WorldWideScience

Sample records for metal flex hoses

  1. Evaluation of candidate alloys for the construction of metal flex hoses in the STS launch environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontiveros, Cordelia

    1988-01-01

    Various vacuum jacketed cryogenic supply lines at the Shuttle launch site use convoluted flexible expansion joints. The atmosphere at the launch site has a very high salt content, and during a launch, fuel combustion products include hydrochloric acid. This extremely corrosive environment has caused pitting corrosion failure in the flex hoses, which were made of 304L stainless steel. A search was done to find a more corrosion resistant replacement material. This study focused on 19 metal alloys. Tests which were performed include electrochemical corrosion testing, accelerated corrosion testing in a salt fog chamber, long term exposure at the beach corrosion testing site, and pitting corrosion tests in ferric chloride solution. Based on the results of these tests, the most corrosion resistant alloys were found to be (in order) Hastelloy C-22, Inconel 625, Hastelloy C-276, Hastelloy C-4, and Inco Alloy G-3. Of these top five alloys, the Hastelloy C-22 stands out as being the best of those tested for this application.

  2. Replacement for a Flex Hose Coating at the Space Shuttle Launch Pad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Mary; Vinje, Rubiela; Curran, Jerome; Meneghelli, Barry; Calle, Luz Marina

    2009-01-01

    Aerocoat AR-7 is a coating that has been used to protect stainless steel flex hoses at NASA's Kennedy Space Center launch complex and hydraulic lines of the mobile launch platform (MLP). This coating has great corrosion control performance and low temperature application. AR-7 was developed by NASA and produced exclusively for NASA but its production has been discontinued due to its high content of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and significant environmental impact. The purpose of this project was to select and evaluate candidate coatings to find a replacement coating that is more environmentally friendly, with similar properties to AR-7. No coatings were identified that perform the same as AR-7 in all areas. Candidate coatings failed in comparison to AR-7 in salt fog, beachside atmospheric exposure, pencil hardness, Mandrel bend, chemical compatibility, adhesion, and ease of application tests. However, two coatings were selected for further evaluation.

  3. Urethane/Silicone Adhesives for Bonding Flexing Metal Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Paul D.

    2004-01-01

    Adhesives that are blends of commercially available urethane and silicone adhesives have been found to be useful for bonding metal parts that flex somewhat during use. These urethane/silicone adhesives are formulated for the specific metal parts to be bonded. The bonds formed by these adhesives have peel and shear strengths greater than those of bonds formed by double-sided tapes and by other adhesives, including epoxies and neat silicones. In addition, unlike the bonds formed by epoxies, the bonds formed by these adhesives retain flexibility. In the initial application for which the urethane/silicone adhesives were devised, there was a need to bond spring rings, which provide longitudinal rigidity for inflatable satellite booms, with the blades that provide the booms axial strength. The problem was to make the bonds withstand the stresses, associated with differences in curvature between the bonded parts, that arose when the booms were deflated and the springs were compressed. In experiments using single adhesives (that is, not the urethane/ silicone blends), the bonds were broken and, in each experiment, it was found that the adhesive bonded well with either the ring or with the blade, but not both. After numerous experiments, the adhesive that bonded best with the rings and the adhesive that bonded best with the blades were identified. These adhesives were then blended and, as expected, the blend bonded well with both the rings and the blades. The two adhesives are Kalex (or equivalent) high-shear-strength urethane and Dow Corning 732 (or equivalent) silicone. The nominal mixture ratio is 5 volume parts of the urethane per 1 volume part of the silicone. Increasing the proportion of silicone makes the bond weaker but more flexible, and decreasing the proportion of silicone makes the bond stronger but more brittle. The urethane/silicone blend must be prepared and used quickly because of the limited working time of the urethane: The precursor of the urethane

  4. Biofilms in shower hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Caitlin R; Reimann, Mauro; Vriens, Bas; Hammes, Frederik

    2017-12-14

    Shower hoses offer an excellent bacterial growth environment in close proximity to a critical end-user exposure route within building drinking water plumbing. However, the health risks associated with and processes underlying the development of biofilms in shower hoses are poorly studied. In a global survey, biofilms from 78 shower hoses from 11 countries were characterized in terms of cell concentration (4.1 × 10 4 -5.8 × 10 8  cells/cm 2 ), metal accumulation (including iron, lead, and copper), and microbiome composition (including presence of potential opportunistic pathogens). In countries using disinfectant, biofilms had on average lower cell concentrations and diversity. Metal accumulation (up to 5 μg-Fe/cm 2 , 75 ng-Pb/cm 2 , and 460 ng-Cu/cm 2 ) seemed to be partially responsible for discoloration in biofilms, and likely originated from other pipes upstream in the building. While some genera that may contain potential opportunistic pathogens (Legionella, detected in 21/78 shower hoses) were positively correlated with biofilm cell concentration, others (Mycobacterium, Pseudomonas) had surprisingly non-existent or negative correlations with biofilm cell concentrations. In a controlled study, 15 identical shower hoses were installed for the same time period in the same country, and both stagnant and flowing water samples were collected. Ecological theory of dispersal and selection helped to explain microbiome composition and diversity of different sample types. Shower hose age was related to metal accumulation but not biofilm cell concentration, while frequency of use appeared to influence biofilm cell concentration. This study shows that shower hose biofilms are clearly a critical element of building drinking water plumbing, and a potential target for building drinking water plumbing monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Flex & Bison

    CERN Document Server

    Levine, John

    2009-01-01

    If you need to parse or process text data in Linux or Unix, this useful book explains how to use flex and bison to solve your problems quickly. flex & bison is the long-awaited sequel to the classic O'Reilly book, lex & yacc. In the nearly two decades since the original book was published, the flex and bison utilities have proven to be more reliable and more powerful than the original Unix tools. flex & bison covers the same core functionality vital to Linux and Unix program development, along with several important new topics. You'll find revised tutorials for novices and references for ad

  6. Investigation of damaged hoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    Hoses used in hydraulics are known to fail. The total understanding of the failure mechanics doesn't seem to be known therefore a study is appropriate when a basis for a new product programme has to be set up.The approach in this task has been to look at different locations on a hose assembly where...... hoses fail and how it can be seen that the hose has failed. Some of reasons for the failures seem to be hypothesis rather than scientific evidence but it shows the authors best insight at the time of writing this text. The causes for failures has been grouped in two - the first being failures appearing...

  7. Assessment of Refueling Hose Visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    order to make inteligent decisions regarding hose replacement or hose cleaning one needs to look at the individual reflection coefficients not just... artificial lighting used to illuminate the hose does not satisfy the specular reflection geometry for the pilot’s view angle of the hose. Also, from

  8. Desirable design of hose fittings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the primary functionality of a hose fitting. There has been made a discussion about the different parts of the hose assembly - the nipple, the hose and the outer compression parts. The last subject covered is which criteria should be put up for determining what is a good hose...... fittings. There has been made an uncompleted list of 'Voice of Customer' to this respect. Observations and interviews in industry should expand this list....

  9. UniFlex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Ole; Helbo, Jan; Knudsen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    , a web site named UniFlex (University Flexible learning) has been developed and brought into use. The site is a comprehensive set of bookmarks including course taking, upload/download, and - of special significance - collaborative on-line project work. UniFlex has been developed to meet the requirement...... includes newly, developed pedagogical methods supporting teachers producing course materials. UniFlex is used as the selected site to prevent inconsistency and loss of information. The site is based on the most commonly used Internet architecture and tools and is structured relatively simple to ease...... for a simple and cheap personalized interactive site, supporting problem oriented and project organized study form, which has characterized Aalborg University for more than 25 years. UniFlex supports a virtual group room for collaborative work as a key facility. UniFlex has downloadable templates, which...

  10. UniFlex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Ole; Helbo, Jan; Knudsen, Morten

    2003-01-01

    , a web site named UniFlex (University Flexible learning) has been developed and brought into use. The site is a comprehensive set of bookmarks including course taking, upload/download, and - of special significance - collaborative on-line project work. UniFlex has been developed to meet the requirement...... includes newly, developed pedagogical methods supporting teachers producing course materials. UniFlex is used as the selected site to prevent inconsistency and loss of information. The site is based on the most commonly used Internet architecture and tools and is structured relatively simple to ease...... for a simple and cheap personalized interactive site, supporting problem oriented and project organized study form, which has characterized Aalborg University for more than 25 years. UniFlex supports a virtual group room for collaborative work as a key facility. UniFlex has downloadable templates, which...

  11. 49 CFR 393.45 - Brake tubing and hoses; hose assemblies and end fittings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... fittings. 393.45 Section 393.45 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... assemblies and end fittings. (a) General construction requirements for tubing and hoses, assemblies, and end fittings. All brake tubing and hoses, brake hose assemblies, and brake hose end fittings must meet the...

  12. AdvancED Flex 4

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Shashank; Schulze, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    AdvancED Flex 4 makes advanced Flex 4 concepts and techniques easy. Ajax, RIA, Web 2.0, mashups, mobile applications, the most sophisticated web tools, and the coolest interactive web applications are all covered with practical, visually oriented recipes. * Completely updated for the new tools in Flex 4* Demonstrates how to use Flex 4 to create robust and scalable enterprise-grade Rich Internet Applications.* Teaches you to build high-performance web applications with interactivity that really engages your users.* What you'll learn Practiced beginners and intermediate users of Flex, especially

  13. Design of automotive engine coolant hoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrishikesh D BACHCHHAV

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we are present the performance of engine coolant hoses (radiator hoses used in passenger cars by checking various physical behaviours such as hose leakage, hose burst, hose collapse or any mechanical damage as studied-thru design guidelines, CFD analysis and product validation testing and also check pressure drop of the hoses when engine will be running. The design term is more likely used for technical part modelling using CAD tool. Later on, we will focus on the transformation of the part design to process design. The process design term is more likely used for "tooling design" for manufacturing of the product using CAD Tool. Then inlet hose carries coolant from engine to radiator inlet tank, then coolant circulated in radiator and passed through radiator outlet tank to water pump of engine with the help of outlet hose. After that …nding any leakage, Burst, damage or collapse of hose and pressure drop of the hose with the help of design checklist, CFD Analysis and product validation testing.

  14. 46 CFR 154.554 - Cargo hose: Bursting pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. 154.554 Section 154.554... Hose § 154.554 Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. Cargo hose that may be exposed to the pressure in the cargo tank, the cargo pump discharge, or the vapor compressor discharge must have a bursting pressure of...

  15. 46 CFR 154.560 - Cargo hose: Prototype test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Prototype test. 154.560 Section 154.560... Hose § 154.560 Cargo hose: Prototype test. (a) Each cargo hose must be of a type that passes a prototype test at a pressure of at least five times its maximum working pressure at or below the minimum...

  16. 46 CFR 105.35-15 - Fire hose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire hose. 105.35-15 Section 105.35-15 Shipping COAST... VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 105.35-15 Fire hose. (a) One length of fire hose shall be provided for each fire hydrant required. (b) Fire hose may be commercial fire...

  17. 30 CFR 57.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air and Boilers § 57.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except where automatic shutoff valves are... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 57.13021...-pressure hose lines of 3/4-inch inside diameter or larger, and between high-pressure hose lines of 3/4-inch...

  18. Resistive flex sensors: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saggio, Giovanni; Riillo, Francesco; Sbernini, Laura; Quitadamo, Lucia Rita

    2016-01-01

    Resistive flex sensors can be used to measure bending or flexing with relatively little effort and a relatively low budget. Their lightness, compactness, robustness, measurement effectiveness and low power consumption make these sensors useful for manifold applications in diverse fields. Here, we provide a comprehensive survey of resistive flex sensors, taking into account their working principles, manufacturing aspects, electrical characteristics and equivalent models, useful front-end conditioning circuitry, and physic-bio-chemical aspects. Particular effort is devoted to reporting on and analyzing several applications of resistive flex sensors, related to the measurement of body position and motion, and to the implementation of artificial devices. In relation to the human body, we consider the utilization of resistive flex sensors for the measurement of physical activity and for the development of interaction/interface devices driven by human gestures. Concerning artificial devices, we deal with applications related to the automotive field, robots, orthosis and prosthesis, musical instruments and measuring tools. The presented literature is collected from different sources, including bibliographic databases, company press releases, patents, master’s theses and PhD theses. (topical review)

  19. Resistive flex sensors: a survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggio, Giovanni; Riillo, Francesco; Sbernini, Laura; Quitadamo, Lucia Rita

    2016-01-01

    Resistive flex sensors can be used to measure bending or flexing with relatively little effort and a relatively low budget. Their lightness, compactness, robustness, measurement effectiveness and low power consumption make these sensors useful for manifold applications in diverse fields. Here, we provide a comprehensive survey of resistive flex sensors, taking into account their working principles, manufacturing aspects, electrical characteristics and equivalent models, useful front-end conditioning circuitry, and physic-bio-chemical aspects. Particular effort is devoted to reporting on and analyzing several applications of resistive flex sensors, related to the measurement of body position and motion, and to the implementation of artificial devices. In relation to the human body, we consider the utilization of resistive flex sensors for the measurement of physical activity and for the development of interaction/interface devices driven by human gestures. Concerning artificial devices, we deal with applications related to the automotive field, robots, orthosis and prosthesis, musical instruments and measuring tools. The presented literature is collected from different sources, including bibliographic databases, company press releases, patents, master’s theses and PhD theses.

  20. Fluid Flow through Pipes--Another Look at Fire Hoses and Garden Hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, W.; Paranjape, B. V.

    1991-01-01

    The forward force of water on a hose is calculated using only the pressure gradient, the radius and length of the hose. The misconception about recoil on the nozzle is discussed. Dissipation energy and the consequent heat generation in a fluid flow are also described. (KR)

  1. 46 CFR 193.10-10 - Fire hydrants and hose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the vessel, other than main machinery spaces, may be reached with at least 2 streams of water from separate outlets, at least one of which must be from a single length of hose. In main machinery spaces, all... decks where no protection is afforded to the hose in heavy weather, the hose may be temporarily removed...

  2. System to Repair Deformations in Elastomeric Hoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-05

    February 2017 The below identified patent application is available for licensing . Requests for information should be addressed to...point. The primary disadvantage with these methods is the labor associated with wrapping and unwrapping thousands of feet of hose. [0006] Another

  3. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TORRES, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program, defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program, has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment placed in service have a working life in excess of this forecasted time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer and published literature. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, and the manufacturer's stated shelf life. This evaluation examines the manufacturer's certification of shelf life, the manufacturer's certifications of chemical compatibility with waste, and published literature on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on the mechanical properties of elastomeric materials to evaluate transfer line service life

  4. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanfords Interim Stabilization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TORRES, T.D.

    2001-01-01

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program (Torres, 2000a), defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of waste transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program (Torres, 2000b), has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications associated with Interim Stabilization. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning, RPP-6028 Section 3.2.7. Performance Incentive Number ORP-05 requires that all the Single Shell Tanks be Interim Stabilized by September 30, 2003. The Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestone M-41-00, enforced by a federal consent decree, requires all the Single Shell Tanks to be Interim stabilized by September 30, 2004. By meeting the Performance Incentive the TPA milestone is met. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment used to transfer waste have a life in excess of the forecasted operational time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer, published literature and calculations. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are the hose material's resistance to the harmful effects of process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, exposure to ionizing radiation and the

  5. IMPROVING PRODUCTION OF LOW PRESSURE HOSES

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Sygut; Marek Krynke

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research carried out in one of the domestic companies producing rubber and plastics products for the automotive industry. The results of the evaluation of the quality control function during production of the low pressure hoses and the characteristics of the main ma-chine taking part in this production process are presented. An analysis of the results of the evaluation of factors influencing the quality of production is presented and guidelines for improving ...

  6. Developing Android Applications with Flex 45

    CERN Document Server

    Tretola, Rich

    2011-01-01

    Ready to put your ActionScript 3 skills to work on mobile apps? This hands-on book walks you through the process of creating an Adobe AIR application from start to finish, using the Flex 4.5 framework. Move quickly from a basic Hello World application to complex interactions with Android APIs, and get complete code examples for working with Android device components-GPS, camera, gallery, accelerometer, multitouch display, and OS interactions. No matter how much Flex experience you have, this book is the ideal resource. Use Flash Builder 4.5 to create and debug a Flex Mobile projectChoose a la

  7. Flash Builder 4 and Flex 4 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Gassner, David

    2010-01-01

    A complete and thorough reference for developers on the new Flex 4 platform. Create desktop applications that behave identically on Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux with Adobe's new Flash Builder 4 platform and this in-depth guide. The book's tutorials and explanations walk you step-by-step through Flash Builder's new, faster tools; the new framework for generating code; how to connect to popular application servers; upgrading from Flex 3; and much more.: Shows you how to create rich applications for the Web and desktop with the very latest version of Flex, with detailed coverage for both new and

  8. RadFlexPro, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our proposed multilayered, flexible, graded Z radiation shielding, RadFlexPro, provides radiation protection for astronauts in EVA for NASA's future space missions....

  9. Beginning Java' and Flex Migrating Java, Spring, Hibernate and Maven Developers to Adobe Flex

    CERN Document Server

    di Pisa, F

    2009-01-01

    Over the past few years, the now open source Adobe Flex Framework has been adopted by the Java community as the preferred framework for Java RIAs using Flash for the presentation layer. Flex helps Java developers to build and maintain expressive web/desktop applications that deploy consistently on all major browsers, desktops, and operating systems. Beginning Java and Flex describes new, simpler, and faster ways to develop enterprise RIAs. This book is not only for Java or Flex developers, but also for all web developers who want to increase their productivity and the quality of their developm

  10. 30 CFR 56.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Boilers § 56.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except where automatic shutoff valves are used, safety chains or other suitable locking devices shall be used at connections to machines of high-pressure... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 56.13021...

  11. 46 CFR 197.312 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.312 Section 197.312 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.312 Breathing supply hoses. (a) Each...

  12. Model to Design Drip Hose Lateral Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Rafael; Cury Saad, João Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Introduction The design criterion for non-pressure compensating drip hose is normally to have 10% of flow variation (Δq) in the lateral line, corresponding to 20% of head pressure variation (ΔH). Longer lateral lines in drip irrigation systems using conventional drippers provide cost reduction, but it is necessary to obtain to the uniformity of irrigation [1]. The use of Δq higher levels can provide longer lateral lines. [4] proposes the use of a 30% Δq and he found that this value resulted in distribution uniformity over 80%. [1] considered it is possible to extend the lateral line length using two emitters spacing in different section. He assumed that the spacing changing point would be at 40% of the total length, because this is approximately the location of the average flow according with [2]. [3] found that, for practical purposes, the average pressure is located at 40% of the length of the lateral line and that until this point it has already consumed 75% of total pressure head loss (hf ). In this case, the challenge for designers is getting longer lateral lines with high values of uniformity. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a model to design longer lateral lines using non-pressure compensating drip hose. Using the developed model, the hypotheses to be evaluated were: a) the use of two different spacing between emitters in the same lateral line allows longer length; b) it is possible to get longer lateral lines using high values of pressure variation in the lateral lines since the distribution uniformity stays below allowable limits. Methodology A computer program was developed in Delphi® based on the model developed and it is able to design lateral lines in level using non-pressure compensating drip hose. The input data are: desired distribution uniformity (DU); initial and final pressure in the lateral line; coefficients of relationship between emitter discharge and pressure head; hose internal diameter; pipe cross-sectional area

  13. 33 CFR 149.550 - What are the requirements for lights on a floating hose string?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... lights on a floating hose string? 149.550 Section 149.550 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Aids to Navigation Lights on Floating Hose Strings § 149.550 What are the requirements for lights on a floating hose string? Hose strings that are floating or supported on trestles must display the...

  14. 33 CFR 183.530 - Spud, pipe, and hose fitting configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spud, pipe, and hose fitting....530 Spud, pipe, and hose fitting configuration. Except when used for a tank fill line, each spud, pipe, or hose fitting used with hose clamps must have: (a) A bead; (b) A flare; or (c) A series of annular...

  15. Resistive hose instability in the Bennet beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadezhdin, E.R.; Sorokin, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    Development of resistive hose instability of a relativistic electron beam with the Bennet current density distribution in a homogeneous unlimited plasma in the range of a high, 4πσ 0 a/c >> 1, and a low, 4πσ 0 a/c 0 =conductivity, c=light velocity, a = equilibrium beam radius) has been cansidered. Spatial and temporal increments of the instability development are calculated. In both cases the instability is of a convective nature. At 4πσ 0 a/c >> 1 the instability is shifted to the region of low frequencies as compared with the previously considered case of the Bennet profile of the plasma conductivity, σ(r)=σ 0 /(1+r 2 /a 2 ) 2 . It is shown that in an unlimited plasma a considerable decrease in the spatial and especially temporal increment of the instability development takes place

  16. Flex cars and the alcohol price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Alex Luiz; Da Silveira, Jaylson Jair; De Almeida Prado, Fernando Pigeard

    2009-01-01

    We build a model that incorporates the effect of the innovative 'flex' car, an automobile that is able to run with either gasoline or alcohol, on the dynamics of fuel prices in Brazil. Our model shows that differences regarding fuel prices will now depend on the proportions of alcohol, gasoline and flex cars in the total stock. Conversely, the demand for each type of car will also depend on the expected future prices of alcohol and gasoline (in addition to the car prices). The model reflects our findings that energy prices are tied in the long run and that causality runs stronger from gasoline to alcohol. The estimated error correction parameter is stable, implying that the speed of adjustment towards equilibrium remains unchanged. The latter result is probably due to a still small fraction of flex cars in the total stock (approx. 5%), despite the fact that its sales nearly reached 100% in 2006. (author)

  17. Emprego flexível em Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovács Ilona

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo, baseado nalguns dos resultados de um projecto de investigação em curso, tem por objectivo analisar a difusão do emprego flexível em Portugal e mostrar a sua diversidade. A difusão de formas flexíveis de emprego insere-se nos processos de reestruturação produtiva e flexibilização do mercado de trabalho no contexto da intensificação da concorrência na economia global. Recorrendo a dados estatísticos procede-se a uma análise da difusão e da evolução de algumas das formas mais relevantes de emprego flexível em Portugal, tais como o trabalho com contratos de duração determinada, o trabalho temporário, o trabalho independente e o trabalho a tempo parcial. Os trabalhadores com emprego flexível têm níveis de satisfação bastante inferiores aos dos trabalhadores com emprego estável. No entanto, o emprego flexível não abrange situações de emprego homogéneas, mas situações muito diversificadas que são apresentadas através de uma tipologia de situações de emprego flexível e uma tipologia de trajectórias profissionais.

  18. LESSONS LEARNED IN OPERATING THE HOSE-IN-HOSE SYSTEM FOR TRANSFSERRING SLUDGE AT HANFORD'S K BASINS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PERES MW

    2008-01-01

    In May 2007, the Department of Energy and the Fluor Hanford K Basin Closure Project completed transferring sludge from the K East Basin to new containers in the K West Basin using a Hose-in-Hose system. This project presented a number of complex and unique technical, operational, and management challenges that had to be resolved to complete the required transfers and satisfy project milestones. The project team (including DOE; regulators; and Fluor management, operations, maintenance, engineering and all other support organizations) found innovative solutions to each challenge. This paper records lessons learned during the operational phase of the sludge transfer via the Hose-In-Hose system. The subject is limited to the operational phase and does not cover design, development, testing or turnover. A discussion of the situation or problem encountered is provided, along with the lesson learned as applicable to a future program or project

  19. Biofilms on Hospital Shower Hoses: Characterization and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the source of drinking water used in hospitals is commonly, biofilms on water pipelines are refuge to bacteria that survive different disinfection strategies. Drinking water (DW) biofilms are well known to harbor opportunistic pathogens, however, these biofilm communities remain poorly characterized by culture-independent approaches that circumvent the limitations of conventional monitoring efforts. Hence, the frequency of pathogens in DW biofilms and how biofilm members withstand high doses of disinfectants and/or chlorine residuals in the water supply remain speculative, but directly impact public health. The aim of this study was to characterize the composition of microbial communities growing on five hospital shower hoses using both culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. Two different sequence-based methods were used to characterize the bacterial fractions: 16S rRNA gene sequencing of bacterial cultures and next generation sequencing of metagenomes. Based on the metagenomic data, we found that Mycobacterium-like species was the abundant bacterial taxa that overlapped among the five samples. We also recovered the draft genome of a novel Mycobacterium species, closely related to opportunistic pathogenic nontuberculous mycobacteria, M. rhodesiae and M. tusciae, in addition to other, less abundant species. In contrast, the cultured fraction was mostly affiliated to Proteobacteria, such as members of the Sphingomonas, Blastomonas and Porph

  20. Apparatus and methods for splicing conduits and hoses subsea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slocum, Alexander Henry; Gutierrez, Luis Javier

    2014-03-11

    A hose connection system comprises a body including an internal cavity and a port in fluid communication with a portion of the internal cavity. In addition, the system comprises a hose end fitting positioned in the cavity. The hose end fitting includes an inner tubular member and an outer tubular member concentrically disposed about the inner tubular member. The outer tubular member includes a plurality of circumferentially spaced axial slits. Further, the system comprises a plurality of wedge members arranged circumferentially about the outer tubular member. Still further, the system comprises an annular piston movably disposed within the internal cavity of the body. An end of the piston has an inner frustoconical surface that slidingly engages the plurality of wedge members. The piston is configured to move axially through the body and compress the wedge members and the outer tubular member radially inward.

  1. Hose-Modulation Instability of Laser Pulses in Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprangle, P.; Krall, J.; Esarey, E.

    1994-01-01

    A laser pulse propagating in a uniform plasma or a preformed plasma density channel is found to undergo a combination of hose and modulation instabilities, provided the pulse centroid has an initial tilt. Coupled equations for the laser centroid and envelope are derived and solved for a finite-length laser pulse. Significant coupling between the centroid and the envelope, harmonic generation in the envelope, and strong modification of the wake field can occur. Methods to reduce the growth rate of the laser hose instability are demonstrated

  2. 46 CFR 32.50-30 - Cargo hose-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose-TB/ALL. 32.50-30 Section 32.50-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Pumps, Piping, and Hose for Cargo Handling § 32.50-30 Cargo hose—TB/ALL. Cargo hose carried on...

  3. 49 CFR 178.348-3 - Pumps, piping, hoses and connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pumps, piping, hoses and connections. 178.348-3... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.348-3 Pumps, piping, hoses and connections. Each pump and all piping, hoses and connections on each cargo tank motor...

  4. 49 CFR 178.337-9 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and fittings. 178.337-9 Section 178.337-9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation....337-9 Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings. (a) Pressure relief devices. (1... encountered. (b) Piping, valves, hose, and fittings. (1) The burst pressure of all piping, pipe fittings, hose...

  5. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TORRES, T.D.

    2000-08-24

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program, defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program, has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment placed in service have a working life in excess of this forecasted time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer and published literature. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, and the manufacturer's stated shelf life. This evaluation examines the manufacturer's certification of shelf life, the manufacturer's certifications of chemical compatibility with waste, and published literature on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on the mechanical properties of elastomeric materials to evaluate transfer line service life.

  6. Deployment of FlexCHP System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cygan, David [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Gas Technology Institute (GTI), along with its partner Integrated CHP Systems Corporation, has developed and demonstrated an Ultra-Low-Nitrogen Oxide (ULN) Flexible Combined Heat and Power (FlexCHP) system that packages a state-of-the-art Capstone C65 gas microturbine and Johnston PFXX100 boiler with an innovative natural gas-fired supplemental burner. Supplemental burners add heat as needed in response to facility demand, which increases energy efficiency, but typically raises exhaust NOx levels, degrading local air quality unless a costly and complicated catalytic treatment system is added. The FlexCHP system increases energy efficiency and achieves the 2007 California Air Resource Board (CARB) distributed generation emissions standards for Nitrogen oxides (NOx), Carbon Monoxide (CO), and Total Hydrocarbons (THC) without catalytic exhaust gas treatment. The key to this breakthrough performance is a simple and reliable burner design which utilizes staged combustion with engineered internal recirculation. This ULN burner system successfully uses turbine exhaust as an oxidizer, while achieving high efficiencies and low emissions. In tests at its laboratory facilities in Des Plaines, Illinois, GTI validated the ability of the system to achieve emissions of NOx, CO, and THC below the CARB criteria of 0.07, 0.10, and 0.02 lb/MW-h respectively. The FlexCHP system was installed at the field demonstration site, Inland Empire Foods, in Riverside, California to verify performance of the technology in an applied environment. The resulting Combined Heat and Power (CHP) package promises to make CHP implementation more attractive, mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, and improve the reliability of electricity supply.

  7. Instrument pre-development activities for FLEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettinato, L.; Fossati, E.; Coppo, P. M.; Taiti, A.; Labate, D.; Capanni, A.; Taccola, M.; Bézy, J. L.; Francois, M.; Meynart, R.; Erdmann, L.; Triebel, P.

    2017-09-01

    The FLuorescence Imaging Spectrometer (FLORIS) is the payload of the FLuorescence Explorer Mission (FLEX) of the European Space Agency. The mission objective is to perform quantitative measurements of the solar induced vegetation fluorescence to monitor photosynthetic activity. FLORIS works in a push-broom configuration and it is designed to acquire data in the 500-780 nm spectral range, with a sampling of 0.1 nm in the oxygen bands (759-769 nm and 686- 697 nm) and 0.5-2.0 nm in the red edge, chlorophyll absorption and Photochemical Reflectance Index bands. FLEX will fly in formation with Sentinel-3 to benefit of the measurements made by the Sentinel-3 instruments OLCI and SLSTR, particularly for cloud screening, proper characterization of the atmospheric state and determination of the surface temperature. The instrument concept is based on a common telescope and two modified Offner spectrometers with reflective concave gratings both for the High Resolution (HR) and Low Resolution (LR) spectrometers. In the frame of the instrument pre-development Leonardo Company (I) has built and tested an elegant breadboard of the instrument consisting of the telescope and the HR spectrometer. The development of the LR spectrometer is in charge of OHB System AG (D) and is currently in the manufacturing phase. The main objectives of the activity are: anticipate the development of the instrument and provide early risk retirement of critical components, evaluate the system performances such as imaging quality parameters, straylight, ghost, polarization sensitivity and environmental influences, verify the adequacy of critical tests such as spectral characterization and straylight, define and optimize instrument alignment procedures. Following a brief overview of the FLEX mission, the paper will cover the design and the development of the optics breadboard with emphasis on the results obtained during the tests and the lessons learned for the flight unit.

  8. Effect of Temperature and Hose Genotype on Components of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Temperature and Hose Genotype on Components of Resistance to Groundnut Rust. ... African Crop Science Journal ... The effects of temperature on incubation period, infection frequency, lesion diameter, leaf area damage, pustule rupture, and sporulation were quantified for six groundnut genotypes, representing ...

  9. Integrity and efficiency in LNG transfer operations with flexible hoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, E. van; Twerda, A.

    2014-01-01

    The work presented contributes to the LNG supply chain by the development of a validated calculation model for corrugated flexible hoses or pipes developed for LNG Transfer. The model builds upon experience gained by TNO Technical Sciences (Fluid Dynamics) in a large number of flow tests carried out

  10. 49 CFR 571.106 - Standard No. 106; Brake hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Maintain a compressed air supply to the nozzle or nozzles free of oil and dirt and between 10 and 25 psi... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.106 Standard No. 106; Brake hoses. S1. Scope. This standard specifies...

  11. 33 CFR 183.540 - Hoses: Standards and markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) SAE Standard J1527DEC85, Class 1 and the fire test in § 183.590; or (2) Underwriters' Laboratories... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hoses: Standards and markings. 183.540 Section 183.540 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  12. Oblique electron fire hose instability: Particle-in-cell simulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellinger, Petr; Trávníček, Pavel M.; Decyk, V.; Schriver, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 1 (2014), s. 59-68 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/2041 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : electron temperature anisotropy * fire hose instability Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.426, year: 2014

  13. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section 197.456 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Periodic Tests and Inspections of Diving Equipment § 197...

  14. California condors spotted nesting in Big Spur | San Hose Mercury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    California condors spotted nesting in Big Spur. Associated Press San Hose Mercury News. Abstract. No Abstract. Vulture News Vol. 55, 2006: 59. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  15. Assessing integrity and realiability of multicomposite LNG transfer hoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijde, G.D. van der; Putten, S. van der

    2012-01-01

    Reliable transfer systems are a key element in developing floating LNG and the small scale LNG market. Multi-composite hoses may prove to be a reliable and cost effective solution for offshore, near- and on-shore applications. TNO, the Dutch contract research organization, has executed an extensive

  16. Oblique electron fire hose instability: Particle-in-cell simulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellinger, Petr; Trávníček, Pavel M.; Decyk, V.; Schriver, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 1 (2014), s. 59-68 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/2041 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) 284515 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : electron temperature anisotropy * fire hose instability Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.426, year: 2014 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2013JA019227/abstract

  17. Developing BlackBerry Tablet Applications with Flex 45

    CERN Document Server

    Tretola, Rich

    2011-01-01

    Ready to put your ActionScript 3 skills to work on mobile apps? This hands-on book walks you through the process of creating an Adobe AIR application for Blackberry Tablets from start to finish, using the Flex 4.5 framework. Move quickly from a basic Hello World application to complex interactions with Blackberry APIs, and get complete code examples for working with tablet components-including the accelerometer, GPS unit, camera, file system, and multitouch screen. This is an ideal resource no matter how much Flex experience you have. Use Flash Builder 4.5 to create and debug a Flex Mobile pr

  18. Evaluation of Flex-Grid architecture for NREN optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turus, Ioan; Kleist, Josva; Fagertun, Anna Manolova

    2014-01-01

    as reference topologies. Flex-Grid technology is suggested as a solution to cope with the different challenges in NREN transport networks such as traffic increase and introduction of novel physical layer services. Flex-Grid refers to narrow channel spacing values and requires a control plane which would enable......The paper presents an in-depth and structured evaluation of the impact that Flex-Grid technology reveals within current NRENs’ core optical networks. The evaluation is based on simulations performed with OPNET Modeler tool and considers NORDUnet as well as a normalized GEANT core optical network...

  19. Enterprise Development with Flex Best Practices for RIA Developers

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, Yakov; Tartakovsky, Anatole

    2010-01-01

    If you want to use Adobe Flex to build production-quality Rich Internet Applications for the enterprise, this groundbreaking book shows you exactly what's required. You'll learn efficient techniques and best practices, and compare several frameworks and tools available for RIA development -- well beyond anything you'll find in Flex tutorials and product documentation. Through many practical examples, the authors impart their considerable experience to help you overcome challenges during your project's life cycle. Enterprise Development with Flex also suggests proper tools and methodologies,

  20. 46 CFR 58.30-20 - Fluid power hose and fittings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fluid power hose and fittings. 58.30-20 Section 58.30-20... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-20 Fluid power hose and fittings. (a... § 58.30-1. (b) Hose and fittings shall meet the requirements of subpart 56.60 of this subchapter. (c...

  1. STS-32 crewmembers use water hoses during fire fighting training at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    STS-32 crewmembers use water hoses during fire fighting exercises at JSC's Fire Training Pit across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207. Mission Specialist (MS) G. David Low with nozzle open directs water into the fire as fire/ security personnel coaches and instructs him on his attempt to extinguish the blaze. MS Bonnie J. Dunbar maneuvers the hose behind Low. A second group of crewmembers alongside Low and Dunbar, MS Marsha S. Ivins, holding hose nozzle, Commander Daniel C. Brandenstein, and Pilot James D. Wetherbee position themselves before opening hose nozzle.

  2. Ignition of PTFE-lined flexible hoses by rapid pressurization with oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoff, Dwight; Bamford, Larry J.; Newton, Barry E.; Bryan, Coleman J.

    1989-01-01

    A high-volume pneumatic-impact system has been used to test PTFE-lined stainless steel braided hoses, in order to characterize the roles played in the mechanism of oxygen-induced ignition by impact pressure, pressurization rate, and upstream and downstream volumes of the hose. Ignitions are noted to have occurred at impact pressures well below the working pressure of the hoses, as well as at pressurization rates easily obtainable through manual operation of valves. The use of stainless steel hardlines downstream of the hose prevented ignitions at all pressures and pressurization rates; internal observations have shown evidence of shock ionization in the oxygen prior to ignition.

  3. Beginning Foreign Language: FLEX "sans prix, sans precio, kostenlos."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Mary Lee

    1982-01-01

    Discusses implementation of a FLEX program called Beginning Foreign Language at Mooresville High School, including administrative scheduling, room assignments, budget, general and specific objectives of course, materials, testing, and grading. Concludes positive aspects outweigh unresolved problems. (BK)

  4. Structural analysis of HyFlex EDM instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacono, F; Pirani, C; Generali, L; Bolelli, G; Sassatelli, P; Lusvarghi, L; Gandolfi, M G; Giorgini, L; Prati, C

    2017-03-01

    To compare the phase transformation behaviour, the microstructure, the nano-hardness and the surface chemistry of electro-discharge machined HyFlex EDM instruments with conventionally manufactured HyFlex CM. New and laboratory used HyFlex EDM were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Nano-hardness and modulus of elasticity were also investigated using a maximum load of 20 mN with a minimum of 40 significant indentations for each sample. Raman spectroscopy and field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) were used to assess the surface chemistry of HyFlex EDM. HyFlex CM were subjected to the same investigations and used as a comparison. Nano-indentation data were statistically analysed using the Student's t-test. XRD analysis on HyFlex EDM revealed the presence of martensite and rhombohedral R-phase, while a mixture of martensite and austenite structure was identified in HyFlex CM. DSC analysis also disclosed higher austenite finish (Af) temperatures for electro-discharge machining (EDM) instruments. Significant differences in nano-hardness and modulus of elasticity were found between EDM and CM files (P EDM and CM files were covered by an oxide layer. Micro-Raman spectroscopy assessed the presence of rutile-TiO 2 . HyFlex EDM revealed peculiar structural properties, such as increased phase transformation temperatures and hardness. Present results corroborated previous findings and shed light on the enhanced mechanical behaviour of these instruments. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Flex-flame burner and combustion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soupos, Vasilios; Zelepouga, Serguei; Rue, David M.; Abbasi, Hamid A.

    2010-08-24

    A combustion method and apparatus which produce a hybrid flame for heating metals and metal alloys, which hybrid flame has the characteristic of having an oxidant-lean portion proximate the metal or metal alloy and having an oxidant-rich portion disposed above the oxidant lean portion. This hybrid flame is produced by introducing fuel and primary combustion oxidant into the furnace chamber containing the metal or metal alloy in a substoichiometric ratio to produce a fuel-rich flame and by introducing a secondary combustion oxidant into the furnace chamber above the fuel-rich flame in a manner whereby mixing of the secondary combustion oxidant with the fuel-rich flame is delayed for a portion of the length of the flame.

  6. Proton fire hose instabilities in the expanding solar wind

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellinger, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 705830105. ISSN 0022-3778 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : astrophysicals plasmas * plasma expansion * plasma simulation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 1.160, year: 2016 https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-plasma-physics/article/proton-fire-hose-instabilities-in-the-expanding-solar-wind/6BA70378B25728533588A1A68073AC2F

  7. Technical Evaluation for the Determination of CGI Designation for Safety Class Items Incorporated in Hose-in-Hose Transfer Line Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BUCHANAN, J.R.

    2000-05-16

    The purpose of this technical evaluation is to determine whether the secondary hoses are to be categorized as Commercial Grade Items (CGI) or Engineered Equipment. This determination will identify whether or not use of the CGI Dedication process is appropriate.

  8. Technical Evaluation for the Determination of CGI Designation for Safety Class Items Incorporated in Hose-in-Hose Transfer Line Assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BUCHANAN, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this technical evaluation is to determine whether the secondary hoses are to be categorized as Commercial Grade Items (CGI) or Engineered Equipment. This determination will identify whether or not use of the CGI Dedication process is appropriate

  9. 46 CFR 34.10-10 - Fire station hydrants, hose and nozzles-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... water, one of which shall be from a single 50-foot length of hose. In main machinery spaces all portions... must be located to afford protection from heavy seas. The hose must be stored in a location that is... Weather deck 4 10 or 12 Machinery space 2 4 (f) Each combination firehose nozzle previously approved under...

  10. 46 CFR 38.15-5 - Cargo hose-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose-TB/ALL. 38.15-5 Section 38.15-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Special Requirements § 38.15-5 Cargo hose—TB/ALL. (a) When the liquid and vapor line hoses used for loading and discharging...

  11. 46 CFR 76.10-10 - Fire station hydrants, hose and nozzles-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... length of hose. For the purpose of this requirement, all watertight doors and all doors in main vertical... other than watertight doors and doors in main vertical zone bulkheads for the passage of the hose. In... drain valves so that the entire exposed parts of such piping may be shut off and drained in freezing...

  12. A Flex-market Design for Flexibility Services through DERs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    in this paper. With the brand new notion of Flexibility Clearing House (FLECH), the proposed Flex-market has the ability to promote small scale DERs (up to 5MW) to participate in flexibility services trading. Accordingly, efforts to relieve the congestions in local grid areas, the contractual flexibility......The high penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) will significantly challenge the power system operation due to their intermittent characteristic. In order to utilize the DERs as economically efficient as possible in the distribution grid, an Aggregator-based Flex-market is proposed...... services of DERs are stipulated accommodating the various requirements of DSOs. The trading setups and processes are illustrated in details as well. Additionally, the demonstration diagram of Flex-market is also introduced in this paper. The diagram is utilized to test the feasibility and robustness...

  13. Vacuum-Flex Figuring of Primary Telescope Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, E. F. M.

    2004-12-01

    In the current investigation, details on the construction and performance of a vacuum-flexed (i.e., figured) 51 cm (20-inch) mirror, with a fast f/4 focal ratio, are presented. A vacuum has the chief advantage of being able to pull with a uniform or isotropic stress across a large surface area, which will naturally form a parabolic surface. The essence of the idea is to grind and polish a spherical mirror and then warp or flex it into a near perfect paraboloid, thus avoiding tedious figuring altogether. To date, telescope makers around the globe have experimented with small flexed mirrors with considerable success. In these instances, mirrors have been flexed by exerting tension on a bolt or sponge-pad adhered to the back of the mirror. The prototype mirror consists of two 51 cm disks of plate glass -- each slumped to an f/4 focal ratio. The front-plate (19 mm in thickness) is separated from the back-plate (13 mm in thickness) back a flexible 9.5 mm air filled gasket. Although the rubber gasket makes a fairly good vacuum seal, silicon cement was placed about the outer edge in order to produce a perfectly tight seal. A vacuum of 8 kPa on the back of the mirror resulted in approximately 164 kilograms of negative pressure, which is required to flex the mirror into the required paraboloid. Ronchi test show a nice smooth paraboloid free from astigmatism while foucault zonal measurements display a figure better than 1/20 wave. Preliminary star testing show promising results as well. Vacuum-flexed mirrors may have benefits for both amateur and professional telescope makers alike. A US patent is pending on the aforementioned design.

  14. Timing Analysis of the FlexRay Communication Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Traian; Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru

    2006-01-01

    FlexRay will very likely become the de-facto standard for in-vehicle communications. However, before it can be successfully used for safety-critical applications that require predictability, timing analysis techniques are necessary for providing bounds for the message communication times....... In this paper, we propose techniques for determining the timing properties of messages transmitted in both the static (ST) and the dynamic (DYN) segments of a FlexRay communication cycle. The analysis techniques for messages are integrated in the context of a holistic schedulability analysis that computes...

  15. FIRE HOSE INSTABILITY DRIVEN BY ALPHA PARTICLE TEMPERATURE ANISOTROPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matteini, L.; Schwartz, S. J. [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Hellinger, P. [Astronomical Institute, CAS, Prague (Czech Republic); Landi, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Firenze (Italy)

    2015-10-10

    We investigate properties of a solar wind-like plasma, including a secondary alpha particle population exhibiting a parallel temperature anisotropy with respect to the background magnetic field, using linear and quasi-linear predictions and by means of one-dimensional hybrid simulations. We show that anisotropic alpha particles can drive a parallel fire hose instability analogous to that generated by protons, but that, remarkably, can also be triggered when the parallel plasma beta of alpha particles is below unity. The wave activity generated by the alpha anisotropy affects the evolution of the more abundant protons, leading to their anisotropic heating. When both ion species have sufficient parallel anisotropies, both of them can drive the instability, and we observe the generation of two distinct peaks in the spectra of the fluctuations, with longer wavelengths associated to alphas and shorter ones to protons. If a non-zero relative drift is present, the unstable modes propagate preferentially in the direction of the drift associated with the unstable species. The generated waves scatter particles and reduce their temperature anisotropy to a marginally stable state, and, moreover, they significantly reduce the relative drift between the two ion populations. The coexistence of modes excited by both species leads to saturation of the plasma in distinct regions of the beta/anisotropy parameter space for protons and alpha particles, in good agreement with in situ solar wind observations. Our results confirm that fire hose instabilities are likely at work in the solar wind and limit the anisotropy of different ion species in the plasma.

  16. Design of a Fast Measuring System for the Section Size of Automobile Rubber Hose Withhold Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanwu; Zhang, Teng; Ren, Jingrui

    2017-12-01

    The quality of withhold parts determines the service life of high-pressure rubber hose to a great extent. Leakage at withholding is the main form of high pressure hose failure in the several forms. The quickest and most effective method to detect the withholding quality is measuring the section size of the withhold parts. As long as the section size is in line with the provisions, that is, the quality of hose withholding is qualified. In this paper, the mesurement system which is designed improves low efficiency of manual mesurement.

  17. FlexED8: the first member of a fast and flexible sample-changer family for macromolecular crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Gergely; Felisaz, Franck; Sorez, Clement; Lopez-Marrero, Marcos; Janocha, Robert; Manjasetty, Babu; Gobbo, Alexandre; Belrhali, Hassan; Bowler, Matthew W; Cipriani, Florent

    2017-10-01

    Automated sample changers are now standard equipment for modern macromolecular crystallography synchrotron beamlines. Nevertheless, most are only compatible with a single type of sample holder and puck. Recent work aimed at reducing sample-handling efforts and crystal-alignment times at beamlines has resulted in a new generation of compact and precise sample holders for cryocrystallography: miniSPINE and NewPin [see the companion paper by Papp et al. (2017, Acta Cryst., D73, 829-840)]. With full data collection now possible within seconds at most advanced beamlines, and future fourth-generation synchrotron sources promising to extract data in a few tens of milliseconds, the time taken to mount and centre a sample is rate-limiting. In this context, a versatile and fast sample changer, FlexED8, has been developed that is compatible with the highly successful SPINE sample holder and with the miniSPINE and NewPin sample holders. Based on a six-axis industrial robot, FlexED8 is equipped with a tool changer and includes a novel open sample-storage dewar with a built-in ice-filtering system. With seven versatile puck slots, it can hold up to 112 SPINE sample holders in uni-pucks, or 252 miniSPINE or NewPin sample holders, with 36 samples per puck. Additionally, a double gripper, compatible with the SPINE sample holders and uni-pucks, allows a reduction in the sample-exchange time from 40 s, the typical time with a standard single gripper, to less than 5 s. Computer vision-based sample-transfer monitoring, sophisticated error handling and automatic error-recovery procedures ensure high reliability. The FlexED8 sample changer has been successfully tested under real conditions on a beamline.

  18. Conveyorized Photoresist Stripping Replacement for Flex Circuit Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megan Donahue

    2009-02-24

    A replacement conveyorized photoresist stripping system was characterized to replace the ASI photoresist stripping system. This system uses the qualified ADF-25c chemistry for the fabrication of flex circuits, while the ASI uses the qualified potassium hydroxide chemistry. The stripping process removes photoresist, which is used to protect the copper traces being formed during the etch process.

  19. FLEX: an imaging spectrometer for measurement of vegetation fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorenburg, Kees; Visser, Huib; Court, Andrew; Stoll, Marc Ph.

    2017-11-01

    Detection of vegetation fluorescence gives information about plant functioning, stress and vitality. During the past decades several ground based laser fluorosensors have been developed to investigate these processes and to demonstrate the value of this technique. FLEX (= FLuorescense EXplorer) is a space mission to measure the fluorescence of vegetation on earth over large areas from space. Such a mission would greatly improve the understanding and enhance the capability to quantify e.g. the role of terrestrial vegetation in global carbon sequestration. Because the fluorescence signal, which is excited by solar irradiation is low with respect to the reflected sunlight the signal from a satellite is proposed to be measured in the solar Fraunhofer lines, where the reflection signal is much reduced. The heart of FLEX is a high resolution imaging spectrometer with 2 channels: channel 1 around the Fraunhofer lines at ‡ = 397 nm, ‡= 423 nm and/or ‡ = 434 nm and channel 2 around the Fraunhofer line at ‡ = 656 nm. The required spectral resolution will depend on the linewidth (0.02-0.3 nm). A first definition of the field of view is 8.4 degrees, leading from an 800 km satellite altitude to a swath of about 120 km. For detection a 1024x1024 pixel frame transfer CCD detector is proposed, with a pixel dimension of 13 x 13 ‡ mm2. The maximum footprint is about 500x500m2. The optical configuration contains a scan mirror for solar calibration, for pointing the FOV in swath direction and for freezing the observed ground scene up to a few seconds to increase the signal to noise performance. At this moment the concept of FLEX is elaborated in a feasibility study. Both the scientific and instrument requirements are updated and the concept is studied in detail. Besides a development plan for FLEX is made. In this paper the idea and the headlines of FLEX are described.

  20. STS-32 crewmembers use water hose during exercises at JSC fire training pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    STS-32 Commander Daniel C. Brandenstein (left) and Pilot James D. Wetherbee handle water hose during fire training exercises conducted at JSC Fire Training Pit across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207.

  1. Oblique proton fire hose instability in the expanding solar wind: Hybrid simulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellinger, Petr; Trávníček, Pavel M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 113, A10 (2008), A10109/1-A10109/9 ISSN 0148-0227 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420702; GA AV ČR IAA300420602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517; CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : kinetic instability * fire hose * solar wind * fire hose instabilities * linear analysis * nonlinear evolution * solar wind Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.147, year: 2008

  2. Delayed Migration of a WallFlex Enteral Stent Resulting in Jejunal Perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip S. Ge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Enteral stents are increasingly utilized to palliate malignant gastrointestinal obstruction; however, they can be associated with significant complications. We describe an unusual case of a 67-year-old male with gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent placement of a WallFlex metallic enteral stent to relieve a malignant gastric outlet obstruction. Four months later, while actively undergoing chemotherapy, he developed acute abdominal pain and was found to have delayed stent migration and jejunal perforation. He required emergent surgical resection of the perforated segment of jejunum. Delayed migration of the WallFlex enteral stent with subsequent visceral perforation has yet to be reported in the literature. Chemotherapy after stent placement has been associated with an increase in maintenance of stent patency; however, shrinkage of the local tumor by chemoradiation may increase the risk of stent migration. Care should be taken in placing enteral stents in patients undergoing continued treatment of their malignancy, as delayed migration of even uncovered stents may occur.

  3. Déficit bilateral nos movimentos de flexão e extensão de perna e flexão do cotovelo

    OpenAIRE

    Chaves, Christianne Pereira Giesbrecht; Guerra, Cláudia Porto Corrêa; Moura, Silvia Regina Gonçalves de; Nicoli, Antonio Izidoro Vieira; Idemar, Félix; Simão, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Os exercícios resistidos (ER) podem ser realizados de forma uni e bilateral. O objetivo foi comparar a carga máxima (CM) na flexão e extensão de perna e flexão de cotovelo isoladamente e entre a soma desses dois resultados com aquele desenvolvido simultaneamente pelas duas pernas e dois braços, respectivamente. Foram submetidos 60 indivíduos ao exercício de flexão e extensão de perna e a flexão de cotovelo ao teste de 1RM. Os resultados para os movimentos de flexão e extensão de perna e flexã...

  4. Flex Fuel Optimized SI and HCCI Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Guoming [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Mechanical Engineering; Schock, Harold [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Mechanical Engineering; Yang, Xiaojian [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Mechanical Engineering; Huisjen, Andrew [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Mechanical Engineering; Stuecken, Tom [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Mechanical Engineering; Moran, Kevin [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Mechanical Engineering; Zhen, Ren [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Mechanical Engineering; Zhang, Shupeng [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Mechanical Engineering; Opra, John [Chrysler Corporation, Auburn Hill, MI (United States); Reese, Ron [Chrysler Corporation, Auburn Hill, MI (United States)

    2013-12-20

    The central objective of the proposed work is to demonstrate an HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) capable SI (spark ignited) engine that is capable of fast and smooth mode transition between SI and HCCI combustion modes. The model-based control technique was used to develop and validate the proposed control strategy for the fast and smooth combustion mode transition based upon the developed control-oriented engine; and an HCCI capable SI engine was designed and constructed using production ready two-step valve-train with electrical variable valve timing actuating system. Finally, smooth combustion mode transition was demonstrated on a metal engine within eight engine cycles. The Chrysler turbocharged 2.0L I4 direct injection engine was selected as the base engine for the project and the engine was modified to fit the two-step valve with electrical variable valve timing actuating system. To develop the model-based control strategy for stable HCCI combustion and smooth combustion mode transition between SI and HCCI combustion, a control-oriented real-time engine model was developed and implemented into the MSU HIL (hardware-in-the-loop) simulation environment. The developed model was used to study the engine actuating system requirement for the smooth and fast combustion mode transition and to develop the proposed mode transition control strategy. Finally, a single cylinder optical engine was designed and fabricated for studying the HCCI combustion characteristics. Optical engine combustion tests were conducted in both SI and HCCI combustion modes and the test results were used to calibrate the developed control-oriented engine model. Intensive GT-Power simulations were conducted to determine the optimal valve lift (high and low) and the cam phasing range. Delphi was selected to be the supplier for the two-step valve-train and Denso to be the electrical variable valve timing system supplier. A test bench was constructed to develop control strategies for

  5. Localized corrosion of high performance metal alloys in an acid/salt environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdowell, L. G.; Ontiveros, C.

    1991-01-01

    Various vacuum jacketed cryogenic supply lines at the Space Shuttle launch site at Kennedy Space Center use convoluted flexible expansion joints. The atmosphere at the launch site has a very high salt content, and during a launch, fuel combustion products include hydrochloric acid. This extremely corrosive environment has caused pitting corrosion failure in the thin walled 304L stainless steel flex hoses. A search was done to find a more corrosion resistant replacement material. The study focussed on 19 metal alloys. Tests which were performed include electrochemical corrosion testing, accelerated corrosion testing in a salt fog chamber, and long term exposure at a beach corrosion testing site. Based on the results of these tests, several nickel based alloys were found to have very high resistance to this corrosive environment. Also, there was excellent agreement between the electrochemical tests and the actual beach exposure tests. This suggests that electrochemical testing may be useful for narrowing the field of potential candidate alloys before subjecting samples to long term beach exposure.

