pressure as the bed was loaded.

  12. Synthesis of hydrides by interaction of intermetallic compounds with ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasov, Boris P., E-mail: tarasov@icp.ac.ru [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka 142432 (Russian Federation); Fokin, Valentin N.; Fokina, Evelina E. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka 142432 (Russian Federation); Yartys, Volodymyr A., E-mail: volodymyr.yartys@ife.no [Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller NO 2027 (Norway); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO 7491 (Norway)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Interaction of the intermetallics A{sub 2}B, AB, AB{sub 2}, AB{sub 5} and A{sub 2}B{sub 17} with NH{sub 3} was studied. • The mechanism of interaction of the alloys with ammonia is temperature-dependent. • Hydrides, hydridonitrides, disproportionation products or metal–N–H compounds are formed. • NH{sub 4}Cl was used as an activator of the reaction between ammonia and intermetallics. • Interaction with ammonia results in the synthesis of the nanopowders. - Abstract: Interaction of intermetallic compounds with ammonia was studied as a processing route to synthesize hydrides and hydridonitrides of intermetallic compounds having various stoichiometries and types of crystal structures, including A{sub 2}B, AB, AB{sub 2}, AB{sub 5} and A{sub 2}B{sub 17} (A = Mg, Ti, Zr, Sc, Nd, Sm; B = transition metals, including Fe, Co, Ni, Ti and nontransition elements, Al and B). In presence of NH{sub 4}Cl used as an activator of the reaction between ammonia and intermetallic alloys, their interaction proceeds at rather mild P–T conditions, at temperatures 100–200 °C and at pressures of 0.6–0.8 MPa. The mechanism of interaction of the alloys with ammonia appears to be temperature-dependent and, following a rise of the interaction temperature, it leads to the formation of interstitial hydrides; interstitial hydridonitrides; disproportionation products (binary hydride; new intermetallic hydrides and binary nitrides) or new metal–nitrogen–hydrogen compounds like magnesium amide Mg(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}. The interaction results in the synthesis of the nanopowders where hydrogen and nitrogen atoms become incorporated into the crystal lattices of the intermetallic alloys. The nitrogenated materials have the smallest particle size, down to 40 nm, and a specific surface area close to 20 m{sup 2}/g.

  13. Site-specific transition metal occupation in multicomponent pyrophosphate for improved electrochemical and thermal properties in lithium battery cathodes: a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoor, Rana A; Kim, Heejin; Cho, Woosuk; Lim, Soo Yeon; Song, Hannah; Lee, Jung Woo; Kang, Jeung Ku; Kim, Yong-Tae; Jung, Yousung; Choi, Jang Wook

    2012-07-18

    As an attempt to develop lithium ion batteries with excellent performance, which is desirable for a variety of applications including mobile electronics, electrical vehicles, and utility grids, the battery community has continuously pursued cathode materials that function at higher potentials with efficient kinetics for lithium insertion and extraction. By employing both experimental and theoretical tools, herein we report multicomponent pyrophosphate (Li(2)MP(2)O(7), M = Fe(1/3)Mn(1/3)Co(1/3)) cathode materials with novel and advantageous properties as compared to the single-component analogues and other multicomponent polyanions. Li(2)Fe(1/3)Mn(1/3)Co(1/3)P(2)O(7) is formed on the basis of a solid solution among the three individual transition-metal-based pyrophosphates. The unique crystal structure of pyrophosphate and the first principles calculations show that different transition metals have a tendency to preferentially occupy either octahedral or pyramidal sites, and this site-specific transition metal occupation leads to significant improvements in various battery properties: a single-phase mode for Li insertion/extraction, improved cell potentials for Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) (raised by 0.18 eV) and Co(2+)/Co(3+) (lowered by 0.26 eV), and increased activity for Mn(2+)/Mn(3+) with significantly reduced overpotential. We reveal that the favorable energy of transition metal mixing and the sequential redox reaction for each TM element with a sufficient redox gap is the underlying physical reason for the preferential single-phase mode of Li intercalation/deintercalation reaction in pyrophosphate, a general concept that can be applied to other multicomponent systems. Furthermore, an extremely small volume change of ~0.7% between the fully charged and discharged states and the significantly enhanced thermal stability are observed for the present material, the effects unseen in previous multicomponent battery materials.

