WorldWideScience

Sample records for metal diboride powders

  1. Synthesis and Processing of Ultra-High Temperature Metal Carbide and Metal Diboride Nanocomposite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Synthesis and Processing of Ultra-High Temperature Metal Carbide and Metal Diboride Nanocomposite Materials Final Performance Report Contract Number...sintered commercially-available powders. Each project is summarized below: Synthesis : Zirconium diboride and a zirconium diboride/tantalum diboride...mixture were synthesized by solution-based processing. Zirconium n-propoxide was refluxed with 2,4-pentanedione to form zirconium diketonate . This compound

  2. Preparation of titanium diboride powders from titanium alkoxide and boron carbide powder

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hamed Sinaei Pour Fard; Hamidreza Baharvandi

    2011-07-01

    Titanium diboride powders were prepared through a sol–gel and boron carbide reduction route by using TTIP and B4C as titanium and boron sources. The influence of TTIP concentration, reaction temperature and molar ratio of precursors on the synthesis of titanium diboride was investigated. Three different concentrations of TTIP solution, 0.033/0.05/0.1, were prepared and the molar ratio of B4C to TTIP varied from 1.3 to 2.5. The results indicated that as the TTIP concentration had an important role in gel formation, the reaction temperature and B4C to TTIP molar ratio showed obvious effects on the formation of TiB2. Pure TiB2 was prepared using molar composition of Ti : B4C = 1 : 2.3 and the optimum synthesis temperature was 1200°C.

  3. Zirconium Diboride Powders Synthesized by Boro/Carbothermal Reaction Using Sol-Gel Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季惠明; 范红娜; 丰红军; 孙晓红

    2015-01-01

    A single phase of zirconium diboride(ZrB2)powder was successfully synthesized by sol-gel method in Zr-B-C-O system, using zirconium oxychloride(ZrOCl2·8H2O), nano-scale boron and sucrose(C12H22O11)as the starting materials and propylene oxide(PO)as complexing agent at a low temperature. Simultaneously, the experimen-tal and theoretical studies of ZrB2 synthesized by boro/carbothermal reduction from novel sol-gel technology were discussed. The results indicated that the pure rod-like ZrB2 powder without residual ZrO2 phase could be obtained with a B/Zr molar ratio of 3.5 at 1 400℃in argon atmosphere. Besides, in this study, a kinetic model for the Zr-B-C-O sys-tem producing ZrB2 by boro/carbothermal reaction was established based on thermodynamic analysis. It was also ob-served that, with the increase of reaction temperature, the reaction which produced ZrB2 powders changed from the borothermal reaction to boro/carbothermal reaction in the Zr-B-C-O system.

  4. Effect of Platinum Group Metal Doping in Magnesium Diboride Wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Alexiou, Aikaterini; Namazkar, Shahla

    2016-01-01

    The effect of some platinum group metals(PGM = Rh, Pd, and Pt) on the microstructure and critical current density of Cu/Nb-sheathed MgB2 wires has been studied using Mg1-x PGMxB2 powders with low doping levels. It was found that Pt and Pd do not enter the MgB2 lattice and have only limited....... The results are discussed in comparison with previous investigations using other transition metals for doping on the Mg site....

  5. Enthalpies of Formation of Transition Metal Diborides: A First Principles Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Colinet

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The enthalpies of formation of transition metals diborides in various structures have been obtained from density functional theory (DFT calculations in order to determine the ground state at T = 0 K and p = 0. The evolution of the enthalpies of formation along the 3D, 4D, and 5D series has been correlated to the considered crystal structures. In the whole, the calculated values of the enthalpies of formation of the diborides in their ground state are in good agreement with the experimental ones when available. The calculated values of the lattice parameters at T = 0 K of the ground state agree well with the experimental values. The total and partial electronic densities of states have been computed. Special features of the transition metal electronic partial density of states have been evidenced and correlated to the local environment of the atoms.

  6. Structural determination and physical properties of 4d transitional metal diborides by first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Chun; Zhao, Erjun; Lin, Lin; Hou, Qingyu

    2014-10-01

    The structural determination, thermodynamic, mechanical, dynamic and electronic properties of 4d transitional metal diborides MB2 (M = Y-Ag) are systematically investigated by first-principles within the density functional theory (DFT). For each diboride, five structures are considered, i.e. AlB2-, ReB2-, OsB2-, MoB2- and WB2-type structures. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the previously theoretical and experimental studies. The formation enthalpy increases from YB2 to AgB2 in AlB2-type structure (similar to MoB2- and WB2-type). While the formation enthalpy decreases from YB2 to MoB2, reached minimum value to TcB2, and then increases gradually in ReB2-type structure (similar to OsB2-type), which is consistent with the results of the calculated density of states. The structural stability of these materials relates mainly on electronegative of metals, boron structure and bond characters. Among the considered structures, TcB2-ReB2 (TcB2-ReB2 represents TcB2 in ReB2-type structure, the same hereinafter) has the largest shear modulus (248 GPa), and is the hardest compound. The number of electrons transferred from metals to boron atoms and the calculated densities of states (DOS) indicate that each diboride is a complex mixture of metallic, ionic and covalent characteristics. Trends are discussed.

  7. Development and characterization of metal-diboride-based composites toughened with ultra-fine SiC particulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteverde, Frédéric; Bellosi, Alida

    2005-05-01

    Two metal-diboride-based ceramics containing up to 15 vol%. ultra-fine α-SiC particulates were developed from commercially available powders. The primary matrix of the composites was ZrB 2 or a mixture of ZrB 2 and HfB 2. With the assistance of 4.5 vol%. ZrN as a sintering aid, both the compositions achieved nearly full density after hot-pressing at 1,900 °C. The microstructure was characterized by fine diboride grains ( ≈3 μm average size) and SiC particles dispersed uniformly. Limited amounts of secondary phases like MO 2 and M(C,N), M=Zr or Zr/Hf, were found. The thermo-mechanical data of both the materials offered a promising combination of properties: about 16 GPa of micro-hardness, 5 MPa√ m of fracture toughness and Young's moduli exceeding 470 GPa. The ZrB 2sbnd SiC composite showed values of strength in air of 635 ± 60 and 175 ± 15 MPa at 25 and 1,500 °C, respectively. Likewise, the (ZrB 2 + HfB 2) sbnd SiC composite exhibited values of strength in air of 590 ± 25 and 190 ± 20 MPa at 25 and 1,500 °C, respectively. The composites also displayed good tolerance of conditions of repeated short exposures, 10 minutes each, at 1,700 °C in stagnant air. In such oxidizing conditions, the resistance to oxidation was provided by the formation of a protective silica-based glass coating, the primary oxidation product of SiC. Such a coating encapsulated the specimen coherently, and provided protection to the faces exposed to the hot atmosphere.

  8. Study of electronic structure and Compton profiles of transition metal diborides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Samir; Heda, N. L.; Kumar, Kishor; Ahuja, B. L.

    2017-08-01

    We report Compton profiles (CPs) of transition metal diborides (MB2; M= Ti and Zr) using a 740 GBq 137Cs Compton spectrometer measured at an intermediate resolution of 0.34 a.u. To validate the experimental momentum densities, we have employed the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) method to compute the theoretical CPs along with the energy bands, density of states (DOS) and Mulliken's population response. The LCAO computations have been performed in the frame work of density functional theory (DFT) and hybridization of Hartree-Fock and DFT (namely B3LYP and PBE0). For both the diborides, the CPs based on revised Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof exchange and correlation functions (DFT-PBESol) lead to a better agreement with the experimental momentum densities than other reported approximations. Energy bands, DOS and real space analysis of CPs confirm a metallic-like character of both the borides. Further, a comparison of DFT-PBESol and experimental data on equal-valence-electron-density scale shows more ionicity in ZrB2 than that in TiB2, which is also supported by the Mulliken's population based charge transfer data.

  9. Structure, elastic stiffness, and hardness of Os 1- xRu xB 2 solid solution transition-metal diborides

    KAUST Repository

    Kanoun, Mohammed

    2012-05-31

    On the basis of recent experiments, the solid solution transition-metal diborides were proposed to be new ultra-incompressible hard materials. We investigate using density functional theory based methods the structural and mechanical properties, electronic structure, and hardness of Os 1-xRu xB 2 solid solutions. A difference in chemical bonding occurs between OsB 2 and RuB 2 diborides, leading to significantly different elastic properties: a large bulk, shear moduli, and hardness for Os-rich diborides and relatively small bulk, shear moduli, and hardness for Ru-rich diborides. The electronic structure and bonding characterization are also analyzed as a function of Ru-dopant concentration in the OsB 2 lattice. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  10. Trends in elasticity and electronic structure of 5d transition metal diborides: first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao Xianfeng [Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Chemistry and Physics, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Wu Zhijian [Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Chemistry and Physics, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Xu Yuanhui [School of Biological Engineering, Changchun University of Technology, Changchun 130012 (China); Zhou Defeng [School of Biological Engineering, Changchun University of Technology, Changchun 130012 (China); Liu Xiaojuan [Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Chemistry and Physics, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Meng Jian [Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Chemistry and Physics, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2007-05-16

    We investigate the cohesive energy, heat of formation, elastic constant and electronic band structure of transition metal diborides TMB{sub 2} (TM = Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os and Ir, Pt) in the Pmmn space group using the ab initio pseudopotential total energy method. Our calculations indicate that there is a relationship between elastic constant and valence electron concentration (VEC): the bulk modulus and shear modulus achieve their maximum when the VEC is in the range of 6.8-7.2. In addition, trends in the elastic constant are well explained in terms of electronic band structure analysis, e.g., occupation of valence electrons in states near the Fermi level, which determines the cohesive energy and elastic properties. The maximum in bulk modulus and shear modulus is attributed to the nearly complete filling of TM d-B p bonding states without filling the antibonding states. On the basis of the observed relationship, we predict that alloying W and Re in the orthorhombic structure OsB{sub 2} might be harder than alloying the Ir element. Indeed, the further calculations confirmed this expectation.

  11. A Process Study for Manufacturing Ultra-Fine Titaniumn Diboride Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    powder. The reaction used was the carbo- thermic reduction of boron carbide in the presence of highly reactive titanium dioxide. The resultant titanium...REQUIREMENTS Space: Approximately 5,000 square feet of open, standard butler type construction with 20’ ceiling clearance. Concrete floor - no special

  12. Synthesis of Uranium nitride powders using metal uranium powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Ho; Kim, Dong Joo; Oh, Jang Soo; Rhee, Young Woo; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Keon Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Uranium nitride (UN) is a potential fuel material for advanced nuclear reactors because of their high fuel density, high thermal conductivity, high melting temperature, and considerable breeding capability in LWRs. Uranium nitride powders can be fabricated by a carbothermic reduction of the oxide powders, or the nitriding of metal uranium. The carbothermic reduction has an advantage in the production of fine powders. However it has many drawbacks such as an inevitable engagement of impurities, process burden, and difficulties in reusing of expensive N{sup 15} gas. Manufacturing concerns issued in the carbothermic reduction process can be solved by changing the starting materials from oxide powder to metals. However, in nitriding process of metal, it is difficult to obtain fine nitride powders because metal uranium is usually fabricated in the form of bulk ingots. In this study, a simple reaction method was tested to fabricate uranium nitride powders directly from uranium metal powders. We fabricated uranium metal spherical powder and flake using a centrifugal atomization method. The nitride powders were obtained by thermal treating those metal particles under nitrogen containing gas. We investigated the phase and morphology evolutions of powders during the nitriding process. A phase analysis of nitride powders was also a part of the present work.

  13. Sphericizing metal powders by mechanical means

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fu-xiang; GAI Guo-sheng; YANG Yu-fen

    2006-01-01

    A dry mechanical surface treatment was described,in which irregularly shaped metal powders were impacted and sphericized by using high speed airflow impact method particles composite system(PCS). The optimum technological parameters for the metal powders processed were determined according to the treatment effect under different conditions. The results show that the irregularly shaped metal powders are impacted into dense spherical particles,the bulk density and tap density of the metal powders increase noticeably. The combination property of metal powders is improved greatly.

  14. Distinction between magnesium diboride and tetraboride by kelvin probe force microscopy; Unterscheidung von Magnesiumdiborid und Magnesiumtetraborid durch Kelvinsondenkraftmikroskopie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Du-Na; Caron, Arnaud; Park, Hai Woong [KoreaTech - Korea Univ. of Technology and Education, Chungnam (Korea, Republic of). School of Energy, Materials and Chemical Engineering

    2016-08-15

    We analyze mixtures of magnesium diboride and tetraboride synthesized with magnesium powders of different shapes. To distinguish between magnesium diboride and tetraboride we use the contrast of kelvin probe force microscopy. The microstructural morphology strongly depends on the shape of the magnesium powders used in the reaction between magnesium and magnesium tetraboride to form magnesium diboride. With spherical magnesium powder an equiaxed microstructure of magnesium diboride is formed with residual magnesium tetraboride at the grain boundaries. With plate-like magnesium powders elongated magnesium diboride grains are formed. In this case, residual magnesium tetraboride is found to agglomerate.

  15. Joining of Zirconium Diboride-Based Ceramic Composites to Metallic Systems for High-Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, R.; Singh, M.

    2008-01-01

    Three types of hot-pressed zirconium diboride (ZrB2)-based ultra-high-temperature ceramic composites (UHTCC), ZrB2-SiC (ZS), ZrB2-SiC-C (ZSC), and ZrB2-SCS9-SiC (ZSS), were joined to Cu-clad-Mo using two Ag-Cu brazes (Cusil-ABA and Ticusil, T(sub L) approx.1073-1173 K) and two Pd-base brazes (Palco and Palni, T(sub L) approx.1493-1513 K). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) revealed greater chemical interaction in joints made using Pd-base brazes than in joints made using Ag-Cu based active brazes. The degree of densification achieved in hot pressed composites influenced the Knoop hardness of the UHTCC and the hardness distribution across the braze interlayer. The braze region in Pd-base system displayed higher hardness in joints made using fully-dense ZS composites than in joints made using partially-dense ZSS composites and the carbon-containing ZSC composites. Calculations indicate a small negative elastic strain energy and an increase in the UHTCC's fracture stress up to a critical clad layer thickness . Above this critical thickness, strain energy in the UHTCC is positive, and it increases with increasing clad layer thickness. Empirical projections show a reduction in the effective thermal resistance of the joints and highlight the potential benefits of joining the UHTCC to Cu-clad-Mo.

  16. High-Entropy Metal Diborides: A New Class of High-Entropy Materials and a New Type of Ultrahigh Temperature Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gild, Joshua; Zhang, Yuanyao; Harrington, Tyler; Jiang, Sicong; Hu, Tao; Quinn, Matthew C.; Mellor, William M.; Zhou, Naixie; Vecchio, Kenneth; Luo, Jian

    2016-11-01

    Seven equimolar, five-component, metal diborides were fabricated via high-energy ball milling and spark plasma sintering. Six of them, including (Hf0.2Zr0.2Ta0.2Nb0.2Ti0.2)B2, (Hf0.2Zr0.2Ta0.2Mo0.2Ti0.2)B2, (Hf0.2Zr0.2Mo0.2Nb0.2Ti0.2)B2, (Hf0.2Mo0.2Ta0.2Nb0.2Ti0.2)B2, (Mo0.2Zr0.2Ta0.2Nb0.2Ti0.2)B2, and (Hf0.2Zr0.2Ta0.2Cr0.2Ti0.2)B2, possess virtually one solid-solution boride phase of the hexagonal AlB2 structure. Revised Hume-Rothery size-difference factors are used to rationalize the formation of high-entropy solid solutions in these metal diborides. Greater than 92% of the theoretical densities have been generally achieved with largely uniform compositions from nanoscale to microscale. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (AC STEM), with high-angle annular dark-field and annular bright-field (HAADF and ABF) imaging and nanoscale compositional mapping, has been conducted to confirm the formation of 2-D high-entropy metal layers, separated by rigid 2-D boron nets, without any detectable layered segregation along the c-axis. These materials represent a new type of ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTCs) as well as a new class of high-entropy materials, which not only exemplify the first high-entropy non-oxide ceramics (borides) fabricated but also possess a unique non-cubic (hexagonal) and layered (quasi-2D) high-entropy crystal structure that markedly differs from all those reported in prior studies. Initial property assessments show that both the hardness and the oxidation resistance of these high-entropy metal diborides are generally higher/better than the average performances of five individual metal diborides made by identical fabrication processing.

  17. Bond deformation paths and electronic instabilities of ultraincompressible transition metal diborides: Case study of OsB2 and IrB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R. F.; Legut, D.; Wen, X. D.; Veprek, S.; Rajan, K.; Lookman, T.; Mao, H. K.; Zhao, Y. S.

    2014-09-01

    The energetically most stable orthorhombic structure of OsB2 and IrB2 is dynamically stable for OsB2 but unstable for IrB2. Both diborides have substantially lower shear strength in their easy slip systems than their metal counterparts. This is attributed to an easy sliding facilitated by out-of-plane weakening of metallic Os-Os bonds in OsB2 and by an in-plane bond splitting instability in IrB2. A much higher shear resistance of Os-B and B-B bonds than Os-Os ones is found, suggesting that the strengthened Os-B and B-B bonds are responsible for hardness enhancement in OsB2. In contrast, an in-plane electronic instability in IrB2 limits its strength. The electronic structure of deformed diborides suggests that the electronic instabilities of 5d orbitals are their origin of different bond deformation paths. Neither IrB2 nor OsB2 can be intrinsically superhard.

  18. Compressibility of AlB sub 2 -type transition metal diborides

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, A S; Jornada, J A; Leger, J M; Haines, J

    2002-01-01

    The pressure behaviour of a series of transition metal borides has been studied both experimentally and by means of ab initio calculations. X-ray diffraction patterns measured up to approx 50 GPa for VB sub 2 and ZrB sub 2 show no obvious phase transition. Bulk moduli of 322 and 317 GPa, respectively, were obtained using a Murnaghan equation of state. Hartree-Fock LCCO (linear combination of crystal orbitals) calculations performed for TiB sub 2 have allowed its compression behaviour to be studied. The bulk modulus obtained (292 GPa) and the proposed important contribution of the interlayer interaction to the elastic behaviour under high pressure are consistent with the experimental results for the other borides.

  19. Electrical conductivity of metal powders under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, J.M.; Cintas, J.; Urban, P. [Universidad de Sevilla, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Sevilla (Spain); Cuevas, F.G. [Universidad de Huelva, Department of Chemistry and Materials Science Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Palos de la Frontera (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    A model for calculating the electrical conductivity of a compressed powder mass consisting of oxide-coated metal particles has been derived. A theoretical tool previously developed by the authors, the so-called 'equivalent simple cubic system', was used in the model deduction. This tool is based on relating the actual powder system to an equivalent one consisting of deforming spheres packed in a simple cubic lattice, which is much easier to examine. The proposed model relates the effective electrical conductivity of the powder mass under compression to its level of porosity. Other physically measurable parameters in the model are the conductivities of the metal and oxide constituting the powder particles, their radii, the mean thickness of the oxide layer and the tap porosity of the powder. Two additional parameters controlling the effect of the descaling of the particle oxide layer were empirically introduced. The proposed model was experimentally verified by measurements of the electrical conductivity of aluminium, bronze, iron, nickel and titanium powders under pressure. The consistency between theoretical predictions and experimental results was reasonably good in all cases. (orig.)

  20. Progress in Titanium Metal Powder Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall M. German

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Metal powder injection molding is a shaping technology that has achieved solid scientific underpinnings. It is from this science base that recent progress has occurred in titanium powder injection molding. Much of the progress awaited development of the required particles with specific characteristics of particle size, particle shape, and purity. The production of titanium components by injection molding is stabilized by a good understanding of how each process variable impacts density and impurity level. As summarized here, recent research has isolated the four critical success factors in titanium metal powder injection molding (Ti-MIM that must be simultaneously satisfied—density, purity, alloying, and microstructure. The critical role of density and impurities, and the inability to remove impurities with sintering, compels attention to starting Ti-MIM with high quality alloy powders. This article addresses the four critical success factors to rationalize Ti-MIM processing conditions to the requirements for demanding applications in aerospace and medical fields. Based on extensive research, a baseline process is identified and reported here with attention to linking mechanical properties to the four critical success factors.

  1. Combustion Front Dynamics in the Combustion Synthesis of Refractory Metal Carbides and Di-borides using Time-Resolved X-ray Diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong,J.; Larson, E.; Waide, P.; Frahm, R.

    2006-01-01

    A compact diffraction-reaction chamber, using a 2-inch photodiode array detector, has been employed to investigate the chemical dynamics at the combustion front of a selected series of refractory metal carbides and di-borides from their constituent element reactants as well as binary products from B4C as a reactant. These systems are denoted as (i) M + C {yields} MC; (ii) M + 2B {yields} MB{sub 2}; and (iii) 3M + B{sub 4}C {yields} 2MB{sub 2} + MC, where M = Ti, Zr, Nb, Hf or Ta. Time-resolved X-ray diffraction using intense synchrotron radiation at frame rates up to 10 frames s{sup -1} (or 100 ms frame{sup -1}) was employed. The combustion reactions were found to complete within 200-400 ms. In contrast to the Ta + C {yields} TaC combustion system studied earlier, in which a discernible intermediate sub-carbide phase was first formed, reacted further and disappeared to yield the final TaC product, no intermediate sub-carbide or sub-boride was detected in the current systems. Combustion for the Ti, Zr and Hf systems involved a liquid phase, in which the adiabatic temperatures T{sub ad} are well above the melting points of the respective reactant metals and have a typical combustion front velocity of 5-6 mm s{sup -1}. The Nb and Ta systems have lower T{sub ad}, involving no liquid phase. These are truly solid combustion systems and have a lower combustion front velocity of 1-2 mm s{sup -1}. The current study opens up a new avenue to chemical dynamics and macrokinetic investigations of high-temperature solid-state reactions.

  2. The effect of powder recycling in direct metal laser deposition on powder and manufactured part characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, P A; Pinkerton, A. J.; Allen, J.; Syed, W. U. H.; Sezer, H. K.; Brown, P.; Ng, G; Scudamore, R.; Li, L.

    2006-01-01

    A potential way of improving the material efficiency and cost effectiveness of the Direct Metal Laser Deposition (DMLD) process is to take powder that is not utilised in each deposition attempt and re-use it in subsequent attempts (powder recycling). Currently, this is not widely implemented for fear of a detrimental effect on part quality. This study examines how powder recycling, using simple normalisation techniques, affects the powder and the quality of the deposited part. Work was conduc...

  3. Printed circuit board metal powder filters for low electron temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Filipp; Schouten, Raymond N; Brauns, Matthias; Gang, Tian; Lim, Wee Han; Lai, Nai Shyan; Dzurak, Andrew S; van der Wiel, Wilfred G; Zwanenburg, Floris A

    2013-04-01

    We report the characterisation of printed circuit boards (PCB) metal powder filters and their influence on the effective electron temperature which is as low as 22 mK for a quantum dot in a silicon MOSFET structure in a dilution refrigerator. We investigate the attenuation behaviour (10 MHz-20 GHz) of filter made of four metal powders with a grain size below 50 μm. The room-temperature attenuation of a stainless steel powder filter is more than 80 dB at frequencies above 1.5 GHz. In all metal powder filters, the attenuation increases with temperature. Compared to classical powder filters, the design presented here is much less laborious to fabricate and specifically the copper powder PCB-filters deliver an equal or even better performance than their classical counterparts.

  4. FINE-FILAMENT MAGNESIUM DIBORIDE SUPERCONDUCTOR WIRE FOR TURBOELECTRIC PROPULSION SYSTEMS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The availability of low AC loss magnesium diboride (MgB2) superconducting wires enables much lighter weight superconducting stator coils than with any other metal or...

  5. Magnesium diboride: one year on

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canfield, Paul [Iowa State University (United States); Ames Laboratory (United States); Bud' ko, Sergey L. [Ames Laboratory (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Last January physicists discovered that an innocuous compound that had been sitting on the shelf for decades was, in fact, a record-breaking intermetallic superconductor. At the end of 2000 superconductivity in metal alloys and compounds appeared to remain trapped by a glass ceiling. Over the previous 10 years the temperature at which certain oxide-based compounds - such as bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide and mercury barium calcium copper oxide - lost their resistance to electric current had soared to well over 100 K. Meanwhile, the transition temperature, T{sub c}, for carbon-based materials, including alkali-doped carbon-60 compounds, had risen close to the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77 K). During the same period, however, the superconducting transition temperature of intermetallic compounds (materials made solely of metals and metal-like elements) remained close to 20 K - as it had been since the mid-1960s. By February 2001 everything had totally changed. It was as if a firecracker had gone off in the tidy little ant hill of superconductivity research. For the first few months of 2001, groups all over the world raced to understand the properties of a new intermetallic superconductor. The substance that everyone was scrambling to buy or make, the substance that was causing this grand commotion, was magnesium diboride (MgB{sub 2}). This seemingly innocuous binary compound, which had been present in many labs for over half a century, had been discovered to superconduct just below 40 K. Even though we already know an amazing amount about MgB{sub 2}, our knowledge of superconductivity in this compound is only one year old. There is therefore the very real potential to improve its critical properties. In a similar vein, it is almost certain that our understanding of this extreme example of intermetallic superconductivity will greatly improve over the next few years and may even reveal other extreme superconductors. (U.K.)

  6. Low-voltage Electromagnetic Compaction of Metal and Ceramic Powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Low-voltage electromagnetic compaction (EMC) was used to compact metal powders(Cu) and ceramic powders (TiO2) in the indirect way. It was found that the density of the metal powder parts compacted by low-voltage EMC varied linearly with the discharging voltage in the range investigated. But for ceramic powders, the discharging voltage has an optimal value. Under the value, the density increases as discharging voltage rises, but beyond the value the trend is reverse. The experimental results show that the density of the metal parts decreases gradually along press direction. And the density of the ceramic parts decreases with the advancement of the aspect ratio h/d (height/diameter). In addition, repetitive compaction can improve the density of both metal and ceramic parts and reduce the effects of aspect ratio on the density.

  7. Fluidized Bed Sputtering for Particle and Powder Metallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Fluidized Bed Sputtering for Particle and Powder Metallization by Daniel M. Baechle, J. Derek Demaree, James K. Hirvonen, and Eric D...5069 ARL-TR-6435 April 2013 Fluidized Bed Sputtering for Particle and Powder Metallization Daniel M. Baechle, J. Derek Demaree, James K...YYYY) April 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) June 2008–June 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fluidized Bed Sputtering for

  8. Fluidized reduction of oxides on fine metal powders without sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, T.

    1985-01-01

    In the process of reducing extremely fine metal particles (av. particle size or = 1000 angstroms) covered with an oxide layer, the metal particles are fluidized by a gas flow contg. H, heated, and reduced. The method uniformly and easily reduces surface oxide layers of the extremely fine metal particles without causing sintering. The metal particles are useful for magnetic recording materials, conductive paste, powder metallurgy materials, chem. reagents, and catalysts.

  9. Structural Characteristics and Properties of Precious Metal Powders and Copper Powder Prepared by High-speed Centrifugal Atomization Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Ming; YANG You-cai; LI Yu-shen; ZHANG Jian-kan; FU Shi-ji; SHI Qing-nan

    2007-01-01

    The principle and characteristics of the rapidly solidified centrifugal atomization technique are studied in present paper. It has been widely used to make fine, rapidly solidified precious metal powders for application as the electrical engineering materials, conductive coatings for electromagnetic shielding and brazing alloys. The silver powder, copper powder and some precious metal alloys powders are prepared by the new method. A comparative analysis is carried out with the conventional electrolytic silver powder and chemical deposition silver powder. The results show that rapidly solidified powders are fine and have higher solid solubility of the alloying elements, and their alloys have excellent properties in various aspects.

  10. Characterization of Metal Powders Used for Additive Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotwinski, J A; Garboczi, E J; Stutzman, P E; Ferraris, C F; Watson, S S; Peltz, M A

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical parts, such as those found in aerospace components. The production of AM parts with consistent and predictable properties requires input materials (e.g., metal powders) with known and repeatable characteristics, which in turn requires standardized measurement methods for powder properties. First, based on our previous work, we assess the applicability of current standardized methods for powder characterization for metal AM powders. Then we present the results of systematic studies carried out on two different powder materials used for additive manufacturing: stainless steel and cobalt-chrome. The characterization of these powders is important in NIST efforts to develop appropriate measurements and standards for additive materials and to document the property of powders used in a NIST-led additive manufacturing material round robin. An extensive array of characterization techniques was applied to these two powders, in both virgin and recycled states. The physical techniques included laser diffraction particle size analysis, X-ray computed tomography for size and shape analysis, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Techniques sensitive to structure and chemistry, including X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive analytical X-ray analysis using the X-rays generated during scanning electron microscopy, and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy were also employed. The results of these analyses show how virgin powder changes after being exposed to and recycled from one or more Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) additive manufacturing build cycles. In addition, these findings can give insight into the actual additive manufacturing process.

  11. Influences of the Air in Metal Powder High Velocity Compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the process of metal powder high velocity impact compaction, the air is compressed sharply and portion remains in the compacts. In order to study the Influences, a discrete density volleyball accumulation model for aluminium powder was established with the use of ABAQUS. Study found that the powder porosity air obstruct the pressing process because remaining air reduced strength and density of the compacts in the current high-speed pressing (V≤100m/s. When speed further increased (V≥100m/s, the temperature of the air increased sharply, and was even much higher than the melting point of the material. When aluminium powder was compressed at a speed of 200m/s, temperatures of air could reach 2033 K, far higher than the melting point of 877 K. Increased density of powders was a result of local softening and even melt adhesive while air between particles with high temperature and pressure flowed past.

  12. Ignition of Metal Powders in Combustion Products of Model Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-13

    y AD/A-001 172 IGNITION OF METAL POWDERS IN COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF MODEL FUEL A. K. Klyauzov, et al Foreign Technology...S. Air Force UNCLASSIFIED »b. s»ouc » "I»0«T TITLE IGNITION OF METAL POWDERS IN COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF MODEL FUEL f* OCJCPIPTIVK NOTKI (Typ* o...report mnd Inclumiv «**»••) Translation S »UTMö«I|I ( Firn tSSS», rnlddl* Inltlml, faar .tarna; A. K. Klyauzov, M. M. Arsh, et al 6

  13. Magnesium Diboride Current Leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, John

    2010-01-01

    A recently discovered superconductor, magnesium diboride (MgB2), can be used to fabricate conducting leads used in cryogenic applications. Dis covered to be superconducting in 2001, MgB2 has the advantage of remaining superconducting at higher temperatures than the previously used material, NbTi. The purpose of these leads is to provide 2 A of electricity to motors located in a 1.3 K environment. The providing environment is a relatively warm 17 K. Requirements for these leads are to survive temperature fluctuations in the 5 K and 11 K heat sinks, and not conduct excessive heat into the 1.3 K environment. Test data showed that each lead in the assembly could conduct 5 A at 4 K, which, when scaled to 17 K, still provided more than the required 2 A. The lead assembly consists of 12 steelclad MgB2 wires, a tensioned Kevlar support, a thermal heat sink interface at 4 K, and base plates. The wires are soldered to heavy copper leads at the 17 K end, and to thin copper-clad NbTi leads at the 1.3 K end. The leads were designed, fabricated, and tested at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe - Institut foer Technische Physik before inclusion in Goddard's XRS (X-Ray Spectrometer) instrument onboard the Astro-E2 spacecraft. A key factor is that MgB2 remains superconducting up to 30 K, which means that it does not introduce joule heating as a resistive wire would. Because the required temperature ranges are 1.3-17 K, this provides a large margin of safety. Previous designs lost superconductivity at around 8 K. The disadvantage to MgB2 is that it is a brittle ceramic, and making thin wires from it is challenging. The solution was to encase the leads in thin steel tubes for strength. Previous designs were so brittle as to risk instrument survival. MgB2 leads can be used in any cryogenic application where small currents need to be conducted at below 30 K. Because previous designs would superconduct only at up to 8 K, this new design would be ideal for the 8-30 K range.

  14. Production of metallic copper powder by autocatalytic reaction in suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Guilherme Rocha Poço

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of metallic powder by precipitation from solution was studied in laboratory scale as an alternative to the conventionally adopted processes, based on the atomization of molten material, for producing metal powders with small particle size. The process is based on the precipitation of metals from aqueous solutions by reduction under controlled conditions. Results of laboratory scale experiments are presented for the production of copper particles from aqueous solutions of copper sulfate, using formaldehyde as reducing reactant, and EDTA as complexing agent. The effect of the presence of nuclei was studied. Metallic particles with average sizes in the range from about 0.3 µm to about 15 µm were obtained. In the process, large particles are formed mainly by aggregation of submicrometric particles, indicating that the particle size distribution of the product depends on the control of particle agglomeration rate.

  15. Zirconium diboride-based composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteverde, F.; Dalle Fabbriche, D.; Bellosi, A. [CNR-IRTEC, Faenza (Italy). Research Inst. for Ceramics Technology

    2002-07-01

    Two zirconium diboride-based composites were produced and characterised. The starting compositions (wt%) were: 55ZrB{sub 2} + 41TiB{sub 2} + 4Ni and 83ZrB{sub 2} + 13B{sub 4}C + 4Ni. Microstructure, mechanical and physical properties of the hot pressed composites were studied. In both the cases, the nickel introduced as sintering aid promoted the densification during sintering. (orig.)

  16. Titanium Metal Powder Production by the Plasma Quench Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Cordes; A. Donaldson

    2000-09-01

    The goals of this project included the scale-up of the titanium hydride production process to a production rate of 50 kg/hr at a purity level of 99+%. This goal was to be achieved by incrementally increasing the production capability of a series of reactor systems. This methodic approach was designed to allow Idaho Titanium Technologies to systematically address the engineering issues associated with plasma system performance, and powder collection system design and performance. With quality powder available, actual fabrication with the titanium hydride was to be pursued. Finally, with a successful titanium production system in place, the production of titanium aluminide was to be pursued by the simultaneously injection of titanium and aluminum precursors into the reactor system. Some significant accomplishments of the project are: A unique and revolutionary torch/reactor capable of withstanding temperatures up to 5000 C with high thermal efficiency has been operated. The dissociation of titanium tetrachloride into titanium powder and HC1 has been demonstrated, and a one-megawatt reactor potentially capable of producing 100 pounds per hour has been built, but not yet operated at the powder level. The removal of residual subchlorides and adsorbed HC1 and the sintering of powder to form solid bodies have been demonstrated. The production system has been operated at production rates up to 40 pounds per hour. Subsequent to the end of the project, Idaho Titanium Technologies demonstrated that titanium hydride powder can indeed be sintered into solid titanium metal at 1500 C without sintering aids.

  17. Numerical modelling of cold compaction of metal powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redanz, Pia

    1998-01-01

    model (J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 1992, 40(5), 1139-1162), developed by Fleck, Kuhr. and McMeeking, and a combination of the two models are used. The friction between the mould wall and the metal powder is modelled by a combination of Coulomb friction and a constant friction shear stress, since Coulomb...... friction is not realistic at high normal pressures. The finite element programme has been used to study the effects of friction, compaction method, and material parameters. Analyses for powder compacts of various geometries are presented to illustrate the method. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights...

  18. Considerations in designing a centrifugal atomiser for metal powder production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y.Y. [Department of Engineering, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: y.y.zhao@livepool.ac.uk

    2006-07-01

    In centrifugal atomisation for metal powder production, the key to the control of the particle sizes is the design of the atomiser. This paper studies the main issues concerned in designing a centrifugal atomiser and provides guidance on the selection of an electric motor, radius of atomiser, slope angle of atomiser wall and flow rate of cooling water. In the selection of the atomiser radius, the power and material constraints as well as the hydraulic jump radius need to be considered. A cup atomiser with a slope angle of 60-70{sup o} would result in small spray droplets and thus a fine powder. The water cooling system needs to be assessed by examining the heat flow in the solid metal layer and in the atomiser.

  19. Ultra high frequency induction welding of powder metal compacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavdar, U.; Gulsahin, I.

    2014-10-01

    The application of the iron based Powder Metal (PM) compacts in Ultra High Frequency Induction Welding (UHFIW) were reviewed. These PM compacts are used to produce cogs. This study investigates the methods of joining PM materials enforceability with UHFIW in the industry application. Maximum stress and maximum strain of welded PM compacts were determined by three point bending and strength tests. Microhardness and microstructure of induction welded compacts were determined. (Author)

  20. Process for preparing fine-grain metal carbide powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, C.R.; Jeffers, F.P.

    Fine-grain metal carbide powder suitable for use in the fabrication of heat resistant products is prepared by coating bituminous pitch on SiO/sub 2/ or Ta/sub 2/O/sub 5/ particles, heating the coated particles to convert the bituminous pitch to coke, and then heating the particles to a higher temperature to convert the particles to a carbide by reaction of said coke therewith.

  1. Rapid prototyping with lasers using metal powder jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedl, Gerhard; Schuoecker, D.; Kny, E.

    2003-09-01

    Rapid Prototyping is an important part of modern development sequences, where a variety of solutions is available nowadays, ranging from ultrafast machining via casting technologies, laminated objects manufacturing, also with lasers, to stereolithography and laser sintering. Most of these processes suffer from certain restrictions, either in terms of raw material, geometry or quality of the finished workpiece. In particular, laser sintering leads to structures with a low density that reduces the strength of the part considerably. Since the individual powder particles are only molten at their surface and adhere thus to each other, only in small regions of the surface leaving the majority of the grain mass unmolten and resulting in a faint lattice that must be filled with an additional material to reach the necessary strength. A different solution offers the Blown Powder Process, where a jet of e.g. metal powder is directed towards the surface of the workpiece in the focus of a laser beam, thus melting each metal particle totally and producing practically molten droplets that settle on the momentary surface of the workpiece, thus being welded to the latter. Since all the material delivered to the workpiece is perfectly molten and resolidified, very dense structures with a high strength comparable to the strength of the initial unpowderized material are obtained, as experiments carried out by the authors with differed powderized materials have shown. It has also been demonstrated that the latter process can be used to generate nearly arbitrary 3D geometry. A lot of effort has been invested by the authors to avoid the influence of the direction of the necessary relative motion between laser, powder jet and workpiece and also to reduce the roughness of the surface generated by the actual process. Further experimental investigations will be devoted to the clarification of the range of materials, where the actual process can be applied and to the generation of practical

  2. Fabrication of Chemically Doped, High Upper Critical Field Magnesium Diboride Superconducting Wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzik, James, V.

    2005-10-13

    Controlled chemical doping of magnesium diboride (MgB2) has been shown to substantially improve its superconducting properties to the levels required for high field magnets, but the doping is difficult to accomplish through the usual route of solid state reaction and diffusion. Further, superconducting cables of MgB2 are difficult to fabricate because of the friable nature of the material. In this Phase I STTR project, doped and undoped boron fibers were made by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Several >100m long batches of doped and undoped fiber were made by CVD codeposition of boron plus dopants. Bundles of these fibers infiltrated with liquid magnesium and subsequently converted to MgB2 to form Mg-MgB2 metal matrix composites. In a parallel path, doped boron nano-sized powder was produced by a plasma synthesis technique, reacted with magnesium to produce doped MgB2 superconducting ceramic bodies. The doped powder was also fabricated into superconducting wires several meters long. The doped boron fibers and powders made in this program were fabricated into fiber-metal composites and powder-metal composites by a liquid metal infiltration technique. The kinetics of the reaction between boron fiber and magnesium metal was investigated in fiber-metal composites. It was found that the presence of dopants had significantly slowed the reaction between magnesium and boron. The superconducting properties were measured for MgB2 fibers and MgB2 powders made by liquid metal infiltration. Properties of MgB2 products (Jc, Hc2) from Phase I are among the highest reported to date for MgB2 bulk superconductors. Chemically doped MgB2 superconducting magnets can perform at least as well as NbTi and NbSn3 in high magnetic fields and still offer an improvement over the latter two in terms of operating temperature. These characteristics make doped MgB2 an effective material for high magnetic field applications, such as magnetic confined fusion, and medical MRI devices. Developing

  3. Mechanical Properties of a Metal Powder-Loaded Polyurethane Foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. L. Neuschwanger; L. L. Whinnery; S. H. Goods

    1999-04-01

    Quasi-static compression tests have been performed on polyurethane foam specimens. The modulus of the foam exhibited a power-law dependence with respect to density of the form: E* {proportional_to} {rho}*{sup n}, where n = 1.7. The modulus data is well described by a simple geometric model (attributed to the work of Gibson and Ashby) for closed-cell foam in which the stiffness of the foam is governed by the flexure of the cell struts and cell walls. The compressive strength of the foam is also found to follow a power-law behavior with respect to foam density. In this instance, Euler buckling is used to rationalize the density dependence. The modulus of the polyurethane foam was modified by addition of a gas atomized, spherical aluminum powder. Additions of 30 and 50 weight percent of the powder significantly increased the foam modulus. However, there were only slight increases in modulus with 5 and 10 weight percent additions of the metal powder. Strength was also slightly increased at high loading fractions of powder. This increase in modulus and strength could be predicted by combining the above geometric model with a well-known model describing the effect on modulus of a rigid dispersoid in a compliant matrix.

  4. Mechanical Properties of a Metal Powder-Loaded Polyurethane Foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. L. Neuschwanger; L. L. Whinnery; S. H. Goods

    1999-04-01

    Quasi-static compression tests have been performed on polyurethane foam specimens. The modulus of the foam exhibited a power-law dependence with respect to density of the form: E* {proportional_to} {rho}*{sup n}, where n = 1.7. The modulus data is well described by a simple geometric model (attributed to the work of Gibson and Ashby) for closed-cell foam in which the stiffness of the foam is governed by the flexure of the cell struts and cell walls. The compressive strength of the foam is also found to follow a power-law behavior with respect to foam density. In this instance, Euler buckling is used to rationalize the density dependence. The modulus of the polyurethane foam was modified by addition of a gas atomized, spherical aluminum powder. Additions of 30 and 50 weight percent of the powder significantly increased the foam modulus. However, there were only slight increases in modulus with 5 and 10 weight percent additions of the metal powder. Strength was also slightly increased at high loading fractions of powder. This increase in modulus and strength could be predicted by combining the above geometric model with a well-known model describing the effect on modulus of a rigid dispersoid in a compliant matrix.

  5. On suitability of novel fluidised bed technique for separation of metallic powders during commercial powder metallurgical processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritherdon, J; Dechsiri, C; Jones, AR; Hoffmann, AC; Wright, IG

    2005-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to test the efficiency with which a novel fluidised bed technique could separate different metallic powders in terms of size and density. The overall aim was to assess the potential of this technique for the commercial separation of defective powder fractions from mec

  6. Selective Laser Melting of Metal Powder Of Steel 3161

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelov, V. G.; Sotov, A. V.; Agapovichev, A. V.; Tomilina, T. M.

    2016-08-01

    In this article the results of experimental study of the structure and mechanical properties of materials obtained by selective laser melting (SLM), metal powder steel 316L was carried out. Before the process of cultivation of samples as the input control, the morphology of the surface of the powder particles was studied and particle size analysis was carried out. Also, 3D X-ray quality control of the grown samples was carried out in order to detect hidden defects, their qualitative and quantitative assessment. To determine the strength characteristics of the samples synthesized by the SLM method, static tensile tests were conducted. To determine the stress X-ray diffraction analysis was carried out in the material samples.

  7. Flow characteristics of metallic powder grains for additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Bernhard; Pozzetti, Gabriele

    2017-06-01

    Directed energy deposition technologies for additive manufacturing such as laser selective melting (SLM) or electron beam melting (EBM) is a fast growing technique mainly due to its flexibility in product design. However, the process is a complex interaction of multi-physics on multiple length scales that are still not entirely understood. A particular challenging task are the flow characteristics of metallic powder ejected as jets from a nozzle and shielded by an inert turbulent gas flow. Therefore, the objective is to describe numerically the complex interaction between turbulent flow and powder grains. In order to include both several physical processes and length scales an Euler-Lagrange technology is applied. Within this framework powder is treated by the Discrete-Element-Method, while gas flow is described by Euler approaches as found in classical Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The described method succeeded in delivering more accuracy and consistency than a standard approach based on the volume averaging technique and therefore, is suited for the solution of problems within an engineering framework.

  8. Flow characteristics of metallic powder grains for additive manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Directed energy deposition technologies for additive manufacturing such as laser selective melting (SLM or electron beam melting (EBM is a fast growing technique mainly due to its flexibility in product design. However, the process is a complex interaction of multi-physics on multiple length scales that are still not entirely understood. A particular challenging task are the flow characteristics of metallic powder ejected as jets from a nozzle and shielded by an inert turbulent gas flow. Therefore, the objective is to describe numerically the complex interaction between turbulent flow and powder grains. In order to include both several physical processes and length scales an Euler-Lagrange technology is applied. Within this framework powder is treated by the Discrete-Element-Method, while gas flow is described by Euler approaches as found in classical Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. The described method succeeded in delivering more accuracy and consistency than a standard approach based on the volume averaging technique and therefore, is suited for the solution of problems within an engineering framework.

  9. 40 CFR 471.100 - Applicability; description of the powder metals subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the powder metals subcategory. 471.100 Section 471.100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS...

  10. Ultra high frequency induction welding of powder metal compacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çavdar, Uǧur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of the iron based Powder Metal (PM compacts in Ultra High Frequency Induction Welding (UHFIW were reviewed. These PM compacts are used to produce cogs. This study investigates the methods of joining PM materials enforceability with UHFIW in the industry application. Maximum stress and maximum strain of welded PM compacts were determined by three point bending and strength tests. Microhardness and microstructure of induction welded compacts were determined.Soldadura por inducción de ultra alta frecuencia de polvos de metal compactados. Se ha realizado un estudio de la aplicación de polvos de metal (PM de base hierro compactados por soldadura por inducción de ultra alta frecuencia (UHFIW. Estos polvos de metal compactados se utilizan para producir engranajes. Este estudio investiga los métodos de uni.n de los materiales de PM con UHFIW en su aplicación en la industria. La máxima tensión y la máxima deformación de los polvos de metal compactados soldados fueron determinadas por flexión en tres puntos y prueba de resistencia. Se determinó la microdureza y la microestructura de los polvos compactados por soldadura por inducción.

  11. Mixed metal oxide crystalline powders and method for the synthesis thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, I.H.; Blonski, R.P.; Maloney, J.J.; Welch, J.J.; Pipoly, R.A.; Byrne, C.J.

    1993-07-20

    A method is described for the solid state synthesis of mixed metal oxide crystalline powders comprising the steps of: preparing a raw material mixture containing at least two different metal cations; adding a template material to said mixture and blending it therewith; initiating formation of a mixed metal oxide by calcination of said mixture and said template material, whereby particles of the mixed metal oxides are formed in powder form; and thereafter recovering said mixed metal oxide particles.