  6. Experience of FlexCtrl SCADA usage for accelerator automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforov, A.S.; Alejnikov, V.V.; Sychev, K.P.; Borina, I.V.; Rukavishnikov, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Software of particle accelerator control system is described in this paper. Software is based on licensed software (FlexCtrl SCADA, Photon Application Builder, Cogent DataHub) and additionally developed class library. This software is integrated programming environment and according to its functionality serves as visual programming. Properties number of IDE components as well as components number can be increased due to the fact that IDE is characterized by its openness

  7. Novel Approach to Control of Robotic Hand Using Flex Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandesh R.S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss about novel design approach to control of a robotic hand using flex sensors which indicates a biomechatronic multi fingered robotic hand. This robotic hand consists of base unit, upper arm, lower arm, palm and five fingers. The aim is to develop an anthropomorphic five fingered robotic hand. The proposed design illustrates the use of 5 micro DC motors with 9 Degrees of Freedom (DOF.Each finger is controlled independently. Further three extra motors were used for the control of wrist elbow and base movement. The study of the DC motor is being carried out using the transfer function model for constant excitation. The micro DC motor performance was analyzed using MATLAB simulation environment. The whole system is implemented using flex sensors. The flex sensors placed on the human hand gloves appear as if they look like real human hand.  89v51 microcontroller was used for all the controlling actions along with RF transmitter/receiver .The performance of the system has been conducted experimentally and studied.

  8. Experimental Charging Behavior of Orion UltraFlex Array Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golofaro, Joel T.; Vayner, Boris V.; Hillard, Grover B.

    2010-01-01

    The present ground based investigations give the first definitive look describing the charging behavior of Orion UltraFlex arrays in both the Low Earth Orbital (LEO) and geosynchronous (GEO) environments. Note the LEO charging environment also applies to the International Space Station (ISS). The GEO charging environment includes the bounding case for all lunar mission environments. The UltraFlex photovoltaic array technology is targeted to become the sole power system for life support and on-orbit power for the manned Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). The purpose of the experimental tests is to gain an understanding of the complex charging behavior to answer some of the basic performance and survivability issues to ascertain if a single UltraFlex array design will be able to cope with the projected worst case LEO and GEO charging environments. Stage 1 LEO plasma testing revealed that all four arrays successfully passed arc threshold bias tests down to -240 V. Stage 2 GEO electron gun charging tests revealed that only the front side area of indium tin oxide coated array designs successfully passed the arc frequency tests

  9. The assesment of flex blue implementation in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahala Maruli Lumbanraja

    2014-01-01

    Flex blue is a small power modular and light water cooled reactor. The reactor site is located at the bottom of the sea surface (off shore) and main control room on the ground. Hull that contains of the main reactor components is placed at a depth of 60-100 m in the bottom of the sea surface so that the safety and security system is quite high. NPP was developed by the DCNS-France to meet the electrical energy needs of the world. The purpose of this study was to study the pre-feasibility of Flex blue implementation in Indonesia based on technological factors, sea geographical conditions and regulatory. The methodology used is to study a variety of literature study on NPP Flex blue technology, geographic conditions, and regulatory systems in Indonesia. In this study, location of potential sites are on the east coast of the island of Sumatra, Java's northern coast, the coast of the Borneo island and surrounding coastal islands between the east of the Sumatra island, northern Java and Borneo, however in terms of regulation, this technology could not be implemented. (author)

  10. Energetic evaluation of a mechanical dryer (flex) to familiar agriculture; Avaliacao energetica de um secador mecanico (FLEX) para cafeicultura familiar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donzeles, Sergio M.L. [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais (CTZM/EPAMIG), Vicosa, MG (Brazil). Centro Tecnologico da Zona da Mata], E-mail: slopes@ufv.br; Silva, Juarez S.; Martin, Samuel; Nogueira, R.M.; Silva, Jadir N.; Zanata, Fabio L. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: juarez@ufv.br, jadir@ufv.br, samuel.martin@ufv.br

    2009-07-01

    Actually, the coffee is one of the most important exportation crops of the country. The utilization of obsolete or unsuitable processes, specifically related to the coffee drying, it can to damage the final quality of the product, besides to result in a low profitability of the coffee growing. In this work a mechanical drier (flex) was built, for the familiar coffee growing, being subsequently evaluated, to the drying of peeled cherry coffee, by the realization of two tests: one with heating of the air using vegetable coal and other combining the use of solar heater with vegetable coal. Basing on the results, it was possible to conclude that the drying of coffee in the mechanical drier Flex can be carried out using vegetable coal as fuel as well as associating the use of the vegetable coal with the solar collector, to save energy. (author)

  11. Identification, Characterization and Antibiotic Resistance of Bacterial Isolates Obtained from Waterpipe Device Hoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed M. Masadeh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The general lack of knowledge about the health effects of waterpipe smoking is among the reasons for its global spread. In this study, bacterial contamination of waterpipe hoses was investigated. Twenty hoses were collected from waterpipe cafés and screened for bacterial pathogens using standard culture and isolation techniques. Additionally, resistance of isolated bacteria to common antibiotics was determined by identifying the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of each isolate. Forty eight bacterial isolates were detected. Isolates included both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens from species that included Micrococcus (12, Corynebacterium (13 and Bacillus (9. In addition, some of the detected pathogens were found to be resistant to aztreonam (79%, cefixime (79%, norfloxacin, amoxicillin (47%, clarithromycin (46% and enrofloxacin (38%. In conclusion, the hose of the waterpipe device is a good environment for the growth of bacterial pathogens, which can then be transmitted to users.

  12. Identification, characterization and antibiotic resistance of bacterial isolates obtained from waterpipe device hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masadeh, Majed M; Hussein, Emad I; Alzoubi, Karem H; Khabour, Omar; Shakhatreh, Muhamad Ali K; Gharaibeh, Mahmoud

    2015-05-13

    The general lack of knowledge about the health effects of waterpipe smoking is among the reasons for its global spread. In this study, bacterial contamination of waterpipe hoses was investigated. Twenty hoses were collected from waterpipe cafés and screened for bacterial pathogens using standard culture and isolation techniques. Additionally, resistance of isolated bacteria to common antibiotics was determined by identifying the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each isolate. Forty eight bacterial isolates were detected. Isolates included both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens from species that included Micrococcus (12), Corynebacterium (13) and Bacillus (9). In addition, some of the detected pathogens were found to be resistant to aztreonam (79%), cefixime (79%), norfloxacin, amoxicillin (47%), clarithromycin (46%) and enrofloxacin (38%). In conclusion, the hose of the waterpipe device is a good environment for the growth of bacterial pathogens, which can then be transmitted to users.

  13. Internal Thermal Control System Hose Heat Transfer Fluid Thermal Expansion Evaluation Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, P. O.; Hawk, H. D.

    2001-01-01

    During assembly of the International Space Station, the Internal Thermal Control Systems in adjacent modules are connected by jumper hoses referred to as integrated hose assemblies (IHAs). A test of an IHA has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center to determine whether the pressure in an IHA filled with heat transfer fluid would exceed the maximum design pressure when subjected to elevated temperatures (up to 60 C (140 F)) that may be experienced during storage or transportation. The results of the test show that the pressure in the IHA remains below 227 kPa (33 psia) (well below the 689 kPa (100 psia) maximum design pressure) even at a temperature of 71 C (160 F), with no indication of leakage or damage to the hose. Therefore, based on the results of this test, the IHA can safely be filled with coolant prior to launch. The test and results are documented in this Technical Memorandum.

  14. Can Diagnostic and Therapeutic Arthrocentesis Be Successfully Performed in the Flexed Knee?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqub, Sabeen; Sibbitt, Wilmer L; Band, Philip A; Bennett, James F; Emil, N Suzanne; Fangtham, Monthida; Fields, Roderick A; Hayward, William A; Kettwich, Scarlett K; Roldan, Luis P; Bankhurst, Arthur D

    2018-02-07

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the extended or flexed knee positioning was superior for arthrocentesis and whether the flexed knee positioning could be improved by mechanical compression. Fifty-five clinically effusive knees underwent arthrocentesis in a quality improvement intervention: 20 consecutive knees in the extended knee position using the superolateral approach, followed by 35 consecutive knees in the flexed knee position with and without an external compression brace placed on the suprapatellar bursa. Arthrocentesis success and fluid yield in milliliters were measured. Fluid yield for the extended knee was greater (191% greater) than the flexed knee (extended knee, 16.9 ± 15.7 mL; flexed knee, 5.8 ± 6.3 mL; P < 0.007). Successful diagnostic arthrocentesis (≥2 mL) was 95% (19/20) in the extended knee and 77% (27/35) in the flexed knee (P = 0.08). After mechanical compression was applied to the suprapatellar bursa and patellofemoral joint of the flexed knee, fluid yields were essentially identical (extended knee, 16.9 ± 15.7 mL; flexed knee, 16.7 ± 11.3 mL; P = 0.73), as were successful diagnostic arthrocentesis (≥2 mL) (extended knee 95% vs. flexed knee 100%, P = 0.12). The extended knee superolateral approach is superior to the flexed knee for conventional arthrocentesis; however, the extended knee positioning and flexed knee positioning have identical arthrocentesis success when mechanical compression is applied to the superior knee. This new flexed knee technique for arthrocentesis is a useful alternative for patients who are in wheelchairs, have flexion contractures, cannot be supine, or cannot otherwise extend their knee.

  15. Flex 4 Cookbook Real-world recipes for developing Rich Internet Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, Joshua; Braithwaite, Garth; Casario, Marco; Tretola, Rich

    2010-01-01

    With this collection of proven recipes, you have the ideal problem-solving guide for developing interactive Rich Internet Applications on the Adobe Flash Platform. You'll find answers to hundreds of common problems you may encounter when using Adobe Flex, Flex 4 Framework, or Flash Builder, Adobe's GUI-based development tool. Flex 4 Cookbook has hands-on recipes for everything from Flex basics to solutions for working with visual components and data access, as well as tips on application development, unit testing, and Adobe AIR. Each recipe provides an explanation of how and why it works, an

  16. Low-Temperature Miscibility of Ethanol-Gasoline-Water Blends in Flex Fuel Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T.; Schramm, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    The miscibility of blends of gasoline and hydrous ethanol was investigated experimentally at - 25 degrees C and - 2 degrees C. Furthermore, the maximum water content was found for ethanol in flex fuel blends. The results strongly indicate that blends containing ethanol with a water content above...... that of the ethanol/water azeotrope (4.4% water by mass) can be used as Flex Fuel blends together with gasoline at ambient temperatures of 25 degrees C and 2 degrees C, without phase separation occurring. Additionally, it was shown that the ethanol purity requirement of ethanol-rich flex fuel blends falls...... with increasing ethanol content in the gasoline-rich flex fuel blend....

  17. Atlantis FLEX (BAY 22010 H – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Atlantis FLEX (Mesosulfuron-methyl; Propoxycarbazone-sodium; Mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides, ryegrass (Lolium spec., brome grass (Bromus spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L, annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis FLEX can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis FLEX. It will be shown, that Atlantis FLEX generates a good to excellent efficacy against grass-weeds.

  18. Flexed-knee gait in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, C; Ge, J; Hager, S; Haumont, T; Lennon, N; Niiler, T; Hulbert, R; Miller, F

    2018-04-01

    Aims The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of adolescents with cerebral palsy who have undergone single-event multilevel surgery for a flexed-knee gait, followed into young adulthood using 3D motion analysis. Patients and Methods A total of 59 young adults with spastic cerebral palsy, with a mean age of 26 years (sd 3), were enrolled into the study in which their gait was compared with an evaluation that had taken place a mean of 12 years (sd 2) previously. At their visits during adolescence, the children walked with excessive flexion of the knee at initial contact and surgical or therapeutic interventions were not controlled between visits. Results Based on the change in flexed-knee gait over approximately ten years, improvements were seen in increased Gait Deviation Index (p gait (p = 0.007) suggested a mild decline in function. Quality-of-life measures showed that these patients fell within normal limits compared with typical young adults in areas other than physical function. Conclusion While some small significant changes were noted, little clinically significant change was seen in function and gait, with gross motor function maintained between adolescence and young adulthood. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:549-56.

  19. Climatic impacts of fresh water hosing under Last Glacial Maximum conditions: a multi-model study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kageyama, M.; Merkel, U.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Prange, M.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Lohmann, G.; Ohgaito, R.; Roche, D.M.V.A.P.; Singarayer, J

    2013-01-01

    Fresh water hosing simulations, in which a fresh water flux is imposed in the North Atlantic to force fluctuations of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, have been routinely performed, first to study the climatic signature of different states of this circulation, then, under present or

  20. 49 CFR 178.345-9 - Pumps, piping, hoses and connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pumps, piping, hoses and connections. 178.345-9 Section 178.345-9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-9 Pumps...

  1. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains... pump connected to a fixed piping system. This pump must be capable of delivering an effective stream of...

  2. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps... be equipped with a self-priming, power driven fire pump connected to a fixed piping system. (1) A...

  3. Linear and non-linear calculations of the hose instability in the ion-focused regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, H.L.

    1982-01-01

    A simple model is adopted to study the hose instability of an intense relativistic electron beam in a partially neutralized, low density ion channel (ion focused regime). Equations of motion for the beam and the channel are derived and linearized to obtain an approximate dispersion relation. The non-linear equations of motion are then solved numerically and the results compared to linearized data

  4. On MHD waves, fire-hose and mirror instabilities in anisotropic plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.-N. Hau

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature or pressure anisotropies are characteristic of space plasmas, standard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD model for describing large-scale plasma phenomena however usually assumes isotropic pressure. In this paper we examine the characteristics of MHD waves, fire-hose and mirror instabilities in anisotropic homogeneous magnetized plasmas. The model equations are a set of gyrotropic MHD equations closed by the generalized Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL laws with two polytropic exponents representing various thermodynamic conditions. Both ions and electrons are allowed to have separate plasma beta, pressure anisotropy and energy equations. The properties of linear MHD waves and instability criteria are examined and numerical examples for the nonlinear evolutions of slow waves, fire-hose and mirror instabilities are shown. One significant result is that slow waves may develop not only mirror instability but also a new type of compressible fire-hose instability. Their corresponding nonlinear structures thus may exhibit anticorrelated density and magnetic field perturbations, a property used for identifying slow and mirror mode structures in the space plasma environment. The conditions for nonlinear saturation of both fire-hose and mirror instabilities are examined.

  5. Impact of bending speed and setup on flex cracks in multilayer ceramic capacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Caroline; Kristensen, Ole; Varescon, Elise

    2017-01-01

    A comparison of bending speed and experimental setups using 3-point or 4-point bending for introduction of flex cracks into multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) in a controlled manner is presented. The impact of bending speed and corresponding strain rates on the formed flex cracks detected by X...

  6. Industrial waste - destination and valuation techniques of floating hoses: case study in Macaé, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon de Almeida Clemente Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A large part of the oil extracted in Brazil today, is drained to the coast, or even transported to larger vessels through Floating Hoses. This oil unloading operation is called Offloading, it is of fundamental importance for the performance of offshore operations. These operating units use storage systems and oil relief, which can be FSO (Floating Storage Unit and Transfer or FPSO (Floating Production Unit, Stockpiling and Transfer. In this oil transshipment scenario, floating hoses have primary role therefore they are responsible for this operation. The Floating Hoses after useful life are discarded. How do the environmentally correct disposal of this waste? The destination most used for this waste are the landfills Class 2, for non-hazardous waste. In this study, we attempted to develop appropriate allocation techniques for Floating Hose, in order to obtain a greater appreciation potential of the materials that compose it, as well as presenting the risk of these being put up in a landfill, even if it is a controlled landfill. This technique is based on a so-called Reverse Manufacturing, all components are reused and recovered, with a more environmentally sound and economically viable destination. The research methodology was based on empirical studies of phenomenological framework, involving operational staff of a medium-sized company with a rising share of Treatment and Waste Disposal Market, in the city of Macaé. It was evidenced in the survey that there is a possibility of potential gains from the application of reverse manufacturing techniques of hoses, both in terms of environmental liability reductions and the financial return through the recovery of materials that compose them.

  7. Application of Cu-polyimide flex circuit and Al-on-glass pitch adapter for the ATLAS SCT barrel hybrid

    CERN Document Server

    Unno, Y; Ikegami, Y; Iwata, Y; Kohriki, T; Kondo, T; Nakano, I; Ohsugi, T; Takashima, R; Tanaka, R; Terada, S; Ujiie, N

    2005-01-01

    We applied the surface build-up Cu-polyimide flex-circuit technology with laser vias to the ATLAS SCT barrel hybrid to be made in one piece from the connector to the electronics sections including cables. The hybrids, reinforced with carbon-carbon substrates, provide mechanical strength, thermal conductivity, low-radiation length, and stability in application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) operation. By following the design rules, we experienced little trouble in breaking the traces. The pitch adapter between the sensor and the ASICs was made of aluminum traces on glass substrate. We identified that the generation of whiskers around the wire-bonding feet was correlated with the hardness of metallized aluminum. The appropriate hardness has been achieved by keeping the temperature of the glasses as low as room temperature during the metallization. The argon plasma cleaning procedure cleaned the contamination on the gold pads of the hybrids for successful wire bonding, although it was unsuccessful in the alu...

  8. Patellar tendon shortening for flexed knee gait in spastic diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sossai, Roberto; Vavken, Patrick; Brunner, Reinald; Camathias, Carlo; Graham, H Kerr; Rutz, Erich

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated the outcome of three different approaches to the management of flexed knee gait patients with spastic diplegia. The three surgical procedures were patellar tendon shortening (PTS), PTS combined with rotational osteotomies of the femur and/or tibia, and PTS combined with supracondylar extension osteotomy (SEO) of the distal femur. The primary outcome measure was gait kinematics. The knee gait variable score (GVS) and the gait profile score (GPS) were derived from gait kinematics. 24 patients (16 male and 8 female), mean age 16.1 years (SD 5.8 years), who had surgery between 2002 and 2008, were followed for a mean of 22 months. Knee extension during gait improved by a mean of 20° throughout the gait cycle, with an improvement in the knee GVS of 14° (pspastic diplegia is both feasible and appropriate. Level III. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fabrication of Flex Joint Utilizing Additively Manufactured Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddleman, David; Richard, Jim

    2015-01-01

    The Selective Laser Melting (SLM) manufacturing technique has been utilized in the manufacture of a flex joint typical of those found in rocket engine and main propulsion system ducting. The SLM process allowed for the combination of parts that are typically machined separately and welded together. This resulted in roughly a 65% reduction of the total number of parts, roughly 70% reduction in the total number of welds, and an estimated 60% reduction in the number of machining operations. The majority of the new design was in three SLM pieces. These pieces, as well as a few traditionally fabricated parts, were assembled into a complete unit, which has been pressure tested. The design and planned cryogenic testing of the unit will be presented.

  10. FLEX: A Modular Software Architecture for Flight License Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsan, Taner; Saka, Hamit Emre; Sahin, Ceyhun

    This paper is about the design and implementation of an examination system based on World Wide Web. It is called FLEX-Flight License Exam Software. We designed and implemented flexible and modular software architecture. The implemented system has basic specifications such as appending questions in system, building exams with these appended questions and making students to take these exams. There are three different types of users with different authorizations. These are system administrator, operators and students. System administrator operates and maintains the system, and also audits the system integrity. The system administrator can not be able to change the result of exams and can not take an exam. Operator module includes instructors. Operators have some privileges such as preparing exams, entering questions, changing the existing questions and etc. Students can log on the system and can be accessed to exams by a certain URL. The other characteristic of our system is that operators and system administrator are not able to delete questions due to the security problems. Exam questions can be inserted on their topics and lectures in the database. Thus; operators and system administrator can easily choose questions. When all these are taken into consideration, FLEX software provides opportunities to many students to take exams at the same time in safe, reliable and user friendly conditions. It is also reliable examination system for the authorized aviation administration companies. Web development platform - LAMP; Linux, Apache web server, MySQL, Object-oriented scripting Language - PHP are used for developing the system and page structures are developed by Content Management System - CMS.

  11. Evolution of umbilicals in Brazil: optimizing deepwater umbilical applications with thermoplastic hoses and steel tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra Neto, Mauro Del [DuPont do Brasil S.A., Barueri, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Subsea umbilicals in the past 25 years have evolved in parallel with other subsea oil and gas technologies, as the search for hydrocarbons needed to drive the global economy has led offshore exploration and development companies to seek reserves ever-farther from shore in water thousands of meters deep. Relegated to little more than afterthought status before the push into deep water, modern umbilicals have now become crucial components linking deep water producers to their subsea wells, controlling subsea production systems through hydraulic and electrical power and injecting production chemicals for corrosion-, scale-, and hydrate-inhibition at subsea well heads. Particularly in subsea developments involving several deep water wells, umbilicals today are integral to both the production-system design and the chosen operating strategy. Failure of an umbilical linking a subsea well head in deep water to a host production facility can inflict severe economic consequences upon an operator by impairing production operations or halting production altogether. The additional cost of repairing or replacing a failed umbilical can run into the millions of dollars. As offshore oil and gas production has moved into ever-deeper water, umbilical manufacturers have begun introducing new stronger materials to handle the inherently higher pressures and temperatures. Today, two types of construction are used for fluid conduits in umbilical systems deployed in deep water: thermoplastic hoses and steel tubes. Steel tubes are generally more expensive than thermoplastic hoses, relatively stiff and considered to have high tensile strength, while thermoplastic hoses are extremely flexible and exhibit lower tensile strength. This lower tensile strength of the hoses may be compensated by including steel wire armoring in the umbilical. This also provides the added benefits of additional mechanical protection compared with the equivalent unarmored steel-tubes umbilicals. When either

  12. Bio-flex obtained from pyrolysis of biomass as fuel; Bio-flex obtido da pirolise de biomassa como combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesa Perez, Juan Miguel; Viltre Rodriguez, Roberto Alfonso; Marin Mesa, Henry Ramon [Bioware Tecnologia, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Jose Dilcio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico; Samaniego, Manuel Raul Pelaez [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the BIOWARE experience in the bio fuel production from biomass residues. Fast pyrolysis of a mixture of sugar cane trash and elephant grass carried out in a fluidized bed reactor with capacity of 200 kg/h dry feed (12% w/w). The co-products particulate charcoal, acid extract, and bio-oil were obtained. The fast pyrolysis pilot plant PPR-200 belonged to UNICAMP and is operated by BIOWARE personnel. This paper presents the chemical rote to bio-flex production (a kind of bio diesel from acid esterification) from pyrolytic carboxylic acids. Both ethanol and methanol were used as reactant but higher yields were found with methanol. (author)

  13. Learning Flex 4 Getting Up to Speed with Rich Internet Application Design and Development

    CERN Document Server

    Cole, Alaric

    2010-01-01

    Learn Adobe Flex 4 in a fun and engaging way with this book's unique, hands-on approach. Using clear examples and step-by-step coaching from two experts, you'll create four applications that demonstrate fundamental Flex programming concepts. Throughout the course of this book, you'll learn how to enhance user interaction with ActionScript, and create and skin a user interface with Flex's UI components (MXML) and Adobe's new FXG graphics format. You'll also be trained to manage dynamic data, connect to a database using server-side script, and deploy applications to both the Web and the deskto

  14. Calculating the strength of water pipes for their rehabilitation with the application of polymer hoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primin, Oleg

    2017-10-01

    Such factors as: the growing deterioration and unsatisfactory technical condition of the pipes of water supply and wastewater disposal networks in Russian cities and other inhabited localities, as well as limited (under the conditions of Russian housing and utilities sector reforming) funding of pipeline renovation and rehabilitation have considerably aggravated the problem of pipe reliability provision. These factors make pipe renovation and rehabilitation quite a topical issue.A very promising trend in the field of pipeline construction and renovation named “trenchless technologies” has been commonly used in the world in recent years. As a result of this, a wide choice of different construction materials used for pipe rehabilitation appeared in the market. Under the conditions of densely built-up urban areas, these methods are of great current interest for city utilities. Quite different pipe renovation methods are used currently but the most popular method comprises the application of a flexible polymeric hose that makes it possible to form a new composite pipe inside the old one. The wall thickness of such a hose is among the important factors that have an impact on the cost and efficiency of pipe renovation methods based on the application of flexible polymeric hoses. The hose wall thickness is determined on the basis of calculating the “soil – old pipe – hose” system in view of its static stability. The article describes the technology for the trenchless rehabilitation of water pipes and the strength calculation method for a “pipe – polymeric hose” double-layer structure.

  15. Domestic shower hose biofilms contain fungal species capable of causing opportunistic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moat, John; Rizoulis, Athanasios; Fox, Graeme; Upton, Mathew

    2016-10-01

    The domestic environment can be a source of pathogenic bacteria. We show here that domestic shower hoses may harbour potentially pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Well-developed biofilms were physically removed from the internal surface of shower hoses collected in four locations in England and Scotland. Amplicon pyrosequencing of 16S and 18S rRNA targets revealed the presence of common aquatic and environmental bacteria, including members of the Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and non-tuberculous Mycobacteria. These bacteria are associated with infections in immunocompromised hosts and are widely reported in shower systems and as causes of water-acquired infection. More importantly, this study represents the first detailed analysis of fungal populations in shower systems and revealed the presence of sequences related to Exophiala mesophila, Fusarium fujikuroi and Malassezia restricta. These organisms can be associated with the environment and healthy skin, but also with infection in compromised and immuno-competent hosts and occurrence of dandruff. Domestic showering may result in exposure to aerosols of bacteria and fungi that are potentially pathogenic and toxigenic. It may be prudent to limit development of these biofilms by the use of disinfectants, or regular replacement of hoses, where immuno-compromised persons are present.

  16. UniFlex A WWW-environment for project-based collaborative learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Ole; Helbo, Jan; Knudsen, Morten

    2003-01-01

    , a web site named UniFlex (University Flexible learning) has been developed and brought into use. The site is a comprehensive set of bookmarks including course taking, upload/download, and - of special significance - collaborative on-line project work. UniFlex has been developed to meet the requirement...... for a simple and cheap personalized interactive site, supporting problem oriented and project organized study form, which has characterized Aalborg University for more than 25 years. UniFlex supports a virtual group room for collaborative work as a key facility. UniFlex has downloadable templates, which...... Communication" (MMIC), and other collaborative applications. The majority of the users are very satisfied with the product since it is simple, inexpensive, has a reasonable speed and easy to use and maintain....

  17. Evaluation of Pipeline Flex delivery system for the treatment of unruptured aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Salinas, Pedro; Brasiliense, Leonardo B C; Gonsales, Douglas; Mitchell, Bartley; Lima, Andrey; Sauvageau, Eric; Hanel, Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    Refinements in endovascular technology have revolutionized the treatment of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) with the development of flow-diversion technology. The first generation of the Pipelin Embolization Device (PED) has demonstrated its safety and efficacy. However, the deployment technique was a difficult task that often led to complex maneuvers. The Pipeline Flex Embolization Device (PED Flex) is the second generation and its introduction has arrived with high expectations due to a completely redesigned delivery system that intends to overcome deployment difficulties seen in the previous generation. Areas covered: Preclinical studies, mechanism of action of flow-diverters, technical aspects and deployment system of the PED Flex, and clinical outcomes with both PED generations. Expert commentary: Flow diversion has allowed us to treat lesions that would be otherwise challenging for surgical clipping or unsuitable for other endosaccular strategies. Although the experience with PED Flex is limited, initial results suggest its safety and short-term efficacy.

  18. MR imaging of the flexed knee: comparison to the extended knee in delineation of meniscal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niitsu, M.; Itai, Y.; Endo, H.; Ikeda, K.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain MR images in the flexed-knee position and to compare the diagnostic value to the extended position in delineation of the menisci. With a mobile knee brace and a flexible surface coil, the knee joint was either fully extended or bent to a semi-flexed position (average 45 of flexion) within a 1.5-T superconducting magnet. Sets of sagittal MR images were obtained for both the extended- and flexed-knee positions. Using the arthroscopic results as gold standards, 97 menisci were evaluated. Two observers interpreted each MR image of the extended and flexed positions independently without knowledge of the arthroscopic results. Flexed-knee MR images revealed 22 of the 27 arthroscopically proven torn menisci and 69 of the 70 intact menisci, for a sensitivity of 81.5 %, a specificity of 98.6 %, and an accuracy of 93.8 %. Extended-knee MR images indicated a sensitivity of 81.5 %, a specificity of 92.9 %, and an accuracy of 89.7 %. No statistically significant difference was found between the two positions. To enhance MR visualization of all the knee components, we recommend examining the knee in a flexed position within the magnet. (orig.)

  19. Interactions entre le métaboréflexe et le chémoréflexe durant différentes modalités d'exercice

    OpenAIRE

    Houssiere, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Le thème central de ce travail a consisté en l’étude et la mise en évidence des interactions existant entre le métaboréflexe et le chémoréflexe lors de l’exercice. L’effort physique est associé à une augmentation de la ventilation, de la fréquence cardiaque ainsi que de la pression artérielle. Ces effets sont médiés au moins en partie par l’activation du métaboréflexe musculaire, et peuvent être amplifiés par le chémoréflexe ventilatoire. Le métaboréflexe et le chémoréflexe impliquent néce...

  20. Blocking performance of the hose model and the pipe model for VPN service provisioning over WDM optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibo; Swee Poo, Gee

    2004-08-01

    We study the provisioning of virtual private network (VPN) service over WDM optical networks. For this purpose, we investigate the blocking performance of the hose model versus the pipe model for the provisioning. Two techniques are presented: an analytical queuing model and a discrete event simulation. The queuing model is developed from the multirate reduced-load approximation technique. The simulation is done with the OPNET simulator. Several experimental situations were used. The blocking probabilities calculated from the two approaches show a close match, indicating that the multirate reduced-load approximation technique is capable of predicting the blocking performance for the pipe model and the hose model in WDM networks. A comparison of the blocking behavior of the two models shows that the hose model has superior blocking performance as compared with pipe model. By and large, the blocking probability of the hose model is better than that of the pipe model by a few orders of magnitude, particularly at low load regions. The flexibility of the hose model allowing for the sharing of resources on a link among all connections accounts for its superior performance.

  1. Determinação da força de adesão da metalização com alumínio em filmes plásticos utilizados em embalagens flexíveis Adhesion strength of aluminum on metallized plastic films used in flexible packages - development and validation of a test procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa M. Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Filmes de BOPP e de PET metalizados são muito utilizados em embalagens multicamadas, pois reúnem boas propriedades mecânicas e de barreira a gases e umidade, as quais, bem como a aparência e a integridade, são comprometidas quando ocorre a delaminação da estrutura multicamada. Um dos principais fatores que influem na resistência à delaminação é a força de adesão da camada de alumínio ao substrato polimérico, parâmetro para o qual não há um método de quantificação normalizado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer e validar um método de ensaio para determinar esta força de adesão. O método foi definido usando um planejamento experimental com fatores fixos e variáveis sendo que, para cada variável, foram definidos dois níveis. O método de ensaio estabelecido mostrou-se estável, preciso, robusto e replicável. Consiste, basicamente, na termosselagem de um filme plástico à face metalizada da amostra, em condições específicas de temperatura/tempo/pressão, e medida da força para destacamento da metalização, em ângulo e velocidade específicos, em máquina universal de ensaios.OPP and OPET metallized films are widely used as substrates in multilayer packages, since they bring together good mechanical properties and barrier to gases and water vapor, which are damaged with delamination of the film layers, together with the visual appearance and package integrity. One of the main factors that affect the package delamination is the adhesion strength of aluminum layer to the polymeric substrate, a parameter for which there is no standard procedure to quantify. The aim of this work was to establish and validate a procedure to determine the adhesion strength of the aluminum to the polymer. This test procedure was carried out using experimental design with fixed and variables parameters with two levels for each variable. The test procedure was stable, robust and replicable. It consisted basically of the heat sealing

  2. Effect of multiple autoclave cycles on the surface roughness of HyFlex CM and HyFlex EDM files: an atomic force microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, K; Uslu, G; Özyürek, T

    2018-02-13

    To compare the effect of autoclave cycles on the surface topography and roughness of HyFlex CM and HyFlex EDM instruments using atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Eight new files of each brand were subdivided into four subgroups (n = 2/each subgroup). One group was allocated as the control group and not subjected to autoclave sterilization. The other three groups were subjected to different numbers (1, 5, and 10) of autoclave sterilization cycles. After the cycle instruments were subjected to AFM analysis. Roughness average (Ra) and the root mean square (RMS) values were chosen to investigate the surface features of endodontic files. The data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tamhane tests at 5% significant level. The lowest Ra and RMS values were observed in the HyFlex EDM files that served as the control and in those subjected to a single cycle of autoclave sterilization (P EDM files that were subjected to 10 cycles of autoclave sterilization (P EDM group exhibited a significant change after five autoclave cycles (P EDM files were lower than those of the HyFlex CM files, the surface roughness values of the EDM files showed a statistically significant increase after 5 cycles of autoclave sterilization. In contrast, the surface roughness values of the HyFlex CM files did not increase until 10 cycles of autoclave sterilization. Present study indicated that autoclave sterilization negatively affected the surface roughness of the tested NiTi files.

  3. A 16-channel flex circuit for cryogenic microwave signal transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarey, Patrick; Mani, Hamdi; Wheeler, Caleb; Groppi, Christopher

    2014-07-01

    Heterodyne focal plane arrays used in the terahertz (THz) regime currently require a discrete set of rigid coaxial cables for the transmission of individual intermediate frequency (IF) signals. Consequently, the size of an array is limited to ~10s of pixels due to limited physical space and the complexity of assembly. In order to achieve an array with ~1000 pixels or greater, new interconnections must be developed capable of carrying multiple IF signals on a single carrier which is flexible, robust to noise, and terminated with a high density RF connector. As an intermediate step to the development of a ~1000 pixel heterodyne focal plane array, the Kilopixel Array Pathfinder Project (KAPPa) has developed a 16 channel IF flex circuit. Initially, design simulations were performed to evaluate various means of high-frequency (1~10 GHz) signal transmission, including microstrip, stripline and coplanar waveguides. The method allowing for the closest signal spacing and greatest resistance to radio frequency interference (RFI) was determined to be stripline. Designs were considered where stripline transitioned to microstrip in order to terminate the signal. As microstrip transmission lines are sensitive to RFI, a design featuring just stripline was evaluated. In both the stripline-to-microstrip and stripline-only designs, a three-layer copper-coated polyimide substrate was used. Signal transitions were accomplished by a signal carrying "hot" via passing through a series of three conductive pads, similar to work by Leib et al. (2010). The transition design essentially mimics a coaxial line, where the radial distance between the pads and the ground plane is optimized in order to achieve desired impedances. In simulation, 50 Ohm impedances were achieved throughout, with crosstalk and return loss limited to -30dB. Terminations are made via an array of Corning Gilbert G3PO blind mate connectors, which are small enough to match the 6mm pixel pitch of the KAPPa focal plane unit

  4. Comparison of Alterations in the Surface Topographies of HyFlex CM and HyFlex EDM Nickel-titanium Files after Root Canal Preparation: A Three-dimensional Optical Profilometry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslu, Gülşah; Özyürek, Taha; Yılmaz, Koray

    2018-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to examine the surface topographies of intact HyFlex CM and HyFlex EDM nickel-titanium files and to compare alterations in the surface topographies of these files after root canal preparation of severely curved canals of molar teeth. Eight HyFlex CM (25/.08) and 8 HyFlex EDM (25/.08) files were included in the present study. In total, 64 severely curved canals of molar teeth, with curvature angles ranging between 50° and 70°, were prepared with HyFlex CM and EDM (n = 32 in each group). Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the files' surface deformation were performed by using three-dimensional optical profilometry before and after root canal preparation. The data were analyzed with the Student t test at the 5% significant level by using SPSS 21.0 software. In the HyFlex EDM group, the qualitative evaluation revealed the presence of cracks and microcavities after use of the file for root canal preparation, whereas only minor surface deformation was observed in the HyFlex CM group. The average roughness, root mean square roughness, and peak to valley height values of the HyFlex EDM group were significantly higher than those of the HyFlex CM group before and after root canal preparation (P EDM group was not statistically significant (P > .5). Within the limitations of the present study, the HyFlex CM files showed significantly higher surface alterations compared with the HyFlex EDM files after the preparation of severely curved root canals. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Slightly flexed knee position within a standard knee coil: MR delineation of the anterior cruciate ligament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niitsu, M.; Itai, Y. [Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 (Japan); Ikeda, K. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of positioning the knee slightly flexed within a standard MR knee coil in delineation of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Within the confined space of a commercially available knee coil, knee could bend as much as 30 , average 17 of flexion. Sets of oblique sagittal MR images were obtained at both fully extended and slightly flexed positions. Twenty-two normal knees and 18 knees with ACL tears were examined and paired MR images were evaluated by two observers. Compared with knee extension, the MR images for knee flexion provided better clarity in 57 % of reviews of full length of the ACL and 53 % of the femoral attachment. In the extended position the anterior margin of the ligament was obscured due to partial averaging with the intercondylar roof. We recommend examining the knee in an achievable flexed position within the standard knee coil. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 6 refs.

  6. FlexDM: Simple, parallel and fault-tolerant data mining using WEKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Madison; Budden, David M; Mendes, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    With the continued exponential growth in data volume, large-scale data mining and machine learning experiments have become a necessity for many researchers without programming or statistics backgrounds. WEKA (Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis) is a gold standard framework that facilitates and simplifies this task by allowing specification of algorithms, hyper-parameters and test strategies from a streamlined Experimenter GUI. Despite its popularity, the WEKA Experimenter exhibits several limitations that we address in our new FlexDM software. FlexDM addresses four fundamental limitations with the WEKA Experimenter: reliance on a verbose and difficult-to-modify XML schema; inability to meta-optimise experiments over a large number of algorithm hyper-parameters; inability to recover from software or hardware failure during a large experiment; and failing to leverage modern multicore processor architectures. Direct comparisons between the FlexDM and default WEKA XML schemas demonstrate a 10-fold improvement in brevity for a specification that allows finer control of experimental procedures. The stability of FlexDM has been tested on a large biological dataset (approximately 450 k attributes by 150 samples), and automatic parallelisation of tasks yields a quasi-linear reduction in execution time when distributed across multiple processor cores. FlexDM is a powerful and easy-to-use extension to the WEKA package, which better handles the increased volume and complexity of data that has emerged during the 20 years since WEKA's original development. FlexDM has been tested on Windows, OSX and Linux operating systems and is provided as a pre-configured virtual reference environment for trivial usage and extensibility. This software can substantially improve the productivity of any research group conducting large-scale data mining or machine learning tasks, in addition to providing non-programmers with improved control over specific aspects of their data analysis

  7. Flex-Fuel Two-Stroke Snowmobile: Development of a Flex-Fuel, Two-Stroke, Direct-Injection Snowmobile for Use in the Clean Snowmobile Challenge and National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The University of Idaho's entry into the 2009 SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge (CSC) was a semi-direct-injection (SDI) two-stroke powered REV-XP snowmobile modified to use flex fuel. The flex fuel engine produces stock engine power on any blend of etha...

  8. Der Erste Weltkrieg als Medium der Gegenmoderne : zu den Werken von Walter Flex und Ernst Jünger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Lars

    2004-01-01

    1. Inleiding Tussen de ‘visies op de oorlog’ die in de teksten van Walter Flex enerzijds, in die van Ernst Jünger anderzijds tot uitdrukking komen, ligt het trauma van de materiaalslag. Walter Flex, voornamelijk aan het oostfront ingezet, vocht in een van de laatste veldslagen van de door Eric

  9. The Calculation of the Tracking Force in the Evolution of the Resistive Hose Instability of a Relativistic Electron Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, E. K.; Manuilov, A. S.; Petrov, V. S.

    2018-01-01

    We have analyzed the tacking force exerted by a low-conductivity Ohmic plasma channel on a relativistic electron beam. It has been shown that, for the given type of evolution of the resistive hose instability of the beam along its pulse, this force substantially depends on the frequency and the increment of the increase in the given instability.

  10. Flex Robotic System in transoral robotic surgery: The first 40 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheis, Stefan; Hasskamp, Pia; Holtmann, Laura; Schäfer, Christina; Geisthoff, Urban; Dominas, Nina; Lang, Stephan

    2017-03-01

    The Flex Robotic System is a new robotic device specifically developed for transoral robotic surgery (TORS). We performed a prospective clinical study, assessing the safety and efficacy of the Medrobotics Flex Robotic System. A total of 40 patients required a surgical procedure for benign lesions (n = 30) or T1 and T2 carcinomas (n = 10). Access and visualization of different anatomic subsites were individually graded by the surgeon. Setup times, access and visualization times, surgical results, as well as adverse events were documented intraoperatively. The lesions could be exposed and visualized properly in 38 patients (95%) who went on to have a surgical procedure performed with the Flex Robotic System, which were intraoperatively evaluated as successful. No serious adverse events occurred. Lesions in the oropharynx, hypopharynx, or supraglottic larynx could be successfully resected using the Flex Robotic System, thus making the system a safe and effective tool in transoral robotic surgery. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 471-475, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A comparative study of the time performance between NINO and FlexToT ASICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarasola, I.; Nemallapudi, M. V.; Gundacker, S.; Sánchez, D.; Gascón, D.; Rato, P.; Marín, J.; Auffray, E.

    2017-04-01

    Universitat de Barcelona (UB) and CIEMAT have designed the FlexToT ASIC for the front-end readout of SiPM-based scintillator detectors. This ASIC is aimed at time of flight (ToF) positron emission tomography (PET) applications. In this work we have evaluated the time performance of the FlexToT v2 ASIC compared to the NINO ASIC, a fast ASIC developped at CERN. NINO electronics give 64 ps sigma for single-photon time resolution (SPTR) and 93 ps FWHM for coincidence time resolution (CTR) with 2 × 2 × 5 mm3 LSO:Ce,Ca crystals and S13360-3050CS SiPMs. Using the same SiPMs and crystals, the FlexToT v2 ASIC yields 91 ps sigma for SPTR and 123 ps FWHM for CTR. Despite worse time performace than NINO, FlexToT v2 features lower power consumption (11 vs. 27 mW/ch) and linear ToT energy measurement.

  12. GMPLS control plane extensions in support of flex-grid enabled elastic optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turus, Ioan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Dittmann, Lars

    2013-01-01

    of generalized labels format and enable enhancements for the wavelength selection procedures. OSPF-TE enables the creation of spectrum databases based on novel LSA sub-TLV attributes capable of advertising spectrum status. Based on the implemented extensions, we propose and evaluate advanced distributed spectrum...... allocation schemes and strategies for dynamic routing algorithms in support of flex-grid optical networks....

  13. 76 FR 14995 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Work-Flex Plan Submission and Reporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... ensure that requested data can be provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time and financial... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Comment Request for Information Collection for Work-Flex Plan Submission and Reporting Requirements; Extension With Revisions AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, DOL. ACTION...

  14. Bus Access Optimisation for FlexRay-based Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Traian; Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru

    2007-01-01

    -real time communication in a deterministic manner. In this paper, we propose techniques for optimising the FlexRay bus access mechanism of a distributed system, so that the hard real-time deadlines are met for all the tasks and messages in the system. We have evaluated the proposed techniques using...

  15. Ground plane detection for autonomous robots in complex environments inclined with flexed far-field terrains

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osunmakind, IO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, collective intelligence of the Emergent Situation Awareness (ESA) technology is proposed as a supportive strategy for autonomous robotic navigation. The ability to reveal uncertainties over time on flexed far-field is a ground plane...

  16. A comparative study of the time performance between NINO and FlexToT ASICs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarasola, I.; Rato, P.; Marín, J.; Nemallapudi, M.V.; Gundacker, S.; Auffray, E.; Sánchez, D.; Gascón, D.

    2017-01-01

    Universitat de Barcelona (UB) and CIEMAT have designed the FlexToT ASIC for the front-end readout of SiPM-based scintillator detectors. This ASIC is aimed at time of flight (ToF) positron emission tomography (PET) applications. In this work we have evaluated the time performance of the FlexToT v2 ASIC compared to the NINO ASIC, a fast ASIC developped at CERN. NINO electronics give 64 ps sigma for single-photon time resolution (SPTR) and 93 ps FWHM for coincidence time resolution (CTR) with 2 × 2 × 5 mm 3 LSO:Ce,Ca crystals and S13360-3050CS SiPMs. Using the same SiPMs and crystals, the FlexToT v2 ASIC yields 91 ps sigma for SPTR and 123 ps FWHM for CTR. Despite worse time performace than NINO, FlexToT v2 features lower power consumption (11 vs. 27 mW/ch) and linear ToT energy measurement.

  17. Blocking probability in the hose-model optical VPN with different number of wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyakov, Alexander V.

    2017-04-01

    Connection setup with guaranteed quality of service (QoS) in the optical virtual private network (OVPN) is a major goal for the network providers. In order to support this we propose a QoS based OVPN connection set up mechanism over WDM network to the end customer. The proposed WDM network model can be specified in terms of QoS parameter such as blocking probability. We estimated this QoS parameter based on the hose-model OVPN. In this mechanism the OVPN connections also can be created or deleted according to the availability of the wavelengths in the optical path. In this paper we have considered the impact of the number of wavelengths on the computation of blocking probability. The goal of the work is to dynamically provide a best OVPN connection during frequent arrival of connection requests with QoS requirements.

  18. Simulations of the Ion-Hose Instability for DARHT-II Long-Pulse Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, K C D

    2004-01-01

    Ion-hose effect has been described extensively in literatures. Computer simulations of the effect typically use particle-in-cell (PIC) computer codes or codes using the spread-mass formulation [1]. PIC simulations, though offering more reliable results, will require extended running time in large computers To support commissioning experiments in the DARHT-II induction linac in Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have modified a spread-mass code so that we can survey quickly the parameter space for the experiment. It can also be used to provide quick answers during experiment. The code was originally written by Genoni from Mission Research Corporation (MRC) for constant linac parameters. We have modified it so that parameters can have dependence along the length of the linac. In this paper, we will describe simulation results using this code for the DARHT-II commissioning experiment and also our benchmarking results comparing to LSP, a PIC code from MRC.

  19. Influence of the flap on outcomes in corneal refractive surgery with femtosecond laser: SMILE vs. FLEx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alió, J L; El Bahrawy, M; Angelov, A; Ortiz, D; Yébana, P

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the influence of creating a flap on the postoperative optical quality of the cornea in terms of predicted corneal curvature and Seidel aberrations after 2 modalities of femtosecond assisted corneal lenticule extraction laser for the correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism: The flapless procedure small incision lenticular extraction (SMILE) and the flap-based femtosecond lenticular extraction (FLEx). The study is a prospective consecutive non-randomised comparative interventional case series including 64 eyes with myopic or myopic astigmatism refractive errors. Patients were divided into 2 groups matched for age, sex and myopia. One group underwent SMILE treatment and the other underwent FLEx treatment. Seidel aberrations root-mean-square values were obtained with a 10mm aperture using the ATLAS 9000 topographer before surgery and 3 months after surgery. The relationship between the post-surgical corneal radius and the predicted sculpted radius were analysed in each group. The mean percentage change in the curvature radius was -2.03% in the FLEx group and -1.77% in the SMILE group (P=.655). The higher correlation for the SMILE group demonstrates a better predictability after the surgery. As regards corneal aberrations, the FLEx treatment showed a greater increase of higher order aberrations than SMILE treatment (P=.04). The mean refractive change in corneal curvature, which is indirectly related to the biomechanical response of the corneal surface after the lenticule cut and extraction, was similar after both treatments. However, the flap based FLEx procedure showed a greater degradation of the corneal optical quality in terms of induction of higher order aberrations. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report with Baseline Risk Assessment for the Fire Department Hose Training Facility (904-113G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This report documents the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation/Baseline Risk Assessment (RFI/RI/BRA) for the Fire Department Hose Training Facility (FDTF) (904-113G).

  1. Low Temperature Flex-on-Flex Assembly Using Polyvinylidene Fluoride Nanofiber Incorporated Sn58Bi Solder Anisotropic Conductive Films and Vertical Ultrasonic Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Wan Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, solder ball incorporated polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF nanofiber was added into the ACF system to overcome short circuit issues of fine pitch flex-on-flex (FOF assembly. Also, in order to improve the thermal mismatch of the flexible substrate which can lead to electrode misalignment during the bonding process, low melting temperature Sn58Bi solder balls were used with vertical ultrasonic (U/S bonding method. When performing FOF assembly using PVDF nanofiber/Sn58Bi solder ACF and vertical ultrasonic bonding, PVDF nanofiber/Sn58Bi solder ACFs showed 34% higher solder capture rate on an electrode compared to conventional Ni ACFs and conventional Sn58Bi solder ACFs. Additionally, PVDF nanofiber/Sn58Bisolder ACFs showed 100% insulation between neighboring electrodes where conventional Ni ACFs and conventional Sn58Bi solder ACFs showed 75% and 87.5% insulation. Other electrical properties such as contact resistance and current handling capability as well as reliability test of PVDF nanofiber/Sn58Bi solder ACFs showed improved results compared to those of conventional Ni ACFs, which proves the formation of stable solder joint of PVDF nanofiber/Sn58Bi solder ACFs.

  2. Measurements of nanoscale domain wall flexing in a ferromagnetic thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, A L; Nowakowski, M E; Wilson, M J; Rench, D W; Schiffer, P; Awschalom, D D; Samarth, N

    2011-08-12

    We use the high spatial sensitivity of the anomalous Hall effect in the ferromagnetic semiconductor Ga(1-x)Mn(x)As, combined with the magneto-optical Kerr effect, to probe the nanoscale elastic flexing behavior of a single magnetic domain wall in a ferromagnetic thin film. Our technique allows position sensitive characterization of the pinning site density, which we estimate to be ∼10(14) cm(-3). Analysis of single site depinning events and their temperature dependence yields estimates of pinning site forces (10 pN range) as well as the thermal deactivation energy. Our data provide evidence for a much higher intrinsic domain wall mobility for flexing than previously observed in optically probed μm scale measurements.

  3. Opacification of the C-flex 570C intraocular lens after sulcus fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Patrick; Carbonneau, Marjorie

    2017-09-08

    To report a case of diffuse intraocular lens (IOL) opacification in a patient who started complaining of blurred vision in his left eye over the course of three years after having phacoemulsification surgery combined with capsular bag fixation of a C-flex 570C IOL. The IOL had been repositioned in the ciliary sulcus following its subluxation. An IOL exchange was performed, and the explanted IOL was sent for histopathological analysis. Scanning electron microscopy identified multiple crystalline-like deposits on both sides of the IOL. The optic was more extensively involved than the haptics. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed the predominance of calcium within the deposits. The breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier seems to be a key component of this calcification process. Ciliary sulcus fixation is not a suitable option for C-flex 570C IOLs.

  4. FlexMix: A General Framework for Finite Mixture Models and Latent Class Regression in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Leisch

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available FlexMix implements a general framework for fitting discrete mixtures of regression models in the R statistical computing environment: three variants of the EM algorithm can be used for parameter estimation, regressors and responses may be multivariate with arbitrary dimension, data may be grouped, e.g., to account for multiple observations per individual, the usual formula interface of the S language is used for convenient model specification, and a modular concept of driver functions allows to interface many different types of regression models. Existing drivers implement mixtures of standard linear models, generalized linear models and model-based clustering. FlexMix provides the E-step and all data handling, while the M-step can be supplied by the user to easily define new models.

  5. Parallel and oblique proton fire hose instabilities in the presence of alpha/proton drift: Hybrid simulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellinger, Petr; Trávníček, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. A1 (2006), A01107/1-A01107/7 ISSN 0148-0227 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3042403 Grant - others:ESA(XE) PECS 98024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : proton temperature anisotropy * fire hose instability * hybrid simulations Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.800, year: 2006

  6. MR imaging of herniated lumbar disc : morphologic change between supine and flexed-prone position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Jin Yong; Lee, Seung Ro; Moon, Won Jin; Park, Dong Woo; Hahm, Chang Kok [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Tae [Sungnam Inha Hospital, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine morphologic change in a herniated lumbar disc, as seen on MR imaging according to position change (supine and flexed-prone positions). A hundred and twenty-two patients with herniated lumbar discs, as seen on supine MR imaging, underwent repeat MR imaging in the flexed-prone position; 100 patients, who showed more than 2 deg of flexion angle difference, were included in this study. Sixty-two were men and thirty-eight were women, and their ages ranged from 13 to 59 (mean, 30) years. Disc degeneration was graded as 1,2 or 3, depending on the area of decreased signal intensity seen on a T2-weighted MR image. Difference in the angle of flexion is defined as the angle difference of lumbar curvature, calculated by the Begg-falconer method in supine and flexed-prone positions. Morphologic changes in herniated discs in difference positions were analysed on the basis of shape change of anterior epidural spaces, thecal sacs and posterior margins of herniated discs, and classified as either A (not changed) or B (changed). Group B was subtyped as type I (decreased herniation without change of shape), type II (decreased herniation with change of shape) or type III (increased disc herniation). We statistically analysed correlations between a patient`s age, morphologic change in a herniated disc in different positions, and degree of degeneration in such a disc, as well as the correlation between morphologic change in a herniated disc in different positions and the degree of the flexion angle. In the flexed-prone position, which is similar to that used during surgery, MRI can reveal various morphologic changes in a herniated lumbar disc, mainly decreased herniation, and is helpful in making decisions related to surgery. (author). 12 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  7. Improvement of lithography process by using a FlexRay illuminator for memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Thomas; Huang, Chun-Yen; Chiou, Tsann-Bim; Hsu, Michael; Shih, Chiang-Lin; Chen, Alek; Wei, Ming-Kang

    2011-04-01

    As is well recognized, source mask optimization (SMO) is a highly effective means of extending the lifetime of a certain photolithography generation without an expensive upgrade to the next generation optical system. More than an academic theory, source optimization first found practical applications in the debut of the pixel-like programmable illuminator in 2009 for producing near freeform illumination. Based on programmed illumination, related studies have demonstrated a nearly identical optical performance to that generated by the conventionally adopted diffractive optical element (DOE) device without the prolonged manufacturing time and relatively high cost of stocking up various DOEs. By using a commercially available pixel-like programmable illuminator from ASML, i.e. the FlexRay, this study investigates the effectiveness of FlexRay in enhancing image contrast and common process window. Before wafer exposure, full SMO and source-only (SO) optimization are implemented by Tachyon SMO software to select the optimum illumination source. Wafer exposure is performed by ASML XT:1950i scanner equipped with a FlexRay illuminator on a critical layer of DRAM process with known hotspots of resist peeling. Pupil information is collected by a sensor embedded in the scanner to confirm the produced source shape against the programmed source and the optically simulated CD. When the FlexRay illuminator is used, experimental results indicate that lithography hotspots are eliminated and depth of focus is improved by as much as 50% in comparison with those from a traditional AERIAL illuminator. Regular focus-exposure matrix (FEM) and the subsequent critical defects scanning reveal that the common process window of the tight-pitched array and the periphery can be enhanced simultaneously with no hotspot identified. Therefore, a programmed source is undoubtedly invaluable in terms of additional manufacturing flexibility and lower cost of ownership when attempting to improve product

  8. Clinical Imaging Characteristics of the Positron Emission Mammography Camera: PEM Flex Solo II

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, Lawrence; Edwards, John; Lewellen, Thomas; Haseley, David; Rogers, James; Kinahan, Paul

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated a commercial positron emission mammography (PEM) camera, the PEM Flex Solo II. This system comprises two 6 × 16.4 cm detectors that scan together covering up to a 24 × 16.4 cm field of view (FOV). There are no specific standards for testing this detector configuration. We performed several tests important to breast imaging, and we propose tests that should be included in standardized testing of PEM systems.

  9. FlexPRET: A Processor Platform for Mixed-Criticality Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    several tasks can share the same thread, thus lowering the hardware enforced isolation. Low criticality tasks can then be shared on SRTTs using...tasks running on a 100MHz FlexPRET-4T with a 32kB I-SPM and 32kB D-SPM, a configuration that would not be unreasonable for a soft-core or ASIC

  10. MegaFlex Scale-Up Cost & Risk Reduction for >50kW Future Power Demands, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the MegaFlex solar array is scaled for power demands greater than 50kW over the next 20 years and deployed load requirements remain high or increase, advanced...