  14. In situ formed Fe-N doped metal organic framework@carbon nanotubes/graphene hybrids for a rechargeable Zn-air battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenxiu; Zhang, Yelong; Liu, Xiangjian; Chen, Lulu; Jia, Jianbo

    2017-11-30

    This study presents an in situ route to produce 3D Fe-N doped metal organic framework@carbon nanotubes/graphene (Fe-MOF@CNTs-G) hybrids as efficient oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts in both basic and acidic solutions. A rechargeable zinc-air battery assembled with Fe-MOF@CNTs-G exhibits a lower charge/discharge overpotential than the commercial IrO 2 + 20% Pt/C catalyst.

  15. Compact-Nanobox Engineering of Transition Metal Oxides with Enhanced Initial Coulombic Efficiency for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanfei; Hu, Aiping; Tang, Qunli; Zhang, Shiying; Deng, Weina; Li, Yanhua; Liu, Zheng; Fan, Binbin; Xiao, Kuikui; Liu, Jilei; Chen, Xiaohua

    2018-03-05

    A novel strategy is proposed to construct a compact-nanobox (CNB) structure composed of irregular nanograins (average diameter ≈ 10 nm), aiming to confine the electrode-electrolyte contact area and enhance initial Coulombic efficiency (ICE) of transition metal oxide (TMO) anodes. To demonstrate the validity of this attempt, CoO-CNB is taken as an example which is synthesized via a carbothermic reduction method. Benefiting from the compact configuration, electrolyte can only contact the outer surface of the nanobox, keeping the inner CoO nanograins untouched. Therefore, the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation is reduced. Furthermore, the internal cavity leaves enough room for volume variation upon lithiation and delithiation, resulting in superior mechanical stability of the CNB structure and less generation of fresh SEI. Consequently, the SEI remains stable and spatially confined without degradation, and hence, the CoO-CNB electrode delivers an enhanced ICE of 82.2%, which is among the highest values reported for TMO-based anodes in lithium-ion batteries. In addition, the CoO-CNB electrode also demonstrates excellent cyclability with a reversible capacity of 811.6 mA h g -1 (90.4% capacity retention after 100 cycles). These findings open up a new way to design high-ICE electrodes and boost the practical application of TMO anodes.

  16. Syntheses and properties of several metastable and stable hydrides derived from intermetallic compounds under high hydrogen pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipek, S.M., E-mail: sfilipek@unipress.waw.pl [Institute of High Pressure Physics PAS, ul. Sokolowska 29, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Paul-Boncour, V. [ICMPE-CMTR, CNRS-UPEC, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Liu, R.S. [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Jacob, I. [Unit Nuclear Eng., Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Tsutaoka, T. [Dept. of Sci. Educ., Grad. School of Educ., Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Budziak, A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAS, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); Morawski, A. [Institute of High Pressure Physics PAS, ul. Sokolowska 29, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Sugiura, H. [Yokohama City University, 22-2 Seto, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0027 (Japan); Zachariasz, P. [Institute of Electron Technology Cracow Division, ul. Zablocie 39, 30-701 Krakow (Poland); Dybko, K. [Institute of Physics, PAS, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Diduszko, R. [Tele and Radio Research Institute, ul. Ratuszowa 11, Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-12-01

    Brief summary of our former work on high hydrogen pressure syntheses of novel hydrides and studies of their properties is supplemented with new results. Syntheses and properties of a number of hydrides (unstable, metastable or stable in ambient conditions) derived under high hydrogen pressure from intermetallic compounds, like MeT{sub 2}, MeNi{sub 5}, Me{sub 7}T{sub 3}, Y{sub 6}Mn{sub 23} and YMn{sub 12} (where Me = zirconium, yttrium or rare earth; T = transition metal) are presented. Stabilization of ZrFe{sub 2}H{sub 4} due to surface phenomena was revealed. Unusual role of manganese in hydride forming processes is pointed out. Hydrogen induced phase transitions, suppression of magnetism, antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic and metal-insulator or semimetal-metal transitions are described. Equations of state (EOS) of hydrides submitted to hydrostatic pressures up to 30 GPa are presented and discussed.

  17. Vanadium oxide based cpd. useful as a cathode active material - is used in lithium or alkali metal batteries to prolong life cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    A mixt. of metallic iron particles and vanadium pentoxide contg. V in its pentavalent state in a liq. is reacted to convert at least some of the pentavalent V to its tetravalent state and form a gel. The liq. phase is then sepd. from the oxide based gel to obtain a solid material(I) comprising Fe......, V and oxygen where at least some of the V is in the tetravalent state. USE-(I) is a cathode active material in electric current producing storage cells. ADVANTAGE-Use of (I) in Li or alkali metal batteries gives prolonged life cycles.Storage cells using (I) have improved capacity during charge...