  12. Green nanochemistry: metal oxide nanoparticles and porous thin films from bare metal powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redel, Engelbert; Petrov, Srebri; Dag, Omer; Moir, Jonathon; Huai, Chen; Mirtchev, Peter; Ozin, Geoffrey A

    2012-01-01

    A universal, simple, robust, widely applicable and cost-effective aqueous process is described for a controlled oxidative dissolution process of micrometer-sized metal powders to form high-purity aqueous dispersions of colloidally stable 3-8 nm metal oxide nanoparticles. Their utilization for making single and multilayer optically transparent high-surface-area nanoporous films is demonstrated. This facile synthesis is anticipated to find numerous applications in materials science, engineering, and nanomedicine.

  13. Powder-based adsorbents having high adsorption capacities for recovering dissolved metals and methods thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Christopher J.; Dai, Sheng; Oyola, Yatsandra

    2016-05-03

    A powder-based adsorbent and a related method of manufacture are provided. The powder-based adsorbent includes polymer powder with grafted side chains and an increased surface area per unit weight to increase the adsorption of dissolved metals, for example uranium, from aqueous solutions. A method for forming the powder-based adsorbent includes irradiating polymer powder, grafting with polymerizable reactive monomers, reacting with hydroxylamine, and conditioning with an alkaline solution. Powder-based adsorbents formed according to the present method demonstrated a significantly improved uranium adsorption capacity per unit weight over existing adsorbents.

  14. Advances in Thermal Modeling of Selective Laser Sintering of Metal Powders

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Selective laser sintering (SLS) of single component metal powders is a rapid prototyping technology in which a high-energy laser beam scans, melts, shrinks and consolidates metal powders with single component. For better understanding physical mechanisms during laser sintering of single-component metal particles, a temperature transforming model with the consideration of shrinkage and convective flows is introduced to analyze the thermal/fluid behaviors in selective laser sintering of single powder layer. The model is also applied to investigate the sintering of powders on top of existing sintered layers under single- multiple-line scanning manners according to the practical manufacturing processes.

  15. Reducing metal alloy powder costs for use in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing: Improving the economics for production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Fransisco

    AM. Alternative powders can be made by blending or re-spheroidizing HDH and CPTi powders. Machine modifications were performed to allow the testing and manufacturing with these low cost alternative powders. A comparison was made between alternative powders and gas atomized powders. Powders were compared in terms of morphology and at the microstructural level. Flowability of different powder blends was also measured. Finally, a comparison of parts fabricated from the multiple powder blends and gas atomized powder was made. It has been demonstrated that powder blending can produce fully dense parts in the Arcam system by utilizing the double melt technique or HIPing the built pars. The double melt technique increased the density of the sample part and modified the microstructure into finer martensitic grains. The HIP process can make a part fully dense regardless of what percentage of HDH powder blending is used. The HIP process yielded the same microstructure, regardless of the grain structure it started with. This research allows for the reduction of costs using titanium powders in the EBM system, but can also be implemented with more costly elements and alloys using other metal AM technologies. This includes niobium, tantalum, and nickel-based superalloys for use in various industries.

  16. Substrate and method for the formation of continuous magnesium diboride and doped magnesium diboride wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suplinskas, Raymond J.; Finnemore, Douglas; Bud'ko, Serquei; Canfield, Paul

    2007-11-13

    A chemically doped boron coating is applied by chemical vapor deposition to a silicon carbide fiber and the coated fiber then is exposed to magnesium vapor to convert the doped boron to doped magnesium diboride and a resultant superconductor.

  17. Micro powder-injection moulding of metals and ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Volker Piotter; Thomas Gietzelt; Lothar Merz

    2003-02-01

    Development of micro-MIM/-CIM was started at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe with the aim of creating a process suitable for a wide range of materials as well as for medium-scale and large-scale production of micro components. Using enhanced machine technology and special tempering procedures, this process enables the manufacturing of metal and ceramic devices with smallest wall thicknesses of 50 m and structural details of less than 3 m. Using ultra-fine ceramic powders (e.g. zirconia) and high-quality LIGA mould inserts, surface qualities of $R_a =$ 40 nm or $R_{\\text{max}} \\leq$ 3 mm could be obtained. Possible practical applications are demonstrated by components of micro-annular gear pumps made of zirconia for future handling of very small volumes of dangerous fluids and micro samples (tensile and bending specimens) suitable for mechanical testing of metals (316L, 17-4PH) and ceramic materials (Al23, ZrO2) in the micrometre range.

  18. Improving resistance welding of aluminum sheets by addition of metal powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Naimi, Ihsan K.; Al-Saadi, Moneer H.; Daws, Kasim M.

    2015-01-01

    . The improvement obtained is shown to be due to the development of a secondary bond in the joint beside the weld nugget increasing the total weld area. The application of powder additive is especially feasible, when using welding machines with insufficient current capacity for producing the required nugget size......In order to ensure good quality joints between aluminum sheets by resistance spot welding, a new approach involving the addition of metal powder to the faying surfaces before resistance heating is proposed. Three different metal powders (pure aluminum and two powders corresponding to the alloys AA......2024 and AA7075) are investigated for the resistance spot welding of AA1050 aluminum sheets of three different thicknesses. Microstructural and mechanical analysis demonstrates that significant improvement in weld bead morphology and strength are obtained with the addition of metal powder...

  19. Recovery Of Electrodic Powder From Spent Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries (NiMH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin S.M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on recycling process newly proposed to recover electrodic powder enriched in nickel (Ni and rare earth elements (La and Ce from spent nickel-metal hydride batteries (NiMH. In addition, this new process was designed to prevent explosion of batteries during thermal treatment under inert atmosphere. Spent nickel metal hydride batteries were heated over range of 300°C to 600°C for 2 hours and each component was completely separated inside reactor after experiment. Electrodic powder was successfully recovered from bulk components containing several pieces of metals through sieving operation. The electrodic powder obtained was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and image of the powder was taken by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was finally found that nickel and rare earth elements were mainly recovered to about 45 wt.% and 12 wt.% in electrodic powder, respectively.

  20. Research of the possibility of using an electrical discharge machining metal powder in selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubeva, A. A.; Sotov, A. V.; Agapovichev, A. V.; Smelov, V. G.; Dmitriev, V. N.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper the research of a Ni-20Cr-10Fe-3Ti (heat-resistant) alloy metal powder conducted for use in a selective laser melting technology. This metal powder is the slime after electric discharge machining. The technology of cleaning and melting the powder discussed in this article. As a control input of the powder, immediately before 3D printing, dimensional analysis, surface morphology and the internal structure of the powder particles after the treatment were examined using optical and electron microscopes. The powder granules are round, oval, of different diameters with non-metallic inclusions. The internal structure of the particles is solid with no apparent defects. The content of the required diameter of the total volume of test powder granules was 15%. X-ray fluorescence analysis of the powder materials carried out. The possibility of powder melting was investigated in the selective laser melting machine ‘SLM 280HL’. A selection of the melting modes based on the physical properties of the Ni-20Cr-10Fe-3Ti alloy, data obtained from similar studies and a mathematical model of the process. Conclusions on the further investigation of the possibility of using electric discharge machining slime were made.

  1. RESEARCH OF HEAVY METALS, ORGANOCHLORINE AND ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES IN POWDERED INFANT FORMULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Abete

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available During the period between october 2007 and november 2008 were collected 60 samples of powdered infant formula. The analysis for the detection of heavy metals, organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides show that the environmental situation is under control and powdered infant formula satisfies this health requisite.

  2. Formation of nanostructure in magnesium diboride based materials with high superconducting characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prikhna, T. A.; Shapovalov, A. P.; Grechnev, G. E.; Boutko, V. G.; Gusev, A. A.; Kozyrev, A. V.; Belogolovskiy, M. A.; Moshchil, V. E.; Sverdun, V. B.

    2016-05-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the properties of bulk superconducting magnesium diboride-based materials obtained by heating at high quasi-hydrostatic pressures (1-2 GPa), hot pressing (30 MPa), spark plasma sintering (16-96 MPa) and loose powder sintering. It is shown that the optimization of impurity distribution in MgB2 can be achieved by varying the synthesis conditions and introducing dopants. In particular, polycrystalline MgB2 materials synthesized at 2 GPa and containing a high amount of impurity oxygen demonstrates high critical current densities (106 and 103 A/cm2 at 20 K in magnetic fields of 1 and 8.5 T, respectively). It is found that the oxygen impurities are mainly localized in nanolayers or nanoinclusions, homogeneously distributed in the matrix. They act as pinning centers, while the MgB2 matrix also contains small amounts of dissolved oxygen. Impurity or intentionally added carbon entering the magnesium diboride structure leads to an increase in the critical magnetic fields up to Bc2 (22 K) = 15 T and Birr (18.5 K) = 15 T. The results of ab initio calculations of the electronic structure and stability of the magnesium diboride compounds with partial oxygen or carbon substitution for boron show that it is energetically favorable for carbon to distribute homogeneously in MgB2 structure, while oxygen atoms replace boron pairwise in neighboring positions or form zigzag chains.

  3. Simulation of die wall friction's effect on density distribution in metallic powder compaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周照耀; 赵伟斌; 陈普庆; 陈维平; 邵明; 王郡文

    2002-01-01

    A computer simulation procedure for metal powder die compaction was described. Friction behavior of metal powder during cold compaction was simulated by the finite element method. The movement of powder relative to the die wall was taken into consideration by utilizing the shear friction model. Friction between the powder and the rigid die wall leads to inhomogeneous density distribution during the compaction process. The floating die technique and double punch pressing can attain more homogenous compacts than the fixed die technique can do. The results obtained from numerical analysis agree well with the experimental results. Simulation model was built in MSC.Mentat, and MSC.Marc software was used to calculate the powder compaction process.

  4. Oxidation kinetics of aluminum diboride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittaker, Michael L., E-mail: michaelwhittaker2016@u.northwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, 122S. Central Campus Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Sohn, H.Y. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, University of Utah, 135S 1460 E, Rm 00412, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Cutler, Raymond A. [Ceramatec, Inc., 2425S. 900W., Salt Lake City, UT 84119 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The oxidation characteristics of aluminum diboride (AlB{sub 2}) and a physical mixture of its constituent elements (Al+2B) were studied in dry air and pure oxygen using thermal gravimetric analysis to obtain non-mechanistic kinetic parameters. Heating in air at a constant linear heating rate of 10 °C/min showed a marked difference between Al+2B and AlB{sub 2} in the onset of oxidation and final conversion fraction, with AlB{sub 2} beginning to oxidize at higher temperatures but reaching nearly complete conversion by 1500 °C. Kinetic parameters were obtained in both air and oxygen using a model-free isothermal method at temperatures between 500 and 1000 °C. Activation energies were found to decrease, in general, with increasing conversion for AlB{sub 2} and Al+2B in both air and oxygen. AlB{sub 2} exhibited O{sub 2}-pressure-independent oxidation behavior at low conversions, while the activation energies of Al+2B were higher in O{sub 2} than in air. Differences in the composition and morphology between oxidized Al+2B and AlB{sub 2} suggested that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} interactions slowed Al+2B oxidation by converting Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on aluminum particles into a Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} shell, while the same Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} developed a needle-like morphology in AlB{sub 2} that reduced oxygen diffusion distances and increased conversion. The model-free kinetic analysis was critical for interpreting the complex, multistep oxidation behavior for which a single mechanism could not be assigned. At low temperatures, moisture increased the oxidation rate of Al+2B and AlB{sub 2}, but both appear to be resistant to oxidation in cool, dry environments. - Graphical abstract: Isothermal kinetic data for AlB{sub 2} in air, showing a constantly decreasing activation energy with increasing conversion. Model-free analysis allowed for the calculation of global kinetic parameters despite many simultaneous mechanisms occurring concurrently. (a) Time

  5. Physical and chemical characterization techniques for metallic powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slotwinski, J. A. [Intelligent Systems Division, Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Stutzman, P. E.; Ferraris, C. F.; Watson, S. S.; Peltz, M. A.; Garboczi, E. J. [Materials and Structural Systems Division, Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    Systematic studies have been carried out on two different powder materials used for additive manufacturing: stainless steel and cobalt-chrome. An extensive array of characterization techniques were applied to these two powders. The physical techniques included laser-diffraction particle-size analysis, X-ray computed tomography for size and shape analysis, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Techniques sensitive to chemistry included X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive analytical X-ray analysis. The background of these techniques will be summarized and some typical findings comparing different samples of virgin additive manufacturing powders, taken from the same lot, will be given. The techniques were used to confirm that different samples of powder from the same lot were essentially identical, within the uncertainty of the measurements.

  6. INDUCTION PLASMA REACTIVE DEPOSITION OF TUNGSTENCARBIDE FROM TUNGSTEN METAL POWDER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.L. Jiang; M.I. Boulos

    2001-01-01

    Experimental results are reported on the primary carburization reaction between the tungsten powder and methane in the induction plasma, and the secondary carburization of the deposit on substrate at high temperature. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to examine the microstructures of starting tungsten powder, carburized powder, and deposit. X-ray diffraction analysis, thermal gravimetric analysis and microhardness measurement were used to characterize the structures and properties of the powder and the deposit. It is found that the primary carburization reaction in the induction plasma starts from the surface of tungsten particles when the particles are melted. Tungsten particles are partially carburized inside the reactive plasma. Complete carburization is achieved through the secondary carburization reaction of the deposit on substrate at high temperature.``

  7. Compacted and Sintered Microstructure Depending on Uranium Powder Size in Zr-U Metallic Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Chang Gun; Jun, Hyun-Joon; Ju, Jung Hwan; Lee, Ho Jin; Lee, Chong-Tak; Kim, Hyung Lae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    In case of the uranium (U) and zirconium (Zr) powders which have been utilized for the production of a metallic fuel in the various nuclear applications, the homogenous distribution of U powders in the Zr-U pellet has influenced significantly on the nuclear fuel performance. The inhomogeneity in a powder process was changed by various intricate factors, e.g. powder size, shape, distribution and so on. Particularly, the U inhomogeneity in the Zr-U pellets occurs by segregation derived from the great gaps of densities between Zr and U during compaction of the mixed powders. In this study, the relationship between powder size and homogeneity was investigated by using the different-sized U powders. The microstructure in Zr-U pellets reveals more homogeneity when the weight ration of Zr and U powders are close to 1. In addition, homogeneous pellets which were produced by fine U powders have higher density because the homogeneity affects the alloying reaction during sintering and the densification behavior of pore induced by powder size.

  8. Development a Cu-based Metal Powder for Selective Laser Micro Sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, C; Zhu, H H; Ke, L D; Lei, W J [Division of Laser Science and Technology, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Institute of Optoelectronics Science and Engineering (China); Chen, B J, E-mail: chenbaijin@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die and Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074, P. R. of China (China)

    2011-02-01

    A Cu-based metal powder which consists of Cu and Cu-P alloy for selective micro laser sintering has been developed based on the theoretical analysis of the characteristics of the laser micro sintering metal powder. The characteristics of the wetting, capillary force and viscosity have been considered. The preliminary experimental investigation on the selective laser micro sintering Cu-based metal powder has been performed. A 50 W CW Nd:YAG laser was employed to sinter the developed metal powder mixture. The sintering mechanism and the effect of the process parameters on the characteristics of the sintering samples have been preliminary investigated. The results show that the mechanism of laser micro sintering this developed metal powder is liquid-phase sintering and Cu-P alloy powder plays an effectively binder in the sintering process. The process parameter has significant effects on the characteristics of the sintering parts. From the SEM image, two different microstructures of samples with different scan spacing parameters were compared and a better binding effect was obtained at a parameter of 0.05mm scan spacing.

  9. IGNITING SHS BY LASER AND ITS APPLICATION TO SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING OF METALLIC POWDER MATERIAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.S.Shi; S.C.Chen; X.L.Lu; S.H.Huang

    2004-01-01

    How to directly fabricate metallic functional parts with selective laser sintering (SLS) process is a potential technique that scientists are researching. Existent problems during directly fabricating metal part by use of SLS are analyzed. For the sake of solving the problems, a new idea of adding self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) material into metallic powder material to form new type of SLS metallic powder material is put forward. This powder material can release controllable amount of heat during its interaction with the laser beam energy to reduce the requirement to laser power during directly sintering metallic part, to prolong the time of metallic liquid phase existing, and to improve the intensity and accuracy of SLS part. For this reason, SHS material's interaction with the C02 laser beam energy is researched, which proves that CO2 laser beam energy may instantly ignite SHS reaction. On the basis of the above-mentioned researches, the effect of sintering the metal powder material mixing SHS material with CO2 laser is also researched,which shows: there is an optimal blending ratio of various material in the new metallic powder material. Under the optimal blending ratio and SLS process parameters, this new metallic powder material can indeed release amount of heat and SHS reaction may be controlled within the laser sintering. This research result makes it possible that the metallic part is directly sintered with small C02 laser (less than 50W), which may greatly reduce the volume, cost and running expenditure of SLS machine, be propitious to application.

  10. Thermal analysis and evolution of shape loss phenomena during polymer burnout in powder metal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enneti, Ravi Kumar

    2005-07-01

    Powder metallurgy technology involves manufacturing of net shape or near net shape components starting from metal powders. Polymers are used to provide lubrication during shaping and handling strength to the shaped component. After shaping, the polymers are removed from the shaped components by providing thermal energy to burnout the polymers. Polymer burnout is one of the most critical step in powder metal processing. Improper design of the polymer burnout cycle will result in formation of defects, shape loss, or carbon contamination of the components. The effect of metal particles on polymer burnout and shape loss were addressed in the present research. The study addressing the effect of metal powders on polymer burnout was based on the hypothesis that metal powders act to catalyze polymer burnout. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) on pure polymer, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), and on admixed powders of 316L stainless steel and 1 wt. % EVA were carried out to verify the hypothesis. The effect of metal powders additions was studied by monitoring the onset temperature for polymer degradation and the temperature at which maximum rate of weight loss occurred from the TGA data. The catalytic behavior of the powders was verified by varying the particle size and shape of the 316L stainless powder. The addition of metal particles lowered the polymer burnout temperatures. The onset temperature for burnout was found to be sensitive to the surface area of the metal particle as well as the polymer distribution. Powders with low surface area and uniform distribution of polymer showed a lower burnout temperature. The evolution of shape loss during polymer burnout was based on the hypothesis that shape loss occurs during the softening of the polymer and depends on the sequence of chemical bonding in the polymer during burnout. In situ observation of shape loss was carried out on thin beams compacted from admixed powders of 316L stainless steel and 1 wt. % ethylene vinyl acetate

  11. Application of physical and chemical characterization techniques to metallic powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slotwinski, J. A. [Intelligent Systems Division, Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Watson, S. S.; Stutzman, P. E.; Ferraris, C. F.; Peltz, M. A.; Garboczi, E. J. [Materials and Structural Systems Division, Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    Systematic studies have been carried out on two different powder materials used for additive manufacturing: stainless steel and cobalt-chrome. The characterization of these powders is important in NIST efforts to develop appropriate measurements and standards for additive materials and to document the property of powders used in a NIST-led additive manufacturing material round robin. An extensive array of characterization techniques was applied to these two powders, in both virgin and recycled states. The physical techniques included laser diffraction particle size analysis, X-ray computed tomography for size and shape analysis, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Techniques sensitive to chemistry, including X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive analytical X-ray analysis using the X-rays generated during scanning electron microscopy, were also employed. Results of these analyses will be used to shed light on the question: how does virgin powder change after being exposed to and recycled from one or more additive manufacturing build cycles? In addition, these findings can give insight into the actual additive manufacturing process.

  12. Multiphysics simulation of thermal phenomena in direct laser metal powder deposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pityana, SL

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The direct laser metal deposition (DLMD) is a recently developed technique for manufacturing solid parts, layer by layer, directly from powder. The process uses a high power laser beam focused onto a metallic substrate to generate a molten pool...

  13. Excellent capability in degrading azo dyes by MgZn-based metallic glass powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Qiang; Liu, Yan-Hui; Chen, Ming-Wei; Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.; Inoue, Akihisa; Perepezko, John H.

    2012-05-01

    The lack of new functional applications for metallic glasses hampers further development of these fascinating materials. In this letter, we report for the first time that the MgZn-based metallic glass powders have excellent functional ability in degrading azo dyes which are typical organic water pollutants. Their azo dye degradation efficiency is about 1000 times higher than that of commercial crystalline Fe powders, and 20 times higher than the Mg-Zn alloy crystalline counterparts. The high Zn content in the amorphous Mg-based alloy enables a greater corrosion resistance in water and higher reaction efficiency with azo dye compared to crystalline Mg. Even under complex environmental conditions, the MgZn-based metallic glass powders retain high reaction efficiency. Our work opens up a new opportunity for functional applications of metallic glasses.

  14. Production of Fine Metallic Powders by Hybrid Atomization Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa, Kazumi; Liu, Yunzhong; Kakisawa, Hideki; Halada, Kohmei

    Hybrid Atomization is a recently developed powder-making process that combines effectively free-fall gas atomization and centrifugal atomization. This technique can produce very fine spherical powders with mean diameters of around 10 micrometers, and in high yields. The present report discusses the concept and basic principles of hybrid atomization. Process experiments were carried out and the optimal processing conditions were obtained. The results show that the influences of processing parameters and optimum conditions differ greatly between the proposed and the conventional atomization processes. A new correlation of atomization equation applicable to hybrid atomization is proposed and discussed.

  15. Sintering products molded by injecting ceramic and metal powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ping-an; ZENG Ling-ke; LI Xiu-yan

    2005-01-01

    The injection molding products with different volume ratios of ZrO2 ceramic powder to 316L stainless steel powder were prepared. Properties and structure of the products were characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD),scanning electron microscope(SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results show that the compressive stress exists in the products and the bend strength reaches 300 MPa. ZrO2 phase and stainless steel phase are uniform in samples. The toughness of ceramic increases with the increasing the content of stainless steel.Through TEM study of the interface, some crystalline orientation relationships are determined.

  16. An analytical model of beam attenuation and powder heating during coaxial laser direct metal deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2007-12-01

    In the laser direct metal deposition process, interaction between the laser beam and powder from a coaxial powder delivery nozzle alters the temperature of powder and the amount and spatial distribution of laser intensity reaching the deposition melt pool. These factors significantly affect the process and are also important input parameters for any finite element or analytical models of the melt pool and deposition tracks. The analytical model in this paper presents a method to calculate laser attenuation and powder temperatures at every point below such a nozzle. It is applicable to laser beams that are approximately parallel over the beam-powder interaction distance of any initial intensity distribution (Top Hat, Gaussian, TEM01ast or other). The volume below the nozzle is divided into the region above the powder consolidation plane, where the powder stream is annular, and below it, where it is a single Gaussian stream, and expressions derived for each region. Modelled and measured results are reasonably matched. Results indicate that attenuation is more severe once the annular powder stream has consolidated into a single stream but is not zero before that point. The temperature of powder reaching any point is not constant but the mean value is a maximum at the centre of the stream.

  17. Hopper design for metallic powders used in additive manufacturing processes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Visagie, N

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available was measured. The hopper stand was checked and the experiment started when the powder was poured into the hopper while simultaneously starting a stopwatch. The change in mass and change in time was recorded on video for quality data capturing. After all...

  18. Temperature kinetics during shock-wave consolidation of metallic powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, R.B.; Kasiraj, P.; Vreeland, T. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Powders (60 ..mu..m diam) of constantan and pure copper were compressed statically into cylindrical greens (20.3 mm diam, 5.3 mm long) with a flat interface separating the two powders. A 20-mm propellant gun was used to accelerate a flyer of Lexan, copper, or aluminum, and generate in the green a shock wave with front parallel to the Cu/constantan interface. The voltages between opposite ends of the greens were measured as a function of time and for shock pressures between 1.3 and 9.4 GPa. When the shock wave arrives at the Cu/constantan interface, the voltage signal shows an abrupt increase, which lasts between 45 and 81 ns and leads to a peak temperature T/sub p/. After this, the hotter and cooler parts of the compact equilibrate and the temperature decreases to a value T/sub h/. With increasing shock pressure, T/sub h/ increases from 425 to 1215 K. The measurements of T/sub h/ are in excellent agreement with the temperatures calculated from the measured flyer velocity, the Hugoniot for copper powder, and thermodynamic data for the flyer and powders.

  19. PRODUCTION METHODS AND APPLICATIONS FOR HIGH-QUALITY METAL POWDERS AND SPRAYFORMED PRODUCTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Hohmann; S.Pleier

    2005-01-01

    Metal powders of superlative quality, i.e.high cleanliness, rapidly solidified and spherical shape, have seen an increasing demand in the market.The leading technology for the production of such powders is the inert gas atomization of metal alloy melts.To fulfill these requirements, the metal alloy is usually produced in a vacuum induction melting furnace (VIGA = vacuum induction melting/gas atomization) and poured by means of a preheated tundish system into a gas nozzle where the metal stream is disintegrated by a high kinetic energy inert gas jet.The produced micro-droplets solidify in a free fall inside the atomization tower.For special applications, super-clean and ceramic-free metal powders can be produced by using the EIGA (electrode induction melting/gas atomization) melting- and atomizing system.As an alternative to the metal powder route, the sprayforming technology allows to produce semi-finished products in one step.In this case, the metal droplets produced by the highenergy inert gas nozzle system are directly solidified on a substrate, allowing to form billets,rolls and tubes.

  20. Modeling of laser radiation transport in powder beds with high-dispersive metal particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharanzhevskiy, Evgeny, E-mail: eh@udsu.ru [Udmurt State University, 426034 Universitetskaya St., 1, Izhevsk (Russian Federation); Kostenkov, Sergey [Udmurt State University, 426034 Universitetskaya St., 1, Izhevsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: ► Transport of laser energy in dispersive powder beds was numerically simulated. ► The results of simulating are compared with physicals experiments. ► We established the dependence of the extinction coefficient from powder properties. ► A confirmation of a geometric optic approach for monodisperse powders was proposed. -- Abstract: Two-dimensional transfer of laser radiation in a high-dispersive powder heterogeneous media is numerically calculated. The size of particles is comparable with the wave length of laser radiation so the model takes into account all known physical effects that are occurred on the vacuum–metal surface interface. It is shown that in case of small particles size both morphology of powder particles and porosity of beds influence on absorptance by the solid phase and laser radiation penetrate deep into the area of geometric shadow. Intensity of laser radiation may be described as a function corresponded to the Beer–Lambert–Bouguer law.

  1. Development of new metal matrix composite electrodes for electrical discharge machining through powder metallurgy process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mathalai Sundaram

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrical discharge machining (EDM is one of the widely used nontraditional machining methods to produce die cavities by the erosive effect of electrical discharges. This method is popular due to the fact that a relatively soft electrically conductive tool electrode can machine hard work piece. Copper electrode is normally used for machining process. Electrode wear rate is the major drawback for EDM researchers. This research focus on fabrication of metal matrix composite (MMC electrode by mixing copper powder with titanium carbide (TiC and Tungsten carbide (WC powder through powder metallurgy process, Copper powder is the major amount of mixing proportion with TiC and WC. However, this paper focus on the early stage of the project where powder metallurgy route was used to determine suitable mixing time, compaction pressure and sintering and compacting process in producing EDM electrode. The newly prepared composite electrodes in different composition are tested in EDM for OHNS steel.

  2. Chemical reactions of metal powders with organic and inorganic liquids during ball milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, A.

    1975-01-01

    Chromium and/or nickel powders were milled in metal chlorides and in organic liquids representative of various functional groups. The powders always reacted with the liquid and became contaminated with elements from them. The milled powders had specific surface areas ranging from 0.14 to 37 sq m/g, and the total contamination with elements from the milling liquid ranged from 0.01 to 56 weight percent. Compounds resulting from substitution, addition, or elimination reactions formed in or from the milling liquid.

  3. Investigation of the powder loading of gas-atomized Ti6Al4V powder using an ‘in-house’ binder for metal injection moulding

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seerane, MN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Powder loading is one of the most critical factors in metal injection moulding (MIM) technology. It largely determines the success or failure of the subsequent MIM processes. A gas-atomized Ti6Al4V powder was investigated to determine an optimum...

  4. Effect of Ekabor 2 powder on the mechanical properties of pure iron powder metal compacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altintaş, Ayberk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ekabor 2 powder of different weights, used by V type powder mixture was mixed with pure iron powder. Specimens were created by dry pressing into die followed by cold isostatic press at a pressure of 100 bar for purpose of resizing. The conventional sintering process at 900 °C and 950 °C was carried out for 4 h using conventional furnaces. Specimens were gradually cooled by air. The sintered pellets were examined in terms of density, wear abrasion, surface roughness and hardness at 900 °C and 950 °C. Microstructure of pellets was observed with optic microscope. The results show that the hardness gradually increased with additions of 0 wt. % to 10 wt. % of Ekabor 2 however, after 10 wt. %, this hardness tended to decrease.Se mezclaron diferentes cantidades de polvo denominado “Ekabor 2”, el cual se utiliza en mezclas de polvo tipo V, con hierro puro en polvo. La muestras se obtuvieron por prensado en seco seguido de prensa isostática en frío a una presión de 100 bar, con el objeto de redimensionar la muestra. Se llevó a cabo el proceso de sinterización convencional a 900 °C y 950 °C durante 4 h utilizando hornos convencionales. Las muestras se enfriaron gradualmente en aire. Las pastillas sinterizadas (pellets se examinaron en términos de densidad, resistencia a la abrasión, rugosidad y dureza a 900 °C y 950 °C. Se observó la microestructura de las pastillas por microscopía óptica. Los resultados mostraron un aumento gradual de la dureza con la adición de 0 % en peso a 10% en peso de polvo Ekabor 2. Sin embargo, para mayores cantidades del 10% en peso se observó una tendencia a disminuir en la dureza.

  5. Metal vapor micro-jet controls material redistribution in laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Sonny; Rubenchik, Alexander M; Khairallah, Saad A; Guss, Gabe; Matthews, Manyalibo J

    2017-06-22

    The results of detailed experiments and finite element modeling of metal micro-droplet motion associated with metal additive manufacturing (AM) processes are presented. Ultra high speed imaging of melt pool dynamics reveals that the dominant mechanism leading to micro-droplet ejection in a laser powder bed fusion AM is not from laser induced recoil pressure as is widely believed and found in laser welding processes, but rather from vapor driven entrainment of micro-particles by an ambient gas flow. The physics of droplet ejection under strong evaporative flow is described using simulations of the laser powder bed interactions to elucidate the experimental results. Hydrodynamic drag analysis is used to augment the single phase flow model and explain the entrainment phenomenon for 316 L stainless steel and Ti-6Al-4V powder layers. The relevance of vapor driven entrainment of metal micro-particles to similar fluid dynamic studies in other fields of science will be discussed.

  6. Measurement of electromagnetic properties of powder and solid metal materials for additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Evgueni Iordanov

    2017-04-01

    The lack of validated nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for examination during and after additive manufacturing (AM) component fabrication is one of the obstacles in the way of broadening use of AM for critical applications. Knowledge of electromagnetic properties of powder (e.g. feedstock) and solid AM metal components is necessary to evaluate and deploy electromagnetic NDE modalities for examination of AM components. The objective of this research study was to develop and implement techniques for measurement of powder and solid metal electromagnetic properties. Three materials were selected - Inconel 625, duplex stainless steel 2205, and carbon steel 4140. The powder properties were measured with alternate current (AC) model based eddy current technique and direct current (DC) resistivity measurements. The solid metal properties were measured with DC resistivity measurements, DC magnetic techniques, and AC model based eddy current technique. Initial magnetic permeability and electrical conductivity were acquired for both powder and solid metal. Additional magnetic properties such as maximum permeability, coercivity, retentivity, and others were acquired for 2205 and 4140. Two groups of specimens were tested along the build length and width respectively to investigate for possible anisotropy. There was no significant difference or anisotropy when comparing measurements acquired along build length to those along the width. A trend in AC measurements might be associated with build geometry. Powder electrical conductivity was very low and difficult to estimate reliably with techniques used in the study. The agreement between various techniques was very good where adequate comparison was possible.

  7. Synthesis of Bulk Superconducting Magnesium Diboride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie Olbinado

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Bulk polycrystalline superconducting magnesium diboride, MgB2, samples were successfully prepared via a one-step sintering program at 750°C, in pre Argon with a pressure of 1atm. Both electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements confirmed the superconductivity of the material at 39K, with a transition width of 5K. The polycrystalline nature, granular morphology, and composition of the sintered bulk material were confirmed using X-ray diffractometry (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX.

  8. Effect of process parameters on induction plasma reactive deposition of tungsten carbide from tungsten metal powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Tungsten carbide deposit was made directly from tungsten metal powder through the reaction with methane in radio frequency induction plasma. Effect of major process parameters on the induction plasma reactive deposition of tungsten carbide was studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, water displacement method, and microhardness test. The results show that methane flow rate, powder feed rate, particle size, reaction chamber pressure and deposition distance have significant influences on the phase composition, density, and microhardness of the deposit. Extra carbon is necessary to ensure the complete conversion of tungsten metal into the carbide.

  9. Incoherent x-ray emission of titanium diboride at the boron site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ederer, D.L.; Winarski, R.; Ek, J. van [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    This group has made a study of a large number of transition metal diborides and hexaborides. As an example they would like to consider one of them. This class of compounds are of technical interest because they are quite hard, metallic, and chemically stable, and have high melting points. In addition to the technical importance of the borides, the group is interested in compounds of this type because of the very strong 1s {r_arrow} p* resonance that has been observed and associated with the boron atom.

  10. In vitro absorption of metal powders through intact and damaged human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filon, Francesca Larese; D'Agostin, Flavia; Crosera, Matteo; Adami, Gianpiero; Bovenzi, Massimo; Maina, Giovanni

    2009-06-01

    The bioavailability of metals, which are known as important contact allergens, is decisive for the development and the maintenance of contact dermatitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the percutaneous penetration of metal powders of cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) and the effect of skin lesions on skin absorption. In vitro permeation experiments were performed using the Franz diffusion cells with intact and damaged human skin. Physiological solution was used as receiving phase and metal powders (Co, Ni and Cr) dispersed in synthetic sweat at pH 4.5 were applied as donor phase to the outer surface of the skin for 24h. The amount of each metal permeating the skin was analysed by electro-thermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (ETAAS). Donor solution analysis demonstrated that metals were present as ions. Measurements of metals skin content were also exploited. Median Co and Ni concentrations found in the receiving phase were significantly higher when Co and Ni powders were applied on the abraded skin than after application on the intact skin (3566 and 2631ngcm(-2) vs. 8.4 and 31ngcm(-2), respectively). No significant difference was found in Cr permeation through intact and damaged skin. The measurement of metals skin content showed that Co, Ni and Cr concentrations were significantly higher in the damaged skin than in the intact skin. Co and Ni ions concentrations increased significantly when the donor solutions were applied on the damaged skin, while Cr ions concentrations did not increase. This study demonstrated that Co and Ni powders can permeate through damaged skin more easily than Cr powder, which has probably a stronger skin proteins binding capacity. Therefore, our results suggest that is necessary to prevent skin contamination when using toxic substances because a small injury to the skin barrier can significantly increase skin absorption.

  11. Microstructural evolution during direct laser sintering of multi-component Cu-based metal powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yi-fu; GU Dong-dong; WU Peng; YANG Jia-lin; WANG Yang

    2005-01-01

    A multi-component Cu-based metal powder was chosen for direct laser sintering. The powder consists of a mixture of high-purity Cu powder, pre-alloyed CuSn and CuP powder. Liquid phase sintering with complete melting of the binder (CuSn) but non-melting of the cores of structural metal (Cu) proves to be a feasible mechanism for laser sintering of this powder system. The microstructural evolution of the sintered powder with variation of laser processing parameters was presented. High sintering activities and sound densification response were obtained by optimizing the laser powers and scan speeds. Using a high laser power accompanied by a high scan speed gives rise to balling effect. At a high laser power with a slow scan speed the sintering mechanism may change into complete melting/solidification, which decreases the obtainable sintered density. The role of additive phosphorus in the laser sintering process is addressed. Phosphorus can act as a fluxing agent and has a preferential reaction with oxygen to form phosphatic slag, protecting the Cu particles from oxidation. The phosphatic slag shows a concentration along grain boundaries due to its light mass as well as the short thermal cycle of SLS.

  12. Microstructure engineering from metallic powder blends for enhanced mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, P.; Fagnon, N.; Dirras, G.

    2010-07-01

    The present work focuses on the transformation of high-purity Ni powder blends of controlled volume fractions (40 and 60 %) of nanometre-sized (100 nm) and micrometre-sized (544 nm) particles into bulk samples as part of a strategy for producing ultrafine-grained materials usefully exhibiting both strength and ductility. The process involved cold isostatic pressing at 1.5 GPa and sintering. The resulting bulk samples had relative densities near 95 %, were texture-free, and exhibited two different grain size distributions with an average value of 600 ± 30 nm. The mechanical properties were investigated by compression and microhardness tests, both at room temperature, and compared to the behaviour of a sample processed from micrometre-sized powder only. Samples prepared from the blends exhibited high yield stresses of 440 and 550 MPa after compression, and they did sustain work hardening. Tests conducted before and after compression up to 50 % deformation showed the same relative amount of hardness increase around 20 %, which was three times lower than that of the monolithic sample for which a decrease of the average grain size close to 26 % was measured.

  13. Microstructure engineering from metallic powder blends for enhanced mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlois, P; Fagnon, N [LIMHP, Universite Paris 13, CNRS, Institut Galilee, 99 av. J.-B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Dirras, G, E-mail: dirras@univ-paris13.f [LPMTM, Universite Paris 13, CNRS, Institut Galilee, 99 av. J.-B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2010-07-01

    The present work focuses on the transformation of high-purity Ni powder blends of controlled volume fractions (40 and 60 %) of nanometre-sized (100 nm) and micrometre-sized (544 nm) particles into bulk samples as part of a strategy for producing ultrafine-grained materials usefully exhibiting both strength and ductility. The process involved cold isostatic pressing at 1.5 GPa and sintering. The resulting bulk samples had relative densities near 95 %, were texture-free, and exhibited two different grain size distributions with an average value of 600 {+-} 30 nm. The mechanical properties were investigated by compression and microhardness tests, both at room temperature, and compared to the behaviour of a sample processed from micrometre-sized powder only. Samples prepared from the blends exhibited high yield stresses of 440 and 550 MPa after compression, and they did sustain work hardening. Tests conducted before and after compression up to 50 % deformation showed the same relative amount of hardness increase around 20 %, which was three times lower than that of the monolithic sample for which a decrease of the average grain size close to 26 % was measured.

  14. Effect of layered manufacturing techniques, alloy powders, and layer thickness on metal-ceramic bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekren, Orhun; Ozkomur, Ahmet; Ucar, Yurdanur

    2017-07-06

    Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) and direct metal laser melting (DMLM) have become popular for fabricating the metal frameworks of metal-ceramic restorations. How the type of layered manufacturing device, layer thickness, and alloy powder may affect the bond strength of ceramic to metal substructure is unclear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bond strength of dental porcelain to metal frameworks fabricated using different layered manufacturing techniques (DMLS and DMLM), Co-Cr alloy powders, and layer thicknesses and to evaluate whether a correlation exists between the bond strength and the number of ceramic remnants on the metal surface. A total of 75 bar-shaped metal specimens (n=15) were fabricated using either DMLS or DMLM. The powder alloys used were Keramit NP-S and EOS-Cobalt-Chrome SP-2 with layer thicknesses of 20 μm and 30 μm. After ceramic application, the metal-ceramic bond strength was evaluated with a 3-point-bend test. Three-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey honest significance difference test were used for statistical analysis (α=.05). De-bonding surface microstructure was observed with scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis was conducted to evaluate the correlation between ceramic remnants on the metal surface and bond strength values. The mean bond strength value of DMLS was significantly higher than that of DMLM. While no statistically significant difference was found between layer thicknesses, alloy powders closely affected bond strength. Statistical comparisons revealed that the highest bond strength could be achieved with DMLS-Cobalt-Chrome SP2-20μm, and the lowest bond strength was observed in DMLS-Keramit NP-S-20μm (P≤.05). No correlation was found between porcelain remnants on the metal surface and bond strength values. The layered manufacturing device and the alloy powders evaluated in the current study closely affected the bond strength of dental porcelain to a metal framework

  15. Characterization of the whiskerlike products formed by hydriding magnesium metal powders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herley, P. J.; Jones, W.; Vigeholm, Bjørn

    1985-01-01

    The structure of filamentary crystals produced during the hydriding of magnesium powder has been studies in detail. The needles of small dimensions (typically 0.5 μm in diameter) have been identified by electron analytical techniques to be oriented microcrystals of metallic magnesium...

  16. Radiometric Testing of Magnesium Diboride Array (MDA) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective is to develop a 2-Dimensional Far Infra-Red Magnesium Diboride Array (2D FIR MDA) to use in NASA’s future planetary exploration instruments. The...

  17. Rapid prototyping of zirconium diboride/copper electrical discharge machining electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucker, Brent Eric

    The acceptance of rapid prototyping (RP) as the predominant technique for producing polymer and paper parts directly from computer-aided design (CAD) models has led many corporations and universities to try to extend its capabilities to more robust materials. In addition to producing prototype metal and ceramic parts, a significant effort has been made to create parts that are useful as tools and dies or that reduce the time necessary to create tools and dies. Most materials used for tools and dies are very hard, because they need to be able to withstand millions of cycles before failing. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is the most common method used to machine tools and dies out of hard materials. A method for producing EDM electrodes using RP could greatly reduce the time and cost involved in creating tools and dies. A new EDM electrode material made up of zirconium diboride and copper (ZrBsb2/Cu) that is superior to traditional EDM electrodes has been investigated. The processing techniques necessary for creating Zrsb2/Cu electrodes from powders of ZrB2 and copper have been developed. These ZrBsb2/Cu electrodes have a better wear ratio and a faster sink rate than graphite, copper or tungsten/copper EDM electrodes. Performance variables that were tracked are: (1) wear ratio, (2) sink rate and (3) surface finish, where ZrBsb2/Cu, copper, graphite and W/Cu were used as anodes (electrodes) and stainless steel as cathodes (workpieces). The ZrBsb2/Cu electrode material system retains its superior EDM electrode performance across a number of materials processing and compositional variations. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the electrodes after EDM. These SEM observations facilitated an understanding of the superior EDM electrode performance characteristics of ZrBsb2/Cu to traditional EDM electrode material systems. A method for creating geometrically-complex ZrBsb2/Cu EDM electrodes using the selective laser sintering (SLS) RP technique was

  18. PVC-based composite material containing recycled non-metallic printed circuit board (PCB) powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinjie; Guo, Yuwen; Liu, Jingyang; Qiao, Qi; Liang, Jijun

    2010-12-01

    The study is directed to the use of non-metallic powders obtained from comminuted recycled paper-based printed circuit boards (PCBs) as an additive to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) substrate. The physical properties of the non-metallic PCB (NMPCB) powders were measured, and the morphological, mechanical and thermal properties of the NMPCB/PVC composite material were investigated. The results show that recycled NMPCB powders, when added below a threshold, tended to increase the tensile strength and bending strength of PVC. When 20 wt% NMPCB powders (relative to the substrate PVC) of an average diameter of 0.08 mm were added, the composite tensile strength and bending strength reached 22.6 MPa and 39.83 MPa, respectively, representing 107.2% and 123.1% improvement over pure PVC. The elongation at break of the composite material reached 151.94% of that of pure PVC, while the Vicat softening temperature of the composite material did not increase significantly compared to the pure PVC. The above results suggest that paper-based NMPCB powders, when used at appropriate amounts, can be effective for toughening PVC. Thus, this study suggests a new route for reusing paper-based NMPCB, which may have a significant beneficial environmental impact.

  19. Mathematical Model of Hot Metal Desulfurization by Powder Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Cepeda Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been a numerous number of studies on mathematical model of hot metal desulfurization by deep injection of calcium carbide, the research field as a whole is not well integrated. This paper presents a model that takes into account the kinetics, thermodynamics, and transport processes to predict the sulfur levels in the hot metal throughout a blow. The model could be utilized to assess the influence of the treatment temperature, rate of injection, gas flow rate, and initial concentration of sulfur on the desulfurization kinetics. In the second part of this paper an analysis of the industrial data for injection of calcium carbide using this model is described. From a mathematical model that describes the characteristics of a system, it is possible to predict the behavior of the variables involved in the process, resulting in savings of time and money. Discretization is realized through the finite difference method combined with interpolation in the border domain by Taylor series.

  20. Metal-Assisted Laser-Induced Gas Plasma for the Direct Analysis of Powder Using Pulse CO2 Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumaeni, A.; Lie, Z. S.; Kurniawan, K. H.; Kagawa, K.

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of powder samples available in small quantities has been carried out using metal-assisted gas plasma by utilizing a transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO2 laser. The powder was homogeneously mixed with Si grease, and the mixed powder was painted on a metal subtarget. When a TEA CO2 laser was directly focused on the metal subtarget at atmospheric pressure of He gas, a high-temperature He gas plasma was induced. It is assumed that the powder particles were vaporized to be effectively atomized and excited in the gas plasma region. This method has been employed in the rapid analyses of elements in organic and inorganic powder samples present in small quantities. Detection of trace elements of Cr and Pb has been successfully made by using the supplement powder and loam soil, respectively. The detection limits of Pb in loam soil were approximately 20 mg/kg.

  1. Study on the fabrication of low-pass metal powder filters for use at cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Hoon; Lee, Soon-Gul

    2016-08-01

    We fabricated compact low-pass stainless-steel powder filters for use in low-noise measurements at cryogenic temperatures and investigated their attenuation characteristics for different wire lengths, filter shapes, and preparation methods at frequencies up to 20 GHz. We used nominally 30- μm-sized SUS 304L powder and mixed it with Stycast 2850FT (Emerson and Cumming) with catalyst 23LV. A 0.1-mm insulated copper wire was wound on preformed powder-mixture spools in the shape of a right-circular cylinder, a flattened elliptic cylinder and a toroid, and the coils were encapsulated in metal tubes or boxes filled with the powder mixture. All the fabricated powder filters showed a large attenuation at high frequencies with a cut-off frequency near 1 GHz. However, the toroidal filter showed prominent ripples corresponding to resonance modes in the 0.5-m-long coil wire. A filter with a 2:1 powder/epoxy mixture mass ratio and a wire length of 1.53 m showed an attenuation of -93 dB at 4 GHz, and the attenuation was linearly proportional to the wire's length. As the powder-to-epoxy ratio was increased, the high-frequency attenuation increased. An equally-spaced single-layer coil structure was found to be more efficient in attenuation than a double-layer coil. The geometry of the metal filter's case affected the noise ripples, with the least noise being found for a circular tube.

  2. Study on the fabrication of low-pass metal powder filters for use at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    We fabricated compact low-pass stainless-steel powder filters for use in low-noise measurements at cryogenic temperatures and investigated their attenuation characteristics for different wire lengths, shapes, and preparation methods up to 20 GHz. We used nominally 30-micrometer-sized SUS 304L powder and mixed with Stycast 2850FT by Emerson and Cumming with catalyst 23LV. A 0.1 mm insulated copper wire was wound on preformed powder-mixture spools in the shape of a right-circular cylinder, a flattened elliptic cylinder and a toroid, and the coils were encapsulated in metal tubes or boxes filled with the powder mixture. All the fabricated powder filters showed a large attenuation at high frequencies with a cut-off frequency near 1 GHz. However, the toroidal filter showed prominent ripples corresponding to resonance modes in the 0.5-m-long coil wire. A filter with a 2:1 powder/epoxy mixture mass rate and a wire length of 1.53 m showed an attenuation of -93 dB at 4 GHz and the attenuation was linearly proportional...