  11. Associations between vertebral fractures, increased thoracic kyphosis, a flexed posture and falls in older adults : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Jagt-Willems, Hanna C.; de Groot, Maartje H.; van Campen, Jos P. C. M.; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.; Lems, Willem F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vertebral fractures, an increased thoracic kyphosis and a flexed posture are associated with falls. However, this was not confirmed in prospective studies. We performed a prospective cohort study to investigate the association between vertebral fractures, increased thoracic kyphosis

  12. The FlexControl concept - a vision, a concept and a product for the future power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Per Bromand

    2011-01-01

    Control is based on aggregated, indirect and rule based communication and control, and open standards. The indirect control is based on responses to the frequency, the voltage and the broadcasting of global or local price signals. The paper presents an overview of the FlexControl concept, with its elements......FlexControl is a vision, a concept and a product – a vision for the control of future power systems based on renewable energy and distributed control, a generic concept for smart control of many power units and ‘product’ implementations of the concept in different applications. The general...... in order to maintain the power balances and the high security of supply and power quality in all parts of the grid. FlexControl is a flexible, modular, scalable and generic control concept designed for smart control of a huge number of distributed, controllable power units (DERs) in the power system. Flex...

  13. FlexSAR, a high quality, flexible, cost effective, prototype SAR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark; Knight, Chad; Haslem, Brent

    2016-05-01

    The FlexSAR radar system was designed to be a high quality, low-cost, flexible research prototype instrument. Radar researchers and practitioners often desire the ability to prototype new or advanced configurations, yet the ability to enhance or upgrade existing radar systems can be cost prohibitive. FlexSAR answers the need for a flexible radar system that can be extended easily, with minimal cost and time expenditures. The design approach focuses on reducing the resources required for developing and validating new advanced radar modalities. Such an approach fosters innovation and provides risk reduction since actual radar data can be collected in the appropriate mode, processed, and analyzed early in the development process. This allows for an accurate, detailed understanding of the corresponding trade space. This paper is a follow-on to last years paper and discusses the advancements that have been made to the FlexSAR system. The overall system architecture is discussed and presented along with several examples illustrating the system utility.

  14. Radionuclide field lysimeter experiment (RadFLEx): geochemical and hydrological data for SRS performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Powell, B. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Barber, K. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Devol, T. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Dixon, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Erdmann, B. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Maloubier, M. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Martinez, N. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Montgomery, D. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Peruski, K. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Roberts, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Witmer, M. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2017-12-12

    The SRNL Radiological Field Lysimeter Experiment (RadFLEx) is a one-of-a-kind test bed facility designed to study radionuclide geochemical processes in the Savannah River Site (SRS) vadose zone at a larger spatial scale (from grams to tens of kilograms of sediment) and temporal scale (from months to decade) than is readily afforded through laboratory studies. RadFLEx is a decade-long project that was initiated on July 5, 2012 and is funded by six different sources. The objective of this status report is as follows: 1) to report findings to date that have an impact on SRS performance assessment (PA) calculations, and 2) to provide performance metrics of the RadFLEx program. The PA results are focused on measurements of transport parameters, such as distribution coefficients (Kd values), solubility, and unsaturated flow values. As this is an interim report, additional information from subsequent research may influence our interpretation of current results. Research related to basic understanding of radionuclide geochemistry in these vadose zone soils and other source terms are not described here but are referenced for the interested reader.

  15. Dose accuracy of SoloSTAR and FlexPen as assessed in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrichs, Arnd

    2009-09-01

    This study aimed to compare the accuracy of SoloSTAR(sanofi-aventis, Paris, France) and FlexPen (Novo Nordisk, Bagsvaerd, Denmark) to deliver doses of insulin when used by insulin/device-naive people attending a local healthcare practice. For the determination of dose accuracy, SoloSTAR containing insulin glargine (lot 672) and FlexPen containing insulin aspart (lot SH70557) were used for all tests. The participants were given instruction by an independent monitor on how to use the pens. To be consistent, users were trained to hold the pens in situ for 10 s at the end of injection to ensure that the full dose was injected. Forty-eight subjects performed three dose deliveries of 20 units (into a sponge) with each pen type. The method of injecting into a sponge aimed to mimic real-life practice; this approach is commonly used to ensure the patient has a correct injection technique before the patient self-administers the injection. The delivery (n = 144) of individual doses of 20 units was not statistically different (P = 0.187) between SoloSTAR (mean +/- SD, 19.75 +/- 0.30 units) and FlexPen (19.80 +/- 0.33 units). In total, 2% of doses from both devices were insulin. This is likely to have beneficial clinical effects in terms of glycemic control, as well as improved patient confidence that insulin pens accurately deliver doses of insulin.

  16. EcoFlex: A Multifunctional MoClo Kit for E. coli Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Simon J; Lai, Hung-En; Kelwick, Richard J R; Chee, Soo Mei; Bell, David J; Polizzi, Karen Marie; Freemont, Paul S

    2016-10-21

    Golden Gate cloning is a prominent DNA assembly tool in synthetic biology for the assembly of plasmid constructs often used in combinatorial pathway optimization, with a number of assembly kits developed specifically for yeast and plant-based expression. However, its use for synthetic biology in commonly used bacterial systems such as Escherichia coli has surprisingly been overlooked. Here, we introduce EcoFlex a simplified modular package of DNA parts for a variety of applications in E. coli, cell-free protein synthesis, protein purification and hierarchical assembly of transcription units based on the MoClo assembly standard. The kit features a library of constitutive promoters, T7 expression, RBS strength variants, synthetic terminators, protein purification tags and fluorescence proteins. We validate EcoFlex by assembling a 68-part containing (20 genes) plasmid (31 kb), characterize in vivo and in vitro library parts, and perform combinatorial pathway assembly, using pooled libraries of either fluorescent proteins or the biosynthetic genes for the antimicrobial pigment violacein as a proof-of-concept. To minimize pathway screening, we also introduce a secondary module design site to simplify MoClo pathway optimization. In summary, EcoFlex provides a standardized and multifunctional kit for a variety of applications in E. coli synthetic biology.

  17. flexZhouse: New business model for affordable housing in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Zairul bin Mohd Noor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Central to this PhD research was the problem of the lack of affordable housing for young starters in Malaysia. The solutions for affordable housing that are available in the market do not truly solve the problem from the customer’s point of view. Hence, it was important to analyse the contributing factors associated with the term ‘affordability’. The term touches upon interconnected elements that cover many issues ranging from demand (housing needs, demographics, household income, quality housing to supply (the authorities’ requirements, design, cost, sustainability and procurement. In this thesis, we discuss some of the problems related to the supply and demand issues and examine a possible intervention to solve the problem. This research contributed to the body of knowledge by employing a prescriptive strategy and designing an innovative flexZhouse business model (BM, and by applying an in-depth strategy that revealed why the problem exists and why there is still no appropriate solution. The result provides a description of the situation that young starters find themselves in, the reactions of the industry’s key players and the policies that hamper innovation in the housing market. Methodology We applied the model of ‘design sciences’ as described by Van Aken (2004. The strategy first helped us to understand the problem (the issues related to the term ‘affordable housing’; the next step was to prescribe solutions for the practice by formulating the draft flexZhouse business model (BM. The mission of this research was to further develop knowledge for the design and understanding the problems that is, to provide alternative solutions to the affordable housing demands in the housing industry in Malaysia. We used the term ‘design research’ from Van Aken (2004 because the ultimate objective of studies in this category is to acquire a knowledge of how to develop solutions to problems in the real world (i.e. the new business

  18. Application of the Novel Ventilation Mode FLow-Controlled EXpiration (FLEX): A Crossover Proof-of-Principle Study in Lung-Healthy Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Steffen; Springer, Sebastian; Spaeth, Johannes; Borgmann, Silke; Goebel, Ulrich; Schumann, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    Traditionally, mechanical ventilation is achieved via active lung inflation during inspiration and passive lung emptying during expiration. By contrast, the novel FLEX (FLow-controlled EXpiration) ventilator mode actively decreases the rate of lung emptying. We investigated whether FLEX can be used during intraoperative mechanical ventilation of lung-healthy patients. In 30 adult patients scheduled for neurosurgical procedures, we studied respiratory system mechanics, regional ventilation, oxygenation, and hemodynamics during ventilation with and without FLEX at positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 5 and 7 cm H2O. The FLEX system was integrated into the expiratory limb and modified the expiratory flow profile by continuously changing expiratory resistance according to a computer-controlled algorithm. Mean airway pressure increased with PEEP by 1.9 cm H2O and with FLEX by 1 cm H2O (all P ventilated during general anesthesia. FLEX improves the homogeneous distribution of ventilation in the lungs.

  19. Ion-hose instability in a long-pulse linear induction accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C. Genoni

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The ion-hose instability is a transverse electrostatic instability which occurs on electron beams in the presence of a low-density ion channel. It is a phenomenon quite similar to the interaction between electron clouds and proton or positron beams in high-energy accelerators and storage rings. In the DARHT-2 accelerator, the 2-kA, 2-μs beam pulse produces an ion channel through impact ionization of the residual background gas (10^{-7}–10^{-6}   torr. A calculation of the linear growth by Briggs indicates that the instability could be strong enough to affect the radiographic application of DARHT, which requires that transverse oscillations be small compared to the beam radius. We present semianalytical theory and 3D particle-in-cell simulations (using the Lsp code of the linear and nonlinear growth of the instability, including the effects of the temporal change in the ion density and spatially decreasing beam radius. We find that the number of e-foldings experienced by a given beam slice is given approximately by an analytic expression using the local channel density at the beam slice. Hence, in the linear regime, the number of e-foldings increases linearly from head to tail of the beam pulse since it is proportional to the ion density. We also find that growth is strongly suppressed by nonlinear effects at relatively small oscillation amplitudes of the electron beam. This is because the ion oscillation amplitude is several times larger than that of the beam, allowing nonlinear effects to come into play. An analogous effect has recently been noted in electron-proton instabilities in high-energy accelerators and storage rings. For DARHT-2 parameters, we find that a pressure of ≤1.5×10^{-7}   torr is needed to keep the transverse beam oscillation amplitude less than about 20% of the rms beam radius.

  20. Experimental Tests of UltraFlex Array Designs in Low Earth Orbital and Geosynchronous Charging Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galofaro, Joel T.; Vayner, Boris V.; Hillard, Grover B.

    2011-01-01

    The present ground based investigations give the first definitive look describing the expected on-orbit charging behavior of Orion UltraFlex array coupons in the Low Earth Orbital and Geosynchronous Environments. Furthermore, it is important to note that the LEO charging environment also applies to the International Space Station as well as to the lunar mission charging environments. The GEO charging environment includes the bounding case for all lunar orbital and lunar surface mission environments. The UltraFlex thin film photovoltaic array technology has been targeted to become the sole power system for life support and on-orbit power for the manned Aires Crew Exploration Vehicle. It is therefore, crucial to gain an understanding of the complex charging behavior to answer some of the basic performance and survivability issues in an attempt to ascertain that a single UltraFlex array design will be able to cope with the projected worst case LEO and GEO charging environments. Testing was limited to four array coupons, two coupons each from two different array manufactures, Emcore and Spectrolab. The layout of each array design is identical and varies only in the actual cell technology used. The individual array cells from each manufacturer have an antireflection layered coating and come in two different varieties either uncoated (only AR coating) or coated with a thin conducting ITO layer. The LEO Plasma tests revealed that all four coupons passed the arc threshold -120 V bias tests. GEO electron gun charging tests revealed that only front side area of ITO coated coupons passed tests. Only the Emcore AR array passed backside Stage 2 GEO Tests.

  1. IEEE 1588 clock distribution for FlexRIO devices in PXIe platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, D., E-mail: dsanz@i2a2.upm.es [Grupo de Investigación en Instrumentación y Acústica Aplicada, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Ruiz, M.; Lopez, J.M. [Grupo de Investigación en Instrumentación y Acústica Aplicada, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Castro, R.; Vega, J. [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Barrera, E. [Grupo de Investigación en Instrumentación y Acústica Aplicada, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • We explain briefly the synchronization process of the IEEE 1588 PTP. • Problems using PTP for integrate timestamp in PXIe ITER Fast Controllers prototype. • Integrate synchronized clock with PTP, into every FlexRIO device using PXIe bus. • Integrate solution with NIRIO EPICS Device Support for CODAC CORE System. • Synchronization accuracy obtained under 100 ns. - Abstract: In nuclear fusion environments, hundreds of thousands of data acquisition channels can be used. The time synchronization of these channels is crucial to obtaining a proper temporal correlation among the samples of all of the channels. Timestamping is the typical method used to provide a time reference to the samples. At present, the most accurate way to synchronize distributed data acquisition systems is to use the Precision Time Protocol (PTP) IEEE 1588 2008 standard, or its enhanced version, White Rabbit. The main problems related to this solution arise when the system controller in a chassis with more than one data acquisition (DAQ) device has to assign (a) timestamps to the concrete waveform samples acquired by each DAQ or has to (b) timestamp events generated by each DAQ under special conditions. One of the solutions adopted by ITER to implement the Fast Controller prototype consists of a controller device connected to a PXIe chassis with the NI-6682 timing card as the Timestamp generator and the FlexRIO devices as the DAQs. To solve this problem, a solution has been designed that distributes the clock from the IEEE 1588 timing card to all FlexRIO devices. Each DAQ device with its own clock is synchronized at every moment with the IEEE 1588 protocol, which has the capacity to assign timestamps to every sample acquired and to register events by hardware in a deterministic way. This solution increases the functionality of the NIRIO EPICS Device Support and can be included with the nominal device support that is a generic EPICS driver for every device type in the CODAC

  2. Minimum-block-generated flexible-grouping-based spectrum assignment for flex-grid optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yang; Xu, Jing

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the spectrum fragmentation issue in flex-grid optical networks and propose a minimum-block-generated flexible-grouping-based spectrum assignment algorithm. By dividing the spectrum resources into several flexible groups according to the bandwidth requirements of service requests for their accommodation and minimizing the generated isolated spectrum blocks inside each spectrum group, the proposed algorithm can not only reduce spectrum fragments but also enhance networking performance (e.g. blocking probability) due to the improved spectrum contiguity inside each spectrum group with no traffic disruption or any extra components. The simulation results verify that the proposed algorithm can remarkably reduce spectrum fragments with a low blocking probability.

  3. The existing Nordic regulating power market. FlexPower WP1 - Report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, C.; Fock, F.; Togeby, M.

    2011-06-15

    The FlexPower project investigates the possibility of using broadcasted dynamic electricity prices as a simple and low cost means to activating a large number of flexible small-scale power units. The aim is to provide regulating power via an aggregated response from the numerous units on a volunteer basis. The report provides a brief historical and contextual background of the Nordic electricity market. Thereafter it goes into greater detail describing the Nordic regulating power market, both how it functions in practice, and examining some of the historical trends from a Danish perspective. (LN)

  4. Suppression of two-stream hose instabilities at wavelengths shorter than the beam’s transverse size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Bosch

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Transverse hose instability may disrupt the propagation of a charged-particle beam in a channel of oppositely charged particles. A theoretical model predicts stabilization of this two-stream instability when the instability wavelength becomes smaller than the beam’s transverse size in a frame of reference where the instability’s phase velocity is nonrelativistic. Suppression of short-wavelength instability is also predicted when a proton beam propagates through a channel consisting of electrons and positive ions, consistent with previous experimental results.

  5. Use of audiovisual resources in a FlexQuest strategy on Radioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cristina Gomes Catunda de Vasconcelos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study conducted in a private school in Recife - PE, Brazil, with 25 students from 1st year of high school. One of the focuses was to evaluate the implementation of the strategy FlexQuest on the teaching of radioactivity. The FlexQuest incorporates, within the WebQuest, the Cognitive Flexibility Theory (TFC, which is a theory of teaching, learning and knowledge representation, aiming to propose strategies for the acquisition of advanced levels of knowledge. With a qualitative approach, there were interventions of application having, as axle, an analysis of landscape crossings that the students have accomplished during the execution of required tasks. The results revealed that this strategy involves audiovisual resources, and these make learning possible, provided that strategies are embedded in a constructivist approach to teaching and learning. In this sense, it was perceived to be effective, the introductory level/stimulator, for the understanding of the applications of radioactivity. Showing a tool based on real situations, enabling students to develop the critical eye on what it is televised, including also the study of radioactivity.

  6. NEAT-FLEX: Predicting the conformational flexibility of amino acids using neuroevolution of augmenting topologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisci, Bruno; Dorn, Márcio

    2017-06-01

    The development of computational methods to accurately model three-dimensional protein structures from sequences of amino acid residues is becoming increasingly important to the structural biology field. This paper addresses the challenge of predicting the tertiary structure of a given amino acid sequence, which has been reported to belong to the NP-Complete class of problems. We present a new method, namely NEAT-FLEX, based on NeuroEvolution of Augmenting Topologies (NEAT) to extract structural features from (ABS) proteins that are determined experimentally. The proposed method manipulates structural information from the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and predicts the conformational flexibility (FLEX) of residues of a target amino acid sequence. This information may be used in three-dimensional structure prediction approaches as a way to reduce the conformational search space. The proposed method was tested with 24 different amino acid sequences. Evolving neural networks were compared against a traditional error back-propagation algorithm; results show that the proposed method is a powerful way to extract and represent structural information from protein molecules that are determined experimentally.

  7. Tracking C. elegans and its neuromuscular activity using NemaFlex

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bussel, Frank; Rahman, Mizanur; Hewitt, Jennifer; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy; Driscoll, Monica; Szewczyk, Nathaniel; Vanapalli, Siva

    Recently, a novel platform has been developed for studying the behavior and physical characteristics of the nematode C. elegans. This is NemaFlex, developed by the Vanapalli group at Texas Tech University to analyze movement and muscular strength of crawling C. elegans. NemaFlex is a microfluidic device consisting of an array of deformable PDMS pillars, with which the C. elegans interacts in the course of moving through the system. Deflection measurements then allow us to calculate the force exerted by the worm via Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. For the procedure to be fully automated a fairly sophisticated software analysis has to be developed in tandem with the physical device. In particular, the usefulness of the force calculations is highly dependent on the accuracy and volume of the deflection measurements, which would be prohibitively time-consuming if carried out by hand/eye. In order to correlate the force results with muscle activations the C. elegans itself has to be tracked simultaneously, and pillar deflections precisely associated with mechanical-contact on the worm's body. Here we will outline the data processing and analysis routines that have been implemented in order to automate the calculation of these forces and muscular activations.

  8. Fabrication of flex sensors through direct ink write technique and its electrical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Muhammad; Rahman, Khalid

    2016-11-01

    The present work is intended to fabricate low-cost flex sensor from conductive carbon paste using direct ink write (DIW) technique. DIW method is one of the additive manufacturing processes, which is capable to deposit a variety of material on a variety of substrates by a different mechanism to feature resolution at a microns level. It is widely used in the electronic industry for fabrication of PCBS and electrodes for different electronic devices. The DIW system in present study extrudes material stored in the syringe barrel through nozzle using compressed air. This mechanism will assist in creating patterns on a variety of substrates. Pneumatic controller is employed to control deposition of material, while computer-controlled X-Y stage is employed to control pattern generation. For effective and control patterning, printing parameters were optimized using Taguchi design optimization technique. The conductive carbon paste is used as ink for pattern generation on flexible PET substrate. Samples of flex sensor having different dimensions are prepared through DIW. The fabricated sensors were used as flexion sensor, and its electrical characteristic was evaluated. The obtained sensors are stable and reliable in performance.

  9. Self-consistent calculation of particle-hole diagrams on the Matsubara frequency: FLEX approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Nunez, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    We implement the numerical method of summing Green function diagrams on the Matsubara frequency axis for the fluctuation exchange (FLEX) approximation. Our method has previously been applied to the attractive Hubbard model for low density. Here we apply our numerical algorithm to the Hubbard model close to half filling (ρ=0.40), and for T/t = 0.03, in order to study the dynamics of one- and two-particle Green functions. For the values of the chosen parameters we see the formation of three branches which we associate with the a two-peak structure in the imaginary part of the self-energy. We have compared our fully self-consistent FLEX solutions with a lower order approximation where the internal Green functions are approximated by free Green functions. These two approaches the fully self consistent and the non-self consistent ones give different results for the parameters considered here. However, they have similar global results for small densities. (author)

  10. Refinement of atomic models in high resolution EM reconstructions using Flex-EM and local assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Malhotra, Sony; Burnley, Tom; Wood, Chris; Clare, Daniel K; Winn, Martyn; Topf, Maya

    2016-05-01

    As the resolutions of Three Dimensional Electron Microscopic reconstructions of biological macromolecules are being improved, there is a need for better fitting and refinement methods at high resolutions and robust approaches for model assessment. Flex-EM/MODELLER has been used for flexible fitting of atomic models in intermediate-to-low resolution density maps of different biological systems. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of the method to successfully refine structures at higher resolutions (2.5-4.5Å) using both simulated and experimental data, including a newly processed map of Apo-GroEL. A hierarchical refinement protocol was adopted where the rigid body definitions are relaxed and atom displacement steps are reduced progressively at successive stages of refinement. For the assessment of local fit, we used the SMOC (segment-based Manders' overlap coefficient) score, while the model quality was checked using the Qmean score. Comparison of SMOC profiles at different stages of refinement helped in detecting regions that are poorly fitted. We also show how initial model errors can have significant impact on the goodness-of-fit. Finally, we discuss the implementation of Flex-EM in the CCP-EM software suite. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Contratos flexíveis de trabalho: diferentes perfis de trabalhadores qualificados brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Carvalho de Azevedo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO objetivo neste artigo é discutir como profissionais que já passaram por vínculos tradicionais de trabalho se organizam na nova realidade laboral da experimentação de contratos flexíveis, considerados, na pesquisa aqui relatada, como contratos não CLT. Por meio de entrevistas realizadas com 43 trabalhadores bem qualificados, foi construída uma tipologia composta por nove perfis com caracterís ticas próprias, a saber: PJ, Paraquedista, Indiferente, Pragmático, Independente, Autônomo, Empresário, Ressentido e CLT. Mostra -se que a construção dos perfis ajudou a compor uma imagem de como essa realidade de trabalho é vivenciada por trabalhadores qualificados e conclui-se, nesse caso, que o trabalho flexível não é sinônimo de trabalho precário, pois não acarreta, necessariamente, prejuízos do ponto de vista profissional ou pessoal para o indivíduo que opta por realizá-lo.

  12. 3D Printing of NinjaFlex Filament onto PEDOT:PSS-Coated Textile Fabrics for Electroluminescence Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Melkie Getnet; Dumitrescu, Delia; Loghin, Carmen; Chen, Yan; Wang, Lichuan; Nierstrasz, Vincent

    2018-03-01

    Electroluminescence (EL) is the property of a semiconductor material pertaining to emitting light in response to an electrical current or a strong electric field. The purpose of this paper is to develop a flexible and lightweight EL device. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was conducted to observe the thermal degradation behavior of NinjaFlex. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonic acid)—PEDOT:PSS—with ethylene glycol (EG) was coated onto polyester fabric where NinjaFlex was placed onto the coated fabric using three-dimensional (3D) printing and phosphor paste, and BendLay filaments were subsequently coated via 3D printing. Adhesion strength and flexibility of the 3D-printed NinjaFlex on textile fabrics were investigated. The TGA results of the NinjaFlex depict no weight loss up to 150°C and that the NinjaFlex was highly conductive with a surface resistance value of 8.5 ohms/sq.; the coated fabric exhibited a uniform surface appearance as measured and observed by using four-probe measurements and scanning electron microscopy, respectively, at 60% PEDOT:PSS. The results of the adhesion test showed that peel strengths of 4160 N/m and 3840 N/m were recorded for polyester and cotton specimens, respectively. No weight loss was recorded following three washing cycles of NinjaFlex. The bending lengths were increased by only a factor of 0.082 and 0.577 for polyester and cotton samples at 0.1-mm thickness, respectively; this remains sufficiently flexible to be integrated into textiles. The prototype device emitted light with a 12-V alternating current power supply.

  13. Flex concept for US-A BWR extended loss of AC power events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, J. [Toshiba America Nuclear Energy, Charlotte, North Carolina (United States); Aoyagi, Y.; Kataoka, K. [Toshiba Corporation, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Thomas, S.; Mookhoek, B., E-mail: jim.powers@toshiba.com [Nuclear Innovation North America, Lake Jackson, Texas (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The US-Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (US-A BWR), certified by the US NRC, is a third generation, evolutionary boiling water reactor design which is the reference for the South Texas Project Units 3 and 4 (Stp 3 and 4) Combined License Application (Cola) and incorporates numerous design and technology enhancements for improved safety performance. Nuclear Innovation North America (NINA) is the License Applicant for this new build project, and Toshiba is the selected primary technology contractor. The Stp 3 and 4 project has finished the US NRC technical review of the Cola, and the final safety evaluation report (FSER) is scheduled to be issued by the US NRC in 2015. Following the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi plant, the US-A BWR was reviewed for Beyond Design Basis Event (BDBE) safety using industry and regulatory guidance for US NRC Order EA-12-049 Order Modifying Licenses with Regard to Requirements for Mitigation of Beyond Design Basis External Events (BDBEE). By virtue of the design approach, the US-A BWR is capable of providing an indefinite coping period for a station blackout. The use of installed systems with extended coping times is a significant advantage of the US-A BWR compared to most of the plants currently operating in the U.S. In addition, the Stp 3 and 4 design incorporates enhancements consistent with the current US industry Diverse and Flexible Coping Strategies (Flex) initiative. The final technical topic requiring review by the US NRC Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards was the Flex Integrated Plan submitted by NINA, and this review was successfully completed. This paper summarizes the progress of the US-A BWR in licensing the Flex Integrated Plan for the project, and describes the technology and features of the US-A BWR design that contribute to safety post-Fukushima. It also provides an informational comparison of the design capabilities of the US-A BWR for extreme external events, and relates these capabilities to re

  14. Flexible sulfur wires (Flex-SWs)—A new versatile platform for lithium-sulfur batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanumantha, Prashanth Jampani; Gattu, Bharat; Shanthi, Pavithra Murugavel; Damle, Sameer Satish; Basson, Ziev; Bandi, Ramalinga; Datta, Moni Kanchan; Park, Sungkyoo; Kumta, Prashant N.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A simple electrospinning methodology is described for generating novel fiber configurations of sulfur for use in lithium-sulfur batteries. Such flexible sulfur wire materials when converted into pellets of sulfur electrodes, exhibit very stable capacities over 135 cycles with high areal capacities (∼2.5 mAh/cm 2 ). Coating the electrodes with an inorganic lithium ion conductor coating results in electrodes exhibiting ∼650 mAh/g capacity and an impressive low fade rate of ∼0.003% fade/cycle. - Highlights: • Flexible sulfur wires (Flex-SW) generated using a simple electrospinning process. • Areal capacities of of ∼2.75 mAh/cm 2 with excellent stability upto 135 cycles observed. • Lithium ion conductor (LIC) coating on the Flex-SWs yield capacities of ∼620 mAh/g. • LIC coated Flex-SWs exhibit exceptionally low fade rate of 0.003%/cycle. - Abstract: A simple electrospinning methodology is described for generating novel fiber configurations of sulfur with the potential of yielding high performance sulfur electrodes for use in lithium-sulfur batteries. The unique fiber morphology derived by electrospinning has the capability of generating flexible sulfur yarns for the first time rendering them a highly attractive platform for small-scale mobile device applications such as textile-batteries. The electrospinning methodology reported herein also allows for the formation of a polymer-sulfur interface which acts as a physical barrier to liquid lithium electrolyte facilitating the reduction of polysulfide dissolution, a primary barrier to the progress of Li-S systems. Such flexible sulfur wire materials when converted into pellet sulfur electrodes, exhibit very stable capacities over 135 cycles with high areal capacities (∼2.5 mAh cm −2 ). Coating the electrodes with an inorganic lithium ion conductor coating results in further improvement of cycling behavior with electrodes of ∼650 mAh g −1 capacity and an impressive low fade rate

  15. Flex concept for US-A BWR extended loss of AC power events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, J.; Aoyagi, Y.; Kataoka, K.; Thomas, S.; Mookhoek, B.

    2015-09-01

    The US-Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (US-A BWR), certified by the US NRC, is a third generation, evolutionary boiling water reactor design which is the reference for the South Texas Project Units 3 and 4 (Stp 3 and 4) Combined License Application (Cola) and incorporates numerous design and technology enhancements for improved safety performance. Nuclear Innovation North America (NINA) is the License Applicant for this new build project, and Toshiba is the selected primary technology contractor. The Stp 3 and 4 project has finished the US NRC technical review of the Cola, and the final safety evaluation report (FSER) is scheduled to be issued by the US NRC in 2015. Following the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi plant, the US-A BWR was reviewed for Beyond Design Basis Event (BDBE) safety using industry and regulatory guidance for US NRC Order EA-12-049 Order Modifying Licenses with Regard to Requirements for Mitigation of Beyond Design Basis External Events (BDBEE). By virtue of the design approach, the US-A BWR is capable of providing an indefinite coping period for a station blackout. The use of installed systems with extended coping times is a significant advantage of the US-A BWR compared to most of the plants currently operating in the U.S. In addition, the Stp 3 and 4 design incorporates enhancements consistent with the current US industry Diverse and Flexible Coping Strategies (Flex) initiative. The final technical topic requiring review by the US NRC Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards was the Flex Integrated Plan submitted by NINA, and this review was successfully completed. This paper summarizes the progress of the US-A BWR in licensing the Flex Integrated Plan for the project, and describes the technology and features of the US-A BWR design that contribute to safety post-Fukushima. It also provides an informational comparison of the design capabilities of the US-A BWR for extreme external events, and relates these capabilities to re

  16. Déficit bilateral nos movimentos de flexão e extensão de perna e flexão do cotovelo Déficit bilateral en los movimientos de flexion y extension de la pierna y flexion del codo Bilateral deficit in leg flexion and extension and elbow flexion movements

    OpenAIRE

    Christianne Pereira Giesbrecht Chaves; Cláudia Porto Corrêa Guerra; Silvia Regina Gonçalves de Moura; Antonio Izidoro Vieira Nicoli; Félix Idemar; Roberto Simão

    2004-01-01

    Os exercícios resistidos (ER) podem ser realizados de forma uni e bilateral. O objetivo foi comparar a carga máxima (CM) na flexão e extensão de perna e flexão de cotovelo isoladamente e entre a soma desses dois resultados com aquele desenvolvido simultaneamente pelas duas pernas e dois braços, respectivamente. Foram submetidos 60 indivíduos ao exercício de flexão e extensão de perna e a flexão de cotovelo ao teste de 1RM. Os resultados para os movimentos de flexão e extensão de perna e flexã...

  17. Tracking C. elegans and its neuromuscular activity using NemaFlex II

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bussel, Frank; Rahman, Mizanur; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy; Vanapalli, Siva

    NemaFlex is a recently developed experimental platform designed to analyze the movement and muscular strength of crawling C. elegans. Physically it is a microfluidic device consisting of an array of deformable PDMS pillars, with which the C. elegans interacts in the course of moving through the system; image data is then acquired through a transparent top plate. The software component uses this image data to track the worm's movements and measure pillar deflections and thereby the forces exerted by the worm, in a fully automated, high-throughput manner. In order to correlate the force results with muscle activations the pillar deflections need to be precisely associated with mechanical contact on the worm's body, which requires accurate determination and representation of the body's position within the complex background. Here we discuss issues encountered in extracting this position data from the surrounding environment.

  18. The Effects of Push-ups with the Trunk Flexed on the Shoulder and Trunk Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dong-Hyun; Jung, So-Young; Nam, Dong-Hun; Shin, Seung-Je; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2014-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the activity of the shoulder and trunk muscles in two push-up positions: standard push-ups and push-ups with the trunk flexed. [Subjects] Fifteen young adult males participated in the study. [Methods] This study measured the clavicular and sternocostal portions of the pectoralis major, the serratus anterior, and the rectus abdominis during push-ups under the two conditions. [Results] The activity of the sternocostal portion of the pectoralis major and that of the rectus abdominis were significantly greater under Condition 1 than under Condition 2. The activity of the clavicular portion of the pectoralis major and that of the serratus anterior were significantly greater under Condition 2 compared with Condition 1. [Conclusion] These results indicate that exercises can selectively activate muscle parts under different clinical situations.

  19. Design of Experiments to Determine Causes of Flex Cable Solder Wicking, Discoloration and Hole Location Defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Larry

    2009-04-22

    Design of Experiments (DoE) were developed and performed in an effort to discover and resolve the causes of three different manufacturing issues; large panel voids after Hot Air Solder Leveling (HASL), cable hole locations out of tolerance after lamination and delamination/solder wicking around flat flex cable circuit lands after HASL. Results from a first DoE indicated large panel voids could be eliminated by removing the pre-HASL cleaning. It also revealed eliminating the pre-HASL bake would not be detrimental when using a hard press pad lamination stackup. A second DoE indicated a reduction in hard press pad stackup lamination pressure reduced panel stretch in the y axis approximately 70%. A third DoE illustrated increasing the pre-HASL bake temperature could reduce delamination/solder wicking when using a soft press pad lamination stackup.

  20. Game E-Learning Code Master Dengan Konsep Mmorpg Menggunakan Adobe Flex 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Purnomo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to design a web-based e-learning game that could be used to be a learning facility of C language programming and as an online game so it could be enjoyed by everybody easily in internet. Flex usage in this game online is to implement RIA (Rich Internet Application concept in the game so e-learning process is hoped to be more interesting and interactive. E-learning game is also designed in MMORPG (Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game concept. The research method used is analysis and design method. Analysis method is done through literature study, user analysis, and similar game analysis. Meanwhile, design method is about monitor display, gameplay and system design. The conclution of this research is that this game provides an interesting learning media of C language program accordingly to subject material at class and also easier to use through website. 

  1. Large Intra-Articular Anterior Cruciate Ligament Ganglion Cyst, Presenting with Inability to Flex the Knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake Sloane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 41-year-old female presented with a 3-month history of gradually worsening anterior knee pain, swelling and inability to flex the knee. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed a large intra-articular cystic swelling anterior to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL, extending into the Hoffa's infrapatellar fat pad. Following manipulation under anaesthesia and arthroscopic debridement of the cyst, the patient's symptoms were relieved with restoration of normal knee motion. ACL ganglion cysts are uncommon intra-articular pathological entities, which are usually asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally by MRI. This is the first reported case of an ACL cyst being so large as to cause a mechanical block to knee flexion.

  2. Effect of Torsional and Fatigue Preloading on HyFlex EDM Files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ya; Tra, Charles; Hieawy, Ahmed; Wang, Zhejun; Haapasalo, Markus

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a low amount of torsional preloading on the fatigue life and different degrees of cyclic fatigue on torsional failure of HyFlex EDM (EDM; Coltene-Whaledent, Allstetten, Switzerland) and HyFlex CM (CM; Coltene-Whaledent) instruments. EDM and CM files were used. The fatigue resistance was examined in a 5-mm radius and 60° single curve, and the mean number of cycles to failure (N f ) was recorded. The torque and rotation angles at failure of the instruments were measured according to ISO 3630-1. New files were precycled to 0%, 50%, and 75% of the N f , and torsional tests were then performed. Other new files were preloaded at 5%, 15%, 25%, and 50% of the mean rotation angles before the fatigue test. The fracture surfaces of the fragments were examined under a scanning electron microscope. The fatigue resistance of EDM instruments was higher than that of CM instruments (P EDM at 15% preloading (P EDM files even with 50% torsional preloading was significantly higher than unused CM files (P EDM files. Moderate precycling (50%) of EDM files increased their torsional resistance. The fractographic patterns corresponded to the pattern defined by the last stage test. A low amount (15%) of torsional preloading reduced the fatigue resistance of EDM files, whereas even extensive (75%) precyclic fatigue was not detrimental to their torsional resistance. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical imaging characteristics of the positron emission mammography camera: PEM Flex Solo II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Lawrence; Edwards, John; Lewellen, Thomas; Haseley, David; Rogers, James; Kinahan, Paul

    2009-10-01

    We evaluated a commercial positron emission mammography (PEM) camera, the PEM Flex Solo II. This system comprises two 6 x 16.4 cm detectors that scan together covering up to a 24 x 16.4 cm field of view (FOV). There are no specific standards for testing this detector configuration. We performed several tests important to breast imaging, and we propose tests that should be included in standardized testing of PEM systems. We measured spatial resolution, uniformity, counting- rate linearity, recovery coefficients, and quantification accuracy using the system's software. Image linearity and coefficient of variation at the edge of the FOV were also characterized. Anecdotal examples of clinical patient data are presented. The spatial resolution was 2.4 mm in full width at half maximum for image planes parallel to the detector faces. The background variability was approximately 5%, and quantification accuracy and recovery coefficients varied within the FOV. Positioning linearity began at approximately 13 mm from the edge of the detector housing. The coefficient of variation was significantly higher close to the edge of the FOV because of limited sensitivity in these image planes. A reconstructed spatial resolution of 2.4 mm represented a significant improvement over conventional whole-body PET scanners and should reduce the lower threshold on lesion size and tracer uptake for detection in the breast. Limited-angle tomography and a lack of data corrections result in spatially variable quantitative results. PEM acquisition geometry limits sampling statistics at the chest-wall edge of the camera, resulting in high variance in that portion of the image. Example patient images demonstrate that lesions can be detected at the chest-wall edge despite variance artifacts, and fine structure is visualized routinely throughout the FOV in the focal plane. The PEM Flex camera should enable the functional imaging of breast cancer earlier in the disease process than whole-body PET.

  4. Comparison of root canal preparation using Flex Master Ni-Ti and Endo-Eze AET stainless steel instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmeyer, Sabine; Schnell, Véronique; Hülsmann, Michael

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare various parameters of root canal preparation using FlexMaster rotary nickel-titanium and Endo-Eze AET stainless steel instruments. Fifty curved mesial root canals of extracted mandibular molars were prepared to size 45 using FlexMaster or AET instruments. The following parameters were evaluated: straightening of root canal curvature, postoperative root canal cross-sections, cleaning ability, safety issues, and working time. Statistical analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon test. The mean degree of straightening was significantly less for FlexMaster than for AET (P = .001). Postoperative cross-sections showed no significant differences between the systems. Neither of the systems completely eliminated debris and smear layer. No procedural incidents occurred with the instruments. Mean working time was significantly shorter for FlexMaster than for AET (P = .0001). AET cannot be recommended for preparation of curved root canals, owing to unacceptable straightening. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Induction of potent TRAIL-mediated tumoricidal activity by hFLEX/Furin/TRAIL recombinant DNA construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaofeng; Hui, Kam M

    2004-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been shown to exert selectively cytotoxic activity against many tumor cells but not normal cells. On the other hand, the ligand for the receptor tyrosine kinase Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt3L) is a growth factor for hematopoietic progenitors and is a potent stimulating factor for dendritic and NK cells. Previously, we have demonstrated that it is possible to inhibit the outgrowth of primary tumors by the administration of an hFlex (the extracellular domain of the Flt3L) and TRAIL (amino acid residues 95-281) secreted fusion protein. Here, we report that by the insertion of a linker sequence encoding the cleavage site for the Golgi-expressed endoprotease furin between the DNA sequences encoding hFlex and TRAIL, the tumoricidal activity of the cleaved TRAIL protein generated was greatly enhanced in comparison to the hFlex/TRAIL fusion protein. Furthermore, we demonstrate that intratumoral injection of the hFlex/furin/TRAIL DNA, in conjunction with cationic liposomes, significantly suppressed the outgrowth of the human CNE-2 nasopharyngeal tumor xenografts in SCID mice. In situ histological examinations confirmed the expression of TRAIL in the treated tumor nodules and the induction of apoptosis was also evidenced by the presence of numerous pyknotic nuclei.

  6. HistoFlex-a microfluidic device providing uniform flow conditions enabling highly sensitive, reproducible and quantitative in situ hybridizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Okkels, Fridolin; Sabourin, David

    2011-01-01

    A microfluidic device (the HistoFlex) designed to perform and monitor molecular biological assays under dynamic flow conditions on microscope slide-substrates, with special emphasis on analyzing histological tissue sections, is presented. Microscope slides were reversibly sealed onto a cast...

  7. University of Idaho's low-speed flex fuel direct-injected 797cc two-stroke rear drive snowmobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The University of Idahos entry into the 2012 SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge uses a Ski-Doo XP chassis with a low-speed 797 cc direct-injection two-stroke powered snowmobile modified for flex fuel use on blended ethanol fuel. A battery-less direct ...

  8. Hosed vs. unhosed: interruptions of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation in a global coupled model, with and without freshwater forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nicolas; Galbraith, Eric D.

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that glacial periods were punctuated by abrupt climate changes, with large impacts on air temperature, precipitation, and ocean circulation across the globe. However, the long-held idea that freshwater forcing, caused by massive iceberg discharges, was the driving force behind these changes has been questioned in recent years. This throws into doubt the abundant literature on modelling abrupt climate change through "hosing" experiments, whereby the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is interrupted by an injection of freshwater to the North Atlantic: if some, or all, abrupt climate change was not driven by freshwater input, could its character have been very different than the typical hosed experiments? Here, we describe spontaneous, unhosed oscillations in AMOC strength that occur in a global coupled ocean-atmosphere model when integrated under a particular background climate state. We compare these unhosed oscillations to hosed oscillations under a range of background climate states in order to examine how the global imprint of AMOC variations depends on whether or not they result from external freshwater input. Our comparison includes surface air temperature, precipitation, dissolved oxygen concentrations in the intermediate-depth ocean, and marine export production. The results show that the background climate state has a significant impact on the character of the freshwater-forced AMOC interruptions in this model, with particularly marked variations in tropical precipitation and in the North Pacific circulation. Despite these differences, the first-order patterns of response to AMOC interruptions are quite consistent among all simulations, implying that the ocean-sea ice-atmosphere dynamics associated with an AMOC weakening dominate the global response, regardless of whether or not freshwater input is the cause. Nonetheless, freshwater addition leads to a more complete shutdown of the AMOC than occurs in the unhosed oscillations

  9. [Effects of irrigation with different length micro-sprinkling hoses on soil water distribution, water consumption characteristics of winter wheat, and its grain yield].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Jian-guo; Wang, Dong; Yu, Zhen-wen; Zhang, Yong-li; Shi, Yu

    2013-08-01

    Taking the high-yielding winter wheat variety Jimai 22 as test material, a field experiment was conducted in 2010-2012 to study the effects of irrigation with different length micro-sprinkling hoses on the soil water distribution in winter wheat growth period and the water consumption characteristics and grain yield of winter wheat. Three micro-sprinkling hose lengths were designed, i. e., 40 m (T40), 60 m (T60) and 80 m (T80). Under the micro-sprinkling irrigation at jointing and anthesis stages, the uniformity of the horizontal distribution of irrigation water in soil increased significantly with the decrease of hose length from 80 to 40 m. When irrigated at jointing stage, the water content of 0-200 cm soil layer in each space of wheat rows had no significant difference within the 0-40 m distanced from the border initial in treatments T40 and T60. When measured at the 38-40 m, 58-60 m, and 78-80 m distanced from the border initial in treatment T80 at jointing and anthesis stages, the water content in 0-200 cm soil layer had the same change pattern, i. e., decreased with the increasing distance from micro-sprinkling hose. The water consumption amounts in 40-60 cm soil layer from jointing to anthesis stages and in 20-80 cm soil layer from anthesis to maturing stages were higher in treatment T40 than in treatments T60 and T80. However, the soil water consumption amount, irrigation amount at anthesis stage, total irrigation amount, and total water consumption amount were significantly lower in treatment T40 than in treatments T60 and T80. The grain yield, yield water use efficiency increased with the hose length decreased from 80 to 40 m, but the flow decreased. Therefore, the effective irrigation area per unit time decreased with the same irrigation amounts. Considering the grain yield, water use efficiency, and the flow through micro-sprinkling hose, 40 and 60 m were considered to be the appropriate micro-sprinkling hose lengths under this experimental condition.

  10. Increasing ABB FlexPicker Robot’s Degree of Freedom (DOF using Flexible End Effector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordin M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The commissioning of a high speed parallel robot such as the ABB Flexpicker Robot into the industrial environment provides greater flexibility in picking, packaging or palletizing tasks. However, current configuration of this robot only allows up to four-degree-of-freedom (DOF which restricted its function to perform simple or complex automated assembly task. Therefore, the possibility of increasing one additional degree-of-freedom for the parallel robot was investigated. By attaching a flexible vacuum hose to the robot’s end effector, it can be controlled by using a servomotor that can manipulate its angle of suction up to 90 degrees. With this new configuration, one DOF has been introduced for this robot. Several tests had been conducted to evaluate the flexibility and performance of the end effector which includes varying loads and angles. From the analysis, it is found that the end-effector can lift weights up to 1kg due to sufficient vacuum pressure; however, it could perform bending up to 90 degrees for maximum load of 600 grams only.

  11. Differentiation and Distribution of Marrow Stem Cells in Flex-Flow Environments Demonstrate Support of the Valvular Phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasmita Rath

    Full Text Available For treatment of critical heart valve diseases, prosthetic valves perform fairly well in most adults; however, for pediatric patients, there is the added requirement that the replacement valve grows with the child, thus extremely limiting current treatment options. Tissue engineered heart valves (TEHV, such as those derived from autologous bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs, have the potential to recapitulate native valve architecture and accommodate somatic growth. However, a fundamental pre-cursor in promoting directed integration with native tissues rather than random, uncontrolled growth requires an understanding of BMSC mechanobiological responses to valve-relevant mechanical environments. Here, we report on the responses of human BMSC-seeded polymer constructs to the valve-relevant stress states of: (i steady flow alone, (ii cyclic flexure alone, and (iii the combination of cyclic flexure and steady flow (flex-flow. BMSCs were seeded onto a PGA: PLLA polymer scaffold and cultured in static culture for 8 days. Subsequently, the aforementioned mechanical conditions, (groups consisting of steady flow alone-850ml/min, cyclic flexure alone-1 Hz, and flex-flow-850ml/min and 1 Hz were applied for an additional two weeks. We found samples from the flex-flow group exhibited a valve-like distribution of cells that expressed endothelial (preference to the surfaces and myofibroblast (preference to the intermediate region phenotypes. We interpret that this was likely due to the presence of both appreciable fluid-induced shear stress magnitudes and oscillatory shear stresses, which were concomitantly imparted onto the samples. These results indicate that flex-flow mechanical environments support directed in vitro differentiation of BMSCs uniquely towards a heart valve phenotype, as evident by cellular distribution and expression of specific gene markers. A priori guidance of BMSC-derived, engineered tissue growth under flex-flow conditions may serve to

  12. Differentiation and Distribution of Marrow Stem Cells in Flex-Flow Environments Demonstrate Support of the Valvular Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Sasmita; Salinas, Manuel; Villegas, Ana G.; Ramaswamy, Sharan

    2015-01-01

    For treatment of critical heart valve diseases, prosthetic valves perform fairly well in most adults; however, for pediatric patients, there is the added requirement that the replacement valve grows with the child, thus extremely limiting current treatment options. Tissue engineered heart valves (TEHV), such as those derived from autologous bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs), have the potential to recapitulate native valve architecture and accommodate somatic growth. However, a fundamental pre-cursor in promoting directed integration with native tissues rather than random, uncontrolled growth requires an understanding of BMSC mechanobiological responses to valve-relevant mechanical environments. Here, we report on the responses of human BMSC-seeded polymer constructs to the valve-relevant stress states of: (i) steady flow alone, (ii) cyclic flexure alone, and (iii) the combination of cyclic flexure and steady flow (flex-flow). BMSCs were seeded onto a PGA: PLLA polymer scaffold and cultured in static culture for 8 days. Subsequently, the aforementioned mechanical conditions, (groups consisting of steady flow alone—850ml/min, cyclic flexure alone—1 Hz, and flex-flow—850ml/min and 1 Hz) were applied for an additional two weeks. We found samples from the flex-flow group exhibited a valve-like distribution of cells that expressed endothelial (preference to the surfaces) and myofibroblast (preference to the intermediate region) phenotypes. We interpret that this was likely due to the presence of both appreciable fluid-induced shear stress magnitudes and oscillatory shear stresses, which were concomitantly imparted onto the samples. These results indicate that flex-flow mechanical environments support directed in vitro differentiation of BMSCs uniquely towards a heart valve phenotype, as evident by cellular distribution and expression of specific gene markers. A priori guidance of BMSC-derived, engineered tissue growth under flex-flow conditions may serve to

  13. [True/Flex intramedullary nailing for forearm shaft fractures. Long-term results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trlica, J; Počepcov, I; Kočí, J; Frank, M; Holeček, T; Dědek, T

    2012-01-01

    Presentation of technical experience and the clinical and functional results of intramedullary fixation of forearm shaft fractures. Between January 1994 and December 2009, a total of 96 patients with 144 radial and/or ulnar fractures (ulna, 33; radius,15; both, 48) were treated by nailing (True/Flex®). According to the AO classification there were 22-A, 22-B and 22-C type fractures in 39 (41%), 44 (46%) and 13 (13%).cases, respectively. Of these, 82 (85%) were closed (types: 0, 48; I, 33; II, 1) and 14 (15%) were open (types: I, 13; II, 1; III, 0) fractures. Seventy-eight patients (81%) were followed up and their functional outcomes were evaluated according to the criteria of Anderson et al. The average interval between the operation and final follow-up was 28 months (15 to 96 months) The average time to surgery was 2.2 days (0 to 25 days). Early complications were recorded in 4% of the patients (1x bursitis olecrani; 1x end cup replacement; 1x bending of nails) and late complications in 15% (5x non-union; 2x delay union; 4x bursitis olecrani; 1x ruptured tendon). Bone healing was achieved in 95% of the cases and took on average 16 weeks (7 to 34 weeks). No infection, refracture or synostosis occurred. Primary loss of reduction was recorded in four cases due to distraction in one, bent nails in two and a wrong size of the implant in one; secondary loss of reduction was found in three cases, with two cases of radius shortening and one 10°malrotation. No primary malrotation was recorded, but secondary loss of alignment was seen in the distal part of the radius and the proximal part of the ulna. Functional results according to the Anderson criteria were excellent and good in 87% of the cases. Intramedullary mailing provides good stability to mid- and distal-third shaft fractures of the ulna and mid- and proximalthird shaft fractures of the radius, particularly in AO type A and type B fractures. The technical aspects of the method are analysed in detail in this paper

  14. Variation of Hardness and Modulus across thickness of Zr-Cu-Al Metallic Glass Ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Z. Humberto Melgarejo; J.E. Jakes; J. Hwang; Y.E. Kalay; M.J. Kramer; P.M. Voyles; D.S. Stone

    2012-01-01

    We investigate through-thickness hardness and modulus of Zr50Cu45Al5 metallic glass melt-spun ribbon. Because of their thinness, the ribbons are challenging to measure, so we employ a novel nanoindentation based-method to remove artifacts caused by ribbon flexing and edge effects. Hardness and modulus...

  15. Impact of the flex-fuel vehicle on the prices formation and regulation in Brazil; Analise do impacto dos veiculos flex-fuel na formacao e regulacao de precos de combustiveis veiculares no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buscarini, Rodolfo Jose Galvao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Economia; Cesca, Igor Gimenes [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEP/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo

    2012-07-01

    The main fuels for vehicles in Brazil are the gasoline type C - which is a mixture of gasoline, resulting from the fractional distillation of oil and anhydrous ethanol - and hydrated ethanol. For this importance, has been created an institutional framework to guide and regulate the activities of the fuel sector, initially for gasoline, hydrated ethanol was contemplated by such device in 2011. Since 2003, there has been manufactured in Brazil the flex-fuel vehicles. With this, the possibility of activation of an additional factor for the regulation of vehicle fuel prices, increasing consumer power to define which of the fuels could be used as the disposition of their prices. One of the effects of growth flex-fuel sales has been increased production and investment in ethanol (especially sugar cane) as a suitable alternative to the. The hope was that the formation of fuel prices was less dependent on their cost of production and distribution and more influenced by a pressure of consumer demand. However, the increase in the sales of the flex-fuel vehicle in Brazil in the last years was not the determining factor in the price of fuels, as it was expected. The explanation of this is on external factors to the automotive industry, linked to the structures of the production chain of oil and ethanol, especially the question of the great increase in international prices of oil and hydrated ethanol in the international market in recent years. (author)

  16. Applications of the NRGsuite and the Molecular Docking Software FlexAID in Computational Drug Discovery and Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morency, Louis-Philippe; Gaudreault, Francis; Najmanovich, Rafael

    2018-01-01

    Docking simulations help us understand molecular interactions. Here we present a hands-on tutorial to utilize FlexAID (Flexible Artificial Intelligence Docking), an open source molecular docking software between ligands such as small molecules or peptides and macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. The tutorial uses the NRGsuite PyMOL plugin graphical user interface to set up and visualize docking simulations in real time as well as detect and refine target cavities. The ease of use of FlexAID and the NRGsuite combined with its superior performance relative to widely used docking software provides nonexperts with an important tool to understand molecular interactions with direct applications in structure-based drug design and virtual high-throughput screening.

  17. The effect of flex fuel vehicles in the Brazilian light road transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamimura, Arlindo; Sauer, Ildo L. [Programa Interunidades de Pos-graduacao em Energia, IEE - Instituto de Eletrotecnica e Energia/USP, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, 1289, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-04-15

    The retaking of the ethanol program in the year 2003 as a fuel for light road transportation in Brazil through the introduction of flex fuel vehicles fleet was a good strategy to overcome the difficulties of the ethanol production sector and did work to increase its market share relative to gasoline. This process, however, may cause a future disequilibrium on the food production and on the refining oil derivates structure. In order to analyze the substitution process resultant of the competition between two opponents fighting for the same market, in this case the gasoline/ethanol substitution process, a method derived from the biomathematics based on the non-linear differential equations (NLDE) system is utilized. A brief description of the method is presented. Numerical adherence of the method to explain several substitution phenomena that occurred in the past is presented in the previous author's paper, in which the urban gas pipeline system substitution of bottled LPG in the dwelling sector and the substitution of the urban diesel transportation fleet by compressed natural gas (CNG) buses is presented. The proposed method is particularly suitable for prospective analysis and scenarios assessment. (author)

  18. Anatomical study of the posterior cruciate ligament with the knee flexed at 90°,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kyubin Cho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To study the anatomy of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL and define anatomical parameters with the knee flexed at 90°.Methods:Eight knees from cadavers were dissected in order to make measurements from the center of the anterolateral band to the roof (AL1, from the center of the anterolateral band to the anterior cartilage (AL2, from the center of the posteromedial band to the roof (PM1, from the center of the posteromedial band to the anterior cartilage (PM2, from the center of the tibial insertion to the medial region of the tibia (TIM, from the center of the tibial insertion to the lateral region of the tibia (TIL, from the center of the medial insertion to the medial meniscus (IMM and the width of the origin of the PCL (WO. To obtain the results from each anatomical structure, the means and standard deviations of the measurements were calculated.Results:The measurements in millimeters that were found were AL1, 6.2; AL2, 4.9; PM1, 11.7; PM2, 5.5; TIM, 32.5; TIL, 40.6; IMM, 9.4; and WO, 32.5.Conclusions:The PCL has an extensive origin. The center of the anterolateral band is 6 mm from the roof and 5 mm from the anterior cartilage of the knee. The tibial insertion is slightly medial and 10 mm distal to the posterior cornu of the medial meniscus.