  18. Nanoporous Hybrid Electrolytes for High-Energy Batteries Based on Reactive Metal Anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Zhengyuan

    2017-01-06

    Successful strategies for stabilizing electrodeposition of reactive metals, including lithium, sodium, and aluminum are a requirement for safe, high-energy electrochemical storage technologies that utilize these metals as anodes. Unstable deposition produces high-surface area dendritic structures at the anode/electrolyte interface, which causes premature cell failure by complex physical and chemical processes that have presented formidable barriers to progress. Here, it is reported that hybrid electrolytes created by infusing conventional liquid electrolytes into nanoporous membranes provide exceptional ability to stabilize Li. Electrochemical cells based on γ-Al2O3 ceramics with pore diameters below a cut-off value above 200 nm exhibit long-term stability even at a current density of 3 mA cm−2. The effect is not limited to ceramics; similar large enhancements in stability are observed for polypropylene membranes with less monodisperse pores below 450 nm. These findings are critically assessed using theories for ion rectification and electrodeposition reactions in porous solids and show that the source of stable electrodeposition in nanoporous electrolytes is fundamental.

  19. Atomic resolution study of reversible conversion reaction in metal oxide electrodes for lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Langli; Wu, Jinsong; Xu, Junming; Dravid, Vinayak P

    2014-11-25

    Electrode materials based on conversion reactions with lithium ions have shown much higher energy density than those based on intercalation reactions. Here, nanocubes of a typical metal oxide (Co3O4) were grown on few-layer graphene, and their electrochemical lithiation and delithiation were investigated at atomic resolution by in situ transmission electron microscopy to reveal the mechanism of the reversible conversion reaction. During lithiation, a lithium-inserted Co3O4 phase and a phase consisting of nanosized Co-Li-O clusters are identified as the intermediate products prior to the subsequent formation of Li2O crystals. In delithiation, the reduced metal nanoparticles form a network and breakdown into even smaller clusters that act as catalysts to prompt reduction of Li2O, and CoO nanoparticles are identified as the product of the deconversion reaction. Such direct real-space, real-time atomic-scale observations shed light on the phenomena and mechanisms in reaction-based electrochemical energy conversion and provide impetus for further development in electrochemical charge storage devices.

  20. Metals recovery of spent household batteries using a hydrometallurgical process; Recuperacao de metais de sucatas de pilhas e baterias pos-consumo utilizando processamento hidrometalurgico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, K.P.; Tenorio, J.A.S., E-mail: kprovazi@gmail.co [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    The objective of the work is to study a method for metals recovery from a sample composed by a mixture of the main types of spent household batteries. Segregation of the main metals is investigated using a treatment route consisting of the following steps: manual identified and dismantling, grinding, electric furnace reduction, acid leaching and selective precipitation with sodium hydroxide with and without hydrogen peroxide. Before and after precipitations the solutions had been analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP/OES) and the precipitated analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with Spectrometry of Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (EDS). The results had indicated that the great majority of metals had been precipitated in pHs studied, also had co-precipitation or simultaneous precipitation of metals in some pHs. (author)

  1. The effect of sample preparation on uranium hydriding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banos, A.; Stitt, C.A.; Scott, T.B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Distinct differences in uranium hydride growth rates and characteristics between different surface preparation methods. • The primary difference between the categories of sample preparations is the level of strain present in the surface. • Greater surface-strain, leads to higher nucleation number density, implying a preferred attack of strained vs unstrained metal. • As strain is reduced, surface features such as carbides and grain boundaries become more important in controlling the UH3 location. - Abstract: The influence of sample cleaning preparation on the early stages of uranium hydriding has been examined, by using four identical samples but concurrently prepared using four different methods. The samples were reacted together in the same corrosion cell to ensure identical exposure conditions. From the analysis, it was found that the hydride nucleation rate was proportional to the level of strain exhibiting higher number density for the more strained surfaces. Additionally, microstructure of the metal plays a secondary role regarding initial hydrogen attack on the highly strained surfaces yet starts to dominate the system while moving to more pristine samples.