  3. Insertion and confinement of hydrophobic metallic powder in water: The bubble-marble effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Yehuda; Jerby, Eli

    2014-09-01

    Metallic powders such as thermite are known as efficient fuels also applicable in oxygen-free environments. However, due to their hydrophobicity, they hardly penetrate into water. This paper presents an effect that enables the insertion and confinement of hydrophobic metallic powders in water, based on encapsulating an air bubble surrounded by a hydrophobic metallic shell. This effect, regarded as an inverse of the known liquid-marble effect, is named here "bubble marble" (BM). The sole BM is demonstrated experimentally as a stable, maneuverable, and controllable soft-solid-like structure, in a slightly deformed hollow spherical shape of ˜1-cm diameter. In addition to experimental and theoretical BM aspects, this paper also demonstrates its potential for underwater applications, such as transportation of solid objects within BM and underwater combustion of thermite BM by localized microwaves. Hence, the BM phenomena may open new possibilities for heat and thrust generation, as well as material processing and mass transfer underwater.

  4. Nuclear Rocket Ceramic Metal Fuel Fabrication Using Tungsten Powder Coating and Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, M. W.; Tucker, D. S.; Hone, L.; Cook, S.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion is an enabling technology for crewed Mars missions. An investigation was conducted to evaluate spark plasma sintering (SPS) as a method to produce tungsten-depleted uranium dioxide (W-dUO2) fuel material when employing fuel particles that were tungsten powder coated. Ceramic metal fuel wafers were produced from a blend of W-60vol% dUO2 powder that was sintered via SPS. The maximum sintering temperatures were varied from 1,600 to 1,850 C while applying a 50-MPa axial load. Wafers exhibited high density (>95% of theoretical) and a uniform microstructure (fuel particles uniformly dispersed throughout tungsten matrix).

  5. Effect of Magnetic Fields on Explosive Welding of Metals and Explosive Compaction of Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvetsov, G. A.; Mali, V. I.; Bashkatov, Yu. L.; Anisimov, A. G.; Matrosov, A. D.; Teslenko, T. S.

    2005-07-01

    Explosive welding and explosive compaction of powders are new technologies for producing composite materials, which have been actively studied in recent decades. Considerable experience has been accumulated in producing composite materials with new physical properties, and these materials have been widely used in industry. At the same time, these technologies have certain limitations for high-temperature materials. The present research into the influence of magnetic fields on the explosive welding of metals and the explosive compaction of powders seeks to extend the possibilities of the indicated technologies. The results of the first experiments have shown that the use of magnetic fields holds promise for extending the possibilities of material welding and powder compaction.

  6. Soft magnetic polymer-metal composites consisting of nanostructural Fe-basic powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nowosielski

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents and reviews the research results of soft magnetic composites consisting nanocrystalline powders obtained by soaking and high energetic milling of amorphous ribbons of metallic glasses Fe78Si9B13 and Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9.Design/methodology/approach: Amorphous Fe78Si9B13 and Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 ribbons were milled in a high energy ball mill (8000 SPEX CertiPrep Mixer/Mill with a ball-to-sample weight ratio of 5:1. The obtained metallic powders were sieved to a particle mean diameter 200÷500 µm, 75÷200 µm and 25÷75 µm, and then annealed in an argon atmosphere to generate the nanocrystalline state. The powders particles were mixed and consolidated with polymer to obtain composites in the form toroidal cores. Observations of the structure of powders and composites were made on the Opton DSM-940 scanning electron microscope and electron transmitting microscope JEOL JEM 200CX and X-ray analysis. The X-ray tests were realized with the use of the XRD 7 SEIFERT-FPM diffractometer.Findings: The analysis of the magnetic properties test results of the powders obtained in the high-energy ball of milling process, and the composites manufactured from these powders proved that the process causes significant decrease in the magnetic properties in relation to ribbons. The structure and magnetic properties of this material may be improved by means of a proper choice of parameters of this process as well as the final thermal treatment and first of all by decrease of demagnetization effect.Research limitations/implications: For the powders, further magnetic, structure and composition examinations are planed.Practical implications: The amorphous and nanocrystalline Fe78Si9B13 and. Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 powders obtained by high-energy ball milling of metallic glasses feature an alternative to solid alloys and make it possible to obtain the ferromagnetic nanocomposites, whose shape, dimensions and magnetic properties can be freely

  7. Improvement on ball-milling composite process of metal matrix micro-nanometer powder using nanosuspension as the precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu; Zhou, Jianzhong; Li, Xiangfeng; Shen, Qing; Cheng, Man

    2014-12-01

    The wet ball-milling preparation of metal matrix micro-nanometer powder using nanosuspension as the precursor can well solve the agglomeration of nanoscale component, but the micro-nanometer powder prepared by the method can hardly meet the requirement of powder feeding in laser cladding process and its composite effect is still not desirable enough. Aiming at the problem, the ball-milling composite process of metal matrix micro-nanometer powder using nanosuspension as the precursor was analyzed. It has been found that the morphological diversity of original micron powder is the main influencing factor of the deliverability and the composite effect of micro-nanometer powder. In addition, the deposition of the compounding powder in the bottom of ball-milling tank also has some negative influences on the composite effect. Accordingly, two improving measures namely the micron powder pretreatment with Ball Mill Reshaping + Screening and the additional stirring during ball-milling process are proposed and experimented. Results show that the micron powder pretreatment could significantly improve the composite effect and the deliverability of micro-nanometer powder, and the additional stirring could further improve the composite effect of micro-nanometer powder.

  8. ZnS Semiconductive Powder Doped with Transition Metal Ions via Mechanochemical Synthesis Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.F. Louh; C.K. Lin; Oscar Lin; G.S. Chen; C.C. Chan

    2004-01-01

    The solid state synthesis can be carried out by using the initial pure metal zinc and inorganic sulfur powder mixtures by means of the mechanochemical synthesis route. The completion of solid state reaction between pure zinc and sulfur powder to produce c-ZnS and h-ZnS phases via such a route was rather fast, as compared to other non-sulfide systems by the similar method. The study was aimed to investigate the microstructure development and phase formation through the solid state reaction by controlling the processing parameters involved in this process including grinding media to powder weight ratio, solid state reaction duration, reaction atmosphere, stoichiometric ratio of zinc and sulfur elements, grinding media and choice of minor additives such as teflon-based polymeric lubricants and transition metal dopants (Mn, Cu). Both as-synthesized powders and heat-treated ZnS materials with various stoichiometric ratios were characterized by XRD, EXAFS and XANES analysis. The interesting results from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) would provide us some strong evidence whether stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric ZnS material can be successfully formed. The minor amount (0.5wt%)of Mn+2 or Cu+2 ion dopants added to the powder batch with the Zn/S stoichiometric ratio between1.00 to 1.05 was found to favor the reaction rate in the mechanochemical synthesis. Moreover, the obtained results of ZnS phase development under reaction conditions and different transition metal dopants in this study would imply that synthesis of other kind of sulfide compounds can be achieved using the demonstrated technique.

  9. Solid-assisted melt disintegration (SAMD), a novel technique for metal powder production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhlaghi, F. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11365-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) ], E-Mail: fakhlagh@ut.ac.ir; Esfandiari, H. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11365-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    A new process termed 'solid-assisted melt disintegration (SAMD)' has been developed for the preparation of aluminum alloy powder particles. The method consists of introducing and mixing a specified amount of as-received alumina particles (in the range of +700 to 500 {mu}m) in A356 aluminum melt at the temperature of 715 deg. C. Melt disintegration occurs in 10 min by kinetic energy transfer from a rotating impeller (450 rpm) to the metal via the solid atomizing medium (alumina particles). The resulting mixture of aluminum droplets and alumina particles was cooled in air and screened through 300 {mu}m sieve to separate alumina from solidified aluminum powder particles. A356 aluminum alloy was also gas atomized by using a free-fall atomizer operating by nitrogen gas at the pressure of 1.1 MPa and the sub-300 {mu}m of the produced powder was used as a base of comparison. The SAMD produced powders of diameter above 53 {mu}m were mostly spherical while powders less than 53 {mu}m showed various elongated shapes. No evidence was found for satelliting of small particles on to large ones or agglomerated particles. While gas atomized particles in the +53 {mu}m sieve size range showed some signs of porosity, the SAMD particles were dense and did not show any signs of internal porosity in any of the sieve fractions investigated. Comparison of the microstructure of the SAMD and gas-atomized powders revealed that for the same size powder of A356 alloy, the former exhibited a coarser microstructure as a result of a slower cooling rate.

  10. Experimental Study on Tensile Properties of a Novel Porous Metal Fiber/Powder Sintered Composite Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuiping Zou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel porous metal fiber/powder sintered composite sheet (PMFPSCS is developed by sintering a mixture of a porous metal fiber sintered sheet (PMFSS and copper powders with particles of a spherical shape. The characteristics of the PMFPSCS including its microstructure, sintering density and porosity are investigated. A uniaxial tensile test is carried out to study the tensile behaviors of the PMFPSCS. The deformation and failure mechanisms of the PMFSCS are discussed. Experimental results show that the PMFPSCS successively experiences an elastic stage, hardening stage, and fracture stage under tension. The tensile strength of the PMFPSCS is determined by a reticulated skeleton of fibers and reinforcement of copper powders. With the porosity of the PMFSS increasing, the tensile strength of the PMFPSCS decreases, whereas the reinforcement of copper powders increases. At the elastic stage, the structural elastic deformation is dominant, and at the hardening stage, the plastic deformation is composed of the structural deformation and the copper fibers’ plastic deformation. The fracture of the PMFPSCS is mainly caused by the breaking of sintering joints.

  11. Mechanical properties of metals for biomedical applications using powder metallurgy process: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewidar, Montasser Marasy; Yoon, Ho-Chel; Lim, Jae Kyoo

    2006-06-01

    The uses of biomaterials have been revolutionizing the biomedical field in deployment as implants for humans. During the past five decades, many implant materials made of metals have been put into practical use. Powder metallurgy techniques have been used to produce controlled porous structures, such as porous coatings applied for dental and orthopedic surgical implants, which allow bony tissue ingrowth within the implant surface, thereby improving fixation. This paper examines various important metals using powder metallurgy technology to produce elements of a total hip replacement. These alloys are 316L stainless steel alloy, Co-Cr-Mo alloy, and Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Also, this paper examines current information on the mechanical properties. Mechanical properties are discussed as a function of type of materials and process of fabrication. This article addresses the engineering aspects concerning the advantages and disadvantages of each type of material.

  12. Enhancement of leaching copper by electro-oxidation from metal powders of waste printed circuit board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Zhu; ZeYun, Fan; Jie, Lin; Qiang, Liu; Guangren, Qian; Ming, Zhou

    2009-07-30

    Oxidation leaching copper from metal powders of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) was conducted at room temperature in sulfuric acid solution. The result showed that the copper in metal powders was oxidized by Cu(2+) to form CuCl(2)(-) in the presence of chloride ion without electrochemical oxidation. Then, CuCl(2)(-) was oxidized into CuSO(4) by oxygen derived from the air insufflated into leaching solution. The leaching rate of copper reached 100%. The whole reaction took 5.5h because it was limited by the low solubility of the air in water. In the electro-oxidation conditions, the chloride ion was electro-oxidized into ClO(-), which oxidized CuCl(2)(-) into CuSO(4) and ClO(-) was reduced into Cl(-) itself again at the same time. Since Cl(-) was recycled in the solution not only as a complexing agent but also as an oxidant, which made the reaction speed up to 3.5h to reach 100% leaching rate. Leaching solution was concentrated to crystallize CuSO(4).5H(2)O, and crystal liquor was reused to leach copper from metal powders.

  13. Magnetic Properties of Nd-Fe-B Sintered Magnet Powders Recovered by Yb Metal Vapor Sorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Horikawa T; Itoh M; Suzuki Shunji; Machida K

    2004-01-01

    Fine ground powders of Nd-Fe-B sintered magnet bulks(particle size=46~125 μm in diameter) were coated and alloyed with Yb metal by sorbing them. A significant recovery of the decreased magnetic properties of the ground powders(remanence Br=~0.95 T, coercivity Hcj =~227 kA·m-1 and maximum energy product(BH)max=~48.8 kJ·m-3) was observed in accordance with increasing temperature up to 800 ℃. The sorbing temperature and time for Yb metal vapor were optimized and after heating at 800 ℃ for 90 min and annealing subsequently at 610 ℃ for 60 min, the Br, Hcj and(BH)max values were increased to be 0.98 T, 712 kA·m-1 and 173 kJ·m-3, respectively. From the microstructural characterizations of resulting samples by using X-ray diffraction(XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), and electron probe X-ray microanalyzer(EPMA), it is found that the sorbed Yb metal uniformly covers the surface and diffuses to the Nd-rich grain boundary of fine ground powders of Nd-Fe-B sintered magnet bulks forming a(Nd,Yb)Fe2 phase.

  14. Adsorption of heavy metal from aqueous solution by dehydrated root powder of long-root Eichhornia crassipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Chen, Bo; Lin, Peng; Zhou, Jiali; Zhan, Juhong; Shen, Qiuying; Pan, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    The root powder of long-root Eichhornia crassipes, as a new kind of biodegradable adsorbent, has been tested for aqueous adsorption of Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd. From FT-IR, we found that the absorption peaks of phosphorous compounds, carbonyl, and nitrogenous compounds displayed obvious changes before and after adsorption which illustrated that plant characteristics may play a role in binding with metals. Surface properties and morphology of the root powders have been characterized by means of SEM and BET. Energy spectrum analysis showed that the metals were adsorbed on root powders after adsorption. Then, optimum quantity of powder, pH values, and metal ion concentrations in single-system and multi-system were detected to discuss the characteristics and mechanisms of metal adsorption. Freundlich model and the second-order kinetics equation could well describe the adsorption of heavy metals in single-metal system. The adsorption of Pb, Zn, and Cd in the multi-metal system decreased with the concentration increased. At last, competitive adsorption of every two metals on root powder proved that Cu and Pb had suppressed the adsorption performance of Cd and Zn.

  15. Fabrication of metal matrix composite by semi-solid powder processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yufeng [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Various metal matrix composites (MMCs) are widely used in the automotive, aerospace and electrical industries due to their capability and flexibility in improving the mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of a component. However, current manufacturing technologies may suffer from insufficient process stability and reliability and inadequate economic efficiency and may not be able to satisfy the increasing demands placed on MMCs. Semi-solid powder processing (SPP), a technology that combines traditional powder metallurgy and semi-solid forming methods, has potential to produce MMCs with low cost and high efficiency. In this work, the analytical study and experimental investigation of SPP on the fabrication of MMCs were explored. An analytical model was developed to understand the deformation mechanism of the powder compact in the semi-solid state. The densification behavior of the Al6061 and SiC powder mixtures was investigated with different liquid fractions and SiC volume fractions. The limits of SPP were analyzed in terms of reinforcement phase loading and its impact on the composite microstructure. To explore adoption of new materials, carbon nanotube (CNT) was investigated as a reinforcing material in aluminum matrix using SPP. The process was successfully modeled for the mono-phase powder (Al6061) compaction and the density and density distribution were predicted. The deformation mechanism at low and high liquid fractions was discussed. In addition, the compaction behavior of the ceramic-metal powder mixture was understood, and the SiC loading limit was identified by parametric study. For the fabrication of CNT reinforced Al6061 composite, the mechanical alloying of Al6061-CNT powders was first investigated. A mathematical model was developed to predict the CNT length change during the mechanical alloying process. The effects of mechanical alloying time and processing temperature during SPP were studied on the mechanical, microstructural and

  16. Numerical modeling of sintering of two-component metal powders with laser beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niziev, V. G.; Koldoba, A. V.; Mirzade, F. Kh.; Panchenko, V. Ya.; Poveschenko, Yu. A.; Popov, M. V.

    2011-02-01

    Direct laser sintering of a mixture of two metal powders with significantly different melting points is investigated by numerical simulation. The model is based on self-consistent non-linear continuity equations for volume fractions of components and on energy transfer equations for the powder mixture. It includes the movement of the solid particles due to shrinkage because of the density change of the powder mixture and the liquid flow driven by the capillary and gravity forces. The liquid flow is determined by Darcy's law. The effect of surface settlement of the powder is obtained. The width increasing rate of the melting zone depend both on the parameters of the laser radiation (on the power of the beam) and on the physical parameters of the particle's material, and it increases with the increasing of the penetrability or the increasing of the phase-transition heat. The increasing of the laser power under other factors being equal results in the acceleration of the melting front propagation.

  17. Magnesium diboride: An effective light-to-heat conversion material in solid-state

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Saju K.; John, Daughty; Bijoy, N.; Chathanathodi, Raghu; Anappara, Aji A.

    2017-07-01

    We report herein a giant light-to-heat transduction observed in bulk magnesium diboride (MgB2) on exposure to incoherent, continuous wave, broadband light-sources. The heat-flow from the sample was accurately determined using photocalorimetry, to register an ultrahigh value of 45 W/g upon irradiation with a low-pressure mercury vapour lamp (λ ˜ 250-450 nm; irradiance ˜800 mW/cm2) with a photo-to-thermal conversion efficiency of about 83% (with an error of ±1.86%). As a practical application, light-induced heat was used to generate electrical power using a thermoelectric generator (open voltage ˜125 mV, when illuminated by a solar simulator). The bulk MgB2 powder was found to be photo-stable under different irradiation conditions, and the photothermal effect was found to be highly reproducible.

  18. Numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in laser metal deposition by powder injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhiqiang

    Laser metal deposition is an additive manufacturing technique which allows quick fabrication of fully-dense metallic components directly from Computer Aided Design (CAD) solid models. A self-consistent three-dimensional model was developed for the laser metal deposition process by powder injection, which simulates heat transfer, phase changes, and fluid flow in the melt pool. The governing equations for solid, liquid and gas phases in the calculation domain have been formulated using the continuum model. The free surface in the melt pool has been tracked by the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method, while the VOF transport equation was solved using the Piecewise Linear Interface Calculation (PLIC) method. Surface tension was modeled by taking the Continuum Surface Force (CSF) model combined with a force-balance flow algorithm. Laser-powder interaction was modeled to account for the effects of laser power attenuation and powder temperature rise during the laser metal deposition process. The governing equations were discretized in the physical space using the finite volume method. The advection terms were approximated using the MUSCL flux limiter scheme. The fluid flow and energy equations were solved in a coupled manner. The incompressible flow equations were solved using a two-step projection method, which requires a solution of a Poisson equation for the pressure field. The discretized pressure Poisson equation was solved using the ICCG (Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient) solution technique. The energy equation was solved by an enthalpy-based method. Temperature-dependent thermal-physical material properties were considered in the numerical implementation. The numerical model was validated by comparing simulations with experimental measurements.

  19. Advances in microstructure and mechanical properties of zirconium diboride based ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteverde, Frederic; Guicciardi, Stefano; Bellosi, Alida

    2003-04-15

    The use of silicon nitride as a sintering aid (5 vol.%) greatly improves the powder sinterability of zirconium diboride, in comparison to additive free ZrB{sub 2}. Nearly full dense monolithic material is obtained by hot pressing at 1700 deg. C. The microstructure consists of fine regular ZrB{sub 2} grains and of various secondary grain boundary phases (e.g. BN, t-ZrO{sub 2}, BN-rich glassy phase), mainly located at triple points. The addition of 20 vol.% of silicon carbide as a reinforcing particulate phase to the ZrB{sub 2}+5vol.%Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} powder mixture slows down the densification rate of ZrB{sub 2}, therefore a higher hot pressing temperature (i.e. 1870 deg. C) is necessary to achieve nearly full density. Further addition of oxide additives (1vol.%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}+0.5vol.%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) to the ZrB{sub 2}-20vol.%SiC-5vol.%Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} system enables the production of near fully dense composites at lower hot pressing temperature (1760 deg. C). The presence of SiC particles in both the ZrB{sub 2}-based composites effectively improves strength, hardness and toughness, compared to monolithic zirconium diboride. Some mechanical properties are very interesting: flexural strength up to 700 and 600 MPa are measured at room temperature and 1000 deg. C, respectively. The properties are discussed in terms of the microstructural features.

  20. Red-emitting alkaline-earth rare-earth pentaoxometallates powders prepared by metal carboxylates solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kyu-Seog Hwang; Sung-Dae Kim; Seung Hwangbo; Jin-Tae Kim

    2013-06-01

    Moisture-insensitive metal carboxylates that are mostly liquids at room temperature have been first applied to the preparation of strontium europium aluminate (Sr2EuAlO5) powders for red-emitting phosphor under near ultraviolet radiation. Strontium naphthenate, aluminium-2-ethylhexanoate and europium-2-ethylhexanoate were dissolved with toluene to prepare starting solution. Precursor pyrolyzed at 500 °C for 240 min was finally annealed at 900–1200 °C for 240 min in Ar. X-ray diffraction analysis, field emission–scanning electron microscope and fluorescent spectrophotometer were used to evaluate structural and optical properties. For the 1000 °C-annealed powders with regular shape and narrow size distribution confirmed by FE–SEM observation, strong red emission at 615nm under the excitation of 395nm maximum was reached, then the higher annealed samples at above 1100 °C gave the lower emission intensities.

  1. Mechanical alloying: A method to obtain metallic powders and composite materials; Aleacion mecanica: Metodo de obtencion de polvos metalicos y materiales compuestos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Navas, E. M.; Velasco Lopez, F.; Torralba Castello, J. M. [Universidad Carlos III. Madrid (Spain); Edil da Costa, C. [Universidad do Estado de Santa Catarina. Brasil (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    This work deals with the mechanical alloying process as a method for powder production. The main aspects involved are as well as the fundaments and their particular application to the metal powder production. (Author) 75 refs.

  2. Facile synthesis of Curcuma longa tuber powder engineered metal nanoparticles for bioimaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Renu; Rahman, Pattanathu K. S. M.; Varunkumar, Krishnamoorthy; Anusha, Chidambaram; Kalaiarasi, Arunachalam; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2017-02-01

    Nanomaterials based fluorescent agents are rapidly becoming significant and promising transformative tools for improving medical diagnostics for extensive in vivo imaging modalities. Compared with conventional fluorescent agents, nano-fluorescence has capabilities to improve the in vivo detection and enriched targeting efficiencies. In our laboratory we synthesized fluorescent metal nanoparticles of silver, copper and iron using Curcuma longa tuber powder by simple reduction. The physicochemical properties of the synthesized metal nanoparticles were attained using UV-visible spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy with EDAX spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The Curcuma longa tuber powder has one of the bioactive compound Curcumin might act as a capping agent during the synthesis of nanoparticles. The synthesized metal nanoparticles fluorescence property was confirmed by spectrofluorometry. When compared with copper and iron nanoparticles the silver nanoparticles showed high fluorescence intensity under spectrofluorometry. Moreover, in vitro cell images of the silver nanoparticles in A549 cell lines also correlated with the results of spectrofluorometry. These silver nanoparticles show inspiring cell-imaging applications. They enter into cells without any further modifications, and the fluorescence property can be utilized for fluorescence-based cell imaging applications.

  3. The evaluation of different environments in ultra-high frequency induction sintered powder metal compacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavdar, P. S.; Cavdar, U.

    2015-03-30

    The application of the iron based Powder Metal (PM) compacts in Ultra-High Frequency Induction Sintering (UHFIS) was reviewed for different environments. The three different environments: atmosphere, argon and vacuum were applied to the PM compacts. Iron based PM compacts were sintered at 1120 degree centigrade for a total of 550 seconds by using induction sintering machines with 2.8 kW power and 900 kHz frequency. Micro structural properties, densities, roughness and micro hardness values were obtained for all environments. The results were compared with each other. (Author)

  4. Selective extraction and recovery of rare earth metals from phosphor powders in waste fluorescent lamps using an ionic liquid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Kubota, Fukiko; Baba, Yuzo; Kamiya, Noriho; Goto, Masahiro

    2013-06-15

    The recycling of rare earth metals from phosphor powders in waste fluorescent lamps by solvent extraction using ionic liquids was studied. Acid leaching of rare earth metals from the waste phosphor powder was examined first. Yttrium (Y) and europium (Eu) dissolved readily in the acid solution; however, the leaching of other rare earth metals required substantial energy input. Ionization of target rare earth metals from the waste phosphor powders into the leach solution was critical for their successful recovery. As a high temperature was required for the complete leaching of all rare earth metals, ionic liquids, for which vapor pressure is negligible, were used as an alternative extracting phase to the conventional organic diluent. An extractant, N, N-dioctyldiglycol amic acid (DODGAA), which was recently developed, showed a high affinity for rare earth metal ions in liquid-liquid extraction although a conventional commercial phosphonic extractant did not. An effective recovery of the rare earth metals, Y, Eu, La and Ce, from the metal impurities, Fe, Al and Zn, was achieved from the acidic leach solution of phosphor powders using an ionic liquid containing DODGAA as novel extractant system.

  5. Copper Benzenetricarboxylate Metal-Organic Framework Nucleation Mechanisms on Metal Oxide Powders and Thin Films formed by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Paul C; Zhao, Junjie; Williams, Philip S; Walls, Howard J; Shepherd, Sarah D; Losego, Mark D; Peterson, Gregory W; Parsons, Gregory N

    2016-04-13

    Chemically functional microporous metal-organic framework (MOF) crystals are attractive for filtration and gas storage applications, and recent results show that they can be immobilized on high surface area substrates, such as fiber mats. However, fundamental knowledge is still lacking regarding initial key reaction steps in thin film MOF nucleation and growth. We find that thin inorganic nucleation layers formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) can promote solvothermal growth of copper benzenetricarboxylate MOF (Cu-BTC) on various substrate surfaces. The nature of the ALD material affects the MOF nucleation time, crystal size and morphology, and the resulting MOF surface area per unit mass. To understand MOF nucleation mechanisms, we investigate detailed Cu-BTC MOF nucleation behavior on metal oxide powders and Al2O3, ZnO, and TiO2 layers formed by ALD on polypropylene substrates. Studying both combined and sequential MOF reactant exposure conditions, we find that during solvothermal synthesis ALD metal oxides can react with the MOF metal precursor to form double hydroxy salts that can further convert to Cu-BTC MOF. The acidic organic linker can also etch or react with the surface to form MOF from an oxide metal source, which can also function as a nucleation agent for Cu-BTC in the mixed solvothermal solution. We discuss the implications of these results for better controlled thin film MOF nucleation and growth.

  6. Application of sintered titanium alloys to metal denture bases: a study of titanium powder sheets for complete denture base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, H; Harrori, M; Hasegawa, K; Yoshinari, M; Kawada, E; Oda, Y

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this study was the fabrication of titanium powder sheets to enable the application of sintered titanium alloys as metal denture bases. The effects of titanium particle shape and size, binder content, and plasticizer content on the surface smoothness, tensile strength and elongation of titanium powder sheets was investigated. To select a suitable ratio of powdered metal contents for application as a metal denture base, the effects of aluminum content in Ti sheets and various other powder metal contents in Ti-Al sheets on the density, sintering shrinkage, and bending strength were evaluated. Based on the results of the above experiments, we developed a mixed powder sheet composed of 83Ti-7Al-10Cr with TA45 titanium powder (atomized, -45 microm), and 8 mass% binder content. This titanium alloy sheet had good formability and ductility. Its sintered titanium alloy had a density of 3.2 g/cm3, sintering shrinkage of 3.8%, and bending strength of 403 MPa. The titanium alloy sheet is clinically acceptable for fabricating denture bases.

  7. Directional solidification of (Ti, Zr) carbide-(Ti, Zr) diboride eutectics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrell, C.C.; Beratan, H.R.; Bradt, R.C.; Stubican, V.C.

    1984-03-01

    The ZrC-ZrB2, ZrC-TiB2, and TiC-TiB2 metal diboride-metal carbide pseudo-binary eutectic systems have been successfully solidified directionally by means of the floating zone method. The first and third of these eutectics possess a morphology consisting of columnar grains of parallel lamellae with interlamellar spacings that adhere to the lambda-squared (R) C relationship, while the second is noted to solidify in a Chinese calligraphy-like morphology of broken and deformed lamellae. This phenomenon may be related to solid solution effects, but it did not prevent the interlamellar spacings from following the aforementioned law. The calligraphic effect's values are larger than those of the other two systems, and the constant, C, is accordingly about an order of magnitude larger. All three of these cubic-hexagonal systems exhibited identical epitaxial relationships. 24 references.

  8. Microporous Titanium through Metal Injection Moulding of Coarse Powder and Surface Modification by Plasma Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Menhal Shbeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium is one of the most attractive materials for biomedical applications due to having excellent biocompatibility accompanied by good corrosion resistance. One popular processing technique for Ti is Metal Injection Moulding (MIM. However, there are several issues associated with the use of this technique, such as the high cost of the fine powder used, the high level of contamination and consequent alteration to material properties, as well as the large volume shrinkage that occurs during sintering. In this study, the use of a relatively coarse Ti powder with a mean particle size of 75 μm to process Ti parts with the potential for biomedical applications by MIM will be examined, compared to a commercial Ti feedstock, and subsequently coated using Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO. The results show that samples produced with the coarse powder shrink 35% less and have a relative density 14% less with an average pore size three-times larger than that of the commercial feedstock. This helps increase the potential competitiveness of MIM in the production of biomedical parts, as it reduces cost, shrinkage and results in more intentionally-induced micropores, such as are desired for biomedical implants. PEO treatment of the samples yields a thick rough coating comprised of a mixture of rutile and anatase with interconnected microporous channels and openings resembling the mouth of a volcanic crater.

  9. Atomic-layer electroless deposition: a scalable approach to surface-modified metal powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappillino, Patrick J; Sugar, Joshua D; El Gabaly, Farid; Cai, Trevor Y; Liu, Zhi; Stickney, John L; Robinson, David B

    2014-04-29

    Palladium has a number of important applications in energy and catalysis in which there is evidence that surface modification leads to enhanced properties. A strategy for preparing such materials is needed that combines the properties of (i) scalability (especially on high-surface-area substrates, e.g. powders); (ii) uniform deposition, even on substrates with complex, three-dimensional features; and (iii) low-temperature processing conditions that preserve nanopores and other nanostructures. Presented herein is a method that exhibits these properties and makes use of benign reagents without the use of specialized equipment. By exposing Pd powder to dilute hydrogen in nitrogen gas, sacrificial surface PdH is formed along with a controlled amount of dilute interstitial hydride. The lattice expansion that occurs in Pd under higher H2 partial pressures is avoided. Once the flow of reagent gas is terminated, addition of metal salts facilitates controlled, electroless deposition of an overlayer of subnanometer thickness. This process can be cycled to create thicker layers. The approach is carried out under ambient processing conditions, which is an advantage over some forms of atomic layer deposition. The hydride-mediated reaction is electroless in that it has no need for connection to an external source of electrical current and is thus amenable to deposition on high-surface-area substrates having rich, nanoscale topography as well as on insulator-supported catalyst particles. STEM-EDS measurements show that conformal Rh and Pt surface layers can be formed on Pd powder with this method. A growth model based on energy-resolved XPS depth profiling of Rh-modified Pd powder is in general agreement. After two cycles, deposits are consistent with 70-80% coverage and a surface layer with a thickness from 4 to 8 Å.

  10. Phase Behaviors in Bi-phase Simulation of Powder Segregation in Metal Injection Molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Baosheng; Fan Xiaoxin; Cheng Zhiqiang

    2006-01-01

    Powder segregation induced by mold filling is an important phenomenon that affects the final quality of metal injection molding (MIM). The prediction of segregation in MIM requires a bi-phase flow model to describe distinctly the flows of metallic powder and polymer binder. Viscous behaviors for the flows of each phase should hence be determined. The coefficient of interaction between the flows of two phases should also be evaluated. However, only viscosity of the mixed feedstock is measurable by capillary tests. Wall sticking is supposed in the traditional model for capillary tests, while the wall slip is important to be taken into account in MIM injection. Objective of the present paper is to introduce the slip effect in bi-phase simulation, and search the suitable way to determine the viscous behaviors for each phase with the consideration of wall slip in capillary tests. Analytical and numerical methods were proposed to realize such a specific purpose. The proposed method is based on the mass conservation between the capillary flows in mono-phase model for the mixed feedstock and in bi-phase model for the flows of two phases. Examples of the bi-phase simulation in MIM were realized with the software developed by research team. The results show evident segregation, which is valuable for improving the mould designs.

  11. A brief survey of sensing for metal-based powder bed fusion additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Bryant K.; Reutzel, Edward W.; Nassar, Abdalla R.; Dickman, Corey J.; Hall, Benjamin T.

    2015-05-01

    Purpose - Powder bed fusion additive manufacturing (PBFAM) of metal components has attracted much attention, but the inability to quickly and easily ensure quality has limited its industrial use. Since the technology is currently being investigated for critical engineered components and is largely considered unsuitable for high volume production, traditional statistical quality control methods cannot be readily applied. An alternative strategy for quality control is to monitor the build in real time with a variety of sensing methods and, when possible, to correct any defects as they occur. This article reviews the cause of common defects in powder bed additive manufacturing, briefly surveys process monitoring strategies in the literature, and summarizes recently-developed strategies to monitor part quality during the build process. Design/methodology/approach - Factors that affect part quality in powder bed additive manufacturing are categorized as those influenced by machine variables and those affected by other build attributes. Within each category, multiple process monitoring methods are presented. Findings - A multitude of factors contribute to the overall quality of a part built using PBFAM. Rather than limiting processing to a pre-defined build recipe and assuming complete repeatability, part quality will be ensured by monitoring the process as it occurs and, when possible, altering the process conditions or build plan in real-time. Recent work shows promise in this area and brings us closer to the goal of wide-spread adoption of additive manufacturing technology. Originality/value - This work serves to introduce and define the possible sources of defects and errors in metal-based PBFAM, and surveys sensing and control methods which have recently been investigated to increase overall part quality. Emphasis has been placed on novel developments in the field and their contribution to the understanding of the additive manufacturing process.

  12. Sudy of the conditions of the formation of a strong bond during the explosive welding of powders with metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaunov, A.M.

    1987-08-01

    The energy conditions for the formation of a strong bond between the coating and the substrate during the explosive welding of powders with metals are examined with reference to experimental results obtained for Cu, Ni, Mo, and Ti powders and iron substrates. A generalized energy criterion is proposed. Recommendations are given concerning welding process control and prediction of the properties of explosively welded coatings. 14 references.

  13. Fabrication of Ni-Nb-Sn metallic glassy alloy powder and its microwave-induced sintering behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guoqiang; Li, Song; Louzguine-Luzgin, D V; Cao, Ziping; Yoshikawa, Noboru; Sato, Motoyasu; Inoue, Akihisa

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we prepared Ni59.35Nb34.45Sn6.2 metallic glassy alloy powder by an argon gas atomization process. Microwave (MW)-induced heating and sintering was carried out by a single-mode 2.45 GHz MW applicator in the separated magnetic field or electric field using the obtained glassy powders. The structure and thermal stability of the sintered glassy alloy specimens were investigated.

  14. Bioaccessibility of micron-sized powder particles of molybdenum metal, iron metal, molybdenum oxides and ferromolybdenum--Importance of surface oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörsdorf, Alexander; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Hedberg, Yolanda

    2015-08-01

    The European chemical framework REACH requires that hazards and risks posed by chemicals, including alloys and metals, that are manufactured, imported or used in different products (substances or articles) are identified and proven safe for humans and the environment. Metals and alloys need hence to be investigated on their extent of released metals (bioaccessibility) in biologically relevant environments. Read-across from available studies may be used for similar materials. This study investigates the release of molybdenum and iron from powder particles of molybdenum metal (Mo), a ferromolybdenum alloy (FeMo), an iron metal powder (Fe), MoO2, and MoO3 in different synthetic body fluids of pH ranging from 1.5 to 7.4 and of different composition. Spectroscopic tools and cyclic voltammetry have been employed to characterize surface oxides, microscopy, light scattering and nitrogen absorption for particle characterization, and atomic absorption spectroscopy to quantify released amounts of metals. The release of molybdenum from the Mo powder generally increased with pH and was influenced by the fluid composition. The mixed iron and molybdenum surface oxide of the FeMo powder acted as a barrier both at acidic and weakly alkaline conditions. These findings underline the importance of the surface oxide characteristics for the bioaccessibility of metal alloys.

  15. Magnesium Diboride Superconducting Coils for Electric Propulsion Systems for Large Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The recent development of magnesium diboride superconducting wires makes possible the potential to have much lighter weight superconducting coils for heavy aircraft...

  16. From Powders to Dense Metal Parts: Characterization of a Commercial AlSiMg Alloy Processed through Direct Metal Laser Sintering

    OpenAIRE

    Eleonora Atzeni; Elisa Paola Ambrosio; Riccardo Canali; Manickavasagam Krishnan; Flaviana Calignano; Diego Manfredi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a characterization of an AlSiMg alloy processed by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is presented, from the analysis of the starting powders, in terms of size, morphology and chemical composition, through to the evaluation of mechanical and microstructural properties of specimens built along different orientations parallel and perpendicular to the powder deposition plane. With respect to a similar aluminum alloy as-fabricated, a higher yield strength of about 40% due to the v...

  17. A Mathematical Model of the Single Aluminium Diboride Particle Ignition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Yagodnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a developed mathematical model of ignition of the single aluminum diboride particle as an aluminum-boron alloy in the oxidizing environment of a complicated chemical composition containing oxygen, water vapor, and carbon dioxide. The mathematical model is based on the theory of parallel chemical reactions proceeding on the appropriate parts of the particle surface occupied by each element in proportion to their molar share in the alloy. The paper considers a possibility to establish a thermodynamic balance between components over a particle surface in the gas phase. The composition of components is chosen as a result of thermodynamic calculation, namely В g , B2O3 g , BO, B2O2, BO2, Alg , AlO, Al2O, N2. The mathematical model is formed by a system of the differential equations of enthalpy balance, mass of aluminum diboride particle, and of formed oxides, which become isolated by initial and boundary conditions for temperature and size of particles, concentration of an oxidizer, and temperature of gas. The software package “AlB2“ is developed. It is a complete independent module written in Fortran algorithmic language, which together with a package of the subroutines “SPARKS” is used to calculate parameters of burning aluminum diboride particle by the Runge-Kutt method.For stoichiometry of chemical reactions of interaction between aluminum diboride and oxygen, a dynamics of changing temperature of a particle and thickness of an oxide film on its surface is calculated. It was admitted as initial conditions that the aluminum diboride particle radius was 100μ and the reference temperature of environment was 500 K, 1000 K, 2300 K, and 3000 K. Depending on this temperature the aluminum diboride particle temperature was calculated. Changing thickness of the oxide film on the particle surface at various initial gas temperatures characterizes its increase at the initial heating period of ~ 0,01 s and a gradual slowdown of the

  18. High-Temperature Solid Lubricant Coating by Plasma Spraying Using Metal-Metal Clad Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiantian; Lan, Hao; Yu, Shouquan; Huang, Chuanbing; Du, Lingzhong; Zhang, Weigang

    2017-08-01

    NiCr/Ag-Mo composite coating was fabricated by atmospheric plasma spray technology using clad powders as the feedstock. Its tribological properties at variable temperature were evaluated using a ball-on-disk high-temperature tribometer in air. The results showed that compared with NiCr, the NiCr/Ag-Mo composite coating exhibited better lubrication effect and higher wear resistance at all test temperatures, especially above 600 °C. At 800 °C, NiCr/Ag-Mo composite coating showed the lowest friction coefficient of about 0.2 and its corresponding wear rate reached 2.5 × 10-5 mm3/Nm. Characterizations of NiCr/Ag-Mo composite coating revealed that at temperatures below 400 °C, Ag was smeared and spread onto the wear surface, reducing the friction and wear. At temperature above 500 °C, the Ag2MoO4 lubrication film formed by tribo-oxidation significantly improved the coating's lubrication effect and wear resistance.

  19. Parametric Investigation of Powder Mixed Electrical Discharge Machining of Al-Sic Metal Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Arya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – In recent few years composite materials have gained pace in engineering application. But they have poor machinability by using conventional machining methods. So it is required to study about these materials for better use in engineering application. To fulfillment of this aim, a study is done by conduct experiments (i.e. Machining on Al/SiC metal matrix composite (MMC. From the non-conventional machining process, Powder Mixed Electrical discharge machining (PMEDM is used to machining of Al/SiC MMC. PMEDM is a technological improvement in conventional EDM, which was previously studied by many researchers to better MRR with good surface roughness (SR. In this study, the controllable machining process parameters (i.e. Peak Current (Ip, Duty Cycle, Powder Concentration (PC, Gap Control and Sensitivity of PMEDM was selected to experimental investigation. The process performance is measured in terms of material removal rate (MRR and surface finish (SR. The research outcome will identify the important parameters and their effect on MRR of Al/SiC MMC in the presence of suspended graphite (Gr powder in a kerosene dielectric of EDM. Response surface methodology (RSM has been used to plan and analyze the experimental results. The experimental results emerged that only sensitivity has non-significant effect on MMR and SR from the selected process parameters, but it gives significant effects with other factors in interaction. Further it found that, the MRR is directly proportional to Ip and inversely proportional to the PC and duty cycle, and the SR improves at lower Ip and optimum range of PC, gap control and duty cycle.

  20. Energy Consumption and Saving Analysis for Laser Engineered Net Shaping of Metal Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing awareness of environmental protection and sustainable manufacturing, the environmental impact of laser additive manufacturing (LAM technology has been attracting more and more attention. Aiming to quantitatively analyze the energy consumption and extract possible ways to save energy during the LAM process, this investigation studies the effects of input variables including laser power, scanning speed, and powder feed rate on the overall energy consumption during the laser deposition processes. Considering microhardness as a standard quality, the energy consumption of unit deposition volume (ECUDV, in J/mm3 is proposed as a measure for the average applied energy of the fabricated metal part. The potential energy-saving benefits of the ultrasonic vibration–assisted laser engineering net shaping (LENS process are also examined in this paper. The experimental results suggest that the theoretical and actual values of the energy consumption present different trends along with the same input variables. It is possible to reduce the energy consumption and, at the same time, maintain a good part quality and the optimal combination of the parameters referring to Inconel 718 as a material is laser power of 300 W, scanning speed of 8.47 mm/s and powder feed rate of 4 rpm. When the geometry shaping and microhardness are selected as evaluating criterions, American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI 4140 powder will cause the largest energy consumption per unit volume. The ultrasonic vibration–assisted LENS process cannot only improve the clad quality, but can also decrease the energy consumption to a considerable extent.

  1. Adsorption properties of ultradispersed powders of aluminum alloys with rare-earth metals, before and after water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabina, A. V.; Shevchenko, V. G.; Eselevich, D. A.

    2014-10-01

    Adsorption of nitrogen on Al-3% La, Al-1.5% Sc, and Al-3% Ce powders before and after processing with water in the relative pressure range p/p s = 10˜3 to 0.999 is experimentally studied at a temperature of 78 K. It is shown that the interaction between ultradispersed powder and water depends on the properties of the original powder, including the original content and composition of the oxide-hydroxide phases in the surface layers of metal particles, and the length and conditions of storage. Results confirming that processing powders containing rare-earth metals with water at room temperature leads to the formation of new phases and affects their morphology are presented. It is shown that the nanopores formed between crystallites on the surface of the particles during oxidation with water and subsequent thermal dehydration play an important role in the properties of powders processed with water. The specific surface and the porosity of powders are calculated.

  2. Synthesis of Cordierite by Decomposition of Metal Nitrates on the Surface of Carbon Black Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Zhi-yong; LIANG Hui; XU Ming-xia; XU Ting-xian

    2004-01-01

    Cordierite precursor was obtained through a process, which involved the decomposition of metal nitrates on the surface of ultrafine carbon black powder between 100-300℃ and the gasification of the carbon black at higher temperature in air. The average size of the particles, which were heat-treated at 700℃ for 10h, is about 1020nm, and the specific surface area is about 129m2/g. The experimental results show that the ultrafine particles of cordierite precursor can be produced by this process. The precursor powder was calcined at different temperatures. X-ray diffraction examination indicates that β-quartz is crystallized from the amorphous matrix around 850℃ firstly and then MgO-Al2O3 spinel and α-cordierite appears. Above 1000℃, MgO-Al2O3 spinel and cristobalite disappear gradually and form an intermediate phase (sapphirine). At around 1300℃, the main phase is α-cordierite, and no other phase is detected.

  3. Influence of phosphorus element on direct laser sintering of multicomponent Cu-based metal powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, D. D.; Shen, Y. F.

    2006-12-01

    This article presents a detailed investigation on the influence of the phosphorus element upon the laser sintering of a multicomponent Cu-based metal powder system consisting of Cu, Cu-10Sn, and Cu-8.4P. Powder systems containing 0, 10, 15, and 20 wt pct CuP were sintered in atmosphere at room temperature using the following optimal processing parameters: laser power of 350 W, scan speed of 0.04 m/s, scan line spacing of 0.15 mm, and layer thickness of 0.25 mm. It was found that the relative density of the sintered sample with 15 wt pct CuP increased by 24,4 pct as compared with the sample without phosphorus addition. A further increase in the CuP content (≥20 wt pct), however, resulted in a poor densification with a serious delamination. The exact metallurgical roles of the phosphorus element in the laser sintering process were addressed as follows. First, the phosphorus could prevent the sintering system from oxidation by forming CuPO3, thereby improving the wetting characteristics and the sintering kinetics. Second, the phosphorus could decrease the surface tension of molten materials, leading to a successive transition from highly discontinuous sintered tracks to fairly coherent ones with increasing the phosphorus content. Third, the phosphorus could lower the melt viscosity, thereby improving the microstructural homogeneity of the laser-sintered samples.

  4. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W. E., E-mail: weking@llnl.gov [Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; Hodge, N. E.; Khairallah, S. A. [Engineering Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Kamath, C. [Computation Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Rubenchik, A. M. [NIF and Photon Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In this paper, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.

  5. Scalable process for application of stabilized lithium metal powder in Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Guo; Wang, Zhihui; Zhao, Hui; Mao, Wenfeng; Fu, Yanbao; Yi, Ran; Gao, Yue; Battaglia, Vincent; Wang, Donghai; Lopatin, Sergey; Liu, Gao

    2016-03-01

    A simple solution processing method is developed to achieve a uniform and scalable stabilized lithium metal powder (SLMP) coating on a Li-ion negative electrode. A solvent and binder system for the SLMP coating is developed, including the selection of solvent, polymer binder, and optimization of polymer concentration. The optimized binder solution is a 1% concentration of polymer binder in xylene; a mixture of poly(styrene-co-butadiene) rubber (SBR) and polystyrene (PS) is chosen as the polymer binder. Results show that long-sustained, uniformly dispersed SLMP suspension can be achieved with the optimized binder solution. The uniform SLMP coating can be achieved using a simple "doctor blade" coating method, and the resulting SLMP coating can be firmly glued on the anode surface. By using SLMP to prelithiate the negative electrode, improvements in electrochemical performances are demonstrated in both graphite/NMC and SiO/NMC full cells.