  19. Desdobramento da qualidade no desenvolvimento de filmes flexíveis para embalagens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Paulo A. Cauchick

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Um dos métodos atuais importantes para o desenvolvimento de produtos é o QFD (Quality Function Deployment ou Desdobramento da Função Qualidade. O QFD consiste em um processo sistemático para traduzir a opinião do cliente em requisitos técnicos e operacionais, mostrando e documentando as informações na forma de matrizes. O método objetiva enfocar os itens mais importantes, proporcionando um mecanismo para alcançar vantagens competitivas no processo de desenvolvimento. Este trabalho destaca o conceito do QFD, citando uma aplicação em uma empresa que produz filmes flexíveis de polipropileno (BOPP. O trabalho apresenta alguns aspectos da introdução do método na empresa, apontando as dificuldades encontradas, resultados e benefícios decorrentes da implantação. Dentre os benefícios gerados, destacam-se a importância do papel do QFD como um método para sistematizar o processo de desenvolvimento, bem como outros benefícios para a equipe, tais como melhoria nas habilidades de planejamento, disseminação do conhecimento e melhoria de comunicação entre as áreas funcionais.

  20. Clinical Imaging Characteristics of the Positron Emission Mammography PEM Flex Solo II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Lawrence; Edwards, John; Lewellen, Thomas; Rogers, James; Kinahan, Paul

    2008-10-01

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) uses two opposing gamma-ray imagers and limited-angle tomography techniques to image radiotracer distributions within the breast. Due to their smaller size and closer proximity to the source, dedicated PEM cameras can provide better spatial resolution and count sensitivity than whole-body positron emission tomographs. We performed several clinical imaging tests on a commercially available PEM camera, the PEM Flex Solo II. This system is comprised of two opposing 6 cm × 16.4 cm detectors that scan in unison to cover up to a 24 cm × 16.4 cm field of view (FOV). We measured spatial resolution, uniformity, recovery coefficients (RC), and quantification using the system clinical software. Image linearity and coefficient of variation (CV) at the edge of the FOV were also characterized. Anecdotal examples of clinical patient data are presented. Spatial resolution is 2.4 mm FWHM for image planes parallel to the detector faces; background variability is 6%; quantification and RC varied within the FOV; positioning linearity began at ~ 13 mm from the edge of the detector housing; CV increased rapidly at the edge of the FOV due to limited sampling in these image planes.

  1. [Tracheal intubation with Parker Flex-Tip tubes assisted by tube-guiding devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Ju; Morita, Shigeho; Suzuki, Maya; Arita, Hideko; Hanaoka, Kazuo

    2010-04-01

    In tracheal intubation assisted by tube-guiding devices passing through the tube, such as fiberoptic scopes, bougies, tracheal tube exchange catheters, and light wands, passage of the tube-guiding device, by itself, is often easy. But advancing a tracheal tube with a conventional distal tip over these tube-guiding devices is frequently difficult or impossible, because its rigid, side-beveled tip frequently catches on anatomical features of the airway. A novel tracheal tube, the Parker Flex-Tip tube (Parker Medical, Colorado, USA) has a centered, curved, tapered and flexible distal tip that passes through the airway faster and easier than conventional tracheal tubes. As it is advanced along a tube-guiding device, the tip of the Parker tube travels along the midline of the airway, without the gap that usually exists between the distal edge of a conventional tracheal tube and the tube-guiding device. The gapless, midline travel of the Parker tube leads to a greater incidence of first-attempt intubation success with tube-guiding devices, because there is less risk of tube tip hang-ups on the arytenoids and the vocal cords. Clinically, use of the Parker tube is helpful for oral and nasal intubations, especially in patients with difficult airways.

  2. Flex-fuel vehicle adoption and dynamics of ethanol prices: lessons from Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Xiaodong; Carriquiry, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on dynamics of the relative prices of substitute fuels, namely ethanol and gasoline, this study quantifies the impact of the increase in shares of flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs) in the vehicle fleet on the domestic ethanol prices in Brazil. A modified partial adjustment model is employed. Estimation results provide strong support for our research hypotheses: (i) when consumers can choose between the fuels the relative ethanol and gasoline prices converge to a long-run equilibrium level, which is determined by the fuel economy, and (ii) price dynamics are largely determined by market supply and demand factors including the price of sugar, ethanol exports, and composition of vehicle fleet. Furthermore, the impacts of demand factors such as ethanol exports are strengthened by the increasing proportion of FFVs in the vehicle fleet. - Highlights: • The relative prices of ethanol and gasoline in Brazil exhibit strong mean-reversion. • The fuel price dynamics are mainly influenced by supply and demand factors. • The impacts of demand factors are strengthened by the increasing proportion of FFVs

  3. Functional Performance Evaluation of the Northwestern University Flexible Subischial Vacuum (NU-FlexSIV) Socket for Persons with Transfemoral Amputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Socket for Persons with Transfemoral Amputation PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Stefania Fatone, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Northwestern...University Flexible Subischial Vacuum (NU-FlexSIV) Socket for Persons with Transfemoral Amputation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1...0708 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Stefania Fatone, PhD 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER E-Mail: s-fatone@northwestern.edu 5f. WORK

  4. Flexed Truncal Posture in Parkinson Disease: Measurement Reliability and Relationship With Physical and Cognitive Impairments, Mobility, and Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Aimi L; Paul, Serene S; Allen, Natalie E; Sherrington, Catherine; Fung, Victor S C; Canning, Colleen G

    2017-04-01

    Flexed truncal posture is common in people with Parkinson disease (PD); however, little is known about the mechanisms responsible or its effect on physical performance. This cross-sectional study aimed to establish the reliability of a truncal posture measurement and explore relationships between PD impairments and truncal posture, as well as truncal posture and balance and mobility. A total of 82 people with PD participated. Truncal posture was measured in standing as the distance between vertebra C7 and a wall. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed with truncal posture and impairments, including global axial symptoms, tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, freezing of gait (FOG), reactive stepping and executive function, as well as truncal posture with balance and mobility measures. The truncal posture measure had excellent test-retest reliability (ICC3,1 0.79, 95% CI 0.60-0.89, P < 0.001). Global axial symptoms had the strongest association with truncal posture (adjusted R = 0.08, P = 0.01), although the majority of the variance remains unexplained. Post hoc analysis revealed that several impairments were associated with truncal posture only in those who did not report FOG. Flexed truncal posture was associated with poorer performance of most balance and mobility tasks after adjustment for age, gender, disease severity, and duration (adjusted R = 0.24-0.33, P < 0.001-0.03). The C7 to wall measurement is highly reliable in people with PD. Global axial symptoms were independently associated with truncal posture. Greater flexed truncal posture was associated with poorer balance and mobility. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for flexed truncal posture and the impact on activity.Video Abstract available for more insights from the authors (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A164).

  5. Validity and Reliability of Fitbit Flex for Step Count, Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity and Activity Energy Expenditure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashleigh Sushames

    Full Text Available To examine the validity and reliability of the Fitbit Flex against direct observation for measuring steps in the laboratory and against the Actigraph for step counts in free-living conditions and for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA and activity energy expenditure (AEE overall.Twenty-five adults (12 females, 13 males wore a Fitbit Flex and an Actigraph GT3X+ during a laboratory based protocol (including walking, incline walking, running and stepping and free-living conditions during a single day period to examine measurement of steps, AEE and MVPA. Twenty-four of the participants attended a second session using the same protocol.Intraclass correlations (ICC for test-retest reliability of the Fitbit Flex were strong for walking (ICC = 0.57, moderate for stair stepping (ICC = 0.34, and weak for incline walking (ICC = 0.22 and jogging (ICC = 0.26. The Fitbit significantly undercounted walking steps in the laboratory (absolute proportional difference: 21.2%, 95%CI 13.0-29.4%, but it was more accurate, despite slightly over counting, for both jogging (6.4%, 95%CI 3.7-9.0% and stair stepping (15.5%, 95%CI 10.1-20.9%. The Fitbit had higher coefficients of variation (Cv for step counts compared to direct observation and the Actigraph. In free-living conditions, the average MVPA minutes were lower in the Fitbit (35.4 minutes compared to the Actigraph (54.6 minutes, but AEE was greater from the Fitbit (808.1 calories versus the Actigraph (538.9 calories. The coefficients of variation were similar for AEE for the Actigraph (Cv = 36.0 and Fitbit (Cv = 35.0, but lower in the Actigraph (Cv = 25.5 for MVPA against the Fitbit (Cv = 32.7.The Fitbit Flex has moderate validity for measuring physical activity relative to direct observation and the Actigraph. Test-rest reliability of the Fitbit was dependant on activity type and had greater variation between sessions compared to the Actigraph. Physical activity surveillance studies using the Fitbit Flex

  6. Time-aware service-classified spectrum defragmentation algorithm for flex-grid optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yang; Xu, Jing

    2018-01-01

    By employing sophisticated routing and spectrum assignment (RSA) algorithms together with a finer spectrum granularity (namely frequency slot) in resource allocation procedures, flex-grid optical networks can accommodate diverse kinds of services with high spectrum-allocation flexibility and resource-utilization efficiency. However, the continuity and the contiguity constraints in spectrum allocation procedures may always induce some isolated, small-sized, and unoccupied spectral blocks (known as spectrum fragments) in flex-grid optical networks. Although these spectrum fragments are left unoccupied, they can hardly be utilized by the subsequent service requests directly because of their spectral characteristics and the constraints in spectrum allocation. In this way, the existence of spectrum fragments may exhaust the available spectrum resources for a coming service request and thus worsens the networking performance. Therefore, many reactive defragmentation algorithms have been proposed to handle the fragmented spectrum resources via re-optimizing the routing paths and the spectrum resources for the existing services. But the routing-path and the spectrum-resource re-optimization in reactive defragmentation algorithms may possibly disrupt the traffic of the existing services and require extra components. By comparison, some proactive defragmentation algorithms (e.g. fragmentation-aware algorithms) were proposed to suppress spectrum fragments from their generation instead of handling the fragmented spectrum resources. Although these proactive defragmentation algorithms induced no traffic disruption and required no extra components, they always left the generated spectrum fragments unhandled, which greatly affected their efficiency in spectrum defragmentation. In this paper, by comprehensively considering the characteristics of both the reactive and the proactive defragmentation algorithms, we proposed a time-aware service-classified (TASC) spectrum

  7. FlexOracle: predicting flexible hinges by identification of stable domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores Samuel C

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein motions play an essential role in catalysis and protein-ligand interactions, but are difficult to observe directly. A substantial fraction of protein motions involve hinge bending. For these proteins, the accurate identification of flexible hinges connecting rigid domains would provide significant insight into motion. Programs such as GNM and FIRST have made global flexibility predictions available at low computational cost, but are not designed specifically for finding hinge points. Results Here we present the novel FlexOracle hinge prediction approach based on the ideas that energetic interactions are stronger within structural domains than between them, and that fragments generated by cleaving the protein at the hinge site are independently stable. We implement this as a tool within the Database of Macromolecular Motions, MolMovDB.org. For a given structure, we generate pairs of fragments based on scanning all possible cleavage points on the protein chain, compute the energy of the fragments compared with the undivided protein, and predict hinges where this quantity is minimal. We present three specific implementations of this approach. In the first, we consider only pairs of fragments generated by cutting at a single location on the protein chain and then use a standard molecular mechanics force field to calculate the enthalpies of the two fragments. In the second, we generate fragments in the same way but instead compute their free energies using a knowledge based force field. In the third, we generate fragment pairs by cutting at two points on the protein chain and then calculate their free energies. Conclusion Quantitative results demonstrate our method's ability to predict known hinges from the Database of Macromolecular Motions.

  8. Long term outcome of single event multilevel surgery in spastic diplegia with flexed knee gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ki Hyuk; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Kyoung Min; Akhmedov, Bekhzad; Lee, Seung Yeol; Choi, In Ho; Cho, Tae-Joon; Yoo, Won Joon; Park, Moon Seok

    2013-04-01

    Distal hamstring lengthening (DHL) is a commonly performed procedure in flexed knee gait. However, the necessity of this procedure has been challenged due to the concerns on adverse effects in long-term follow-up. This retrospective study was undertaken to investigate the long-term outcome of single event multilevel surgery (SEMLS), including bilateral DHL, in ambulatory patients with cerebral palsy using 3D gait analysis. Twenty-nine ambulatory patients with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy who had undergone SEMLS including bilateral DHL were included. 3D gait analysis was performed preoperatively, 1 year postoperatively and over 10 years postoperatively. Preoperative temporal parameters, kinematics and GDI were compared with values obtained 1 and 10 year follow-up visits. The mean age of patients at time of first surgery was 8.3 years (range, 5.4-16.3 years), and mean time from first surgery to last 3D gait analysis was 11.8 years (range, 10.0-13.3 years). Mean pelvic tilt was not changed significantly after SEMLS including DHL. Mean knee flexion at initial contact decreased from 31.1° preoperatively to 26.0° at 1 year postoperatively (p=0.065), and then decreased significantly to 23.6° at 10 years postoperatively (p=0.038) versus the preoperative value. Mean GDI score significantly improved from 69.4 preoperatively to 77.9 at 1 year postoperatively (p=0.003) and continuously improved to 82.2 at 10 years postoperatively (p=0.017). Single event multilevel surgery including DHL provides a favorable outcome 10 years postoperatively in patients with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. FLEX: fluorescence explorer--a space mission for screening vegetated areas in the Fraunhofer lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Marc-Philippe; Laurila, Tuomas; Cunin, Bernard; Gitelson, Anatoly A.; Lichtenthaler, Hartmut K.; Hame, Tuomas

    1999-12-01

    Fluorescence is a highly specific signal of vegetation function, stress and vitality. Solar induced fluorescence, a very weak signal, is detectable using the Fraunhofer lines of the solar spectrum, allowing the observation from a satellite. A space mission is proposed that would provide new data type in the field of Earth observation, addressing big scale screening of terrestrial vegetation in relation to agricultural, forestry and global change issues, such as solar irradiance, ozone depletion, water availability, air temperature, pollution in air/water/soils,..). The scientific, technical and general characteristics of the proposed mission, a demonstration/validation of the technique, are exposed. The scientific payload, from a LEO sun-synchronous orbit, will measure the fluorescence in the H(alpha) (656.3 nm) and at least one other Fraunhofer line in the blue-UV region with a CCD matrix type imaging spectrometer. A thermal infrared imaging radiometer, optional although highly desirable, would measure the vegetation temperature. An additional CCD camera will provide cloud detection and scene identification. The spatial resolution will be better than 0.5 X 0.5 km2, with a nominal FOV of 8.4 degrees; a steering mirror will allow plus or minus 4 degrees across track depointing, while allowing, if necessary, freezing the image to increase the S/R. The FLEX mission will provide florescence intensities and reflectances at the same wavelengths, plus temperature if available. Processing of the data will require atmospheric characteristics (aerosols) from other missions. Interpretation of the fluorescence signal will require reflectance data over the 400 to 800 nm region; biome characteristics (LAI, architecture, biomass density factors, APAR, etc.) from space mission providing high spectral resolution, directional reflectance measurements in the visible domain; ground data on environmental factors and plant physiology and in situ florescence measurements for satellite

  10. Metal spring stub and ceramic body electrode assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolf, Richard L.; Sharp, Maurice L.

    1984-01-01

    An electrode assembly comprising an electrically conductive ceramic electrode body having an opening therein and a metal stub retained in the opening with at least a surface of the stub in intimate contact with a surface of the body and the stub adapted with a spring to flex and prevent damage to the body from expansion of the stub when subjected to a temperature differential.

  11. Ytterbium- and neodymium-doped vanadate laser hose crystals having the apatite crystal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Stephen A.; Kway, Wayne L.; DeLoach, Laura D.; Krupke, William F.; Chai, Bruce H. T.

    1994-01-01

    Yb.sup.3+ and Nd.sup.3+ doped Sr.sub.5 (VO.sub.4).sub.3 F crystals serve as useful infrared laser media that exhibit low thresholds of oscillation and high slope efficiencies, and can be grown with high optical quality. These laser media possess unusually high absorption and emission cross sections, which provide the crystals with the ability to generate greater gain for a given amount of pump power. Many related crystals such as Sr.sub.5 (VO.sub.4).sub.3 F crystals doped with other rare earths, transition metals, or actinides, as well as the many structural analogs of Sr.sub.5 (VO.sub.4).sub.3 F, where the Sr.sup.2+ and F.sup.- ions are replaced by related chemical species, have similar properties.

  12. Reciclagem de pavimentos flexíveis com adição de cimento Portland : estudo de fadiga através do ensaio de flexão em viga quatro pontos

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Alexander Castañeda López

    2016-01-01

    A reciclagem de pavimentos com adição de cimento Portland é uma técnica que permite reutilizar estruturas degradadas de pavimentos flexíveis na conformação de uma nova camada estabilizada. Seu dimensionamento, no Brasil, tem sido abordado de forma empírica. Entretanto, os métodos racionais desenvolvidos para pavimentos semirrígidos estão baseados principalmente na previsão da vida de fadiga das camadas cimentadas, associada ao nível de deformação atuante na sua fibra inferior. Com o intuito d...

  13. Load-sharing in the lumbosacral spine in neutral standing & flexed postures - A combined finite element and inverse static study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Khalaf, Kinda; Naserkhaki, Sadegh; El-Rich, Marwan

    2018-03-21

    Understanding load-sharing in the spine during in-vivo conditions is critical for better spinal implant design and testing. Previous studies of load-sharing that considered actual spinal geometry applied compressive follower load, with or without moment, to simulate muscle forces. Other studies used musculoskeletal models, which include muscle forces, but model the discs by simple beams or spherical joints and ignore the articular facet joints. This study investigated load-sharing in neutral standing and flexed postures using a detailed Finite Element (FE) model of the ligamentous lumbosacral spine, where muscle forces, gravity loads and intra-abdominal pressure, as predicted by a musculoskeletal model of the upper body, are input into the FE model. Flexion was simulated by applying vertebral rotations following spine rhythm measured in a previous in-vivo study, to the musculoskeletal model. The FE model predicted intradiscal pressure (IDP), strains in the annular fibers, contact forces in the facet joints, and forces in the ligaments. The disc forces and moments were determined using equilibrium equations, which considered the applied loads, including muscle forces and IDP, as well as forces in the ligaments and facet joints predicted by the FE model. Load-sharing was calculated as the portion of the total spinal load carried along the spine by each individual spinal structure. The results revealed that spinal loads which increased substantially from the upright to the flexed posture were mainly supported by the discs in the upright posture, whereas the ligaments' contribution in resisting shear, compression, and moment was more significant in the flexed posture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Future Organization of Danish Electricity Market for Integrating DERs - a View of FlexPower Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Chunyu; Ding, Yi

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a view of the Danish FlexPower project to reform the existing electricity market by coordinating vast Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) for integration in future scenarios. Aiming to maximize the preservation of the existing market structure, Aggregator, the key player...... in mobilizing small-scale DERs to participate in the existing electricity market, is proposed in this paper to cope with the day-ahead, intra-day and regulating power market. Possible future organizations of different time-scale markets are also introduced and discussed with the precise roles...

  15. Biomechanical Differences Between Femtosecond Lenticule Extraction (FLEx) and Small Incision Lenticule Extraction (SmILE) Tested by 2D-Extensometry in Ex Vivo Porcine Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiru, Bogdan; Kling, Sabine; Hafezi, Farhad; Sekundo, Walter

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the biomechanical stability of ex vivo porcine corneas after femtosecond lenticule extraction (FLEx) and small incision lenticule extraction (SmILE) refractive surgeries. Forty-five porcine eyes were equally divided into three groups: Groups 1 and 2 were treated with FLEx and SmILE procedure, respectively. Group 3 served as control. A refractive correction of -14 diopters (D) with a 7-mm zone using either a 160-μm flap (FLEx) or a 160-μm cap (SmILE) was performed. For two-dimensional (2D) elastic and viscoelastic biomechanical characterization, two testing cycles (preconditioning stress-strain curve from 1.27 to 12.5 N, stress-relaxation at 12.5 N during 120 seconds) were conducted. Young's modulus and Prony constants were calculated. At 0.8% of strain, FLEx (370 ± 36 kPa) could resist a significantly lower stress than SmILE (392 ± 19 kPa, P = 0.046) and the control group (402 ± 30 kPa, P = 0.013). Also, FLEx (46.1 ± 4.5 MPa) had a significantly lower Young's modulus than the control group (50.2 ± 3.4 MPa, P = 0.008). The Young's modulus of SmILE (48.6 ± 2.5 MPa) had values situated between untreated corneas and FLEx-treated corneas. When compared to untreated controls, the stress resistance decreased by 8.0% with FLEx and 2.5% with SmILE; Young's modulus decreased by 5.1% with FLEx and 1.04% with SmILE. With a cap-based procedure, both anterior cap and stromal bed carry the intraocular pressure, while in a flap-based procedure, only the stromal bed does. Compared to flap-based procedures like FLEx, the cap-based technique SmILE can be considered superior in terms of biomechanical stability, when measured experimentally in ex vivo porcine corneas.

  16. Shaping ability of reciprocating motion of WaveOne and HyFlex in moderate to severe curved canals: A comparative study with cone beam computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpsy, Gurram Samuel; Sajjan, Girija S.; Mudunuri, Padmaja; Chittem, Jyothi; Prasanthi, Nalam N. V. D.; Balaga, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: M-Wire and reciprocating motion of WaveOne and controlled memory (CM) wire) of HyFlex were the recent innovations using thermal treatment. Therefore, a study was planned to evaluate the shaping ability of reciprocating motion of WaveOne and HyFlex using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methodology: Forty-five freshly extracted mandibular teeth were selected and stored in saline until use. All teeth were scanned pre- and post-operatively using CBCT (Kodak 9000). All teeth were accessed and divided into three groups. (1) Group 1 (control n = 15): Instrumented with ProTaper. (2) Group 2 (n = 15): Instrumented with primary file (8%/25) WaveOne. (3) Group 3 (n = 15): Instrumented with (4%/25) HyFlex CM. Sections at 1, 3, and 5 mm were obtained from the pre- and post-operative scans. Measurement was done using CS3D software and Adobe Photoshop software. Apical transportation and degree of straightening were measured and statistically analyzed. Results: HyFlex showed lesser apical transportation when compared to other groups at 1 and 3 mm. WaveOne showed lesser degree of straightening when compared to other groups. Conclusion: This present study concluded that all systems could be employed in routine endodontics whereas HyFlex and WaveOne could be employed in severely curved canals. PMID:27994323

  17. Shape-estimation of human hand using polymer flex sensor and study of its application to control robot arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Hyuck; Kim, Dae Hyun [Seoul National University of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Ultrasonic inspection robot systems have been widely researched and developed for the real-time monitoring of structures such as power plants. However, an inspection robot that is operated in a simple pattern has limitations in its application to various structures in a plant facility because of the diverse and complicated shapes of the inspection objects. Therefore, accurate control of the robot is required to inspect complicated objects with high-precision results. This paper presents the idea that the shape and movement information of an ultrasonic inspector's hand could be profitably utilized for the accurate control of robot. In this study, a polymer flex sensor was applied to monitor the shape of a human hand. This application was designed to intuitively control an ultrasonic inspection robot. The movement and shape of the hand were estimated by applying multiple sensors. Moreover, it was successfully shown that a test robot could be intuitively controlled based on the shape of a human hand estimated using polymer flex sensors.

  18. Demonstration of transoral robotic supraglottic laryngectomy and total laryngectomy in cadaveric specimens using the Medrobotics Flex System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Emily; Goldenberg, David; Goyal, Neerav

    2017-06-01

    Current management of laryngeal malignancies is associated with significant morbidity. Application of minimally invasive transoral techniques may reduce the morbidity associated with traditional procedures. The purpose of this study was to present our investigation of the utility of a novel flexible robotic system for transoral supraglottic laryngectomy and total laryngectomy. Transoral total laryngectomy and transoral supraglottic laryngectomy were performed in cadaveric specimens using the Flex Robotic System (Medrobotics, Raynham, MA). All procedures were completed successfully in the cadaveric models. The articulated endoscope allowed for access to the desired surgical site. Flexible instruments enabled an atraumatic approach and allowed for precise surgical technique. Access to deep anatomic structures remains problematic using current minimally invasive robotic approaches. Improvements in visualization and access to the laryngopharyngeal complex offered by this system may improve surgical applications to the larynx. This study demonstrates the technical feasibility using the Flex Robotic System for transoral robotic supraglottic laryngectomy and total laryngectomy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 1218-1225, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Shape-estimation of human hand using polymer flex sensor and study of its application to control robot arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Hyuck; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic inspection robot systems have been widely researched and developed for the real-time monitoring of structures such as power plants. However, an inspection robot that is operated in a simple pattern has limitations in its application to various structures in a plant facility because of the diverse and complicated shapes of the inspection objects. Therefore, accurate control of the robot is required to inspect complicated objects with high-precision results. This paper presents the idea that the shape and movement information of an ultrasonic inspector's hand could be profitably utilized for the accurate control of robot. In this study, a polymer flex sensor was applied to monitor the shape of a human hand. This application was designed to intuitively control an ultrasonic inspection robot. The movement and shape of the hand were estimated by applying multiple sensors. Moreover, it was successfully shown that a test robot could be intuitively controlled based on the shape of a human hand estimated using polymer flex sensors.

  20. ReFlexIn: a flexible receptor protein-ligand docking scheme evaluated on HIV-1 protease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Leis

    Full Text Available For many targets of pharmaceutical importance conformational changes of the receptor protein are relevant during the ligand binding process. A new docking approach, ReFlexIn (Receptor Flexibility by Interpolation, that combines receptor flexibility with the computationally efficient potential grid representation of receptor molecules has been evaluated on the retroviral HIV-1 (Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 protease system. An approximate inclusion of receptor flexibility is achieved by using interpolation between grid representations of individual receptor conformations. For the retroviral protease the method was tested on an ensemble of protease structures crystallized in the presence of different ligands and on a set of structures obtained from morphing between the unbound and a ligand-bound protease structure. Docking was performed on ligands known to bind to the protease and several non-binders. For the binders the ReFlexIn method yielded in almost all cases ligand placements in similar or closer agreement with experiment than docking to any of the ensemble members without degrading the discrimination with respect to non-binders. The improved docking performance compared to docking to rigid receptors allows for systematic virtual screening applications at very small additional computational cost.

  1. Aerodynamic Drag Analysis of 3-DOF Flex-Gimbal GyroWheel System in the Sense of Ground Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Xin; Feng, Sizhao; Liu, Kangzhi; Wang, Libin; Chen, Weishan

    2016-01-01

    GyroWheel is an innovative device that combines the actuating capabilities of a control moment gyro with the rate sensing capabilities of a tuned rotor gyro by using a spinning flex-gimbal system. However, in the process of the ground test, the existence of aerodynamic disturbance is inevitable, which hinders the improvement of the specification performance and control accuracy. A vacuum tank test is a possible candidate but is sometimes unrealistic due to the substantial increase in costs and complexity involved. In this paper, the aerodynamic drag problem with respect to the 3-DOF flex-gimbal GyroWheel system is investigated by simulation analysis and experimental verification. Concretely, the angular momentum envelope property of the spinning rotor system is studied and its integral dynamical model is deduced based on the physical configuration of the GyroWheel system with an appropriately defined coordinate system. In the sequel, the fluid numerical model is established and the model geometries are checked with FLUENT software. According to the diversity and time-varying properties of the rotor motions in three-dimensions, the airflow field around the GyroWheel rotor is analyzed by simulation with respect to its varying angular velocity and tilt angle. The IPC-based experimental platform is introduced, and the properties of aerodynamic drag in the ground test condition are obtained through comparing the simulation with experimental results. PMID:27941602

  2. Aerodynamic Drag Analysis of 3-DOF Flex-Gimbal GyroWheel System in the Sense of Ground Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Xin; Feng, Sizhao; Liu, Kangzhi; Wang, Libin; Chen, Weishan

    2016-12-07

    GyroWheel is an innovative device that combines the actuating capabilities of a control moment gyro with the rate sensing capabilities of a tuned rotor gyro by using a spinning flex-gimbal system. However, in the process of the ground test, the existence of aerodynamic disturbance is inevitable, which hinders the improvement of the specification performance and control accuracy. A vacuum tank test is a possible candidate but is sometimes unrealistic due to the substantial increase in costs and complexity involved. In this paper, the aerodynamic drag problem with respect to the 3-DOF flex-gimbal GyroWheel system is investigated by simulation analysis and experimental verification. Concretely, the angular momentum envelope property of the spinning rotor system is studied and its integral dynamical model is deduced based on the physical configuration of the GyroWheel system with an appropriately defined coordinate system. In the sequel, the fluid numerical model is established and the model geometries are checked with FLUENT software. According to the diversity and time-varying properties of the rotor motions in three-dimensions, the airflow field around the GyroWheel rotor is analyzed by simulation with respect to its varying angular velocity and tilt angle. The IPC-based experimental platform is introduced, and the properties of aerodynamic drag in the ground test condition are obtained through comparing the simulation with experimental results.

  3. Aerodynamic Drag Analysis of 3-DOF Flex-Gimbal GyroWheel System in the Sense of Ground Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Huo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available GyroWheel is an innovative device that combines the actuating capabilities of a control moment gyro with the rate sensing capabilities of a tuned rotor gyro by using a spinning flex-gimbal system. However, in the process of the ground test, the existence of aerodynamic disturbance is inevitable, which hinders the improvement of the specification performance and control accuracy. A vacuum tank test is a possible candidate but is sometimes unrealistic due to the substantial increase in costs and complexity involved. In this paper, the aerodynamic drag problem with respect to the 3-DOF flex-gimbal GyroWheel system is investigated by simulation analysis and experimental verification. Concretely, the angular momentum envelope property of the spinning rotor system is studied and its integral dynamical model is deduced based on the physical configuration of the GyroWheel system with an appropriately defined coordinate system. In the sequel, the fluid numerical model is established and the model geometries are checked with FLUENT software. According to the diversity and time-varying properties of the rotor motions in three-dimensions, the airflow field around the GyroWheel rotor is analyzed by simulation with respect to its varying angular velocity and tilt angle. The IPC-based experimental platform is introduced, and the properties of aerodynamic drag in the ground test condition are obtained through comparing the simulation with experimental results.

  4. Vegetation stress from soil moisture and chlorophyll fluorescence: synergy between SMAP and FLEX approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jose; Moran, Susan

    2014-05-01

    Vegetation stress detection continues being a focal objective for remote sensing techniques. It has implications not only for practical applications such as irrigation optimization or precision agriculture, but also for global climate models, providing data to better link water and carbon exchanges between the surface and the atmospheric and improved parameterization of the role of terrestrial vegetation in the coupling of water and carbon cycles. Traditional approaches to map vegetation stress using remote sensing techniques have been based on measurements of soil moisture status, canopy (radiometric) temperature and, to a lesser extent, canopy water content, but new techniques such as the dynamics of vegetation fluorescence emission, are also now available. Within the context of the preparatory activities for the SMAP and FLEX missions, a number of initiatives have been put in place to combine modelling activities and field experiments in order to look for alternative and more efficient ways of detecting vegetation stress, with emphasis on synergistic remote sensing approaches. The potential of solar-induced vegetation fluorescence as an early indicator of stress has been widely demonstrated, for different type of stress conditions: light amount (excess illumination) and conditions (direct/diffuse), temperature extremes (low and high), soil water availability (soil moisture), soil nutrients (nitrogen), atmospheric water vapour and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The effects caused by different stress conditions are sometimes difficult to be decoupled, also because different causes are often combined, but in general they then to change the overall fluorescence emission (modulating amplitude) or changing the relative contributions of photosystems PSI and PSII or the relative fluorescence re-absorption effects caused by modifications in the structure of pigment bed responsible for light absorption, in particular for acclimation for persistent stress conditions. While

  5. Comparison of wrist-worn Fitbit Flex and waist-worn ActiGraph for measuring steps in free-living adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne H Y Chu

    Full Text Available Accelerometers are commonly used to assess physical activity. Consumer activity trackers have become increasingly popular today, such as the Fitbit. This study aimed to compare the average number of steps per day using the wrist-worn Fitbit Flex and waist-worn ActiGraph (wGT3X-BT in free-living conditions.104 adult participants (n = 35 males; n = 69 females were asked to wear a Fitbit Flex and an ActiGraph concurrently for 7 days. Daily step counts were used to classify inactive (<10,000 steps and active (≥10,000 steps days, which is one of the commonly used physical activity guidelines to maintain health. Proportion of agreement between physical activity categorizations from ActiGraph and Fitbit Flex was assessed. Statistical analyses included Spearman's rho, intraclass correlation (ICC, median absolute percentage error (MAPE, Kappa statistics, and Bland-Altman plots. Analyses were performed among all participants, by each step-defined daily physical activity category and gender.The median average steps/day recorded by Fitbit Flex and ActiGraph were 10193 and 8812, respectively. Strong positive correlations and agreement were found for all participants, both genders, as well as daily physical activity categories (Spearman's rho: 0.76-0.91; ICC: 0.73-0.87. The MAPE was: 15.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.8-28.1% for overall steps, 16.9% (6.8-30.3% vs. 15.1% (4.5-27.3% in males and females, and 20.4% (8.7-35.9% vs. 9.6% (1.0-18.4% during inactive days and active days. Bland-Altman plot indicated a median overestimation of 1300 steps/day by the Fitbit Flex in all participants. Fitbit Flex and ActiGraph respectively classified 51.5% and 37.5% of the days as active (Kappa: 0.66.There were high correlations and agreement in steps between Fitbit Flex and ActiGraph. However, findings suggested discrepancies in steps between devices. This imposed a challenge that needs to be considered when using Fibit Flex in research and health promotion

  6. User assessment of Norditropin NordiFlex®,a new prefilled growth hormone pen:a Phase IV multicenter prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauber M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Maithé Tauber,1 Delphine Jaquet,2 Monique Jesuran-Perelroizen,3 Marc Petrus,4 Anne Marie Bertrand,5 Regis Coutant6NordiFlex® French Study Group1Hôpital des Enfants, Toulouse, 2Novo Nordisk, La Défense Cédex, 3Cabinet d’Endocrinologie Pédiatrique, Toulouse, 4Centre Hospitalier de Bigorre, Tarbes, 5Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Besançon, Besançon, 6Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Angers, Angers, FranceBackground/aim: In growth disorders, ensuring long-term growth hormone therapy (GHT remains a challenge that might compromise the clinical outcome. Consequently, strategies aiming at alleviating the burden of daily injection might improve the treatment benefit. The study reported here was performed to assess the ease of use of Norditropin NordiFlex® (Novo Nordisk, Princeton, NJ, USA compared with that of the devices previously used in children treated with GHT with recombinant somatropin.Methods: This Phase IV prospective, multicenter, open-label study was conducted in France. All patients received Norditropin NordiFlex for 6 weeks. Oral questionnaires were administered by the physician to the patients and/or the parents at inclusion and at the final visit.Results: This study included 103 patients aged between 6 and 17 years. The patients assessed Norditropin NordiFlex as significantly easier to use than their previous device (median value = 7.5, P < 0.001. Almost three-quarters of patients (64.4% preferred Norditropin NordiFlex to their previous device. Among physicians and nurses, 73% assessed Norditropin NordiFlex training as "very easy" and 26% as "easy." Norditropin NordiFlex improved patient autonomy, with 41% of patients able to self-inject the treatment.Conclusion: This study has shown that Norditropin NordiFlex is reliable, safe, and easy to use and most study patients preferred it to their previous device. These characteristics may improve the adherence to GHT.Keywords: growth hormone therapy, adherence, injection devices

  7. Test methods for foil and textile fibre hoses for the rehabilitation of gas piplines; Pruefmethoden fuer Folien- und Gewebeschlaeuche zum Sanieren von Gasleitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driesen, H.E. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). DVGW-Forschungsstelle am Engler-Bunte-Institut

    1995-01-01

    The Standard for ``means for the subsequent sealing of joints of gaspipes laid in the ground`` (DIN 30658) required a supplement, after various processes were developed, not only for sealing the leaking sleeve joints, but for cladding long sections of pipe with foil or woven hoses. The functional tests on sealed sleeve joints taken over largely unchanged were supplemented by specific tests of the cladding, which concern the opening of existing house connection and the production of new ones, the bridging of corrosion damage and unused tee-offs, and for woven hoses the behaviour during pipe fractures with the raising of the maximum permitted working pressure from 1 bar in DIN 30658 to 4 bar. There is a report on the results of a research project financed by DVGW for working out test proceedures and requirements. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Norm ueber ``Mittel zum nachtraeglichen Abdichten von Verbindungen erdverlegter Gasleitungen`` (DIN 30658) bedurfte einer Ergaenzung, nachdem verschiedene Verfahren entwickelt wurden, nicht nur gezielt die undichten Muffenverbindungen abzudichten, sondern laengere Leitungsabschnitte mit Folien- oder Gewebeschlaeuchen auszukleiden. Die im wesentlichen unveraendert uebernommenen Funktionspruefungen an abgedichteten Muffenverbindungen wurden durch spezifische Pruefungen der Auskleidung ergaenzt, die das Oeffnen bestehender und die Erstellung neuer Hausanschluesse, die Ueberbrueckung von Korrosionsschaeden und stillgelegten Abgaengen sowie bei Gewebeschlaeuchen das Verhalten bei Rohrbruechen bei Anhebung des max. zulaessigen Betriebsdruckes von 1 bar in DIN 30658 auf 4 bar betreffen. Ueber die Ergebnisse eines vom DVGW finanzierten Forschungsvorhabens zur Erarbeitung von Pruefverfahren und Anforderungen wird berichtet. (orig.)

  8. Hosing Instability of the Drive Electron Beam in the E157 Plasma-Wakefield Acceleration Experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, Brent Edward; /SLAC /UCLA

    2005-10-10

    In the plasma-wakefield experiment at SLAC, known as E157, an ultra-relativistic electron beam is used to both excite and witness a plasma wave for advanced accelerator applications. If the beam is tilted, then it will undergo transverse oscillations inside of the plasma. These oscillations can grow exponentially via an instability know as the electron hose instability. The linear theory of electron-hose instability in a uniform ion column predicts that for the parameters of the E157 experiment (beam charge, bunch length, and plasma density) a growth of the centroid offset should occur. Analysis of the E157 data has provided four critical results. The first was that the incoming beam did have a tilt. The tilt was much smaller than the radius and was measured to be 5.3 {micro}m/{delta}{sub z} at the entrance of the plasma (IP1.) The second was the beam centroid oscillates in the ion channel at half the frequency of the beam radius (betatron beam oscillations), and these oscillations can be predicted by the envelope equation. Third, up to the maximum operating plasma density of E157 ({approx}2 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3}), no growth of the centroid offset was measured. Finally, time-resolved data of the beam shows that up to this density, no significant growth of the tail of the beam (up to 8ps from the centroid) occurred even though the beam had an initial tilt.

  9. Hosing Instability of the Drive Electron Beam in the E157 Plasma-Wakefield Acceleration Experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blue, Brent Edward

    2005-01-01

    In the plasma-wakefield experiment at SLAC, known as E157, an ultra-relativistic electron beam is used to both excite and witness a plasma wave for advanced accelerator applications. If the beam is tilted, then it will undergo transverse oscillations inside of the plasma. These oscillations can grow exponentially via an instability know as the electron hose instability. The linear theory of electron-hose instability in a uniform ion column predicts that for the parameters of the E157 experiment (beam charge, bunch length, and plasma density) a growth of the centroid offset should occur. Analysis of the E157 data has provided four critical results. The first was that the incoming beam did have a tilt. The tilt was much smaller than the radius and was measured to be 5.3 (micro)m/(delta) z at the entrance of the plasma (IP1.) The second was the beam centroid oscillates in the ion channel at half the frequency of the beam radius (betatron beam oscillations), and these oscillations can be predicted by the envelope equation. Third, up to the maximum operating plasma density of E157 (∼2 x 10 14 cm -3 ), no growth of the centroid offset was measured. Finally, time-resolved data of the beam shows that up to this density, no significant growth of the tail of the beam (up to 8ps from the centroid) occurred even though the beam had an initial tilt

  10. Algumas considerações sobre cinema e tempo nas periferias do capitalismo flexível

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erly Vieira Jr.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo propõe algumas reflexões acerca das reconfigurações espaço-temporais operadas pelo cinemacontemporâneo, a partir das noções de “sociedade em rede” (Castells, “sociedade de controle” (Deleuzee de concepções temporais da Antiguidade Clássica (cronos, aiôn, kairós, aplicando-as no contexto dasperiferias do “capitalismo flexível”, a partir das experiências urbanas em metrópoles fora do eixo EuropaAmérica do Norte, em especial nos filmes dos diretores Abbas Kiarostami (Irã, Hou Hsiao-Hsien(Taiwan e Wong Kar-Wai (Hong Kong.

  11. The Influence of Age at Single-Event Multilevel Surgery on Outcome in Children with Cerebral Palsy Who Walk with Flexed Knee Gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svehlik, Martin; Steinwender, Gerhard; Kraus, Tanja; Saraph, Vinay; Lehmann, Thomas; Linhart, Wolfgang E.; Zwick, Ernst B.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Information on the timing and long-term outcome of single-event multilevel surgery in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP) walking with flexed knee gait is limited. Based on our clinical experience, we hypothesized that older children with bilateral spastic CP would benefit more from single-event multilevel surgery than younger…

  12. Validation of the System One RemStar Auto A-Flex for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Treatment and Detection of Residual Apnea-Hypopnea Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnadoux, Frédéric; Pevernagie, Dirk; Jennum, Poul

    2017-01-01

    the performance of the System One RemStar Auto A-Flex (Philips Respironics, Murrysville, PA, USA) automatically adjusted positive airway pressure (APAP) mode to manually titrated, fixed pressure CPAP and to validate the device's breathing event detection capabilities against attended in-laboratory PSG. METHODS...

  13. Reforço à flexão em vigas de concreto armado com manta de fibra de carbono: mecanismos de incremento de ancoragem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir José Ferrari

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O desprendimento dos laminados de plásticos reforçados com fibras da face inferior tracionada das vigas reforçadas à flexão é um problema complexo e indesejável, pois ocorre sem aviso, antecipando a ruína da viga reforçada e impossibilitando o total aproveitamento das propriedades resistentes à tração do reforço. Neste trabalho estudou-se o comportamento de vigas de concreto armado, reforçadas à flexão com manta de fibra de carbono, e avaliou-se a incorporação de mecanismos de incremento de ancoragem para evitar o desprendimento prematuro da manta com conseqüente aumento da capacidade resistente à flexão da viga. Nove vigas foram divididas em cinco grupos em conformidade com mecanismo de incremento de ancoragem adotado. Um dos mecanismos, além de evitar o desprendimento prematuro do reforço, também proporcionou incremento na resistência à flexão mais de 95%, em relação à viga sem reforço, e incrementos em torno de 20%, em relação às vigas sem incremento de ancoragem.

  14. From Local to EXtreme Environments (FLEXE) Student-Scientist Online Forums: hypothesis-based research examining ways to involve scientists in effective science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehring, L.; Carlsen, W.; Fisher, C. R.; Kerlin, S.; Trautmann, N.; Petersen, W.

    2011-12-01

    Science education reform since the mid-1990's has called for a "new way of teaching and learning about science that reflects how science itself is done, emphasizing inquiry as a way of achieving knowledge and understanding about the world" (NRC, 1996). Scientists and engineers, experts in inquiry thinking, have been called to help model these practices for students and demonstrate scientific habits of mind. The question, however, is "how best to involve these experts?" given the very real challenges of limited availability of scientists, varying experience with effective pedagogy, widespread geographic distribution of schools, and the sheer number of students involved. Technology offers partial solutions to enable Student-Scientist Interactions (SSI). The FLEXE Project has developed online FLEXE Forums to support efficient, effective SSIs, making use of web-based and database technology to facilitate communication between students and scientists. More importantly, the FLEXE project has approached this question of "how best to do this?" scientifically, combining program evaluation with hypothesis-based research explicitly testing the effects of such SSIs on student learning and attitudes towards science. FLEXE Forums are designed to showcase scientific practices and habits of mind through facilitated interaction between students and scientists. Through these Forums, students "meet" working scientists and learn about their research and the environments in which they work. Scientists provide students with intriguing "real-life" datasets and challenge students to analyze and interpret the data through guiding questions. Students submit their analyses to the Forum, and scientists provide feedback and connect the instructional activity with real-life practice, showcasing their activities in the field. In the FLEXE project, Forums are embedded within inquiry-based instructional units focused on essential learning concepts, and feature the deep-sea environment in contrast

  15. HyFlex EDM: superficial features, metallurgical analysis and fatigue resistance of innovative electro discharge machined NiTi rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirani, C; Iacono, F; Generali, L; Sassatelli, P; Nucci, C; Lusvarghi, L; Gandolfi, M G; Prati, C

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the surface and microstructural alterations of new and used HyFlex EDM prototypes and to test their fatigue resistance. Fifteen HyFlex EDM prototypes were used for in vitro instrumentation of severely curved root canals. Surface and microstructural characteristics of new and used files were compared by ESEM analysis equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrophotometry (EDS) and optical metallographic imaging. Usage-induced degradation was assessed. Thirty additional HyFlex EDM prototypes and 20 standard manufactured HyFlex CM files were subjected to cyclic fatigue tests. Time to fracture was recorded, and results were validated using the Kruskal-Wallis test (α-level 0.05). Fatigued files were analysed by ESEM for fractographic evaluation. Surface and microstructural characterization of EDM prototypes revealed the typical spark-machined surface of a NiTi EDM alloy. No fractures were registered during root canal instrumentation. No evident surface alterations and minor degradation were observed between new and used instruments. The metallographic analysis of new and used files disclosed a homogeneous structure, mostly composed of lenticular martensite grains, and some residual austenite. The cyclic fatigue test showed an increase of fatigue resistance up to 700% on the EDM compared to CM files. Spark-machined peculiar surface is the main feature of HyFlex EDM. Low degradation was observed after multiple canal instrumentations. Prototypes exhibited surprising high values of cyclic fatigue resistance and a safe in vitro use in severely curved canals. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A Study of Deposition Coatings Formed by Electroformed Metallic Materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Hayashi

    Full Text Available Major joining methods of dental casting metal include brazing and laser welding. However, brazing cannot be applied for electroformed metals since heat treatment could affect the fit, and, therefore, laser welding is used for such metals. New methods of joining metals that do not impair the characteristics of electroformed metals should be developed. When new coating is performed on the surface of the base metal, surface treatment is usually performed before re-coating. The effect of surface treatment is clinically evaluated by peeling and flex tests. However, these testing methods are not ideal for deposition coating strength measurement of electroformed metals. There have been no studies on the deposition coating strength and methods to test electroformed metals. We developed a new deposition coating strength test for electroformed metals. The influence of the negative electrolytic method, which is one of the electrochemical surface treatments, on the strength of the deposition coating of electroformed metals was investigated, and the following conclusions were drawn: 1. This process makes it possible to remove residual deposits on the electrodeposited metal surface layer. 2. Cathode electrolysis is a simple and safe method that is capable of improving the surface treatment by adjustments to the current supply method and current intensity. 3. Electrochemical treatment can improve the deposition coating strength compared to the physical or chemical treatment methods. 4. Electro-deposition coating is an innovative technique for the deposition coating of electroformed metal.

  17. A miniature rigid/flex salinity measurement device fabricated using printed circuit processing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadbent, H A; Ketterl, T P; Reid, C S

    2010-01-01

    The design, fabrication and initial performance of a single substrate, miniature, low-cost conductivity, temperature, depth (CTD) sensor board with interconnects are presented. In combination these sensors measure ocean salinity. The miniature CTD device board was designed and fabricated as the main component of a 50 mm × 25 mm × 25 mm animal-attached biologger. The board was fabricated using printed circuit processes and consists of two distinct regions on a continuous single liquid crystal polymer substrate: an 18 mm × 28 mm rigid multi-metal sensor section and a 72 mm long flexible interconnect section. The 95% confidence intervals for the conductivity, temperature and pressure sensors were demonstrated to be ±0.083 mS cm −1 , 0.01 °C, and ±0.135 dbar, respectively.

  18. Efeitos da Energia de Soldagem e Consumível sobre a Resistência à Flexão Simples de Juntas Soldadas em Perfis Tubulares de Aço TMCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Luciano Dalcin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo A introdução dos aços fabricados por processamento termomecânico controlado (TMCP demandou maiores propriedades mecânicas e metalúrgicas das juntas soldadas sobre eles produzidas. Em função desses fatores, a energia de soldagem é estritamente limitada, e para evitar uma eventual redução da resistência mecânica da zona afetada pelo calor (ZAC, é necessário testar os procedimentos de soldagem próximos daqueles que serão usados na estrutura real. Desta forma, o objetivo deste estudo é obter dados detalhados referentes à eficiência mecânica de juntas soldadas pelo processo MAG e com diferentes energias de soldagem, sobre perfis tubulares quadrados em aço TMCP, formando um conjunto soldado coluna/viga. Portanto, seis distintas energias de soldagem e dois metais de adição foram utilizados (AWS ER80S-G e AWS ER120S-G, com as soldas posicionadas em todo o contorno do perfil. As doze estruturas soldadas foram instrumentadas e submetidas à flexão simples. Comparando-se as juntas soldadas produzidas com mesma energia de soldagem, e apesar dos efeitos similares sobre a zona afetada pelo calor (ZAC, aquelas fabricadas com o consumível AWS ER120S-G apresentaram maior resistência mecânica.

  19. Property Analysis of Ethanol--Natural Gasoline--BOB Blends to Make Flex Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleman, Teresa L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yanowitz, Janet [Ecoengineering, Inc., Sharonville, OH (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Ten natural gasolines were analyzed for a wide range of properties, including Reid vapor pressure (RVP), benzene, sulfur, distillation, stability, metals, and aromatic content, to determine their quality. Benzene and sulfur content were sufficiently low in all but one of the samples that they could be blended without further upgrading. Four of these samples were selected to blend with blendstock for oxygenate blending (BOB) and ethanol to produce E51, E70, and E83 blends, targeting 7.8 and 9.0-psi finished fuels. The volume of each component in the blend was estimated using the Reddy model, with the assumption that the BOB and natural gasoline blend linearly and behave as a single component in the model calculations. Results show that the Reddy model adequately predicts the RVP of the finished blend for E51 and E70, but significantly underpredicts the RVP of E83 blends by nearly 2 psi. It is hypothesized that the underprediction is a function of the very low aromatic content of the E83 blends, even compared to the E51 and E70 blends.

  20. Real-World fuel use and gaseous emission rates for flex fuel vehicles operated on E85 versus gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavarrafiee, Maryam; Frey, H Christopher

    2017-12-07

    Flex Fuel Vehicles (FFVs) typically operate on gasoline or E85, an 85%/15% volume blend of ethanol and gasoline, E85. Differences in FFV fuel use and tailpipe emission rates are quantified for E85 versus gasoline based on real-world measurements of five FFVs with a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS), supplemented chassis dynamometer data and estimates from the MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) model. Because of inter-vehicle variability, an individual FFV may have higher nitrogen oxides (NO x ) or carbon monoxide (CO) emission rates on E85 versus gasoline, even though average rates are lower. Based on PEMS data, the comparison of tailpipe emission rates for E85 versus gasoline is sensitive to vehicle specific power (VSP). For example, although CO emission rates are lower for all VSP modes, they are proportionally lowest at higher VSP. Driving cycles with high power demand are more advantageous with respect to CO emissions, but less advantageous for NO x , compared. Chassis dynamometer data are available for 121 FFVs at 50,000 useful life miles. Based on the dynamometer data, the average difference in tailpipe emissions for E85 versus gasoline is -23% for NO x , -30% for CO, and no significant difference for hydrocarbons (HC). To account for both the fuel cycle and tailpipe emissions from the vehicle, a life cycle inventory was conducted. Although tailpipe NO x emissions are lower for E85 versus gasoline for FFVs and thus benefit areas where the vehicles operate, the life cycle NO x emissions are higher because the NO x emissions generated during fuel production are higher. The fuel production emissions take place typically in rural areas. Although there are not significant differences in the total hydrocarbon emissions, there are differences in HC speciation. The net effect of lower tailpipe NO x emissions and differences in HC speciation on ozone formation should be further evaluated. Implications Reported comparisons of Flex Fuel Vehicle (FFV

  1. Self-Expandable Metallic Stent Placement in Malignant Gastric Outlet Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bing-Wei; Lee, Kuei-Chuan; Hsieh, Yun-Cheng; Li, Chung-Pin; Chao, Yee; Hou, Ming-Chih; Lin, Han-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Malignant gastric outlet obstruction is a late complication of intraabdominal malignancy. Self-expandable metallic stent placement has been a safe palliative treatment to relieve obstructive symptoms. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of metallic stents in our patients and analyzed the clinical outcome of different brands. Seventy-one patients with inoperable gastric outlet obstruction receiving WallFlex enteral stents (WallFlex group) or Bonastents (Bonastent group) since April 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. The overall technical and clinical success rates of stent placement were 100% and 93%, respectively. The baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes including procedure-related complications, restenosis, and reintervention rates were comparable between the 2 groups. However, the Bonastent group had a higher rate of stent fracture than the WallFlex group (13.3% vs 0%, P = 0.03). The mean duration of overall stent patency was 132.7 days. The mean duration of survival was 181.9 days. Resumption of regular diet or low residual diet at day 7 after stent insertion predicted stent patency (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.28, P = 0.01). Cancer with gastric origin (HR: 0.25, P = 0.045) and poststent chemotherapy (HR: 0.38, P = 0.006) predicted lower mortality; however, peritoneal carcinomatosis (HR: 3.09, P = 0.04) correlated with higher mortality. Metallic stent placement is a safe and effective method for relieving gastric outlet obstruction. Except higher rate of stent fracture in the Bonastent group, there is no significant difference in clinical outcomes between the Bonastent group and the WallFlex group. PMID:26200641

  2. Role flexing: how community, religion, and family shape the experiences of young black men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Alexandra B; Oster, Alexandra M; Viall, Abigail H; Heffelfinger, James D; Mena, Leandro A; Toledo, Carlos A

    2012-12-01

    While the disproportionate impact of HIV on young black men who have sex with men (MSM) is well documented, the reasons for this disparity remain less clear. Through in-depth interviews, we explored the role of familial, religious, and community influence on the experiences of young black MSM and identified strategies that these young men use to negotiate and manage their sexual minority status. Between February and April 2008, 16 interviews were conducted among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected young (19- to 24-year-old) black MSM in the Jackson, Mississippi, area. Results suggest that overall, homosexuality remains highly stigmatized by the men's families, religious community, and the African American community. To manage this stigma, many of the participants engaged in a process of "role flexing," in which individuals modified their behavior in order to adapt to a particular situation. The data also provided evidence of internalized homophobia among a number of the participants. The impact of stigma on risk behavior should be more fully explored, and future intervention efforts need to explicitly address and challenge stigma, both among young men themselves and the communities in which they reside. Attention should also be paid to the role masculinity may play as a driver of the HIV epidemic among young black MSM and how this knowledge can be used to inform prevention efforts.