  2. Recovery of valuable metals from waste cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries using mild phosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiangping, E-mail: chenxiangping101@163.com [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi’an 710021 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Ma, Hongrui, E-mail: mahr@sust.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi’an 710021 (China); Luo, Chuanbao; Zhou, Tao [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Cobalt can be directly recovered as Co{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} from waste LiCoO{sub 2} using H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} as leaching and precipitating agent. - Highlights: • Phosphoric acid was innovatively used as leaching and precipitating agent. • Over 99% Co and Li can be separated and recovered in a single leaching step. • Co and Li can be separated under mild conditions of 40 °C and 0.7 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. • Activation energy values for Co and Li are 7.3 and 10.168 kJ/mol. • Cobalt phosphate (97.1% in purity) can be obtained as the leaching product. - Abstract: Sustainable recycling of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) may be necessary to alleviate the depletion of strategic metal resources and potential risk of environmental pollution. Herein a hydrometallurgical process was proposed to explore the possibility for the recovery of valuable metals from the cathode materials (LiCoO{sub 2}) of spent LIBs using phosphoric acid as both leaching and precipitating agent under mild leaching conditions. According to the leaching results, over 99% Co can be separated and recovered as Co{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} in a short-cut process involved merely with leaching and filtrating, under the optimized leaching conditions of 40 °C (T), 60 min (t), 4 vol.% H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, 20 mL g{sup −1} (L/S) and 0.7 mol/L H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. Then leaching kinetics was investigated based on the logarithmic rate kinetics model and the obtained results indicate that the leaching of Co and Li fits well with this model and the activation energies (Ea) for Co and Li are 7.3 and 10.2 kJ/mol, respectively. Finally, it can be discovered from characterization results that the obtained product is 97.1% pure cobalt phosphate (Co{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}).

  3. High power valve regulated lead-acid batteries for new vehicle requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad, Francisco; Sáez, Francisco; Valenciano, Jesús

    The performance of high power VRLA ORBITAL™ batteries is presented. These batteries have been designed with isolated cylindrical cells, providing high reliability to the recombination process, while maintaining, at the same time, a very high compression (>80 kPa) over the life of the battery. Hence, the resulting VRLA modules combine a high rate capability with a very good cycle performance. Two different electrochemically active material compositions have been developed: high porosity and low porosity for starting and deep cycle applications, respectively (depending on the power demand and depth of discharge). Although, the initial performance of the starting version is higher, after a few cycles the active material of the deep cycle version is fully developed, and this achieves the same high rate capability. Both types are capable of supplying the necessary reliability for cranking at the lowest temperature (-40°C). Specific power of over 500 W/kg is achievable at a much lower cost than for nickel-metal hydride systems. Apart from the initial performance, an impressive behaviour of the cycling version has been found in deep cycle applications, due to the highly compressed and high density active material. When submitted to continuous discharge-charge cycles at 75% (IEC 896-2 specification) and 100% (BCI deep cycle) DoD, it has been found that the batteries are still healthy after more than 1000 and 700 cycles, respectively. However, it has been proven that the application of an IUi algorithm (up to 110% of overcharging) with a small constant current charging period at the end of the charge is absolutely necessary to achieve the above results. Without the final boosting period, the cycle life of the battery could be substantially shortened. The high specific power and reliability observed in the tests carried out, would allow ORBITAL™ batteries to comply with the more demanding requirements that are being introduced in conventional and future hybrid electric

  4. Effects of metastability on hydrogen sorption in fluorine substituted hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinatel, E.R.; Corno, M.; Ugliengo, P.; Baricco, M., E-mail: marcello.baricco@unito.it

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Fluorine substitution in simple metal hydrides has been modelled. • The stability of the MH{sub (1−x)}F{sub x} solid solutions has been discussed. • Conditions for reversibility of sorption reactions have been suggested. - Abstract: In this work ab initio calculations and Calphad modelling have been coupled to describe the effect of fluorine substitution on the thermodynamics of hydrogenation–dehydrogenation in simple hydrides (NaH, AlH{sub 3} and CaH{sub 2}). These example systems have been used to discuss the conditions required for the formation of a stable hydride–fluoride solid solution necessary to obtain a reversible hydrogenation reaction.

  5. Nanostructured, complex hydride systems for hydrogen generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Varin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex hydride systems for hydrogen (H2 generation for supplying fuel cells are being reviewed. In the first group, the hydride systems that are capable of generating H2 through a mechanical dehydrogenation phenomenon at the ambient temperature are discussed. There are few quite diverse systems in this group such as lithium alanate (LiAlH4 with the following additives: nanoiron (n-Fe, lithium amide (LiNH2 (a hydride/hydride system and manganese chloride MnCl2 (a hydride/halide system. Another hydride/hydride system consists of lithium amide (LiNH2 and magnesium hydride (MgH2, and finally, there is a LiBH4-FeCl2 (hydride/halide system. These hydride systems are capable of releasing from ~4 to 7 wt.% H2 at the ambient temperature during a reasonably short duration of ball milling. The second group encompasses systems that generate H2 at slightly elevated temperature (up to 100 °C. In this group lithium alanate (LiAlH4 ball milled with the nano-Fe and nano-TiN/TiC/ZrC additives is a prominent system that can relatively quickly generate up to 7 wt.% H2 at 100 °C. The other hydride is manganese borohydride (Mn(BH42 obtained by mechano-chemical activation synthesis (MCAS. In a ball milled (2LiBH4 + MnCl2 nanocomposite, Mn(BH42 co-existing with LiCl can desorb ~4.5 wt.% H2 at 100 °C within a reasonable duration of dehydrogenation. Practical application aspects of hydride systems for H2 generation/storage are also briefly discussed.