  6. Effect of Metallic Zn Powder on Oxidation Resistance of Al2O3-C Refractories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Youqi; KE Changming; LI Yousheng; LI Nan

    2006-01-01

    Al2O3-C specimens were prepared by using tabular corundum,flaky graphite,Al,Si,and Zn powder as starting materials and phenolic formaldehyde resin as binder.Keeping the mass ratios of tabular corundum,flaky graphite,Al and Si constant,different contents of ZN(0,0.5%,1%,2%and 3%)were added respectively.The specimens were heat treated at 120-220℃ for 24h,and then fired at 1400℃ .for 3h in air atmosphere. The mass change rate, thickness of decarburization layer, apparent porosity, bulk density and microstructure of the products were determined and observed by means of SEM and EDX.The results show that the specimen with 2% Zn was characterized by minimum in thickness of decarburization layer and in apparent porosity and maximum in bulk density. Consequently, the specimen with 2% metal Zn is supposed to perform the best oxidation resistance.

  7. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, W. E.; Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; Hodge, N. E.; Kamath, C.; Khairallah, S. A.; Rubenchik, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In this paper, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.

  8. Synchrotron hard X-ray imaging of shock-compressed metal powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Michael E.; Chapman, David J.; Collinson, Mark A.; Jones, David R.; Music, Jasmina; Stafford, Samuel J. P.; Tear, Gareth R.; White, Thomas G.; Winters, John B. R.; Drakopoulos, Michael; Eakins, Daniel E.

    2015-06-01

    This poster will present the application of a new, high-energy (50 to 250 keV) synchrotron X-ray radiography technique to the study of shock-compressed granular materials. Following plate-impact loading, transmission radiography was used to quantitatively observe the compaction and release processes in a range of high-Z metal powders (e.g. Fe, Ni, Cu). By comparing the predictions of 3D numerical models initialized from X-ray tomograms-captured prior to loading-with experimental results, this research represents a new approach to refining mesoscopic compaction models. The authors gratefully acknowledge the ongoing support of Imperial College London, EPSRC, STFC and the Diamond Light Source, and AWE Plc.

  9. Mechanically strong nanocrystalline Fe-Si-B-P-Cu soft magnetic powder cores utilizing magnetic metallic glass as a binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Luan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We report on the fabrication and properties of soft magnetic powder cores with superior mechanical strength as well as low core loss (W. Development of such cores is important for applications in automobiles/devices operating in motion. High saturation magnetic flux density (Bs Fe-Si-B-P-Cu powder was sintered with Fe55C10B5P10Ni15Mo5 metallic glass (MG powder in its supercooled liquid state by spark plasma sintering. The sintered cores are made from the nanocrystalline powder particles of Fe-Si-B-P-Cu alloy, which are separated through a magnetic Fe55C10B5P10Ni15Mo5 MG alloy. Low W of ∼ 2.2 W/kg (at 1T and 50 Hz, and high fracture strength (yielding stress ∼500 MPa, which is an order of magnitude higher than the conventional powder cores, were obtained. Stronger metal-metal bonding and magnetic nature of MG binder (which is very different than the conventional polymer based binders are responsible for the superior mechanical and magnetic properties. The MG binder not only helps in improving the mechanical properties but it also enhances the overall Bs of the core.

  10. Use of Cold Gas Dynamic Spraying of bi-metallic powder mixtures as alternative to classic powder metallurgy route for producing intermetallic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vit Jan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents cold gas dynamic spraying (or Cold Spray as a novel surface treatment technology capable not only of surface modifications but also being used as bulk creating technology. This is demonstrated on numerous samples where bi-metallic powder feedstock is deposited into bulk, self-standing pieces of material that does not need the support of substrate. Mixtures from the group of Fe, Al, Ti, Ni, Cu were used for the initial bi-metallic mixtures. The deposited samples were then subjected to annealing at temperatures ranging from 300 to 1100°C in protective atmosphere and resulting morphologies and microstructures were analysed. Generally materials with high proportion of intermetallic phase content were obtained. These are discussed as potential scaffolds for metal or polymer matrix composites or as hi temperature resistive supports for catalysts with filter functions.

  11. Magnesium diboride thin films and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yi

    Magnesium diboride (MgB2) is a binary compound superconductor with a superconducting transition temperature Tc of ˜40 K. MgB2 has two conduction bands: a two-dimensional sigma band and a three-dimensional pi band with weak interband scattering. The two gap superconductivity in MgB2 gives rise to many interesting physical properties not possible in other superconductors. The relatively high Tc combined with phonon mediated superconductivity and relatively long coherence length makes MgB2 promising for electronics applications like rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) logics and superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUID). The high current density and record-high upper critical field in pure or alloyed MgB2 are also attractive to a variety of high field applications including cryogen-free Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) systems. MgB2 may also be used in RF cavity coatings due to its low surface resistance and in photo detection due to its fast photoresponse coupled with relatively high Tc. High quality epitaxial thin films are produced by the hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) technique. The HPCVD MgB2 thin films have the highest Tc and lowest resistivity with sharp transition of all MgB2 materials reported. The HPCVD MgB2 material is free of dendritic flux jumps due to its low resistivity. The root-mean-square (RMS) surface roughness of HPCVD MgB2 films can be ˜1 nm when ˜1% of nitrogen is added to the hydrogen carrier gas during the growth. The stability of MgB2 films in water is studied; it is found that degradation can be prevented by a thin (10 nm) MgO layer deposited on the film surface. The Tc is enhanced by tensile strain due to the Volmer-Weber growth mode and the mismatches between MgB2 and the substrate in the lattice constants and the coefficients of thermal expansion. High quality superconductor-insulator-superconductor Josephson tunnel junctions were made with various barrier formation techniques. The junction critical current

  12. Consolidation of nanostructured metal powders by rapid forging: Processing, modeling, and subsequent mechanical behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, G. R.; Milligan, W. W.

    1997-03-01

    Fe-10Cu powders containing 20-nm grains were produced by attritor milling of elemental powders in argon. A rapid powder forging technique was developed to consolidate the powders into fully dense compacts while maintaining nanoscale grain sizes. Grain growth during the consolidation was controlled by reducing the time of exposure at elevated temperature to a few minutes or less, a technique which is applicable to all materials and does not necessitate the addition of dispersoids. This was achieved by heating green compacts quickly using an induction heater, and then forging and rapidly cooling them back to room temperature. Forging was conducted in a protective argon atmosphere to limit contamination. Fully dense compacts were produced at relatively low temperatures, mainly due to the accelerated creep rates exhibited by the nanostructures. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis found an average grain size of 45 nm in the fully dense samples forged at 530°C. Indications are that finer grain sizes should be attainable by using slightly lower temperatures and higher pressures. The success of the technique (compared to hot-isostatic pressing (“hipping”)) is due to both reducing time at elevated temperatures and applying relatively high pressures. Microhardness tests revealed a significant strengthening effect due to grain size refinement, following a Hall-Petch relation. Compression testing at room temperature showed no strain hardening during plastic deformation, which occurred by shear banding. High strengths, up to 1800 MPa, were obtained at room temperature. Compression testing at 575°C revealed a significant strain rate dependence of mechanical behavior and also the possibility of superplastic behavior. Power-law creep was observed at 575°C, with very high steady-state creep rates on the order of 50 pct/s at 230 MPa. The consolidation process was successfully modeled by slightly modifying and applying the Arzt, Ashby, and

  13. Use of the gamma-ray absorption technique as a quality control procedure in the manufacture of powder metal shaped charge liners

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lawrie, JJ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of the gamma-ray absorption technique as a tool in evaluating the quality of manufactured powder metal liners was investigated. With powder metal liners, it is not only of interest to know whether the liner conforms geometrically...

  14. Investigation on the Effects of Titanium Diboride Particle Size on Radiation Shielding Properties of Titanium Diboride Reinforced Boron Carbide-Silicon Carbide Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Addemir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Composite materials have wide application areas in industry. Boron Carbide is an important material for nuclear technology. Silicon carbide is a candidate material in the first wall and blankets of fusion power plants. Titanium diboride reinforced boron carbide-silicon carbide composites which were produced from different titanium diboride particle sizes and ratios were studied for searching of the behaviour against the gamma ray. Cs-137 gamma radioisotope was used as gamma source in the experiments which has a single gamma-peak at 0.662 MeV. Gamma transmission technique was used for the measurements. The effects of titanium diboride particle size on radiation attenuation of titanium diboride reinforced boron carbide-silicon carbide composites were evaluated in related with gamma transmission and the results of the experiments were interpreted and compared with each other. Composite materials have wide application areas in industry. Boron Carbide is an important material for nuclear technology. Silicon carbide is a candidate material in the first wall and blankets of fusion power plants. Titanium diboride reinforced boron carbide-silicon carbide composites which were produced from different titanium diboride particle sizes and ratios were studied for searching of the behaviour against the gamma ray. Cs-137 gamma radioisotope was used as gamma source in the experiments which has a single gamma-peak at 0.662 MeV. Gamma transmission technique was used for the measurements. The effects of titanium diboride particle size on radiation attenuation of titanium diboride reinforced boron carbide-silicon carbide composites were evaluated in related with gamma transmission and the results of the experiments were interpreted and compared with each other. Composite materials have wide application areas in industry. Boron Carbide is an important material for nuclear technology. Silicon carbide is a candidate material in the first wall and blankets of fusion

  15. Nuclear magnetic and quadrupole resonance in metallic powders in the presence of strong quadrupole interaction: Rhenium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitropoulos, C.; Maglione, M.; Borsa, F.

    1988-03-01

    The nuclear-magnetic-resonance and nuclear-quadrupole-resonance (NQR-NMR) spectra of /sup 187/Re and /sup 185/Re in a powder of rhenium metal were measured in the temperature range 5--10 K both in zero field and with an external magnetic field. The zero-field NQR spectrum is severely broadened by a nonuniform distribution of quadrupole interactions. The average quadrupole coupling frequencies measured at 5 K are, for the two isotopes, ..nu../sub Q/ = 39 +- 0.2 MHz (/sup 187/Re) and ..nu../sub Q/ = 40.8 +- 0.3 MHz (/sup 185/Re). The spectra obtained in the presence of an external magnetic field can be interpreted satisfactorily in terms of transitions among the eigenstates of the full Hamiltonian (Zeeman plus quadrupolar). Measurements of relaxation rates yield T/sub 1/T = 0.03 sK, indicating a relaxation mechanism driven by the hyperfine interaction with the conduction electrons. The feasibility of NQR-NMR studies in small metal particles in the presence of strong inhomogeneous quadrupole interactions is assessed

  16. Modified Sol-Gel Technique as a Cost-Effective Method of Ultradispersed Metal Oxide Powders Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokhmintcev, K. V.; Konstantinov, O. V.; Belousov, V. V.

    2013-05-01

    A modified sol-gel technique was developed for fabrication of ultradispersed metal oxides powders of Bi2O3, CeO2, Cr2O3, Y2O3, ZnO2 and ZrO2. Hexamethylenetetramine, monoethanolamine and acetylacetone were used for the sol formation and gel stabilization.

  17. Process defects and in situ monitoring methods in metal powder bed fusion: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Marco; Colosimo, Bianca Maria

    2017-04-01

    Despite continuous technological enhancements of metal Additive Manufacturing (AM) systems, the lack of process repeatability and stability still represents a barrier for the industrial breakthrough. The most relevant metal AM applications currently involve industrial sectors (e.g. aerospace and bio-medical) where defects avoidance is fundamental. Because of this, there is the need to develop novel in situ monitoring tools able to keep under control the stability of the process on a layer-by-layer basis, and to detect the onset of defects as soon as possible. On the one hand, AM systems must be equipped with in situ sensing devices able to measure relevant quantities during the process, a.k.a. process signatures. On the other hand, in-process data analytics and statistical monitoring techniques are required to detect and localize the defects in an automated way. This paper reviews the literature and the commercial tools for in situ monitoring of powder bed fusion (PBF) processes. It explores the different categories of defects and their main causes, the most relevant process signatures and the in situ sensing approaches proposed so far. Particular attention is devoted to the development of automated defect detection rules and the study of process control strategies, which represent two critical fields for the development of future smart PBF systems.

  18. Enhanced degradation of azo dye by nanoporous-copper-decorated Mg–Cu–Y metallic glass powder through dealloying pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xuekun; Li, Ran, E-mail: liran@buaa.edu.cn; Zong, Jingzhen; Zhang, Ying; Li, Haifei; Zhang, Tao, E-mail: zhangtao@buaa.edu.cn

    2014-06-01

    A controllable uniform nanoporous copper (NPC) layer was synthesized on the surface of the ball-milled powder of Mg{sub 65}Cu{sub 25}Y{sub 10} metallic glass by dealloying. The morphology, the elemental surface composition and the phase structure of the powders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry, respectively. The composite powder with a core–shell structure shows higher degradation efficiency of the azo dye of Direct Blue 6 than the untreated powder and the pure NPC. The improved performance can be attributed to the strong synergistic effect between the NPC layer and the metallic glass matrix, because the nanoporous structure provides large surface area for the adsorption of the dye molecules and three-dimensional diffusion channels of reaction masses, as well as the dissolution acceleration of the active atoms through local galvanic cell reaction. This tunable pretreatment is a promising surface activation method for novel chemical applications of metallic glasses.

  19. Enhanced degradation of azo dye by nanoporous-copper-decorated Mg-Cu-Y metallic glass powder through dealloying pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xuekun; Li, Ran; Zong, Jingzhen; Zhang, Ying; Li, Haifei; Zhang, Tao

    2014-06-01

    A controllable uniform nanoporous copper (NPC) layer was synthesized on the surface of the ball-milled powder of Mg65Cu25Y10 metallic glass by dealloying. The morphology, the elemental surface composition and the phase structure of the powders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry, respectively. The composite powder with a core-shell structure shows higher degradation efficiency of the azo dye of Direct Blue 6 than the untreated powder and the pure NPC. The improved performance can be attributed to the strong synergistic effect between the NPC layer and the metallic glass matrix, because the nanoporous structure provides large surface area for the adsorption of the dye molecules and three-dimensional diffusion channels of reaction masses, as well as the dissolution acceleration of the active atoms through local galvanic cell reaction. This tunable pretreatment is a promising surface activation method for novel chemical applications of metallic glasses.

  20. Investigation on the Effects of Titanium Diboride Particle Size on Radiation Shielding Properties of Titanium Diboride Reinforced Boron Carbide-Silicon Carbide Composites

    OpenAIRE

    A.O. Addemir; A.C. Akarsu; A.B. Tugrul; B. Buyuk

    2012-01-01

    Composite materials have wide application areas in industry. Boron Carbide is an important material for nuclear technology. Silicon carbide is a candidate material in the first wall and blankets of fusion power plants. Titanium diboride reinforced boron carbide-silicon carbide composites which were produced from different titanium diboride particle sizes and ratios were studied for searching of the behaviour against the gamma ray. Cs-137 gamma radioisotope was used as gamma source in the expe...

  1. Producing Zirconium Diboride Components with Complex, Near-Net Shape Geometries by Aqueous Room-Temperature Injection Molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Valerie L.; Youngblood, Jeffrey; Trice, Rodney

    2014-01-01

    Room-temperature injection molding is proposed as a novel, low-cost and more energy efficient manufacturing process capable of forming complex-shaped zirconium diboride (ZrB2) parts. This innovative processing method utilized aqueous suspensions with high powder loading and a minimal amount (5 vol.) of water-soluble polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), which was used as a viscosity modifier. Rheological characterization was performed to evaluate the room-temperature flow properties of ZrB2-PVP suspensions. ZrB2 specimens were fabricated with high green body strength and were machinable prior to binder removal despite their low polymer content. After binder burnout and pressureless sintering, the bulk density and microstructure of specimens were characterized using Archimedes technique and scanning electron microscopy. X-Ray Diffraction was used to determine the phase compositions present in sintered specimens. Ultimate strength of sintered specimens will be determined using ASTM C1323-10 compressive C-ring test.

  2. Reactive Spark Plasma Sintering and Mechanical Properties of Zirconium Diboride–Titanium Diboride Ultrahigh Temperature Ceramic Solid Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthiselva N. S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultrahigh temperature ceramics (UHTCs such as diborides of zirconium, hafnium tantalum and their composites are considered to be the candidate materials for thermal protection systems of hypersonic vehicles due to their exceptional combination of physical, chemical and mechanical properties. A composite of ZrB2-TiB2 is expected to have better properties. In this study, an attempt has been made to fabricate ZrB2-TiB2 ceramics using mechanically activated elemental powders followed by reactive spark plasma sintering (RSPS at 1400 °C. Microstructure and phase analysis was carried out using X-ray diffractometer (XRD and electron microscopy to understand microstructure evolution. Fracture toughness and hardness were evaluated using indentation methods. Nanoindentation was used to measure elastic modulus. Compressive strength of the composites has been reported.

  3. Metal release from stainless steel powders and massive sheets--comparison and implication for risk assessment of alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Yolanda; Mazinanian, Neda; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger

    2013-02-01

    Industries that place metal and alloy products on the market are required to demonstrate that they are safe for all intended uses, and that any risks to humans, animals or the environment are adequately controlled. This requires reliable and robust in vitro test procedures. The aim of this study is to compare the release of alloy constituents from stainless steel powders of different grades (focus on AISI 316L) and production routes into synthetic body fluids with the release of the same metals from massive sheets in relation to material and surface characteristics. The comparison is justified by the fact that the difference between massive surfaces and powders from a metal release/dissolution and surface perspective is not clearly elucidated within current legislations. Powders and abraded and aged (24 h) massive sheets were exposed to synthetic solutions of relevance for biological settings and human exposure routes, for periods of up to one week. Concentrations of released iron, chromium, nickel, and manganese in solution were measured, and the effect of solution pH, acidity, complexation capacity, and proteins elucidated in relation to surface oxide composition and its properties. Implications for risk assessments based on in vitro metal release data from alloys are elucidated.

  4. From Powders to Dense Metal Parts: Characterization of a Commercial AlSiMg Alloy Processed through Direct Metal Laser Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Atzeni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a characterization of an AlSiMg alloy processed by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS is presented, from the analysis of the starting powders, in terms of size, morphology and chemical composition, through to the evaluation of mechanical and microstructural properties of specimens built along different orientations parallel and perpendicular to the powder deposition plane. With respect to a similar aluminum alloy as-fabricated, a higher yield strength of about 40% due to the very fine microstructure, closely related to the mechanisms involved in this additive process is observed.

  5. Tuning the Superconducting Properties of Magnesium Diboride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theoderich Wilke, Rudeger Heinrich [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This work is presented in the following order: A review of the relevant physics and discussion of theoretical predictions for a two gap superconducting compound is given in chapter 2. Chapter 3 provides a review of the basic properties of MgB2. Details of sample synthesis and characterization are given in chapter 4. Chapter 5 presents normal state and superconducting properties of Mg(B1-xCx)2 wires. Attempts to increase critical current densities in filaments via titanium additions are discussed in chapter 6. In chapters 7 and 8 alternative methods for synthesizing doped MgB2 powders are explored. In chapter 7 we synthesize Mg(B1-xCx)2 up to x=0.069 using a mixture of Mg, B, and the binary compound B4C. Chapter 8 explores an alternative method, plasma spray synthesis, to produce nanometer sized doped boron powders for powder-in-tube applications. The effects of neutron irradiation on pure MgB2 wires is discussed in chapter 9. This is followed by a study of the effects of neutron irradiation on Mg(B.962C.038)2 wires, presented in chapter 10. I will summarize the results of all of these studies in chapter 11 and discuss future directions for research in understanding the physics behind this novel material as well as its development for practical applications. In this thesis I have presented the results of investigations into the changes in the superconducting properties of MgB2 as a function of carbon doping and neutron irradiation. The goal has been to understand the physics underlying this unique two-gap superconductor as different types of perturbations are made to the system. Such knowledge not only contributes to our understanding of two-gap superconductivity, but could potentially lead to the development of superconducting MgB2 wires for the use in power applications near 20 K.

  6. Laser-beam modulation to improve efficiency of selecting laser melting for metal powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunkova, A.; Peretyagin, P.; Vladimirov, Yuri; Volosova, M.; Torrecillas, R.; Fedorov, S. V.

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays additive manufacturing becomes more and more popular. It depends on the results of last achievements in developing of the new constructions for modern machine tools. One of the most developed AM technology is SLM or SLS. About twenty years ago the technology of rapid prototyping started to grow up from building prototypes and developed to real functional item production. Especially this becomes more important in producing medical implants in the full accordance with individual digital 3D-model from metallic powder as Ti6Al4V or CoCr. The additive technology gives the possibility to reduce additional steps in implants production process as work preparation process, forwarding a work piece from one shop to another one, post treatment etc. This approach is very topical to production of tooth, knee and coxal implants. This idea is realized in the commercial SLM machines as EOS M280, SLM Solutions 125HL (Germany), Phenix systems PXS/PXM Dental (France) (fig. 1).

  7. A round robin study for laser beam melting in metal powder bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahuja, Bhrigu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With its ability to fabricate fully dense three-dimensional structures by selectively melting micro-sized metal powder, the additive manufacturing process of laser beam melting (LBM is considered by many to be a significant technology that is complementary to the conventional forming and subtractive manufacturing processes. However, even with its ability to fabricate structures with characteristics comparable to conventional fabrication, the LBM process often lacks the consistency and degree of repeatability essential for its industrial acceptance for certain end-product applications. Inconsistency in the characteristics of structures is often related to a combination of variations in system technology, process, and user influence. In order to understand fully the potential and limitations of the LBM process, the paper discusses the design, methodology, and results of a round robin test conducted within the Collaborative Working Group (CWG lasers in production at the International Academy of Production Engineering (CIRP. Observed mechanical characteristics for samples from each of the participants are presented. The experiments are designed to obtain data related to mechanical characteristics for different build orientations and processing conditions in addition to the inherent system technology variations. The paper further discusses the observed process phenomena and their association with the induced mechanical characteristics.

  8. The evaluation of different environments in ultra-high frequency induction sintered powder metal compacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Çavdar, Pınar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of the iron based Powder Metal (PM compacts in Ultra-High Frequency Induction Sintering (UHFIS was reviewed for different environments. The three different environments: atmosphere, argon and vacuum were applied to the PM compacts. Iron based PM compacts were sintered at 1120 °C for a total of 550 seconds by using induction sintering machines with 2.8 kW power and 900 kHz frequency. Micro structural properties, densities, roughness and micro hardness values were obtained for all environments. The results were compared with each other.Este trabajo comprende una revisión de la aplicación de la inducción de ultra-alta frecuencia (UHFIS en la sinterización de aleaciones pulvimetalúrgicas de base hierro para diferentes ambientes. Los tres ambientes estudiados son: atmósfera, argón y vacío aplicados a material ya consolidado. Aleaciones base hierro ya compactadas se sinterizan a temperaturas de 1120 °C durante 550 segundos por medio de máquinas de sinterizado por inducción de potencia de 2,8 kW y 900 kHz de frecuencia. Se compararán las propiedades microestructurales, y los valores obtenidos de densidad, rugosidad y microdureza para todos los ambientes estudiados.

  9. Fabrication and Characterization of Graded Impedance Gas Gun Impactors from Tape Cast Metal Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, L P; Nguyen, J H

    2005-11-21

    Fabrication of compositionally graded structures for use as light-gas gun impactors has been demonstrated using a tape casting technique. Mixtures of metal powders in the Mg-Cu system were cast into a series of tapes with uniform compositions ranging from 100% Mg to 100% Cu. The individual compositions were fabricated into monolithic pellets for characterization by laminating multiple layers together, thermally removing the organics, and hot-pressing to near-full density. The pellets were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and measurement of density and sound wave velocity. The density and acoustic impedance were observed to vary monotonically (and nearly linearly) with composition. Graded structures were fabricated by stacking layers of different compositions in a sequence calculated to yield a desired acoustic impedance profile. The measured physical properties of the graded structures compare favorably with those predicted from the monolithic-pellet characteristics. Fabrication of graded impactors by this technique is of significant interest for providing improved control of the pressure profile in gas gun experiments.

  10. Theoretical and experimental investigation of shock wave stressing of metal powders by an explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukyanov Ya.L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint theoretical and experimental investigations have allowed to realize an approach with use of mathematical and physical modeling of processes of a shock wave loading of powder materials. Hugoniot adiabats of the investigated powder have been measured with a noncontact electromagnetic method. The mathematical model of elastic-plastic deformation of the powder media used in the investigation has been validated. Numerical simulation of shock wave propagation and experimental assembly deformation has been performed.

  11. Ultrasonic-enhanced Stereoselective Debromination of vic-Dibromides to Alkenes with Metallic Zinc Powder in Aqueous Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Pin-hua; RAO Wan-ping; WANG Min; WANG Lei

    2004-01-01

    Carbon-carbon double bond functional groups are often protected through a popular bromination/debromination method because of their reactivity. An ultrasonic-enhanced stereoselective debromination of vicdibromides with metallic zinc powder in aqueous media has been developed, which generates E-alkenes with excellent yields. The reactivity of vic-dibromides decreases in the order of 1,2-dibromo-1,2-diphenylethane>1,2-dibromo- 1-phenylethane > 1,2-dibromo-1,2-dialkylethane.

  12. Manufacturing And High Temperature Oxidation Properties Of Electro-Sprayed Fe-24.5% Cr-5%Al Powder Porous Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kee-Ahn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fe-Cr-Al based Powder porous metals were manufactured using a new electro-spray process, and the microstructures and high-temperature oxidation properties were examined. The porous materials were obtained at different sintering temperatures (1350°C, 1400°C, 1450°C, and 1500°C and with different pore sizes (500 μm, 450 μm, and 200 μm. High-temperature oxidation experiments (TGA, Thermal Gravimetry Analysis were conducted for 24 hours at 1000°C in a 79% N2+ 21% O2, 100 mL/min. atmosphere. The Fe-Cr-Al powder porous metals manufactured through the electro-spray process showed more-excellent oxidation resistance as sintering temperature and pore size increased. In addition, the fact that the densities and surface areas of the abovementioned powder porous metals had the largest effects on the metal’s oxidation properties could be identified.

  13. Study of interaction of ethylene glycol/PVP phase on noble metal powders prepared by polyol process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    F Bonet; K Tekaia-Elhsissen; K Vijaya Sarathy

    2000-06-01

    Noble metal powders (Au, Ag, Pt, Pd and Ru) have been synthesized by the polyol process in both the nanometer and submicron scales (sans Pd, Pt and Ru). They have been characterized by both microscopic (TEM and SEM) as well as spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR and XPS). Infrared spectroscopy was employed to study the colloid particles in the presence of ethylene glycol and PVP and the results show that the interaction between the organic phase and the metal particles vary according to the particle size. The role of the solvent, ethylene glycol, during the reduction process was also investigated and we observe formation of >C=O vibration band after the reduction process implying that the solvent reduces the metal ions thereby getting oxidized. XPS measurements carried out on the colloidal sols have shown the presence of the organic phase adsorbed onto the metal particles.

  14. Metal-Matrix Hardmetal/Cermet Reinforced Composite Powders for Thermal Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri GOLJANDIN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recycling of materials is becoming increasingly important as industry response to public demands, that resources must be preserved and environment protected. To produce materials competitive in cost with primary product, secondary producers have to pursue new technologies and other innovations. For these purposes different recycling technologies for composite materials (oxidation, milling, remelting etc are widely used. The current paper studies hardmetal/cermet powders produced by mechanical milling technology. The following composite materials were studied: Cr3C2-Ni cermets and WC-Co hardmetal. Different disintegrator milling systems for production of powders with determined size and shape were used. Chemical composition of produced powders was analysed.  To estimate the properties of recycled hardmetal/cermet powders, sieving analysis, laser granulometry and angularity study were conducted. To describe the angularity of milled powders, spike parameter–quadric fit (SPQ was used and experiments for determination of SPQ sensitivity and precision to characterize particles angularity were performed. Images used for calculating SPQ were taken by SEM processed with Omnimet Image Analyser 22. The graphs of grindability and angularity were composed. Composite powders based on Fe- and Ni-self-fluxing alloys for thermal spray (plasma and HVOF were produced. Technological properties of powders and properties of thermal sprayed coatings from studied powders were investigated. The properties of spray powders reinforced with recycled hardmetal and cermet particles as alternatives for cost-sensitive applications were demonstrated.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.1.1348

  15. Analysis of powdered tungsten carbide hard-metal precursors and cemented compact tungsten carbides using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novotny, K. [Laboratory of Atomic Spectrochemistry, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: codl@sci.muni.cz; Stankova, A. [Laboratory of Atomic Spectrochemistry, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Haekkaenen, H.; Korppi-Tommola, J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. BOX 35, FIN-40014 (Finland); Otruba, V.; Kanicky, V. [Laboratory of Atomic Spectrochemistry, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2007-12-15

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to the direct analysis of powdered tungsten carbide hard-metal precursors and cemented tungsten carbides. The aim of this work was to examine the possibility of quantitative determination of the niobium, titanium, tantalum and cobalt. The investigated samples were in the form of pellets, pressed with and without binder (powdered silver) and in the form of cemented tungsten carbides. The pellets were prepared by pressing the powdered material in a hydraulic press. Cemented tungsten carbides were embedded in resin for easier manipulation. Several lasers and detection systems were utilized. The Nd:YAG laser working at a basic wavelength of 1064 nm and fourth-harmonic frequency of 266 nm with a gated photomultiplier or ICCD detector HORIBA JY was used for the determination of niobium which was chosen as a model element. Different types of surrounding gases (air, He, Ar) were investigated for analysis. The ICCD detector DICAM PRO with Mechelle 7500 spectrometer with ArF laser (193 nm) and KrF laser (248 nm) were employed for the determination of niobium, titanium, tantalum and cobalt in samples under air atmosphere. Good calibration curves were obtained for Nb, Ti, and Ta (coefficients of determination r{sup 2} > 0.96). Acceptable calibration curves were acquired for the determination of cobalt (coefficient of determination r{sup 2} = 0.7994) but only for the cemented samples. In the case of powdered carbide precursors, the calibration for cobalt was found to be problematic.

  16. Analysis of powdered tungsten carbide hard-metal precursors and cemented compact tungsten carbides using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotný, K.; Staňková, A.; Häkkänen, H.; Korppi-Tommola, J.; Otruba, V.; Kanický, V.

    2007-12-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to the direct analysis of powdered tungsten carbide hard-metal precursors and cemented tungsten carbides. The aim of this work was to examine the possibility of quantitative determination of the niobium, titanium, tantalum and cobalt. The investigated samples were in the form of pellets, pressed with and without binder (powdered silver) and in the form of cemented tungsten carbides. The pellets were prepared by pressing the powdered material in a hydraulic press. Cemented tungsten carbides were embedded in resin for easier manipulation. Several lasers and detection systems were utilized. The Nd:YAG laser working at a basic wavelength of 1064 nm and fourth-harmonic frequency of 266 nm with a gated photomultiplier or ICCD detector HORIBA JY was used for the determination of niobium which was chosen as a model element. Different types of surrounding gases (air, He, Ar) were investigated for analysis. The ICCD detector DICAM PRO with Mechelle 7500 spectrometer with ArF laser (193 nm) and KrF laser (248 nm) were employed for the determination of niobium, titanium, tantalum and cobalt in samples under air atmosphere. Good calibration curves were obtained for Nb, Ti, and Ta (coefficients of determination r2 > 0.96). Acceptable calibration curves were acquired for the determination of cobalt (coefficient of determination r2 = 0.7994) but only for the cemented samples. In the case of powdered carbide precursors, the calibration for cobalt was found to be problematic.

  17. Mechanical stimulated reaction of metal/polymer mixed powders; Kinzoku/kobunshi kongo funmatsu no kikaiteki reiki hanno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobita, M.; Sakakibara, A.; Takemoto, Y. [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Iwabu, H. [Kurare Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1999-12-15

    Mechanical grinding (MG) with mechanically stimulated reaction was performed on metal/polymer mixed powders. The starting materials used in this study were the metals of Mg, Ti and Mg{sub 2}Ni powders, arid polymer of PTFE, PVC and PE powders. The MG process was investigated using XRD, IR, SEM and TEM. According to XRD results, magnesium fluoride (MgF{sub 2}, TiF{sub 2}) and chloride (MgCl{sub 2}) were detected from MG products of the Mg/PTFE, Ti/PTFE and Mg/PVC blending systems, respectively. Explosive reaction was found during MG of both Mg/PTFE and Ti/PTFE. It was also confirmed by XRD results that the production of MgF{sub 2} had already been formed just before the explosive reaction in Mg/PTFE system. It was found from IR analysis that C-C single bond in the polymers, not only both in PTFE and PVC but also in PE, changed to double bond C=C. Hydrogen produced due to decomposition of PE on blending Mg{sub 2}Ni/PE was absorbed into C-Mg{sub 2}Ni-H as amorphous solutes. These mechanically stimulated reaction was powerful method for decomposition of engineering plastics. (author)

  18. Quantitative analysis of X-Ray Microtomography images of metal powders in the course of sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vagnon, A.; Bouvard, D.; Bellet, D.; Josserond, C. [Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, Laboratoire Genie Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, UMR CNRS/INPG, Saint-Martin d' Heres (France); Riviere, J.P.; Missiaen, J.M. [Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, Laboratoire de Thermodynamique et de Physico-Chimie Metallurgiques, UMR CNRS/INPG/UJF, Saint-Martin d' Heres (France); Di Michiel, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facilities, Grenoble (France)

    2005-07-01

    In situ X-Ray microtomography offers new opportunities for analysing sintering mechanisms since it allows 3D observation of the microstructural evolution of the powder all along a sintering cycle. With synchrotron radiation at ESRF, a 3D image with a resolution of 2 {mu}m can be obtained in about one minute. In addition to the visual examination of the images, relevant microstructural parameters can be measured through quantitative image analysis using recently developed tools. In this paper the results obtained with two materials, loose copper powder and compacted steel powder, are resumed. For copper powder, the dispersion of local parameters such as particle co-ordination number and porosity is investigated. Concerning steel compacts, data about pore morphology evolution and on local strains provides clues for understanding the anisotropic shrinkage of such compacts. (authors)

  19. Laser metal deposition with spatial variable orientation based on hollow-laser beam with internal powder feeding technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tuo; Lu, Bingheng; Shi, Shihong; Meng, Weidong; Fu, Geyan

    2017-02-01

    In this study, a hollow-laser beam with internal powder feeding (HLB-IPF) head is applied to achieve non-horizontal cladding and deposition of overhanging structure. With the features of this head such as uniform scan energy distribution, thin and straight spraying of the powder beam, the deposition in spatial variable orientation is conducted using a 6-axis robot. During the deposition process the head keeps tangential to the growth direction of the part. In the experiment, a "vase" shaped metal part with overhanging structure is successfully deposited, and the largest overhanging angle achieves 80° to the vertical direction. The "step effect" between cladding layers is completely eliminated with the best surface roughness of Ra=3.864 μm. Cross section of cladding layers with unequal height are deposited for angle change. Test results indicate that the formed part has uniform wall thickness, fine microstructure and high microhardness.

  20. Combined synchrotron X-ray tomography and X-ray powder diffraction using a fluorescing metal foil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappen, P; Arhatari, B D; Luu, M B; Balaur, E; Caradoc-Davies, T

    2013-06-01

    This study realizes the concept of simultaneous micro-X-ray computed tomography and X-ray powder diffraction using a synchrotron beamline. A thin zinc metal foil was placed in the primary, monochromatic synchrotron beam to generate a divergent wave to propagate through the samples of interest onto a CCD detector for tomographic imaging, thus removing the need for large beam illumination and high spatial resolution detection. Both low density materials (kapton tubing and a piece of plant) and higher density materials (Egyptian faience) were investigated, and elemental contrast was explored for the example of Cu and Ni meshes. The viability of parallel powder diffraction using the direct beam transmitted through the foil was demonstrated. The outcomes of this study enable further development of the technique towards in situ tomography∕diffraction studies combining micrometer and crystallographic length scales, and towards elemental contrast imaging and reconstruction methods using well defined fluorescence outputs from combinations of known fluorescence targets (elements).

  1. Interfacial phenomena in molten metals-refractory borides systems

    OpenAIRE

    Muolo, Maria Luigia; Fabbreschi, Matteo; Passerone, Alberto; Passerone, Daniele

    2006-01-01

    Non-oxide ceramics, such as carbides, nitrides and borides represent one of the fastest growing classes of new advanced materials. Among them, transition metals ceramic diborides, in particular Titanium, Zirconium and Hafnium diborides, are members of a family of materials with extremely high melting temperatures, high thermal and electrical conductivity, excellent thermal shock resistance, high hardness and chemical inertness. These materials -Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs)- constit...

  2. The influence of SWCNT-metallic nanoparticle mixtures on the desorption properties of milled MgH2 powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirkhiz, Babak Shalchi; Danaie, Mohsen; Mitlin, David

    2009-05-20

    We have examined the effect of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-metallic nanoparticle additions on the hydrogen desorption behavior of MgH(2) after high-energy co-milling. The metallic nanoparticles were the catalysts used for the SWCNT growth. The co-milling consisted of high-energy planetary milling in an inert argon environment of the hydride powder mixed with the SWCNTs. Identically milled pure MgH(2) powders were used as a baseline. The composites were tested using a combined differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analyzer, while the microstructures were examined using a variety of techniques including x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We found that the SWCNT-nanoparticle additions do have an influence on the desorption kinetics. However, the degree to which they are effective depends on the composite's final state. The optimum microstructure for sorption, obtained after 1 h of co-milling, consists of highly defective SWCNTs in intimate contact with metallic nanoparticles and with the hydride. This microstructure is optimum, presumably because of the dense and uniform coverage of the defective SWCNTs on the MgH(2) surface. Prolonged co-milling of 7 h destroys the SWCNT structure and reduces the enhancement. Even after 72 h of co-milling, when the SWCNTs are completely destroyed, the metallic nanoparticles remain dispersed on the hydride surfaces. This indicates that the metallic nanoparticles alone are not responsible for the enhanced sorption and that there is indeed something catalytically unique about a defective SWCNT-metal combination. Cryo-stage TEM analysis of the hydride powders revealed that they are nanocrystalline and in some cases multiply twinned. To our knowledge this is the first study where the structure of milled alpha- MgH(2) has been directly imaged. Since defects are an integral component of hydride-to-metal phase transformations, such analysis sheds new insight regarding the fundamental

  3. Study of Magnesium Diboride Clusters Using Hybrid Density Functional Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rodríguez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Using hybrid density functional theory and a relatively large basis set, the lowest energy equilibrium structure, vibrational spectrum, and natural orbital analysis were obtained for magnesium diboride clusters [(MgB2x for x=1,2, and 3]. For comparison, boron clusters [Bx for x=2,4, and 6] were also considered. The MgB2 and (MgB22 showed equilibrium structures with the boron atoms in arrangements similar to what was obtained for pure boron atoms, whereas, for (MgB23 a different arrangement of boron was obtained. From the population analysis, large electron density in the boron atoms forming the clusters was observed.

  4. Structural and mechanical stability of rare-earth diborides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haci Ozisik; Engin Deligoz; Kemal Colakoglu; Gokhan Surucu

    2013-01-01

    Structural and mechanical properties of several rare-earth diborides were systematically investigated by first principles calculations.Specifically,we studied XB2,where X =Sm,Eu,Gd,Tb,Dy,Ho,Er,Tm,and Lu in the hexagonal A1B2,ReB2,and orthorhombic OsB2-type structures.The lattice parameters,bulk modulus,bond distances,second order elastic constants,and related polycrystalline elastic moduli (e.g.,shear modulus,Young's modulus,Poisson's ratio,Debye temperature,sound velocities) were calculated.Our results indicate that these compounds are mechanically stable in the considered structures,and according to "Chen's method",the predicted Vickers hardness shows that they are hard materials in A1B2-and OsB2-type structures.

  5. Catalytic behavior of Sn/Bi metal powder in anhydride-based epoxy curing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Keon-Soo; Eom, Yong-Sung; Moon, Jong-Tae; Oh, Yong-Soo; Nam, Jae-Do

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we report the catalytic activity of the Sn/Bi alloy beads and its acceleration of the exothermic epoxy curing reactions in various thermal conditions and bead compositions. As being used as low-melting solder balls in electronic interconnection processes with various epoxy systems, it was found that the Sn/Bi beads substantially lowered the exothermic peak temperature of the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA)/anhydride systems in up to ca. 140 degrees C depending on different types of anhydride curing agents. The catalytic activation of Sn/Bi powder was initiated with a small amount of Sn/Bi powder, for example, lowering ca. 50 degrees C of the exothermic peak temperature by adding only 0.1 vol% of Sn/Bi powder. The catalytic capability of the powder was increased by using smaller sized beads corresponding to larger catalytic surface area at the same volume fraction. Exhibiting a latent catalytic effect, the catalytic activity of Sn/Bi powder was remained latent at temperatures lower than 100 degrees C in isothermal conditions.

  6. The contents of heavy metals (cd, cr, as, pb, ni, and sn) in the selected commercial yam powder products in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mee-Young; Cho, Young-Eun; Park, Chana; Sohn, Ho-Yong; Lim, Jae-Hwan; Kwun, In-Sook

    2013-12-01

    Yam (Dioscorea) has long been used as foods and folk medicine with the approved positive effects for health promotion. Although consumption of yam products is increasing for health promotion, reports for the metal contamination in commercial yam powder products to protect the consumers are lacking. In this study, we aimed to assess whether the commercial yam powder products were heavy metal contaminated or not using the yam products from six commercial products from various places in South Korea. The contents of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, As, Pb, Ni, and Sn) in yam powder products were measured and compared to national and international food standard levels. Also, the metal contamination was monitored during the food manufacturing steps. The study results showed that the contents of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, As, and Pb) in yam powder products are similar to those in national 'roots and tubers' as well as in various crops. In comparison to three international standard levels (EU, Codex and Korea), Cd content in yam powder products was lower but Pb content was 5 times higher. Also, Pb, Ni, and Sn may have the potential to be contaminated during food manufacturing steps. In conclusion, the level of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, As, Ni, and Sn) except Pb is considered relatively safe on comparison to national and international food standard levels.

  7. Additive Manufacturing/Diagnostics via the High Frequency Induction Heating of Metal Powders: The Determination of the Power Transfer Factor for Fine Metallic Spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Orlando [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Caravias, George [Grid Logic, Inc., Lapeer, MI (United States); Holcomb, Matthew [Grid Logic, Inc., Lapeer, MI (United States)

    2015-03-11

    Grid Logic Inc. is developing a method for sintering and melting fine metallic powders for additive manufacturing using spatially-compact, high-frequency magnetic fields called Micro-Induction Sintering (MIS). One of the challenges in advancing MIS technology for additive manufacturing is in understanding the power transfer to the particles in a powder bed. This knowledge is important to achieving efficient power transfer, control, and selective particle heating during the MIS process needed for commercialization of the technology. The project s work provided a rigorous physics-based model for induction heating of fine spherical particles as a function of frequency and particle size. This simulation improved upon Grid Logic s earlier models and provides guidance that will make the MIS technology more effective. The project model will be incorporated into Grid Logic s power control circuit of the MIS 3D printer product and its diagnostics technology to optimize the sintering process for part quality and energy efficiency.

  8. Bio-ecological consequences of crop seeds treatment with metal nano-powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churilov, G.

    2015-11-01

    As a result of our investigations we have determined the optimal concentrations of ferrum, cobalt and cuprum nano-powders recommended to be used as micro-fertilizers increasing the yield and feed value of crops at the expense of accumulating biologically active combinations by 25-35%. In unfavorable climate conditions, for example in a case of excess moisture or heat and drought, the plants development and ripening suffer. Our investigations have shown that the stimulating effect of nano-powders has lowered the effect of stress situations on plants development and simultaneously increased the rape seeds yield and quality. Treating the seeds with the drugs being studied has provided the high crop protection. If consider that the maximum efficiency of protectants Chinuk, SK (20 kg/t of seeds) and Cruiser, KS (10 kg/t of seeds) then for the same effect one needs nano-powders 0.1 g per hectare norm of seeds planting.

  9. Aqueous dispersions of few-layer-thick chemically modified magnesium diboride nanosheets by ultrasonication assisted exfoliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saroj Kumar; Bedar, Amita; Kannan, Aadithya; Jasuja, Kabeer

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of graphene has led to a rising interest in seeking quasi two-dimensional allotropes of several elements and inorganic compounds. Boron, carbon’s neighbour in the periodic table, presents a curious case in its ability to be structured as graphene. Although it cannot independently constitute a honeycomb planar structure, it forms a graphenic arrangement in association with electron-donor elements. This is exemplified in magnesium diboride (MgB2): an inorganic layered compound comprising boron honeycomb planes alternated by Mg atoms. Till date, MgB2 has been primarily researched for its superconducting properties; it hasn’t been explored for the possibility of its exfoliation. Here we show that ultrasonication of MgB2 in water results in its exfoliation to yield few-layer-thick Mg-deficient hydroxyl-functionalized nanosheets. The hydroxyl groups enable an electrostatically stabilized aqueous dispersion and create a heterogeneity leading to an excitation wavelength dependent photoluminescence. These chemically modified MgB2 nanosheets exhibit an extremely small absorption coefficient of 2.9 ml mg−1 cm−1 compared to graphene and its analogs. This ability to exfoliate MgB2 to yield nanosheets with a chemically modified lattice and properties distinct from the parent material presents a fundamentally new perspective to the science of MgB2 and forms a first foundational step towards exfoliating metal borides. PMID:26041686

  10. Recent developments on superconducting magnesium diboride wires and tapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Soltanian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available  MgB2 wire and tape were prepared using the powder in tube and reaction in-situ technique. All samples were characterized using the XRD, SEM, TEM, as well as transport and magnetic measurements. High transport and magnetic critical current density values have been obtained for metal-clad wires and tapes. Different sheath materials have been examined, but Fe appears to be the best sheath for MgB2 superconductors. In addition to wires and tapes we also attempt to prepare superconducting coils. Results on transport Jc of solenoid coils up to 100 turns fabricated with Cu-sheathed MgB2 wires using a wind-reaction in-situ technique are reported. The results indicate that the MgB2 wires have potential for large scale applications.

  11. Anisotropic Thermal Expansion of Zirconium Diboride: An Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Diffraction Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Paxton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zirconium diboride (ZrB2 is an attractive material due to its thermal and electrical properties. In recent years, ZrB2 has been investigated as a superior replacement for sapphire when used as a substrate for gallium nitride devices. Like sapphire, ZrB2 has an anisotropic hexagonal structure which defines its directionally dependent properties. However, the anisotropic behavior of ZrB2 is not well understood. In this paper, we use energy-dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction to measure the thermal expansion of polycrystalline ZrB2 powder from 300 to 1150 K. Nine Bragg reflections are fit using Pseudo-Voigt peak profiles and used to compute the a and c lattice parameters using a nonlinear least-squares approximation. The temperature-dependent instantaneous thermal expansion coefficients are determined for each a-axis and c-axis direction and are described by the following equations: αa = (4.1507×10-6 + 5.1086 × 10-9(T-293.15/(1+4.1507 × 10-6(T-293.15 + 2.5543×10-9(T-293.152 and αc = (4.5374×10-6 + 4.3004×10-9(T-293.15/(1+4.5374×10-6(T-293.15 + 2.1502×10-9(T-293.152. Our results are within range of previously reported values but describe the temperature anisotropy in more detail. We show that anisotropic expansion coefficients converge to the same value at about 780 K and diverge at higher temperatures. Results are compared with other reported values.