  3. Distributed Continuous Event-Based Data Acquisition Using the IEEE 1588 Synchronization and FlexRIO FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliercio, C.; Luchetta, A.; Manduchi, G.; Rigoni, A.

    2017-07-01

    High-speed event driven acquisition is normally performed by analog-to-digital converter (ADC) boards with a given number of pretrigger sample and posttrigger sample that are recorded upon the occurrence of a hardware trigger. A direct physical connection is, therefore, required between the source of event (trigger) and the ADC, because any other software-based communication method would introduce a delay in triggering that would turn out to be not acceptable in many cases. This paper proposes a solution for the relaxation of the event communication time that can be, in this case, carried out by software messaging (e.g., via an LAN), provided that the system components are synchronized in time using the IEEE 1588 synchronization mechanism. The information about the exact event occurrence time is contained in the software packet that is sent to communicate the event and is used by the ADC FPGA to identify the exact sample in the ADC sample queue. The length of the ADC sample queue will depend on the maximum delay in software event message communication time. A prototype implementation using a National FlexRIO FPGA board connected with an ADC device is presented as the proof of concept.

  4. Avaliação do comportamento de vigas de bambu laminado colado submetidas à flexão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Mateus de Lima

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta e discute um estudo experimental de vigas de bambu laminado colado (BLC. Utilizaram-se ripas provenientes do bambu Dendrocalamus giganteus para a confecção de vigas de seção transversal retangular, as quais foram preparadas com quatro diferentes disposições de nós e de emendas. Dois tipos de adesivos foram utilizados: um à base de resorcinol-formaldeído, e outro à base de poliacetato de vinila (PVA. As vigas foram ensaiadas à flexão por meio de quatro pontos de carga. Os resultados foram comparados com vigas de referências, de dimensões similares, confeccionadas com duas espécies de madeiras de reflorestamento: Araucaria angustifolia e Eucalyptus grandis. O modo de ruptura das vigas foi em função da disposição dos nós e do tipo de emendas, além do tipo de adesivo utilizado. Curvas de carga vs. deslocamento são apresentadas, e foi observado que as vigas confeccionadas com adesivo à base de resorcinol-formaldeído apresentaram desempenho estrutural superior ao das vigas confeccionadas com PVA e ao das de referência.

  5. Preliminary analysis of the PreFlexMS molten salt once-through steam generator dynamics and control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabucchi, Stefano; Casella, Francesco; Maioli, Tommaso; Elsido, Cristina; Franzini, Davide; Ramond, Mathieu

    2017-06-01

    Concentrated Solar Power plants (CSP) coupled with thermal storage have the potential to guarantee both flexible and continuous energy production, thus being competitive with conventional fossil fuel and hydro power plants, in terms of dispatchability and provision of ancillary services. Hence, the plant equipment and control design have to be focused on flexible operation on one hand, and on plant safety concerning the molten salt freezing on the other hand. The PreFlexMS European project aims to introduce a molten salt Once-Through Steam Generator (OTSG) within a Rankine cycle based power unit, a technology that has greater flexibility potential if compared to steam drum boilers, currently used in CSP plants. The dynamic modelling and simulation from the early design stages is, thus, of paramount importance, to assess the plant dynamic behavior and controllability, and to predict the achievable closed-loop dynamic performance, potentially saving money and time during the detailed design, construction and commissioning phases. The present paper reports the main results of the analysis carried out during the first part of the project, regarding the system analysis and control design. In particular, two different control systems have been studied and tested with the plant dynamic model: a decentralized control strategy based on PI controllers and a Linear Model Predictive Control (LMPC).

  6. Anterior haptic flexing and in-the-bag subluxation of an accommodating intraocular lens due to excessive capsular bag contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Gregory D; Werner, Liliana; Neuhann, Tobias; Tetz, Manfred; Mamalis, Nick

    2015-09-01

    We describe the case of a patient who had cataract surgery with implantation of the hydrophilic acrylic Tetraflex accommodating intraocular lens (IOL), with subsequent development of capsulorhexis phimosis and in-the-bag IOL subluxation. Contraction of the capsular bag secondary to fibrosis resulted in significant anterior flexing of the lens haptic component. Explantation of the IOL-capsular bag complex was required 7 years after implantation. Histopathologic analysis demonstrated multiple areas of thick anterior subcapsular fibrosis. Pseudoexfoliative material was present throughout the surface of the lens capsule. Intraocular lenses manufactured from hydrophilic acrylic material are highly flexible and may be more susceptible to capsule contraction, even in the absence of predisposing ocular and systemic conditions. This case highlights the importance of developing guidelines regarding patient screening and selection for the appropriate use of accommodating and other highly flexible IOLs. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Metal-metal-hofteproteser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Michael; Overgaard, Søren; Penny, Jeannette

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark 4,456 metal-on-metal (MoM) hip prostheses have been implanted. Evidence demonstrates that some patients develope adverse biological reactions causing failures of MoM hip arthroplasty. Some reactions might be systemic. Failure rates are associated with the type and the design of the Mo...

  8. Clinical Outcomes in Men and Women following Total Knee Arthroplasty with a High-Flex Knee: No Clinical Effect of Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Nassif, Jeffrey M.; Pietrzak, William S.

    2015-01-01

    While it is generally recognized that anatomical differences exist between the male and female knee, the literature generally refutes the clinical need for gender-specific total knee prostheses. It has been found that standard, unisex knees perform as well, or better, in women than men. Recently, high-flex knees have become available that mechanically accommodate increased flexion yet no studies have directly compared the outcomes of these devices in men and women to see if gender-based dif...

  9. Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of OneShape, HyFlex EDM, WaveOne Gold, and Reciproc Blue Nickel-titanium Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündoğar, Mustafa; Özyürek, Taha

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the cyclic fatigue resistances of Reciproc Blue (VDW, Munich, Germany), HyFlex EDM (Coltene/Whaledent, Altstätten, Switzerland), WaveOne Gold (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), and OneShape (Micro Mega, Besancon, France) single-file NiTi systems. Thirty Reciproc Blue R25 (25/.08), 30 HyFlex EDM (25/.∼), 30 WaveOne Gold Primary (25/.07), and 30 OneShape (25/.06) instruments were included in this study. All the instruments were rotated in artificial canals, which were made of stainless steel with an inner diameter of 1.5 mm, a 60° angle of curvature, and radii of curvatures of 5 mm until fracture occurred, and the time to fracture was recorded in seconds using a digital chronometer. The data were analyzed statistically using Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc Dunn tests via SPSS 21.0 software (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). The statistical significance level was set at 5%. The HyFlex EDM file (3456.33 ± 633.37) file had the statistically highest fatigue resistance, and the OneShape file (1221.63 ± 812.4) had the least fatigue resistance (P  .05) in the mean length of the fractured fragments of the files (P > .05). Within the limitations of the present in vitro study, it was found that cyclic fatigue resistance of HyFlex EDM files was higher than the cyclic fatigue resistances of OneShape, Reciproc Blue, and WaveOne Gold files. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An in vitro comparative study of apically extruded debris resulting from conventional and three rotary (Profile, Race, FlexMaster) instrumentation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrabi, Mohammad Hasan; Bidar, Maryam; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2006-06-01

    Canal preparation is one of the most important stages of endodontic therapy, and various techniques have been applied for it. The present study was conducted to compare the quantity of debris extruded from the apical foramen during canal preparation during the manual technique and with the use of three rotary systems (Profile, Race, FlexMaster). One hundred single-rooted premolars were divided into four groups of 25 teeth each. For collection of debris, vials containing distilled water and weighed before canal preparation were used. Groups H, P, R and F were prepared by the manual step-back technique, and with the use of the Profile system, Race system and FlexMaster system, respectively. After canal preparation, the vials were dried thoroughly and reweighed. The difference between the weights of the vials at the two stages was taken as the debris weight. The mean debris weights were compared by one-way ANOVA. Group H had the highest mean debris weight, which was significantly different from those of the rotary groups (P < 0.001). The lowest mean debris weight was related to group R, which was significantly different from that of group F but not significantly different from that of group P. It was concluded that the Race system induces less extruded debris than the manual technique and the FlexMaster system.

  11. The Columbus Knee System: 4-Year Results of a New Deep Flexion Design Compared to the NexGen Full Flex Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Goebel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Columbus knee system is designed as a standard knee implant to allow high flexion without additional bone resection. Between August, 2004 and March, 2010 we performed 109 total knee arthroplasties of the Columbus knee system in 101 consecutive patients suffering from primary arthrosis of the knee. Mean age was 72.4 years in women and 70.3 years in men. Mean followup was 47.3 months. The 4-year results of a group of patients who received the NexGen Full Flex implant operated by the same surgeon were used for comparison. Mean total knee score was Columbus: 175.6 and NexGen Flex: 183.4; =0.037. Mean operation time was 53 min for Columbus and 66 min for NexGen Flex; 0.05. Radiological assessment showed no signs of loosening for both groups. Therefore, the Columbus knee system can be recommended for flexion angles up to 140∘.

  12. Tank Information System (tis): a Case Study in Migrating Web Mapping Application from Flex to Dojo for Arcgis Server and then to Open Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsani, B. R.

    2017-11-01

    Tank Information System is a web application which provides comprehensive information about minor irrigation tanks of Telangana State. As part of the program, a web mapping application using Flex and ArcGIS server was developed to make the data available to the public. In course of time as Flex be-came outdated, a migration of the client interface to the latest JavaScript based technologies was carried out. Initially, the Flex based application was migrated to ArcGIS JavaScript API using Dojo Toolkit. Both the client applications used published services from ArcGIS server. To check the migration pattern from proprietary to open source, the JavaScript based ArcGIS application was later migrated to OpenLayers and Dojo Toolkit which used published service from GeoServer. The migration pattern noticed in the study especially emphasizes upon the use of Dojo Toolkit and PostgreSQL database for ArcGIS server so that migration to open source could be performed effortlessly. The current ap-plication provides a case in study which could assist organizations in migrating their proprietary based ArcGIS web applications to open source. Furthermore, the study reveals cost benefits of adopting open source against commercial software's.

  13. TANK INFORMATION SYSTEM (TIS: A CASE STUDY IN MIGRATING WEB MAPPING APPLICATION FROM FLEX TO DOJO FOR ARCGIS SERVER AND THEN TO OPEN SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Pulsani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tank Information System is a web application which provides comprehensive information about minor irrigation tanks of Telangana State. As part of the program, a web mapping application using Flex and ArcGIS server was developed to make the data available to the public. In course of time as Flex be-came outdated, a migration of the client interface to the latest JavaScript based technologies was carried out. Initially, the Flex based application was migrated to ArcGIS JavaScript API using Dojo Toolkit. Both the client applications used published services from ArcGIS server. To check the migration pattern from proprietary to open source, the JavaScript based ArcGIS application was later migrated to OpenLayers and Dojo Toolkit which used published service from GeoServer. The migration pattern noticed in the study especially emphasizes upon the use of Dojo Toolkit and PostgreSQL database for ArcGIS server so that migration to open source could be performed effortlessly. The current ap-plication provides a case in study which could assist organizations in migrating their proprietary based ArcGIS web applications to open source. Furthermore, the study reveals cost benefits of adopting open source against commercial software's.

  14. Estruturas de concreto reforçadas com PRFC Parte I: análise dos modelos de flexão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Gamino

    Full Text Available Este trabalho, apresentado em duas partes, trata da avaliação dos modelos de projeto de estruturas de concreto armado reforçadas com Polímeros Reforçados com Fibras de Carbono (PRFC. Nesta primeira parte são avaliados modelos de flexão originados das recomendações ACI-440 e fib-14, assim como outros modelos mais recentes, disponíveis na literatura. Esses critérios foram aplicados a um total de vinte e cinco vigas reforçadas à flexão, ensaiadas pelos autores, das quais dezesseis com seção retangular e nove com seção "T". Foram aplicados diferentes tipos de compósitos de fibras de carbono (tecidos e laminados, de diferentes fabricantes, encontrados no mercado brasileiro. Os resultados obtidos mostram uma boa proximidade entre as cargas de ruptura calculadas de acordo com as recomendações ACI-440 para reforços à flexão e os valores observados nos ensaios.

  15. An in vitro comparison of apically extruded debris and instrumentation times with ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, Twisted File Adaptive, and HyFlex instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capar, Ismail Davut; Arslan, Hakan; Akcay, Merve; Ertas, Huseyin

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro amount of apically extruded debris with new endodontic rotary nickel-titanium instruments. Sixty mandibular premolars were instrumented up to size 25 using ProTaper Universal (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), ProTaper Next (Dentsply Maillefer), Twisted File Adaptive (SybronEndo, Orange, CA), and HyFlex (Coltene-Whaledent, Allstetten, Switzerland) rotary systems. The apically extruded debris was collected and dried in preweighed Eppendorf tubes. The amount of extruded debris was assessed with an electronic balance. The total time required to complete root canal shaping with the different instruments was also recorded. The significance level was set at P = .05. The instrumentation time with the ProTaper Universal rotary system was significantly longer than with all the other instruments (P extruded significantly less debris than the ProTaper Universal and HyFlex systems (P < .05). The ProTaper Next and Twisted File Adaptive instrumentation systems were associated with less debris extrusion compared with the ProTaper Universal and HyFlex systems. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Metallated metal-organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bury, Wojciech; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Mondloch, Joseph E.

    2017-02-07

    Porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and metallated porous MOFs are provided. Also provided are methods of metallating porous MOFs using atomic layer deposition and methods of using the metallated MOFs as catalysts and in remediation applications.

  17. Metallated metal-organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bury, Wojciech; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Mondloch, Joseph E.

    2017-08-22

    Porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and metallated porous MOFs are provided. Also provided are methods of metallating porous MOFs using atomic layer deposition and methods of using the metallated MOFs as catalysts and in remediation applications.

  18. Measurement of the flexing force of the fingers by a dynamic splint with a dynamometer Medida da força de flexão dos dedos da mão através de órtese dinâmica com dinamômetro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmara Nicolau Pedro da Silva

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE AND METHODS: In order to determine forces acting upon an articular joint during hand rehabilitation, a dynamic splint was built and connected to a dynamometer (capable of measuring forces in the range 0 - 600 gf. Through trigonometric calculation, the authors measured the flexing force in the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger at 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90° of flexion. Measurements were obtained in a population of 40 voluntary adults, 20 females and 20 males, This flexing force was correlated with age, sex, and anthropometric measures. RESULTS: Force in the flexing tendon is maximal at the start of flexion, and decreases as the angle of joint flexion increases. A relationship was observed between finger length and the magnitude of the force exerted on the tendon: the longer the finger, the greater the force exherted upon the tendon. Force is greater at all the measured angles, (except 30° in males and in individuals of higher stature, and bigger arm span. CONCLUSIONS: The flexing force can be effectively measured at all flexing angles, that it correlates with a number of different anthropometric parameters, and that such data are likely to open the way for future studies.OBJETIVO E MÉTODOS: Em virtude do desconhecimento relativo às forças que atuam em uma articulação durante o processo de reabilitação da mão, foi confeccionada uma órtese dinâmica que, acoplada a um dinamômetro, mediu, através de cálculos trigonométricos, a força (entre 0 a 600gf, flexora na articulação interfalângica proximal do terceiro dedo, a 30º, 45º, 60º e 90º de flexão. Estas medidas foram obtidas, em uma população de 40 adultos voluntários, 20 do sexo feminino e 20 do masculino, e confrontadas com idade, sexo e medidas antropométricas como estatura, envergadura e comprimento do dedo. RESULTADOS: Os resultados do estudo demonstraram que o tendão flexor é submetido à máxima força no início da flexão e que a for

  19. Metal-metal-hofteproteser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Michael; Overgaard, Søren; Penny, Jeannette

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark 4,456 metal-on-metal (MoM) hip prostheses have been implanted. Evidence demonstrates that some patients develope adverse biological reactions causing failures of MoM hip arthroplasty. Some reactions might be systemic. Failure rates are associated with the type and the design of the Mo......M hip implant. A Danish surveillance programme has been initiated addressing these problems....

  20. A Flex-Model for long-term assessment of community-residing older adults following disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkoetter, Marlene M; McDonough, JoEllen; McCall, Amber; Smith, Deborah; Looney, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    For the rapidly growing older adult population, disaster consequences are frequently life disruptive and even life threatening. By 2050, it is estimated that the global older adult population will reach 22 percent of the total. With declining health, this population poses a particular risk needing to be addressed in emergency preparedness and disaster recovery. The purpose of this article is to describe a Flex-Model (F-M) for the long-term assessment of older adults following a disaster. An F-M is a series of three-dimensional representations of an archetype with flexible components, both linear and parallel, that can be adapted to situations, time, place, and needs. The model incorporates the Life Patterns Model and provides a template that can be adjusted to meet the needs of a local community, healthcare providers, and emergency management officials, regardless of the country or region, during the months after a disaster. The focus is on changes resulting from the disaster including roles, relationships, support systems, use of time, self-esteem, and life structure. Following a baseline assessment, each of these life patterns is assessed through the model with options for interventions over time. A pilot study was conducted in Georgia to gain information that would be helpful in developing a more specific assessment tool following a severe winter storm. While this is a local study, the findings can nevertheless be used to refine and focus the F-M for future implementation. Results indicated that older adults used high-risk heating and lighting sources and many were totally responsible for their own welfare. Findings have implications for emergency preparedness and long-term recovery.

  1. Implementation of an image acquisition and processing system based on FlexRIO, CameraLink and areaDetector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquembri, S.; Ruiz, M. [Instrumentation and Applied Acoustic Research Group, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain); Barrera, E., E-mail: eduardo.barrera@upm.es [Instrumentation and Applied Acoustic Research Group, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain); Sanz, D.; Bustos, A. [Instrumentation and Applied Acoustic Research Group, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain); Castro, R.; Vega, J. [National Fusion Laboratory, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The system presented acquires and process images from any CameraLink compliant camera. • The frame grabber implanted with FlexRIO technology have image time stamping and preprocessing capabilities. • The system is integrated into EPICS using areaDetector for a flexible configuration of image the acquisition and processing chain. • Is fully compatible with the architecture of the ITER Fast Controllers. - Abstract: Image processing systems are commonly used in current physics experiments, such as nuclear fusion experiments. These experiments usually require multiple cameras with different resolutions, framerates and, frequently, different software drivers. The integration of heterogeneous types of cameras without a unified hardware and software interface increases the complexity of the acquisition system. This paper presents the implementation of a distributed image acquisition and processing system for CameraLink cameras. This system implements a camera frame grabber using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), a reconfigurable hardware platform that allows for image acquisition and real-time preprocessing. The frame grabber is integrated into Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) using the areaDetector EPICS software module, which offers a common interface shared among tens of cameras to configure the image acquisition and process these images in a distributed control system. The use of areaDetector also allows the image processing to be parallelized and concatenated using: multiple computers; areaDetector plugins; and the areaDetector standard type for data, NDArrays. The architecture developed is fully compatible with ITER Fast Controllers and the entire system has been validated using a camera hardware simulator that stream videos from fusion experiment databases.

  2. Implementation of an image acquisition and processing system based on FlexRIO, CameraLink and areaDetector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquembri, S.; Ruiz, M.; Barrera, E.; Sanz, D.; Bustos, A.; Castro, R.; Vega, J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The system presented acquires and process images from any CameraLink compliant camera. • The frame grabber implanted with FlexRIO technology have image time stamping and preprocessing capabilities. • The system is integrated into EPICS using areaDetector for a flexible configuration of image the acquisition and processing chain. • Is fully compatible with the architecture of the ITER Fast Controllers. - Abstract: Image processing systems are commonly used in current physics experiments, such as nuclear fusion experiments. These experiments usually require multiple cameras with different resolutions, framerates and, frequently, different software drivers. The integration of heterogeneous types of cameras without a unified hardware and software interface increases the complexity of the acquisition system. This paper presents the implementation of a distributed image acquisition and processing system for CameraLink cameras. This system implements a camera frame grabber using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), a reconfigurable hardware platform that allows for image acquisition and real-time preprocessing. The frame grabber is integrated into Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) using the areaDetector EPICS software module, which offers a common interface shared among tens of cameras to configure the image acquisition and process these images in a distributed control system. The use of areaDetector also allows the image processing to be parallelized and concatenated using: multiple computers; areaDetector plugins; and the areaDetector standard type for data, NDArrays. The architecture developed is fully compatible with ITER Fast Controllers and the entire system has been validated using a camera hardware simulator that stream videos from fusion experiment databases.

  3. Self-Expandable Metallic Stent Placement in Malignant Gastric Outlet Obstruction: A Comparison Between 2 Brands of Stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bing-Wei; Lee, Kuei-Chuan; Hsieh, Yun-Cheng; Li, Chung-Pin; Chao, Yee; Hou, Ming-Chih; Lin, Han-Chieh

    2015-07-01

    Malignant gastric outlet obstruction is a late complication of intraabdominal malignancy. Self-expandable metallic stent placement has been a safe palliative treatment to relieve obstructive symptoms. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of metallic stents in our patients and analyzed the clinical outcome of different brands. Seventy-one patients with inoperable gastric outlet obstruction receiving WallFlex enteral stents (WallFlex group) or Bonastents (Bonastent group) since April 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. The overall technical and clinical success rates of stent placement were 100% and 93%, respectively. The baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes including procedure-related complications, restenosis, and reintervention rates were comparable between the 2 groups. However, the Bonastent group had a higher rate of stent fracture than the WallFlex group (13.3% vs 0%, P = 0.03). The mean duration of overall stent patency was 132.7 days. The mean duration of survival was 181.9 days. Resumption of regular diet or low residual diet at day 7 after stent insertion predicted stent patency (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.28, P = 0.01). Cancer with gastric origin (HR: 0.25, P = 0.045) and poststent chemotherapy (HR: 0.38, P = 0.006) predicted lower mortality; however, peritoneal carcinomatosis (HR: 3.09, P = 0.04) correlated with higher mortality. Metallic stent placement is a safe and effective method for relieving gastric outlet obstruction. Except higher rate of stent fracture in the Bonastent group, there is no significant difference in clinical outcomes between the Bonastent group and the WallFlex group.

  4. Plants flex their skeletons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foster, Randy; Mattsson, Ole; Mundy, John

    2003-01-01

    Recent work on the fragile fiber mutants of Arabidopsis has identified microtubule-associated proteins that affect the orientation of cellulose microfibrils in cell walls, a major determinant of plant elongation growth. These same proteins are implicated in responses to gibberellin, provoking fresh...

  5. An Evaluation of Plaque and Gingivitis Reduction Following Home Use of Sonicare FlexCare Platinum with Premium Plaque Control Brush Head and a Manual Toothbrush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Wendy; Souza, Sonia; Ward, Marilyn; Defenbaugh, Jodi; Milleman, Kimberly R; Milleman, Jeffery L

    2017-03-01

    To assess the effect of the Philips Sonicare FlexCare Platinum with Premium plaque control brush head on gingival inflammation, bleeding, and supragingival plaque reduction following a six-week period of home use compared to a manual toothbrush. This was a randomized, single-blind, parallel-design clinical trial. Subjects included in the study were routine manual toothbrush users who were generally healthy non-smokers, aged 18-65 years, with mild to moderate gingivitis. Subjects with advanced periodontal disease, excessive gingival recession, and heavy deposits of calculus or rampant decay were excluded from the study. Eligible participants were dispensed either Philips Sonicare FlexCare Platinum with Premium plaque control brush head (PC), or an ADA Reference manual toothbrush (MTB) for twice-daily home oral hygiene procedures for six weeks. Efficacy measures included the Lobene and Soparker Modification of Quigley and Hein Plaque Index (MPI), the Modified Gingival Index (MGI), and Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI). Safety was evaluated by oral examination and subject report. Efficacy and safety were assessed at Baseline, and at two and six weeks following product home use. Of 154 subjects randomized, 143 subjects completed the study. For the primary endpoint, MGI at Week 2, statistically significantly larger reductions in MGI were observed for PC versus MTB, p < 0.0001. The adjusted mean reduction and standard error estimates (SE) for MGI, expressed as percent reduction versus Baseline to Week 2, were 41.73% (2.00%) for PC and 7.38% (2.02%) for MTB. Statistically significant differences were also observed for MPI and GBI at Week 2, and for all metrics at Week 6. Philips Sonicare FlexCare Platinum with Premium plaque control brush head statistically significantly reduces gingival inflammation, gingival bleeding, and plaque following two and six weeks of home use, compared to manual tooth brushing alone.

  6. Effects of High Octane Ethanol Blends on Four Legacy Flex-Fuel Vehicles, and a Turbocharged GDI Vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, John F [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); West, Brian H [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Huff, Shean P [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting engine and vehicle research to investigate the potential of high-octane fuels to improve fuel economy. Ethanol has very high research octane number (RON) and heat of vaporization (HoV), properties that make it an excellent spark ignition engine fuel. The prospects of increasing both the ethanol content and the octane number of the gasoline pool has the potential to enable improved fuel economy in future vehicles with downsized, downsped engines. This report describes a small study to explore the potential performance benefits of high octane ethanol blends in the legacy fleet. There are over 17 million flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs) on the road today in the United States, vehicles capable of using any fuel from E0 to E85. If a future high-octane blend for dedicated vehicles is on the horizon, the nation is faced with the classic chicken-and-egg dilemma. If today’s FFVs can see a performance advantage with a high octane ethanol blend such as E25 or E30, then perhaps consumer demand for this fuel can serve as a bridge to future dedicated vehicles. Experiments were performed with four FFVs using a 10% ethanol fuel (E10) with 88 pump octane, and a market gasoline blended with ethanol to make a 30% by volume ethanol fuel (E30) with 94 pump octane. The research octane numbers were 92.4 for the E10 fuel and 100.7 for the E30 fuel. Two vehicles had gasoline direct injected (GDI) engines, and two featured port fuel injection (PFI). Significant wide open throttle (WOT) performance improvements were measured for three of the four FFVs, with one vehicle showing no change. Additionally, a conventional (non-FFV) vehicle with a small turbocharged direct-injected engine was tested with a regular grade of gasoline with no ethanol (E0) and a splash blend of this same fuel with 15% ethanol by volume (E15). RON was increased from 90.7 for the E0 to 97.8 for the E15 blend. Significant wide open throttle and thermal efficiency performance

  7. Geophysical character of the intraplate Wabash Fault System from the Wabash EarthScope FlexArray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conder, J. A.; Zhu, L.; Wood, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    The Wabash Seismic Array was an EarthScope funded FlexArray deployment across the Wabash Fault System. The Wabash system is long known for oil and gas production. The fault system is often characterized as an intraplate seismic zone as it has produced several earthquakes above M4 in the last 50 years and potentially several above M7 in the Holocene. While earthquakes are far less numerous in the Wabash system than in the nearby New Madrid seismic zone, the seismic moment is nearly twice that of New Madrid over the past 50 years. The array consisted of 45 broadband instruments deployed across the axis to study the larger structure and 3 smaller phased arrays of 9 short-period instruments each to get a better sense of the local seismic output of smaller events. First results from the northern phased array indicate that seismicity in the Wabash behaves markedly differently than in New Madrid, with a low b-value around 0.7. Receiver functions show a 50 km thick crust beneath the system, thickening somewhat to the west. A variable-depth, positive-amplitude conversion in the deep crust gives evidence for a rift pillow at the base of the system within a dense lowermost crustal layer. Low Vs and a moderate negative amplitude conversion in the mid crust suggest a possible weak zone that could localize deformation. Shear wave splitting shows fast directions consistent with absolute plate motion across the system. Split times drop in magnitude to 0.5-0.7 seconds within the valley while in the 1-1.5 second range outside the valley. This magnitude decrease suggests a change in mantle signature beneath the fault system, possibly resulting from a small degree of local flow in the asthenosphere either along axis (as may occur with a thinned lithosphere) or by vertical flow (e.g., from delamination or dripping). We are building a 2D tomographic model across the region, relying primarily on teleseismic body waves. The tomography will undoubtedly show variations in crustal structure

  8. Análise experimental do comportamento de vigas mistas de concreto e alvenaria estrutural sujeitas à flexão simples

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Angélica Paiva [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    O presente trabalho apresenta uma análise experimental de vigas de alvenaria submetidas à flexão simples. Como definição do projeto foram executadas 8 (oito) vigas denominadas mistas, sendo compostas por blocos estruturais de concreto e uma camada superior de graute. Baseado nos domínios de deformação do concreto armado dividiu-se, para uma melhor análise 4 (quatro) grupos compostos de 2 vigas cada, onde se diferenciaram pela taxa de armadura longitudinal, definidas como A1, A2, A3 e A4, empr...

  9. LHCb: Production, measurement and simulation of a low mass flex cable for multi gigabit/s readout for the LHCb VELO upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Lemos Cid, E; Buytaert, J; Esperante Pereira, D; Ronning, P A; Visniakov, J; G Sanchez, M; Vazquez Regueiro, P

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this project is to examine the feasibility of data transmission up to ~5Gbit/s on a short (~60cm) low mass flex cable. These cables will be used for the readout of the upgraded vertex detector (VELO) of the LHCb experiment in high radiation and vacuum environment. We present a study of different transmission line geometries, the effect of using fine pitch (400μm) connectors, the use of grounded guard traces and via holes to suppress crosstalk and the effect of the line parameters in the data transmission. Time and frequency domain measurements and simulation will be presented.

  10. Integration of the heat and refrigeration sector into the electricity market model PowerFlex for the analysis of sector encompasing effects on the climate protection goals and EE integration. Scientific final report - actualized version; Einbindung des Waerme- und Kaeltesektors in das Strommarktmodell PowerFlex zur Analyse sektoruebergreifender Effekte auf Klimaschutzziele und EE-Integration. Wissenschaftlicher Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Matthias; Hesse, Tilman; Kenkmann, Tanja [Oeko-Institut e.V., Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Freiburg (Germany); and others

    2017-06-21

    The report covers the following issues: (i) Detailed description of the heat sector and its coupling to the electricity sector within the electricity market model PowerFlex: provate heat demand, derivation of heat load profiles, development of a technology and energy carrier mix, data inputs for the electricity market regulation. (ii) Creation of an empirically based data basis for the air conditioning of building, its coupling to the electricity system and derivation of recommendations: preparation of a representative empirical determination of the status quo and the factors that provoke private households to install air conditions, effective parameters for the development of energy demand for air conditioning of residential homes, preparation of a data input for the electricity market model - methodology and results. (iii) Preparation of generic renewable energy supply time series with different levels of fluctuation: Methodology of the renewable energy profile calculation, calculation of the supply profile for photovoltaics, calculation of the supply profile for onshore wind and offshore wind. (iv) Extension of the electricity market model PowerFlex to PowerFlex-heat and cold for the sector encompassing scenario analysis: extension of the module to cogeneration power plants, power-to-heat and power-to-gas for the detailed description of the heat sector, extension of the module for load management, scenarios and interpretation of the results.

  11. Advanced Data Acquisition System Implementation for the ITER Neutron Diagnostic Use Case Using EPICS and FlexRIO Technology on a PXIe Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, D.; Ruiz, M.; Castro, R.; Vega, J.; Afif, M.; Monroe, M.; Simrock, S.; Debelle, T.; Marawar, R.; Glass, B.

    2016-04-01

    To aid in assessing the functional performance of ITER, Fission Chambers (FC) based on the neutron diagnostic use case deliver timestamped measurements of neutron source strength and fusion power. To demonstrate the Plant System Instrumentation & Control (I&C) required for such a system, ITER Organization (IO) has developed a neutron diagnostics use case that fully complies with guidelines presented in the Plant Control Design Handbook (PCDH). The implementation presented in this paper has been developed on the PXI Express (PXIe) platform using products from the ITER catalog of standard I&C hardware for fast controllers. Using FlexRIO technology, detector signals are acquired at 125 MS/s, while filtering, decimation, and three methods of neutron counting are performed in real-time via the onboard Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). Measurement results are reported every 1 ms through Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) Channel Access (CA), with real-time timestamps derived from the ITER Timing Communication Network (TCN) based on IEEE 1588-2008. Furthermore, in accordance with ITER specifications for CODAC Core System (CCS) application development, the software responsible for the management, configuration, and monitoring of system devices has been developed in compliance with a new EPICS module called Nominal Device Support (NDS) and RIO/FlexRIO design methodology.

  12. A comparison of root canal preparations using Ni-Ti hand, Ni-Ti engine-driven, and K-Flex endodontic instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glossen, C R; Haller, R H; Dove, S B; del Rio, C E

    1995-03-01

    This study used a modified Bramante technique and new digital subtraction software to compare root canals prepared by nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) hand, Ni-Ti engine-driven, and stainless steel hand endodontic instruments. Sixty mesial canals of extracted human mandibular molars were randomly divided into five groups. The roots were embedded in clear resin and cross-sectioned in the apical and mid-root areas. In group A, canals were instrumented using a quarter turn/pull technique with K-Flex files. In group B, canals were prepared with Ni-Ti hand files (Mity files) using the same technique as in group A. Group C was prepared with NT Sensor engine-driven files. Group D canals were prepared with Ni-Ti Canal Master "U" hand instruments. Group E was prepared with engine-driven Ni-Ti Lightspeed instruments. Digitized images of the uninstrumented canals were compared with images of the instrumented canals. Engine-driven Ni-Ti instruments (Lightspeed and NT Sensor file) and hand instrumentation with the Canal Master "U" caused significantly less canal transportation (p < 0.05), remained more centered in the canal (p < 0.05), removed less dentin (p < 0.05), and produced rounder canal preparations than K-Flex and Mity files. Engine instrumentation with Lightspeed and NT Sensor file was significantly faster than hand instrumentation (p < 0.05).

  13. Clinical Outcomes in Men and Women following Total Knee Arthroplasty with a High-Flex Knee: No Clinical Effect of Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M. Nassif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While it is generally recognized that anatomical differences exist between the male and female knee, the literature generally refutes the clinical need for gender-specific total knee prostheses. It has been found that standard, unisex knees perform as well, or better, in women than men. Recently, high-flex knees have become available that mechanically accommodate increased flexion yet no studies have directly compared the outcomes of these devices in men and women to see if gender-based differences exist. We retrospectively compared the performance of the high-flex Vanguard knee (Biomet, Warsaw, IN in 716 male and 1,069 female knees. Kaplan-Meier survivorship was 98.5% at 5.6–5.7 years for both genders. After 2 years, mean improvements in Knee Society Knee and Function scores for men and women (50.9 versus 46.3; 26.5 versus 23.1 and corresponding SF-12 Mental and Physical scores (0.2 versus 2.2; 13.7 versus 12.2 were similar with differences not clinically relevant. Postoperative motion gains as a function of preoperative motion level were virtually identical in men and women. This further confirms the suitability of unisex total knee prostheses for both men and women.

  14. TN trademark FLEX: a new generation of fluorocarbon o-rings developed by COGEMA logistics with enhanced characteristics at low temperature (-40 C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issard, H.; Andre, R.

    2004-01-01

    Three main types of elastomers are used for the sealing of radioactive material transport casks with elastomeric gaskets: EPDM, fluorocarbons type Viton registered (standard designation: FKM) and silicon rubbers. Each rubber has specific characteristics in terms of temperature range, permeability, coefficient of expansion.. For the casks where high temperatures can be reached (200 C in continuous using), FKM gaskets are generally used. The problem is that this type of gasket does not guarantee the leaktightness at -40 C, which is a regulatory requirement. Two solutions are generally used: to specify a minimum heat load or a minimum ambient temperature. The direct consequence is that it is impossible to get B(U) approvals on the new concepts when FKM gaskets are used but only B(M) approvals, which generate significant additional justification costs (multiple submittals of Safety Analysis Reports, calculation of the minimum heat load or of the minimum ambient temperature..). Thus, it is important to develop gaskets with the same performance as FKM gaskets at high temperature but with enhanced performance at low temperature (and mainly, which guarantee the leaktightness at -40 C). COGEMA LOGISTICS has qualified a new generation of fluorocarbon O-rings (TN trademark FLEX gaskets) which can be used in continuous service on a -47 C/+200 C temperature range. TN trademark FLEX gaskets will be implemented on new casks designs

  15. The INDUS knee prosthesis - Prospective multicentric trial of a posteriorly stabilized high-flex design: 2 years follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sancheti Kantilal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The anatomical and morphological differences and high-flexion daily activities in the Asian population have since ever prompted for development of customized knee replacement systems. INDUS knee system has advantages both of high-flex designs and is developed by keeping the anatomical variations of the native population in mind. The purpose of this study is to analyze the 2-year follow-up results using the INDUS prosthesis. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and ninety-seven knees in 276 patients were prospectively analyzed. There were 65 men (72 knees and 211 (225 knees women with a mean age of 64.56 years. Two hundred and forty-five knees had primary osteoarthritis, 48 knees had rheumatoid arthritis, and four knees had post-traumatic arthritis. Clinical parameters, including the Knee Society scores (knee score and function score, range of motion, post-operative anterior knee pain, and complications were recorded. Pre- and post-operative serial radiographs were analyzed for limb alignment, component positioning, and evidence of loosening. Results: The patients were followed-up for an average of 2.59 years (range, 2-3.3 years. The mean knee score and the mean function score were significantly improved from a pre-operative value of 39.4 points and 46.7 points to a post-operative value of 87 points and 86 points, respectively (P value < 0.05. Two hundred and thirty four knees had no anterior knee pain while 63 knees had mild to moderate pain, but none of the patients requested any intervention for the same. Of the 276 patients (297 knees, 79 knees had flexion above 140°, 167 had a flexion range of 130-140°, 27 had a flexion range of 100-130°, and 24 knees had a flexion < 100°, with the mean range of movement being 132.9°. Improvements in the range of movement were retained over time and a total of 205 patients (224 knees, 75.7% could squat or sit cross-legged at the final follow-up. The mean tibiofemoral angle was 8.5°± 6.9º of

  16. New metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergqvist, U.

    1983-12-01

    The aim of this report is to estimate the exposure to various metals and metal compounds and discuss the available information of the possible toxic effects of these metals and compounds. In the first section, some metals are defined as those with either a large or a fast increasing exposure to living organisms. The available information on toxicity is discussed in the second section. In the third section interesting metals are defined as compounds having a large exposure and an apparent insufficient knowledge of their possible toxic effects. Comments on each of these metals are also to be found in the third section. (G.B.)

  17. Estudo comparativo dos resultados da medição da amplitude articular do movimento de flexão do cotovelo através do goniómetro e observação visual

    OpenAIRE

    Coutinho, António; Santos, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Objectivos: Verificar se a experiência clínica na área da fisioterapia influencia o rigor de uma medição da amplitude articular no movimento de flexão do cotovelo utilizando o goniómetro universal e/ou a observação visual. Comparar o rigor destes dois métodos de medida de avaliação. Relevância: A integridade da amplitude do movimento de flexão do cotovelo é essencial para o desempenho normal de inúmeras actividades da vida diária. Neste sentido, existem diversos instrumentos de...

  18. Metal lagging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemercier, Guy.

    1974-01-01

    The metal lagging described is characterized by the fact that it is formed of closed sacks composed of an elastic metal mass, compressed in an outer envelope made of a fine mesh metal fabric. The metal mass is composed of stainless steel wool stuffed into the envelope. This lagging is particularly intended for the thermal protection of the end slab of LMFBR type reactors [fr

  19. Silicone metalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

    2008-12-09

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  20. Efeito do carregamento cíclico sobre as propriedades de flexão de painéis comerciais de MDF e MDP

    OpenAIRE

    Menezzi,Cláudio Henrique Soares Del; Santos,Cristiane Moreira Tavares dos; Ferraz,Joana Mendes; Martins,Sabrina Andrade; Melo,Rafael Rodolfo de; Siqueira,Milton Luiz; Pazetto,Valeria Maria de Figueiredo

    2011-01-01

    Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito fadiga por meio de diferentes ciclos de carregamento (20.000, 40.000 e 80.000 ciclos) na deformação e nas propriedades de flexão estática de painéis comerciais de medium density fiberboard (MDF) e medium density particleboard (MDP). Cada ciclo de carga teve a duração de 2,2 segundos (0,45 Hz) e a carga aplicada foi correspondente a 25% do módulo de ruptura de cada painel. Após os ensaios, foi avaliada a deformação com (final) e sem...

  1. Validation of the System One RemStar Auto A-Flex for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Treatment and Detection of Residual Apnea-Hypopnea Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnadoux, Frédéric; Pevernagie, Dirk; Jennum, Poul

    2017-01-01

    the performance of the System One RemStar Auto A-Flex (Philips Respironics, Murrysville, PA, USA) automatically adjusted positive airway pressure (APAP) mode to manually titrated, fixed pressure CPAP and to validate the device's breathing event detection capabilities against attended in-laboratory PSG. METHODS......STUDY OBJECTIVES: Autotitrating continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices adjust pressure in response to changes in airflow and are an alternative to attended in-laboratory titration polysomnography (PSG) to determine optimal pressure levels. The aim of this study was to compare......: Sixty-one patients investigated in five centers for moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea between May 2012 and June 2013 were invited to participate. Participants underwent two full-night attended polysomnograms in random order with manually titrated, fixed pressure CPAP versus APAP. RESULTS: Fifty...

  2. 3D virtual world remote laboratory to assist in designing advanced user defined DAQ systems based on FlexRIO and EPICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpeño, A.; Contreras, D.; López, S.; Ruiz, M.; Sanz, D.; Arcas, G. de; Esquembri, S.; Vega, J.; Castro, R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Assist in the design of FPGA-based data acquisition systems using EPICS and FlexRIO. • Virtual Reality technologies are highly effective at creating rich training scenarios. • Virtual actions simulate the behavior of a real system to enhance the training process. • Virtual actions can make real changes remotely in the physical ITER’s Fast Controller. - Abstract: iRIO-3DLab is a platform devised to assist developers in the design and implementation of intelligent and reconfigurable FPGA-based data acquisition systems using EPICS and FlexRIO technologies. Although these architectures are very powerful in defining the behavior of DAQ systems, this advantage comes at the price of greater difficulty in understanding how the system works, and how it should be configured and built according to the hardware available and the processing demanded by the requirements of the diagnostics. In this regard, Virtual Reality technologies are highly effective at creating rich training scenarios due to their ability to provide immersive training experiences and collaborative environments. The designed remote laboratory is based on a 3D virtual world developed in Opensim, which is accessible through a standard free 3D viewer. Using a client-server architecture, the virtual world connects with a service running in a Linux-based computer executing EPICS. Through their avatars, users interact with virtual replicas of this equipment as they would in real-life situations. Some actions can be used to simulate the behavior of a real system to enhance the training process, while others can be used to make real changes remotely in the physical system.

  3. 3D virtual world remote laboratory to assist in designing advanced user defined DAQ systems based on FlexRIO and EPICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpeño, A., E-mail: antonio.cruiz@upm.es [Universidad Politécnica de Madrid UPM, Madrid (Spain); Contreras, D.; López, S.; Ruiz, M.; Sanz, D.; Arcas, G. de; Esquembri, S. [Universidad Politécnica de Madrid UPM, Madrid (Spain); Vega, J.; Castro, R. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Assist in the design of FPGA-based data acquisition systems using EPICS and FlexRIO. • Virtual Reality technologies are highly effective at creating rich training scenarios. • Virtual actions simulate the behavior of a real system to enhance the training process. • Virtual actions can make real changes remotely in the physical ITER’s Fast Controller. - Abstract: iRIO-3DLab is a platform devised to assist developers in the design and implementation of intelligent and reconfigurable FPGA-based data acquisition systems using EPICS and FlexRIO technologies. Although these architectures are very powerful in defining the behavior of DAQ systems, this advantage comes at the price of greater difficulty in understanding how the system works, and how it should be configured and built according to the hardware available and the processing demanded by the requirements of the diagnostics. In this regard, Virtual Reality technologies are highly effective at creating rich training scenarios due to their ability to provide immersive training experiences and collaborative environments. The designed remote laboratory is based on a 3D virtual world developed in Opensim, which is accessible through a standard free 3D viewer. Using a client-server architecture, the virtual world connects with a service running in a Linux-based computer executing EPICS. Through their avatars, users interact with virtual replicas of this equipment as they would in real-life situations. Some actions can be used to simulate the behavior of a real system to enhance the training process, while others can be used to make real changes remotely in the physical system.

  4. Intubação de via aérea difícil com broncoscópio flexível

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascedio Jose Rodrigues

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVO: Descrever um protocolo de intubação com broncoscópio flexível (FBI, de flexible bronchoscopy intubation em pacientes com via aérea difícil, sua eficácia e segurança. MÉTODOS: Foram revisados os prontuários médicos de pacientes diagnosticados com via aérea difícil que foram submetidos à broncoscopia flexível para intubação sob ventilação espontânea e sedação com midazolam e fentanil, de março de 2009 a dezembro de 2010. RESULTADOS: Foram selecionados 102 pacientes, 69 (67,7% homens e 33 (32,3% mulheres, com idade média de 44 anos. Em 59 pacientes com via aérea difícil prevista (57,8% a FBI foi feita em centro cirúrgico; 39 (38,2% ocorreram na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva e quatro casos (3,9% na sala de emergência. Tosse, queda transitória de saturação de oxigênio e dificuldade de progredir a cânula através da laringe foram as principais complicações do método, mas não impediram a intubação. CONCLUSÃO: A FBI seguindo protocolo de sedação consciente com midazolam e fentanil é eficiente e segura no manejo de pacientes com via aérea difícil.

  5. Effects of chronic flexed wrist posture on the elasticity and crosssectional area of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel among chronic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Hulya; Analan, Pinar Doruk

    2018-02-04

    To investigate the effects of chronic flexed wrist posture following spasticity on the elasticity and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel among chronic stroke patients. This prospective study included 24 consecutive patients (mean age, 56.5±11.56 years) with unilateral wrist spasticity following a stroke in a chronic phase. The CSA of the median nerve was measured by ultrasound (US). The elasticity was measured by Virtual Touch tissue imaging quantification (VTIQ; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). SWV and CSA of the median nerves of the affected and unaffected sides for each patient were compared. The correlations between duration of time since the stroke, SWV and CSA of the median nerve were assessed. The interobserver agreement was assessed. The CSA of the median nerve at the affected side was significantly lower than that of the unaffected side (p = 0.03). The SWV of the median nerve at the affected side was significantly higher than that on the unaffected side (p < 0.001). The interobserver agreement was excellent for both CSA and SWV measurements. There was a negatively fair correlation between CSA at the affected side and duration of time since stroke (r = -0.58, p < 0.05). The SWV of the median nerve at the affected side was not correlated with the duration of time since stroke (r ≤ 0.3, p ≥ 0.05). These results suggest that chronic flexed wrist posture may cause atrophy of the median nerve due to chronic compression after stroke and increase in the stiffness of the median nerve.

  6. Epistaxis during nasotracheal intubation: a randomized trial of the Parker Flex-Tip™ nasal endotracheal tube with a posterior facing bevel versus a standard nasal RAE endotracheal tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Rosie; Shanahan, Enda; Vaghadia, Himat; Sawka, Andrew; Tang, Raymond

    2017-04-01

    Nasotracheal intubation is a widely performed technique to facilitate anesthesia induction during oral, dental, and maxillofacial surgeries. The technique poses several risks not encountered with oropharyngeal intubation, most commonly epistaxis due to nasal mucosal abrasion. The purpose of this study was to test whether the use of the Parker Flex-Tip™ (PFT) nasal endotracheal tube (ETT) with a posterior facing bevel reduces epistaxis when compared with the standard nasal RAE ETT with a leftward facing bevel. Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II patients undergoing oral or maxillofacial surgery with nasotracheal intubation were recruited. Patients were randomized to either a standard nasal RAE ETT or a PFT nasal ETT. The ETT was thermosoftened and lubricated for both study groups prior to insertion, and the size of the tube was chosen at the discretion of the attending anesthesiologist. The primary outcome was the incidence of epistaxis, with a secondary outcome of epistaxis severity (scored as none, mild, moderate, or severe). An investigator measured both outcomes five minutes after intubation was completed. Mild or moderate epistaxis was experienced by 22 of 30 (73%) patients in the PFT group compared with 21 of 30 (70%) patients in the standard nasal RAE ETT group (absolute risk reduction, 3%; 95% confidence interval, -19 to 25; P = 0.78). There were no occurrences of severe epistaxis in either group. There was no difference in the incidence or severity of epistaxis following nasal intubation using the Parker Flex-Tip nasal ETT when compared with a standard nasal RAE ETT. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT02315677.

  7. λ-Selection Strategy in C+L Band 1-Pbit/s (448 WDM/19-Core/128 Gbit/s/channel) Flex-Grid Space Division Multiplexed Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asif, Rameez; Ye, Feihong; Morioka, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an inter-core crosstalk based wavelength selection scheme has been proposed for flex-grid superchannels in space division multiplexed transmission. The two λ-selection strategies are categorized as: (a) aligned wavelength super-channels (Aλ-SCs), where all super-channels are placed...

  8. Femtosecond (FS) laser vision correction procedure for moderate to high myopia: a prospective study of ReLEx(®) flex and comparison with a retrospective study of FS-laser in situ keratomileusis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Anders; Ivarsen, Anders; Asp, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Purpose:  To present our initial clinical experience with ReLEx(®) flex (ReLEx) for moderate to high myopia. We compare efficacy, safety and corneal higher-order aberrations after ReLEx with femtosecond laser in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK). Methods:  Prospective study of ReLEx compared with a ...

  9. Physical-chemical properties of the gasoline-ethanol flex-fuel by infrared adsorption spectroscopy; Caracterizacao fisico-quimica do combustivel flexivel (gasolina + AEHC) por espectroscopia de infravermelho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Camila Reis; Araujo, Antonio Sousa de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Combustiveis e Lubrificantes

    2004-07-01

    Gasoline and ethanol are the components studied in the Flex-Fuel technology, in order to provide an innovative and alternative new option of vehicular fuel. To determine their conformity, these fuels were previously analyzed according to the following ANP regulations: density, alcoholic tenor, octane number and distillation. In order to obtain Flex-Fuel samples, the proportions of 20, 40, 60 and 80 vol% of alcohol in gasoline were mixed and homogenized. The obtained mixtures were submitted to the same analysis for evaluation of the physical-chemical behavior. The physical-chemical characterization of the Flex-Fuel was carried out by infrared spectroscopy, using an equipment Fuel Analyzer, manufactured by Petrospec model GS1000, in agreement with the MB 457, D 2700, D2699 rules, and the obtained data: MON (motor method), RON (method researches), and IAD were compared to the results of a type 'C' gasoline. In this work, infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy showed to be a good tool to readily estimate the octane number of gasoline-ethanol fuel. From IR spectroscopy, was established a method to derive the octane number from the intensities of absorption bands related to methyl, methylene and aromatic compounds, by considering the absorption groups with C-H stretching vibration. According to the Flex-Fuel technology, the obtained results showed that the addition of moisturized ethanol increases the octane number, for instance, for each 5% of alcohol in gasoline an increase of ca. 2% in the octane was observed. (author)

  10. Influence of Custom Trays, Dual-Arch Passive, Flexed Trays and Viscosities of Elastomeric Impression Materials on Working Dies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Mansi; Kohli, Shivani; Kalsi, Rupali

    2016-05-01

    Dual arch impression technique signifies an essential improvement in fixed prosthodontics and has numerous benefits over conventional impression techniques. The accuracy of working dies fabricated from dual arch impression technique remains in question because there is little information available in the literature. This study was conducted to compare the accuracy of working dies fabricated from impressions made from two different viscosities of impression materials using metal, plastic dual arch trays and custom made acrylic trays. The study samples were grouped into two groups based on the viscosity of impression material used i.e. Group I (monophase), whereas Group II consisted of Dual Mix technique using a combination of light and heavy body material. These were further divided into three subgroups A, B and C depending on the type of impression tray used (metal dual arch tray, plastic dual arch tray and custom made tray). Measurements of the master cast were made using profile projector. Descriptive statistics like mean, Standard Deviation (SD) were calculated for all the groups. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for multiple group comparisons. A p-value of 0.05 or less was considered statistically significant. The gypsum dies obtained with the three types of impression trays using two groups of impression materials were smaller than the master models in dimensions. The plastic dual arch trays produced dies which were the least accurate of the three groups. There was no significant difference in the die dimensions obtained using the two viscosities of impression materials.

  11. Metallic nanomesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Sun, Tianyi; Guo, Chuanfei

    2018-02-20

    A transparent flexible nanomesh having at least one conductive element and sheet resistance less than 300.OMEGA./.quadrature. when stretched to a strain of 200% in at least one direction. The nanomesh is formed by depositing a sacrificial film, depositing, etching, and oxidizing a first metal layer on the film, etching the sacrificial film, depositing a second metal layer, and removing the first metal layer to form a nanomesh on the substrate.

  12. VLSI metallization

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G; Gildenblat, Gennady Sh

    1987-01-01

    VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 15: VLSI Metallization discusses the various issues and problems related to VLSI metallization. It details the available solutions and presents emerging trends.This volume is comprised of 10 chapters. The two introductory chapters, Chapter 1 and 2 serve as general references for the electrical and metallurgical properties of thin conducting films. Subsequent chapters review the various aspects of VLSI metallization. The order of presentation has been chosen to follow the common processing sequence. In Chapter 3, some relevant metal deposition tec

  13. Heavy metal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of spawning, resistance to diseases and social acceptability (Pillay, 1993). This study aimed at determining the carbohydrate reserves and heavy metal accumulation of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis miloticus after treatment with heavy metals such as lead, copper and zinc. 2. Materials and Methods. Test organism: Nile tilapia ...