  6. Predicting formation enthalpies of metal hydrides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, A.

    2004-01-01

    of elements from the periodic table are yet to beexplored. Since experimental determination of thermodynamic properties of the vast combinations of elements is tedious it may be advantagous to have a predictive tool for this task. In this report different ways of predicting #DELTA#H_f for binary andternary...

  7. Investigation of low-cost oligoanthraquinones for alkaline, aqueous rechargeable batteries with cell potential up to 1.13 V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dražević, Emil; Andersen, Anders Søndergaard; Wedege, Kristina; Henriksen, Martin Lahn; Hinge, Mogens; Bentien, Anders

    2018-03-01

    The transition to renewable energy sources has created need for stationary, low-cost electrical energy storage. A possible technology to address both cost and environmental concerns are batteries based on organic materials. The use of oligoanthraquinones as a replacement for metal hydrides or cadmium in nickel hydroxide rechargeable batteries is investigated in detail regarding polymer composition, electrochemical reversibility and electroactive species cost. Two different oligoanthraquinones are paired with a nickel hydroxide cathode and demonstrate cycling stability dependent on parameters such as supporting electrolyte strength, C-rate, and anode swelling. The energy efficiencies are up to 75% and the cell potential up to 1.13 V. Simple functionalization of the basic structure increases the cell potential by 100 mV.

  8. Method for producing La/Ce/MM/Y base alloys, resulting alloys and battery electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Schmidt, Frederick A.

    2016-12-20

    A carbothermic reduction method is provided for reducing a La-, Ce-, MM-, and/or Y-containing oxide in the presence of carbon and a source of a reactant element comprising Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, As, Sb, Bi, and/or P to form an intermediate alloy material including a majority of La, Ce, MM, and/or Y and a minor amount of the reactant element. The intermediate material is useful as a master alloy for in making negative electrode materials for a metal hydride battery, as hydrogen storage alloys, as master alloy additive for addition to a melt of commercial Mg and Al alloys, steels, cast irons, and superalloys; or in reducing Sm.sub.2O.sub.3 to Sm metal for use in Sm--Co permanent magnets.

  9. Combination of lightweight elements and nanostructured materials for batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Cheng, Fangyi

    2009-06-16

    In a society that increasingly relies on mobile electronics, demand is rapidly growing for both primary and rechargeable batteries that power devices from cell phones to vehicles. Existing batteries utilize lightweight active materials that use electrochemical reactions of ions such as H(+), OH(-) and Li(+)/Mg(2+) to facilitate energy storage and conversion. Ideal batteries should be inexpensive, have high energy density, and be made from environmentally friendly materials; batteries based on bulk active materials do not meet these requirements. Because of slow electrode process kinetics and low-rate ionic diffusion/migration, most conventional batteries demonstrate huge gaps between their theoretical and practical performance. Therefore, efforts are underway to improve existing battery technologies and develop new electrode reactions for the next generation of electrochemical devices. Advances in electrochemistry, surface science, and materials chemistry are leading to the use of nanomaterials for efficient energy storage and conversion. Nanostructures offer advantages over comparable bulk materials in improving battery performance. This Account summarizes our progress in battery development using a combination of lightweight elements and nanostructured materials. We highlight the benefits of nanostructured active materials for primary zinc-manganese dioxide (Zn-Mn), lithium-manganese dioxide (Li-Mn), and metal (Mg, Al, Zn)-air batteries, as well as rechargeable lithium ion (Li-ion) and nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries. Through selected examples, we illustrate the effect of structure, shape, and size on the electrochemical properties of electrode materials. Because of their numerous active sites and facile electronic/ionic transfer and diffusion, nanostructures can improve battery efficiency. In particular, we demonstrate the properties of nanostructured active materials including Mg, Al, Si, Zn, MnO(2), CuV(2)O(6), LiNi(0.8)Co(0.2)O(2), LiFePO(4), Fe(2)O(3

  10. An Efficient Bifunctional Electrocatalyst for a Zinc-Air Battery Derived from Fe/N/C and Bimetallic Metal-Organic Framework Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengfan; Qian, Tao; Zhou, Jinqiu; Yan, Chenglin