  12. Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Gas Flows, Powder Transport and Heating in Coaxial Laser Direct Metal Deposition (DMD) Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, O. B.; Zaitsev, A. V.; Novichenko, D.; Smurov, I.

    2011-03-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental investigations of direct metal deposition (DMD) processes involving a CO2-laser with the power up to 5 kW and wave length of 10.6 μm are presented. The physical and mathematical model of multi-layer gas flows with gas-jet transportation of metal powder particles has been developed. To simulate the flows of carrier and shaping gases in annular channels of a triple coaxial nozzle, Navier-Stokes equations were applied for an axisymmetric flow. Thermodynamics and powder particles transport are calculated from a discrete-trajectory model with due regard to particle collision with solid walls of the transport nozzle. It is shown that particles may overheat on their way between the nozzle and substrate; the overheating depends on the trajectories by which particles move, on their size, and time of their retention in the laser-radiation region. The results of performed experimental researches on DMD processes visualization are presented. Some results of numerical simulation and experimental data are compared and analyzed.

  13. Improved 3-omega measurement of thermal conductivity in liquid, gases, and powders using a metal-coated optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffres, Scott N.; Malen, Jonathan A.

    2011-06-01

    A novel 3ω thermal conductivity measurement technique called metal-coated 3ω is introduced for use with liquids, gases, powders, and aerogels. This technique employs a micron-scale metal-coated glass fiber as a heater/thermometer that is suspended within the sample. Metal-coated 3ω exceeds alternate 3ω based fluid sensing techniques in a number of key metrics enabling rapid measurements of small samples of materials with very low thermal effusivity (gases), using smaller temperature oscillations with lower parasitic conduction losses. Its advantages relative to existing fluid measurement techniques, including transient hot-wire, steady-state methods, and solid-wire 3ω are discussed. A generalized n-layer concentric cylindrical periodic heating solution that accounts for thermal boundary resistance is presented. Improved sensitivity to boundary conductance is recognized through this model. Metal-coated 3ω was successfully validated through a benchmark study of gases and liquids spanning two-orders of magnitude in thermal conductivity.

  14. Removal of selected metals from drinking water using modified powdered block carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, V.; Sayeg, I. J.; Buchler, P. M.

    2008-09-01

    This paper presents the possible alternative removal options for the development of safe drinking water supply in the trace elements affected areas. Arsenic and chromium are two of the most toxic pollutants, introduced into natural waters from a variety of sources and causes various adverse effects on living bodies. Performance of three filter bed method was evaluated in the laboratory. Experiments have been conducted to investigate the sorption of arsenic and chromium on carbon steel and removal of trace elements from drinking water with a household filtration process. The affinity of the arsenic and chromium species for Fe/Fe3C (iron/iron carbide) sites is the key factor controlling the removal of the elements. The method is based on the use of powdered block carbon (PBC), powder carbon steel and ball ceramic in the ion-sorption columns as a cleaning process. The PBC modified is a satisfactory and practical sorbent for trace elements (arsenite and chromate) dissolved in water.

  15. Preparation of Metallic Iron Powder from Pyrite Cinder by Carbothermic Reduction and Magnetic Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongming Long

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The reduction and magnetic separation procedure of pyrite cinder in the presence of a borax additive was performed for the preparation of reduced powder. The effects of borax dosage, reduction temperature, reduction time and grinding fineness were investigated. The results show that when pyrite cinder briquettes with 5% borax were pre-oxidized at 1050 °C for 10 min, and reduced at 1050 °C for 80 min, with the grinding fineness (<0.44 mm passing 81%, the iron recovery was 91.71% and the iron grade of the magnetic concentrate was 92.98%. In addition, the microstructures of the products were analyzed by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM, and mineralography, and the products were also studied by the X-ray powder diffraction technique (XRD to investigate the mechanism; the results show that the borax additive was approved as a good additive to improve the separation of iron and gangue.

  16. Development and characteristics of metallic magnetic powder cores in China%国内金属磁粉心的开发与特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建廷

    2012-01-01

    金属磁粉心是一类重要的金属软磁材料.首先介绍了金属磁粉心的特点和一般应用.在此基础上重点介绍了我公司开发的系列金属磁粉心及其性能.最后展望了国内金属磁粉心的未来发展.%Metallic magnetic powder core is an important kind of soft magnetic materials. In this paper, the characteristics and applications of metallic magnetic powder cores were introduced firstly. On this basis, the series of metallic magnetic powder cores of our company and its properties were mainly described. Finally the author proposed the development prospects.

  17. Development and characteristics of metallic magnetic powder cores in China%国内金属磁粉心的开发与特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建廷

    2013-01-01

      金属磁粉心是一类重要的金属软磁材料。首先介绍了金属磁粉心的特点和一般应用。在此基础上重点介绍了我公司开发的系列金属磁粉心及其性能。最后展望了国内金属磁粉心的未来发展。%  Metallic magnetic powder core is an important kind of soft magnetic materials. In this paper, the characteristics and applications of metallic magnetic powder cores were introduced firstly. On this basis, the series of metallic magnetic powder cores of our company and its properties were mainly described. Finally the author proposed the development prospects.

  18. Energy Consumption and Saving Analysis for Laser Engineered Net Shaping of Metal Powders

    OpenAIRE

    Zhichao Liu; Fuda Ning; Weilong Cong; Qiuhong Jiang; Tao Li; Hongchao Zhang; Yingge Zhou

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing awareness of environmental protection and sustainable manufacturing, the environmental impact of laser additive manufacturing (LAM) technology has been attracting more and more attention. Aiming to quantitatively analyze the energy consumption and extract possible ways to save energy during the LAM process, this investigation studies the effects of input variables including laser power, scanning speed, and powder feed rate on the overall energy consumption during the laser...

  19. Powder metallurgical processing and metal purity: A case for capacitor grade sintered tantalum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G S Upadhyaya

    2005-07-01

    The paper reviews the role of sintered tantalum as volumetric efficient electrical capacitor. Powder characteristics and sintering aspects are discussed. The role of impurities in influencing the electrical properties has been described. Today’s driving force behind the Ta market is the use of surface mounted versions known as chip types, for applications requiring a wide range of operational temperature, such as automotive electronics.

  20. Facile synthesis of multi-shell structured binary metal oxide powders with a Ni/Co mole ratio of 1:2 for Li-Ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Ho; Park, Sun Kyu; Lee, Jung-Kul; Kang, Yun Chan

    2015-06-01

    Multi-shell structured binary transition metal oxide powders with a Ni/Co mole ratio of 1:2 are prepared by a simple spray drying process. Precursor powder particles prepared by spray drying from a spray solution of citric acid and ethylene glycol have completely spherical shape, fine size, and a narrow size distribution. The precursor powders turn into multi-shell powders after a post heat-treatment at temperatures between 250 and 800 °C. The multi-shell structured powders are formed by repeated combustion and contraction processes. The multi-shell powders have mixed crystal structures of Ni1-xCo2O4-x and NiO phases regardless of the post-treatment temperature. The reversible capacities of the powders post-treated at 250, 400, 600, and 800 °C after 100 cycles are 584, 913, 808, and 481 mA h g-1, respectively. The low charge transfer resistance and high lithium ion diffusion rate of the multi-shell powders post-treated at 400 °C with optimum grain size result in superior electrochemical properties even at high current densities.

  1. Thin-film preparation by back-surface irradiation pulsed laser deposition using metal powder targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Hiroharu; Ohshima, Tamiko; Yagyu, Yoshihito; Ihara, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Makiko; Suda, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    Several kinds of functional thin films were deposited using a new thin-film preparation method named the back-surface irradiation pulsed laser deposition (BIPLD) method. In this BIPLD method, powder targets were used as the film source placed on a transparent target holder, and then a visible-wavelength pulsed laser was irradiated from the holder side to the substrate. Using this new method, titanium oxide and boron nitride thin films were deposited on the silicon substrate. Surface scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images suggest that all of the thin films were deposited on the substrate with some large droplets irrespective of the kind of target used. The deposition rate of the films prepared by using this method was calculated from film thickness and deposition time to be much lower than that of the films prepared by conventional PLD. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement results suggest that rutile and anatase TiO2 crystal peaks were formed for the films prepared using the TiO2 rutile powder target. Crystal peaks of hexagonal boron nitride were observed for the films prepared using the boron nitride powder target. The crystallinity of the prepared films was changed by annealing after deposition.

  2. Development of microstructure during sintering and aluminium exposure of titanium diboride ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, Gunnar

    1997-12-31

    In the production of aluminium, much less energy need be consumed if an inert, wetted cathode is present in the electrolysis cell. Titanium diboride, TiB{sub 2}, is easily wetted and does not readily dissolve in liquid aluminium, but it degrades, probably because aluminium penetrates into it during electrolysis. This degradation is linked to impurities present in the TiB{sub 2} after sintering. This thesis studies the sintering process and how aluminium penetrates into the material. High-purity, high-density TiB{sub 2} compacts were made by hot pressing at 50 MPa in an argon atmosphere at 1790-1960 {sup o}C. Samples were made with different impurity additions. These samples were exposed to liquid aluminium at 980 {sup o}C for 24 hours. All samples were penetrated, but the amount and appearance depended on the sintering aid used. Unlike the other samples, pure TiB{sub 2} was easily penetrated by metallic aluminium because of the open porosity and microcracks of this material. Grain boundary penetration was common among the samples. Differences in penetration behaviour between grain boundaries are probably due to differences in grain boundary energy. But no relation to segregants or boundary misorientation was found. The orientation of grain boundary planes and de-wetting of thin films upon cooling may explain the observed microstructure development. The samples sintered with Ti addition suffered extensive penetration despite their high densities. The grain boundaries of these samples became faceted and contained thicker films of metallic aluminium, presumably because of increased solubility due to iron segregations. All secondary phases present in the grain junctions after sintering, except from the B{sub 4}C phase, reacted with the penetrated aluminium. This did not cause swelling and cracking, as has been suggested by other authors. 101 refs., 48 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Fabrication of grape-like structures with micro capsule covering metal powder, and application to novel porous metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, S.; Makuta, T.; Murasawa, G.

    2012-04-01

    We used a new method to fabricate salami-type porous metal from glass microcapsules and liquid metal. Each pore of its salami-like structure behaves as a micro-bell. This metal, which is more than 20% lighter than bulk material, also shows a unique characteristic: high-frequency oscillation is greatly attenuated when propagated in its medium. This method offers great potential for size, shape, and conformation control, with changed attenuation characteristics of its salami-like pore structure achieved merely by changing the mixing technique. This study was conducted to measure compressive deformation behavior and attenuation characteristic of salami-type porous SnSbCu. To begin with, we fabricated two salami-type porous metals using 16um or 60um diameter microcapsule, which have different salami structures in its body. Next, compressive loading test was conducted for the metals. Then, the attenuation characteristic was investigated using laser ultrasonic measurement. Thereby, compressive deformation behavior was same between fabricated two salami-type porous metals. In contrast, the attenuation characteristic was different at low frequency range between them.

  4. Powder-XRD and (14) N magic angle-spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy of some metal nitrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempgens, Pierre; Britton, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    Some metal nitrides (TiN, ZrN, InN, GaN, Ca3 N2 , Mg3 N2 , and Ge3 N4 ) have been studied by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and (14) N magic angle-spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR spectroscopy. For Ca3 N2 , Mg3 N2 , and Ge3 N4 , no (14) N NMR signal was observed. Low speed (νr  = 2 kHz for TiN, ZrN, and GaN; νr  = 1 kHz for InN) and 'high speed' (νr  = 15 kHz for TiN; νr  = 5 kHz for ZrN; νr  = 10 kHz for InN and GaN) MAS NMR experiments were performed. For TiN, ZrN, InN, and GaN, powder-XRD was used to identify the phases present in each sample. The number of peaks observed for each sample in their (14) N MAS solid-state NMR spectrum matches perfectly well with the number of nitrogen-containing phases identified by powder-XRD. The (14) N MAS solid-state NMR spectra are symmetric and dominated by the quadrupolar interaction. The envelopes of the spinning sidebands manifold are Lorentzian, and it is concluded that there is a distribution of the quadrupolar coupling constants Qcc 's arising from structural defects in the compounds studied.

  5. Applied Pressure on Altering the Nano-Crystallization Behavior of Al86Ni6Y4.5Co2La1.5 Metallic Glass Powder during Spark Plasma Sintering and Its Effect on Powder Consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. P. Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallic glass powder of the composition Al86Ni6Y4.5Co2La1.5 was consolidated into 10 mm diameter samples by spark plasma sintering (SPS at different temperatures under an applied pressure of 200 MPa or 600 MPa. The heating rate and isothermal holding time were fixed at 40°C/min and 2 min, respectively. Fully dense bulk metallic glasses (BMGs free of particle-particle interface oxides and nano-crystallization were fabricated under 600 MPa. In contrast, residual oxides were detected at particle-particle interfaces (enriched in both Al and O when fabricated under a pressure of 200 MPa, indicating the incomplete removal of the oxide surface layers during SPS at a low pressure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM revealed noticeable nano-crystallization of face-centered cubic (fcc Al close to such interfaces. Applying a high pressure played a key role in facilitating the removal of the oxide surface layers and therefore full densification of the Al86Ni6Y4.5Co2La1.5 metallic glass powder without nano-crystallization. It is proposed that applied high pressure, as an external force, assisted in the breakdown of surface oxide layers that enveloped the powder particles in the early stage of sintering. This, together with the electrical discharge during SPS, may have benefitted the viscous flow of metallic glasses during sintering.

  6. Neutron powder diffraction of metal-organic frameworks for hydrogen storage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Craig M Brown; Yun Liu; Dan A Neumann

    2008-10-01

    We review recent structural studies that we have undertaken aimed at elucidating the fundamental properties of metal-organic framework materials and their interactions with hydrogen. We have shown that exposing coordinatively unsaturated metal centers can greatly enhance the hydrogen binding energy and that they result in a significant increase of the surface packing density of adsorbed hydrogen molecules on materials' surface. We will review some of the structural aspects of these materials, especially the adsorbed hydrogen molecule surface packing density in one type of metal-organic framework, MOF-74, which can be packed even denser than that in solid hydrogen.

  7. 3D Online Submicron Scale Observation of Mixed Metal Powder's Microstructure Evolution in High Temperature and Microwave Compound Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the influence on the mechanical properties caused by microstructure evolution of metal powder in extreme environment, 3D real-time observation of the microstructure evolution of Al-Ti mixed powder in high temperature and microwave compound fields was realized by using synchrotron radiation computerized topography (SR-CT technique; the spatial resolution was enhanced to 0.37 μm/pixel through the designed equipment and the introduction of excellent reconstruction method for the first time. The process of microstructure evolution during sintering was clearly distinguished from 2D and 3D reconstructed images. Typical sintering parameters such as sintering neck size, porosity, and particle size of the sample were presented for quantitative analysis of the influence on the mechanical properties and the sintering kinetics during microwave sintering. The neck size-time curve was obtained and the neck growth exponent was 7.3, which indicated that surface diffusion was the main diffusion mechanism; the reason was the eddy current loss induced by the external microwave fields providing an additional driving force for mass diffusion on the particle surface. From the reconstructed images and the curve of porosity and average particle size versus temperature, it was believed that the presence of liquid phase aluminum accelerated the densification and particle growth.

  8. 3D online submicron scale observation of mixed metal powder's microstructure evolution in high temperature and microwave compound fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dan; Xu, Feng; Hu, Xiao-fang; Dong, Bo; Xiao, Yu; Xiao, Ti-qiao

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the influence on the mechanical properties caused by microstructure evolution of metal powder in extreme environment, 3D real-time observation of the microstructure evolution of Al-Ti mixed powder in high temperature and microwave compound fields was realized by using synchrotron radiation computerized topography (SR-CT) technique; the spatial resolution was enhanced to 0.37  μm/pixel through the designed equipment and the introduction of excellent reconstruction method for the first time. The process of microstructure evolution during sintering was clearly distinguished from 2D and 3D reconstructed images. Typical sintering parameters such as sintering neck size, porosity, and particle size of the sample were presented for quantitative analysis of the influence on the mechanical properties and the sintering kinetics during microwave sintering. The neck size-time curve was obtained and the neck growth exponent was 7.3, which indicated that surface diffusion was the main diffusion mechanism; the reason was the eddy current loss induced by the external microwave fields providing an additional driving force for mass diffusion on the particle surface. From the reconstructed images and the curve of porosity and average particle size versus temperature, it was believed that the presence of liquid phase aluminum accelerated the densification and particle growth.

  9. Modeling and multi-objective optimization of powder mixed electric discharge machining process of aluminum/alumina metal matrix composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangadharudu Talla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Low material removal rate (MRR and high surface roughness values hinder large-scale application of electro discharge machining (EDM in the fields like automobile, aerospace and medical industry. In recent years, however, EDM has gained more significance in these industries as the usage of difficult-to-machine materials including metal matrix composites (MMCs increased. In the present work, an attempt has been made to fabricate and machine aluminum/alumina MMC using EDM by adding aluminum powder in kerosene dielectric. Results showed an increase in MRR and decrease in surface roughness (Ra compared to those for conventional EDM. Semi empirical models for MRR and Ra based on machining parameters and important thermo physical properties were established using a hybrid approach of dimensional and regression analysis. A multi response optimization was also performed using principal component analysis-based grey technique (Grey-PCA to determine optimum settings of process parameters for maximum MRR and minimum Ra within the experimental range. The recommended setting of process parameters for the proposed process has been found to be powder concentration (Cp = 4 g/l, peak current (Ip = 3 A, pulse on time (Ton = 150 μs and duty cycle (Tau = 85%.

  10. Effect of Cold Rolling on the Hydrogen Desorption Behavior of Binary Metal Hydride Powders under Microwave Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaldete da Silva Dupim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report that cold rolling could drastically improve hydrogen desorption kinetics under microwave irradiation. Samples of metal hydride powders (TiH2, ZrH2, and MgH2 in as-received conditions and after cold rolling were microwave irradiated in a vacuum using a simple experimental setup. After irradiation, the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction in other to evaluate the effectiveness of microwave heating. The diffraction patterns indicated that only MgH2 could be fully decomposed (dehydrided in the as received state. TiH2 was only partially decomposed while no decomposition was observed for ZrH2. However, cold rolling the hydride powders prior to microwave heating led to a significant improvement of hydride decomposition, resulting in the complete dehydriding of TiH2 and extensive dehydriding of ZrH2. These results clearly indicated the positive effects of cold rolling on the microwave assisted desorption of the investigated binary hydrides.

  11. Effects of mold geometry on fiber orientation of powder injection molded metal matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Faiz, E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my; Aslam, Muhammad, E-mail: klaira73@gmail.com; Altaf, Khurram, E-mail: khurram.altaf@petronas.com.my; Shirazi, Irfan, E-mail: irfanshirazi@hotmail.com [Mechanical Engineering Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Fiber orientations in metal matrix composites have significant effect on improving tensile properties. Control of fiber orientations in metal injection molded metal composites is a difficult task. In this study, two mold cavities of dimensions 6x6x90 mm and 10x20x180 mm were used for comparison of fiber orientation in injection molded metal composites test parts. In both mold cavities, convergent and divergent flows were developed by modifying the sprue dimensions. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to examine the fiber orientations within the test samples. The results showed highly aligned fiber in injection molded test bars developed from the convergent melt flow. Random orientation of fibers was noted in the composites test bars produced from divergent melt flow.

  12. Application of Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder (SLMP®) in graphite anode - A high efficient prelithiation method for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihui; Fu, Yanbao; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Yuan, Shengwen; Amine, Khalil; Battaglia, Vincent; Liu, Gao

    2014-08-01

    Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder (SLMP®) was applied in graphite anode and the effects of this prelithiation method to cell performance were investigated. Performance of prelithiated cells was compared with that of regular graphite based cells. The first cycle capacity loss of SLMP prelithiated cell was largely reduced and the corresponding first cycle Coulombic efficiency was significantly improved. The graphite/NMC cell with SLMP prelithiation but without any standard cell formation process showed better cycle performance than that of none SLMP containing cell with standard formation process. Prelithiation of graphite electrode with SLMP promote stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formation on the surface of graphite anode. Application of SLMP in lithium-ion battery thus provides an effective method to enhance capacity, and promises a low cost SEI formation process. This also implies the potential use of other promising anode materials, such as Si and Sn that have large first cycle capacity loss, in commercial lithium-ion batteries.

  13. Improved electrochemical performance of micro-sized SiO-based composite anode by prelithiation of stabilized lithium metal powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qingrui; Zuo, Pengjian; Mu, Tiansheng; Du, Chunyu; Cheng, Xinqun; Ma, Yulin; Gao, Yunzhi; Yin, Geping

    2017-04-01

    The micro-sized SiO-based composite anode material (d-SiO/G/C) for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is achieved via the disproportionation reaction of SiO followed by a pitch pyrolysis reaction. The d-SiO/G/C composite exhibits an initial reversible capacity of 905 mAh g-1 and excellent cycling stability. The initial Coulombic efficiency of the d-SiO/G/C composite can be significantly improved from 68.1% to 98.5% by the prelithiation of the composite anode using stabilized lithium metal powders (SLMP), which counteracts the irreversible capacity loss caused by the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation and irreversible conversion reaction during the first lithiation. The micro-sized d-SiO/G/C composite anode with SLMP prelithiation maintains an excellent cycling stability, suggesting its great potential in practical application for high specific energy lithium ion batteries.

  14. Modeling of evaporation and oxidation phenomena in plasma spraying of metal powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanwei

    Plasma spraying of metals in air is usually accompanied by evaporation and oxidation of the sprayed material. Optimization of the spraying process must ensure that the particles are fully molten during their short residence time in the plasma jet and prior to hitting the substrate, but not overheated to minimize evaporation losses. In atmospheric plasma spraying (ASP), it is also clearly desirable to be able to control the extent of oxide formation. The objective of this work to develop an overall mathematical model of the oxidization and volatilization phenomena involved in the plasma-spraying of metallic particles in air atmosphere. Four models were developed to simulate the following aspects of the atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) process: (a) the particle trajectories and the velocity and temperature profiles in an Ar-H 2 plasma jet, (b) the heat and mass transfer between particles and plasma jet, (c) the interaction between the evaporation and oxidation phenomena, and (d) the oxidation of liquid metal droplets. The resulting overall model was generated by adapting the computational fluid dynamics code FIDAP and was validated by experimental measurements carried out at the collaborating plasma laboratory of the University of Limoges. The thesis also examined the environmental implications of the oxidization and volatilization phenomena in the plasma spraying of metals. The modeling results showed that the combination of the standard k-s model of turbulence and the Boussinesq eddy-viscosity model provided a more accurate prediction of plasma gas behavior. The estimated NOx generation levels from APS were lower than the U.S.E.P.A. emission standard. Either enhanced evaporation or oxidation can occur on the surface of the metal particles and the relative extent is determined by the process parameters. Comparatively, the particle size has the greatest impact on both evaporation and oxidation. The extent of particle oxidation depends principally on gas

  15. Metals for bone implants. Part 1. Powder metallurgy and implant rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andani, Mohsen Taheri; Shayesteh Moghaddam, Narges; Haberland, Christoph; Dean, David; Miller, Michael J; Elahinia, Mohammad

    2014-10-01

    New metal alloys and metal fabrication strategies are likely to benefit future skeletal implant strategies. These metals and fabrication strategies were looked at from the point of view of standard-of-care implants for the mandible. These implants are used as part of the treatment for segmental resection due to oropharyngeal cancer, injury or correction of deformity due to pathology or congenital defect. The focus of this two-part review is the issues associated with the failure of existing mandibular implants that are due to mismatched material properties. Potential directions for future research are also studied. To mitigate these issues, the use of low-stiffness metallic alloys has been highlighted. To this end, the development, processing and biocompatibility of superelastic NiTi as well as resorbable magnesium-based alloys are discussed. Additionally, engineered porosity is reviewed as it can be an effective way of matching the stiffness of an implant with the surrounding tissue. These porosities and the overall geometry of the implant can be optimized for strain transduction and with a tailored stiffness profile. Rendering patient-specific, site-specific, morphology-specific and function-specific implants can now be achieved using these and other metals with bone-like material properties by additive manufacturing. The biocompatibility of implants prepared from superelastic and resorbable alloys is also reviewed.

  16. Manufacturing techniques for titanium aluminide based alloys and metal matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Kunal B.

    -sized titanium aluminide powders were rapidly consolidated to form near-net shape titanium aluminide parts in form of small discs and tiles. The rapidly consolidated titanium aluminide parts were found to be fully dense. The microstructure morphology was found to vary with consolidation conditions. The mechanical properties were found to be significantly dependent on microstructure morphology and grain size. Due to rapid consolidation, grain growth during consolidation was limited, which in turn led to enhanced mechanical properties. The high temperature mechanical properties for the consolidated titanium aluminide samples were characterized and were found to retain good mechanical performance up to 700°C. Micron-sized titanium aluminide powders with slightly less Aluminum and small Nb, and Cr additions were rapidly consolidated into near-net shape parts. The consolidated parts were found to exhibit enhanced mechanical performance in terms of ductility and yield strength. The negative effect of Oxygen on the flexural strength at high temperatures was found to be reduced with the addition of Nb. In an effort to further reduce the grain size of the consolidated titanium aluminide samples, the as-received titanium aluminide powders were milled in an attrition mill. The average powder particle size of the powders was reduced by 60% after milling. The milled powders were then rapidly consolidated. The grain size of the consolidated parts was found to be in the sub-micrometer range. The mechanical properties were found to be significantly enhanced due to reduction of grain size in the sub-micrometer range. In order to develop a metal matrix composite based on titanium aluminide matrix reinforced with titanium boride, an experiment to study the effect of rapid consolidation on titanium diboride powders was conducted. Micron-sized titanium diboride powders were consolidated and were found to be 93% dense and exhibited minimal grain growth. The low density of the consolidated part was

  17. Optical Characteristics of Polystyrene Based Solid Polymer Composites: Effect of Metallic Copper Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujahadeen B. Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid polymer composites (SPCs were prepared by solution cast technique. The optical properties of polystyrene doped with copper powder were performed by means of UV-Vis technique. The optical constants were calculated by using UV-Vis spectroscopy. The dispersion regions were observed in both absorption and refractive index spectra at lower wavelength. However, a plateau can be observed at high wavelengths. The small extinction coefficient compared to the refractive index reveals the transparency of the composite samples. The refractive index and optical band gap were determined from the reflectance and optical absorption coefficient data, respectively. The nature of electronic transition from valence band to conduction band was determined and the energy band gaps of the solid composite samples were estimated. It was observed that, upon the addition of Cu concentration, the refractive index increased while the energy gaps are decreased. The calculated refractive indexes (low index of refraction of the samples reveal their availability in waveguide technology.

  18. Retention of Compressive Residual Stresses Introduced by Shot Peening in a Powder Metal Disk Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Danetti, Andrew; Draper, Susan L.; Locci, Ivan E.; Telesman, Jack

    2016-01-01

    The fatigue lives of disk superalloys can be increased by shot peening their surfaces, to induce compressive residual stresses near the surface that impede cracking there. As disk application temperatures increase for improved efficiency, the persistence of these beneficial stresses could be impaired, especially with continued fatigue cycling. The objective of this work was to study the retention of residual stresses introduced by shot peening, when subjected to fatigue and high temperatures. Fatigue specimens of powder metallurgy processed nickel-base disk superalloy ME3 were prepared with consistent processing and heat treatment. They were then shot peened using varied conditions. Strain-controlled fatigue cycles were run at room temperature and 704 C, to allow re-assessment of residual stresses.

  19. Using Alloys of Cr-Ni-Co system as metallic bond in powder metallurgy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gazaliyev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is studied the possibility of using alloys of the Cr-Ni-Cо system as a metallic bond in producing ceramet. As the basic material there was used titanium carbide. There were measured such mechanical properties as bending strength, tensile strength, impact viscosity. There is considered a possibility of using ceramet with a metallic bond of the Cr-Ni-Co system as a refractory material. As a heat resistance indicator there was estimated the limit of long durability. It is established that in the studied range of temperatures the material properties are the function of the bond content.

  20. Mechanistic Models for Ignition and Combustion of Metallic Powders in Different Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    contradicting the expected higher oxidation rate that would be caused a non-continuous Al2O3 layer. A new model of heterogeneous oxidation of Al...accelerated Al oxidation during melting, contradicting the expected higher oxidation rate that would be caused by a non-continuous Al2O3 layer. A model of...particle, respectively, and the constant c accounts for the differences in molar weight and in density between the metal core and the oxide shell

  1. Structure and hardness of a hard metal alloy prepared with a WC powder synthesized at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, F.A. da [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais, UFRN, Campus Universitario, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil)], E-mail: francineac@yahoo.com; Medeiros, F.F.P. de [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais, UFRN, Campus Universitario, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Silva, A.G.P. da [Laboratorio de Materiais Avancados, UENF, 28015-620 Campos de Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Gomes, U.U. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Experimental, UFRN, Campus Universitario, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Filgueira, M. [Laboratorio de Materiais Avancados, UENF, 28015-620 Campos de Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Souza, C.P. de [Laboratorio de Termodinamica e Reatores, UFRN, Campus Universitario, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-06-25

    The structure and hardness of a WC-10 wt% Co alloy prepared with an experimental WC powder are compared with those of another alloy of the same composition produced under the same conditions and prepared with a commercial WC powder. The experimental WC powder was synthesized by a gas-solid reaction between APT and methane at low temperature and the commercial WC powder was conventionally produced by a solid-solid reaction between tungsten and carbon black. WC-10 wt% Co alloys with the two powders were prepared under the same conditions of milling and sintering. The structure of the sample prepared with the experimental WC powder is homogeneous and coarse grained. The structure of the sample prepared with the commercial powder is heterogeneous. Furthermore the size and shape of the WC grains are significantly different.

  2. Tribochemical peculiarities of lubricant composition with surface-modified metal powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrkov, A. G.; Silivanov, M. O.; Kushchenko, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    The influence of different factors (adhesion, surface hydrophobicity, etc.) on antifrictional properties of lubricant with modified metal additives was discussed. The measurings of friction coefficient (f) and friction force (F fr) were carried out for the heterogeneous systems as oil I-20 with Al-additives modified by triamon (T), alkamon (A) and ethylhydridesiloxane according to various programs. It was established that as a number of T-underlayers, included in Al-additives with chemisorpted external layer of ethylhydridsiloxane reduces from 3 to 1 the force of friction and coefficient of friction reduce. It was discovered that the value of summand which stands for the amount of intermolecular forces in the boundary friction equation can be regulated in Al-additives by using low-molecular T-underlayer.

  3. Nanostructured cobalt oxides (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and CoO) and metallic Co powders synthesized by the solution combustion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toniolo, J.C., E-mail: juliano_toniolo@hotmail.com [Department of Material Engineering, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Osvaldo Aranha 99, 705, Downtown, 90035190 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Takimi, A.S.; Bergmann, C.P. [Department of Material Engineering, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Osvaldo Aranha 99, 705, Downtown, 90035190 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2010-06-15

    The combustion synthesis technique using glycine and urea as fuels and cobalt nitrate as an oxidizer is capable of producing well-crystallized Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, CoO, as well as metallic Co powders. An interpretation based on the thermodynamic viewpoint and the measurement of the combustion temperatures during the reactions occurring for various fuel-to-oxidant ratios was proposed for a study of the nature of combustion and its correlation with the characteristics of as-synthesized powders. The largest measured specific surface area of the powders was 36 m{sup 2}/g at a 0.14 glycine-to-nitrate ratio. The crystallites were nano-sized ranging from approximately 23 to 90 nm.

  4. Improvement of Surface Properties of Inconel718 by HVOF Coating with WC-Metal Powder and by Laser Heat Treatment of the Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Gon Chun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF thermal spray coating with WC-metal powder was carried out by using optimal coating process on an Inconel718 surface for improvement of the surface properties, friction, wear, and corrosion resistance. Binder metals such as Cr and Ni were completely melted and WC was decomposed partially to W2C and graphite during the high temperature (up to 3500°C thermal spraying. The melted metals were bonded with WC and other carbides and were formed as WC-metal coating. The graphite and excessively sprayed oxygen formed carbon oxide gases, and these gases formed porous coating by evolution of the gases. The surface properties were improved by HVOF coating and were improved further by CO2 laser heat treatment (LH. Wear resistance of In718 surface was improved by coating and LH at 25°C and an elevated temperature of 450°C, resulting in reduction of wear trace traces, and was further improved by LH of the coating in reducing wear depth. Corrosion resistance due to coating in sea water was improved by LH. HVOF coating of WC-metal powder on a metal surface and a LH of the coating were highly recommended for the improvement of In718 surface properties, the friction behavior, and wear resistance.

  5. Cu-TiB metal matrix composites prepared by powder metallurgy route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium boride (TiB is characterized by good conductivity, high strength and high melting point. In this work, TiB was used to make Cu-TiB metal matrix composites (MMCs. Amounts of TiB added into Cu matrix were 2wt.%, 5wt.%, 10 wt.% and 15 wt.%. The samples were pressed at pressures of 500MPa, 600MPa, 700MPa and 800MPa and sintered at 820o and 920o, respectively. The properties of the sintered composites such as hardness and impact toughness were studied. Hardness and impact toughness of samples increased with increasing pressures and decreased with increasing contents of TiB. Composite with good mechanical properties and high conductivity was obtained from the sample containing 2wt.%TiB compacted at 800MPa and sintered at 920o. It was shown that 2wt.% TiB is a suitable content to make Cu-TiB MMCs with good mechanical properties and excellent conductivity.

  6. Potential applications of cold sprayed Cu50Ti20Ni30 metallic glassy alloy powders for antibacterial protective coating in medical and food sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Eskandrany, M Sherif; Al-Azmi, Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    Mechanical alloying was utilized for synthesizing of metallic glassy Cu50Ti20Ni30 alloy powders, using a low energy ball milling technique. The metallic glassy powders obtained after 100 h of ball milling had an average particle size of 1.7 mm in diameter and possessed excellent thermal stability, indexed by a relatively high glass transition temperature (358.3 °C) with a wide supercooled liquid region (61 °C). This amorphous phase crystallized into Ti2Cu and CuTiNi2 ordered phases through two overlapped crystallization temperatures at 419.3 °C and 447.5 °C, respectively. The total enthalpy change of crystallization was -4.8 kJ/mol. The glassy powders were employed as feedstock materials to double-face coating the surface of SUS 304 substrate, using cold spraying process under helium gas pressure at 400 °C. This coating material had an extraordinary high nanohardness value of 3.1 GPa. Moreover, it showed a high resistance to wear with a low value of the coefficient of friction ranging from 0.45 to 0.45. Biofilms were grown on 20-mm(2) SUS304 sheets coated coupons inoculated with 1.5 × 10(8) CFU ml(-1)E. coli. Significant biofilm inhibition (p The inhibition of biofilm formation by nanocrystalline powders of Cu-based provides a practical approach to achieve the inhibition of biofilms formation.

  7. Toxicology and occupational hazards of new materials and processes in metal surface treatment, powder metallurgy, technical ceramics, and fiber-reinforced plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midtgård, U; Jelnes, J E

    1991-12-01

    Many new materials and processes are about to find their way from the research laboratory into industry. The present paper describes some of these processes and provides an overview of possible occupational hazards and a list of chemicals used or produced in the processes. The technological areas that are considered are metal surface treatment (ion implantation, physical and chemical vapor deposition, plasma spraying), powder metallurgy, advanced technical ceramics, and fiber-reinforced plastics.

  8. Role of HSAB concept in understanding biosorptive behaviour of various metal ions employing green biosorbent - Dry Cow Dung Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagla, Hemlata; Khilnani, Roshan

    2016-04-01

    Hard & Soft Acid Base concept, HSAB theory given by Pearson, elucidates the crucial role of HSAB characteristics of both pollutants as well as the aqueous milieu. This theory can also explain the biosorptive behaviour of Dry Cow dung Powder, which helps in governing the success of process. The various metal ionic species exhibit a preference for the ligand binding on the biomass based on its chemical coordination characteristics. A comparative batch equilibration biosorptive assay has been carried out employing radiotracer technique for uptake of Cr(III), Cr(VI), Cd(II), Hg(II), Sr(II), Cs(I) and Co(II) at optimum biosorption parameters. To study the effect of interference of different salts on the percentage biosorption of metal ions on DCP, different organic as well as inorganic salts with varying proportion of 10 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg and 100 mg have been studied. The dynamics of the biosorption in terms of the order of the rate constant was studied applying different kinetic models. The best fitting model was Lagergren pseudo second order model. DCP, an eco-friendly humiresin, enriched with minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, bile pigments, aliphatic - aromatic species such as 'Humic acid', Fulvic acid and many naturally present functional group such as carboxyl, phenols, quinols, amide etc. of both hard and soft nature, making it 'combo' in nature sorbs both concerned metal ions as well as ligands present in the system. Thus the ligands which were masking the biosorption process of heavy metal ions in this study were treated by mere increase in the dose of DCP, which successfully solves the problem without affecting efficiency of the process. This is exemplified by three very basic interactions happening in multicomponent system i.e. Synergism: Mutual enhancement; Antagonism: Mutual decrement; Non-interaction: Neutral effect. Thus DCP has a great potential in the field of water decontamination, industrial water treatment and in abatement of water pollution. So

  9. EXPLOITATIVE DESTRUCTION FEATURES FOR DETONATION ULTRADISPERSED DIAMONDS OF INITIAL METALLIC PROTECTION FOR ABRASIVE POWDER GRAINS TO DIAMOND-SPARK GRINDING TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury GUTSALENKO

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem of exploitation of diamond grinding wheels with metal coating for their grains including detonation ultra-dispersed diamonds to increase functional reliability to maintain the initial integrity of grains in the pressing and sintering of diamond-metal composites in the tool production is considered. One problem is that the presence of detonation ultra-dispersed diamonds in the grain metal coating of diamond powders not only improves the coating functional reliability in protection from destruction in the subsequent pressing and sintering in the production tool, but also resistance of such coating to the opening of the diamond cutting basis of the grains on the grinding wheel working surface that come into working contact with the material being processed. An analysis of the features of an effective exploitative destruction of detonation ultra-dispersed diamonds in the metal coating using electric current in the tool of the diamondspark grinding processes is presented.

  10. Composite materials and bodies including silicon carbide and titanium diboride and methods of forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo, Thomas M.; Chu, Henry S.; Harrison, William M.; Bailey, Derek

    2013-01-22

    Methods of forming composite materials include coating particles of titanium dioxide with a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon, and reacting the titanium dioxide with the substance including boron and the substance including carbon to form titanium diboride. The methods may be used to form ceramic composite bodies and materials, such as, for example, a ceramic composite body or material including silicon carbide and titanium diboride. Such bodies and materials may be used as armor bodies and armor materials. Such methods may include forming a green body and sintering the green body to a desirable final density. Green bodies formed in accordance with such methods may include particles comprising titanium dioxide and a coating at least partially covering exterior surfaces thereof, the coating comprising a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon.

  11. Process for fabrication of large titanium diboride ceramic bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Arthur J.; Bomar, E. S.; Becher, Paul F.

    1989-01-01

    A process for manufacturing large, fully dense, high purity TiB.sub.2 articles by pressing powders with a sintering aid at relatively low temperatures to reduce grain growth. The process requires stringent temperature and pressure applications in the hot-pressing step to ensure maximum removal of sintering aid and to avoid damage to the fabricated article or the die.

  12. Hydrolysis behavior of zirconium diboride during attrition milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Jie; Zhang Hui; Yan Yongjie [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Huang Zhengren, E-mail: zrhuang@mail.sic.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Liu Xuejian [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Yang Yong, E-mail: yangyong@mail.sic.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Jiang Dongliang [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface was mainly covered of Zr-O, B-O and B-OH bonds after hydrolysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZrB{sub 2} powder tended to behave like a B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-modified surface by milling treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface B/Zr atomic ratio decreased from water to ethanol medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nano-sized oxide layer ({approx}5 nm) was observed and helped to improve the dispersion of ZrB{sub 2} particles in dilute aqueous media. - Abstract: The hydrolysis behavior of ZrB{sub 2} powder during attrition milling was studied in de-ionized water and ethanol. Surface characterization, thermal analysis, chemical analysis and electron microscopy were utilized to analyze the surface properties of as-milled powders. The results proved that the surface of ZrB{sub 2} powder was mainly composed of Zr-O, B-O and B-OH bonds as hydrolysis proceeded, and the amount of surface B-O bond was found to increase rapidly in water, suggesting a more B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-like surface behavior were developed. Results also showed when milled at 300 rpm for 4 h in water, 64.45 at% of B was in the form of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} at a thickness of {approx}3 nm from the surface. The nano-sized surface Zr-B-O oxide layer ({approx}5 nm in thickness) could help to improve the dispersion of powder in aqueous media.

  13. Oxidation resistance, thermal conductivity, and spectral emittance of fully dense zirconium diboride with silicon carbide and tantalum diboride additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laningham, Gregg Thomas

    Zirconium diboride (ZrB2) is a ceramic material possessing ultra-high melting temperatures. As such, this compound could be useful in the construction of thermal protection systems for aerospace applications. This work addresses a primary shortcoming of this material, namely its propensity to destructively oxidize at high temperatures, as well as secondary issues concerning its heat transport properties. To characterize and improve oxidation properties, thermogravimetric studies were performed using a specially constructed experimental setup. ZrB 2-SiC two-phase ceramic composites were isothermally oxidized for ~90 min in flowing air in the range 1500-1900°C. Specimens with 30 mol% SiC formed distinctive reaction product layers which were highly protective; 28 mol% SiC - 6 mol% TaB2 performed similarly. At higher temperatures, specimens containing lower amounts of SiC were shown to be non-protective, whereas specimens containing greater amounts of SiC produced unstable oxide layers due to gas evolution. Oxide coating thicknesses calculated from weight loss data were consistent with those measured from SEM micrographs. In order to characterize one aspect of the materials' heat transport properties, the thermal diffusivities of ZrB2-SiC composites were measured using the laser flash technique. These were converted to thermal conductivities using temperature dependent specific heat and density data; thermal conductivity decreased with increasing temperature over the range 25-2000°C. The composition with the highest SiC content showed the highest thermal conductivity at room temperature, but the lowest at temperatures in excess of ~400°C, because of the greater temperature sensitivity of the thermal conductivity of the SiC phase, as compared to more electrically-conductive ZrB2. Subsequent finite difference calculations were good predictors of multi-phase thermal conductvities for the compositions examined. The thermal conductivities of pure ZrB2 as a function of

  14. Novel Alkali-Metal Coordination in Phenoxides: Powder Diffraction Results on C(6)H(5)OM (M = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinnebier, R. E.; Pink, Maren; Sieler, J.; Stephens, P. W.

    1997-07-30

    We report the ab initio structure solutions of C(6)H(5)OM (M = K, Rb, Cs) by high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction. The compounds, which are of interest for reactions of the Kolbe-Schmitt type, are isostructural. The crystal structures are orthorhombic, space group Pna2(1), Z = 12, with lattice parameters (a, b, c in Å) 14.1003(1), 17.9121(1), and 7.16475(1) for the K compound, 14.4166(2), 18.2028(2), and 7.4009(1) for the Rb compound, and 14.8448(2), 18.5070(2), and 7.6306(1) for the Cs compound. They have a chain structure [M([6])] along the crystallographic c axis. This is a very unusual arrangement in which two different alkali-metal coordination spheres are observed: a distorted octahedron and a 3-fold oxygen coordination. In the latter, the 3-fold-coordinated unsaturated alkali metals additionally show weak interactions with phenyl rings. We also give powder patterns for the compounds with M = Li, Na. The former crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/a with lattice parameters a = 22.594 Å, b = 4.7459 Å, c= 10.053 Å, and beta = 97.82 degrees with Z = 8, but no structure solution was possible. The powder pattern for the Na phenolate is in agreement with the earlier single-crystal structure.

  15. A new apparatus for non-destructive evaluation of green-state powder metal compacts using the electrical-resistivity method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Gene; Ludwig, Reinhold; Michalson, William R.

    2000-02-01

    This paper presents a new apparatus developed for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of green-state powder metal compacts. A green-state compact is an intermediate step in the powder metallurgy (PM) manufacturing process, which is produced when a metal powder-lubricant mixture is compacted in a press. This compact is subsequently sintered in a furnace to produce the finished product. Non-destructive material testing is most cost effective in the green state because early flaw detection permits early intervention in the manufacturing cycle and thus avoids scrapping large numbers of parts. Unfortunately, traditional NDE methods have largely been unsuccessful when applied to green-state PM compacts. A new instrumentation approach has been developed, whereby direct currents are injected into the green-state compact and an array of spring-loaded needle contacts records the voltage distributions on the surface. The voltage distribution is processed to identify potentially dangerous surface and sub-surface flaws. This paper presents the custom-designed hardware and software developed for current injection, voltage acquisition, pre-amplification and flaw detection. In addition, the testing algorithm and measurement results are discussed. The success of flaw detection using the apparatus is established by using controlled samples, which are PM compacts with dielectric inclusions inserted.

  16. Influence of Shielding Gas and Mechanical Activation of Metal Powders on the Quality of Surface Sintered Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saprykina, N. A.; Saprykin, A. A.; Arkhipova, D. A.

    2016-04-01

    The thesis analyses the influence of argon shielding gas and mechanical activation of PMS-1 copper powder and DSK-F75 cobalt chrome molybdenum powder on the surface sintered layer quality under various sintering conditions. Factors affecting the quality of the sintered surface and internal structure are studied. The obtained results prove positive impact of the shielding gas and mechanical activation. Sintering PMS-1 copper powder in argon shielding gas after mechanical activation leads to reduced internal stresses and roughness, as well as improved strength characteristics of the sintered surface. Analysis of sintered samples of mechanically activated DSK-F75 cobalt chrome molybdenum powder shows that the strength of the sintered surface grows porosity and coagulation changes.