  14. Déficit bilateral nos movimentos de flexão e extensão de perna e flexão do cotovelo Déficit bilateral en los movimientos de flexion y extension de la pierna y flexion del codo Bilateral deficit in leg flexion and extension and elbow flexion movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christianne Pereira Giesbrecht Chaves

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Os exercícios resistidos (ER podem ser realizados de forma uni e bilateral. O objetivo foi comparar a carga máxima (CM na flexão e extensão de perna e flexão de cotovelo isoladamente e entre a soma desses dois resultados com aquele desenvolvido simultaneamente pelas duas pernas e dois braços, respectivamente. Foram submetidos 60 indivíduos ao exercício de flexão e extensão de perna e a flexão de cotovelo ao teste de 1RM. Os resultados para os movimentos de flexão e extensão de perna e flexão de cotovelo esquerdos e direitos na CM - 31,6 (± 7,9, 32,0 (± 8,0, 20,2 (± 9,2, 20,2 (± 9,8, 29,3 (± 13,9 e 29,8 (± 14,1 kg, respectivamente - mostraram-se similares (p > 0,05 e fortemente associados (r = 0,96, 0,96 e 0,98. Comparando a soma dos valores unilaterais com os da execução bilateral, a CM apresentou uma diferença significativa para os movimentos de extensão de perna (p = 0,04 e flexão de cotovelo (p = 0,03; o mesmo não foi observado no movimento de flexão de perna (p = 0,75. Esse resultado pode ser explicado pelo menor incremento de carga - dois quilos e meio - neste último movimento em relação aos dois movimentos anteriores - cinco quilos. Apesar de a maioria dos sujeitos ser destra, não houve diferenças unilaterais na CM, embora nem todos fossem treinados. A soma dos resultados unilaterais foi maior em 9,8% e 4,0% para os movimentos de extensão da perna e flexão de cotovelo, respectivamente, daquele obtido bilateralmente, mostrando, provavelmente, uma limitação central na coordenação motora de um movimento complexo feito em máxima velocidade e com carga elevada. No entanto, no movimento de flexão de perna, a soma dos resultados unilaterais foi inferior à dos bilaterais (-0,6%, apresentando uma possível aprendizagem do movimento e adaptação ao treinamento com pesos a partir de 12 semanas.Los ejercícios resistidos (ER pueden ser realizados de forma uni y bilateral. El objetivo fué comparar la carga m

  15. Plasma metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowther, J.M.

    1997-09-01

    Many methods are currently used for the production of thin metal films. However, all of these have drawbacks associated with them, for example the need for UHV conditions, high temperatures, exotic metal precursors, or the inability to coat complex shaped objects. Reduction of supported metal salts by non-isothermal plasma treatment does not suffer from these drawbacks. In order to produce and analyse metal films before they become contaminated, a plasma chamber which could be attached directly to a UHV chamber with XPS capability was designed and built. This allowed plasma treatment of supported metal salts and surface analysis by XPS to be performed without exposure of the metal film to the atmosphere. Non-equilibrium plasma treatment of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride using hydrogen as the feed gas resulted in a 95% pure gold film, the remaining 5% of the film being carbon. If argon or helium were used as the feed gases during plasma treatment the resultant gold films were 100% pure. Some degree of surface contamination of the films due to plasma treatment was observed but was easily removed by argon ion cleaning. Hydrogen plasma reduction of glass supported silver(l) nitrate and palladium(ll) acetate films reveals that this metallization technique is applicable to a wide variety of metal salts and supports, and has also shown the ability of plasma reduction to retain the complex 'fern-like' structures seen for spin coated silver(l) nitrate layers. Some metal salts are susceptible to decomposition by X-rays. The reduction of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride films by soft X-rays to produce nanoscopic gold particles has been studied. The spontaneous reduction of these X-ray irradiated support gold(lll) chloride films on exposure to the atmosphere to produce gold rich metallic films has also been reported. (author)

  16. Test bed for real-time image acquisition and processing systems based on FlexRIO, CameraLink, and EPICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, E., E-mail: eduardo.barrera@upm.es [Grupo de Investigación en Instrumentación y Acústica Aplicada, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) (Spain); Ruiz, M.; Sanz, D. [Grupo de Investigación en Instrumentación y Acústica Aplicada, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) (Spain); Vega, J.; Castro, R. [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusión, Madrid (Spain); Juárez, E.; Salvador, R. [Centro de Investigación en Tecnologías Software y Sistemas Multimedia para la Sostenibilidad, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) (Spain)

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • The test bed allows for the validation of real-time image processing techniques. • Offers FPGA (FlexRIO) image processing that does not require CPU intervention. • Is fully compatible with the architecture of the ITER Fast Controllers. • Provides flexibility and easy integration in distributed experiments based on EPICS. - Abstract: Image diagnostics are becoming standard ones in nuclear fusion. At present, images are typically analyzed off-line. However, real-time processing is occasionally required (for instance, hot-spot detection or pattern recognition tasks), which will be the objective for the next generation of fusion devices. In this paper, a test bed for image generation, acquisition, and real-time processing is presented. The proposed solution is built using a Camera Link simulator, a Camera Link frame-grabber, a PXIe chassis, and offers software interface with EPICS. The Camera Link simulator (PCIe card PCIe8 DVa C-Link from Engineering Design Team) generates simulated image data (for example, from video-movies stored in fusion databases) using a Camera Link interface to mimic the frame sequences produced with diagnostic cameras. The Camera Link frame-grabber (FlexRIO Solution from National Instruments) includes a field programmable gate array (FPGA) for image acquisition using a Camera Link interface; the FPGA allows for the codification of ad-hoc image processing algorithms using LabVIEW/FPGA software. The frame grabber is integrated in a PXIe chassis with system architecture similar to that of the ITER Fast Controllers, and the frame grabber provides a software interface with EPICS to program all of its functionalities, capture the images, and perform the required image processing. The use of these four elements allows for the implementation of a test bed system that permits the development and validation of real-time image processing techniques in an architecture that is fully compatible with that of the ITER Fast Controllers

  17. Test bed for real-time image acquisition and processing systems based on FlexRIO, CameraLink, and EPICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera, E.; Ruiz, M.; Sanz, D.; Vega, J.; Castro, R.; Juárez, E.; Salvador, R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The test bed allows for the validation of real-time image processing techniques. • Offers FPGA (FlexRIO) image processing that does not require CPU intervention. • Is fully compatible with the architecture of the ITER Fast Controllers. • Provides flexibility and easy integration in distributed experiments based on EPICS. - Abstract: Image diagnostics are becoming standard ones in nuclear fusion. At present, images are typically analyzed off-line. However, real-time processing is occasionally required (for instance, hot-spot detection or pattern recognition tasks), which will be the objective for the next generation of fusion devices. In this paper, a test bed for image generation, acquisition, and real-time processing is presented. The proposed solution is built using a Camera Link simulator, a Camera Link frame-grabber, a PXIe chassis, and offers software interface with EPICS. The Camera Link simulator (PCIe card PCIe8 DVa C-Link from Engineering Design Team) generates simulated image data (for example, from video-movies stored in fusion databases) using a Camera Link interface to mimic the frame sequences produced with diagnostic cameras. The Camera Link frame-grabber (FlexRIO Solution from National Instruments) includes a field programmable gate array (FPGA) for image acquisition using a Camera Link interface; the FPGA allows for the codification of ad-hoc image processing algorithms using LabVIEW/FPGA software. The frame grabber is integrated in a PXIe chassis with system architecture similar to that of the ITER Fast Controllers, and the frame grabber provides a software interface with EPICS to program all of its functionalities, capture the images, and perform the required image processing. The use of these four elements allows for the implementation of a test bed system that permits the development and validation of real-time image processing techniques in an architecture that is fully compatible with that of the ITER Fast Controllers

  18. Metals 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, S.W.; Rogers, L.C.; Slaughter, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Boensch, F.D. [6025 Oak Hill Lane, Centerville, OH (United States); Claus, R.O.; de Vries, M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    This strategic planning exercise identified and characterized new and emerging advanced metallic technologies in the context of the drastic changes in global politics and decreasing fiscal resources. In consideration of a hierarchy of technology thrusts stated by various Department of Defense (DOD) spokesmen, and the need to find new and creative ways to acquire and organize programs within an evolving Wright Laboratory, five major candidate programs identified are: C-17 Flap, Transport Fuselage, Mach 5 Aircraft, 4.Fighter Structures, and 5. Missile Structures. These results were formed by extensive discussion with selected major contractors and other experts, and a survey of advanced metallic structure materials. Candidate structural applications with detailed metal structure descriptions bracket a wide variety of uses which warrant consideration for the suggested programs. An analysis on implementing smart skins and structures concepts is given from a metal structures perspective.

  19. Metal carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    From the viewpoint of general crystal chemistry principles and on the base of modern data the structural chemistry of metal carbides is presented. The classification deviding metal carbides into 4 groups depending on chemical and physical properties is presented. The features of the crystal structure of carbides of alkali alkaline earth, transition, 4 f- and 5f-elements and their effect on physical and chemical properties are considered

  20. Interfaces entre modelo produtivo e divisão do trabalho flexível: a visão do trabalhador sobre a terceirização no polo naval de Rio Grande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Dion de Paula Costa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é trazer uma reflexão sobre a pesquisa empírica realizada no Polo Naval de Rio Grande acerca do modelo flexível de organização produtiva e seu impacto nos processos de sociabilidade da classe trabalhadora. A perspectiva que se pretende mostrar é a do trabalhador terceirizado dentro da organização da produção e da divisão do trabalho, ambos flexíveis. O presente artigo é produto de reflexões a partir do projeto de dissertação de mestrado da segunda autora sobre a invisibilidade social causada pela terceirização elaborado para o Programa de Pós-graduação em Sociologia da Universidade Federal de Pelotas.

  1. Early experience with the NexGen® CR-Flex Mobile knee arthroplasty system: results of 2-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Endres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated our initial results in 57 patients who received the NexGen® CR-Flex Mobile knee system using the standard anterior approach in a prospective study. The bicondylar surface implant was cemented in position (Palacos® without posterior patellar resurfacing. The clinical outcome and perioperative and post-operative complications were documented over 24 months of its use. Overall, after two years, good results were obtained for the categories of pain and ROM (range of motion, and for the HSS (knee society score (pre-operative: 42/57; post-operative: 87/80. No pathological radiological findings were made during this period. Two patients, however, felt that the primary operation had not been successful because of lateral patellar tilt. This was corrected with revision surgery. It was remarkable that our patients achieved greater than 100° flexion within the first 14 days of the immediate post-operative period. Evaluation and comparison of the scores with those of conventional bicondylar surface replacement systems showed no relevant differences.

  2. Production, measurement and simulation of a low mass flex cable for multi gigabit/s readout for the LHCb VELO upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Lemos Cid, E; Gallas Torreira, A A; Esperante Pereira, D; Ronning, P Arne; Visniakov, J; Sanchez, M G; Vazquez Regueiro, P

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this project is to examine the feasibility of data transmission up to ~ 5 Gbit/s on a short ( ~ 60 cm) low mass flex cable, for the readout of the upgraded vertex detector (VELO) of the LHCb experiment. They will be in a vacuum and very high radiation environment and also partly in the particle acceptance. For the full system 1600 readout links will be required. A set of single-ended and differential (edge-coupled) striplines, with a variety of line parameters have been prototyped using a material specifically tailored for this type of application (Dupont Pyralux AP-plus polyimide). To reduce mass, the total thickness of the cable is kept to 0.7 mm. We will present measurements of the characteristic impedance, insertion and return loss, obtained both from time and frequency domain, as well as a comparison with simulations and expectations. Also the effectiveness of grounded guard traces and the use of ground via holes to reduce crosstalk will be reported. From the measurements we were also able to...

  3. Removal of Root Canal Fillings in Curved Canals Using Either Mani GPR or HyFlex NT Followed by Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Stephanie B; Alves, Flávio R F; Marceliano-Alves, Marília F; Sousa, Júlio Cézar N; Vieira, Victor T L; Siqueira, José F; Lopes, Hélio P; Provenzano, José C

    2018-02-01

    This study compared the efficacy of HyFlex NT (HF; Coltene, New York, NY) and Mani GPR (MN; Mani Inc, Tokyo, Japan) systems followed by a supplementary approach with passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) in removing the filling material from curved root canals during retreatment. The mesial canals from 20 extracted mandibular molars with Vertucci type IV configuration were instrumented and obturated (N = 40). Each mesial canal was retreated using either HF or MN instruments, alternating the system used per canal from root to root. The final preparation size was 40/0.04 for both systems. The volume of canal filling material was assessed by means of micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT) imaging before and after retreatment, and the working time was recorded. Canals still showing remnants of filling material were subjected to a supplementary approach with PUI, and another micro-CT scan was taken. The percentage of filling material removed with MN instruments and HF was similar (95.5% and 92.7%, respectively) (P > .05). MN required significantly less time to remove the filling material (P < .05). The supplementary approach with PUI significantly enhanced the removal of filling material (P < .05). Both systems were equally effective in removing the root canal filling during retreatment. MN was faster than HF. The supplementary approach with PUI significantly improved filling material removal. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Measurement of the local muscular metabolism by time-domain near infrared spectroscopy during knee flex-extension induced by functional electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contini, D.; Spinelli, L.; Torricelli, A.; Ferrante, S.; Pedrocchi, A.; Molteni, F.; Ferrigno, G.; Cubeddu, R.

    2009-02-01

    We present a preliminary study that combines functional electrical stimulation and time-domain near infrared spectroscopy for a quantitative measurement of the local muscular metabolism during rehabilitation of post-acute stroke patients. Seven healthy subjects and nine post-acute stroke patients underwent a protocol of knee flex-extension of the quadriceps induced by functional electrical stimulation. During the protocol time-domain near infrared spectroscopy measurement were performed on both left and right muscle. Hemodynamic parameters (concentration of oxy- and deoxy-genated hemoglobin) during baseline did not show any significant differences between healthy subject and patients, while functional performances (knee angle amplitude) were distinctly different. Nevertheless, even if their clinical histories were noticeably different, there was no differentiation among functional performances of patients. On the basis of the hemodynamic parameters measured during the recovery phase, instead, it was possible to identify two classes of patients showing a metabolic trend similar or very different to the one obtained by healthy subjects. The presented results suggest that the combination of functional and metabolic information can give an additional tool to the clinicians in the evaluation of the rehabilitation in post-acute stroke patients.

  5. [Effects of functional training combined with self-made hand flexing training band in treatment of scar contracture after burn injury of dorsal hand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, C; Yi, N; Shi, M N; Liang, Y Y; Zhou, Y B; Dang, R; Qi, Z S; Zhao, H Y

    2017-07-20

    Objective: To observe the effects of functional training combined with self-made hand flexing training band in treatment of scar contracture after burn injury of dorsal hand. Methods: Forty-six patients with scar contracture after deep partial-thickness or full-thickness burn injury of dorsal hand hospitalized in our department from March 2013 to February 2015 were divided into routine training group (RT, n =18) and comprehensive training group (CT, n =28) according to their willingness. Two weeks after the wounds were healed, patients in group RT were treated with functional training of hands and self-made pressure gloves, while patients in group CT were treated with self-made hand flexing training band (consisting of nylon strap, flexing band, and velcro) on the basis of those in group RT. All patients were treated for 3 months. Before and after treatment, scar condition of affected hands was assessed with Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS). The range of motion of joints of affected hands was measured by Total Active Movement (TAM) Scale. The function of affected hands was evaluated by Carroll Upper Extremity Function Test. Data were processed with t test, chi-square test, and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: (1) The score of VSS in patients of group RT was (10.0±1.9) points before treatment and (4.4±1.4) points after treatment, with the improved score of (5.6±1.0) points. The score of VSS in patients of group CT was (10.5±1.8) points before treatment and (4.6±1.4) points after treatment, with the improved score of (5.9±1.2) points. There was no statistically significant difference in the improved score of patients between the two groups ( t =0.834, P >0.05). The score of VSS in patients of groups RT and CT after treatment was significantly lower than that before treatment (with t values respectively 14.014 and 10.003, P values below 0.01). (2) Before treatment, the ratios of excellent and good results according to TAM were 2/9 in patients of group RT and 3/14 in

  6. Force direction patterns promote whole body stability even in hip-flexed walking, but not upper body stability in human upright walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Roy; Rode, Christian; Aminiaghdam, Soran; Vielemeyer, Johanna; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2017-11-01

    Directing the ground reaction forces to a focal point above the centre of mass of the whole body promotes whole body stability in human and animal gaits similar to a physical pendulum. Here we show that this is the case in human hip-flexed walking as well. For all upper body orientations (upright, 25°, 50°, maximum), the focal point was well above the centre of mass of the whole body, suggesting its general relevance for walking. Deviations of the forces' lines of action from the focal point increased with upper body inclination from 25 to 43 mm root mean square deviation (RMSD). With respect to the upper body in upright gait, the resulting force also passed near a focal point (17 mm RMSD between the net forces' lines of action and focal point), but this point was 18 cm below its centre of mass. While this behaviour mimics an unstable inverted pendulum, it leads to resulting torques of alternating sign in accordance with periodic upper body motion and probably provides for low metabolic cost of upright gait by keeping hip torques small. Stabilization of the upper body is a consequence of other mechanisms, e.g. hip reflexes or muscle preflexes.

  7. A Micro-computed Tomography Evaluation of the Shaping Ability of Two Nickel-titanium Instruments, HyFlex EDM and ProTaper Next.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venino, Pier Matteo; Citterio, Claudio Luigi; Pellegatta, Alberto; Ciccarelli, Marta; Maddalone, Marcello

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare, by means of micro-computed tomography imaging, the shaping ability of ProTaper Next (PTN) and the novel HyFlex EDM (HFEDM) instruments. Forty teeth were randomly divided into 2 groups and prepared with PTN or HFEDM. Root canal transportation and centering ratio were evaluated in mesiodistal and buccolingual directions at 5 levels (at the midpoint of the apical, middle, and coronal thirds and at the boundaries between them). Variations in volume, surface, and cross-sectional shape were measured for the apical, middle, and coronal thirds. The null hypotheses were that no differences existed between the 2 groups. The D'Agostino-Pearson test (α = .05) was conducted to assess the normality of the data sets. The distributions were compared by using the Mann-Whitney test (α = .05). Statistically significant differences (P < .005) were recorded only for buccolingual canal transportation and centering ratio at the section between the middle and coronal thirds, where HFEDM files were superior. HFEDM and PTN files were similarly effective, and both safely prepared the root canals, respecting their original anatomies. HFEDM files performed better in terms of buccolingual canal transportation and centering ratio at the section between the middle and coronal thirds. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Apically Extruded Debris during Root Canal Instrumentation with Reciproc Blue, HyFlex EDM, and XP-endo Shaper Nickel-titanium Files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslu, Gülşah; Özyürek, Taha; Yılmaz, Koray; Gündoğar, Mustafa; Plotino, Gianluca

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the amount of apically extruded debris by Reciproc Blue (REC Blue; VDW, Munich, Germany), HyFlex EDM (HEDM; Coltene/Whaledent, Altstätten, Switzerland), and XP-endo Shaper (XPS; FKG Dentaire SA, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland) files during root canal preparation at body temperature. Sixty extracted single-rooted mandibular premolar human teeth were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 20). The canals were instrumented using 1 of the following instruments: REC Blue, HEDM, or XPS. Apically extruded debris during instrumentation was collected into preweighed Eppendorf tubes. All the procedures were performed at 35°C. The amount of extruded debris was calculated by subtracting the weight value of the tooth-free apparatus from the postpreparation weight value. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test at a 5% significance level. All the instruments tested caused extrusion of some debris from the apical foramen. XPS extruded significantly less debris from the apex than REC Blue (P  .05). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, the amount of apically extruded debris registered for the different files tested was REC Blue > HEDM > XPS, with a statistical difference only between XPS and REC Blue. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Double-barrel Y-configuration stenting for flow diversion of a giant recurrent basilar apex aneurysm with the pipeline flex embolization device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant basilar apex aneurysms are extremely challenging to successfully manage. The Pipeline Flex embolization device (PFED is a new generation flow-diverting stent with a modified delivery system which allows resheathing of the stent after partial deployment. We describe a case of double-barrel Y-configuration stenting of a giant, recurrent basilar apex aneurysm using the PFED. A 73-year-old male was previously treated for an unruptured 11-mm basilar apex aneurysm with stent-assisted coiling using a Neuroform stent. The aneurysm was retreated twice with repeat coiling. After the third recurrence and persistent aneurysm growth into a giant, symptomatic lesion, we decided to proceed with flow diversion. We performed Y-stenting of the basilar bifurcation using three PFEDs, and was recoiled the aneurysm sac. Due to the low porosity of the flow diverters, a side-by-side double-barrel configuration was necessary in the basilar artery. Without the PFED's resheathable capability, it would not have been possible to perform Y-stenting with flow diverters.

  10. Flow-diverting stent-assisted coil embolization of a ruptured internal carotid artery blister aneurysm with the pipeline flex embolization device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal carotid artery (ICA blister aneurysms are rare and challenging to successfully treat, using contemporary surgical or endovascular approaches, without partial or complete compromise of the parent vessel. We describe the use of a resheathable flow diverter, the Pipeline Flex Embolization Device (PFED to perform stent-assisted coiling of a ruptured supraclinoid ICA blister aneurysm in a 56-year-old female who presented with a high-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. The first PFED was deployed across the aneurysm neck to jail a microcatheter within the aneurysm dome, and then, two small coils were delivered into the aneurysm. After removing the coiling microcatheter, the second PFED was telescoped into the first PFED. There were no postprocedural complications, and follow-up magnetic resonance angiography 15 months after embolization showed complete aneurysm obliteration. Flow-diverting stent-assisted coiling should be considered as a reconstructive, vessel-preserving, endovascular treatment option for appropriately selected patients with ruptured ICA blister aneurysms. However, future studies are necessary to assess the periprocedural safety in the setting of acute SAH.

  11. Endoscopic submucosal dissection with a combination of small-caliber-tip transparent hood and flex knife is a safe and effective treatment for superficial esophageal neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Naoki; Horiki, Noriyuki; Itoh, Toshiyuki; Uemura, Masayo; Maruyama, Masataka; Suzuki, Shoko; Uchida, Shino; Izuka, Yusuke; Fukuda, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Yoshiyuki

    2010-02-01

    Superficial esophageal neoplasias resected in piecemeal manner with endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) sometimes recur locally, and additional treatments need to be developed. Efficacy and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for esophageal neoplasias are not sufficiently demonstrated, so we conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ESD for superficial esophageal neoplasias. Thirty-seven superficial esophageal neoplasias consisted of 34 squamous cell neoplasias and 3 columnar neoplasias in 35 patients were treated with ESD from May 2006 to July 2008. Patients were regularly followed up with endoscopy every 6 months, and with echoendoscope and computed tomography every year. Therapeutic efficacy, complications, and follow-up results were evaluated. The mean size of the resected neoplasias and that of the resected specimens were 22 mm (range 10-83 mm) and 41 mm (range 18-90 mm), respectively. The mean duration of the ESD procedures was 117 min (range 40-235 min). The overall rates of en bloc resection and of free margin resection were 100% (37/37) and 95% (35/37), respectively. The mean follow-up period of 19 months (range 7-32 months) revealed no local or distant recurrence. There were no complications such as bleeding or perforation in any case. In all nine cases, the strictures were successfully managed with prophylactic endoscopic balloon dilation. ESD with a combination of small-caliber-tip transparent hood and flex knife is a safe endoscopic treatment for superficial esophageal neoplasias and enables large en bloc resection.

  12. Preliminary Evaluation of Clinical and Angiographic Outcomes with Biodegradable Polymer Coated Sirolimus-Eluting Stent in De Novo Coronary Artery Disease: Results of the MANIPAL-FLEX Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Shetty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of the MANIPAL-FLEX study was to evaluate the feasibility, preliminary safety, and efficacy of the Supraflex sirolimus-eluting stent (SES implantation, in de novo coronary artery disease, using clinical and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA follow-ups. Methods. This was a prospective, nonrandomized, multicenter, single-arm study that enrolled 189 patients with de novo coronary artery disease who were treated with the Supraflex SES. Of 189 patients enrolled, the first 61 consecutive patients who consented to a 9-month follow-up evaluation by QCA, irrespective of presence of symptoms, were to be followed up with angiography at 9 months. The primary endpoint of the study was target lesion failure (TLF, including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and target lesion revascularization during 12-month follow-up after the index procedure. Results. The mean age of the study population was 58±11 years, with 51.3% (97/189 of hypertensive patients. Total of 66 lesions, analyzed by offline QCA, showed good scaffolding of the target vessel with in-stent late lumen loss at 9 months of 0.18±0.23 mm. The observed TLF at 30-day, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up were 2 (1.1%, 6 (3.2%, and 10 (5.3%, respectively. Conclusion. This study provides preliminary evidence for the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of the Supraflex sirolimus-eluting stent.

  13. Evaluation of the first 100 consecutive PhacoFlex silicone lenses implanted in the bag through a self-sealing tunnel incision using the Prodigy inserter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menapace, R; Amon, M; Papapanos, P; Radax, U

    1994-05-01

    We evaluated the performance of the PhacoFlex silicone lens with open polypropylene loops and the disposable Prodigy inserter in a series of 100 consecutive no-stitch cases. Loading the lens into the PRO-1A inserter model was easy, as was inserting it through a 4 x 4 mm self-sealing sclerocorneal tunnel incision. If the chamber was deep and the capsular fornix expanded, unfolding the polypropylene loops was safe and direct bag placement was always possible. If the capsular bag was insufficiently distended, however, the posterior loop tended to entangle with wrinkles in the posterior capsule, jeopardizing the capsule's integrity. With a round and well-centered 4 mm to 5 mm capsulorhexis, centration was good provided the lens was completely within the bag. Even with proper bag placement of the haptics, however, the optic occasionally decentered slightly and tilted because of secondary capture in the capsulorhexis opening. With an incomplete capsulorhexis or a jagged-edged capsulotomy, malpositioning was not uncommon. This was due to secondary displacement of one haptic into the sulcus or partial capture of the optic by the anterior capsule leaf. Because of the flexibility of the polypropylene loops, the lenses tended to decenter and tilt following capsular shrinkage.

  14. Production, measurement and simulation of a low mass flex cable for multi gigabit/s readout for the LHCb VELO upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos Cid, E.; Buytaert, J.; Gallas Torreira, A. A.; Esperante Pereira, D.; Ronning, P. Arne; Visniakov, J.; Sanchez, M. G.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this project is to examine the feasibility of data transmission up to ~ 5 Gbit/s on a short ( ~ 60 cm) low mass flex cable, for the readout of the upgraded vertex detector (VELO) of the LHCb experiment. They will be in a vacuum and very high radiation environment and also partly in the particle acceptance. For the full system 1600 readout links will be required. A set of single-ended and differential (edge-coupled) striplines, with a variety of line parameters have been prototyped using a material specifically tailored for this type of application (Dupont Pyralux AP-plus polyimide). To reduce mass, the total thickness of the cable is kept to 0.7 mm. We will present measurements of the characteristic impedance, insertion and return loss, obtained both from time and frequency domain, as well as a comparison with simulations and expectations. Also the effectiveness of grounded guard traces and the use of ground via holes to reduce crosstalk will be reported. From the measurements we were also able to extract the material properties such as the dielectric constant and loss factor up to several GHz. The measurements were done with a Vector Network Analyzer (VNA), TDR/TDT Digital Sampling Oscilloscope, serial PRBS generator and analyzer for eye diagram and CAD tools such as Agilent ADS and ANSYS HFSS simulators.

  15. SU-E-T-115: Dose Perturbation Study of Self-Expandable Metal and Polyester Esophageal Stents in Proton Therapy Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Li, Z [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Jalaj, S; McGaw, C; B K, John; J S, Scolapio; J C, Munoz [Division of Gastoenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Florida, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This work investigates dose perturbations due to Self-expandable metal and polyester esophageal stents undergoing proton radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. Methods: Five commercially available esophageal stents made of nitinol (Evolution, Wallflex and Ultraflex), stainless steel (Z-Stent) and polyester (Polyflex) were tested. Radiochromic film (GafChromic EBT3 film, Ashland, Covington, KY) wrapped around a stent and a 12cc syringe was irradiated with 2CGE (Cobalt Gray Equivalent) of proton beam in a custom fabricated acrylic phantom. An air-hollow syringe simulates the esophagus. Results: The Z-stent created the largest dose perturbations ranges from -14.5% to 6.1% due to the steel composition. The WallFlex, Evolution and Ultraflex stents produced the dose perturbation ranges of (−9.2%∼8.6%), (−6.8%∼5.7%) and (−6.2%∼6.2%), respectively. The PolyFlex stent contains the radiopaque tungsten markers located top, middle and bottom portions. When the focal cold spots induced by the markers were excluded in the analysis, the dose perturbation range was changed from (−11.6%∼6.4%) to (−0.6%∼5.0%). Conclusion: The magnitude of dose perturbation is related to material of a metallic stent. The non-metallic stent such as PolyFlex shows relatively lower dose perturbation than metallic stents except a radiopaque marker region. Overall Evolution and Ultraflex stent appear to be less dose perturbations. The largest dose perturbations (cold spots) were located at both edges of stents in distal area for the single proton beam irradiation study. The analysis of more than two proton beam which is more typical clinical beam arrangement would be necessary to minimize the doe perturbation effect in proton ratiotherapy.

  16. Graphene as a flexible template for controlling magnetic interactions between metal atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungwoo; Kim, Dongwook; Robertson, Alex W; Yoon, Euijoon; Hong, Suklyun; Ihm, Jisoon; Yu, Jaejun; Warner, Jamie H; Lee, Gun-Do

    2017-03-01

    Metal-doped graphene produces magnetic moments that have potential application in spintronics. Here we use density function theory computational methods to show how the magnetic interaction between metal atoms doped in graphene can be controlled by the degree of flexure in a graphene membrane. Bending graphene by flexing causes the distance between two substitutional Fe atoms covalently bonded in graphene to gradually increase and these results in the magnetic moment disappearing at a critical strain value. At the critical strain, a carbon atom can enter between the two Fe atoms and blocks the interaction between relevant orbitals of Fe atoms to quench the magnetic moment. The control of interactions between doped atoms by exploiting the mechanical flexibility of graphene is a unique approach to manipulating the magnetic properties and opens up new opportunities for mechanical-magnetic 2D device systems.

  17. Shaping Ability of Reciproc, WaveOne GOLD, and HyFlex EDM Single-file Systems in Simulated S-shaped Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyürek, Taha; Yılmaz, Koray; Uslu, Gülşah

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the shaping ability of Reciproc (RPC; VDW, Munich, Germany), HyFlex EDM (HEDM; Coltene/Whaledent AG, Altstätten, Switzerland), and WaveOne GOLD (WOG; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) nickel-titanium (NiTi) files made of different NiTi alloys in S-shaped simulated canals. Sixty S-shaped canals in resin blocks were prepared to an apical size of 0.25 mm using RPC R25, WOG Primary, and HEDM OneFile (n = 20 canal/per group) systems. Composite images were made from the superimposition of pre- and postinstrumentation images. The amount of resin removed by each system was measured using a digital template and image analysis software in 22 different points. Canal aberrations were also recorded. Data were statistically analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc Dunn tests at the 5% level. NiTi file fracture was not observed during shaping of the simulated canals although a danger zone formation in 1 sample and a ledge in 1 sample were observed in the RPC group. There was no statistically significant difference between the WOG and HEDM groups' apical, medial, and coronal regions (P > .05). However, it was determined that the RPC group removed a statistically significantly higher amount of resin from all the canal regions when compared with the WOG and HEDM groups (P < .05). Within the limitation of the present study, it was determined that all of the tested NiTi files caused various levels of resin removal. However, WOG and HEDM NiTi files were found to cause a lower level of resin removal than RPC NiTi files. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. All rights reserved.

  18. metal alkoxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    substituent effects in the head-to-tail double insertion reactions observed ... an internal standard. The yield of diphenyl carbodii- mide was further verified by isolating it as diphenyl urea after hydrolysis. The organic fraction obtained in the catalytic metathesis .... insertion of PhNCO into metal alkoxide 1a to generate. Table 1.

  19. Metallic glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Arjen Sybren

    1981-01-01

    It is shown in section 7.1. that the influence of topological disorder on the range of magnetic interactions in ferromagnetic transition metal-metalloid (TM-M) glasses, is much less than often assumed. This is demonstrated via a study of the temperature dependence of the average iron hyperfine field

  20. Potência muscular máxima na flexão do cotovelo uni e bilateral Maximal muscle power in unilateral and bilateral elbow flexion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Simão

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTAÇÃO: Exercícios de fortalecimento muscular podem ser realizados de forma uni e bilateral, contudo, pouco é sabido sobre a potência muscular (PM e a carga máxima (CM nessas condições. OBJETIVO: Comparar a PM e a CM na flexão do cotovelo entre os dois braços e entre a soma (das ações unilaterais e os resultados obtidos pela execução simultânea do gesto motor. Desses dois resultados com aquele obtido simultaneamente pelos dois braços. METODOLOGIA: Submetemos 24 adultos jovens (14 homens (PAR-Q negativo e inexperientes no exercício de flexão de cotovelo ao teste de 1 RM - duas repetições em velocidade máxima na fase concêntrica com 3s de intervalo para cada carga -, com medida da potência (Fitrodyne, Bratislava, em cada braço e nos dois simultaneamente, em ordem randômica, para determinar a PM e a CM. METODOLOGIA: 24 adultos jovens (14 homens (PAR-Q negativo foram submetidos ao teste de 1-RM (exercício flexão de cotovelo com o objetivo de avaliarmos a PM e CM, todos sem experiência prévia no exercício proposto. O protocolo consistia de duas tentativas, com intervalo de 3s entre as mesmas, quando o avaliado procurava imprimir o máximo de velocidade possível na fase concêntrica do movimento, utilizando ações unilaterais e bilaterais definidas randomicamente. Utilizou-se para medir a potência em cada braço e nos dois simultaneamente o Fitrodyne (Bratislava. RESULTADOS: Os resultados para braço esquerdo e direito na CM - 29,3 ± 2,8 e 29,7 ± 2,9kg - e na PM - 106 ± 14 e 109 ± 12W - foram similares (p > 0,05 e fortemente associados (p > 0,94. Comparando a soma dos valores unilaterais com os da execução bilateral, a CM era 5% maior (p = 0,02 e a PM 5% menor (p = 0,053. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de todos serem destros, não houve diferenças unilaterais em CM e PM, provavelmente devido à inexperiência nesse exercício (fatores neurais. A soma dos resultados unilaterais difere em 5% daquele obtido

  1. Corrosion of valve metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draley, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    A general survey related to the corrosion of valve metals or film-forming metals. The way these metals corrode with some general examples is described. Valve metals form relatively perfect oxide films with little breakdown or leakage when anodized

  2. Fertigação em mudas de citros utilizando-se mangueiras e microtubos sob regime de escoamento turbulento Fertigation on citrus seedlings using hoses and microtubes under turbulent flow regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderley J. Souza

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A irrigação localizada utilizando-se microtubo como emissor operando em regime de escoamento turbulento, pode ser uma alternativa viável, tanto técnica como economicamente para a produção de mudas de citros. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o desempenho de um sistema de fertigação na produção de mudas de laranja em viveiro projetado pelo modelo matemático universal, utilizando-se microtubos como emissores, sob regime de escoamento turbulento e comparar o desenvolvimento das plantas fertigadas por microtubos com o sistema em que se utiliza o método tradicional com mangueiras. No dimensionamento do comprimento dos emissores considerou-se o coeficiente K de dissipação de energia localizada através de um microtubo com diâmetro interno de 0,761 mm. O sistema de fertigação apresentou bom desempenho, com valores de grau de entupimento, uniformidade de Christiansen e uniformidade de emissão iguais a 0,50; 99,95 e 98,21%, respectivamente, após 160 dias de estudo. As plantas cultivadas via fertigação com microtubos e mangueiras, não apresentaram diferenças no que se refere ao diâmetro do caule e à altura. Desta forma, o uso de microtubo sob escoamento turbulento apresentou viabilidade técnica para fertigação.The use of localized irrigation using microtube as emitter under turbulent flow regime can be a technically feasible alternative. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a fertigation system in nursery of citrus plants (greenhouse projected by universal mathematical model, using the microtubes as emitters, under turbulent flow rate and to compare the development of the fertigated plants by microtubes to the system that use the traditional method with hoses. In the size of the length of the emitters was considered the K coefficient of localized energy dissipation using a microtube with internal diameter of 0,761 mm. The fertigation system presented great performance with clogging degree

  3. Metal phosphides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehlls, A.

    1987-01-01

    The structure of phosphides of the most of elements: alkali, alkaline earth, rare earth, transition metals, actinides, indium, beryllium, cadmium forming the variety of formulae and types of structures, is considered. The ways of P atom combination in phosphides vary from single atoms (ions P 3- in compounds of electropositive elements) through one-, two-dimensional complexes P n up to three-dimensional (charged) grids. In all phosphides, containing the systems of bound atoms of phosphorus, certain or all from these atoms form less than three bonds P-P. The formation of one bond P-P by every atom leads to group P 2 found as P 2 4- ion in diphosphides of transition metals with the structure of the pyrite or marcasite type (RuP 2 ). LaP, SmP, ThP, UP, ZrP form structural type NaCl

  4. LHC Olympics flex physicists' brains

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Physicists from around the world met at CERN to strengthen their data-deciphering skills at the second LHC Olympics workshop. Physicists gather for the second LHC Olympics workshop. Coinciding with the kick-off of the winter Olympics in Turin, more than 70 physicists gathered at CERN from across the globe for the second LHC Olympics workshop on 9-10 February. Their challenge, however, involved brains rather than brawn. As the switch-on date for the LHC draws near, scientists excited by the project want to test and improve their ability to decipher the unprecedented amount of data that the world's biggest and most powerful particle accelerator is expected to generate. The LHC Olympics is a coordinated effort to do just that, minus the gold, silver and bronze of the athletics competition. 'In some ways, the LHC is not a precision instrument. It gives you the information that something is there but it's hard to untangle and interpret what it is,' said University of Michigan physicist Gordy Kane, who organiz...

  5. Power marketers flex at FERC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, W.L.; Burkhart, L.A.

    1995-02-01

    Electric utilities beware. Power marketers are not only here to stay, but their ranks are growing. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) logged approximately 81 applications in 1994, compared to nine in 1993. About half have been acted on already. The fledgling industry is also staking out its regulatory territory. Notably, on December 14, the FERC ordered the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) to provide nonfirm transmission service to AES Power Inc. of Atlanta, GA, a power marketing subsidiary of AES Corp.-to accommodate AES Power`s current and future bulk-power marketing transactions (Docket No. TX94-7-000). This marks the first time the FERC has granted a power marketer`s request to require wheeling from a federal power agency. As a power marketer, AES Power takes title to electric power that it purchases and sells for resale, thus qualifying as a public utility under the Federal Power Act. In its filing, AES Power sought nonfirm, point-to-point transmission service under an umbrella agreement that would establish the rates, terms, and conditions under which AES could request specific transactions without applying under section 211 each time. AES Power also sought assurances that it would not be charged more than other parties, including TVA itself, for comparable service. The power marketer agreed to be subject to a postage-stamp ceiling rate that gives TVA the flexibility to quote any rate up to the ceiling.

  6. Cyclic fatigue resistance of R-Pilot, HyFlex EDM and PathFile nickel-titanium glide path files in artificial canals with double (S-shaped) curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslu, G; Özyürek, T; Yılmaz, K; Gündoğar, M

    2018-05-01

    To examine the cyclic fatigue resistances of R-Pilot, HyFlex EDM and PathFile NiTi glide path files in S-shaped artificial canals. Twenty R-Pilot (12.5/.04), 20 HyFlex EDM (10/.05) and 20 PathFile (19/.02) single-file glide path files were included. Sixty files (n: 20/each) were subjected to static cyclic fatigue testing using double-curved canals until fracture occurred (TF). The number of cycles to fracture (NCF) was calculated by multiplying the rpm value by the TF. The length of the fractured fragment (FL) was determined by a digital microcaliper. Six samples of fractured files (n: 2/each) were examined by SEM to determine the fracture mode. The NCF and the FL data were analysed using one-way anova, post hoc Tamhane and Kruskal-Wallis tests using SPPS 21 software. The significance level was set at 5%. In the double-curved canal, all the files fractured first in the apical curvature and then in the coronal curvature. The NCF values revealed that the R-Pilot had the greatest cyclic fatigue resistance, followed by the HyFlex EDM and PathFile in both the apical and coronal curvatures (P < 0.05). R-Pilot NiTi glide path files, used in a reciprocating motion, had the greatest cyclic fatigue resistance amongst the tested NiTi glide path files in an artificial S-shaped canal. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Avaliação das propriedades físicas de dois materiais flexíveis de produção nacional para uso em prótese facial

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Pablo Herrera Tinajero

    2011-01-01

    Para confeccionar próteses faciais e reabilitar aqueles pacientes com perdas anatômicas, são empregados diversos materiais, destacando-se entre estes os flexíveis,devido á semelhança estética que apresentam com a pele humana. O padrão de qualidade dos materiais é liderado por produtos estrangeiros, tornando difícil a obtenção e, por tanto, a aplicação dos mesmos em território nacional. Devido à necessidade de se ter materiais nacionais com qualidade semelhante aos importados, este trabalho me...

  8. Glassy metals

    CERN Document Server

    Russew, Krassimir

    2016-01-01

    The topics discussed in this book focus on fundamental problems concerning the structural relaxation of amorphous metallic alloys, above all the possibility of studying it on the basis of viscous flow behavior and its relation to rheological anomalies, such as bend stress relaxation, thermal expansion, specific heat, density changes, and crystallization. Most relaxation studies deal with the relaxation changes of a single definite material property, and not with a wider spectrum of physical properties integrated into a common framework. This book shows that it is possible to describe these property changes on the basis of a more comprehensive theoretical understanding of their mechanism.

  9. Mechanochemical processing for metals and metal alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froes, Francis H.; Eranezhuth, Baburaj G.; Prisbrey, Keith

    2001-01-01

    A set of processes for preparing metal powders, including metal alloy powders, by ambient temperature reduction of a reducible metal compound by a reactive metal or metal hydride through mechanochemical processing. The reduction process includes milling reactants to induce and complete the reduction reaction. The preferred reducing agents include magnesium and calcium hydride powders. A process of pre-milling magnesium as a reducing agent to increase the activity of the magnesium has been established as one part of the invention.

  10. Ankle movements during normal gait evaluated by flexible electrogoniometer Movimentos do tornozelo durante a marcha normal avaliados por eletrogoniometria flexível

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CS Moriguchi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate ankle movements of healthy individuals walking on a treadmill, by means of a flexible electrogoniometer. METHOD: Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion and eversion/inversion movements were recorded for 90 seconds at a velocity of 5.0 km/h. Ten healthy young men of mean age 21.4 ± 2.99 years and mean height 1.62 ± 0.22 meters took part in this study. The data were analyzed descriptively (mean, standard deviation, maximum and minimum. In the sagittal plane, the gait cycle was analyzed at three times, taking the movement peaks: foot flat (FF, midstance (M and toe off (TO. The inversion and eversion angles corresponding to these phases were identified, as well as movement peaks during gait cycles. Inter and intra-subject coefficients of variability (CV were calculated. RESULTS: The mean values for the sagittal plane, for the left and right ankles were, respectively: 7º and 4º at FF, 2º and 7º at M, and 24º and 19º at TO. For the frontal plane, the results were inversion of 5º and 3º FF, 4º and 5º at M, and 15º and 16º at TO. The peak values were inversion of 17º and 18º and eversion of 1º. The maximum intra-subject CV was 0.39, and the maximum inter-subject CV was 0.44. CONCLUSION: The results obtained from the electrogoniometer were relatively similar to data reported in the literature for the sagittal plane, but not for the frontal plane. The discrepancies between studies measuring ankle movements suggest the need for standardization of the recording procedures.OBJETIVO: Avaliar os movimentos do tornozelo de indivíduos saudáveis durante a marcha em esteira por eletrogoniometria flexível. MÉTODO: Os movimentos de dorsiflexão/flexão plantar e inversão/eversão foram registrados durante 90 segundos na velocidade de 5,0 km/h. Dez jovens saudáveis do gênero masculino, com idade média de 21,4 ± 2,99 anos, altura média de 1,62 ± 0,22 metros participaram do estudo. Os dados foram analisados descritivamente

  11. Metal filled porous carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Adam F [Los Angeles, CA; Vajo, John J [West Hills, CA; Cumberland, Robert W [Malibu, CA; Liu, Ping [Irvine, CA; Salguero, Tina T [Encino, CA

    2011-03-22

    A porous carbon scaffold with a surface and pores, the porous carbon scaffold containing a primary metal and a secondary metal, where the primary metal is a metal that does not wet the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold but wets the surface of the secondary metal, and the secondary metal is interspersed between the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold and the primary metal.

  12. Neurotoxicity of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caito, Samuel; Aschner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Metals are frequently used in industry and represent a major source of toxin exposure for workers. For this reason governmental agencies regulate the amount of metal exposure permissible for worker safety. While essential metals serve physiologic roles, metals pose significant health risks upon acute and chronic exposure to high levels. The central nervous system is particularly vulnerable to metals. The brain readily accumulates metals, which under physiologic conditions are incorporated into essential metalloproteins required for neuronal health and energy homeostasis. Severe consequences can arise from circumstances of excess essential metals or exposure to toxic nonessential metal. Herein, we discuss sources of occupational metal exposure, metal homeostasis in the human body, susceptibility of the nervous system to metals, detoxification, detection of metals in biologic samples, and chelation therapeutic strategies. The neurologic pathology and physiology following aluminum, arsenic, lead, manganese, mercury, and trimethyltin exposures are highlighted as classic examples of metal-induced neurotoxicity. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Desenvolvimento de uma ferramenta didática para o estudo da flexão composta oblíqua em seções quaisquer de concreto armado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. H. C. De Lyra

    Full Text Available Tendo em vista a experiência de professores e pesquisadores do Brasil e do exterior no contexto da busca de novos e melhores métodos didáticos para ensino de Engenharia, constata-se que o uso de recursos multimídia interativa constitui uma abordagem promissora, com amplas possibilidades de aplicação em disciplinas de graduação. Nesse contexto, o presente trabalho trata do desenvolvimento de uma ferramenta multimídia de apoio ao ensino da flexão composta oblíqua no concreto armado, apresentando as suas funcionalidades, a estrutura do código e exemplos de aplicação. Para a construção da ferramenta, o applet “Verificação de seções quaisquer de concreto armado sob flexão composta oblíqua”, foi utilizada a linguagem de programação JavaTM e o ambiente de desenvolvimento NetBeans 5.5.1. O applet tratado neste artigo está disponível na Internet no endereço http://www.lmc.ep.usp.br/pesquisas/TecEdu/.

  14. Fundação de assistência integral à saúde/Hospital Sofia Feldman: uma experiência de administração flexível?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Alves

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo traçar um paralelo entre a experiência administrativa do Hospital Sofia Feldman e a teoria de gerência flexível proposta por MOTTA (1991 e MÉDICI & SILVA (1993. Descreve, também, elementos inovadores de integração da instituição com a comunidade: mãe substituta, ombudsman e trabalho voluntário sistematizado da Associação Comunitária dos Amigos e Usuários do Hospital Sofia Feldman. A coleta de dados foi feita através de roteiro de entrevista semi-estruturada, aplicado a funcionários de diferentes setores, procurando conhecer a percepção dos mesmos sobre o modelo gerencial adotado. Os depoimentos apontaram características de administração flexível no hospital, porém, permeada de traços da gerência clássica.

  15. The Sounds of Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    Two, I propose that this framework allows for at least a theoretical distinction between the way in which extreme metal – e.g. black metal, doom metal, funeral doom metal, death metal – relates to its sound as music and the way in which much other music may be conceived of as being constituted...

  16. Influence of breathing exercises using method of Body Flex by Greer Childers on to the selected somatic traits of women with overweight and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Radziejowska

    2014-03-01

    BMI index, weight, circumference of waist, hips, circumferences: UI, UII, GI, GII and RI. Results: In the tested group, BMI of the subgroup of women with obesity before the exercises having been applied, amounted to 34.50+-3.48 on the average, after 1 month 34.07+- 3.18 kg/m , after 2 months 31.80+-6.93 kg/m ; BMI of the subgroup of women with overweight before the exercises having been applied, amounted to 27.67+-1.26 kg/m , after 1 month 27.46+-1.16 kg/m , after 2 months 27.11+-3.45 kg/m ; BMI of the subgroup of women within the norm before the exercises having been applied, amounted to 23.26+-1.32 kg/m on the average, after 1 month 23.36+-1.31 kg/m , after 2 months 23.1+-. And in the control group, BMI of the subgroup of women with obesity amounted to 33.37+- (+/-0.79, after 1 month 33.10+- (+/-0.84, for the subgroup of women with overweight amounted to 28.25+- (+/-0.70, after 1 month 28.14+- (+/-0.58. Conclusions: Results obtained both in the tested group and in the control group allow stating that exercises done using the modified method Body Flex have reduced BMI values and the more substantial difference was found in the tested group.

  17. Metal polish poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metal polishes are used to clean metals, including brass, copper, or silver. This article discusses the harmful effects from swallowing metal polish. This article is for information only. DO NOT use ...

  18. Metal-phosphate binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  19. First data on the palliative treatment of patients with malignant gastric outlet obstruction using the WallFlex enteral stent: a retrospective multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooft, J.; Mutignani, M.; Repici, A.; Messmann, H.; Neuhaus, H.; Fockens, P.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Gastric outlet obstruction can occur as a late complication of a variety of cancers. Palliation of the obstructive symptoms is the primary aim of treatment in these patients. Self-expandable metal stents have emerged as a promising treatment option. The purpose of this

  20. Efficacy and safety of the new WallFlex enteral stent in palliative treatment of malignant gastric outlet obstruction (DUOFLEX study): a prospective multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooft, Jeanin E.; Uitdehaag, Madeleen J.; Bruno, Marco J.; Timmer, Robin; Siersema, Peter D.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Fockens, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Background: Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is most commonly a complication of advanced distal gastric, periampullary, or duodenal malignancy. Palliation of obstruction is the primary aim of treatment in most of these patients. Self-expandable metal stents have emerged as an effective treatment

  1. Efeito do treinamento de força com resistência elástica sobre o desempenho da flexão de quadril em bailarinas clássicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula ZUCCOLOTTO

    Full Text Available Resumo Para realização e manutenção de movimentos estéticos de grande amplitude articular, um bailarino necessita desenvolver além de flexibilidade, força muscular. Trabalhos científicos sobre o “ballet” apontam para uma lacuna com relação ao efeito de diferentes métodos de treinamento na produção de força muscular em grandes amplitudes de movimento. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos de um programa de treinamento de força com resistência elástica sobre o torque, a amplitude de movimento ativa e passiva, bem como o ângulo e o tempo de sustentação da flexão de quadril em bailarinas clássicas. Participaram deste estudo 15 bailarinas que foram divididas em dois grupos: grupo intervenção (n = 8 e grupo controle (n = 7. Durante o estudo, todas participantes mantiveram a rotina habitual de aulas de “ballet”, porém o grupo intervenção realizou um treinamento de força com resistência elástica para os flexores de quadril, o qual foi realizado duas vezes por semana, durante seis semanas. Antes e depois de seis semanas, todas participantes realizaram medidas de torque, das amplitudes ativas e passivas, bem como do ângulo e tempo de sustentação da flexão de quadril. ANOVA de um fator (grupo com medidas repetidas no tempo foi usada para identificar os efeitos da intervenção. O grupo intervenção apresentou incrementos de torque três vezes superiores ao grupo controle (grupo intervenção = 38,47% e grupo controle = 13,13%. Incrementos de 125,25% para o tempo de sustentação foram observadas somente para o grupo intervenção. Nenhum efeito foi identificado nas demais variáveis. Os achados mostram que o treinamento de força com resistência elástica gera aumentos no torque, bem como no tempo de sustentação de flexão de quadril em bailarinas clássicas.

  2. A new concept for an old instrument: flexible corneal scrapping spatula Um novo conceito para um antigo instrumento: espátula corneana flexível

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acacio Lima Filho

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new methods to produce an instrument to scrap the cornea. It is made from either a fine needle or a cannula. The material is flattened by means of a laminator or a hammer and a flat metal surface. A sandpaper is used to rough the front end and round it. The tip is slightly bent and the device is submitted to ethylene oxide for sterilization. A handle may be used to hold the instrument, which may be reusable, after washing and sterilization using local heat at the tip, or gas.Os autores descrevem um novo método para produzir um instrumento para colheita de material de córnea. Tal instrumento pode ser manufaturado com uma cânula ou agulha fina. O material é moldado de forma plana com o auxílio de um laminador, ou de um martelo e placa de metal. Lixa fina é utilizada para arredondar as bordas e a ponta é ligeiramente dobrada. Um cabo pode ser adicionado de modo a facilitar a manipulação do instrumento, que pode ser reutilizado após lavagem e esterilização local na ponta do metal, ou por óxido de etileno.

  3. Heavy metal jako subkultura

    OpenAIRE

    KOUTNÁ, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with heavy metal subculture. Its aim is to introduce the most important branches and to show broadness of heavy metal. This bachelor thesis describes development and history, briefly shows Czech heavy metal history alongside with the biggest and most popular Czech heavy metal festivals. It shows the most dressing concerns of society against this style.

  4. A comprehensive set of transcript sequences of the heavy metal hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YA-FEN eLIN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Noccaea caerulescens is an extremophile plant species belonging to the Brassicaceae family. It has adapted to grow on soils containing high, normally toxic, concentrations of metals such as nickel, zinc and cadmium. Next to being extremely tolerant to these metals, it is one of the few species known to hyperaccumulate these metals to extremely high concentrations in their aboveground biomass. In order to provide additional molecular resources for this model metal hyperaccumulator species to study and understand the mechanism of heavy metal exposure adaptation, we aimed to provide a comprehensive database of transcript sequences for N. caerulescens. In this study, 23830 transcript sequences (isotigs with an average length of 1025 bps were determined for roots, shoots and inflorescences of N. caerulescens accession ‘Ganges’ by Roche GS-FLEX 454 pyrosequencing. These isotigs were grouped into 20,378 isogroups, representing potential genes. This is a large expansion of the existing N. caerulescens transcriptome set consisting of 3705 unigenes. When compared to a Brassicaceae proteome set, 22,232 (93.2% of the N. caerulescens isotigs (corresponding to 19191 isogroups had a significant match and could be annotated accordingly. Of the remaining sequences, 98 isotigs resembled non-plant sequences and 1386 had no significant similarity to any sequence in the GenBank database. Among the annotated set there were many isotigs with similarity to metal homeostasis genes or genes for glucosinolate biosynthesis. Only for transcripts similar to Metallothionein3 (MT3, clear evidence for an additional copy was found. This comprehensive set of transcripts is expected to further contribute to the discovery of mechanisms used by N. caerulescens to adapt to heavy metal exposure.

  5. Metals and metal derivatives in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colotti, Gianni; Ilari, Andrea; Boffi, Alberto; Morea, Veronica

    2013-02-01

    Several chemical elements are required by living organisms in addition to the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen usually present in common organic molecules. Many metals (e.g. sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, chromium, molybdenum and selenium) are known to be required for normal biological functions in humans. Disorders of metal homeostasis and of metal bioavailability, or toxicity caused by metal excess, are responsible for a large number of human diseases. Metals are also extensively used in medicine as therapeutic and/or diagnostic agents. In the past 5000 years, metals such as arsenic, gold and iron have been used to treat a variety of human diseases. Nowadays, an ever-increasing number of metal-based drugs is available. These contain a broad spectrum of metals, many of which are not among those essential for humans, able to target proteins and/or DNA. This mini-review describes metal-containing compounds targeting DNA or proteins currently in use, or designed to be used, as therapeutics against cancer, arthritis, parasitic and other diseases, with a special focus on the available information, often provided by X-ray studies, about their mechanism of action at a molecular level. In addition, an overview of metal complexes used for diagnosing diseases is presented.

  6. Sentidos atribuídos ao trabalho pelos trabalhadores da indústria automobilística no contexto da produção flexível: um estudo comparativo Brasil e Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Nepomuceno, Luciana Holanda

    2017-01-01

    Tese de Sociologoa Económica e das Organizações A tese discute o trabalho e as relações de trabalho em sua inscrição histórico-cultural,buscando compreender os sentidos conferidos a ele no contexto do capitalismo em sua fase flexível, partirda ótica de quem o realiza. Partiu-se do entendimento de que a indústria automobilística se caracteriza como pioneira na organização da produção industrial conduzindo a novas formas de divisão, organização e relações de trabalho. Assim, delimitou-se ...