    2017-02-15

    Efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts with desirable oxygen activities are closely related to practical applications of renewable energy systems including metal-air batteries, fuel cells, and water splitting. Here a composite material derived from a combination of bimetallic zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (denoted as BMZIFs) and Fe/N/C framework was reported as an efficient bifunctional catalyst. Although BMZIF or Fe/N/C alone exhibits undesirable oxygen reaction activity, a combination of these materials shows unprecedented ORR (half-wave potential of 0.85 V as well as comparatively superior OER activities (potential@10 mA cm -2 of 1.64 V), outperforming not only a commercial Pt/C electrocatalyst but also most reported bifunctional electrocatalysts. We then tested its practical application in Zn-air batteries. The primary batteries exhibit a high peak power density of 235 mW cm -2 , and the batteries are able to be operated smoothly for 100 cycles at a curent density of 10 mA cm -2 . The unprecedented catalytic activity can be attritued to chemical coupling effects between Fe/N/C and BMZIF and will aid the development of highly active electrocatalysts and applications for electrochemical energy devices.

  11. First Evidence of Rh Nano-Hydride Formation at Low Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotea, Claudia; Oumellal, Yassine; Msakni, Mariem; Bourgon, Julie; Bastide, Stéphane; Cachet-Vivier, Christine; Latroche, Michel

    2015-07-08

    Rh-based nanoparticles supported on a porous carbon host were prepared with tunable average sizes ranging from 1.3 to 3.0 nm. Depending on the vacuum or hydrogen environment during thermal treatment, either Rh metal or hydride is formed at nanoscale, respectively. In contrast to bulk Rh that can form a hydride phase under 4 GPa pressure, the metallic Rh nanoparticles (∼2.3 nm) absorb hydrogen and form a hydride phase at pressure below 0.1 MPa, as evidenced by the presence of a plateau pressure in the pressure-composition isotherm curves at room temperature. Larger metal nanoparticles (∼3.0 nm) form only a solid solution with hydrogen under similar conditions. This suggests a nanoscale effect that drastically changes the Rh-H thermodynamics. The nanosized Rh hydride phase is stable at room temperature and only desorbs hydrogen above 175 °C. Within the present hydride particle size range (1.3-2.3 nm), the hydrogen desorption is size-dependent, as proven by different thermal analysis techniques.

  12. Synthesis, spectroscopy, and hydrogen/deuterium exchange in high-spin iron(II) hydride complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Thomas R; Bill, Eckhard; MacLeod, K Cory; Brennessel, William W; Holland, Patrick L

    2014-03-03

    Very few hydride complexes are known in which the metals have a high-spin electronic configuration. We describe the characterization of several high-spin iron(II) hydride/deuteride isotopologues and their exchange reactions with one another and with H2/D2. Though the hydride/deuteride signal is not observable in NMR spectra, the choice of isotope has an influence on the chemical shifts of distant protons in the dimers through the paramagnetic isotope effect on chemical shift. This provides the first way to monitor the exchange of H and D in the bridging positions of these hydride complexes. The rate of exchange depends on the size of the supporting ligand, and this is consistent with the idea that H2/D2 exchange into the hydrides occurs through the dimeric complexes rather than through a transient monomer. The understanding of H/D exchange mechanisms in these high-spin iron hydride complexes may be relevant to postulated nitrogenase mechanisms.

  13. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  14. Mesoporous Silicon Hollow Nanocubes Derived from Metal-Organic Framework Template for Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Taeseung; Bok, Taesoo; Kim, Chulhyun; Na, Younghoon; Park, Soojin; Kim, Kwang S

    2017-05-23

    Controlling the morphology of nanostructured silicon is critical to improving the structural stability and electrochemical performance in lithium-ion batteries. The use of removable or sacrificial templates is an effective and easy route to synthesize hollow materials. Herein, we demonstrate the synthesis of mesoporous silicon hollow nanocubes (m-Si HCs) derived from a metal-organic framework (MOF) as an anode material with outstanding electrochemical properties. The m-Si HC architecture with the mesoporous external shell (∼15 nm) and internal void (∼60 nm) can effectively accommodate volume variations and relieve diffusion-induced stress/strain during repeated cycling. In addition, this cube architecture provides a high electrolyte contact area because of the exposed active site, which can promote the transportation of Li ions. The well-designed m-Si HC with carbon coating delivers a high reversible capacity of 1728 mAhg -1 with an initial Coulombic efficiency of 80.1% after the first cycle and an excellent rate capability of >1050 mAhg -1 even at a 15 C-rate. In particular, the m-Si HC anode effectively suppresses electrode swelling to ∼47% after 100 cycles and exhibits outstanding cycle stability of 850 mAhg -1 after 800 cycles at a 1 C-rate. Moreover, a full cell (2.9 mAhcm -2 ) comprising a m-Si HC-graphite anode and LiCoO 2 cathode exhibits remarkable cycle retention of 72% after 100 cycles at a 0.2 C-rate.