  17. Investigation of Selective Laser Sintering of Zirconium Diboride Parts (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    cold isostatic pressing at a pressure of 40,000 Psi at room temperature. This was performed to reduce the porosity and the distance between particles to...layer when the next layer of powder is spread and compressed by the roller. Many approaches have been taken to solve this problem [28]. In the case of...successful parts underwent binder burnout, isostatic pressing and sintering. Binder burnout was carried

  18. Densification and Thermal Properties of Zirconium Diboride Based Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    ZrB2 powder was added to that solution, with stirring, for complete dispersion. After dispersion, the solvent was extracted by rotary evaporation...sintering was reported to occur at 2150°C.18 With additives like carbon, boron carbide, or molybdenum disilicide that react with and remove oxygen...attrition milled ZrB2 was ~5 wt% based on total batch weight. The solvent was removed by rotary evaporation. Particle sizes were measured by laser

  19. The Preparation Technology of Titanium Metal Powder%金属钛粉的制备工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚青亮; 刘捷; 方树铭; 周林

    2013-01-01

    Titanium is the main raw materials of titanium powder metallurgy,its quality and production cost limits the large-scale development of titanium powder metallurgy.The basic principle of mechanical alloying,hydrogenation and dehydrogen process (HDH),atomization,metallothermic reduction,molten salt electrolysis preparing titanium powder are reviewed.With the developing of preparation of titanium powder,the cost of titanium powder will be reduced and the titanium powder metallurgy will be utilized in more different fields.%钛粉作为钛粉末冶金的主要原料,其品质及生产成本限制了钛及钛合金粉末冶金的发展.综述了机械合金化法、氢化脱氢法(HDH)、雾化法、金属热还原法、熔盐电解法制备钛粉的基本原理和工艺现状.新兴的生产技术有望降低钛粉生产成本,从而推动钛及钛合金粉末冶金的发展,扩大其应用范围.

  20. Connectivity, Doping, and Anisotropy in Highly Dense Magnesium Diboride (MgB2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangze

    Magnesium diboride (MgB2) is a superconducting material which can be potentially used in many applications such as magnetic resonance imaging system (MRI), wind turbine generators and high energy physics facilities. The major advantages of MgB2 over other superconductors include its relatively high critical temperature of about 39 K, its low cost of raw materials, its simple crystal structure, and its round multifilament form when in the form of superconducting wires. Over the past fourteen years, much effort has been made to develop MgB2 wires with excellent superconducting properties, particularly the critical current density J c. However, this research has been limited by technical difficulties such as high porosity and weak connectivity in MgB2, relatively small flux pinning strength, low upper critical field B c2 and relatively high anisotropy. The goal of this dissertation is to understand the relationship between superconducting properties, microstructure, and reaction mechanisms in MgB 2. In particular, the influences of connectivity, B c2, anisotropy and flux pinning were investigated in terms of the effects of these variables on the Jcs and n-values of MgB2 superconducting wires (n-value is a parameter which indicates the sharpness of resistive V-I transition). The n -values of traditional "Powder in Tube (PIT)" processed MgB2 wires were improved by optimizing precursor species after the identification of microstructural defects such as so-called "sausaging problems". Also, it was found that "high porosity and weak connectivity" was one of the most critical issues which limited the J c performance in typical MgB2. To overcome this problem, highly dense, well-connected MgB2 conductors were successfully fabricated by adopting an innovative "Advanced Internal Magnesium Infiltration (AIMI)" process. A careful study on the reaction kinetics together with the microstructural evidence demonstrated how the MgB2 layer was formed as the infiltration process

  1. Predictive modeling, simulation, and optimization of laser processing techniques: UV nanosecond-pulsed laser micromachining of polymers and selective laser melting of powder metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criales Escobar, Luis Ernesto

    One of the most frequently evolving areas of research is the utilization of lasers for micro-manufacturing and additive manufacturing purposes. The use of laser beam as a tool for manufacturing arises from the need for flexible and rapid manufacturing at a low-to-mid cost. Laser micro-machining provides an advantage over mechanical micro-machining due to the faster production times of large batch sizes and the high costs associated with specific tools. Laser based additive manufacturing enables processing of powder metals for direct and rapid fabrication of products. Therefore, laser processing can be viewed as a fast, flexible, and cost-effective approach compared to traditional manufacturing processes. Two types of laser processing techniques are studied: laser ablation of polymers for micro-channel fabrication and selective laser melting of metal powders. Initially, a feasibility study for laser-based micro-channel fabrication of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) via experimentation is presented. In particular, the effectiveness of utilizing a nanosecond-pulsed laser as the energy source for laser ablation is studied. The results are analyzed statistically and a relationship between process parameters and micro-channel dimensions is established. Additionally, a process model is introduced for predicting channel depth. Model outputs are compared and analyzed to experimental results. The second part of this research focuses on a physics-based FEM approach for predicting the temperature profile and melt pool geometry in selective laser melting (SLM) of metal powders. Temperature profiles are calculated for a moving laser heat source to understand the temperature rise due to heating during SLM. Based on the predicted temperature distributions, melt pool geometry, i.e. the locations at which melting of the powder material occurs, is determined. Simulation results are compared against data obtained from experimental Inconel 625 test coupons fabricated at the National

  2. 21 CFR 73.1646 - Bronze powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bronze powder. 73.1646 Section 73.1646 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1646 Bronze powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive bronze powder is a very fine metallic powder prepared from alloys consisting principally of...

  3. Slurry sampling fluorination assisted electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry for the direct determination of metal impurities in aluminium oxide ceramic powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, T; Chang, G; Wang, L; Jiang, Z; Hu, B

    2001-03-01

    A new analytical procedure for the direct determination of metal impurities (Cr, Cu, Fe and V) in aluminium oxide ceramic powders by slurry sampling fluorination assisted electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ETV-ICP-AES) is reported. A polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) emulsion was used as a fluorinating reagent to promote the vaporization of impurity elements in aluminium oxide ceramic powders from the graphite tube. A vaporization stage with a long ramp time and a short hold time provided the possibility of temporal analyte-matrix separation. The experimental results indicated that a 10 microL 1% m/v slurry of aluminium oxide could be destroyed and vaporized completely with 600 micrograms PTFE under the selected conditions. Two aluminium oxide ceramic powder samples were used without any additional pretreatment. Analytical results obtained by using standard addition method with aqueous standard solution were checked by comparison of the results with pneumatic nebulization (PN)-ICP-AES based on the wet-chemical decomposition and analyte-matrix separation. The limits of detection (LODs) between 0.30 microgram g-1 (Fe) and 0.08 microgram g-1 (Cu) were achieved, and, the repeatability of measurements was mainly better than 10%.

  4. Effect of powder density variation on premixed Ti-6Al-4V and Cu composites during laser metal deposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erinosho, MF

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the effect of powder density variation on the premixed Ti-6Al-4V/Cu and Ti-6A-4V/2Cu Composites. Two sets of experiment were conducted in this study. Five deposits each were made for the two premixed composites. Laser powers were...

  5. A more efficient way to shape metal-organic framework (MOF) powder materials for hydrogen storage applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ren, Jianwei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available operation time. This granulation approach is a more efficient way to shape MOF-type powder materials into application-specific configurations compared to the mechanical pressing method. The pellets could be conveniently packed in a small hydrogen storage...

  6. 激光复合加热制备金属纳米粉体材料%Producing Metallic Nanosize Powder by Hybrid Laser and Induction Heating Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢长生; 胡木林; 等

    2001-01-01

    The renovated hybrid laser and induction heating technique has many advantages in producing metallic nanosize powder,such as high energy efficiency,controllable in procedure parameters and product quality and available for a lot of materials.The results,obtained by computer numerical simulation,show that there are big differences on the shape of temperature distribution curve between different metallic material.The shape of the curves may be changed by changing the input power of the heating system.Meanwhile,the vaporization region of the heated metallic materials is controllable by adjusting the shape of temperature distribution curve and the environment pressure to obtain a high output of the metallic nanosize powder.%激光复合加热制备金属和合金纳米粉体材料,具有能量利用率高,工艺参数可调、产品质量可控、适应面广等特点。计算机数值模拟结果表明,在加热功率相同的条件下,不同受热金属的温度分布曲线差异较大;改变激光和感应热源的输入功率,可以改变温度分布曲线的形状。通过调节温度分布曲线和系统环境压力,可以改变激光复合加热蒸发区域的大小,进而改变金属和合金纳米粉体材料的产率。

  7. ESTABLISHING SUSTAINABLE US HEV/PHEV MANUFACTURING BASE: STABILIZED LITHIUM METAL POWDER, ENABLING MATERIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGH ENERGY LI-ION BATTERIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovleva, Marina

    2012-12-31

    FMC Lithium Division has successfully completed the project “Establishing Sustainable US PHEV/EV Manufacturing Base: Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary Technology for High Energy Li-ion Batteries”. The project included design, acquisition and process development for the production scale units to 1) produce stabilized lithium dispersions in oil medium, 2) to produce dry stabilized lithium metal powders, 3) to evaluate, design and acquire pilot-scale unit for alternative production technology to further decrease the cost, and 4) to demonstrate concepts for integrating SLMP technology into the Li- ion batteries to increase energy density. It is very difficult to satisfy safety, cost and performance requirements for the PHEV and EV applications. As the initial step in SLMP Technology introduction, industry can use commercially available LiMn2O4 or LiFePO4, for example, that are the only proven safer and cheaper lithium providing cathodes available on the market. Unfortunately, these cathodes alone are inferior to the energy density of the conventional LiCoO2 cathode and, even when paired with the advanced anode materials, such as silicon composite material, the resulting cell will still not meet the energy density requirements. We have demonstrated, however, if SLMP Technology is used to compensate for the irreversible capacity in the anode, the efficiency of the cathode utilization will be improved and the cost of the cell, based on the materials, will decrease.

  8. Formation of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O x /Ag multifilamentary metallic precursor powder-in-tube wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Koch, Carl C.; Schwartz, Justin

    2016-12-01

    Previously, a metallic precursor (MP) approach to synthesizing Bi2Sr2CaCu2O x (Bi2212), with a homogeneous mixture of Bi, Sr, Ca, Cu and Ag was produced by mechanical alloying. Here, Bi2212/Ag round multifilamentary wire is manufactured using a metallic precursor powder-in-tube (MPIT) process. The MP powders were packed into a pure Ag tube in an Ar atmosphere and then sealed. After deformation, multifilamentary round wires and rolled tapes were heat treated in flowing oxygen through three stages: oxidation, conversion and partial-melt processing (PMP). Processing-microstructure-property relationships on 20-50 mm long multifilamentary round wires and rolled tapes were studied extensively. It is shown that conventional wire deformation processes, optimized for oxide-powder-in-tube wires, are not effective for deforming MPIT wires, and that as with prior studies of MPIT Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O y conductors, hot extrusion is required for obtaining a multifilamentary structure with fine filaments. As a result, the Bi2212 MPIT wires reported here have low engineering critical current density. Nonetheless, by focusing on sections of wires that remain intact after deformation, it is also shown that the first heat treatment stage, the oxidation stage, plays a crucial role in chemical homogeneity, phase transformation, and microstructural evolution and three reaction pathways for MP oxidation are presented. Furthermore, it is found the Bi2212 grain alignment within an MPIT filament is significantly different from that found in OPIT filaments after PMP, indicating the formation of highly dense filaments containing Bi2212 fine grains and Ag particles before PMP aids the formation of large, c-axis textured Bi2212 filaments during PMP. These results show that, with improved wire deformation, high critical current density may be obtained via a MPIT process.

  9. An investigation on the formation mechanism of nano ZrB{sub 2} powder by a magnesiothermic reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalaly, M., E-mail: maisam_jalaly@iust.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Narmak, Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bafghi, M.Sh.; Tamizifar, M. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Narmak, Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gotor, F.J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-US), Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • Synthesis of zirconium diboride by magnesiothermic reduction. • Using high energy ball milling to perform mechanochemical reactions. • Study of mechanism of ZrB{sub 2} synthesis by studying subreactions and thermal analysis. -- Abstract: Nanocrystalline zirconium diboride (ZrB{sub 2}) powder was produced by mechanochemistry from the magnesiothermic reduction in the Mg/ZrO{sub 2}/B{sub 2}O{sub 3} system. The use of high-energy milling conditions was essential to induce a mechanically induced self-sustaining reaction (MSR) and significantly reduce the milling time required for complete conversion. Under these conditions, it was found that the ignition time for ZrB{sub 2} formation was only about a few minutes. In this study, the mechanism for the formation of ZrB{sub 2} in this system was determined by studying the relevant sub-reactions, the effect of stoichiometry, and the thermal behavior of the system.

  10. 基于金属粉末的三维打印技术研究%Three-Dimensional Printing Research Based on Metal Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱阳; 张鸿海; 曹澍; 彭文佳; 王泽慧

    2014-01-01

    三维打印是一种基于离散堆叠思想和微滴喷射技术的增材制造方法;它涉及到了机械制造、电子信号处理、图像处理、材料科学等多个学科。由于具有成本低、生产周期短、对加工零件形状没有特别要求等特点,三维打印技术在国防、医疗、工业生产等很多领域具有无限广阔的前景。通过研究打印过程中各个参数以及粉材特性对最终制件的影响,开发出一套硬件系统和金属粉末系统,并利用二者成功打印出金属试样;对打印出的金属试样的各项性能进行测量,获得了相关数据。%Three-Dimensional Printing (3DP)is an additive manufacturing method based on dispersion/stacking idea and droplet ejection technique. It involves machinery manufacture,electronic signals processing,graphic processing,material engineering and oth-er disciplines. Since there were characteristics of low-cost,less time-consuming and having no special requirements for the shape of ob-jects that were going to be printed,3DP technique would be widely used in many areas,such as defense,medical care and production in industry. After studied effects of each of the technological parameters during printing process and powder properties on final parts,a hardware system and a kind of metal powder system were developed,and by using this system and metal powder,a metal sample was printed successfully. After measured all performance of 3DP metal samples,related data are collected.

  11. Additive manufacturing of metal alloy for aerospace by means of Powder Laser Cladding: station tuning and clad characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Fierro, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    2014 - 2015 This thesis investigates the application of continuous coaxial laser cladding by powder injection as repair and cover process. The investigation aimed to check the possibility of repairing a V-groove geometry on a substrate of AA2024 and A357 aluminum alloy. Chapter one is an introduction to the laser cladding. This presents a general overview of the laser cladding methods and some applications for the processes. In the second chapter, the laser cladding process is analys...

  12. Magnesium diboride(MgB{sub 2}) wires for applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Dipak; Kim, Jung Ho [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, Australian Institute for Innovative Materials, University of Wollongong, North Wollongong (Australia)

    2016-03-15

    Field and temperature dependence of the critical current density, Jc, were measured for both un-doped and carbon doped MgB{sub 2}/Nb/Monel wires manufactured by Hyper Tech Research, Inc. In particular, carbon incorporation into the MgB{sub 2} structure using malic acid additive and a chemical solution method can be advantageous because of the highly uniform mixing between the carbon and boron powders. At 4.2 K and 10 T, Jc was estimated to be 25,000 - 25,300 Acm{sup -2} for the wire sintered at 600 degrees C for 4 hours. The irreversibility field, Birr, of the malic acid doped wire was approximately 21.0 - 21.8 T, as obtained from a linear extrapolation of the J-B characteristic. Interestingly enough, the Jc of the malic acid doped sample exceeds 10{sup 5} Acm{sup -2} at 6 T and 4.2 K, which is comparable to that of commercial Nb-Ti wires.

  13. Thermal-shock Resistance of a Ceramic Comprising 60 Percent Boron Carbide and 40 Percent Titanium Diboride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, C M; Hoffman, C A

    1953-01-01

    Thermal-shock resistance of a ceramic comprising 60 percent boron carbide and 40 percent titanium diboride was investigated. The material has thermal shock resistance comparable to that of NBS body 4811C and that of zirconia, but is inferior to beryllia, alumina, and titanium-carbide ceramals. It is not considered suitable for turbine blades.

  14. Advanced powder processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janney, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Gelcasting is an advanced powder forming process. It is most commonly used to form ceramic or metal powders into complex, near-net shapes. Turbine rotors, gears, nozzles, and crucibles have been successfully gelcast in silicon nitride, alumina, nickel-based superalloy, and several steels. Gelcasting can also be used to make blanks that can be green machined to near-net shape and then high fired. Green machining has been successfully applied to both ceramic and metal gelcast blanks. Recently, the authors have used gelcasting to make tooling for metal casting applications. Most of the work has centered on H13 tool steel. They have demonstrated an ability to gelcast and sinter H13 to near net shape for metal casting tooling. Also, blanks of H13 have been cast, green machined into complex shape, and fired. Issues associated with forming, binder burnout, and sintering are addressed.

  15. Is osmium diboride an ultra-hard material?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Sun, Hong; Chen, Changfeng

    2008-06-11

    We report first-principles calculations of ideal tensile and shear strength for the recently synthesized orthorhombic OsB2 that is a primary example of a new class of ultra-hard materials synthesized by combining small, light, and covalent elements with large, electron-rich transition metals. Our calculations show that the shear strength on the (001) plane is highly anisotropic with a low peak stress of 9.1 GPa in the (001)[010] shear direction but a much higher peak stress of 26.9 GPa in the (001)[100] direction. The strong resistance against (001)[100] shear deformation prevents the indenter from making a deep imprint, giving rise to a high Vickers hardness on the (001) plane, despite the weak shear strength in the (001)[010] shear direction. The calculated peak stress of 26.9 GPa in the (001)[100] shear direction agrees well with the 30 GPa Vickers hardness observed experimentally on the (001) plane in OsB2. However, the weak shear strength (9.1 GPa) in the (001)[010] shear direction severely limits its application as abrasives and cutting tools for ferrous metals as well as scratch-resistance coatings. Our results highlight the importance of understanding atomistic deformation modes under various loading conditions in designing new ultra-hard materials.

  16. Enhanced microwave dielectric properties of Ba0.4Sr0.6TiO3 ceramics doping by metal Fe powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiwei; Zhai, Jiwei; Ben, Qianqian; Yu, Xian; Yao, Xi

    2012-11-01

    Ba0.4Sr0.6TiO3 ceramics by adding mental Fe powders have been fabricated via the solid-state reaction method. The microstructures and optical properties of samples are systematically studied in order to establish the effects of Fe powder additives on microwave dielectric properties of Ba0.4Sr0.6TiO3 ceramics by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and optical reflective spectrum. The results show the coexistence of Fe2+ and Fe3+ in Ba0.4Sr0.6TiO3 ceramics, the decrease of O vacancy concentrations, and their incorporation into the B-site (Ti) of the Ba0.4Sr0.6TiO3 host lattice give rise to excellent microwave dielectric properties. All samples have a higher Q value above 290 while maintaining relatively high tunability above 16.6%. In particular, the sample with the composition of x = 0.035 mol has the dielectric constant of 889, Q × f value of 826 (at 1.370 GHz), and tunability of 24%, which are very promising for high power tunable devices. In comparison, Fe2O3 oxide doped Ba0.4Sr0.6TiO3 ceramics with the same molar ratios of Fe exhibit inferior microwave properties. It indicates that additives of the metal Fe powders can more effectively improve dielectric properties of BaxSr1-xTiO3 system than Fe2O3 oxide.

  17. Numerical Simulation of Upsetting a Cubic Sintered Iron Powder Compact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei XIA; Puqing CHEN; Zhaoyao ZHOU; Weibin ZHAO; Yuanyuan LI

    2003-01-01

    This paper establishes a mechanical model for sintered powder metal material and simulates the material behavior.Powder metal specimens were compacted, sintered and upset. Relative density and contour of the specimen were measured. The force displacement

  18. Influence of Metal-Coated Graphite Powders on Microstructure and Properties of the Bronze-Matrix/Graphite Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian-hua; Li, Pu; Tang, Qi; Zhang, Yan-qing; He, Jian-sheng; He, Ke

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the bronze-matrix/x-graphite (x = 0, 1, 3 and 5%) composites were fabricated by powder metallurgy route by using Cu-coated graphite, Ni-coated graphite and pure graphite, respectively. The microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosive behaviors of bronze/Cu-coated-graphite (BCG), bronze/Ni-coated-graphite (BNG) and bronze/pure-graphite (BPG) were characterized and investigated. Results show that the Cu-coated and Ni-coated graphite could definitely increase the bonding quality between the bronze matrix and graphite. In general, with the increase in graphite content in bronze-matrix/graphite composites, the friction coefficients, ultimate density and wear rates of BPG, BCG and BNG composites all went down. However, the Vickers microhardness of the BNG composite would increase as the graphite content increased, which was contrary to the BPG and BCG composites. When the graphite content was 3%, the friction coefficient of BNG composite was more stable than that of BCG and BPG composites, indicating that BNG composite had a better tribological performance than the others. Under all the values of applied loads (10, 20, 40 and 60N), the BCG and BNG composites exhibited a lower wear rate than BPG composite. What is more, the existence of nickel in graphite powders could effectively improve the corrosion resistance of the BNG composite.

  19. Influence of Metal-Coated Graphite Powders on Microstructure and Properties of the Bronze-Matrix/Graphite Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian-hua; Li, Pu; Tang, Qi; Zhang, Yan-qing; He, Jian-sheng; He, Ke

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the bronze-matrix/x-graphite (x = 0, 1, 3 and 5%) composites were fabricated by powder metallurgy route by using Cu-coated graphite, Ni-coated graphite and pure graphite, respectively. The microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosive behaviors of bronze/Cu-coated-graphite (BCG), bronze/Ni-coated-graphite (BNG) and bronze/pure-graphite (BPG) were characterized and investigated. Results show that the Cu-coated and Ni-coated graphite could definitely increase the bonding quality between the bronze matrix and graphite. In general, with the increase in graphite content in bronze-matrix/graphite composites, the friction coefficients, ultimate density and wear rates of BPG, BCG and BNG composites all went down. However, the Vickers microhardness of the BNG composite would increase as the graphite content increased, which was contrary to the BPG and BCG composites. When the graphite content was 3%, the friction coefficient of BNG composite was more stable than that of BCG and BPG composites, indicating that BNG composite had a better tribological performance than the others. Under all the values of applied loads (10, 20, 40 and 60N), the BCG and BNG composites exhibited a lower wear rate than BPG composite. What is more, the existence of nickel in graphite powders could effectively improve the corrosion resistance of the BNG composite.

  20. Surface fatigue and failure characteristics of hot forged powder metal AISI 4620, AISI 4640, and machined AISI 4340 steel spur gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, D. P.

    1986-01-01

    Spur gear surface fatigue endurance tests were conducted to investigate hot forged powder metal AISI 4620 and 4640 steel for use as a gear material, to determine endurance characteristics and to compare the results with machined AISI 4340 and 9310 steel gear materials. The as-forged and unground SISI 4620 gear exhibited a 10 percent fatigue life that was approximately one-fourth of that for AISI 9310 and less than one-half that for the AISI 4340 gears. The forged and finish ground AISI 4620 gears exhibited a 10 percent life, approximately 70 percent that of AISI 9310 and slightly better than that of AISI 4340. The AISI 4640 hot forged gears had less fracture toughness and slightly less fatigue life than the AISI 4620 test gears.

  1. Surface fatigue and failure characteristics of hot-forged powder metal AISI 4620, AISI 4640, and machined AISI 4340 steel spur gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Dennis P.

    1987-01-01

    Spur gear surface fatigue endurance tests were conducted to investigate hot forged powder metal AISI 4620 and 4640 steel for use as a gear material, to determine endurance characteristics and to compare the results with machined AISI 4340 and 9310 steel gear materials. The as-forged and unground AISI 4620 gear exhibited a 10 percent fatigue life that was approximately one-fourth of that for AISI 9310 and less than one-half that for the AISI 4340 gears. The forged and finish ground AISI 4620 gears exhibited a 10 percent life, approximately 70 percent that of AISI 9310 and slightly better than that of AISI 4340. The AISI 4640 hot forged gears had less fracture toughness and slightly less fatigue life than the AISI 4620 test gears.

  2. Hydrogen molecule binding to unsaturated metal sites in metal-organic frameworks studied by neutron powder diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Brown, Craig; Neumann, Dan; Dinca, Mircea; Long, Jeffrey; Peterson, Vanessa; Kepert, Cameron

    2007-03-01

    Metal organic framework (MOF) materials have shown considerable potential for hydrogen storage arising from very large surface areas. However, the low binding energy of hydrogen molecules limits its storage capability to very low temperatures (hydrogen adsorption sites in a selected series of MOF materials with exposed unsaturated metal ions. Direct binding between the unsaturated metal ions and hydrogen molecules is observed and responsible for the enhanced initial hydrogen adsorption enthalpy. The different metals centers in these MOFs show different binding strength and interaction distances between the hydrogen molecule and metal ions. The organic linker also affects the overall H2 binding strength. Inelastic neutron scattering spectra of H2 in these MOFs are also discussed.

  3. Compton profile study and electronic properties of tantalum diboride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykar, Veera; Bhamu, K C; Ahuja, B L

    2013-07-01

    We have reported the first-ever experimental Compton profile (CP) of TaB2 using 20 Ci(137)Cs Compton spectrometer. To compare the experimental data, we have also computed the theoretical CPs using density functional theory (DFT) and hybridization of DFT and Hartree-Fock (HF) within linear combination of the atomic orbitals (LCAO) method. In addition, we have reported energy bands and density of states of TaB2 using LCAO and full potential-linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) methods. A real space analysis of CP of TaB2 confirms its metallic character which is in tune with the cross-overs of Fermi level by energy bands and Fermi surface topology. A comparison of equal-valence-electron-density (EVED) experimental profiles of isoelectronic TaB2 and NbB2 show more covalent (or less ionic) character of TaB2 than that of NbB2 which is in agreement with available ionicity data.

  4. Possibilities of the Technology of Additive Production for Making Complex-Shape Parts and Depositing Functional Coatings from Metallic Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, S. N.; Tarasova, T. V.

    2016-01-01

    The aspects of terminology, definitions and classification in the technology of additive production are considered. The principal possibility of fabrication of complex-shape parts from a refractory cobalt alloy by the method of selective laser melting and deposition of hard and wear-resistant coatings from Ti and SiC powders by coaxial laser surfacing is shown. The technological possibility of microlaser surfacing with lateral resolution about 100 μm in the production of parts from aluminum alloys is considered. The mechanisms of formation of structure in the studied alloys typical for selective laser melting, laser surfacing and microlaser surfacing are determined. The physical and mechanical properties of the alloys are investigated.

  5. Preparation, spectral, X-ray powder diffraction and computational studies and genotoxic properties of new azo-azomethine metal chelates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitmez, Şirin; Sayin, Koray; Avar, Bariş; Köse, Muhammet; Kayraldız, Ahmet; Kurtoğlu, Mükerrem

    2014-11-01

    A new tridentate azo-azomethine ligand, N‧-[{2-hydroxy-5-[(4-nitrophenyl)diazenyl]phenyl}methylidene]benzohydrazidemonohydrate, (sbH·H2O) (1), is prepared by condensation of benzohydrazide and 2-hydroxy-5-[(4-nitrophenyl)diazenyl]benzaldehyde (a) with treatment of a solution of diazonium salt of p-nitroaniline and 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde in EtOH. The five coordination compounds, [Co(sb)2]·4H2O (2), [Ni(sb)2]·H2O (3), [Cu(sb)2]·4H2O (4), [Zn(sb)2]·H2O (5) and [Cd(sb)2]·H2O (6) are prepared by reacting the Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) ions with the ligand. The structures of the compounds are elucidated from the elemental analyses data and spectroscopic studies. It is found the ligand acts as a tridentate bending through phenolic and carbonyl oxygens and nitrogen atom of the Cdbnd Nsbnd group similar to the most of salicylaldimines. Comparison of the infrared spectra of the ligand and its metal complexes confirm that azo-Schiff base behaves as a monobasic tridentate ligand towards the central metal ion with an ONO donor sequence. Upon complexation with the ligand, the Cd(II), and Zn(II) ions form monoclinic structures, while Co(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions form orthorhombic structures. Quantum chemical calculations are performed on tautomers and its metal chelates by using DFT/B3LYP method. Most stable tautomer is determined as tautomer (1a). The geometrical parameters of its metal chelates are obtained as theoretically. The NLO properties of tautomer (1a) and its metal complexes are investigated. Finally, the ligand and its metal complexes are assessed for their genotoxicity.

  6. Microwave assisted hydrolysis of aluminium metal and preparation of high surface area Al2O3 powder

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Sivadasan; I Packia Selvam; Sankara Narayanan Potty

    2010-12-01

    Phase pure boehmite particles were prepared by microwave assisted hydrolysis of aluminium sheets. These particles were calcined in air to produce Al2O3 particles with specific surface area of ∼210 m2/g. The alumina particles were characterized by studying X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. For comparison, the aluminium hydroxide particles were also prepared by normal hydrolysis of aluminium metal. Normal hydrolysis yielded a mixture of boehmite and bayerite particles whereas microwave assisted hydrolysis produced phase pure boehmite particles. The importance of using microwave radiation for the hydrolysis of aluminium metal is also manifested in a shorter reaction time.

  7. Improving the oxidation resistance of diboride-based ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemzadeh Dehdashti, Maryam

    Oxidation behavior has restricted the development of ZrB2-based ceramics for aerospace and hypersonic flight vehicles applications. The research presented in this dissertation focuses on the effect of transition metal (TM) additives on oxidation behavior of ZrB2 ceramics. In the first stage of the research, the effect of Nb additions on the morphology of the oxide particles and stability of the protective B2O3 glassy layer, which formed on the top surface during oxidation, was investigated. Addition of Nb increased the thickness of the glassy layer and, as a result, improved the oxidation resistance of ZrB2 after oxidation at 1500°C. Next, the oxidation behavior of nominally pure ZrB2 and (Zr,W)B 2 after oxidation at temperatures ranging from 800 to 1600°C was studied. Two oxidation stages before and after significant evaporation of B2O3 at about 1100°C were recognized for nominally pure ZrB2. Higher stability for the WO3-B2O 3 glassy layer compared to pure B2O3 resulted in a shift in the onset of the second oxidation regime toward higher temperatures for (Zr,W)B2 specimens and resulted in higher oxidation resistance for (Zr,W)B2 compared to nominally pure ZrB2. In the third stage of the research, the effects of TM-oxides such as WO3, Nb2O5, or ZrO2 on weight loss and structure of B2O3 glasses was studied. Thermogravimetric analysis performed on (TM-oxide)-B2O3 glasses indicated that TM-oxide additions reduced the evaporation of B2O3. Since no change in the structure of the glasses was detected, it was concluded that the increased stability of (TM-oxide)-B2O3 glasses compared to pure B2O3 was due to the lower activity of B2O3 in (TM-oxide)-B2O3 glasses. Finally, comparison of the effects of W, Mo, or Nb on oxidation behavior of ZrB2 at 1600°C showed that Mo and Nb were the most effective additives for improving the oxidation resistance of ZrB2.

  8. Effects of Metal Ions and EDTA on Free Radical Reaction Intermediates of Laccase-catalyzed Oxidation of Wood Powder from Szemao Pine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Guanwu; DUAN Xinfang; CAO Yongjian; CHEN Yongsheng; CAO Yuanlin

    2006-01-01

    Certain activator was expected to be developed to improve the free radical intermediates relative intensity,and thus to enhance the adhesion between wood fibers when fiberboard was made by laccase treated wood fibers.Reactive oxygen species(ROS)was detected in laccase-catalyzed oxidation of wood powder using ESR spin trapping technique.The effects of five metal ions(Cu2+,K+,Fe2+,Mg2,Fe3+)and EDTA on ROS relative strengths were investigated under the condition of pH 5.6 by electron spin resonance spectrometry.The result shows that Cu2+ slightly activates the free radical reaction,and Fe2+ ion has a significant inhibitive effect on the ROS relative strength in the suspension liquid.There is a marked inhibition of the ROS relative intensity when 0.5 mmol/L EDTA is used.The metal ions that enhance laccase activity may be utilized to increase physical properties of fiberboard made by laccase oxidized wood fibers.

  9. Adsorptive separation and photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye on titanate nanotube powders prepared by hydrothermal process using metal Ti particles as a precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Keshui; Xiao, Xin; Cao, Xiufang; Hao, Rong; Zuo, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Xiaojing; Nan, Junmin

    2011-08-30

    Titanate nanotube powders (TNTPs) with the twofold removal ability, i.e. adsorptive separation and photocatalytic degradation, are synthesized under hydrothermal conditions using metal Ti particles as a precursor in the concentrated alkaline solution, and their morphology, structure, adsorptive and photocatalytic properties are investigated. Under hydrothermal conditions, the titanate nanotubes (TNTs) with pore diameter of 3-4nm are produced on the surface of metal Ti particles, and stacked together to form three-dimensional (3D) network with porous structure. The TNTPs synthesized in the autoclave at 130°C for 24h exhibits a maximum adsorption capability of about 197mg g(-1) in the neutral methylene blue (MB) solution (40mg L(-1)) within 90min, the adsorption process can be described by pseudo second-order kinetics model. Especially, in comparison with the adsorptive and the photocatalytic processes are performed in turn, about 50min can be saved through synchronously utilizing the double removal ability of TNTPs when the removal ratio of MB approaches 95% in MB solution (40mg L(-1)) at a solid-liquid (S/L) ratio of 1:8 under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation. These 3D TNTPs with the twofold removal properties and easier separation ability for recycling use show promising prospect for the treatment of dye pollutants from wastewaters in future industrial application.

  10. Multielement determination of heavy metals in water samples by continuous powder introduction microwave-induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry after preconcentration on activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Krzysztof; Yao, Jun; Kasiura, Krzysztof; Jackowska, Adrianna; Sieradzka, Anna

    2005-03-01

    A novel continuous powder introduction microwave-induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry method (CPI-MIP-AES) has been developed for trace determination of metals in ground and tap water samples after preconcentration on activated carbon. The experimental setup consisted of integrated rectangular cavity TE 101 and vertically positioned plasma torch. The technical arrangement of the sample introduction system has been designed based on the fluidized bed concept. The satisfactory signal stability required for sequential analysis was attained owing to the vertical plasma configuration, as well as the plasma gas flow rate compatibility with sample introduction flow rate. The elements of interest (Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn) were preconcentrated in a batch procedure at pH 8-8.5 after addition of activated carbon and then, after filtering and drying of the activated carbon suspension, introduced to the MIP by the CPI system. An enrichment factor of about 1000-fold for a sample volume of 1 l was obtained. The detection limit values for the proposed method were 17-250 ng l -1. The proposed method was validated by analyzing the certified reference materials: SRW "Warta" Synthetic River Water and BCR CRM 399 major elements in freshwater. The method was successfully applied to the determination of the heavy metals in tap water samples.

  11. Multielement determination of heavy metals in water samples by continuous powder introduction microwave-induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry after preconcentration on activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowski, Krzysztof [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Analytical Chemistry, 00-664 Warsaw, ul. Noakowskiego 3 (Poland)]. E-mail: kj@ch.pw.edu.pl; Yao Jun [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jishou University, 120 Renmin South Road, Jishou 416000 (China); Kasiura, Krzysztof [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Analytical Chemistry, 00-664 Warsaw, ul. Noakowskiego 3 (Poland); Jackowska, Adrianna [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Analytical Chemistry, 00-664 Warsaw, ul. Noakowskiego 3 (Poland); Sieradzka, Anna [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Analytical Chemistry, 00-664 Warsaw, ul. Noakowskiego 3 (Poland)

    2005-03-31

    A novel continuous powder introduction microwave-induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry method (CPI-MIP-AES) has been developed for trace determination of metals in ground and tap water samples after preconcentration on activated carbon. The experimental setup consisted of integrated rectangular cavity TE{sub 101} and vertically positioned plasma torch. The technical arrangement of the sample introduction system has been designed based on the fluidized bed concept. The satisfactory signal stability required for sequential analysis was attained owing to the vertical plasma configuration, as well as the plasma gas flow rate compatibility with sample introduction flow rate. The elements of interest (Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn) were preconcentrated in a batch procedure at pH 8-8.5 after addition of activated carbon and then, after filtering and drying of the activated carbon suspension, introduced to the MIP by the CPI system. An enrichment factor of about 1000-fold for a sample volume of 1 l was obtained. The detection limit values for the proposed method were 17-250 ng l{sup -1}. The proposed method was validated by analyzing the certified reference materials: SRW 'Warta' Synthetic River Water and BCR CRM 399 major elements in freshwater. The method was successfully applied to the determination of the heavy metals in tap water samples.

  12. Application of superconducting magnesium diboride (MGB2) in superconducting radio frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Teng

    The superconductivity in magnesium diboride (MgB2) was discovered in 2001. As a BCS superconductor, MgB2 has a record-high Tc of 39 K, high Jc of > 107 A/cm2 and no weak link behavior across the grain boundary. All these superior properties endorsed that MgB2 would have great potential in both power applications and electronic devices. In the past 15 years, MgB2 based power cables, microwave devices, and commercial MRI machines emerged and the next frontier are superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. SRF cavities are one of the leading accelerator technologies. In SRF cavities, applied microwave power generates electrical fields that accelerate particle beams. Compared with other accelerator techniques, SRF cavity accelerators feature low loss, high acceleration gradients and the ability to accelerate continuous particle beams. However, current SRF cavities are made from high-purity bulk niobium and work at 2 K in superfluid helium. The construction and operational cost of SRF cavity accelerators are very expensive. The demand for SRF cavity accelerators has been growing rapidly in the past decade. Therefore, a lot of effort has been devoted to the enhancement of the performance and the reduction of cost of SRF cavities. In 2010, an acceleration gradient of over 50 MV/m has been reported for a Nb-based SRF cavity. The magnetic field at the inner surface of such a cavity is ~ 1700 Oe, which is close to the thermodynamic critical field of Nb. Therefore, new materials and technologies are required to raise the acceleration gradient of future SRF cavity accelerators. Among all the proposed approaches, using MgB2 thin films to coat the inner surface of SRF cavities is one of the promising tactics with the potential to raise both the acceleration gradient and the operation temperature of SRF cavity accelerators. In this work, I present my study on MgB2 thin films for their application in SRF cavities. C-epitaxial MgB2 thin films grown on SiC(0001) substrates

  13. A new strategy for pressed powder eye shadow analysis: allergenic metal ion content and particle size distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contado, Catia; Pagnoni, Antonella

    2012-08-15

    Nine cheap eye shadow products were analyzed through graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) to quantify their Cr, Co and Ni contents, all known to be skin sensitizers. In many cases, the concentrations were higher than 1 or 5 ppm (μg/g), i.e. the limits recommended in the scientific literature to minimize the risk of reaction in particularly sensitive subjects. In most cases, the concentration of Cr was higher than that of Ni and Co, up to a limit case of 150 mg/g. In this particular sample, the potential amount of Cr that could be released in ionic form was determined in sweat simulating solutions by GF-AAS and confirmed through a specific spectrofluorimetric method; the results indicated the presence of approximately 80-90 ppb (ng/g) of Cr(3+). The water dispersible particles were isolated from the eye shadow powders through a simple solvent extraction procedure. The aqueous suspensions were then sorted through sedimentation field flow fractionation (SdFFF) and the particles sizes were calculated from experimental fractograms using theory. For the most part, the computed sizes were in the micron range, as confirmed by some SEM photographs taken on fractions collected during the separations. The SdFFF coupled off-line with the GFAAS enabled elemental characterization of pigment particles as a function of size. This finding reduces the concern that the ingredients of such makeup formulations may contain nanoparticles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. ELDOR study of methyl radical production at 77 K in irradiated acetate powders as a function of metal cation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mottley, C.; Kispert, L.D.; Wang, P.S.

    1976-08-12

    Paramagnetic relaxation characteristics of the methyl radical at 77/sup 0/K in irradiated powders of magnesium acetate tetrahydrate, potassium acetate, sodium acetate trihydrate, calcium acetate monohydrate, zinc acetate dihydrate, and lithium acetate dihydrate were measured by power saturation techniques and ELDOR spectroscopy. For magnesium acetate tetrahydrate the characteristic relaxation time (T/sub 1e/T/sub 2e/)/sup /sup 1///sub 2// for the methyl radical is relatively constant with radiation dose at low doses and decreases at higher doses. For sodium acetate trihydrate the relaxation time decreases even at low dose. ELDOR measurements of the ratio of the intermolecular relaxation time (T/sub po/) between methyl radicals to the spin--lattice relaxation time (T/sub 1e/) shows an increase from 0.05 for magnesium acetate trihydrate to greater than 1 for sodium acetate trihydrate. In addition, the field-swept ELDOR reduction factors for the m/sub I/ = -/sup 3///sub 2/ ESR line of the methyl radical utilizing 100-kHz field modulation decreases from 73 percent in irradiated magnesium acetate tetrahydrate to 2 percent in irradiated calcium acetate monohydrate. These features suggest that the radiation produced methyl radicals are trapped in clusters in acetates at low dose forming a nonuniform spatial distribution that is dependent on the cation and decreases in the approximate order Mg/sup 2 +/ greater than K/sup +/ greater than Na/sup +/ greater than Ca/sup 2 +/. No estimate of the amount of clustering in the irradiated Zn/sup 2 +/ and Li/sup +/ salts could be made due to the long T/sub 1e/'s exhibited by the methyl radical.

  15. A new strategy for pressed powder eye shadow analysis: Allergenic metal ion content and particle size distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contado, Catia, E-mail: Catia.Contado@unife.it; Pagnoni, Antonella

    2012-08-15

    Nine cheap eye shadow products were analyzed through graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) to quantify their Cr, Co and Ni contents, all known to be skin sensitizers. In many cases, the concentrations were higher than 1 or 5 ppm ({mu}g/g), i.e. the limits recommended in the scientific literature to minimize the risk of reaction in particularly sensitive subjects. In most cases, the concentration of Cr was higher than that of Ni and Co, up to a limit case of 150 mg/g. In this particular sample, the potential amount of Cr that could be released in ionic form was determined in sweat simulating solutions by GF-AAS and confirmed through a specific spectrofluorimetric method; the results indicated the presence of approximately 80-90 ppb (ng/g) of Cr{sup 3+}. The water dispersible particles were isolated from the eye shadow powders through a simple solvent extraction procedure. The aqueous suspensions were then sorted through sedimentation field flow fractionation (SdFFF) and the particles sizes were calculated from experimental fractograms using theory. For the most part, the computed sizes were in the micron range, as confirmed by some SEM photographs taken on fractions collected during the separations. The SdFFF coupled off-line with the GFAAS enabled elemental characterization of pigment particles as a function of size. This finding reduces the concern that the ingredients of such makeup formulations may contain nanoparticles. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cr, Co and Ni content in eye shadow products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concentration levels higher than 1 or 5 ppm ({mu}g/g), Cr up to 150 mg/g Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cr released as Cr{sup 3+} determination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Water dispersible particles sized by sedimentation field flow fractionation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eye shadow Cr concentration as a function of particle sizes.

  16. The delayed lung responses to single and repeated intratracheal administration of pure cobalt and hard metal powder in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasfargues, G.; Lardot, C.; Lauwerys, R.; Lison, D. [Catholic Univ. of Louvain (Belgium)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that inhalation of cobalt metal dust (Co) mixed with tungsten carbide particles (WC), but not of cobalt dust alone, may cause interstitial pulmonary lesions (hard metal disease). In previous studies in the rat, we have demonstrated the greater acute pulmonary toxicity of a WC-Co mixture was greater compared to Co or WC alone. The present study compares the delayed lung response after intratracheal administration of Co or WC-Co particles. The responses were also compared with those obtained after treatment with arsenic trioxide and crystalline silica used as reference materials producing an acute toxic insult and progressive fibrogenic response, respectively. Cellular and biochemical parameters were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid following single and repeated intratracheal instillations. The results indicate the delayed lung response observed after WC-Co is different from that after cobalt metal alone. A single intratracheal dose of WC-Co (1, 5, or 10 mg/100 g body wt) induced an acute alveolitis which persisted for at least 1 month. Four months after a single instillation of WC-Co, no clear histological lung fibrosis could however be evidenced, indicating a reversibility of the lesions. The effects of cobalt (0.06, 0.3, or 0.6 mg/100 g body wt) were very modest, if any. Following repeated intratracheal instillations, increased lung hydroxyproline content and histopathological evidence of interstitial fibrosis were observed after WC-Co (4x1 mg/100 g body wt), but not after administration of each component separately, i.e., Co (4x0.06 mg/100 g body wt) or WC (4x1 mg/100 g body wt). The mechanism of the fibrotic reaction induced by WC-Co seems different from the progressive inflammatory reaction induced by crystalline silica. We suggest that it might result from a scarring reaction elicited by repeated acute insults as observed after repeated administration of arsenic trioxide. 34 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Synthesis of nanoparticles from malleable and ductile metals using powder-free, reactant-assisted mechanical attrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Brandon W; Perez, Jesus Paulo L; Yu, Jiang; Boatz, Jerry A; Anderson, Scott L

    2014-11-26

    A reactant-assisted mechanochemical method was used to produce copious nanoparticles from malleable/ductile metals, demonstrated here for aluminum, iron, and copper. The milling media is intentionally degraded via a reactant-accelerated wear process, where the reactant aids particle production by binding to the metal surfaces, enhancing particle production, and reducing the tendency toward mechanochemical (cold) welding. The mechanism is explored by comparing the effects of different types of solvents and solvent mixtures on the amount and type of particles produced. Particles were functionalized with oleic acid to aid in particle size separation, enhance dispersion in hydrocarbon solvents, and protect the particles from oxidation. For aluminum and iron, the result is air-stable particles, but for copper, the suspended particles are found to dissolve when exposed to air. Characterization was performed using electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Density functional theory was used to examine the nature of carboxylic acid binding to the aluminum surface, confirming the dominance of bridging bidentate binding.

  18. Laser and electron-beam powder-bed additive manufacturing of metallic implants: A review on processes, materials and designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, Swee Leong; An, Jia; Yeong, Wai Yee; Wiria, Florencia Edith

    2016-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM), also commonly known as 3D printing, allows the direct fabrication of functional parts with complex shapes from digital models. In this review, the current progress of two AM processes suitable for metallic orthopaedic implant applications, namely selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM) are presented. Several critical design factors such as the need for data acquisition for patient-specific design, design dependent porosity for osteo-inductive implants, surface topology of the implants and design for reduction of stress-shielding in implants are discussed. Additive manufactured biomaterials such as 316L stainless steel, titanium-6aluminium-4vanadium (Ti6Al4V) and cobalt-chromium (CoCr) are highlighted. Limitations and future potential of such technologies are also explored. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Research on wet purification method of metal tantalum powders by water and acid washing%金属钽粉湿法提纯的水洗和酸洗方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包玺芳; 马跃忠; 王治道; 李仲香

    2012-01-01

    A wet purification method of refining metal tantalum powder was researched.After sodium reduction,the primary tantalum powder particles was washed by water and by mixed acid,and other impurities content,such as oxygen,carbon,Si,Fe,Ni and Cr in tantalum powder,were reduced significantly,the target arrived.%研究了一种金属钽粉的湿法提纯方法,即用钠还原后的原生钽粉粒子经水洗和混合酸酸洗,使钽粉中的O,C,Si及Fe,Ni,Cr等杂质质量分数明显降低,达到金属钽粉精炼提纯的目的.