  7. Evaluation of biaxial flexural strength and modulus of filled and unfilled adhesive systems = Avaliação da resistência flexural biaxial e módulo de flexão de sistemas adesivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberti, Michele Santana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a resistência flexural e o módulo de flexão de dois sistemas adesivos, através de ensaio de resistência flexural biaxial. Metodologia: Os adesivos (Pentron Clinical Technologies estudados foram: Bond 1 (B1 e NanoBond (NB. Treze discos de cada adesivo foram preparados com dimensões aproximadas de 6,1 mm de diâmetro e 0,6 mm de espessura. Os discos de adesivos foram confeccionados utilizando-se moldes de teflon e fotopolimerizados com aparelho XL 3000 (3M ESPE. Após armazenamento por 10 dias, os discos foram testados em máquina universal de ensaio (Instron 5844, com velocidade de 1,27 mm/min. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância (1 fator ao nível de significância de 0,05. Resultados: Os valores médios (±DP de resistência flexural para os adesivos foram (em MPa: B1- 89,7±7,6 e NB- 131,1±9,5. Os valores médios de módulo flexural (±DP foram (em MPa: B1- 1999,9±258,4 e NB- 2314,5±271,0. Conclusão: O adesivo contendo partículas de carga (NB mostrou maiores valores de resistência flexural e módulo de flexão que o adesivo B1

  8. Recycling of Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Metals like iron and aluminium are produced from mineral ore and used for a range of products, some of which have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of municipal waste. Packaging in terms of cans, foils and containers are products with a short lifetime. Other products like...... appliances, vehicles and buildings, containing iron and aluminium metals, have long lifetimes before they end up in the waste stream. The recycling of production waste and postconsumer metals has a long history in the metal industry. Some metal smelters are today entirely based on scarp metals. This chapter...... describes briefly how iron and aluminium are produced and how scrap metal is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of metal recycling. Copper and other metals are also found in waste but in much smaller...

  9. Avaliação in vitro da resistência à flexão de um protótipo de mini-implante desenvolvido para ancoragem do aparelho de Herbst In vitro flexural strength evaluation of a mini-implant prototype designed for Herbst appliance anchorage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Barretto-Lopes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o propósito do presente estudo é avaliar o limite de resistência à flexão de um protótipo de mini-implante desenvolvido para ancoragem do aparelho de Herbst. MÉTODOS: após a realização de um cálculo do tamanho da amostra, quatro corpos de prova contendo os protótipos de mini-implantes foram submetidos a uma força de flexão por engastamento simples, utilizando-se uma máquina universal de ensaios mecânicos, sendo calculado o limite de resistência à força de flexão. RESULTADOS: após os ensaios mecânicos, os novos mini-implantes apresentaram o limite de resistência à força de flexão de 98,2kgf, que foi o menor valor encontrado. CONCLUSÃO: os protótipos de mini-implantes desenvolvidos para ancoragem do aparelho de Herbst foram capazes de suportar forças de flexão maiores do que as forças de mordida descritas na literatura.AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the limit of flexural strength of a mini-implant prototype designed for Herbst appliance anchorage. METHODS: After sample size calculation, four specimens with the new mini-implant were submitted to a single cantilever flexure test using a universal testing machine. The limit of flexural force strength was calculated. RESULTS: The mini-implant prototype showed a limit of flexural force strength of 98.2 kgf (982 N, that was the lowest value found. CONCLUSION: The mini-implant prototype designed for Herbst appliance anchorage can withstand flexural forces higher than the maximum human bite forces reported in the literature.

  10. Stress testing of electrically active FlexMEAs with simultaneous electrical recording in fluidic environment: Introduction of a new measurement setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhausen, Markus; Martin, Tanja; Kappel, Marcel; Hofmann, Boris

    2018-02-01

    We present a measurement setup consisting of two fluid-filled pressure chambers to mimic the mechanical stress likely to that of small body movements on biomedical flexible micro-electrode arrays for the analysis of various degradation mechanisms. Our main goal was the simulation of micro-motions in fluid conditions, while maintaining an electric access to the device. These micro-motions would be likely to those occurring in the human body caused by the intracranial pressure in magnitudes of 7-25 mmHg, which translates to a fluid pressure of 9-33 mbar. Furthermore, severe mechanical stress can be administered to the samples under the previously mentioned environment. Therefore, a flexible, polyimide-based sample with various metal test structures was fabricated and analyzed in the presented measurement setup. A comparison of the elongation of the sample's surface as a function of the applied hydrostatic pressure is given with computer simulations.

  11. Glassy metallic plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianfu; Wang, Junqiang; Liu, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Kun; Zhang, Bo; Bai, Haiyang; Pan, Mingxiang; Wang, Weihua

    2010-03-01

    This paper reports a class of bulk metallic glass including Ce-, LaCe-, CaLi-, Yb-, and Sr-based metallic glasses, which are regarded as glassy metallic plastics because they combine some unique properties of both plastics and metallic alloys. These glassy metallic plastics have very low glass transition temperature ( T g ˜25°C to 150°C) and low Young’s modulus (˜20 GPa to 35 GPa). Similar to glassy plastics, these metallic plastics show excellent plastic-like deformability on macro-, micro- and even nano-scale in their supercooled liquid range and can be processed, such as elongated, compressed, bent, and imprinted at low temperatures, in hot water for instance. Under ambient conditions, they display such metallic properties as high thermal and electric conductivities and excellent mechanical properties and other unique properties. The metallic plastics have potential applications and are also a model system for studying issues in glass physics.

  12. Metal phthalocyanine catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jr., Paul E.; Lyons, James E.

    1994-01-01

    As a new composition of matter, alkali metal or ammonium or tetraalkylammonium diazidoperfluorophthalocyanatoferrate. Other embodiments of the invention comprise compositions wherein the metal of the coordination complex is cobalt, manganese and chromium.

  13. Robot hunts sludge and hoses it away

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trovato, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    Engineers are frustrated by the need to maintain equipment that tools can only reach with difficulty and that human hands cannot reach at all. Accessibility for inspection and maintenance is a frequently overlooked factor in the design of many types of equipment. Such is the case with pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants that use steam generators. The steam generators form the boundary between the nuclear reactor coolant system and the secondary turbine cycle. Inspection and maintenance are hindered not only by inaccessibility but by radiation as well. To facilitate inspection and maintenance on the secondary side of these generators, Consolidated Edison of New York has collaborated in the development of a robot called Cecil - the Con Edison Combined Inspection and Lancing system. This article describe CECIL

  14. The Elephants in the Fire Hoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Vance

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Vance Stevens describes how access to what he calls "star performer educators" as either up-­and­-coming in their field, or experienced and polished practitioners, have changed with access to the internet. They are clearly passionate about what they do, and what they do has become second nature. They touch hearts and…

  15. Semi-metallic polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubnova, Olga; Khan, Zia Ullah; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Polymers are lightweight, flexible, solution-processable materials that are promising for low-cost printed electronics as well as for mass-produced and large-area applications. Previous studies demonstrated that they can possess insulating, semiconducting or metallic properties; here we report...... a Fermi glass to a semi-metal. The high Seebeck value, the metallic conductivity at room temperature and the absence of unpaired electron spins makes polymer semi-metals attractive for thermoelectrics and spintronics....

  16. Marks of Metal Copenhell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Planchebaseret udendørs udstilling på musikfestivalen Copenhell 18-20/6 2015. En mindre udgave af udstillingen Marks of Metal - Logodesign og visualitet i heavy metal. Udarbejdet i samarbejde med Mediemuseet.......Planchebaseret udendørs udstilling på musikfestivalen Copenhell 18-20/6 2015. En mindre udgave af udstillingen Marks of Metal - Logodesign og visualitet i heavy metal. Udarbejdet i samarbejde med Mediemuseet....

  17. Nanochemistry of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeev, Gleb B

    2001-01-01

    The results of studies on the nanochemistry of metals published in recent years are generalised. Primary attention is centred on the methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles and their chemical reactions. The means of stabilisation of nanoparticles which involve individual metals and incorporate atoms of several metals are considered as well as their physicochemical properties. Self-assembling processes of nanoparticles are described. The prospects of using metal nanoparticles in semiconductor devices, catalysis, biology and medicine are discussed. The bibliography includes 165 references.

  18. Novel Ammonium Metal Borohydrides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinderslev, Jakob; Jepsen, Lars Haahr; Cerny, Radovan

    halide-free ammonium metal borohydrides is presented, which have the chemical compositions (NH4)xM(BH4)n+x. The ammonium metal borohydrides are synthesized by cryomilling of NH4BH4 – M(BH4)n (M = Li, Na, K, Mg, Sr, Y, Mn, La, Gd) in different ratios. A new range of ammonium metal borohydrides is formed...

  19. Multiple allergies to metal alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Eng Tu

    2011-06-01

    Conclusions: Metal alloys may induce multiple metal allergies. Patients suspected of having a metal allergy should be patch tested with an extended series of metals. We recommend adding palladium and gold, at least, to the standard series.

  20. Conducting metal oxide and metal nitride nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSalvo, Jr., Francis J.; Subban, Chinmayee V.

    2017-12-26

    Conducting metal oxide and nitride nanoparticles that can be used in fuel cell applications. The metal oxide nanoparticles are comprised of for example, titanium, niobium, tantalum, tungsten and combinations thereof. The metal nitride nanoparticles are comprised of, for example, titanium, niobium, tantalum, tungsten, zirconium, and combinations thereof. The nanoparticles can be sintered to provide conducting porous agglomerates of the nanoparticles which can be used as a catalyst support in fuel cell applications. Further, platinum nanoparticles, for example, can be deposited on the agglomerates to provide a material that can be used as both an anode and a cathode catalyst support in a fuel cell.

  1. Ensaios estáticos de flexão e rigidez em placas do tipo sistema dinâmico do quadril (DHS Static load test on dynamic hip system (DHS plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Freitas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar isolada e comparativamente placas do tipo sistema dinâmico do quadril (DHS de dois fabricantes nacionais, analisar estatisticamente seus resultados e demonstrar a falta de determinantes para sua fabricação. MÉTODOS: Foram realizados ensaios estáticos de flexão em cinco placas DHS do fabricante I (grupo I e em igual quantidade do mesmo modelo do fabricante II (grupo II, sendo todas fabricadas em aço inoxidável austenítico ASTM F 138, com quatro furos e angulação de 135º. Utilizou-se máquina servohidráulica MTS, modelo Test Star II®, com capacidade de carga de 10 toneladas e controle de deslocamento. Foram obtidos dados da carga aplicada (P em função do deslocamento vertical do pistão (L, cuja velocidade foi 5 mm/min. Os ensaios foram interrompidos após atingir a deflexão vertical máxima especificada pelas normas dos ensaios. RESULTADOS: Grupo I: resistência de flexão, 161,4 ± 17,2 kgf rigidez, 64,5 ± 1,8 kgf/mm, ductilidade, > 25,4 mm. Grupo II: resistência de flexão, 124,7 ± 4,4, rigidez 59,6 ± 2,3, ductilidade > 25,4 mm. Para análise estatística foi adotado o teste de Mann-Whitney e a determinação de significância foi de 5% (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate, both individually and comparatively, dynamic hip system-type plates marketed by two local manufacturers, to statistically analyze its results and show the lack of parameters for its manufacturing. METHODS: Static tests of flexion were carried out in five DHS plates of the manufacturer I (I group I and in equal quantity of the same model of the manufacturer II (I group II, being all made in stainless austenitic ASTM F 138 steel, with four holes and a 135º angle. A servo-hydraulic MTS machine, Test Star II model, was used with a load capacity of 10 tons and dislocation control. The data were obtained from the applied load (P as a function of the vertical dislocation of the piston (L, whose speed was 5mm/min. The tests were shutdown after reaching

  2. Metal Nitrides for Plasmonic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naik, Gururaj V.; Schroeder, Jeremy; Guler, Urcan

    2012-01-01

    Metal nitrides as alternatives to metals such as gold could offer many advantages when used as plasmonic material. We show that transition metal nitrides can replace metals providing equally good optical performance for many plasmonic applications.......Metal nitrides as alternatives to metals such as gold could offer many advantages when used as plasmonic material. We show that transition metal nitrides can replace metals providing equally good optical performance for many plasmonic applications....

  3. A Multicenter, Prospective Study of a New Fully Covered Expandable Metal Biliary Stent for the Palliative Treatment of Malignant Bile Duct Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bret T. Petersen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Study Aims. Endoscopic placement of self-expanding metal stents (SEMSs is indicated for palliation of inoperable malignant biliary obstruction. A fully covered biliary SEMS (WallFlex Biliary RX Boston Scientific, Natick, USA was assessed for palliation of extrahepatic malignant biliary obstruction. Patients and Methods. 58 patients were included in this prospective, multicenter series conducted under an FDA-approved IDE. Main outcome measurements included (1 absence of stent occlusion within six months or until death, whichever occurred first and (2 technical success, need for reintervention, bilirubin levels, stent patency, time to stent occlusion, and adverse events. Results. Technical success was achieved in 98% (57/58, with demonstrated acute removability in two patients. Adequate clinical palliation until completion of followup was achievedin 98% (54/55 of evaluable patients, with 1 reintervention due to stent obstruction after 142 days. Mean total bilirubin decreased from 8.9 mg/dL to 1.2 mg/dL at 1 month. Device-related adverse events were limited and included 2 cases of cholecystitis. One stent migrated following radiation therapy. Conclusions. The WallFlex Biliary fully covered stent yielded technically successful placement with uncomplicated acute removal where required, appropriate reduction in bilirubin levels, and low rates of stent migration and occlusion. This SEMS allows successful palliation of malignant extrahepatic biliary obstruction.

  4. Metal Detecting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobat, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, metal detector surveying conducted by non-professional volunteers (amateur archaeologists) has contributed significantly to archaeological research and heritage practice in Denmark. Metal detecting has always been legal in Denmark, and official stakeholders have from...... the beginning of metal detector archaeology pursued a liberal model, focusing on cooperation and inclusion rather than confrontation and criminalization. Like no other surveying method, the metal detector has contributed to increasing enormously the amount of data and sites from metal-rich periods. Virtually...... all of the spectacular and ground-breaking discoveries of the past decades are owed to metal detectors in the hands of amateur archaeologists. In order to serve as a contribution to the discussion on the upsides and downsides of liberal metal detector archaeology, this article addresses mainly three...

  5. Risco de tração excessiva nas lesões tipo distração-flexão da coluna cervical baixa Risk of excessive traction on distraction-flexion-type injuries of the low cervical spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa de Barros Filho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo em questão visa avaliar a relação entre risco e benefício do uso de tração com halo craniano como alternativa para estabilização nas fraturas-luxações por mecanismo de distração-flexão tipo IV de Allen e Ferguson, considerando a natureza da lesão, seu extenso dano ligamentar e o risco de apresentar distração excessiva e conseqüente lesão da medula espinhal. Para tanto, realizamos uma análise retrospectiva no IOT-HC-FMUSP envolvendo um período de 10 anos, quando 34 casos foram diagnosticados como fratura-luxação por distração-flexão da coluna cervical baixa, sendo 12 deles do tipo IV. Todos foram submetidos à tração esquelética com halo craniano num momento inicial. Durante o controle radiográfico seqüencial, observou-se distração excessiva em sete casos, mesmo com baixo peso inicial (4 kg. Em dois pacientes houve surgimento de nistagmo. Em todos os casos a tração foi retirada e seguiu-se normalização do quadro clínico.This study aims to evaluate the risk/ benefit ratio in the use of traction with cranial halo as an alternative to stabilize fractures-dislocations by Allen & Ferguson's type IV- distraction-flexion mechanism, considering the nature of the injury, its extensive ligament damage and the risk of presenting excessive distraction and resultant spinal cord injury. Thus, we performed a retrospective analysis at IOT-HC-FMUSP comprising a period of 10 years, when 34 cases were diagnosed as fractures-dislocations due to distraction-flexion of the low cervical spine, of which 12 were IV-type. All individuals have been submitted to skeletal traction with cranial halo at an early phase. During sequential X-ray management, an excessive distraction was seen in seven cases, even with initial light weight (4 kg. In two patients, the onset of nistagmus was seen. In all cases, traction was removed, which was followed by stabilization of the clinical picture.

  6. Study protocol: the Fueling Learning through Exercise (FLEX) study - a randomized controlled trial of the impact of school-based physical activity programs on children's physical activity, cognitive function, and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Catherine M; Duquesnay, Paula J; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Chomitz, Virginia R; Chui, Kenneth; Economos, Christina D; Langevin, Elizabeth G; Nelson, Miriam E; Sacheck, Jennifer M

    2016-10-13

    Physical activity (PA) is critical to preventing childhood obesity and contributes to children's overall physical and cognitive health, yet fewer than half of all children achieve the recommended 60 min per day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Schools are an ideal setting to meeting PA guidelines, but competing demands and limited resources have impacted PA opportunities. The Fueling Learning through Exercise (FLEX) Study is a randomized controlled trial that will evaluate the impact of two innovative school-based PA programs on children's MVPA, cognitive function, and academic outcomes. Twenty-four public elementary schools from low-income, ethnically diverse communities around Massachusetts were recruited and randomized to receive either 100 Mile Club® (walking/running program) or Just Move™ (classroom-based PA program) intervention, or control. Schoolchildren (grades 3-4, approximately 50 per school) were recruited to participate in evaluation. Primary outcome measures include PA via 7-day accelerometry (Actigraph GT3X+ and wGT3X-BT), cognitive assessments, and academic achievement via state standardized test scores. Additional measures include height and weight, surveys assessing psycho-social factors related to PA, and dietary intake. School-level surveys assess PA infrastructure and resources and intervention implementation. Data are collected at baseline, mid-point (5-6 months post-baseline), and post-intervention (approximately 1.5 years post-baseline). Demographic data were collected by parents/caregivers at baseline. Mixed-effect models will test the short- and long-term effects of both programs on minutes spent in MVPA, as well as secondary outcomes including cognitive and academic outcomes. The FLEX study will evaluate strategies for increasing children's MVPA through two innovative, low-cost, school-based PA programs as well as their impact on children's cognitive functioning and academic success. Demonstration of a relationship

  7. Study protocol: the Fueling Learning through Exercise (FLEX study – a randomized controlled trial of the impact of school-based physical activity programs on children’s physical activity, cognitive function, and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. Wright

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA is critical to preventing childhood obesity and contributes to children’s overall physical and cognitive health, yet fewer than half of all children achieve the recommended 60 min per day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA. Schools are an ideal setting to meeting PA guidelines, but competing demands and limited resources have impacted PA opportunities. The Fueling Learning through Exercise (FLEX Study is a randomized controlled trial that will evaluate the impact of two innovative school-based PA programs on children’s MVPA, cognitive function, and academic outcomes. Methods Twenty-four public elementary schools from low-income, ethnically diverse communities around Massachusetts were recruited and randomized to receive either 100 Mile Club® (walking/running program or Just Move™ (classroom-based PA program intervention, or control. Schoolchildren (grades 3–4, approximately 50 per school were recruited to participate in evaluation. Primary outcome measures include PA via 7-day accelerometry (Actigraph GT3X+ and wGT3X-BT, cognitive assessments, and academic achievement via state standardized test scores. Additional measures include height and weight, surveys assessing psycho-social factors related to PA, and dietary intake. School-level surveys assess PA infrastructure and resources and intervention implementation. Data are collected at baseline, mid-point (5–6 months post-baseline, and post-intervention (approximately 1.5 years post-baseline. Demographic data were collected by parents/caregivers at baseline. Mixed-effect models will test the short- and long-term effects of both programs on minutes spent in MVPA, as well as secondary outcomes including cognitive and academic outcomes. Discussion The FLEX study will evaluate strategies for increasing children’s MVPA through two innovative, low-cost, school-based PA programs as well as their impact on children’s cognitive

  8. Técnicas para monitorar a abertura de fissura e a posição da linha neutra em vigas de concreto reforçado com fibras de aço submetidas à flexão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Gava

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, três diferentes técnicas para medir e monitorar a abertura de fissura e a posição da linha neutra são investigadas, sendo elas: strain gauges, análise digital de imagens e transdutores de deslocamento. Foram ensaiadas à flexão vigas de concreto reforçado com fibras de aço, nas quais foram monitoradas as cargas, os deslocamentos, as deformações à compressão, a abertura de fissura e a posição da linha neutra. Para as técnicas dos transdutores de deslocamento e da análise digital de imagens são apresentadas formulações matemáticas que devem ser empregadas para a correção dos valores de abertura de fissura e posição da linha neutra em função do deslocamento e do giro da viga durante o ensaio de flexão. Os resultados mostraram que as técnicas do strain gauges e dos transdutores de deslocamento foram mais eficientes para monitorar a posição da linha neutra. Na técnica da análise digital de imagens observou-se que um pequeno erro na medição das deformações nos pontos da grade de referência colada na lateral da viga ocasionou um grande erro no valor da posição da linha neutra medido. A abertura de fissura só foi possível ser medida por meio das técnicas dos transdutores de deslocamento e da análise digital de imagens, sendo que ambas apresentaram bons resultados. Verificou-se que a melhor técnica para monitorar tanto a posição da linha neutra quanto a abertura de fissura foi a dos transdutores de deslocamento, além de ser a técnica que apresenta maior facilidade de aplicação.

  9. Metal Borohydrides synthesized from metal borides and metal hydrides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Sanna

    2014-01-01

    Metal Borohydrides Synthesized from Metal Borides and Metal Hydrides Alexander Fogha, Sanna Sommera, Kasper T. Møllera, T. R. Jensena aCenter for Materials Crystallography (CMC), Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO) and Chemistry Department, Aarhus University, Langelandsgade 140, DK-8000...... Aarhus C, Denmark email: gallafogh@hotmail.com / sanna-sommer@hotmail.com Magnesium boride, MgB2, ball milled with MH (M = Li, Na, Ca) followed by hydrogenation under high hydrogen pressure, readily forms the corresponding metal borohydrides, M(BH4)x (M = Li, Na, Ca) and MgH2 according to reaction scheme...... and Ca(BH4)2, respectively [3,4]. An attempt to synthesize alkali and alkaline earth metal borohydrides from various borides by ball milling under high hydrogen pressure is presented here. MgB2, AlB2 and CaB6 have been milled with MHx (M = Li, Na, Mg, Ca) at p(H2) = 110 bar for 24 hours. All samples were...

  10. Thin Metallic Films from Solvated Metal Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-14

    research has developed over the past two decades that deals with the generation of atoms of metals (by metal evaporation, and the interaction of these...Departamento de Quimica , Universidad de Concepcion, Cassilla 3-:, c oncepcion, Chile. -I{ - ~ *~.’JS*~M 4 .~4\\ 821 19 the gold particles were negatively...flocculation were observed, as shown in table a Generally about 0.1 g In was Suspended in 100-200 nl solvent. Several approacies to characterization of

  11. Extraction process for removing metallic impurities from alkalide metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Lamar T.

    1988-01-01

    A development is described for removing metallic impurities from alkali metals by employing an extraction process wherein the metallic impurities are extracted from a molten alkali metal into molten lithium metal due to the immiscibility of the alkali metals in lithium and the miscibility of the metallic contaminants or impurities in the lithium. The purified alkali metal may be readily separated from the contaminant-containing lithium metal by simple decanting due to the differences in densities and melting temperatures of the alkali metals as compared to lithium.

  12. Metal Matrix Composite Solar Cell Metallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilt David M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced solar cells are moving to ever thinner formats in order to save mass and in some cases improve performance. As cells are thinned, the possibility that they may fracture or cleave due to mechanical stresses is increased. Fractures of the cell can degrade the overall device performance if the fracture propagates through the contact metallization, which frequently occurs. To address this problem, a novel semiconductor metallization system based on multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT reinforcement, termed metal matrix composite (MMC metallization is under investigation. Electro-mechanical characterization of MMC films demonstrate their ability to provide electrical conductivity over >40 micron wide cracks in the underlying semiconductor, with the carbon nanotubes bridging the gap. In addition, these materials show a “self-healing” behaviour, electrically reconnecting at ~30 microns when strained past failure. Triple junction (TJ space cells with MMC metallization demonstrated no loss in Jsc after intentional fracture, whereas TJ cells with conventional metallization suffer up to 50% Jsc loss.

  13. Estudo do processo de fabricação de tubos flexíveis de aço inoxidável duplex UNS 32304 utilizados na indústria de petróleo e gás Study of the manufacturing process of UNS 32304 flexible pipes for the oil and gas industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Paula Gusmão de Oliveira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A principal característica dos aços inoxidáveis duplex é o equilíbrio entre as fases austenita e ferrita, que garantem ao material melhores índices de resistências à corrosão e mecânica. No entanto, durante o processo de soldagem, ocorrem modificações estruturais, principalmente no balanço destas fases. Este desbalanceamento, em função dos níveis de solicitações mecânicas, pode levar tais regiões soldadas ao colapso. No intuito de minimizar o desequilíbrio das fases na região soldada, diversas técnicas são utilizadas, tais como inserção de metal de adição com elementos austenitizantes, uso de gás de proteção com nitrogênio ou, em outros casos, controle pós soldagem. Buscou-se identificar o verdadeiro efeito dos parâmetros de soldagem e do tratamento térmico especificado pela literatura em situações de campo. Através de uma avaliação temporal, observando uma linha de produção de tubulação flexível de aço inoxidável duplex UNS 32304 durante três anos, utilizando-se de procedimentos convencionais de soldagem com e sem a utilização de tratamento térmico foram observadas as falhas por fratura na zona termicamente afetada (ZTA. Foi utilizado um indutor localizado para o tratamento térmico, gerando um intenso fluxo de calor que promoveu temperaturas da ordem de 1000 ºC a altíssimas taxas de subida e descida, conforme estabelecem algumas literaturas.The main characteristic of duplex stainless steels is the balance between ferrite and austenite phases, wich ensures to such material the best levels of corrosion and mechanical resistance. However, during the welding process, structural modifications occur, especially with regard to the balance of these phases. This imbalance, depending on the levels of mechanical stress, may lead welded regions to collapse. In order to minimize the imbalance of the phases in the welded steel, several techniques are used, such as the insertion of filler metal with

  14. Quantificação e avaliação de danos em trecho de pavimento flexível de avenidas de Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Antonio Vieira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Esta pesquisa apresenta dados sobre os danos constatados em trechos de avenidas da região Norte de Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, que foram construídas com pavimento flexível, uma base de brita e uma camada de asfalto. Trata-se de um dos espaços de intensa atividade comercial e industrial, e, portanto, de movimentação de pessoas e veículos, do território municipal. Verificou-se que a maior quantidade de danos é representada por fenda ou trinca, buraco ou panela, além de remendos inadequados ou com defeito.  Diante dos dados da pesquisa, pode-se inferir que a Administração Municipal não tem ou não utiliza, com eficiência, um Sistema de Gerência de Pavimento.

  15. CO2-reductions in low energy buildings and communities by implementation of low temperature district heating systems. Demonstration cases in Boligforeningen Ringgaarden and EnergyFlexHouse. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worm, J.

    2011-05-15

    The project consisted of 3 tasks. In task 1, the aim was, through demonstration in EnergyFlexHouse in Taastrup, to analyse the district heating tank in interaction with a larger low-energy house, and to analyse different patterns of hot water use in order to validate and further develop the concept of low temperature district heating (LTDH). In task 2, the aim was, through demonstration in the housing community Ringgaarden in Lystrup near Aarhus, to show that the low heat losses found in a previous project can be achieved in practice, and to further develop the technology of the concept. In task 3, the aim was to assess the potential for CO{sub 2} reductions and energy conservation in both new and existing district heating distribution systems using the concept of LTDH. Furthermore the aim was to analyse the implementation of LTDH in existing buildings and to analyse optimization of LTDH design. The present report is a summary of the results of the three tasks. Detailed results of each task are presented in three separate reports. (ln)

  16. Espasmos em flexão: estudo clínico e eletrencefalográfico de pacientes tratados com Ro 4-5360 Infantile spasms: clinical and electroencephalographic studies of patients treated with Mogadon (Ro 4-5360

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lison

    1967-06-01

    Full Text Available Sete pacientes com espasmos em flexão não controlados com medicações anticonvulsivas usuais foram submetidos a tratamento com Ro 4-5360 (Mogadon, à razão de 5 a 10 mg por dia. Foram discutidos os resultados clínicos e os achados eletrencefalográficos. Especial ênfase foi dedicada às correlações eletroclínicas. Os autores concluem: 1 Houve redução rápida e significativa na intensidade e na freqüência dos surtos de espasmos em flexão em todos os casos tratados com Mogadon. 2 Os melhores resultados foram observados em crianças que apresentavam desenvolvimento psicomotor normal até o aparecimento dos espasmos em flexão. 3 O intervalo entre o início dos espasmos em flexão e o início do tratamento com Mogadon e o insucesso de tratamentos anteriores com ACTH não foram fatores desfavoráveis quanto aos resultados da terapêutica benzcdiazepínica. 4 Houve ligeira regressão do retardo psicomotor, em 5 dos 7 casos, não acompanhando a nítida melhora das manifestações convulsivas, melhora cuja precocidade e intensidade foram mais acentuadas nas crianças em que o desenvolvimento psicomotor era inicialmente normal. 5 Nos casos que apresentavam hipsarritmia, houve desaparecimento da manifestação ao fim de uma semana de tratamento. 6 O aparecimento de sincronização rápida por espículas de amplitude uniforme e de topografia difusa no eletrencefalograma, dos pacientes tratados com Mogadon, parece ser função da incidência de elementos rápidos de tipo irritativo nos traçados realizados antes do tratamento. 7 Na vigência do aparecimento da sincronização por espículas difusas surgiram crises tônicas generalizadas em duas crianças que não apresentavam este tipo antes do tratamento, sendo de notar que essas manifestações eletrencefalográficas e clínicas diminuíram ulteriormente e desapareceram após três meses de tratamento. 8 Em três casos, passada a fase de alterações paroxisticas difusas, permaneceram

  17. Reaproveitamento da areia de fundição como material de base e sub-base de pavimentos flexíveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Gutiérrez Klinsky

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O principal resíduo das indústrias de fundição é a areia de fundição de descarte que, no ano 2007, no Brasil, ultrapassou os três milhões de toneladas. Com o objetivo de preservar os recursos naturais e diminuir a degradação do meio ambiente, procuram-se alternativas para reutilizar a areia de fundição em grandes quantidades e a utilização na construção de rodovias fornece oportunidades. Assim, este trabalho avaliou a possibilidade de reutilizar a areia de fundição, misturada a solos argilosos, como material de base e subbase para rodovias de baixo volume de tráfego e vias urbanas para a região de Sertãozinho/SP, que é geradora de resíduo de areia de fundição, mas carece de jazidas de solos arenosos para a construção de rodovias. No estudo foi empregada a técnica de estabilização granulométrica para obter misturas solo-areia em diferentes proporções, nas quais foram realizados ensaios de classificação, propriedades mecânicas e ambientais. Os resultados dos ensaios mostraram que solos argilosos com 60% de areia de fundição adicionada poderiam ser utilizados como material de sub-base e base para pavimentos de tráfego leve, com baixo risco de poluir o meio ambiente.

    Abstract: The main residue of the foundry industries is the foundry sand that in 2007, in Brazil, exceeded three millions tons. The modern world searches the preservation of the natural resources and the reduction of the environment degeneration. Aiming at these objectives, new alternatives are researched to reuse the foundry sand in large amounts and the pavement construction provides opportunities. This paper evaluated the reuse of the foundry sand in pavement sub-bases and bases, through its incorporation to clay soils from Sertaozinho/SP. This region has a high production of foundry metals and residues, and does not have natural sandy soils deposits for pavement construction. This study used the mechanic

  18. Soil heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherameti, Irena [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Botanik und Pflanzenphysiologie; Varma, Ajit (eds.) [Amity Univ., Uttar Pradesh (India). Amity Inst. of Microbial Technology; Amity Science, Technology and Innovation Foundation, Noida, UP (India)

    2010-07-01

    Human activities have dramatically changed the composition and organisation of soils. Industrial and urban wastes, agricultural application and also mining activities resulted in an increased concentration of heavy metals in soils. How plants and soil microorganisms cope with this situation and the sophisticated techniques developed for survival in contaminated soils is discussed in this volume. The topics presented include: the general role of heavy metals in biological soil systems; the relation of inorganic and organic pollutions; heavy metal, salt tolerance and combined effects with salinity; effects on abuscular mycorrhizal and on saprophytic soil fungi; heavy metal resistance by streptomycetes; trace element determination of environmental samples; the use of microbiological communities as indicators; phytostabilization of lead polluted sites by native plants; effects of soil earthworms on removal of heavy metals and the remediation of heavy metal contaminated tropical land. (orig.)

  19. Light metal production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qinbai

    2016-04-19

    An electrochemical process for the production of light metals, particularly aluminum. Such a process involves contacting a light metal source material with an inorganic acid to form a solution containing the light metal ions in high concentration. The solution is fed to an electrochemical reactor assembly having an anode side containing an anode and a cathode side containing a cathode, with anode side and the cathode side separated by a bipolar membrane, with the solution being fed to the anode side. Light metal ions are electrochemically transferred through the bipolar membrane to the cathode side. The process further involves reducing the light metal ions to light metal powder. An associated processing system is also provided.

  20. Liquid Metal Transformers

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series...

  1. Alkali metal hydride formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of producing alkali metal hydrides by absorbing hydrogen gas under pressure into a mixture of lower alkyl mono amines and alkali metal alkyl amides selected from sodium and potassium amides formed from said amines. The present invention also includes purification of a mixture of the amines and amides which contain impurities, such as is used as a catalytic exchange liquid in the enrichment of deuterium, involving the formation of the alkali metal hydride

  2. Supported metal alloy catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Joseph; Smith, David C.

    2000-01-01

    A process of preparing a Group IV, V, or VI metal carbonitride including reacting a Group IV, V, or VI metal amide complex with ammonia to obtain an intermediate product; and, heating the intermediate product to temperatures and for times sufficient to form a Group IV, V, or VI metal carbonitride is provided together with the product of the process and a process of reforming an n-alkane by use of the product.

  3. Ion implantation in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vook, F.L.

    1977-02-01

    The application of ion beams to metals is rapidly emerging as a promising area of research and technology. This report briefly describes some of the recent advances in the modification and study of the basic properties of metals by ion implantation techniques. Most of the research discussed illustrates some of the new and exciting applications of ion beams to metals which are under active investigation at Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque

  4. Tritium in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, T.

    1990-01-01

    In this Chapter a review is given of some of the important features of metal tritides as opposed to hydrides and deuterides. After an introduction to the topics of tritium and tritium in metals information will be presented on a variety of metal-tritium systems. Of main interest here are the differences from the classic hydrogen behavior; the so called isotope effect. A second important topic is that of aging effects produced by the accumulation of 3 He in the samples. (orig.)

  5. Metal interactions with boron clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimes, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: the structural and bonding features of metallaboranes and metallacarboranes; transition-metal derivatives of nido-boranes and some related species; interactions of metal groups with the octahydrotriborate (1-) anion, B 3 H 8 ; metallaboron cage compounds of the main group metals; closo-carborane-metal complexes containing metal-carbon and metal-boron omega-bonds; electrochemistry of metallaboron cage compounds; and boron clusters with transition metal-hydrogen bonds

  6. Application of liquid metals for the extraction of solid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstedt, H.U.

    1996-01-01

    Liquid metals dissolve several solid metals in considerable amounts at moderate temperatures. The dissolution processes may be based upon simple physical solubility, formation of intermetallic phases. Even chemical reactions are often observed in which non-metallic elements might be involved. Thus, the capacity to dissolve metals and chemical properties of the liquid metals play a role in these processes. Besides the solubility also chemical properties and thermochemical data are of importance. The dissolution of metals in liquid metals can be applied to separate the solutes from other metals or non-metallic phases. Relatively noble metals can be chemically reduced by the liquid phases. Such solution processes can be applied in the extractive metallurgy, for instance to extract metals from metallic waste. The recycling of metals is of high economical and ecological importance. Examples of possible processes are discussed. (author)

  7. Physics of amorphous metals

    CERN Document Server

    Kovalenko, Nikolai P; Krey, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of bulk metallic glasses has led to a large increase in the industrial importance of amorphous metals, and this is expected to continue. This book is the first to describe the theoretical physics of amorphous metals, including the important theoretical development of the last 20 years.The renowned authors stress the universal aspects in their description of the phonon or magnon low-energy excitations in the amorphous metals, e.g. concerning the remarkable consequences of the properties of these excitations for the thermodynamics at low and intermediate temperatures. Tunneling

  8. Conducting metal dithiolate complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underhill, A. E.; Ahmad, M. M.; Turner, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound......Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound...

  9. Purification of uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kenji; Shikama, Tatsuo; Ochiai, Akira.

    1993-01-01

    We developed the system for purifying uranium metal and its metallic compounds and for growing highly pure uranium compounds to study their intrinsic physical properties. Uranium metal was zone refined under low contamination conditions as far as possible. The degree of the purity of uranium metal was examined by the conventional electrical resistivity measurement and by the chemical analysis using the inductive coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP). The results show that some metallic impurities evaporated by the r.f. heating and other usual metallic impurities moved to the end of a rod with a molten zone. Therefore, we conclude that the zone refining technique is much effective to the removal of metallic impurities and we obtained high purified uranium metal of 99.99% up with regarding to metallic impurities. The maximum residual resistivity ratio, the r.r.r., so far obtained was about 17-20. Using the purified uranium, we are attempting to grow a highly pure uranium-titanium single crystals. (author)

  10. Metal weight table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This book is comprised of two parts about metallic material weight table. the first part deals with steel on weight table of section steel and bar steel, hexagonal steel, equal angle steel, unequal angle steel, channel steel, T steel, H steel, CT steel, light gauge steel, light rail, stainless steel weight calculation, carbon steel pipe for general rescue a circular nail, zinc galvanizing and wire lope. The second part is about nonferrous metal on weight calculation for nonferrous metal nonferrous metal plates, steel pipe, brass copper bar and aluminum.

  11. Silicon metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueck, Steven R. J.; Myers, David R.; Sharma, Ashwani K.

    1995-01-01

    Silicon MSM photodiodes sensitive to radiation in the visible to near infrared spectral range are produced by altering the absorption characteristics of crystalline Si by ion implantation. The implantation produces a defected region below the surface of the silicon with the highest concentration of defects at its base which acts to reduce the contribution of charge carriers formed below the defected layer. The charge carriers generated by the radiation in the upper regions of the defected layer are very quickly collected between biased Schottky barrier electrodes which form a metal-semiconductor-metal structure for the photodiode.

  12. Metal-on-Metal Hip Resurfacing Arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehatzadeh, S; Kaulback, K; Levin, L

    2012-01-01

    Background Metal-on-metal (MOM) hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA) is in clinical use as an appropriate alternative to total hip arthroplasty in young patients. In this technique, a metal cap is placed on the femoral head to cover the damaged surface of the bone and a metal cup is placed in the acetabulum. Objectives The primary objective of this analysis was to compare the revision rates of MOM HRA using different implants with the benchmark set by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE). The secondary objective of this analysis was to review the literature regarding adverse biological effects associated with implant material. Review Methods A literature search was performed on February 13, 2012, to identify studies published from January 1, 2009, to February 13, 2012. Results The revision rates for MOM HRA using 6 different implants were reviewed. The revision rates for MOM HRA with 3 implants met the NICE criteria, i.e., a revision rate of 10% or less at 10 years. Two implants had short-term follow-ups and MOM HRA with one of the implants failed to meet the NICE criteria. Adverse tissue reactions resulting in failure of the implants have been reported by several studies. With a better understanding of the factors that influence the wear rate of the implants, adverse tissue reactions and subsequent implant failure can be minimized. Many authors have suggested that patient selection and surgical technique affect the wear rate and the risk of tissue reactions. The biological effects of high metal ion levels in the blood and urine of patients with MOM HRA implants are not known. Studies have shown an increase in chromosomal aberrations in patients with MOM articulations, but the clinical implications and long-term consequences of this increase are still unknown. Epidemiological studies have shown that patients with MOM HRA implants did not have an overall increase in mortality or risk of cancer. There is insufficient clinical data to confirm the

  13. Hardness of metallic crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China; Henan Key Laboratory of Advanced Non-ferrous Metals, Luoyang 471003, China; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, ...

  14. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    between amounts of metals in the aquatic insects and the surrounding water medium,. Materials and methods indicating that most of the accumulated. Test animals metals were from the water medium. Tympanotonus fuscatus var. radula L. The significance of bioaccumulation. (Periwinkle) (Mollusca; Gastropoda, studies lies ...

  15. Explosion metal welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popoff, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    Process parameters pertaining to welding similar and dissimilar metals using explosives are reviewed. The discussion centers on the interrelationship of physical parameters which play a part in achieving desirable metallurgical results. Present activities in explosion metal welding at LASL are presented and shown how they related to the interests of the ERDA community

  16. Liquid metals pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Frere, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Pumps used to pump liquid metals depend on the liquid metal and on the type of application concerned. One deals more particularly with electromagnetic pumps, the main pumps used with mechanical pumps. To pump sodium in the nuclear field, these two types of pumps are used; the pumps of different circuits of Super Phenix are presented and described [fr

  17. Marks of Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Udstilling på Mediemuseet med fokus på den visuelle side af heavy metal: Logoer, pladecovers og lignende.......Udstilling på Mediemuseet med fokus på den visuelle side af heavy metal: Logoer, pladecovers og lignende....

  18. Virus templated metallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljabali, Alaa A. A.; Barclay, J. Elaine; Lomonossoff, George P.; Evans, David J.

    2010-12-01

    Plant viruses are considered as nanobuilding blocks that can be used as synthons or templates for novel materials. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles have been shown to template the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by an electroless deposition metallization process. Palladium ions were electrostatically bound to the virus capsid and, when reduced, acted as nucleation sites for the subsequent metal deposition from solution. The method, although simple, produced highly monodisperse metallic nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. used as synthons or templates for novel materials. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles have been shown to template the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by an electroless deposition metallization process. Palladium ions were electrostatically bound to the virus capsid and, when reduced, acted as nucleation sites for the subsequent metal deposition from solution. The method, although simple, produced highly monodisperse metallic nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. agarose gel electrophoresis results, energy dispersive X-ray spectra, ζ-potential measurements, dynamic light scattering data, nanoparticle tracking analysis and an atomic force microscopy image of Ni-CPMV. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00525h

  19. Production of magnesium metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blencoe, James G [Harriman, TN; Anovitz, Lawrence M [Knoxville, TN; Palmer, Donald A [Oliver Springs, TN; Beard, James S [Martinsville, VA

    2010-02-23

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention further relates to a process for production of magnesium metal or a magnesium compound where an external source of carbon dioxide is not used in any of the reactions of the process. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  20. Metal borohydrides and derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paskevicius, Mark; Haarh Jepsen, Lars; Schouwink, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    review new synthetic strategies along with structural, physical and chemical properties for metal borohydrides, revealing a number of new trends correlating composition, structure, bonding and thermal properties. These new trends provide general knowledge and may contribute to the design and discovery......A wide variety of metal borohydrides, MBH4, have been discovered and characterized during the past decade, revealing an extremely rich chemistry including fascinating structural flexibility and a wide range of compositions and physical properties. Metal borohydrides receive increasing interest...... major classes of metal borohydride derivatives have also been discovered: anion-substituted compounds where the complex borohydride anion, BH4 -, is replaced by another anion, i.e. a halide or amide ion; and metal borohydrides modified with neutral molecules, such as NH3, NH3BH3, N2H4, etc. Here, we...

  1. Metals and Neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Miah, Mahfuzur Rahman; Aschner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Metals play important roles in the human body, maintaining cell structure and regulating gene expression, neurotransmission, and antioxidant response, to name a few. However, excessive metal accumulation in the nervous system may be toxic, inducing oxidative stress, disrupting mitochondrial function, and impairing the activity of numerous enzymes. Damage caused by metal accumulation may result in permanent injuries, including severe neurological disorders. Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown a strong correlation between aberrant metal exposure and a number of neurological diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, autism spectrum disorders, Guillain–Barré disease, Gulf War syndrome, Huntington’s disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and Wilson’s disease. Here, we briefly survey the literature relating to the role of metals in neurodegeneration. PMID:27006759

  2. Chelation in Metal Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaran J.S. Flora

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy is the preferred medical treatment for reducing the toxic effects of metals. Chelating agents are capable of binding to toxic metal ions to form complex structures which are easily excreted from the body removing them from intracellular or extracellular spaces. 2,3-Dimercaprol has long been the mainstay of chelation therapy for lead or arsenic poisoning, however its serious side effects have led researchers to develop less toxic analogues. Hydrophilic chelators like meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid effectively promote renal metal excretion, but their ability to access intracellular metals is weak. Newer strategies to address these drawbacks like combination therapy (use of structurally different chelating agents or co-administration of antioxidants have been reported recently. In this review we provide an update of the existing chelating agents and the various strategies available for the treatment of heavy metals and metalloid intoxications.

  3. O comprimento dos túneis femorais varia com a flexão do joelho na reconstrução anatômica do ligamento cruzado anterior Femoral tunnels' length changes with knee flexion angle in anatomical anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Gali

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O propósito de nosso trabalho foi avaliar o efeito que o grau de flexão do joelho, durante a perfuração dos túneis femorais, pode causar no comprimento desses túneis, na reconstrução anatômica do ligamento cruzado anterior. MÉTODOS: Medimos o comprimento dos túneis femorais anteromedial e posterolateral do ligamento cruzado anterior, em 20 peças anatômicas de joelhos desemparelhadas, 10 direitas e 10 esquerdas, todas com a cartilagem e ligamentos cruzados íntegros. Os túneis foram perfurados com os joelhos flexionados a 90, 110 e 130 graus de flexão, através do portal anteromedial acessório, com uma broca de 2,5mm. Os estudos estatísticos foram realizadas pela análise de variância de Friedman e pelo teste de Mann-Whitney. RESULTADO: A média dos comprimentos dos túneis femorais anteromediais medidos com os joelhos flexionados a 90, 110 e 130 graus foram 33,7 ± 3,72mm, 37,4 ± 2,93mm e 38,8 ± 3,31mm, respectivamente. Para o comprimento dos túneis posterolaterais, os resultados obtidos a 90, 110 e 130 graus foram 32,1 ± 4,24mm, 37,3 ± 4,85mm e 38,4 ± 2,51mm, respectivamente. A análise de variância de Friedman mostrou diferença significativa entre os comprimentos dos túneis perfurados com 90 e 110 graus de flexão das peças, porém não mostrou diferença significativa entre os obtidos com flexão de 110e 130 graus (p OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to evaluate the effect that knee flexion angle while femoral tunnels are being drilled may have on the length of these tunnels, in anatomical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. METHODS: We measured the lengths of anteromedial and posterolateral tunnels for the anterior cruciate ligament in 20 unpaired anatomical knee specimens (10 right and 10 left knees, all with the cartilage and cruciate ligaments intact. Tunnels were drilled with the knees flexed at 90º, 110º and 130º, through the accessory anteromedial portal, with a 2.5 mm

  4. Framework for Metals Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Framework for Metals Risk Assessment is a science-based document that addresses the special attributes and behaviors of metals and metal compounds to be considered when assessing their human health and ecological risks.

  5. Comicidade: do “corpar” clownesco como princípio móvel, flexível, risível e espontâneo na (des formação do ator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elvira Wuo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo aborda os indícios à investigação da comicidade corporal evidenciando o estilo clownesco como perspectiva criativa e risível para a formação do ator. No entanto, basta adentrar uma averiguação mais apurada na área da comicidade que serão observados pontos qualitativos relacionados a uma prontidão integrada e associada ao impulso criativo, envolvendo uma mescla de encontros com o inusitado improviso de situações relacionadas a aspectos da vaidade humana. A comicidade é um atributo da corporeidade imanente à manifestação da quebra de regras, da transgressão do si mesmo, desformando o ser social e o conceito duro (seriedade em detrimento da compreensão de um princípio móvel e flexível, potencializando e corporificando saberes cômicos transgressores, para que não se leve tão a sério e criativamente torne-se um ator ridente, franco e espontâneo. ABSTRACT This article discusses the evidence to the comicality body of research demonstrating the clown style as creative and laughable for the formation of the actor perspective. However, simply enter a more thorough investigation in the area of comedy that qualitative points related to an integrated and linked to the creative impulse readiness will be observed, involving a mix of encounters with the unusual impromptu situations related to aspects of human vanity. The comic is an attribute of immanent corporeality to the manifestation of breaking rules, the transgression of himself, shapeless social being and hard concept (seriousness at the expense of understanding of a mobile and flexible principle, empowering and embodying transgressors comic knowledge to not take yourself so seriously and creatively become a laughing , frank and spontaneous actor. KEYWORDS Actor, clown, comic, body, formation, laughable.

  6. In vitro comparison of the cyclic fatigue resistance of HyFlex EDM, One G, and ProGlider nickel titanium glide path instruments in single and double curvature canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Koray; Uslu, Gülşah; Özyürek, Taha

    2017-11-01

    It was aimed to compare the cyclic fatigue resistances of ProGlider (PG), One G (OG), and HyFlex EDM (HEDM) nickel titanium glide path files in single- and double-curved artificial canals. 40 PG (16/0.02), 40 OG (14/0.03), and 40 HEDM (10/0.05) single-file glide path files were used in the present study. Sixty files were subjected to cyclic fatigue test by using double-curved canals and 60 files by using single-curved canal ( n = 20). The number of cycles to fracture (NCF) was calculated and the length of the fractured fragment (FL) was determined by a digital micro-caliper. Twelve pieces of fractured files were examined with scanning electron microscope to determine fracture types of the files ( n = 2). The NCF and the FL data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey test using SPSS 21 software ( p < 0.05). In all of the groups, NCF values were significantly lower in double-curved canals when compared to single-curved canals ( p < 0.05). For both of single- and double-curved canals, NCF values of HEDM group in apical and coronal curvatures were found to be significantly higher than NCF values of PG and OG groups ( p < 0.05). In both of single- and double-curved canals, NCF value of PG group was found significantly higher than OG group ( p < 0.05). Within the limitations of this study, HEDM glide path files were found to have the highest cyclic fatigue resistance in both of single- and double-curved canals.

  7. Method for producing metallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Kroenke, William J.

    2004-02-10

    Method for producing metallic nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating non-oxidizing plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone to metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and to the plasma afterglow where it cools and condenses to form solid metallic nanoparticles.

  8. Method for producing metallic microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Kroenke, William J.

    2004-06-29

    Method for producing metallic particles. The method converts metallic nanoparticles into larger, spherical metallic particles. An aerosol of solid metallic nanoparticles and a non-oxidizing plasma having a portion sufficiently hot to melt the nanoparticles are generated. The aerosol is directed into the plasma where the metallic nanoparticles melt, collide, join, and spheroidize. The molten spherical metallic particles are directed away from the plasma and enter the afterglow where they cool and solidify.

  9. Nanoporous metal-carbon composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Satcher, Joe; Kucheyev, Sergei; Charnvanichborikarn, Supakit; Colvin, Jeffrey; Felter, Thomas; Kim, Sangil; Merrill, Matthew; Orme, Christine

    2017-12-19

    Described here is a metal-carbon composite, comprising (a) a porous three-dimensional scaffold comprising one or more of carbon nanotubes, graphene and graphene oxide, and (b) metal nanoparticles disposed on said porous scaffold, wherein the metal-carbon composite has a density of 1 g/cm.sup.3 or less, and wherein the metal nanoparticles account for 1 wt. % or more of the metal-carbon composite. Also described are methods for making the metal-carbon composite.

  10. Reciclagem de embalagens plásticas flexíveis: contribuição da identificação correta Flexible plastic packaging recycling: the contribution of the correct identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Coltro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As embalagens têm rotatividade alta, pois acabam se transformando em resíduo sólido urbano após o consumo do produto de interesse. Por este motivo é importante que as embalagens apresentem o símbolo de identificação do material, a fim de facilitar a cadeia de reciclagem. Muitos produtos de materiais plásticos apresentam código de identificação da resina (normalmente um número de 1 a 7 dentro de um triângulo de três setas e sob o mesmo uma abreviatura, cujo objetivo é indicar o tipo de plástico do qual o produto é feito e auxiliar sua separação e posterior reciclagem e revalorização. Ou seja, tenta-se facilitar a recuperação dos materiais plásticos descartados com o resíduo sólido urbano. O objetivo deste estudo foi efetuar um levantamento de dados sobre os símbolos de identificação de materiais em embalagens plásticas flexíveis, para avaliar se o mercado está adotando a identificação corretamente ou se ainda existe falta de informação. Foi avaliado um total de 509 embalagens plásticas flexíveis para acondicionar produtos alimentícios e não alimentícios disponíveis no mercado brasileiro. Apesar de a norma brasileira ABNT NBR 13230 já estar em sua segunda revisão, ainda existe muita heterogeneidade na identificação das embalagens plásticas. Somente cerca de 50% das embalagens avaliadas apresentaram o símbolo de identificação da resina. Além disso, em alguns casos cerca de 30% das embalagens apresentaram a identificação do material de forma incorreta. Portanto, ainda existe informação errônea no mercado brasileiro sobre o tipo de material da embalagem plástica (incluindo ausência do símbolo de identificação, bem como falta de informação sobre o símbolo correto de identificação da resina. Ambos os fatores prejudicam a cadeia de reciclagem do plástico. Assim, a fim de facilitar a separação e reciclagem de embalagens plásticas flexíveis que contêm materiais distintos, por exemplo

  11. Preparation of uniform nanoparticles of ultra-high purity metal oxides, mixed metal oxides, metals, and metal alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodfield, Brian F.; Liu, Shengfeng; Boerio-Goates, Juliana; Liu, Qingyuan; Smith, Stacey Janel

    2012-07-03

    In preferred embodiments, metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal (alloy) nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal oxide nanoparticles are provided. According to embodiments, the nanoparticles may possess narrow size distributions and high purities. In certain preferred embodiments, methods of preparing metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal nanoparticles are provided. These methods may provide tight control of particle size, size distribution, and oxidation state. Other preferred embodiments relate to a precursor material that may be used to form nanoparticles. In addition, products prepared from such nanoparticles are disclosed.

  12. Actinide metal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, N.N.; Watkin, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    A process for converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plutonium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is described together with a low temperature process for preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrate. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage

  13. Metal recovery via geobiotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedrich, Sabrina; Schippers, Axel

    2017-01-01

    Specialized acidophilic bacteria and archaea are able to extract valuable metals such as copper, gold, cobalt, nickel, zinc, and uranium from sulfide ores. This process is known as bioleaching and its application in the mining industry as biomining. Laboratory studies also demonstrated bioleaching of oxide ores such as laterites and of mining residues such as mine tailings as well as metal recycling from waste (secondary mining). Metals being leached have to be recovered from acidic polymetallic solutions (mine and process waters) which is possible via biosorption or biomineralisation.

  14. Engineering Task Plan for Hose-In-Hose Transfer Lines for the Interim Stabilization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TORRES, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    The document is the Engineering Task Plan for the engineering, design services, planning, project integration and management support for the design, modification, installation and testing of an over ground transfer (OGT) system to support the interim stabilization of S/SX and U Tank Farms

  15. Fabrication of Metallic Hollow Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Choi, Sr., Sang H. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Chu, Sang-Hyon (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Metal and semiconductor nanoshells, particularly transition metal nanoshells, are fabricated using dendrimer molecules. Metallic colloids, metallic ions or semiconductors are attached to amine groups on the dendrimer surface in stabilized solution for the surface seeding method and the surface seedless method, respectively. Subsequently, the process is repeated with additional metallic ions or semiconductor, a stabilizer, and NaBH.sub.4 to increase the wall thickness of the metallic or semiconductor lining on the dendrimer surface. Metallic or semiconductor ions are automatically reduced on the metallic or semiconductor nanoparticles causing the formation of hollow metallic or semiconductor nanoparticles. The void size of the formed hollow nanoparticles depends on the dendrimer generation. The thickness of the metallic or semiconductor thin film around the dendrimer depends on the repetition times and the size of initial metallic or semiconductor seeds.