  15. Thermal treatment and ammoniacal leaching for the recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongming; Liu, Nannan; Hu, Fang; Ye, Longgang; Xi, Yan; Yang, Shenghai

    2018-02-22

    The recycling of spent commercial lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) generates numerous environmental and economic benefits. In this research, a thermal treatment-ammoniacal leaching process is proposed to recover valuable metals from cathode active powder. Based on the thermal behavior by TG-DSC analysis, the cathode active powder is calcined at 300 °C and 550 °C in air atmosphere, and the crystalline phase characterization indicates that a new phase of Co 3 O 4 appears in the cathode active powder calcined at 550 °C, which signifies that the layer structure of LiCoO 2 collapses. The valence of manganese increases to form Li 4 Mn 5 O 12 in spinel structure of LiMn 2 O 4 . Using calcined cathode powder as feed material, ammoniacal leaching is carried out in (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 -(NH 4 ) 2 SO 3 solution. Under the optimum conditions, Ni, Co, Mn and Li can be completely leached out with efficiencies of 98%, 81%, 92% and 98%, respectively. However, with the increase of ammonia concentration, the leaching efficiency of Mn decreases dramatically to 4% due to the formation of double salts. It is found that Co and Mn can be precipitated into residues in the form of (NH 4 ) 2 Co(SO 4 ) 2 ·H 2 O, (NH 4 ) 2 Mn(SO 3 ) 2 ·H 2 O and (NH 4 ) 2 Mn(SO 4 ) 2 ·6H 2 O under different leaching parameters. Based on the corresponding relationship between the leaching efficiency and phase evolution of object element, selective leaching can be achieved by controlling the formation of double salts. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Studies of tin-transition metal-carbon alloys prepared by mechanical milling for lithium-ion battery negative electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Pierre Philippe

    Mechanical milling and co-sputtering were used to prepare various Sn-Co-C alloys as negative electrodes materials for Li-ion batteries. By varying milling conditions, it was possible to obtain nanostructured materials by mechanical methods whose x-ray diffraction patterns mimicked the diffraction patterns of co-sputtered materials. Electrochemical testing of L/Sn30 Co30C40 cells showed stable charge-discharge capacity for at least 100 cycles, and stable differential capacity versus potential profiles. Although the materials appeared to have similar nanostructures, the sputtered material showed a reversible capacity near the theoretical capacity of Sn30Co30C40, while the materials prepared by mechanical methods showed lower capacity. From small angle neutron scattering results, it was found that milled materials had grain sizes on the order of 60 A, while those of sputter deposited materials had grain sizes on the order of 10 A or were truly amorphous. These results were used to understand why mechanically alloyed Sn-Co-C alloys do not reach their expected theoretical specific capacity. In an attempt to replace cobalt with a cheaper transition metal, iron, several compositions of Sn30(Co1-xFe x)30C40 were prepared by attritor milling. XRD and Mossbauer studies showed evidence of a nanostructured phase, most prominent near x = 0, and nanocrystalline FeSn 2, most prominent near x = 1. Mossbauer studies showed an increase in the amount of Fe-carbides as the Fe content increased. Both the x = 0 and x = 0.5 samples showed excellent capacity retention with a specific capacity of 450 mAh/g for at least 100 cycles. The x = 1 sample showed the highest reversible capacity for the cells tested at approximately 500 mAh/g but its capacity retention was poor. Structural and electrochemical experiments were reported for numerous Sn30TM30C40 and Sn30Co15 TM15C40 alloys, prepared by attritor milling, with TM = 3d transition metals. Sn30TM30C40 samples with TM = Co and TM = Ni showed

  17. Atom Probe Analysis of Ex Situ Gas-Charged Stable Hydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Daniel; Bagot, Paul A J; Moody, Michael P

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we report on the atom probe tomography analysis of two metallic hydrides formed by pressurized charging using an ex situ hydrogen charging cell, in the pressure range of 200-500 kPa (2-5 bar). Specifically we report on the deuterium charging of Pd/Rh and V systems. Using this ex situ system, we demonstrate the successful loading and subsequent atom probe analysis of deuterium within a Pd/Rh alloy, and demonstrate that deuterium is likely present within the oxide-metal interface of a native oxide formed on vanadium. Through these experiments, we demonstrate the feasibility of ex situ hydrogen analysis for hydrides via atom probe tomography, and thus a practical route to three-dimensional imaging of hydrogen in hydrides at the atomic scale.