  20. Metallic glassy Zr70Ni20Pd10 powders for improving the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation behavior of MgH2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Eskandarany, M Sherif

    2016-05-25

    Because of its low density, storage of hydrogen in the gaseous and liquids states possess technical and economic challenges. One practical solution for utilizing hydrogen in vehicles with proton-exchange fuel cells membranes is storing hydrogen in metal hydrides. Magnesium hydride (MgH2) remains the best hydrogen storage material due to its high hydrogen capacity and low cost of production. Due to its high activation energy and poor hydrogen sorption/desorption kinetics at moderate temperatures, the pure form of MgH2 is usually mechanically treated by high-energy ball mills and catalyzed with different types of catalysts. These steps are necessary for destabilizing MgH2 to enhance its kinetics behaviors. In the present work, we used a small mole fractions (5 wt.%) of metallic glassy of Zr70Ni20Pd10 powders as a new enhancement agent to improve its hydrogenation/dehydrogenation behaviors of MgH2. This short-range ordered material led to lower the decomposition temperature of MgH2 and its activation energy by about 121 °C and 51 kJ/mol, respectively. Complete hydrogenation/dehydrogenation processes were successfully achieved to charge/discharge about 6 wt.%H2 at 100 °C/200 °C within 1.18 min/3.8 min, respectively. In addition, this new nanocomposite system shows high performance of achieving continuous 100 hydrogen charging/discharging cycles without degradation.

  1. Metallic glassy Zr70Ni20Pd10 powders for improving the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation behavior of MgH2

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Eskandarany, M. Sherif

    2016-05-01

    Because of its low density, storage of hydrogen in the gaseous and liquids states possess technical and economic challenges. One practical solution for utilizing hydrogen in vehicles with proton-exchange fuel cells membranes is storing hydrogen in metal hydrides. Magnesium hydride (MgH2) remains the best hydrogen storage material due to its high hydrogen capacity and low cost of production. Due to its high activation energy and poor hydrogen sorption/desorption kinetics at moderate temperatures, the pure form of MgH2 is usually mechanically treated by high-energy ball mills and catalyzed with different types of catalysts. These steps are necessary for destabilizing MgH2 to enhance its kinetics behaviors. In the present work, we used a small mole fractions (5 wt.%) of metallic glassy of Zr70Ni20Pd10 powders as a new enhancement agent to improve its hydrogenation/dehydrogenation behaviors of MgH2. This short-range ordered material led to lower the decomposition temperature of MgH2 and its activation energy by about 121 °C and 51 kJ/mol, respectively. Complete hydrogenation/dehydrogenation processes were successfully achieved to charge/discharge about 6 wt.%H2 at 100 °C/200 °C within 1.18 min/3.8 min, respectively. In addition, this new nanocomposite system shows high performance of achieving continuous 100 hydrogen charging/discharging cycles without degradation.

  2. Novel characterization of the adsorption sites in large pore metal-organic frameworks: combination of X-ray powder diffraction and thermal desorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani-Dorcheh, Ali; Dinnebier, Robert E; Kuc, Agnieszka; Magdysyuk, Oxana; Adams, Frank; Denysenko, Dmytro; Heine, Thomas; Volkmer, Dirk; Donner, Wolfgang; Hirscher, Michael

    2012-10-05

    The preferred adsorption sites of xenon in the recently synthesized metal-organic framework MFU-4l(arge) possessing a bimodal pore structure (with pore sizes of 12 Å and 18.6 Å) were studied via the combination of low temperature thermal desorption spectroscopy and in situ X-ray powder diffraction. The diffraction patterns were collected at 110 K and 150 K according to the temperature of the desorption maxima. The maximum entropy method was used to reconstruct the electron density distribution of the structure and to localize the adsorbed xenon using refined data of the Xe-filled and empty sample. First principles calculations revealed that Xe atoms exclusively occupy the Wyckoff 32f position at approximately 2/3 2/3 2/3 along the body diagonal of the cubic crystal structure. At 110 K, Xe atoms occupy all 32 f positions (8 atoms per pore) while at 150 K the occupancy descends to 25% (2 atoms per pore). No Xe occupation of the small pores is observed by neither experimental measurements nor theoretical studies.

  3. High-performance resin-bonded magnets produced from zinc metal-coated Sm2(Fe0.9Co0.1)17Nx fine powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, K.; Machida, K.; Yamamoto, K.; Nishimura, M.; Adachi, G.

    1999-09-01

    Fine powders of Sm2(Fe0.9Co0.1)17Nx (x=˜3) with particle sizes (d) around 1 μm as coated with zinc metal produced via the photodecomposition of diethylzinc [Zn(C2H5)2], which still provided high remanence (Br) and coercivity (Hcj) values of ˜1.43 T and ˜0.85 MAm-1, were molded to compression-type resin bonded Zn/Sm2(Fe0.9Co0.1)17Nx magnets with density values of ˜6.33 g cm-3. By optimizing the preparation conditions such as grinding, surface coating, and molding for them, the highest maximum energy product of (BH)max=186 kJm-3 for Hcj=0.73 MAm-1 was recorded among all kinds of the Sm-Fe-N based magnets reported to date. Furthermore, the excellent aging behavior of the bonded Zn/Sm2(Fe0.9Co0.1)17Nx magnets was observed after standing in air at ˜393 K and the thermal coefficient for permanent magnet was evaluated to be α(Br)=-0.04% K-1.

  4. Influence of gas environment on synthesis of silicon carbide and some carbides and carbonitrides of d-group transition metals through reaction between metal powders and amorphous carbon powders in a solar furnace at P.S.A. (plataforma solar de Almeria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, D.; Rodriguez, J. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria, PSA, Centro Europeo de Ensayos de Energia Solar, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Tabernas (Spain); Guerra Rosa, L.; Cruz Fernandes, J. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, IST, Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais, Lisboa (Portugal); Shohoji, N. [Instituto Nacional de Engenharia e Tecnologia Industrial, INETI, Instituto de Materiais e Tecnologias de Producao, Dept. de Tecnologias de Producao, Lisboa (Portugal)

    1999-03-01

    Refractory carbides and carbonitrides including silicon carbide SiC, tungsten carbide WC, titanium carbide TiC{sub x} (0.5metal powders and amorphous carbon powders through heating in a solar furnace under controlled atmosphere (Ar or N{sub 2}). Under irradiation of the solar energy flux 1,350 kW/m{sup 2} (ca. 1650 deg C in terms of measured temperature) for 30 min in Ar atmosphere, Si, W and Ti were converted to SiC, WC and TiC{sub x}, respectively. By the similar reaction undertaken in N{sub 2} atmosphere, Si and W were converted to SiC and WC, respectively, but carbonitride TiC{sub x}N{sub y} formed from Ti. No special influence of atmosphere was detected on the WC formation, but conversion to SiC from Si was somewhat retarded in N{sub 2} atmosphere. In either Ar or N{sub 2} atmosphere, progress of graphitization of amorphous carbon was not detectable by X-ray diffraction analysis in the reaction with Si and Ti but graphitization of amorphous carbon appeared to be significantly accelerated in the reaction with W. (authors)

  5. Phosphorus Solubilization of Bacteria and Associated Heavy Metal Releasing from Phosphate Rock Powder%细菌溶磷作用与磷矿粉伴生性重金属元素的释放

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易艳梅; 黄为一; 张春霞

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between the dissolving phosphorus(P) and the releasing heavy metals from phosphate rock powder by phosphate solubilizing bacteria(PSB) was studied in this paper.The results showed that the associated heavy metals in phosphate rock powder could leach out with the P-solubilizing from phosphate rock powder by PSB.Among the 6 associated heavy metals(Zn,Pb,Cu,Ni,Cd and Co),Zn was the easiest to release from phosphate rock powder with the P solubilization by PSB,and the maximum amount of dissolved Zn reached 97.0% of the total Zn associated with P in the phosphate rock powder.On the contrary,Pb and Cd showed high stability,and the concentrations of Pb and Cd released from phosphate rock powder were both lower than 10%.The relationship between the phosphate solubilizing capacity and the amount of associated heavy metal released from phosphate rock powder varied with the characteristics of these phosphate rock powder and the kind of heavy metal.The phosphate solubilizing capacity of PSB in Hunan-shimen phosphate rock powder and Sichuang-mabian phosphate rock powder had an insignificantly positive correlation with the amount of Zn,Ni,Co and Cu releasing,respectively(r= 0.50-0.95,P 0.05).And the phosphate solubilizing capacity of PSB in Guizhou phosphate rock powder had a significantly positive correlation with the amount of Zn,Ni,and Co releasing,respectively(P 0.05).%以4株溶磷细菌和5种磷矿粉为材料,对细菌溶磷作用与磷矿粉伴生性重金属元素释放间的关系进行了研究。结果表明,溶磷细菌在促进磷矿粉中磷溶出的同时,还促进了磷矿粉中伴生性重金属的释放,在测定的6种伴生性金属元素(Zn、Pb、Cu、Co、Ni、Cd)中,Zn最容易随细菌溶磷作用而释放,最多可占该磷矿粉中总Zn量的97.0%,Pb和Cd随细菌溶磷释放率皆低于10%;细菌溶磷作用强度与磷矿粉中各伴生性重金属释放量间的关系因磷矿粉产地和伴生性重金属

  6. Magnesium diboride coated bulk niobium: a new approach to higher acceleration gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Teng; Wolak, M. A.; Xi, X. X.; Tajima, T.; Civale, L.

    2016-01-01

    Bulk niobium Superconducting Radio-Frequency cavities are a leading accelerator technology. Their performance is limited by the cavity loss and maximum acceleration gradient, which are negatively affected by vortex penetration into the superconductor when the peak magnetic field at the cavity wall surface exceeds the vortex penetration field (Hvp). It has been proposed that coating the inner wall of an SRF cavity with superconducting thin films increases Hvp. In this work, we utilized Nb ellipsoid to simulate an inverse SRF cavity and investigate the effect of coating it with magnesium diboride layer on the vortex penetration field. A significant enhancement of Hvp was observed. At 2.8 K, Hvp increased from 2100 Oe for an uncoated Nb ellipsoid to 2700 Oe for a Nb ellipsoid coated with ~200 nm thick MgB2 thin film. This finding creates a new route towards achieving higher acceleration gradient in SRF cavity accelerator beyond the theoretical limit of bulk Nb. PMID:27775087

  7. Hybrid Physical Chemical Vapor Deposition of Superconducting Magnesium Diboride Coatings for Large Scale Radio Frequency Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Namhoon; Withanage, Wenura; Tan, Teng; Wolak, Matthaeus; Xi, Xiaoxing

    2016-03-01

    Magnesium diboride (MgB2) is considered to be a great candidate for next generation superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities due to its higher critical temperature Tc (40 K) and increased thermodynamic critical field Hc compared to other conventional superconductors. These properties significantly reduce the BCS surface resistance (RsBCS)and residual resistance (Rres) according to theoretical studies and suggest the possibility of an enhanced accelerating field (Eacc) . We have investigated the possibility of coating the inner surface of a 3 GHz SRF cavity with MgB2 by using a hybrid physical-vapor deposition (HPCVD) system which was modified for this purpose. To simulate a real 3 GHz SRF cavity, a stainless steel mock cavity has been employed for the study. The film quality was characterized on small substrates that were placed at selected locations within the cavity. MgB2 films on stainless steel foils, niobium pieces and SiC substrates showed transition temperatures of above 36 K. Dielectric resonance measurements resulted in promising Q values as obtained for the MgB2 films grown on the various substrates. By employing the HPCVD technique, a uniform film was achieved across the cavity interior, demonstrating the feasibility of HPCVD for MgB2 coatings for SRF cavities.

  8. Ab initio investigation of the electronic and geometric structure of magnesium diboride, MgB2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeli, Demeter; Mavridis, Aristides

    2005-12-01

    Employing multireference variational (MRCI) and coupled cluster (CC) methods combined with quadruple-zeta quality correlation-consistent basis set, we have studied 36 states of the magnesium diboride (MgB(2)) molecule as well as 17 states of the experimentally unknown diatomic MgB. For all states of MgB(2), we report geometries, atomization energies, and dipole moments, while for the first 5 states, potential energy profiles have been also constructed. The ground state is formally of (1)A(1) V-shaped symmetry with an atomization energy of 108.1(109) kcal/mol at the MRCI(MRCI + Davidson correction) level. The first excited state ((3)B(1)) is less than 1 kcal/mol above the X(1)A(1) state, with the next state of linear Mg-B-B geometry (b(3)Sigma(-)) located 10 kcal/mol higher. In all states, bent or linear, the bonding is complicated and unconventional because of the extraordinary bonding agility of the boron atom(s).

  9. Arc Jet Testing of Hafnium Diboride Based Ultra High Temperature Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerby, Don; Beckman, Sarah; Irby, Edward; Squire, Tom; Olejniczak, Joe; Johnson, Sylvia M.; Gusman, Michael; Gasch, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    Hafnium Diboride (HFB,) based materials have shown promise for use in a number of high temperature aerospace applications, including rocket nozzles and as leading edges on hypersonic reentry vehicles. The stability of the materials in relevant environments is key to determining their suitability for a particular application. In this program we have been developing HfB2/SiC materials for use as sharp leading edges. The program as a whole included processing and characterization of the HfBJSiC materials. The specific work discussed here will focus on studies of the materials oxidation behavior in simulated reentry environments through arc jet testing. Four flat face models were tested to examine the influence of heat flux and stagnation pressure on the materials oxidation behavior. The results from arc jet testing of two HfB2/SiC cone models will also be discussed. Each cone model was run multiple times with gradually increasing heat fluxes. Total run times on a single cone model exceeded 80 minutes. For both the flat face and cone models surface temperatures well in excess of 2200 C were measured. Post test microstructural examination of the models and correlations with measured temperatures will be discussed.

  10. The road to magnesium diboride thin films, Josephson junctions and SQUIDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, Alexander; Mijatovic, Dragana; Hilgenkamp, Hans; Rijnders, Guus; Oomen, Ingrid; Veldhuis, Dick; Roesthuis, Frank; Rogalla, Horst; Blank, Dave H A [MESA Research Institute and Low Temperature Division, Applied Physics, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede(Netherlands)

    2003-02-01

    The remarkably high critical temperature at which magnesium diboride (MgB{sub 2}) undergoes transition to the superconducting state, T{sub c} {approx} 40 K, has aroused great interest and has encouraged many groups to explore the properties and application potential of this novel superconductor. For many electronic applications and further basic studies, the availability of superconducting thin films is of great importance. Several groups have succeeded in fabricating superconducting MgB{sub 2} films. An overview of the deposition techniques for MgB{sub 2} thin film growth will be given, with a special focus on the in situ two-step process. Although, meanwhile, many problems to obtain suitable films have been solved, such as oxygen impurities and magnesium volatility, the question of how single-phase epitaxial films can be grown still remains. The possibility of growing single-crystalline epitaxial films will be discussed from the deposition conditions' point of view as well as substrate choice. Necessary conditions are discussed and possible routes are reviewed. The applicability of MgB{sub 2} in superconducting electronic devices depends on the possibility of making well-controlled, i.e., reproducible and stable, Josephson junctions. The first attempts to make MgB{sub 2}-MgO-MgB{sub 2} ramp-type junctions and SQUIDs from MgB{sub 2} nanobridges are discussed.

  11. Obtainment, machining and wear of metal matrix composites processed by powder metallurgy; Obtencao, usinagem e desgaste de materiais compositos de matriz metalica processados via metalurgia do po

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Edilson Rosa Barbosa de. E-mail: erbjesus@usp.br

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this investigation was the obtainment of metal matrix composites (MMC) by the route of powder metallurgy, and the valuation of these materials with relation to their machining and wear characteristics. Firstly, were obtained pure commercial aluminium matrix composites materials, with 5, 10 and 15% volumetric fraction of silicon carbide particles. Was also obtained a material without reinforcement particles in order to verify by comparison, the influence of addition of reinforcement particles. The obtained materials were characterized physics (hydrostatic density), mechanics (hardness and tensile tests) and microstructurally (optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy). The results showed a homogeneous distribution of reinforcement particles in the composite, and improvement in the mechanical properties, mainly tensile strength (UTS) in comparison to the unreinforced material. After, tests were made to verify the materials behavior during machining and to check the performance of several tool materials (cemented carbide, ceramics and polycrystalline diamond). In these tests, values of the cutting force were measured by instrumented tool-holders. Phenomena such as tool wear, built-up edge formation and mechanism of chip formation were also observed and evaluated. The results from the cemented carbide tool tests, were utilised for the machinability index determination of each material. These results were applied to the Taylor equation and the equation constants for each material and test conditions were determined. The results showed that the inclusion of silicon carbide particles made extremely difficult the machining of the composites, and only with diamond tool, satisfactory results were obtained. At last, wear tests were performed to verify the influence of the reinforcement particles in the characteristics of wear resistance of the materials. The results obtained were utilized in the wear coefficient determination for each material. The

  12. Low pressure powder injection moulding of stainless steel powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zampieron, J.V.; Soares, J.P.; Mathias, F.; Rossi, J.L. [Powder Processing Center CCP, Inst. de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Filho, F.A. [IPEN, Inst. de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Cidade Univ., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    Low-pressure powder injection moulding was used to obtain AISI 316L stainless steel parts. A rheological study was undertaken using gas-atomised powders and binders. The binders used were based on carnauba wax, paraffin, low density polyethylene and microcrystalline wax. The metal powders were characterised in terms of morphology, particle size distribution and specific surface area. These results were correlated to the rheological behaviour. The mixture was injected in the shape of square bar specimens to evaluate the performance of the injection process in the green state, and after sintering. The parameters such as injection pressure, viscosity and temperature were analysed for process optimisation. The binders were thermally removed in low vacuum with the assistance of alumina powders. Debinding and sintering were performed in a single step. This procedure shortened considerably the debinding and sintering time. (orig.)

  13. A 2-D Array of Superconducting Magnesium Diboride (MgB2) Far-IR Thermal Detectors for Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, Brook

    2009-01-01

    A 2-D array of superconducting Magnesium Diboride(MgB2) far IR thermal detectors has been fabricated. Such an array is intended to be at the focal plane of future generation thermal imaging far-IR instruments that will investigate the outer planets and their icy moons. Fabrication and processing of the pixels of the array as well as noise characterization of architectured MgB2 thin films will be presented. Challenges and solutions for improving the performance of the array will be discussed.

  14. 高氟氯锌氧粉综合回收价金属的研究%High Fluorine And Ahlorine In Zinc Powder For Comprehensive Recovery Of Valuable Metal Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏齐全; 卢荣华

    2012-01-01

    Improvement of high fluoride chloride zinc oxide powder recovery of valuable metal process, obtained by the experiment of low acid leaching liquid solid ratio, reaction time, temperature, acidity and the better conditions, effective recovery of high fluorine and chlorine in zinc powder zinc, indium and other substances, waste comprehensive utilization.%改进高氟氯锌氧粉回收有价金属工艺流程,通过实验得到低酸浸出液固比、反应时间、酸度及温度等较佳工艺条件,有效的回收高氟氯锌氧粉中锌、铟等物质,达到废弃物综合利用目的。

  15. Additive Technologies Based on Composite Powder Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorynin, I. V.; Oryshchenko, A. S.; Malyshevskii, V. A.; Farmakovskii, B. V.; Kuznetsov, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    The possibilities of application of promising adaptive technologies of bulk laser deposition and selective laser sintering in machine building with the aim of creation of complex-configuration parts and reconditioning of worn components of various-purpose articles from metallic powder materials are considered. The possibilities of the production chain from making of metallic powders to creation of ready coatings and articles on the base of a single unit are described.

  16. Powder Characterization and Optimization for Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Cordova, Laura; Campos, Mónica; Tinga, Tiedo

    2017-01-01

    Achieving the optimal quality for Additive Manufactured (AM) parts does not only depend on setting the right process parameters. Material feedstock also plays an important role when aiming for high performance products. The metal AM processes that are most applicable to industry, Powder Bed Fusion and Directed Energy Deposition, use metal powder as raw material. Therefore, controlling the quality and correctly characterizing the particles used in the process is a key step to successfully appl...

  17. Recent Developments and Trends in Powder Injection Molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hermina Wang

    2000-01-01

    Injection molding is a productive and widely used technology for shaping plastics. The use of this shaping technique to metal and ceramics powders is termed powder injection molding (PIM). This process combines a certain quantity of a polymer with a metallic or ceramic powder to form a feedstock that can be molded. After shaping, the polymeric binder is extracted and the powder is sintered. When proper powder size or/and its distribution are used, sintered densities of 95% or more, often to near-theoretical densities, are reached and the mechanical properties are, therefore, generally superior to those of traditional PM parts.

  18. 环氧树脂掺金属粉末嵌入式FBG封装技术研究%Study on the Embedment Encapsulation Technique of Epoxy Resin Mixed with Metal Powder of Fiber Bragg Grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兵; 张志利; 涂洪亮

    2009-01-01

    The embedment encapsulation technique of epoxy resin mixed with metal powder is advanced in consideration of the problem of the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor reliably joining with the detected metal object. The encapsulation technics is illuminated. Pure curving girder is used to carry out a strain experiment in bare FBG and encapsulated FBG respectively. It is indicated by experiment,that the strain sensitivity coefficients of FBG encapsulated by epoxy resin mixed with metal powder is 1. 3 times of bare FBG, reaching to 1. 53pm//με,and the reproducibility of experiments is very well. The mechanical intension of the detected metal object is enhanced after FBG embedded by this method.%针对光纤光栅(FBG)与被测金属构件可靠连接问题,提出环氧树脂掺金属粉末嵌入式封装技术,阐明了该封装工艺,采用纯弯曲梁对裸光纤光栅和封装后的光纤光栅分别进行应变实验,结果表明,经环氧树脂掺金属粉末封装后的光纤光栅传感器应变灵敏度是裸光纤光栅的1.3倍,达到1.53pm/με,具有很好的重复性,该方法提高了嵌入光纤光栅后被测金属构件的机械强度.

  19. Study on the Method of Gas Atomization for Production of 3 D Printing Metal Powders%气雾化法制备3D打印金属粉末的方法研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳红; 董兵斌

    2016-01-01

    3D打印技术是一种新型的成型技术,其优点在于无需机械加工或任何模具,就可快速地将物体的数字化模型由概念变为实物,从而缩短产品的研制周期,提高生产效率。金属粉末作为金属3D打印最重要的原材料,其制备方法备受人们的关注。本文主要概述了雾化技术的基础原理,综述了气雾化用各类喷嘴结构、气体流场结构及工艺参数对粉末特性的影响,并对3D打印金属粉末制备技术的方法研究和最新进展进行了分析。%3D Printing technology is a new forming technology, it has some advantages:numerical model of object is change quickly from the concept into real without any machining or mold. It shortens the product development cycle and improves pro-duction efficiency. The metal powders is the most important raw material of 3D printing, its preparation method has attracted much attention. In this paper,a basic principle of the atomization technology is provided, the nozzle structures of gas atomiza-tion, effect of gas flow field structure and process parameters on the powder characteristics are all introduced,technology re-search and the latest advances in preparation of 3D printing metal powder are analyzed.

  20. Study on Selective Laser Melting Process of Fe-Ni Metal Powder%Fe-Ni系金属粉末选区激光熔化成型工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌; 白培康; 李玉新; 李鹏

    2013-01-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) technique can be used to form a metallurgical compact entity by laser beam melting metal powder. The compactness is the pursuit of the goal of selective laser melting, also is the basis of fabricating parts. The samples of Fe-Ni metal material were prepared by SLM technique, choosing iron nickel alloy powder, under different technological parameters, laser power, scanning speed, spread powder thickness, single channel scan, multilayer single channel scan and so on. By scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and compactness testing, the microstructure and density of the samples prepared under different process parameters were contrasted. On the basis of experiment, the optimized parameters are determined and the compact block is eventually fabricated. The density ratio reaches 80%, which is in high level.%选区激光熔化(SLM)技术可用于金属粉末快速制作冶金实体,成型件致密性是SLM工艺研究的重点,也是制备金属制件的基本要求.选用铁镍系金属粉末,在不同的激光功率、扫描速度和铺粉厚度等工艺参数条件下,采用单道扫描和多层单道扫描等方式进行实验,并利用扫描电镜对不同工艺所制备的试样进行微观形貌研究和致密性分析,确定了优化的工艺参数匹配并制备出块体试样,致密度达80%以上.

  1. Effect of direct current and pulse plating on the EDM performance of copper-zirconium diboride composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Direct current and pulse plating of copper-zirconium diboride (ZrB2) composites were studied and the effects of current density (DC) and pulse duty cycle (PC) on the EDM performance of the composites were investigated. With increasing current density, the effect of grain refinement on the electro-discharge machining (EDM) performance of the composites compensates that of the decrease of ZrB2 content in the composites, which improves the spark-resistance of the material. Under the same average current density and other experiment conditions, a lower duty cycle yields better EDM performance probably because more ZrB2 particles are incorporated in the composites in this condition. However, at a still lower duty cycle (10%), the particle agglomeration and the microcracks of the copper matrix occur, which considerably deteriorate the spark-resistance of the composites.

  2. Magnetic structure and bonding of rare-earth diboride compounds RB{sub 2}: First-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kacimi, S.; Zazoua, F.; Djermouni, M.; Zaoui, A. [Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science Laboratory, Djillali Liabes University of Sidi Bel-Abbes, Sidi Bel-Abbes 22000 (Algeria); Bekkouche, B. [Signals and Systems Laboratory, Abdelhamid Ibn Badis University of Mostaganem, Mostaganem 27000 (Algeria); Boukortt, A. [Elaboration Characterization Physico-Mechanics of Materials and Metallurgical Laboratory ECP3M, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Abdelhamid Ibn Badis University of Mostaganem, Mostaganem 27000 (Algeria)

    2012-07-15

    The electronic structure and magnetic behavior of hexagonal rare-earth diboride RB{sub 2} are studied using ab initio density-functional theory in the DFT + U approach. The effect of the spin-orbit coupling is also investigated and it is found to be a necessary requirement for the accurate description of the magnetic moment. In this paper, we study the magnetic phase stability of RB{sub 2} compounds; the band structure and the density of state (DOS) results prove that the coulomb potential and the spin-orbit interaction are keys factors to understand the magnetic properties of these series of materials. In addition, we also explain the behavior of a chemical bond of RB{sub 2} compounds through the analysis of the DOS and of the charge density. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Preparation of copper and silicon/copper powders by a gas evaporation-condensation method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Temuujin; S P Bardakhanov; A V Nomoev; V I Zaikovskii; A Minjigmaa; G Dugersuren; A Van Riessen

    2009-10-01

    Pure and silicon-coated metal copper nano to submicron-sized powders were prepared by gas evaporation and condensation. This powder was synthesized by using an industrial electron accelerator, ELV-6, with Ar as the carrier gas. Vapour from the liquefied metal surface was transferred to the cold zone by the carrier gas and precipitated as spherical Cu metal and Si/Cu composite powders. The mean diameter of the resulting powder was 100–200 nm.

  4. Study of the Adherence Mechanism Between the Metal and Inorganic Coating with Mill Addition of Li2Ni8O10 Nano Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Hui-chun; JIANG Wei-zhong

    2009-01-01

    The adherence strength between the metal and the inorganic coating can be greatly increased by mill addition of Li2Ni8O10,. The interface structure between metal and the inorganic coating with excellent adherence has been studied by investigating the chemical composition and the microstructure as well as elements valence bond on the interface with the help of scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron microprobe, and Auger electron spectroscope (AES). The results show that there is a non-stoichiometrical transitional layer on the interface between metal and the inorganic coating with excellent adherence, the adherence between metal and the non-stoichiometrical transitional layer is achieved by the metallic bond and the adherence between the non-stoichiometrical transitional layer and the inorganic coating is produced by ionic and covalent bond. The non-stoichiometrical transitional layer results in the strong adherence.

  5. Preparation of Ultrafine Cobalt Powder by Chemical Reduction in Aqueous Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Nanocrystalline cobalt powders have been prepared from aqueous solution by reducing their corresponding metal salts under suitable conditions. The experimental conditions have been studied in detail. X-ray powder diffraction patterns show that the cobalt powder is hexagonal crystallite. The average particle size of the ultrafine cobalt powder is 55 nm.

  6. Plasma spheroidization of nickel powders in a plasma reactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Shanmugavelayutham; V Selvarajan

    2004-10-01

    Thermal spray coatings of surfaces with metal, alloy and ceramic materials for protection against corrosion, erosion and wear is an intense field of research. The technique involves injection of the powder into a plasma flame, melting, acceleration of the powder particles, impact and bonding with the substrate. Feedstock powders of metals, alloys and ceramics for thermal spray applications have to meet several requirements. Particle shape, size and its distribution, powder flow characteristics and density are the important factors to be considered in order to ensure high spray efficiency and better coating properties. For smooth and uniform feeding of powders into plasma jet, the powder particles have to be spherical in shape. High temperatures and steep temperatures present in thermal plasma is exploited to spheroidize particles in the present investigation. Nickel powder particles in the size range from 40–100 m were spheroidized using plasma processing. SEM and optical micrographs showed spherical shape of processed particles.

  7. Metallic powder-bed based 3D printing of cellular scaffolds for orthopaedic implants: A state-of-the-art review on manufacturing, topological design, mechanical properties and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, X P; Tan, Y J; Chow, C S L; Tor, S B; Yeong, W Y

    2017-07-01

    Metallic cellular scaffold is one of the best choices for orthopaedic implants as a replacement of human body parts, which could improve life quality and increase longevity for the people needed. Unlike conventional methods of making cellular scaffolds, three-dimensional (3D) printing or additive manufacturing opens up new possibilities to fabricate those customisable intricate designs with highly interconnected pores. In the past decade, metallic powder-bed based 3D printing methods emerged and the techniques are becoming increasingly mature recently, where selective laser melting (SLM) and selective electron beam melting (SEBM) are the two representatives. Due to the advantages of good dimensional accuracy, high build resolution, clean build environment, saving materials, high customisability, etc., SLM and SEBM show huge potential in direct customisable manufacturing of metallic cellular scaffolds for orthopaedic implants. Ti-6Al-4V to date is still considered to be the optimal materials for producing orthopaedic implants due to its best combination of biocompatibility, corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. This paper presents a state-of-the-art overview mainly on manufacturing, topological design, mechanical properties and biocompatibility of cellular Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds via SLM and SEBM methods. Current manufacturing limitations, topological shortcomings, uncertainty of biocompatible test were sufficiently discussed herein. Future perspectives and recommendations were given at the end. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 金属醇盐水解法制备超细粉末过程中醇与苯的回收%The Recovery of Alcohol and Benzene during Peparation of Ultrafine Powder by the Metal Alcoxidos Hydrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段学臣; 杨向萍; 吴湘伟

    2001-01-01

    Study is made of recovery of organic reagents during the preparation of ultrafine powder by metal alcoxides hydrolysis.The Phase diagrams of isopropanol-benzene system and isopropanol-benzene-water system have been plotted,based on which,isopropanol and benzene can be recovered and recirculated by distillation-rectification process.The recovery and reused rate of alcohol and benzene are above 75%.So both the environmental pollution and cost of ultrfine powder are reduced.%对醇盐水解法制备超细粉末过程中有机试剂的回收进行了研究,绘制了异丙醇-苯的二元相图和异丙醇-苯-水的三元相图,在此基础上采用蒸馏-精馏的方法对制备体系中的异丙醇和苯进行回收,将有机试剂循环使用,使醇和苯的回收利用率达75%以上,因而减少了环境污染,并降低了粉末成本。

  9. Effect of scanning speed and powder flow rate on the evolving properties of laser metal deposited Ti-6Al-4V/Cu composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erinosho, MF

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In laser metal deposition (LMD), good bonding between two similar or dissimilar materials can be achieved if the interrelationships between the processing parameters are well understood. LMD was conducted by varying the scanning speed and keeping...

  10. Powder metallurgy in aerospace research: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, H. W.

    1971-01-01

    The various techniques by which powders can be produced, as pure metals or as alloys, are discussed; the methods by which these powders can be formed into the final parts are explained as well as further processing that may be necessary to meet specific requirements. The NASA developments are detailed, and references are provided for those who wish to obtain further information characteristic of any methodology.

  11. Characterization and Control of Powder Properties for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strondl, A.; Lyckfeldt, O.; Brodin, H.; Ackelid, U.

    2015-03-01

    Powder characterization and handling in powder metallurgy are important issues and the required powder properties will vary between different component manufacturing processes. By understanding and controlling these, the final material properties for different applications can be improved and become more reliable. In this study, the metal powders used in additive manufacturing (AM) in terms of electron beam melting and selective laser melting have been investigated regarding particle size and shape using dynamic image analysis. In parallel, powder flow characteristics have been evaluated with a powder rheometer. Correlations within the results have been found between particle shape and powder flow characteristics that could explain certain effects of the powder processing in the AM processes. The impact, however, in the processing performance as well as in ultimate material properties was found to be limited.

  12. Studies on Electrolytic preparation of Iron Copper Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Athvale

    1971-07-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting the physical characteristics and chemical composition of iron-cooper powder deposits obtained by electrolysis, have been investigated. Effect of process variables such as current density, pH, temperature, time, concentration of electrolyte and agitation, has been studied over a wide range, for theoretical interest and to obtain powder deposits of a definite composition. Metallographic examination of iron-copper powder thus prepared after compacting and sintering, has revealed uniform and homogeneous dispersion of the two metals. The technique of preparation presented in this paper is a better substitute to the conventional practice of preparing binary metal powders by mixing and tumbling.

  13. Effects of Oyster Shell Powder on Rice Yield and Heavy Metal Stabilization in Paddy Soil%牡蛎壳粉对水稻产量和土壤重金属钝化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗华汉; 柳开; 余跑兰; 谭武贵; 陈燕; 雷媛元

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of a new soil conditioner oyster shell powder on rice yield, soil acidification improvement and availability of heavy metals in paddy soil, the grain yield, soil pH, exchangeable hydrogen and aluminum, concentrations of soil total and available Cd, Pb contents were analyzed after the application of oyster shell powder with four addition rates in 2014. The re-sults showed that the grain yield and soil pH were increased by 14.8%~22.9%and 0.18~0.33 units(4.0%~7.3%) after application of soil conditioner compared with the control. Moreover, the soil exchangeable hydrogen and aluminum were decreased by 19.6%~69.2%and 34.7%~93.9%, the soil available Cd and Pb contents were significantly decreased by 40.2%~49.0%and 29.9%~44.7%compared with the control. Therefore, oyster shell powder could increase the rice yield, improve soil acidification and reduce activity of heavy metals.%为探讨新型土壤调理剂牡蛎壳粉对水稻产量及其对土壤酸化改良和重金属钝化的效果,设置4种牡蛎壳粉用量的田间试验,分析了不同用量下水稻产量、土壤pH值、交换性氢和交换性铝的含量,以及土壤Cd、Pb全量和有效态的变化.结果表明,施用牡蛎壳粉的处理水稻产量为7420.65~7941.60 kg/hm2,比对照(不施)增产14.8%~22.9%;与对照相比,牡蛎壳粉将土壤pH值提高了0.18~0.33个单位(4.0%~7.3%),并使土壤交换性氢和交换性铝分别降低了19.6%~69.2%和34.7%~93.9%,土壤有效Cd下降了40.2%~49.0%,有效Pb下降了29.9%~44.7%.可见,使用牡蛎壳粉可以同时实现提高水稻单产、改良土壤酸化和阻控重金属活性的目标.

  14. Structural and mechanical behaviour of 5% Al2O3-reinforced Fe metal matrix composites (MMCs) produced by powder metallurgy (P/M) route

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pallav Gupta; Devendra Kumar; Om Parkash; A K Jha

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of sintering temperature and time on the properties of Fe–Al2O3 composite (5 wt% Al2O3; 95 wt% Fe) prepared by powder metallurgy process. X-ray diffraction, microstructure, density, hardness and compressive strength of prepared samples have been investigated. XRD studies show the presence of Fe and Al2O3 along with iron aluminate phase. Iron aluminate is formed as a result of reactive sintering between iron and alumina particles. Microstructural examination of the specimen showed a dense structure with nanosize dispersion of the reinforcement of ceramic phase. Density as well as hardness of specimens depend on the formation of iron aluminate phase, which in turn depends on sintering temperature and time.

  15. In situ Preparation of Tri-Fe(Ⅲ) and Bi-Cu(Ⅱ) Clusters from Benzoyl Peroxide Reacting with Metal Powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jun-wei; ZHANG Jing; TONG Shan-ling; HUANG Xiao-chun; YAN Yan

    2009-01-01

    Three crystal architectures, including one organic compound of benzoyl peroxide(l) and two clusters of tri-iron(Ⅲ) and bi-cupper(Ⅱ) with benzoic ligands(2 and 3), were self-assembled by an in situ redox way of benzoyl peroxide oxidants reacting with Mo, Fe and Cu powders, respectively. X-ray crystallographic results show that both the asymmetry tri-iron(Ⅲ) cluster and the benzoylperoxide crystal architecture (2 and 1) with complicated 3D networks were constructed by intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions. Contrarily, the symmetrical bi-copper(Ⅱ) cluster crystal architecture(3), only with π-π stacking between paralleled phenyl groups and without any intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions, only presented an 1D zigzag chain along the a-axis.

  16. Co-administration of monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid and Moringa oleifera seed powder protects arsenic-induced oxidative stress and metal distribution in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Deepshikha; Gupta, Richa; Pant, S C; Kushwah, Pramod; Satish, H T; Flora, S J S

    2009-02-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater in the West Bengal basin in India is unfolding as one of the worst natural geo-environmental disasters to date. Chelation therapy with chelating agents is considered to be the best known treatment against arsenic poisoning; however, they are compromised with certain serious drawbacks/side-effects. Efficacy of combined administration of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) (English: Drumstick tree) seed powder, a herbal extract, with a thiol chelator monoisoamyl DMSA (MiADMSA) post-arsenic exposure in mice was studied. Mice were exposed to 100 ppm arsenic in drinking water for 6 months, followed by 10-days treatment with M. oleifera seed powder (500 mg/kg, orally through gastric gavage, once daily), MiADMSA (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, once daily) either individually or in combination. Arsenic exposure caused significant decrease in blood glutathione, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), accompanied by increased production of reactive oxygen species in blood and soft tissues. Significant inhibition of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in tissues (liver in particular) along with significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and metallothionein levels in arsenic intoxicated mice was also noted. Combined administration of MiADMSA with M. oleifera proved better than all other treatments in the recovery of most of the above parameters accompanied by more pronounced depletion of arsenic. The results suggest that concomitant administration of M. oleifera during chelation treatment with MiADMSA might be a better treatment option than monotherapy with the thiol chelator in chronic arsenic toxicity.

  17. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flumerfelt, J.F.

    1999-02-12

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  18. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Characterization of a Metal-Organic Framework by Thermogravimetric Analysis, Powder X-Ray Diffraction, and Infrared Spectroscopy: An Integrative Inorganic Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Johanna L.; Anderson, Kelly E.; Conway, Samantha G.

    2015-01-01

    This advanced undergraduate laboratory experiment involves the synthesis and characterization of a metal-organic framework with microporous channels that are held intact via hydrogen bonding of the coordinated water molecules. The hydrothermal synthesis of Co[subscript 3](BTC)[subscript 2]·12H[subscript 2]O (BTC = 1,3,5-benzene tricarboxylic acid)…

  19. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Characterization of a Metal-Organic Framework by Thermogravimetric Analysis, Powder X-Ray Diffraction, and Infrared Spectroscopy: An Integrative Inorganic Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Johanna L.; Anderson, Kelly E.; Conway, Samantha G.

    2015-01-01

    This advanced undergraduate laboratory experiment involves the synthesis and characterization of a metal-organic framework with microporous channels that are held intact via hydrogen bonding of the coordinated water molecules. The hydrothermal synthesis of Co[subscript 3](BTC)[subscript 2]·12H[subscript 2]O (BTC = 1,3,5-benzene tricarboxylic acid)…

  20. Ni Based Powder Reconditioning and Reuse for LMD Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renderos, M.; Girot, F.; Lamikiz, A.; Torregaray, A.; Saintier, N.

    LMD is an additive manufacturing process based on the injection of metallic powder into a melt-pool created by a heat laser source on a substrate. One of the benefits of this technology is the reduction of the wasted material since it is a near-shape process. Moreover one of the main drawbacks is the relatively low efficiency of the trapped powder, which can be loss than 5% in some cases. The non-trapped powder represents a significant cost in the LMD process, since powder metal material is very expensive and usually is not reused. This article proposes a methodology of the reconditioning and posterior reuse of a nickel base powder commonly used in the aerospace industry, with the main objectives of cost saving, higher environmental cleanup and increase of the overall efficiency in the LMD process. The results are checked by the development of a prototype part built up from reused powder.

  1. Metallic glassy Zr70Ni20Pd10 powders for improving the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation behavior of MgH2

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sherif El-Eskandarany

    2016-01-01

    Because of its low density, storage of hydrogen in the gaseous and liquids states possess technical and economic challenges. One practical solution for utilizing hydrogen in vehicles with proton-exchange fuel cells membranes is storing hydrogen in metal hydrides. Magnesium hydride (MgH2) remains the best hydrogen storage material due to its high hydrogen capacity and low cost of production. Due to its high activation energy and poor hydrogen sorption/desorption kinetics at moderate temperatur...

  2. The Effect of Deposition Time on Textured Magnesium Diboride Thick Films Fabricated by Electrophoretic Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. G. Mutia

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available MgB2 powders suspended in ethanol were electrophoretically deposited on high-purity molybdenum substrates having dimensions of 1 x 0.3 x 0.01 cm. The said substrate was set as the cathode and was placed 0.5 cm away from a graphite rod anode. A current density of ~0.02 mA/cm2 and a voltage of 600 V were applied. The effect of deposition time was studied by varying it as follows: 15 s, 30 s, 1 min, and 2 min. Heat treatment at 950 oC for 3 h was done after deposition. MgB2 thick films were successfully fabricated for the deposition carried out for 2 min. Deposition times less than 2 min resulted in insufficient deposited powder; hence formation of MgB2 was not facilitated. Films deposited at 15 and 30 s have good surface characteristics, wherein no microcracks were present. X-ray diffraction and surface image analysis reveal that the deposited films have a preferred orientation along the (10l direction.

  3. The influence of SPS heating rates on the synthesis reaction of tantalum diboride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Laszkiewicz-Łukasik

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available TaB2 is a material from the Ultra High Temperature Ceramics group and is rather unexplored because it is difficult to procure the raw materials and to densify TaB2. Using SPS technique to realize reactive sintering processes of powders mixture according to the reaction Ta + 2B → TaB2 makes it possible to achieve TaB2 in one technological step. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of heating rates on the synthesis reaction and on the multistage densification mechanisms during SPS processes. The mixture was sintered at constant parameters of 2200 °C, 48 MPa for 5 min with the usage of heating rates from 50 °C/min up to 400 °C/min. The densification processes were studied through analyzing the shrinkage of powder compacts during SPS (Spark Plasma Sintering processes. The comparison of the densification curves indicates that the reactions do not proceed completely at slow heating rates. Namely, too low heating rates contribute to the sintering of tantalum before the synthesis reaction and demonstrate the presence of boron in liquid state. The best material obtained in this study has Young's modulus 571 GPa, Vickers hardness 20.7 GPa (HV1 and indentation fracture toughness KIC 4.7 MPa m1/2.

  4. Growth of magnesium diboride films on 2 inch diameter copper discs by hybrid physical–chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withanage, Wenura K.; Xi, X. X.; Nassiri, Alireza; Lee, Namhoon; Wolak, Matthäus A.; Tan, Teng; Welander, Paul B.; Franzi, Matthew; Tantawi, Sami; Kustom, Robert L.

    2017-04-01

    Magnesium diboride (MgB2) coating is a potential candidate to replace bulk niobium (Nb) for superconducting radio frequency cavities due to the appealing superconducting properties of MgB2. MgB2 coating on copper may allow cavity operation near 20–25 K as a result of the high transition temperature (T c) of MgB2 and excellent thermal conductivity of Cu. We have grown MgB2 films on 2 inch diameter Cu discs by hybrid physical–chemical vapor deposition for radio frequency characterization. Structural and elemental analyses showed a uniform MgB2 coating on top of a Mg–Cu alloy layer with occasional intrusion of Mg–Cu alloy regions. High T c values of around 37 K and high critical current density (J c) on the order of 107 A cm‑2 at zero field were observed. Radio frequency measurements at 11.4 GHz confirmed a high T c and showed a quality factor (Q 0) much higher than for Cu and close to that of Nb.

  5. Importance of Fuel Cell Tests for Stability Assessment—Suitability of Titanium Diboride as an Alternative Support Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Roth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon corrosion is a severe issue limiting the long-term stability of carbon-supported catalysts, in particular in the highly dynamic conditions of automotive applications. (Doped oxides have been discussed as suitable alternatives to replace carbon, but often suffer from poor electron conductivity. That is why non-oxide ceramics, such as tungsten carbide and titanium nitride, have been discussed recently. Titanium diboride has also been proposed, due to its promising activity and stability in an aqueous electrochemical cell. In this work, Pt nanoparticles were deposited onto μm-sized TiB2 particles with improved grain size, manufactured into porous gas diffusion electrodes and tested in a realistic polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM fuel cell environment. In contrast to the model studies in an aqueous electrochemical cell, in the presence of oxygen and high potentials at the cathode side of a real fuel cell, TiB2 becomes rapidly oxidized as indicated by intensely colored regions in the membrane-electrode assembly (MEA. Moreover, already the electrode manufacturing process led to the formation of titanium oxides, as shown by X-ray diffraction measurements. This demonstrates that Cyclic Voltammetry (CV measurements in an aqueous electrochemical cell are not sufficient to prove stability of novel materials for fuel cell applications.

  6. Electrostatic Assembly Preparation of High-Toughness Zirconium Diboride-Based Ceramic Composites with Enhanced Thermal Shock Resistance Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baoxi; Zhang, Xinghong; Hong, Changqing; Qiu, Yunfeng; Zhang, Jia; Han, Jiecai; Hu, PingAn

    2016-05-11

    The central problem of using ceramic as a structural material is its brittleness, which associated with rigid covalent or ionic bonds. Whiskers or fibers of strong ceramics such as silicon carbide (SiC) or silicon nitride (Si3N4) are widely embedded in a ceramic matrix to improve the strength and toughness. The incorporation of these insulating fillers can impede the thermal flow in ceramic matrix, thus decrease its thermal shock resistance that is required in some practical applications. Here we demonstrate that the toughness and thermal shock resistance of zirconium diboride (ZrB2)/SiC composites can be improved simultaneously by introducing graphene into composites via electrostatic assembly and subsequent sintering treatment. The incorporated graphene creates weak interfaces of grain boundaries (GBs) and optimal thermal conductance paths inside composites. In comparison to pristine ZrB2-SiC composites, the toughness of (2.0%) ZrB2-SiC/graphene composites exhibited a 61% increasing (from 4.3 to 6.93 MPa·m(1/2)) after spark plasma sintering (SPS); the retained strength after thermal shock increased as high as 74.8% at 400 °C and 304.4% at 500 °C. Present work presents an important guideline for producing high-toughness ceramic-based composites with enhanced thermal shock properties.