  16. Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.

    2002-01-18

    Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.

  17. Triple Point Topological Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziming Zhu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Topologically protected fermionic quasiparticles appear in metals, where band degeneracies occur at the Fermi level, dictated by the band structure topology. While in some metals these quasiparticles are direct analogues of elementary fermionic particles of the relativistic quantum field theory, other metals can have symmetries that give rise to quasiparticles, fundamentally different from those known in high-energy physics. Here, we report on a new type of topological quasiparticles—triple point fermions—realized in metals with symmorphic crystal structure, which host crossings of three bands in the vicinity of the Fermi level protected by point group symmetries. We find two topologically different types of triple point fermions, both distinct from any other topological quasiparticles reported to date. We provide examples of existing materials that host triple point fermions of both types and discuss a variety of physical phenomena associated with these quasiparticles, such as the occurrence of topological surface Fermi arcs, transport anomalies, and topological Lifshitz transitions.

  18. Plutonium metal burning facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausburg, D.E.; Leebl, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    A glove-box facility was designed to convert plutonium skull metal or unburned oxide to an oxide acceptable for plutonium recovery and purification. A discussion of the operation, safety aspects, and electrical schematics are included

  19. Ferrous Metal Processing Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes ferrous metal processing plants in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  20. Nonferrous Metal Processing Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes nonferrous metal processing plants in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  1. Quasicrystalline metallic adlayers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ugc

    Quasicrystalline metallic adlayers. S. R. Barman. UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore. 23rd Mid-year Meeting of the Indian Academy of Sciences,. July 13-14, 2012,. Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.

  2. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 4. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution - Development of Chronological Records and Geochemical Monitoring. Rohit Shrivastav. General Article Volume 6 Issue 4 April 2001 pp 62-68 ...

  3. Hydrogen in metals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Carter, TJ

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available of hydrogen in metals processing and treatment identified, and mechanisms for hydrogen entry into a ferritic surface are discussed. The differences between hydrogen attack of ferritic steels and copper alloys are contrasted, and an unusual case study...

  4. Micro metal forming

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Micro Metal Forming, i. e. forming of parts and features with dimensions below 1 mm, is a young area of research in the wide field of metal forming technologies, expanding the limits for applying metal forming towards micro technology. The essential challenges arise from the reduced geometrical size and the increased lot size. In order to enable potential users to apply micro metal forming in production, information about the following topics are given: tribological behavior: friction between tool and work piece as well as tool wear mechanical behavior: strength and formability of the work piece material, durability of the work pieces size effects: basic description of effects occurring due to the fact, that the quantitative relation between different features changes with decreasing size process windows and limits for forming processes tool making methods numerical modeling of processes and process chains quality assurance and metrology All topics are discussed with respect to the questions relevant to micro...

  5. Hardness of metallic crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    -known Hall–Petch relationship predicts that the strength or hardness of conventional metal alloys increases with decreasing grain sizes. However, the rela- tionship fails when the grain size is down to nanometers as many experimental results ...

  6. PRODUCTION OF HAFNIUM METAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elger, G.W.; Boubel, R.W.

    1963-01-01

    This patent deals with a process of producing pure Hf metal from oxygen- contaminated gaseous Hf chloride. The oxygen compounds in the chioride gas are halogenated by contacting the gas at elevated temperature with Cl/sub 2/ in the presence of C. The Hf chloride, still in gaseous form, is contacted with molten Mg whereby Hf metal is formed and condensed on the Mg. (AEC)

  7. Metal-Semiconductor Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, D. I.

    Metal-semiconductor contacts display a range of electrical characteristics from strongly rectifying to ohmic, each having its own applications. The rectifying properties of metal points on metallic sulphides were used extensively as detectors in early radio experiments, while during the second world war the rectifying point contact diode became important as a frequency detector and low level microwave radar detector [1]. Since 1945 the development of metal semiconductor contacts has been stimulated by the intense activity in the field of semiconductor physics and has remained vital in the ohmic connection of semiconductor devices with the outside world. The developments in surface science and the increased use of Schottky barriers in microelectronics has lead to much research with the aim of obtaining a full understanding of the physics of barrier formation and of current transport across the metal-semiconductor interface. Large gain spin electronic devices are possible with appropriate designs by incorporating ferromagnetic layers with semiconductors such as silicon [2]. This inevitably leads to metal-semiconductor contacts, and the impact of such junctions on the device must be considered. In this section we aim to look simply at the physical models that can be used to understand the electrical properties that can arise from these contacts, and then briefly discuss how deviations of these models can occur in practical junctions.

  8. Metals in fungal virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwien, Franziska; Skrahina, Volha; Kasper, Lydia; Hube, Bernhard; Brunke, Sascha

    2018-01-01

    Metals are essential for life, and they play a central role in the struggle between infecting microbes and their hosts. In fact, an important aspect of microbial pathogenesis is the 'nutritional immunity', in which metals are actively restricted (or, in an extended definition of the term, locally enriched) by the host to hinder microbial growth and virulence. Consequently, fungi have evolved often complex regulatory networks, uptake and detoxification systems for essential metals such as iron, zinc, copper, nickel and manganese. These systems often differ fundamentally from their bacterial counterparts, but even within the fungal pathogens we can find common and unique solutions to maintain metal homeostasis. Thus, we here compare the common and species-specific mechanisms used for different metals among different fungal species-focusing on important human pathogens such as Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus or Cryptococcus neoformans, but also looking at model fungi such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae or A. nidulans as well-studied examples for the underlying principles. These direct comparisons of our current knowledge reveal that we have a good understanding how model fungal pathogens take up iron or zinc, but that much is still to learn about other metals and specific adaptations of individual species-not the least to exploit this knowledge for new antifungal strategies. © FEMS 2017.

  9. Heavy Metal - Exploring a magnetised metallic asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlund, Jan-Erik; Andrews, David; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Masters, Adam; Thomas, Nicolas; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Herique, Alain; Retherford, Kurt; Tortora, Paolo; Trigo-Rodriguez, Joseph; Ivchenko, Nickolay; Simon, Sven

    2017-04-01

    We propose a spacecraft mission (Heavy Metal) to orbit and explore (16) Psyche - the largest M-class metallic asteroid in the main belt. Recent estimates of the shape, 279×232×189 km and mass, 2.7×10(19) kg make it one of the largest and densest of asteroids, and together with the high surface radar reflectivity and the spectral data measured from Earth it is consistent with a bulk composition rich in iron-nickel. The M5 mission Heavy Metal will investigate if (16) Psyche is the exposed metallic core of a planetesimal, formed early enough to melt and differentiate. High-resolution mapping of the surface in optical, IR, UV and radar wavebands, along with the determination of the shape and gravity field will be used to address the formation and subsequent evolution of (16) Psyche, determining the origin of metallic asteroids. It is conceivable that a cataclysmic collision with a second body led to the ejection of all or part of the differentiated core of the parent body. Measurements at (16) Psyche therefore provide a possibility to directly examine an iron-rich planetary core, similar to that expected at the center of all the major planets including Earth. A short-lived dynamo producing a magnetic field early in the life of (16) Psyche could have led to a remnant field (of tens of micro Tesla) being preserved in the body today. (16) Psyche is embedded in the variable flow of the solar wind. Whereas planetary magnetospheres and induced magnetospheres are the result of intense dynamo fields and dense conductive ionospheres presenting obstacles to the solar wind, (16) Psyche may show an entirely new 'class' of interaction as a consequence of its lack of a significant atmosphere, the extremely high bulk electrical conductivity of the asteroid, and the possible presence of intense magnetic fields retained in iron-rich material. The small characteristic scale of (16) Psyche ( 200 km) firmly places any solar wind interaction in the "sub-MHD" scale, in which kinetic

  10. Electrochemical nitridation of metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heli; Turner, John A.

    2015-06-30

    Electrochemical nitridation of metals and the produced metals are disclosed. An exemplary method of electrochemical nitridation of metals comprises providing an electrochemical solution at low temperature. The method also comprises providing a three-electrode potentiostat system. The method also comprises stabilizing the three-electrode potentiostat system at open circuit potential. The method also comprises applying a cathodic potential to a metal.

  11. NextFlex Flexible Hybrid Electronics Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Headquartered in San Jose, California, the “capital of Silicon Valley,” the Institute harnesses the region’s electronic manufacturing entrepreneurs ...develop and deliver people with the right skills for compa- nies within local and regional FHE ecosystems. Finally, to help better understand the

  12. Agile Enterprise Application Development with Flex

    CERN Document Server

    Team, The

    2008-01-01

    This Short Cut takes a look at a set of tools and technologies that work together to allow developers to build Rich Internet Applications (RIAs) quickly and easily on top of proven enterprise technologies that are traditionally associated with long, complex development efforts.

  13. Toxic metals and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sarmishtha; Sarkar, Shuvasree; Bhattacharya, Shelley

    2014-11-17

    The earth's resources are finite, and it can no longer be considered a source of inexhaustible bounty for the human population. However, this realization has not been able to contain the human desire for rapid industrialization. The collateral to overusing environmental resources is the high-level contamination of undesirable toxic metals, leading to bioaccumulation and cellular damage. Cytopathological features of biological systems represent a key variable in several diseases. A review of the literature revealed that autophagy (PCDII), a high-capacity process, may consist of selective elimination of vital organelles and/or proteins that intiate mechanisms of cytoprotection and homeostasis in different biological systems under normal physiological and stress conditions. However, the biological system does survive under various environmental stressors. Currently, there is no consensus that specifies a particular response as being a dependable biomarker of toxicology. Autophagy has been recorded as the initial response of a cell to a toxic metal in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Various signaling pathways are triggered through cellular proteins and/or protein kinases that can lead to autophagy, apoptosis (or necroptosis), and necrosis. Although the role of autophagy in tumorigenesis is associated with promoting tumor cell survival and/or acting as a tumor suppressive mechanism, PCDII in metal-induced toxicity has not been extensively studied. The aim of this review is to analyze the comparative cytotoxicity of metals/metalloids and nanoparticles (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Fe, and metal-NP) in cells enduring autophagy. It is noted that metals/metalloids and nanoparticles prefer ATG8/LC3 as a potent inducer of autophagy in several cell lines or animal cells. MAP kinases, death protein kinases, PI3K, AKT, mTOR, and AMP kinase have been found to be the major components of autophagy induction or inhibition in the context of cellular responses to metals/metalloids and

  14. Peroxotitanates for Biodelivery of Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, David; Elvington, M.

    2009-02-11

    Metal-based drugs are largely undeveloped in pharmacology. One limiting factor is the systemic toxicity of metal-based compounds. A solid-phase, sequestratable delivery agent for local delivery of metals could reduce systemic toxicity, facilitating new drug development in this nascent area. Amorphous peroxotitanates (APT) are ion exchange materials with high affinity for several heavy metal ions, and have been proposed to deliver or sequester metal ions in biological contexts. In the current study, we tested a hypothesis that APT are able to deliver metals or metal compounds to cells. We exposed fibroblasts (L929) or monocytes (THP1) to metal-APT materials for 72 h in vitro, then measured cellular mitochondrial activity (SDH-MTT method) to assess the biological impact of the metal-APT materials vs. metals or APT alone. APT alone did not significantly affect cellular mitochondrial activity, but all metal-APT materials suppressed the mitochondrial activity of fibroblasts (by 30-65% of controls). The concentration of metal-APT materials required to suppress cellular mitochondrial activity was below that required for metals alone, suggesting that simple extracellular release of the metals from the metal-APT materials was not the primary mechanism of mitochondrial suppression. In contrast to fibroblasts, no metal-APT material had a measurable effect on THP1 monocyte mitochondrial activity, despite potent suppression by metals alone. This latter result suggested that 'biodelivery' by metal-APT materials may be cell type-specific. Therefore, it appears that APT are plausible solid phase delivery agents of metals or metal compounds to some types of cells for potential therapeutic effect.

  15. Effects of metal-inlay thickness in polyethylene cups with metal-on-metal bearings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Vena, P.; Stolk, J.; Huiskes, R.

    2002-01-01

    A way to prevent polyethylene wear in total hip replacements is to use metal-on-metal bearings. The cup design of these bearings may be a metal inlay in a polyethylene cup. However, these metal inlays are relatively thin and may deform on loading. The purpose of the current study was to determine

  16. Self-reported neurological clinical manifestations of metal toxicity in metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lingen, Christiaan P.; Ettema, Harmen B.; Van Der Straeten, Catherine; Kollen, Bouwdewijn J.; Verheyen, Cees C. P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Adverse reactions to metal particle debris have been increasingly reported as a complication following large head metal-on-metal (MoM) hip arthroplasty. Elevated metal ion levels are a cause for concern. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether exposure to cobalt is associated with patient

  17. Measurement of HbA1c and HbA2 by Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing HbA1c programme for simultaneous management of diabetes and screening for thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Peifeng; Liu, Jiawei; Chao, Yan; Wu, Xiaobin; Xiong, Yujuan; Lin, Li; Wan, Zemin; Wu, Xinzhong; Xu, Jianhua; Zhuang, Junhua; Huang, Xianzhang

    2017-10-01

    Thalassemia could interfere with some assays for haemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) measurement, therefore, it is useful to be able to screen for thalassemia while measuring HbA 1c . We used Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing (Capillarys 2FP) HbA 1c programme to simultaneously measure HbA 1c and screen for thalassemia. Samples from 498 normal controls and 175 thalassemia patients were analysed by Capillarys 2FP HbA 1c programme (Sebia, France). For method comparison, HbA 1c was quantified by Premier Hb9210 (Trinity Biotech, Ireland) in 98 thalassaemia patients samples. For verification, HbA 1c from eight thalassaemia patients was confirmed by IFCC reference method. Among 98 thalassaemia samples, Capillarys 2FP did not provide an HbA 1c result in three samples with HbH due to the overlapping of HbBart's with HbA 1c fraction; for the remaining 95 thalassaemia samples, Bland-Altman plot showed 0.00 ± 0.35% absolute bias between two systems, and a significant positive bias above 7% was observed only in two HbH samples. The HbA 1c values obtained by Capillarys 2FP were consistent with the IFCC targets (relative bias below ± 6%) in all of the eight samples tested by both methods. For screening samples with alpha (α-) thalassaemia silent/trait or beta (β-) thalassemia trait, the optimal HbA 2 cut-off values were ≤ 2.2% and > 2.8%, respectively. Our results demonstrated the Capillarys 2FP HbA 1c system could report an accurate HbA 1c value in thalassemia silent/trait, and HbA 2 value (≤ 2.2% for α-thalassaemia silent/trait and > 2.8% for β-thalassemia trait) and abnormal bands (HbH and/or HbBart's for HbH disease, HbF for β-thalassemia) may provide valuable information for screening.

  18. Dissimilar metals joint evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, M. E.; Apodaca, L. E.

    1974-01-01

    Dissimilar metals tubular joints between 2219-T851 aluminum alloy and 304L stainless steel were fabricated and tested to evaluate bonding processes. Joints were fabricated by four processes: (1) inertia (friction) weldings, where the metals are spun and forced together to create the weld; (2) explosive welding, where the metals are impacted together at high velocity; (3) co-extrusion, where the metals are extruded in contact at high temperature to promote diffusion; and (4) swaging, where residual stresses in the metals after a stretching operation maintain forced contact in mutual shear areas. Fifteen joints of each type were prepared and evaluated in a 6.35 cm (2.50 in.) O.D. size, with 0.32 cm (0.13 in.) wall thickness, and 7.6 cm (3.0 in) total length. The joints were tested to evaluate their ability to withstand pressure cycle, thermal cycle, galvanic corrosion and burst tests. Leakage tests and other non-destructive test techniques were used to evaluate the behavior of the joints, and the microstructure of the bond areas was analyzed.

  19. Metals in edible seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, C; Napoleone, G; Luis-González, G; Gutiérrez, A J; González-Weller, D; Hardisson, A; Revert, C

    2017-04-01

    The concentration levels of 20 metals were analyzed by ICP-OES in edible seaweed (Chondrus, Eisenia, Gelidium, Himanthalia, Laminaria, Palmaria, Porphyra, Undaria), from two origins (Asia vs EU) according to their cultivation practices (conventional vs organic). Red seaweed showed higher concentrations of trace and toxic elements. Porphyra may be used as a potential bioindicator for metals. Significant differences were found between the Asian vs European mean contents. The mean Cd level from the conventional cultivation (0.28 mg/kg) was two points higher than the organic cultivation (0.13 mg/kg). A daily consumption of seaweed (4 g/day) contributes to the dietary intake of metals, mainly Mg and Cr. The average intakes of Al, Cd and Pb were 0.064, 0.001 and 0.0003 mg/day, respectively. Based on obtained results, this study suggests that exposure to the toxic metals analyzed (Al, Cd and Pb) through seaweed consumption does not raise serious health concerns, but other toxic metals should be monitored. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Polyamorphism in metalic glass.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, H. W.; Liu, H. Z.; Cheng, Y. Q.; Wen, J.; Lee, P.L.; Luo, W.K.; Shastri, S.D.; Ma, E.; X-Ray Science Division; Johns Hopkins Univ.; Chinese Academy of Sciences

    2007-03-01

    A metal, or an alloy, can often exist in more than one crystal structure. The face-centered-cubic and body-centered-cubic forms of iron (or steel) are a familiar example of such polymorphism. When metallic materials are made in the amorphous form, is a parallel 'polyamorphism' possible? So far, polyamorphic phase transitions in the glassy state have been observed only in glasses involving directional and open (such as tetrahedral) coordination environments. Here, we report an in situ X-ray diffraction observation of a pressure-induced transition between two distinct amorphous polymorphs in a Ce{sub 55}Al{sub 45} metallic glass. The large density difference observed between the two polyamorphs is attributed to their different electronic and atomic structures, in particular the bond shortening revealed by ab initio modeling of the effects of f-electron delocalization. This discovery offers a new perspective of the amorphous state of metals, and has implications for understanding the structure, evolution and properties of metallic glasses and related liquids. Our work also opens a new avenue towards technologically useful amorphous alloys that are compositionally identical but with different thermodynamic, functional and rheological properties due to different bonding and structural characteristics.

  1. Novel Ammonium Metal Borohydrides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinderslev, Jakob; Jepsen, Lars Haahr; Cerny, Radovan

    , it cannot store hydrogen reversibly. Recently, the first ammonium metal borohydride, NH4Ca(BH4)3 was published, which may be considered as substitution of K+ by NH4+ in KCa(BH4)3, due to the similar sizes of NH4+ and K+[1]. This compound successfully stabilizes NH4BH4. In the present work, a series of novel...... halide-free ammonium metal borohydrides is presented, which have the chemical compositions (NH4)xM(BH4)n+x. The ammonium metal borohydrides are synthesized by cryomilling of NH4BH4 – M(BH4)n (M = Li, Na, K, Mg, Sr, Y, Mn, La, Gd) in different ratios. A new range of ammonium metal borohydrides is formed......, and the crystal structures and thermal decompositions are investigated. Mixtures of NH4BH4 - NaBH4 do not react, while solid solutions, K1-x(NH4)xBH4, are formed for NH4BH4 - KBH4. For the other composites, novel ammonium metal borohydrides are formed. Several of these structures have been solved from high...

  2. Ultralight metal foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; He, Chunnian; Zhao, Naiqin; Nash, Philip; Shi, Chunsheng; Wang, Zejun

    2015-09-08

    Ultralight (battery electrodes; catalyst supports; and acoustic, vibration, or shock energy damping. However, most of these ultralight materials, especially ultralight metal foams, are fabricated using either expensive materials or complicated procedures, which greatly limit their large-scale production and practical applications. Here we report a simple and versatile method to obtain ultralight monolithic metal foams. These materials are fabricated with a low-cost polymeric template and the method is based on the traditional silver mirror reaction and electroless plating. We have produced ultralight monolithic metal foams, such as silver, nickel, cobalt, and copper via this method. The resultant ultralight monolithic metal foams have remarkably low densities down to 7.4 mg/cm3 or 99.9% porosity. The metal foams have a long flat stress-train curve in compression tests and the densification strain εD of the Ni/Ag foam with a porosity of 99.8% can reach 82%. The plateau stress σpl was measured and found to be in agreement with the value predicted by the cellular solids theory.

  3. LEVELING METAL COATINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, H.A.

    1959-02-10

    A method is described for applying metallic coatings to a cylinder of uranium. An aluminum-silicon coat is applied by a process consisting of first cleaning the article by immersion for 5 minutes in 50% nitric acid at 65 C. The article then is dipped through a flux, prepared by adding 10% sodium fluoride to 90% of a flux comprising 53% potassium chloride, 42% lithium chloride, and 5% sodium chloride at 560 for 2 minutes and then directly into a molten metal bath comprising 99% aluminun and 12% silicon at 620 C for 3 minutes. While the coating is yet molten the article is transferred to a pair of steel rollers and rolled until the coating solidifies. By varying the composition of the flux other metals such as zinc, lead or the like may be coated on uranium in a similar manner.

  4. Functional memory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunne, D.P.

    2000-01-01

    The field of shape memory phenomena in metals and alloys has developed in a sporadic fashion from a scientific curiosity to a vigorously growing niche industry, over a period close to a full working lifetime. Memory metal research and development is replete with scientist and engineer 'true believers', who can finally feel content that their longstanding confidence in the potential of these unusual functional materials has not been misplaced. This paper reviews the current range of medical and non-medical systems and devices which are based on memory metals and attempts to predict trends in applications over the next decade. The market is dominated by Ni Ti alloys which have proved to exhibit the best and most reproducible properties for application in a wide range of medical and non-medical devices

  5. Metal fuel safety performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, K.J. Jr.; Tentner, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    The current development of breeder reactor systems has lead to the renewed interest in metal fuels as the driver material. Modeling efforts were begun to provide a mechanistic description of the metal fuel during anticipated and hypothetical transients within the context of the SAS4A accident analysis code system. Through validation exercises using experimental results of metal fuel TREAT tests, confidence is being developed on the nature and accuracy of the modeling and implementation. Prefailure characterization, transient pin response, margins to failure, axial in-pin fuel relocation prior to cladding breach, and molten fuel relocation after cladding breach are considered. Transient time scales ranging from milliseconds to many hours can be studied with all the reactivity feedbacks evaluated

  6. Noble metal ionic catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, M S; Madras, Giridhar; Patil, K C

    2009-06-16

    Because of growing environmental concerns and increasingly stringent regulations governing auto emissions, new more efficient exhaust catalysts are needed to reduce the amount of pollutants released from internal combustion engines. To accomplish this goal, the major pollutants in exhaust-CO, NO(x), and unburned hydrocarbons-need to be fully converted to CO(2), N(2), and H(2)O. Most exhaust catalysts contain nanocrystalline noble metals (Pt, Pd, Rh) dispersed on oxide supports such as Al(2)O(3) or SiO(2) promoted by CeO(2). However, in conventional catalysts, only the surface atoms of the noble metal particles serve as adsorption sites, and even in 4-6 nm metal particles, only 1/4 to 1/5 of the total noble metal atoms are utilized for catalytic conversion. The complete dispersion of noble metals can be achieved only as ions within an oxide support. In this Account, we describe a novel solution to this dispersion problem: a new solution combustion method for synthesizing dispersed noble metal ionic catalysts. We have synthesized nanocrystalline, single-phase Ce(1-x)M(x)O(2-delta) and Ce(1-x-y)Ti(y)M(x)O(2-delta) (M = Pt, Pd, Rh; x = 0.01-0.02, delta approximately x, y = 0.15-0.25) oxides in fluorite structure. In these oxide catalysts, Pt(2+), Pd(2+), or Rh(3+) ions are substituted only to the extent of 1-2% of Ce(4+) ion. Lower-valent noble metal ion substitution in CeO(2) creates oxygen vacancies. Reducing molecules (CO, H(2), NH(3)) are adsorbed onto electron-deficient noble metal ions, while oxidizing (O(2), NO) molecules are absorbed onto electron-rich oxide ion vacancy sites. The rates of CO and hydrocarbon oxidation and NO(x) reduction (with >80% N(2) selectivity) are 15-30 times higher in the presence of these ionic catalysts than when the same amount of noble metal loaded on an oxide support is used. Catalysts with palladium ion dispersed in CeO(2) or Ce(1-x)Ti(x)O(2) were far superior to Pt or Rh ionic catalysts. Therefore, we have demonstrated that the

  7. Heavy Metal Pumps in Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J.F.

    2000-10-01

    The long term goal of the funded research is to understand how heavy metals are taken up from the soil and translocated throughout the plant. The potential application of this research is to create plants with better heavy metal uptake systems and thereby improve the ability of these plants to help clean up toxic metals from soils. A rate limiting step is using plant for bioremediation is the normally poor capacity of plants to concentrate toxic metals. Our interest in metal ion transport systems includes those for essential mineral nutrients such as molybdenum, copper, iron, manganese, as well as toxic metals such as cerium, mercury, cesium, cadmium, arsenic and selenium. Understanding the pathways by which toxic metals accumulate in plants will enable the engineering of plants to exclude toxic metals and create healthier food sources, or to extract toxic metals from the soil as a strategy to clean up polluted lands and water.

  8. Metal Hypersensitivity in Orthodontic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Maheshwari Sanjeev K

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic treatment of individuals with metal hypersensitivity is a matter of concern for the orthodontist. Orthodontic appliances contain metals like Nickel, Cobalt and Chromium etc. Metals may cause allergic reactions and are known as allergens. Reaction to these metals is due to biodegradation of metals in the oral cavity. This may lead to the formation of corrosion products and their exposure to the patient. Nickel is the most common metal to cause hypersensitivity reaction. Chromium ranks second among the metals, known to trigger allergic reactions. The adverse biological reactions to these metals may include hypersensitivity, dermatitis and asthma. In addition, a significant carcinogenic and mutagenic potential has been demonstrated. The orthodontist must be familiar with the best possible alternative treatment modalities to provide the safest, most effective care possible in these cases. The present article focuses on the issue of metal hypersensitivity and its management in orthodontic

  9. Sensor for metal detection

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2014-06-26

    NOVELTY - The sensor has a microfluidic flow channel that is provided with an inlet port, an outlet port, and a detection chamber. The detection chamber is provided with a group of sensing electrodes (4) having a working electrode (8), a counter electrode (9), and a reference electrode (10). A flow sensor is configured to measure flow in the channel. A temperature sensor (6) is configured to measure temperature in the channel (3). An electrical connection is configured to connect the sensor to a sensing device. USE - Sensor for detecting metal such as toxic metal in sample such as clinical sample such as stool, saliva, sputum, bronchial lavage, urine, vaginal swab, nasal swab, biopsy, tissue, tears, breath, blood, serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, peritoneal fluid, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, joint fluid, and amniotic fluid, water sample, food sample, air sample, and soil sample (all claimed). ADVANTAGE - The sensor for use with the portable analytical instrument is configured for detection of metalsin samples. The sensor can provide the excellent solution for on-site metal detection, including heavy metal detection. The sensors can provide significant advantages in higher throughput, lower cost, at the same time being less labor intensive and less dependent on individual skills. The disposable design of the sensor, the enhanced reliability and repeatability of measurements can be obtained. The sensors can be widely applied in various industries. DETAILED DESCRIPTION - INDEPENDENT CLAIMS are included for the following: (1) a system for detecting metal in sample; and (2) a method for using sensor for detecting metal in sample. DESCRIPTION OF DRAWING(S) - The drawing shows a schematic view of the sensor prototype. Channel (3) Sensing electrodes (4) Temperature sensor (6) Working electrode (8) Counter electrode (9) Reference electrode (10)

  10. Liquid metal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, William E.

    1982-01-01

    The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair.

  11. Liquid metal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    A liquid metal pump comprising a shaft support structure which is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft carries an impeller and the support structure carries an impeller cage which is slidably disposed in a diffuser so as to allow complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair. The diffuser is concentrically supported in the pump housing which also takes up all reaction forces generated by the discharge of the liquid metal from the diffuser, with floating seals arranged between impeller cage and the diffuser. The space between the diffuser and the pump housing permits the incoming liquid to essentially surround the diffuser. (author)

  12. Liquid metal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1982-01-01

    The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair

  13. Metallic coating of microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, S.F.

    1980-01-01

    Extremely smooth, uniform metal coatings of micrometer thicknesses on microscopic glass spheres (microspheres) are often needed as targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The first part of this paper reviews those methods used successfully to provide metal coated microspheres for ICF targets, including magnetron sputtering, electro- and electroless plating, and chemical vapor pyrolysis. The second part of this paper discusses some of the critical aspects of magnetron sputter coating of microspheres, including substrate requirements, the sticking of microspheres during coating (preventing a uniform coating), and the difficulties in growing the desired dense, smooth, uniform microstructure on continuously moving spherical substrates

  14. Metallic coating of microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, S.F.

    1980-08-15

    Extremely smooth, uniform metal coatings of micrometer thicknesses on microscopic glass spheres (microspheres) are often needed as targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The first part of this paper reviews those methods used successfully to provide metal coated microspheres for ICF targets, including magnetron sputtering, electro- and electroless plating, and chemical vapor pyrolysis. The second part of this paper discusses some of the critical aspects of magnetron sputter coating of microspheres, including substrate requirements, the sticking of microspheres during coating (preventing a uniform coating), and the difficulties in growing the desired dense, smooth, uniform microstructure on continuously moving spherical substrates.

  15. Analysis of metal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez T, J.J.; Lopez M, J.; Sandoval J, A.R.; Villasenor S, P.; Aspiazu F, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    An elemental analysis, metallographic and of phases was realized in order to determine the oxidation states of Fe contained in three metallic pieces: block, plate and cylinder of unknown material. Results are presented from the elemental analysis which was carried out in the Tandem Accelerator of ININ by Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The phase analysis was carried out by X-ray diffraction which allowed to know the type of alloy or alloys formed. The combined application of nuclear techniques with metallographic techniques allows the integral characterization of industrial metals. (Author)

  16. Method of dissolving metal ruthenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuno, Masao; Soda, Yasuhiko; Kuroda, Sadaomi; Koga, Tadaaki.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To dissolve and clean metal ruthenium deposited to the inner surface of a dissolving vessel for spent fuel rods. Method: Metal ruthenium is dissolved in a solution of an alkali metal hydroxide to which potassium permanganate is added. As the alkali metal hydroxide used herein there can be mentioned potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide and lithium hydroxide can be mentioned, which is used as an aqueous solution from 5 to 20 % concentration in view of the solubility of metal ruthenium and economical merit. Further, potassium permanganate is used by adding to the solution of alkali metal hydroxide at a concentration of 1 to 5 %. (Yoshihara, H.)

  17. FFTF metal fuel pin fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, J.O.; Benecke, M.W.; Feigenbutz, L.V.

    1989-01-01

    A major new initiative to develop, irradiate, and qualify a binary uranium/zirconium metal-fuel system in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) has been implemented by the Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Metal-fuel test assemblies have been designed and fabricated, and are now being irradiated in FFTF to provide the data needed to support the potential use of binary metal fuels in FFTF and other liquid-metal reactors. These development efforts support licensing activities for metal-fuel use in near-term advanced liquid-metal reactors

  18. Commodity profiles for selected metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, O.; Wilson, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the basic characteristics of 35 metals and gives the prices and production of these metals for the period 1979 to 1983/4. The description of each metal includes the ore grades and reserves, the major minerals in which the metal occurs, and the discovery, selected physical properties, sources, uses, substitutes, and effects on the environment of the metal. Graphs showing price and production cover the period 1950 to 1984, and possible future developments in these areas are forecast for each metal until the year 2000

  19. Metals in Metal Salts: A Copper Mirror Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    A simple lecture demonstration is described to show the latent presence of metal atoms in a metal salt. Copper(II) formate tetrahydrate is heated in a round-bottom flask forming a high-quality copper mirror.

  20. Metal-on-metal bearings a clinical practicum

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Lynne C; Greenwald, A Seth

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses the background and significance of factors potentially influencing clinical and biological outcomes of metal-on-metal hip implants. Includes discussion of reported complications including pseudotumors and other lymphocytic-based responses.

  1. Performance of metallic fuels in liquid-metal fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, B.R.; Walters, L.C.; Kittel, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Interest in metallic fuels for liquid-metal fast reactors has come full circle. Metallic fuels are once again a viable alternative for fast reactors because reactor outlet temperature of interest to industry are well within the range where metallic fuels have demonstrated high burnup and reliable performance. In addition, metallic fuel is very tolerant of off-normal events of its high thermal conductivity and fuel behavior. Futhermore, metallic fuels lend themselves to compact and simplified reprocessing and refabrication technologies, a key feature in a new concept for deployment of fast reactors called the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). The IFR concept is a metallic-fueled pool reactor(s) coupled to an integral-remote reprocessing and fabrication facility. The purpose of this paper is to review recent metallic fuel performance, much of which was tested and proven during the twenty years of EBR-II operation

  2. Metal separation from multi metallic solutions by grape stalks

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Bas

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of various industries such as mine and metallurgy, wastewaters containing metals are directly or indirectly discharged into the environment. One of the most dangerous effluents discharged are Acid Mine Drainage (AMD), the outflows of acidic waters from metal mines. This water needs to be treated so it can be reused and the metal ions in this polluted water can be recuperated. The metals that occur in the polluted water are difficult to eliminate. To e...

  3. The Production of Uranium Metal by Metal Hydrides Incorporated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, P. P.

    1943-01-01

    Metal Hydrides Incorporated was a pioneer in the production of uranium metal on a commercial scale and supplied it to all the laboratories interested in the original research, before other methods for its production were developed. Metal Hydrides Inc. supplied the major part of the metal for the construction of the first experimental pile which, on December 2, 1942, demonstrated the feasibility of the self-sustaining chain reaction and the release of atomic energy.

  4. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    within and below cloud scavenging, whereby the wet aerosol particles are collected by falling raindrops. In occult deposition, wetted particles (fog and mist) are deposited by impaction or turbulent transfer [3]. A high proportion of atmospheric heavy metals entering aquatic systems is in small particulate « IJlm) or soluble ...

  5. Metal cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do so by poison control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person swallowed the metal cleaner, give them water or milk right away, unless a provider tells you not ...

  6. Wings of Stretched Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelken, Miranda

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a lesson that allows students to make bird ornaments using a metal tooling as it can be textured, cut, and colored. In this lesson, students choose a bird and sketch it on a piece of paper. Once the sketches are complete, students copy their pictures on a second piece of paper by taping the sketch over a sheet of blank paper…

  7. Chelation in metal intoxication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, Jan; Skaug, Marit Aralt; Cao, yang

    2015-01-01

    The present review provides an update of the general principles for the investigation and use of chelating agents in the treatment of intoxications by metals. The clinical use of the old chelators EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate) and BAL (2,3-dimercaptopropanol) is now limited due to the incon......The present review provides an update of the general principles for the investigation and use of chelating agents in the treatment of intoxications by metals. The clinical use of the old chelators EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate) and BAL (2,3-dimercaptopropanol) is now limited due...... to the inconvenience of parenteral administration, their own toxicity and tendency to increase the neurotoxicity of several metals. The hydrophilic dithiol chelators DMSA (meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid) and DMPS (2,3-dimercapto-propanesulphonate) are less toxic and more efficient than BAL in the clinical treatment...... of heavy metal poisoning, and available as capsules for oral use. In copper overload, DMSA appears to be a potent antidote, although d-penicillamine is still widely used. In the chelation of iron, the thiols are inefficient, since iron has higher affinity for ligands with nitrogen and oxygen, but the new...

  8. Flexible Laser Metal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Sigurd; Jørgensen, Steffen Nordahl; Kristiansen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new flexible and fast approach to laser cutting called ROBOCUT. Combined with CAD/CAM technology, laser cutting of metal provides the flexibility to perform one-of-a-kind cutting and hereby realises mass production of customised products. Today’s laser cutting techniques...

  9. Flexible metal bellows

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    A set of flexible metal bellows being fatigue-tested by repeated offset motion. Such bellows assemblies were used in the SPS vacuum system at places where , for instance, beam stoppers and collimators had to be moved frequently in and out of the beam path.

  10. Metal Organic Framework

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    X-ray crystallography is the most comprehensive character- ization tool to gain a molecular level understanding of a range of crystalline materials. One of the recent areas in which research with the aid of crystallography has exploded, is the metal organic frameworks (MOFs). These are porous crystal- line solids with ...

  11. Memories in Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knepper, Claire A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author shares a classroom project that she introduced to her students. The project involved decorating photographs with some metal materials. The project was inspired by "The Frame," a painting by the artist Frida Kahlo. This project aims to make students think critically and connect art to their lives.

  12. Hardness of metallic crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents a new formula for calculating the hardness of metallic crystals, resulted from the research on the critical grain size with stable dislocations. The formula is = 6 /[(1 – )], where is the hardness, the coefficient, the shear modulus, the Poisson's ratio, a function of the radius of an atom () ...

  13. Complex metal hydrides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ley, Morten Brix

    2014-01-01

    og batterier de to mest lovende energibærere til mobile applikationer. Komplekse metalhydrider er blevet undersøgt i vid udstrækning over de sidste tyve år, siden de gravimetrisk og volumetrisk kan indeholde store mængder brint. Derfor er metal borhydrider velegnet til faststofopbevaring af brint...

  14. Metal forming and lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    2000-01-01

    Lubrication is essential in most metal forming processes. The lubricant film has two basic functions, [1]: i. to separate the work piece and tool surfaces and ii. to cool the workpiece and the tool. Separation of the two surfaces implies lower friction facilitating deformation and lowering the tool...

  15. Monolithic metal oxide transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yongsuk; Park, Won-Yeong; Kang, Moon Sung; Yi, Gi-Ra; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2015-04-28

    We devised a simple transparent metal oxide thin film transistor architecture composed of only two component materials, an amorphous metal oxide and ion gel gate dielectric, which could be entirely assembled using room-temperature processes on a plastic substrate. The geometry cleverly takes advantage of the unique characteristics of the two components. An oxide layer is metallized upon exposure to plasma, leading to the formation of a monolithic source-channel-drain oxide layer, and the ion gel gate dielectric is used to gate the transistor channel effectively at low voltages through a coplanar gate. We confirmed that the method is generally applicable to a variety of sol-gel-processed amorphous metal oxides, including indium oxide, indium zinc oxide, and indium gallium zinc oxide. An inverter NOT logic device was assembled using the resulting devices as a proof of concept demonstration of the applicability of the devices to logic circuits. The favorable characteristics of these devices, including (i) the simplicity of the device structure with only two components, (ii) the benign fabrication processes at room temperature, (iii) the low-voltage operation under 2 V, and (iv) the excellent and stable electrical performances, together support the application of these devices to low-cost portable gadgets, i.e., cheap electronics.

  16. Pile on the metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dung-Hai

    2008-09-01

    Discovering superconductivity above room temperature is a dream for modern science and technology. Now, theorists propose that for certain types of superconductors, contact with a metal layer could greatly increase the transition temperatures of these materials—in some cases by as much as an order of magnitude.

  17. Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 11. Molecule Matters - Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs). R Sarvanakumar S Sankararaman. Feature Article Volume 12 Issue 11 November 2007 pp 77-86. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  18. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, William V.

    1983-01-01

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as sources of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  19. Thin films of metal-organic compounds and metal nanoparticle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thin films of metal-organic compounds and metal nanoparticle-embedded polymers for nonlinear optical applications. S Philip Anthony Shatabdi Porel D ... Thin films based on two very different metal-organic systems are developed and some nonlinear optical applications are explored. A family of zinc complexes which ...

  20. Direct metal laser sintering: a digitised metal casting technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, K Vijay; Nandini, V Vidyashree

    2013-12-01

    Dental technology is undergoing advancements at a fast pace and technology is being imported from various other fields. One such imported technology is direct metal laser sintering technology for casting metal crowns. This article will discuss the process of laser sintering for making metal crowns and fixed partial dentures with a understanding of their pros and cons.

  1. Immunoglobulin classes, metal binding proteins, and trace metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , IgA and IgM), metal binding proteins (Transferrin, Caeruloplasmin, Alpha-2- Macroglobulin and Haptoglobin) and nutritionally essential trace metals/heavy metals (Zn, Fe, Se, Cu, Mg, Cd and Pb) in Nigerian cassava processors using single ...

  2. Transition metals in carbohydrate chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Robert

    1997-01-01

    This review describes the application of transition metal mediated reactions in carbohydrate synthesis. The different metal mediated transformations are divided into reaction types and illustrated by various examples on monosaccharide derivatives. Carbon-carbon bond forming reactions are further ...

  3. Extraterrestrial Metals Processing, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Extraterrestrial Metals Processing (EMP) system produces iron, silicon, and light metals from Mars, Moon, or asteroid resources in support of advanced human...

  4. Electrochemical Interphases for High-Energy Storage Using Reactive Metal Anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Shuya

    2017-12-11

    Conspectus Stable electrochemical interphases play a critical role in regulating transport of mass and charge in all electrochemical energy storage (EES) systems. In state-of-the-art rechargeable lithium ion batteries, they are rarely formed by design but instead spontaneously emerge from electrochemical degradation of electrolyte and electrode components. High-energy secondary batteries that utilize reactive metal anodes (e.g., Li, Na, Si, Sn, Al) to store large amounts of charge by alloying and/or electrodeposition reactions introduce fundamental challenges that require rational design in order to stabilize the interphases. Chemical instability of the electrodes in contact with electrolytes, morphological instability of the metal–electrolyte interface upon plating and stripping, and hydrodynamic-instability-induced electroconvection of the electrolyte at high currents are all known to cause metal electrode–electrolyte interfaces to continuously evolve in morphology, uniformity, and composition. Additionally, metal anodes undergo large changes in volume during lithiation and delithiation, which means that even in the rare cases where spontaneously formed solid electrode–electrolyte interphases (SEIs) are in thermodynamic equilibrium with the electrode, the SEI is under dynamic strain, which inevitably leads to cracking and/or rupture during extended battery cycling. There is an urgent need for interphases that are able to overcome each of these sources of instability with minimal losses of electrolyte and electrode components. Complementary chemical synthesis strategies are likewise urgently needed to create self-limited and mechanically durable SEIs that are able to flex and shrink to accommodate volume change. These needs are acute for practically relevant cells that cannot utilize large excesses of anode and electrolyte as employed in proof-of-concept-type experiments reported in the scientific literature. This disconnect between practical needs and

  5. Metal semiconductor contacts and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Simon S; Einspruch, Norman G

    1986-01-01

    VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 13: Metal-Semiconductor Contacts and Devices presents the physics, technology, and applications of metal-semiconductor barriers in digital integrated circuits. The emphasis is placed on the interplay among the theory, processing, and characterization techniques in the development of practical metal-semiconductor contacts and devices.This volume contains chapters that are devoted to the discussion of the physics of metal-semiconductor interfaces and its basic phenomena; fabrication procedures; and interface characterization techniques, particularl

  6. Blackletter logotypes and metal music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus

    2016-01-01

    Text and band logos based on blackletter scripts are a common sight in visual metal music culture such as on album covers. This article develops a framework for analysing the affinity between blackletter script and metal music. The analytical framework includes five themes: genre tradition....... These insights provide an answer to the question why blackletter scripts have become part of the visual repertoire of metal music and why so many famous metal band logotypes are based on blackletter....

  7. Birch's Law for fluid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaner, J.W.; Hixson, R.S.; Winkler, M.A.; Boness, D.A.; Brown, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    By comparing acoustic velocities in fluid metals over a very wide range of densities we have established Birch's Law as an approximate representation over the entire liquid range. For a given liquid metal the acoustic velocity is close to linear in density, with a slope determined by the atomic weight. The measurements include isobaric expansion to less than half normal density, ultrasonics on molten metals at 1 atmosphere, and shock melted metals to greater than twice normal density

  8. Upgrading platform using alkali metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A process for removing sulfur, nitrogen or metals from an oil feedstock (such as heavy oil, bitumen, shale oil, etc.) The method involves reacting the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and a radical capping substance. The alkali metal reacts with the metal, sulfur or nitrogen content to form one or more inorganic products and the radical capping substance reacts with the carbon and hydrogen content to form a hydrocarbon phase. The inorganic products may then be separated out from the hydrocarbon phase.

  9. Methods of recovering alkali metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Rigali, Mark J

    2014-03-04

    Approaches for alkali metal extraction, sequestration and recovery are described. For example, a method of recovering alkali metals includes providing a CST or CST-like (e.g., small pore zeolite) material. The alkali metal species is scavenged from the liquid mixture by the CST or CST-like material. The alkali metal species is extracted from the CST or CST-like material.

  10. Metal allergy and second-generation metal-on-metal arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousen, Philippa J; Gawkrodger, David J

    2012-02-01

    There are concerns about the induction of metal allergy with second-generation metal-on-metal prostheses, and the role that this may play in the development of complications such as 'pseudotumours' or failure of the implant. In this review, we attempt to set out the current knowledge on this subject. From a review of the literature, it is apparent that the first-generation metal-on-metal replacement hips did cause metal sensitization, and that joint failure was associated with this, although it is still not clear which one led to the other. Highly engineered second-generation metal-on-metal arthroplasties used in joint resurfacings are now increasingly employed. Several studies have recently shown an association between metal sensitization and peri-implant hypersensitivity reactions and implant loosening and failure, although the overall risk appears to be low. The pragmatic approach adopted by most contact dermatologists for patients known to be allergic to nickel, cobalt or chromium and who require joint replacement is to recommend prostheses made of titanium-based alloys. Patch testing continues to be a useful tool as laboratory investigations for metal hypersensitivity continue to emerge. The development of guidelines on the management of patients receiving metal-on-metal arthroplasties suspected of being metal-allergic is desirable. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Neurotoxicity of Metal Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, V M; Aschner, M; Marreilha Dos Santos, A P

    2017-01-01

    Metals are the oldest toxins known to humans. Metals differ from other toxic substances in that they are neither created nor destroyed by humans (Casarett and Doull's, Toxicology: the basic science of poisons, 8th edn. McGraw-Hill, London, 2013). Metals are of great importance in our daily life and their frequent use makes their omnipresence and a constant source of human exposure. Metals such as arsenic [As], lead [Pb], mercury [Hg], aluminum [Al] and cadmium [Cd] do not have any specific role in an organism and can be toxic even at low levels. The Substance Priority List of Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) ranked substances based on a combination of their frequency, toxicity, and potential for human exposure. In this list, As, Pb, Hg, and Cd occupy the first, second, third, and seventh positions, respectively (ATSDR, Priority list of hazardous substances. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Atlanta, 2016). Besides existing individually, these metals are also (or mainly) found as mixtures in various parts of the ecosystem (Cobbina SJ, Chen Y, Zhou Z, Wub X, Feng W, Wang W, Mao G, Xu H, Zhang Z, Wua X, Yang L, Chemosphere 132:79-86, 2015). Interactions among components of a mixture may change toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics (Spurgeon DJ, Jones OAH, Dorne J-L, Svendsen C, Swain S, Stürzenbaum SR, Sci Total Environ 408:3725-3734, 2010) and may result in greater (synergistic) toxicity (Lister LJ, Svendsen C, Wright J, Hooper HL, Spurgeon DJ, Environ Int 37:663-670, 2011). This is particularly worrisome when the components of the mixture individually attack the same organs. On the other hand, metals such as manganese [Mn], iron [Fe], copper [Cu], and zinc [Zn] are essential metals, and their presence in the body below or above homeostatic levels can also lead to disease states (Annangi B, Bonassi S, Marcos R, Hernández A, Mutat Res 770(Pt A):140-161, 2016). Pb, As, Cd, and Hg can induce Fe, Cu, and Zn

  12. Biodigestão anaeróbia de dejetos de caprinos e ovinos em reator contínuo de PVC flexível Anaerobic digestion of goat and sheep wastes in a continuous reactor of flexible PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo G. de Quadros

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A escassez de fontes energéticas e as altas taxas de mortalidade do rebanho são dois grandes problemas para os agricultores familiares no semiárido brasileiro. De setembro de 2006 a abril de 2007 um reator contínuo com gasômetro em PVC flexível, com 33 m³ de volume, instalado na Estação Experimental da EBDA, Jaguarari, Estado da Bahia, foi monitorado quanto aos parâmetros bioquímicos, microbiológicos e parasitários do afluente e efluente, sendo avaliadas a produção e a composição do biogás, além da utilização do biofertilizante em capim-elefante. Com o manejo adequado, o poder poluente dos dejetos foi reduzido significativamente. Microbiologicamente, a eficiência de remoção de coliformes totais e fecais se manteve acima de 98% enquanto os ovos dos principais endoparasitos foram eliminados com o tratamento. A produção de biogás foi de 0,061 m³ kg-1 de esterco. Basicamente, o biogás apresentou, em sua composição, 58 e 34% de metano e gás carbônico, respectivamente. O biofertilizante (pH 7,5 foi uma boa fonte de nutrientes, sobretudo de nitrogênio (64 g 100L-1, 80% na forma amoniacal e potássio (214 g 100L-1, aumentando a produção de forragem sem alterações significativas na composição bromatológica, digestibilidade "in vitro" da matéria seca e teor de minerais.The scarcity of energy resources and the high livestock mortality rates are perpetual problems for small farmers of the Brazilian semi-arid region. From September 2006 to April 2007 a continuous reactor, of 33 m³ with gasometer in PVC flexible film, was installed at the EBDA Experimental Station, Jaguarari, Bahia State and the affluent and effluent biochemical, microbiological, and parasitological characteristics were monitored, the biogas production and composition being evaluated, as well as the use of the biofertilizer in elephant grass. With adequate management, the pollution power of residues reduced significantly. Microbiologically, the

  13. Controle Sanitário de Filmes Flexíveis de PVC Comercializados no Estado do Rio de Janeiro | Sanitary Control of Flexible PVC films Commercialized in the State of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Silvestre Bazilio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas trinta e sete amostras de filme flexível de PVC quanto à migração específica dos plastificantes ftalato de di-(2-etil-hexila – DEHP (Nº CAS 117-81-7 e adipato de di-(2-etil-hexila – DEHA (Nº CAS 103-23-1 da embalagem para alimentos gordurosos, utilizando-se simulante. A Resolução nº 17, de 17 de março de 2008, publicada pela ANVISA, estabelece limite de migração específica para DEHP de 1,5 mg kg-1 do simulante e para o DEHA em 18 mg kg-1 do simulante. O teste de migração foi realizado por meio do contato entre 1 dm2 do filme de PVC e 100 mL de simulante de alimento, solução de etanol a 95% (v/v, por 48 h a 20ºC. As migrações dos plastificantes DEHP e DEHA foram determinadas por cromatografia a gás com detecção por ionização em chama e coluna de sílica fundida recoberta internamente com fase estacionária constituída de 5% fenilmetilsilicone. As amostras apresentaram resultados para a migração específica de DEHP entre não detectável (< 0,35 mg kg-1 e 304 mg kg-1 de simulante de alimentos e entre não detectável (< 2,23 mg kg-1 e 231 mg kg-1 de simulante de alimentos para o DEHA. Dentre as amostras ensaiadas, 95% apresentaram resultado insatisfatório para pelo menos um dos plastificantes. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- In total, 37 samples of flexible PVC films were analyzed for specific migration of di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and di-(2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA from packaging to fatty foods, using simulant. The Resolution n. 17, of March 17, 2008, published by ANVISA, establishes specific migration limits for DEHP in 1.5 mg kg−1 of simulant and for DEHA in 18 mg kg−1 of simulant. The migration test was performed through contact between a 1-dm2 PVC film cutout and 100 mL of food simulant, ethanol 95% (v/v, for 48 h at 20ºC. The migrations of DEHP and DEHA were determined by gas chromatography with a flame ionization

  14. Fabrication of metallic glass structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, C.F.

    1983-10-20

    Amorphous metal powders or ribbons are fabricated into solid shapes of appreciable thickness by the application of compaction energy. The temperature regime wherein the amorphous metal deforms by viscous flow is measured. The metal powders or ribbons are compacted within the temperature regime.

  15. Bygningsmaterialer - Metallære

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders

    Textbook on basic metallurgy for civil engineering students on their first courses. The basic properties and corrosion properties of metals are treated in common. Steel and the heat treatments of steel, light metals and other metals used in the civil engineering are described....

  16. Electrical Conductivity in Transition Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Christopher; Vickneson, Kishanda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this "Science Note" is to describe how to test the electron-sea model to determine whether it accurately predicts relative electrical conductivity for first-row transition metals. In the electron-sea model, a metal crystal is viewed as a three-dimensional array of metal cations immersed in a sea of delocalised valence…

  17. METHOD OF PURIFYING URANIUM METAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, R.E.; Morrison, B.H.

    1958-12-23

    The removal of lmpurities from uranlum metal can be done by a process conslstlng of contacting the metal with liquid mercury at 300 icient laborato C, separating the impunitycontalnlng slag formed, cooling the slag-free liquld substantlally below the point at which uranlum mercurlde sollds form, removlng the mercury from the solids, and recovering metallic uranium by heating the solids.

  18. 21 CFR 888.3640 - Shoulder joint metal/metal or metal/polymer constrained cemented prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... constrained cemented prosthesis. 888.3640 Section 888.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... § 888.3640 Shoulder joint metal/metal or metal/polymer constrained cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A shoulder joint metal/metal or metal/polymer constrained cemented prosthesis is a device...

  19. Plant responses to metal toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briat, J.F. [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France). Biochimie et physiologie moleculaire des plantes, CNRS, URA 2133; Lebrun, M. [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France). Biochimie et physiologie vegetale appliquee

    1999-01-01

    Increased metal concentration in the soils, up to toxic levels, is becoming an important environmental problem. Safety rule evolution will require solutions in order to cope with food safety rules, and to freeze metal leakage from heavily metal-poisoned soils, such as those from industrial fallows. In this context, plants could serve to develop bio-assays in order to promote new standards, more realistic than the mass of a given metal per kg of soil, that does not consider the metal bio-disponibility. Plants could also be used for phyto-extraction and/or phyto-stabilization. To reach these objectives, a genetic approach could be useful to generate metal-tolerant plants with enough biomass. In this work is more particularly studied the plant responses to metal toxicity. Metal toxicity for living organisms involves oxidative and /or genotoxic mechanisms. Plant protection against metal toxicity occurs, at least in part, through control of root metal uptake and of long distance metal transport. Inside cells, proteins such as ferritins and metallothioneins, and glutathione-derived peptides named phyto-chelatins, participate in excess metal storage and detoxification. Low molecular weight organic molecules, mainly organic acids and amino acids and their derivatives, also play an important role in plant metal homeostasis. When these systems are overloaded, oxidative stress defense mechanisms are activated. Molecular and cellular knowledge of these processes will be necessary to improve plant metal resistance. Occurrence of naturally tolerant plants which hyper accumulate metals provides helpful tools for this research. (authors) 130 refs.

  20. Electrodynamics of Metallic Superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dressel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical and experimental aspects of the microwave, terahertz, and infrared properties of superconductors are discussed. Electrodynamics can provide information about the superconducting condensate as well as about the quasiparticles. The aim is to understand the frequency dependence of the complex conductivity, the change with temperature and time, and its dependence on material parameters. We confine ourselves to conventional metallic superconductors, in particular, Nb and related nitrides and review the seminal papers but also highlight latest developments and recent experimental achievements. The possibility to produce well-defined thin films of metallic superconductors that can be tuned in their properties allows the exploration of fundamental issues, such as the superconductor-insulator transition; furthermore it provides the basis for the development of novel and advanced applications, for instance, superconducting single-photon detectors.