  18. Understanding the Critical Role of the Ag Nanophase in Boosting the Initial Reversibility of Transition Metal Oxide Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daehee; Wu, Mihye; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Chae, Changju; Cho, Min Kyung; Kim, Ji-Young; Lee, Sun Sook; Choi, Sungho; Choi, Youngmin; Shin, Tae Joo; Chung, Kyung Yoon; Jeong, Sunho; Moon, Jooho

    2017-07-05

    The initial reversible capacity, a critical impediment in transition metal oxide-based anodes, is augmented in conversion-reaction-involved CoO anodes for lithium-ion batteries, by incorporating a chemically synthesized Ag nanophase. With an increase in the added amount of Ag nanophase from 5 to 15 wt %, the initial capacity loss decreases linearly up to 31.7%. The Ag nanophase maintains its pristine metallic nature without undergoing phase transformations, even during repeated vigorous electrochemical reactions of the active CoO phase. Complementary ex situ chemical/physical analyses suggest that the Ag nanophase promotes the catalytic generation of reversible gel-like/polymeric films wherein lithium ions are stored capacitively in the low-voltage region below 0.7 V during discharging. These scientific findings would provide a heretofore unrecognized pathway to resolving a major issue associated with the critical irreversibility in conversion-type transition metal oxide anodes.

  19. Metal-Organic Frameworks Triggered High-Efficiency Li storage in Fe-Based Polyhedral Nanorods for Lithium-ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Lisha; Song, Huawei; Wang, Chengxin

    2017-01-01

    Recently, metal organic framework (MOF) nanostructures have been frequently reported in the field of energy storage, specifically for Li-ion or Na-ion storage. By inter-separating the active sites of metal cluster and organic ligands, MOF nanostructures are exceptionally promising for realizing fast ion exchange and high-efficiency transportation and addressing the intricate issues that the energy-intensive Li-ion batteries have faced over many years. The related ion-storage mechanism remains to be explored. Is the traditional redox reaction mechanism operative for these nanostructure, as it is for transitional metal oxide? Herein, taking [Fe 3 O(BDC) 3 (H 2 O) 2 (NO 3 )]n (Fe-MIL-88B) as an example, an Fe-based metal organic polyhedral nanorods of MIL–88 B structure was designed as an anode for Li-ion storage. When tested at 60 mA g −1 , the nanoporous Fe-MIL–88 B polyhedral nanorods retained a reversible capacity of 744.5 mAh g −1 for more than 400 cycles. Ex situ characterizations of the post-cycled electrodes revealed that both the transition metal ions and the organic ligands contributed to the high reversible specific capacity. The polyhedral nanorods electrodes held the metal-organic skeleton together throughout the battery operation, although in a somewhat different manner than the pristine ones. This further substantiated that some MOF nanostructures are more appropriate than others for stable lithiation/delithiation processes. State-of-the-art CR2032 full cells showed that a high capacity of 86.8 mAh g −1 that was retained after 100 cycles (herein, the capacity for the full cell was calculated based on both the weight of the anode and the cathode, and the charge-discharge rate was 0.25C), when commercial LiFePO 4 powders were used as the cathode.

  20. Determination of antimony by using a quartz atom trap and electrochemical hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menemenlioglu, Ipek; Korkmaz, Deniz [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Ataman, O. Yavuz [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: ataman@metu.edu.tr

    2007-01-15

    The analytical performance of a miniature quartz trap coupled with electrochemical hydride generator for antimony determination is described. A portion of the inlet arm of the conventional quartz tube atomizer was used as an integrated trap medium for on-line preconcentration of electrochemically generated hydrides. This configuration minimizes transfer lines and connections. A thin-layer of electrochemical flow through cell was constructed. Lead and platinum foils were employed as cathode and anode materials, respectively. Experimental operation conditions for hydride generation as well as the collection and revolatilization conditions for the generated hydrides in the inlet arm of the quartz tube atomizer were optimized. Interferences of copper, nickel, iron, cobalt, arsenic, selenium, lead and tin were examined both with and without the trap. 3{sigma} limit of detection was estimated as 0.053 {mu}g l{sup -1} for a sample size of 6.0 ml collected in 120 s. The trap has provided 18 fold sensitivity improvement as compared to electrochemical hydride generation alone. The accuracy of the proposed technique was evaluated with two standard reference materials; Trace Metals in Drinking Water, Cat CRM-TMDW and Metals on Soil/Sediment 4, IRM-008.