  7. 粉末冶金难变形材料热静液挤压技术进展%Progress in Hot Hydrostatic Extrusion of Powder Metallurgy Hard Metallic Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡连喜; 王尔德

    2011-01-01

    Recent research progress in hot hydrostatic extrusion of both sintered powder metallurgy hard metallic materials and powder compacts is reviewed. Both the fundamentals and the technical features and application potentials of the technique are introduced, and the factors affecting the formation and stability of the lubricant layer during extrusion are an- alyzed. In particular, examples for the development of the lubricant for hot hydrostatic extrusion are presented and the applications of the hot hydrostatic extrusion process to the forming of sintered P/M heavy tungsten alloy, γ-TiAl based alloy products and the full densification and consolidation of nanocrystalline powders of aluminum alloys, dispersion strengthened copper alloys, and NdFeB magnetic alloys are addressed. Based on this, summary remarks arc presented on the advantageous aspects and the prospects of the technique.%综述了热静液挤压技术在烧结态粉末冶金难变形材料挤压成形与粉末体高致密化固结方面的研究进展。简述了热静液挤压工艺原理、工艺特点与适用范围,分析了热静液挤压润滑层形成的影响因素,介绍了热静液挤压润滑介质研制和热静液挤压技术在粉末冶金高比重钨合金、γ-TiAl基合金材料的挤压成形以及纳米晶铝合金、弥散强化铜合金、NdFeB永磁合金等金属粉末体材料的高致密化固结成形方面的应用,指出了热静液挤压工艺的技术优势与发展前景。

  8. Powder Size and Distribution in Ultrasonic Gas Atomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, G.; Lavernia, E.; Grant, N. J.

    1985-08-01

    Ultrasonic gas atomization (USGA) produces powder sizes dependent on the ratio of the nozzle jet diameter to the distance of spread dt/R, Powder size distribution is attributed to the spread of atomizing gas jets during travel from the nozzle exit to the metal stream. The spread diminishes at higher gas atomization pressures. In this paper, calculated powder sizes and distribution are compared with experimentally determined values.

  9. Solid state 13C-NMR, infrared, X-ray powder diffraction and differential thermal studies of the homologous series of some mono-valent metal (Li, Na, K, Ag) n-alkanoates: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter N.; Ellis, Henry A.; White, Nicole A. S.

    2015-06-01

    A comparative study of the molecular packing, lattice structures and phase behaviors of the homologous series of some mono-valent metal carboxylates (Li, Na, K and Ag) is carried out via solid state FT-infrared and 13C-NMR spectroscopes, X-rays powder diffraction, density measurements, differential scanning calorimetry, polarizing light microscopy and variable temperature infrared spectroscopy. It is proposed that, for lithium, sodium and potassium carboxylates, metal-carboxyl coordination is via asymmetric chelating bidentate bonding with extensive intermolecular interactions to form tetrahedral metal centers, irrespective of chain length. However, for silver n-alkanoates, carboxyl moieties are bound to silver ions via syn-syn type bridging bidentate coordination to form dimeric units held together by extensive head group inter-molecular interactions. Furthermore, the fully extended hydrocarbon chains which are crystallized in the all-trans conformation are tilted at ca. 30°, 27°, 15° and 31° with respect to a normal to the metal plane, for lithium, sodium, silver and potassium carboxylates, respectively. All compounds are packed as lamellar bilayer structures, however, lithium compounds are crystallized in a triclinic crystal system whilst silver, sodium and potassium n-alkanoates are all monoclinic with possible P1 bravais lattice. Odd-even alternation observed in various physical features is associated with different inter-planar spacing between closely packed layers in the bilayer which are not in the same plane; a phenomenon controlled by lattice packing symmetry requirements. All compounds, except silver carboxylates, show partially reversibly first order pre-melting transitions; the number of which increases with increasing chain length. These transitions are associated, for the most part, with lamellar collapse followed by increased gauche-trans isomerism in the methylene group assembly, irrespective of chain length. It is proposed that the absence of

  10. Desulfurization technology by using Mg+CaO powder injection in hot metal ladle%铁水包喷吹Mg+CaO粉剂脱硫技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇; 龙川江; 战东平; 张慧书; 姜周华

    2009-01-01

    分析了宝山钢铁股份有限公司采用TDS(Torpedo Car Desulphurization)、PTC(Hot Metal Pretreatment center)和铁水包单枪、双枪喷Mg+CaO脱硫模式的生产情况.结果表明,采用铁水包喷吹Mg+CaO脱硫在喷吹时间、脱硫效果、粉剂消耗、生产组织及经济效益等方面明显优于混铁车喷吹脱硫.

  11. Densification of powder metallurgy billets by a roll consolidation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellman, W. H.; Weinberger, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    Container design is used to convert partially densified powder metallurgy compacts into fully densified slabs in one processing step. Technique improves product yield, lowers costs and yields great flexibility in process scale-up. Technique is applicable to all types of fabricable metallic materials that are produced from powder metallurgy process.

  12. Research on Discharging Mechanism of Powder Mixed EDM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuangang; ZHAO Fuling

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents investigations on discharging mechanism in powder mixed EDM. By analyzing the inception, growth of electrical tree and the ignition of discharges in liquid filled gap, the whole discharging process is proposed. It is explored that the reason of modification of ignition behaves by adding fine particle powders of metal or semiconductor to the working liquid.

  13. Powder-Metallurgy Process And Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Henry G.

    1988-01-01

    Rapid-solidification processing yields alloys with improved properties. Study undertaken to extend favorable property combinations of I/M 2XXX alloys through recently developed technique of rapid-solidification processing using powder metallurgy(P/M). Rapid-solidification processing involves impingement of molten metal stream onto rapidly-spinning chill block or through gas medium using gas atomization technique.

  14. Powder Characterization and Optimization for Additive Manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordova, Laura; Campos, Mónica; Tinga, Tiedo

    2017-01-01

    Achieving the optimal quality for Additive Manufactured (AM) parts does not only depend on setting the right process parameters. Material feedstock also plays an important role when aiming for high performance products. The metal AM processes that are most applicable to industry, Powder Bed Fusion

  15. Granulation of fine powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ching-Fong

    2016-08-09

    A mixture of fine powder including thorium oxide was converted to granulated powder by forming a first-green-body and heat treating the first-green-body at a high temperature to strengthen the first-green-body followed by granulation by crushing or milling the heat-treated first-green-body. The granulated powder was achieved by screening through a combination of sieves to achieve the desired granule size distribution. The granulated powder relies on the thermal bonding to maintain its shape and structure. The granulated powder contains no organic binder and can be stored in a radioactive or other extreme environment. The granulated powder was pressed and sintered to form a dense compact with a higher density and more uniform pore size distribution.

  16. Cow dung powder poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaja Mohideen Sherfudeen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital.

  17. Cow dung powder poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfudeen, Khaja Mohideen; Kaliannan, Senthil Kumar; Dammalapati, Pavan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital.

  18. Dispersion-strengthened Aluminium Products Manufactured by Powder Blending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels

    1969-01-01

    Detailed experiments carried out to examine relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties of powder-blended aluminum products are reported; their results as well as structural studies by transmission electron microscopy and tensile-and creep- testing, are given; as dispersed phase......, various oxide powders were selected on criterion that during manufacturing no reaction must taken place between metal and oxide phase; strength of powder-blended aluminum products increases and elongation decreases with decreasing particle size of aluminum powder and with increasing concentration of oxide...

  19. Core-Shell Metal-Organic Frameworks/Molecularly Imprinted Nanoparticles as Absorbents for the Detection of Pyrraline in Milk and Milk Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huilin; Mu, Lin; Chen, Xiaomo; Wang, Jing; Wang, Shuo; Sun, Baoguo

    2017-02-01

    A novel core-shell metal-organic framework coated with a dummy template molecularly imprinted polymer (MOF@DMIP) was synthesized by one-pot bulk polymerization for the detection of pyrraline in food samples. The pyrraline analogue pyrrolidine-3-carboxylic acid was used as the template because of its lower cost, and MIL-101 was used as the MOF core owing to its numerous inherent advantages, including high chemical and hydrothermal stabilities. MIL-101@DMIP was used to detect trace pyrraline in foods by solid-phase extraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography. It exhibited the advantages of faster mass transport, excellent sensitivity, and selectivity. Under optimum conditions, the detection limit of this system was 40.7 μg L(-1), and a linear range was from 5 × 10(-7) to 2 × 10(-3) mol L(-1), within relative standard deviations of 4.46-6.87%. The recoveries ranged from 92.23 to 103.87%, indicating the excellent ability of the prepared MIL-101@DMIP to recognize pyrraline in complex food matrices and its potential for application in pyrraline detection.

  20. Preparation and characterization of Miocene clay powders in the region of Taza (Morocco) after doping with metal oxides Al2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesrar, L.; Lakrim, M.; Akdim, M.; Benmar, A.; –Sbai, N. ES; Jabrane, R.

    2017-03-01

    The marl’s minerals are abundant untreated material in several areas worldwide. They are often under-valued for human use. However, due to demands of the society in terms of sustainability and energy saving, the valuation of these resources to develop new materials, most environmentally friendly has become a concern both scientific and industrial aims. Ceramics are the growing research to obtain materials with good chemical stability and good hot properties [1]. The balance between these properties and industrial requirements allowed clay materials uses at craft departure (pottery, tile), to progress towards high-tech applications such as electrical and thermal insulation, electric candle, sound insulation [2]. The behavior of the doping (Al2O3), which has more scientific research interest, has been a renewed interest since 1980 [3] with the emergence of alumina very high purity. Miocene marl is one of the widespread geological substrates in Fez-Taza vicinity (Central Morocco). In this study we proceed by a physicochemical characterization of the marl after doping with metal oxides, by various analytical techniques, namely the X-ray fluorescence, the mineralogical analysis and geotechnical test. The doping of these marl was conducted by solid oxides of Al2O3 at different percentages (5%, 10% and 15%). The results of chemical analysis showed the Al2O3 increase during doping. So, the mineralogical analysis of doped clays shows peaks’ increases for kaolin. The marl doped acquired the property of their good plasticity and good mechanical resistance compared to crass marl.

  1. The reactive surface of Castor leaf [Ricinus communis L.] powder as a green adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from natural river water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Amanda E.; Pereira, Milene S.; Jorgetto, Alexandre O.; Martines, Marco A. U.; Silva, Rafael I. V.; Saeki, Margarida J.; Castro, Gustavo R.

    2013-07-01

    In this study, a green adsorbent was successfully applied to remove toxic metals from aqueous solutions. Dried minced castor leaves were fractionated into 63-μm particles to perform characterization and extraction experiments. Absorption bands in FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) spectra at 1544, 1232 and 1350 cm-1 were assigned to nitrogen-containing groups. Elemental analysis showed high nitrogen and sulfur content: 5.76 and 1.93%, respectively. The adsorption kinetics for Cd(II) and Pb(II) followed a pseudo-second-order model, and no difference between the experimental and calculated Nf values (0.094 and 0.05 mmol g-1 for Cd(II) and Pb(II), respectively) was observed. The Ns values calculated using the modified Langmuir equation, 0.340 and 0.327 mmol g-1 for Cd(II) and Pb(II), respectively, were superior to the results obtained for several materials in the literature. The method proposed in this study was applied to pre-concentrate (45-fold enrichment factor) and used to measure Cd(II) and Pb(II) in freshwater samples from the Paraná River. The method was validated through a comparative analysis with a standard reference material (1643e).

  2. Spark plasma sintering of silicon carbide and multi-walled carbon nanotube reinforced zirconium diboride ceramic composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadhukulakrishnan, Govindaraajan B.; Rahman, Arif; Karumuri, Sriharsha [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Stackpoole, Margaret M. [ELORET Corporation, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Kalkan, A. Kaan; Singh, Raman P. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Harimkar, Sandip P., E-mail: sandip.harimkar@okstate.edu [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)

    2012-08-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dense SiC and carbon nanotube reinforced ZrB{sub 2} composites were spark plasma sintered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SiC and carbon nanotube reinforcement favored the densification of ZrB{sub 2} composites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SiC and carbon nanotube reinforcement resulted in toughening of ZrB{sub 2} composites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon nanotubes were retained in the spark plasma sintered ZrB{sub 2} composites. - Abstract: In this paper spark plasma sintering (SPS) of silicon carbide and multi-walled carbon nanotube reinforced zirconium diboride ultra-high temperature ceramic matrix composites is reported. Systematic investigations on the effect of reinforcement type (SiC and CNTs) and content (10-40 vol.% SiC and 2-6 vol.% CNTs) on densification behavior, microstructure development, and mechanical properties (microhardness, bi-axial flexural strength, and indentation fracture toughness) are presented. With the similar SPS processing parameters (1900 Degree-Sign C, 70 MPa pressure, and 15 min soaking time), near-full densification (>99% relative density) was achieved with 10-40% SiC (in ZrB{sub 2}-SiC) and 4-6% CNT (in ZrB{sub 2}-CNT) reinforced composites. The SiC and CNT reinforcement further improved the indentation fracture toughness of the composites through a range of toughening mechanisms, including particle shearing, crack deflection at the particle-matrix interface, and grain pull-outs for ZrB{sub 2}-SiC composites, and CNT pull-outs and crack deflection in ZrB{sub 2}-CNT composites.

  3. Assessing Guest-Molecule Diffusion in Heterogeneous Powder Samples of Metal-Organic Frameworks through Pulsed-Field-Gradient (PFG) NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Roland; Kärger, Jörg; de Sousa Amadeu, Nader; Nießing, Sandra; Janiak, Christoph

    2017-07-19

    Investigation of guest diffusion in porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is of major importance, because many porosity-related properties of MOFs are influenced by diffusion effects. The diffusion of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in the MOF MIL-53-NH2 (Al) was investigated through pulsed-field-gradient (PFG) NMR spectroscopy. The microporous material was synthesized in small crystallites (under 500 nm), which agglomerated in a large range of particle sizes (from hundreds of nanometers to tens of micrometers), giving a morphologically very heterogeneous sample. No special agglomeration pattern could be observed, which makes a PFG NMR investigation very challenging, yet it represents a realistic situation for the diffusion of guest molecules in porous materials. We were able to distinguish between two diffusion regimes existing in parallel with each other over the total range from 15 to 200 ms of observation times as accessible in the experiments: In the large crystal agglomerates (diameters above 20 μm), guest movement was found to be subdiffusive, with a time exponent κ =0.8 (rather than one as for normal diffusion). Guest diffusion in the remaining, smaller host particles followed the pattern of normal diffusion within a bed of spheres of impenetrable external surfaces, with a size distribution in good agreement with that of the material under study. Diffusion in a rather complex system could thus be referred to a two-region model with new potentials for application to systems of intricate topology. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Ultrasound treatment of centrifugally atomized 316 stainless steel powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawers, James C.; McCune, Robert A.; Dunning, John S.

    1991-12-01

    The Bureau of Mines is studying the surface characteristics of rapidly solidified powders and the potential for surface modification of fine powders prior to consolidation. The surface modification and work hardening of fine powders were accomplished by applying high-energy ultrasound to centrifugally atomized austenitic 316 stainless steel powders suspended in liquid media. Cavitation implosion changed the surface morphology, hammering the surface and occasionally fretting off microchips of work-hardened metal. Ultrasound-cavitation work-hardened metal powder surfaces producing a strained, duplex austenite face-centered cubic (fcc)-martensite body-centered tetragonal (bct) phase structure. The amount of work hardening depended upon the quantity of ultrasound energy used, considering both power level and experimental time. Work hardening was relatively independent of the liquid media used.

  5. 二硼化锆陶瓷增韧技术的研究进展%Research and Development of Toughening Technologies of Zirconium Diboride Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯伦; 王海龙; 范冰冰; 陈建宝; 许红亮; 陈德良; 卢红霞; 张锐

    2011-01-01

    本文介绍了近年来二硼化锆陶瓷的增韧技术及其机制,包括弥散颗粒增韧、不同长径比相(晶须、纤维、晶片、碳纳米管等)增韧、ZrO2相变增韧、仿生结构增韧、原位反应增韧、晶须和颗粒协同增韧;展望了二硼化锆陶瓷增韧技术的未来发展趋势.%This paper reviews recent toughening technologies and toughening mechanisms of zirconium diboride ceramics. These technologies include dispersed particles toughening, different aspect ratio phases (whiskers、chopped fibers,,platelets.,carbon nano-tubes et al) toughening, zirconia transformation toughening, biomimetic structure toughening, in-situ reaction toughening, SiC whiskers and SiC particles combined toughening. Futhermore, the future development of toughening technology of zirconium diboride ceramics is prospected.

  6. Characterization of nal powders for rocket propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merotto, L.; Galfetti, L.; Colombo, G.; DeLuca, L. T.

    2011-10-01

    Nanosized metal powders are known to significantly improve both solid and hybrid rocket performance, but have some drawbacks in terms of cost, safety, and possible influence on propellant mechanical properties. Performance enhancement through nanosized metal or metal hydride addition to solid fuels is currently under investigation also for hybrid propulsion. Therefore, a preburning characterization of the powders used in solid propellant or fuel manufacturing is useful to assess their effects on the ballistic properties and engine performance. An investigation concerning the comparative characterization of several aluminum powders having different particle size, age, and coating is presented. Surface area, morphology, chemical species concentration and characteristics, surface passivation layers, surface and subsurface chemical composition, ignition temperature and ignition delay are investigated. The aim of this characterization is to experimentally assess the effect of the nAl powder properties on ballistic characteristics of solid fuels and solidrocket composite-propellant performance, showing an increase in terms of Is caused by the decrease of two-phase losses in solid and a possible significant rf increase in hybrid rockets.

  7. Pyrophoric behaviour of uranium hydride and uranium powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Guyadec, F., E-mail: fabienne.leguyadec@cea.f [CEA Marcoule DEN/DTEC/SDTC, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze, BP 17171 (France); Genin, X.; Bayle, J.P. [CEA Marcoule DEN/DTEC/SDTC, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze, BP 17171 (France); Dugne, O. [DEN/DTEC/SGCS, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze, BP 17171 (France); Duhart-Barone, A.; Ablitzer, C. [CEA Cadarache DEN/DEC/SPUA, 13108 St. Paul lez Durance (France)

    2010-01-31

    Thermal stability and spontaneous ignition conditions of uranium hydride and uranium metal fine powders have been studied and observed in an original and dedicated experimental device placed inside a glove box under flowing pure argon. Pure uranium hydride powder with low amount of oxide (<0.5 wt.%) was obtained by heat treatment at low temperature in flowing Ar/5%H{sub 2}. Pure uranium powder was obtained by dehydration in flowing pure argon. Those fine powders showed spontaneous ignition at room temperature in air. An in situ CCD-camera displayed ignition associated with powder temperature measurement. Characterization of powders before and after ignition was performed by XRD measurements and SEM observations. Oxidation mechanisms are proposed.

  8. Compaction of Titanium Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdemann, Stephen,J; Jablonski, Paul, J

    2011-05-01

    Accurate modeling of powder densification has been an area of active research for more than 60 years. The earliest efforts were focused on linearization of the data because computers were not readily available to assist with curve-fitting methods. In this work, eight different titanium powders (three different sizes of sponge fines<150 {micro}m,<75 {micro}m, and<45 {micro}m; two different sizes of a hydride-dehydride [HDH]<75 {micro}m and<45 {micro}m; an atomized powder; a commercially pure [CP] Ti powder from International Titanium Powder [ITP]; and a Ti 6 4 alloy powder) were cold pressed in a single-acting die instrumented to collect stress and deformation data during compaction. From these data, the density of each compact was calculated and then plotted as a function of pressure. The results show that densification of all the powders, regardless of particle size, shape, or chemistry, can be modeled accurately as the sum of an initial density plus the sum of a rearrangement term and a work-hardening term. These last two terms are found to be a function of applied pressure and take the form of an exponential rise.

  9. Synthesis, ab initio X-ray powder diffraction crystal structure, and magnetic properties of Mn3(OH)2(C6H2O4S)2 metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibille, Romain; Mazet, Thomas; Elkaïm, Erik; Malaman, Bernard; François, Michel

    2013-01-18

    A new hydroxythiophenedicarboxylate metal-organic framework based on Mn(II) cations has been obtained by an aqueous two-step procedure including hydrothermal treatment. The structure of Mn(3)(OH)(2)(C(6)H(2)O(4)S)(2) has been determined ab initio from synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data and consists of infinite inorganic ribbons which are interlinked by 2,5-thiophenedicarboxylate (tdc) molecules (monoclinic, space group P2(1)/c, a = 3.4473(1) Å, b = 19.1287(1) Å, c = 11.0069(1) Å, β = 97.48(1)°, V = 719.65(1) Å(3), and Z = 2). Each ribbon is built of three vertex-sharing chains of edge-sharing MnO(6) octahedrons. These ribbons are bridged together by the carboxylate functions of the tdc molecule to form a pseudo-2D inorganic subnetwork, while this molecule develops in the third dimension to pillar these pseudo-2D layers. An unprecedented hexadentate symmetric bridging mode is adopted by tdc which bridges two chains of a ribbon on one side and two ribbons of a pseudo-2D inorganic subnetwork on the other side. Magnetic measurements suggest that the titled compound is antiferromagnetic below T(N) = 17.7 K. Heat capacity measurements confirm the existence of a magnetic phase transition toward a 3D long-range ordered state. These C(P)(T) data have also been used for the calculation of the thermal variations of both the adiabatic temperature change ΔT(ad) and magnetic entropy change ΔS(m) of the material, namely its magnetocaloric effect.

  10. Powder detergents production plant

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Mirjana S.; Pezo Lato L.

    2003-01-01

    The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for powder detergent production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories, in 1998. - 2000. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production plant with a capacity of 25,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Delta In", Zrenjanin, in 2000.This technology was an innovation, because new approach in mixing a powder materials was used, as well as introducing ...

  11. Lattice strain of osmium diboride under high pressure and nonhydrostatic stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavner, Abby; Weinberger, Michelle B.; Shahar, Anat; Cumberland, Robert W.; Levine, Jonathan B.; Kaner, Richard B.; Tolbert, Sarah H.

    2012-01-01

    The lattice strain behavior of osmium diboride—a member of a group of third-row transition metal borides associated with hard/superhard behavior—has been studied using radial diffraction in a diamond anvil cell under high pressure and non-hydrostatic stress. We interpret the average values of the measured lattice strains as a lower-bound to the lattice-plane dependent yield strengths using existing estimates for the elastic constants of OsB2, with a yield strength of 11 GPa at 27.5 GPa of hydrostaticpressure. The measured differential lattice strains show significant plane-dependent anisotropy, with the (101) lattice plane showing the largest differential strain and the (001) lattice plane showing the least strain. At the highest pressure, the a-axis develops a larger compressive strain and supports a larger differential strain than either the b or c axes. This causes an increase in the c/a ratio and a decrease in the a/b ratio especially in the maximum stress direction. The large strength anisotropy of this material points to possible ways to modulate directional mechanical properties by taking advantage of the interplay between aggregate polycrystalline texture with directional mechanical properties.

  12. Nanostructures of Boron, Carbon and Magnesium Diboride for High Temperature Superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferle, Lisa [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Fang, Fang [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Iyyamperumal, Eswarmoorthi [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Keskar, Gayatri [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2013-12-23

    Direct fabrication of MgxBy nanostructures is achieved by employing metal (Ni,Mg) incorporated MCM-41 in the Hybrid Physical-Chemical Vapor Deposition (HPCVD) reaction. Different reaction conditions are tested to optimize the fabrication process. TEM analysis shows the fabrication of MgxBy nanostructures starting at the reaction temperature of 600oC, with the yield of the nanostructures increasing with increasing reaction temperature. The as-synthesized MgxBy nanostructures have the diameters in the range of 3-5nm, which do not increase with the reaction temperature consistent with templated synthesis. EELS analysis of the template removed nanostructures confirms the existence of B and Mg with possible contamination of Si and O. NEXAFS and Raman spectroscopy analysis suggested a concentric layer-by-layer MgxBy nanowire/nanotube growth model for our as-synthesized nanostructures. Ni k-edge XAS indicates that the formation of MgNi alloy particles is important for the Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) growth of MgxBy nanostructures with fine diameters, and the presence of Mg vapor not just Mg in the catalyst is crucial for the formation of Ni-Mg clusters. Physical templating by the MCM-41 pores was shown to confine the diameter of the nanostructures. DC magnetization measurements indicate possible superconductive behaviors in the as-synthesized samples.

  13. Magnetically responsive enzyme powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pospiskova, Kristyna, E-mail: kristyna.pospiskova@upol.cz [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University, Slechtitelu 11, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Safarik, Ivo, E-mail: ivosaf@yahoo.com [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University, Slechtitelu 11, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Department of Nanobiotechnology, Institute of Nanobiology and Structural Biology of GCRC, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2015-04-15

    Powdered enzymes were transformed into their insoluble magnetic derivatives retaining their catalytic activity. Enzyme powders (e.g., trypsin and lipase) were suspended in various liquid media not allowing their solubilization (e.g., saturated ammonium sulfate and highly concentrated polyethylene glycol solutions, ethanol, methanol, 2-propanol) and subsequently cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. Magnetic modification was successfully performed at low temperature in a freezer (−20 °C) using magnetic iron oxides nano- and microparticles prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis from ferrous sulfate. Magnetized cross-linked enzyme powders were stable at least for two months in water suspension without leakage of fixed magnetic particles. Operational stability of magnetically responsive enzymes during eight repeated reaction cycles was generally without loss of enzyme activity. Separation of magnetically modified cross-linked powdered enzymes from reaction mixtures was significantly simplified due to their magnetic properties. - Highlights: • Cross-linked enzyme powders were prepared in various liquid media. • Insoluble enzymes were magnetized using iron oxides particles. • Magnetic iron oxides particles were prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis. • Magnetic modification was performed under low (freezing) temperature. • Cross-linked powdered trypsin and lipase can be used repeatedly for reaction.

  14. Composite with a metallic matrix Al-AlN: from the powder to the material; Composite a matrice metallique A1-A1N: de la poudre au materiau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troadec, C.

    1996-05-09

    Two types of powders are used: a `composite` powder synthesized by direct nitridation of aluminium by nitrogen, and a `mixed` powder obtained by a mixture of Al and AlN powders. These two powders types are crushed in a high energetic planetary crusher under an Ar atmosphere, then they are sintered under solid phase hot pressure. Microstructure of these materials, studied by Tem and XED, is relatively heterogenous, with high density polycrystalline area and high porous nano-crystals area. Size of these porous area are higher in `mixed` powders, and is linked to AlN percentage and to the crushing time. High density area are composed of Al grains surrounded by AlN nano-crystals with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} needles and few aluminium oxynitride crystals. Physicochemical and mechanical properties, wear and corrosion comportment differ in function of the initial powders (`mixed` or `composite`) and with the AlN percentage. These new materials have, at similar reinforcement concentration, equivalent properties to Al/SiC or Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} materials. (A.B.) 112 refs.

  15. Measuring thermal conductivity of powders with differential scanning calorimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Pujula, Miquel; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Daniel; López-Olmedo, Joan Pere; Farjas Silva, Jordi; Roura Grabulosa, Pere

    2016-01-01

    This paper simplifies a recently proposed method for measuring the thermal conductivity of powders using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) (Sa´nchez-Rodríguez et al. in J Therm Anal Calorim 121:469-473, 2015). With this method, a crucible is filled with powder and a spherical metal reference is partially sunk into it. The thermal resistance between the metal and the crucible wall at the metal melting point is obtained from the DSC melting peak slope. In the simplified method outlined in...

  16. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-07-29

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  17. Safety consideration when handling metal powders

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Benson, JM

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available or milled and dust clouds are produced. In addition, exposure to airborne particles can have adverse effects on the human body, especially when particles are inhaled on a regular basis. Furthermore, the medical consequences of these are not fully understood...

  18. 低温碱性熔炼分离提取废弃电路板粉末中两性金属%Separation and extraction of amphoteric metals from waste printed circuit board powders by low-temperature alkaline smelting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静欣; 郭学益; 田庆华; 李栋

    2014-01-01

    模拟废弃电路板破碎、分选后得到的多金属富集粉末,通过单因素实验和正交试验,采用低温碱性熔炼研究熔炼温度、熔炼时间和盐料质量比对其中有价金属分离提取率的影响.结果表明,最佳条件为熔炼温度400℃,熔炼时间1.5 h,盐料质量比3.5,其中盐料质量比对两性金属提取率影响最显著.在最佳条件下,两性金属提取率为 Sn 83.6%、Al 92.7%、Zn 80.9%及Sb 34.5%,以可溶盐形式富集在浸出液中,铜等其他成分则于渣中富集,有效实现了两性金属与其他金属的分离.%Multi-component metal powders were prepared by imitating the crushed metal enrichment originated from waste printed circuit boards. The effects of smelting temperature, smelting time and NaNO3-NaOH/powder mass ratio on the extracting ratios of am-photeric metals during low-temperature alkaline smelting were investigated through single-factor experiments and orthogonal tests. It is found that the mass ratio of NaNO3-NaOH to crushed metal enrichment has the most significant effect on the extracting ratios of ampho-teric metals. The optimum conditions were obtained as the smelting temperature of 400℃, the smelting time of 1. 5 h and the mass ratio of NaNO3-NaOH to crushed metal enrichment of 3. 5. Under the optimum conditions, the extracting ratios of amphoteric metals are as the following:Sn 83. 6%, Al 92. 7%, Zn 80. 9%, and Sb 34. 5%. Amphoteric metals are converted to sodium salts, dissolving in the leaching process, while other components, such as copper and precious metals, are enriched in the residue. In this novel process, am-photeric metals are separated with other metals efficiently.

  19. Recovery Of Electrodic Powder From Spent Lithium Ion Batteries (LIBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin S.M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on recycling process newly proposed to recover electrodic powder enriched in cobalt (Co and lithium (Li from spent lithium ion battery. In addition, this new process was designed to prevent explosion of batteries during thermal treatment under inert atmosphere. Spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs were heated over the range of 300°C to 600°C for 2 hours and each component was completely separated inside reactor after experiment. Electrodic powder was successfully recovered from bulk components containing several pieces of metals through sieving operation. The electrodic powder obtained was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA and furthermore image of the powder was taken by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was finally found that cobalt and lithium were mainly recovered to about 49 wt.% and 4 wt.% in electrodic powder, respectively.

  20. Powder Processing of Amorphous Tungsten-bearing Alloys and Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    8725 John J. Kingman Road, MS-6201 Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201 T E C H N IC A L R E P O R T DTRA-TR-14-73 Powder Processing of Amorphous Tungsten ...Technology, Boise State University, Army Research Laboratory Project Title: Powder Processing of Amorphous Tungsten -bearing Alloys and Composites...strength, we made them better suited to study the mechanical alloying of tungsten -transition metal couples in which interdiffusion during mechanical

  1. Cow dung powder poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Khaja Mohideen Sherfudeen; Senthil Kumar Kaliannan; Pavan Kumar Dammalapati

    2015-01-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as “saani powder” in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of ...

  2. Selective laser sintering of polymer-coated silicon carbide powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, J.C.; Vail, N.K.; Barlow, J.W.; Beaman, J.J.; Bourell, D.L.; Marcus, H.L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) produces three-dimensional objects directly from a computer-aided design (CAD) solid model, without part-specific tooling, by repeatedly depositing thin layers of fusible powder and selective sintering each layer to the next with a rastered, modulated, CO{sub 2} laser beam. This technology, originally intended to produce parts and patterns from powdered waxes and thermoplastics, can be extended through use of thermoplastic-coated inorganic powder to producing green shapes which contain metal or ceramic powder bound together with the thermoplastic. These shapes can be subsequently processed into metal, ceramic, or composite metal/ceramic parts by various methods. Generally, the strength of the green shape critically depends on the layer to layer fusion that is achieved. A model of the SLS process is presented that correctly estimates the sintering depths in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and coated silicon carbide (SiC) powders that result from operating parameters including laser power, beam scanning speed, beam diameter, scan spacing, and temperature. Green part densities and strengths are found to correlate with a combination of parameters, termed the energy density, that arise naturally from consideration of the energy input to the powder bed.

  3. 单体米黄大理石矿粉对小麦产量及各器官重金属含量的影响%Effect of Monomer Yellow Marble Powder on Wheat Yield and Heavy Metals Contents in Wheat Organs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向元英; 吴国艳; 杨克燕

    2012-01-01

    采用盆栽法,研究大理石矿粉对小麦产量及对成熟期小麦根、茎叶、果实中重全属含量的影响。结果表明:添加大理石矿粉会显著影响小麦的生长及产量(P〈0.05),添加矿粉的量不大于60g/kg时,小麦的结实小穗数、穗粒数、千粒重和产量随添加量的增加而增加,而含量再继续增大时,对小麦产量的促进作用将减弱:低含量的大理石矿粉能缓解Ph、Cu、Zn对小麦的毒害,而高含量的对小麦的影响各异,小麦各器官中重金属Cd、Cr与添加大理石矿粉含量呈显著正相关;重金属对小麦各器官的影响排序,根:Cd〉Cr〉Pb〉Cu〉Zn,茎叶:Cd〉Cr〉Cu〉Pb〉Zn.果实:Cd〉Cr〉Pb〉Zn〉Cu。在大理石开采区应该采取一定的措施,避免大量的大理石矿粉散入周围的耕地。%The effect of marble powder on the wheat yield as well as the heavy metals contents in the roots, stem leaves and grains of wheat in the mature stage were studied using potted wheat. The results showed that addition of marble powder significantly affected the growth and yield of wheat ( P 〈 0. 05 ). When the addition of marble powder wasn't higher than 60g/kg, the wheat parameters such as the number of seed-setting spikelets, number of grains per spike, thousand seed weight and yield increased with the increasing marble powder; while when the addition became more than 60g/kg, the promoting function for wheat yield became weak. The marble powder with low content could alleviate toxicity of heavy metals such as Pb, Cu and Zn on wheat, while that with high content affected the wheat differently. Actually there were significantly positive correlation between the contents of heavy metals such as Cd and Cr in different wheat organs and the addition amount of marble powder. The ranks of heavy metals affecting the wheat organs were as follows : for roots as Cd 〉 Cr 〉 Pb 〉 Cu 〉 Zn, for stem and leaves as Cd 〉 Cr

  4. Enhancement of surface integrity of titanium alloy with copper by means of laser metal deposition process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erinosho, MF

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The laser metal deposition process possesses the combination of metallic powder and laser beam respectively. However, these combinations create an adhesive bonding that permanently solidifies the laser-enhanced-deposited powders. Titanium alloys (Ti...

  5. Surface passivity largely governs the bioaccessibility of nickel-based powder particles at human exposure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Yolanda S; Herting, Gunilla; Latvala, Siiri; Elihn, Karine; Karlsson, Hanna L; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger

    2016-11-01

    The European chemical framework REACH requires that hazards and risks posed by chemicals, including alloys and metals, are identified and proven safe for humans and the environment. Therefore, differences in bioaccessibility in terms of released metals in synthetic biological fluids (different pH (1.5-7.4) and composition) that are relevant for different human exposure routes (inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact) have been assessed for powder particles of an alloy containing high levels of nickel (Inconel 718, 57 wt% nickel). This powder is compared with the bioaccessibility of two nickel-containing stainless steel powders (AISI 316L, 10-12% nickel) and with powders representing their main pure alloy constituents: two nickel metal powders (100% nickel), two iron metal powders and two chromium metal powders. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, microscopy, light scattering, and nitrogen absorption were employed for the particle and surface oxide characterization. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to quantify released amounts of metals in solution. Cytotoxicity (Alamar blue assay) and DNA damage (comet assay) of the Inconel powder were assessed following exposure of the human lung cell line A549, as well as its ability to generate reactive oxygen species (DCFH-DA assay). Despite its high nickel content, the Inconel alloy powder did not release any significant amounts of metals and did not induce any toxic response. It is concluded, that this is related to the high surface passivity of the Inconel powder governed by its chromium-rich surface oxide. Read-across from the pure metal constituents is hence not recommended either for this or any other passive alloy.

  6. Evaluation of powder metallurgy superalloy disk materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop nickel-base superalloy disk material using prealloyed powder metallurgy techniques. The program included fabrication of test specimens and subscale turbine disks from four different prealloyed powders (NASA-TRW-VIA, AF2-1DA, Mar-M-432 and MERL 80). Based on evaluation of these specimens and disks, two alloys (AF2-1DA and Mar-M-432) were selected for scale-up evaluation. Using fabricating experience gained in the subscale turbine disk effort, test specimens and full scale turbine disks were formed from the selected alloys. These specimens and disks were then subjected to a rigorous test program to evaluate their physical properties and determine their suitability for use in advanced performance turbine engines. A major objective of the program was to develop processes which would yield alloy properties that would be repeatable in producing jet engine disks from the same powder metallurgy alloys. The feasibility of manufacturing full scale gas turbine engine disks by thermomechanical processing of pre-alloyed metal powders was demonstrated. AF2-1DA was shown to possess tensile and creep-rupture properties in excess of those of Astroloy, one of the highest temperature capability disk alloys now in production. It was determined that metallographic evaluation after post-HIP elevated temperature exposure should be used to verify the effectiveness of consolidation of hot isostatically pressed billets.

  7. Platelet-containing tantalum powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiele, E.K.

    1988-04-26

    A method of forming platelet tantalum powders is described comprising the steps of: (a) providing an ingot-derived precursor tantalum powder, and (b) ball-milling the precursor powder for a time sufficient to form a platelet powder having an average FSSS of less than about 2 micrometers, a Scott density not greater than about 30 g/in/sup 3/ and a BET surface area of at least about 0.7 in/sup 2//g.

  8. Nitridation of chromium powder in ammonia atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Li; Qiang Zhen; Rong Li

    2015-01-01

    CrN powder was synthesized by nitriding Cr metal in ammonia gas flow, and its chemical reaction mechanism and nitridation process were studied. Through thermodynamic calculations, the Cr−N−O predominance diagrams were constructed for different tempera-tures. Chromium nitride formed at 700−1200°C under relatively higher nitrogen and lower oxygen partial pressures. Phases in the products were then investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the Cr2N content varied with reaction temperature and holding time. The results indicate that the Cr metal powder nitridation process can be explained by a diffusion model. Further, Cr2N formed as an intermediate product because of an incomplete reaction, which was observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). After nitriding at 1000°C for 20 h, CrN powder with an average grain size of 63 nm was obtained, and the obtained sample was analyzed by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  9. The Application of Powder Rheology in Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Jamie; Millington-Smith, Doug; Armstrong, Brian

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is sensitive to powder variability when applying fine layers in a uniform manner. This demands a high degree of consistency and repeatability in the feedstock. Particle size is often used as a critical quality attribute, but this is not sufficient to fully qualify a feedstock. Indeed, it is inadequate to suggest that any parameter from a single test, e.g., Hall flowmeter or Hausner ratio, can comprehensively describe a powder's characteristics. This article uses four case studies to demonstrate the limitations of single parameter characterization and how the rheological properties of several metal powders used in AM applications are used to establish in-process performance. In the first study, the significantly reduced permeability and increased specific energy of a one batch of powder demonstrate a clear link to poor layer uniformity. The second study investigates the impact of metal powder manufacturing methods and suppliers, and it shows how shear properties alone cannot be relied on to identify properties that influence the process. The effect of additives on the processability of polymer blends used in AM is also evaluated, and the results show that even small quantities can have a significant effect on the permeability and basic flowability energy of feedstocks. The final study demonstrates the how rheological measurements can be used to identify the optimum blend of fresh and used material when reusing metal powders to manufacture components. These case studies illustrate the ability of a modern powder rheometer to detect minor variations in powders that are directly relevant to performance in AM processes in a way that traditional characterization methods cannot.

  10. Productions of ultra-fine powders and their use in high energetic compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Yuri F.; Osmonoliev, Mirswan N.; Sedoi, Valentin S. [Institute of High Current Electronics RAS, 634055 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Arkhipov, Vladimir A.; Bondarchuk, Sergey S.; Vorozhtsov, Alexander B.; Korotkikh, Alexander G.; Kuznetsov, Valery T. [Tomsk State University, Lenin Ave., 36, Tomsk, 634034 (Russian Federation)

    2003-12-01

    Fine and ultra-fine powders are actively studied in pyrotechnics, explosives and propellants. The important questions are how to produce a powder with specified characteristics and how to use the powder produced. This paper presents an approach to the powder production by the exploding wire method. The influence of initial conditions on the properties of powders is discussed. The basic factors are as follows: the level and the uniformity of the energy, dissipated in the exploding wire metal; the density and the chemical activity of the surrounding gas; the initial radius of wire. Electron Microscopes (Transmission and Scanning) and the Surface BET Mehtod have been used for analyses. The production of ultra-fine powders based on such metals as Al, W, Zr, Cu, Fe, Ag, Co, In, Pt has been investigated. Different surrounding passive gases (nitrogen, argon, xenon, and helium) were used for producing powders of pure metals. Samples were studied by chemical methods. X-ray Diffraction and Electron Diffraction methods were used for the determination of the phase compositions. Characterization included also Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermogravimetry in air with a heating rate of 100 K/min. In summary, it was shown that the exploding wire method allows to produce ultra-fine powders of various metals. The results obtained can be applied directly to the production of powders with specified characteristics. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Low temperature spark plasma sintering of YIG powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Garcia, L. [Department of Nanostructured Materials, Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN). Principado de Asturias - Consejo superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC) - Universidad de Oviedo - UO, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera, Asturias (Spain); Suarez, M., E-mail: m.suarez@cinn.e [Department of Nanostructured Materials, Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN). Principado de Asturias - Consejo superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC) - Universidad de Oviedo - UO, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera, Asturias (Spain); Fundacion ITMA, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428, Llanera (Spain); Menendez, J.L. [Department of Nanostructured Materials, Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN). Principado de Asturias - Consejo superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC) - Universidad de Oviedo - UO, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera, Asturias (Spain)

    2010-07-16

    A transition from a low to a high spin state in the magnetization saturation between 1000 and 1100 {sup o}C calcination temperature is observed in YIG powders prepared by oxides mixture. Spark plasma sintering of these powders between 900 and 950 {sup o}C leads to dense samples with minimal formation of YFeO{sub 3}, opening the way to co-sintering of YIG with metals or metallic alloys. The optical properties depend on the sintering stage: low (high) density samples show poor (bulk) optical absorption.

  12. Measuring Apparatus for Coal Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The measuring apparatus for coal powder, equipped with radioactive source, is a set of device andcan be used to measure the density in the pipes and cumulative consumed amount of coal powder in apower plant, and to examine and display the status of the coal powder input system. It is sketched asFig. 1.

  13. Powder detergents production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for powder detergent production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories, in 1998. - 2000. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production plant with a capacity of 25,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Delta In", Zrenjanin, in 2000.This technology was an innovation, because new approach in mixing a powder materials was used, as well as introducing a new type of dryer in detergent production. The product meets all quality demands for detergents with high specific weight (1000 g/l, as well as environmental regulations. The detergent production process is fully automatized, and the product has uniform quality. There is no waste material in detergent zeolite production, because all products with unsatisfactory quality are returned to the process. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  14. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Tran, Tri D. (Livermore, CA); Feikert, John H. (Livermore, CA); Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Fabrication of conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive dionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m.sup.2 /gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon compositives with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to be high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced.

  15. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Tran, T.D.; Feikert, J.H.; Mayer, S.T.

    1997-06-10

    Fabrication is described for conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive deionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m{sup 2}/gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon composites with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced. 1 fig.

  16. Dispersing powders in liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, RD

    1988-01-01

    This book provides powder technologists with laboratory procedures for selecting dispersing agents and preparing stable dispersions that can then be used in particle size characterization instruments. Its broader goal is to introduce industrial chemists and engineers to the phenomena, terminology, physical principles, and chemical considerations involved in preparing and handling dispersions on a commercial scale. The book introduces novices to: - industrial problems due to improper degree of dispersion; - the nomenclature used in describing particles; - the basic physica

  17. Challenges of titanium metal injection moulding

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Benson, JM

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available . With the increased availability of higher quality titanium powder, metal injection moulding offers an attractive method for producing small, intricate components at a reasonable cost. This paper will present an overview of the metal injection moulding process...

  18. Influence of grinding on service properties of VT-22 powder applied in additive technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, M. N.; Rybalko, O. F.; Romanova, O. V.; Gelchinskiy, B. R.; Il’inykh, S. A.; Krashaninin, V. A.

    2017-01-01

    Powder of titanium alloy (VT-22) produced by plasma-spraying was subjected to grinding to obtain powder with size less 100 microns. These powders were sprayed by plasma unit using two types of gases, namely, air and air with methane (spraying in water and sputtering of coating on steel support). Influence of grinding time on yield of powder of required fraction was studied. Morphology and phase composition of the grinded powder and plasma sprayed one were under investigation. In the result of experiments, it appears that the grinding time genuinely influences the chemical and phase compositions, but there is no effect on physical-processing properties. For powders after plasma spraying some changes of non-metal elements content were detected by chemical analysis. Using gaseous mixture of air and methane in plasma spraying unit leads to formation of a new phase in the powder according X-ray diffraction data.

  19. Computer Vision and Machine Learning for Autonomous Characterization of AM Powder Feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCost, Brian L.; Jain, Harshvardhan; Rollett, Anthony D.; Holm, Elizabeth A.

    2017-03-01

    By applying computer vision and machine learning methods, we develop a system to characterize powder feedstock materials for metal additive manufacturing (AM). Feature detection and description algorithms are applied to create a microstructural scale image representation that can be used to cluster, compare, and analyze powder micrographs. When applied to eight commercial feedstock powders, the system classifies powder images into the correct material systems with greater than 95% accuracy. The system also identifies both representative and atypical powder images. These results suggest the possibility of measuring variations in powders as a function of processing history, relating microstructural features of powders to properties relevant to their performance in AM processes, and defining objective material standards based on visual images. A significant advantage of the computer vision approach is that it is autonomous, objective, and repeatable.

  20. Sol-gel synthesis and densification of aluminoborosilicate powders. Part 1: Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Jeffrey; Selvaduray, Guna; Leiser, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    Aluminoborosilicate powders high in alumina content were synthesized by the sol-gel process utilizing various methods of preparation. Properties and microstructural effects related to these syntheses were examined. After heating to 600 C for 2 h in flowing air, the powders were amorphous with the metal oxides comprising 87 percent of the weight and uncombusted organics the remainder. DTA of dried powders revealed a T(sub g) at approximately 835 C and an exotherm near 900 C due to crystallization. Powders derived from aluminum secbutoxide consisted of particles with a mean diameter 5 microns less than those from aluminum isopropoxide. Powders synthesized with aluminum isopropoxide produced agglomerates comprised of rod shaped particulates while powders made with the secbutoxide precursor produced irregular glassy shards. Compacts formed from these powders required different loadings for equivalent densities according to the method of synthesis.

  1. Computer Vision and Machine Learning for Autonomous Characterization of AM Powder Feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCost, Brian L.; Jain, Harshvardhan; Rollett, Anthony D.; Holm, Elizabeth A.

    2016-12-01

    By applying computer vision and machine learning methods, we develop a system to characterize powder feedstock materials for metal additive manufacturing (AM). Feature detection and description algorithms are applied to create a microstructural scale image representation that can be used to cluster, compare, and analyze powder micrographs. When applied to eight commercial feedstock powders, the system classifies powder images into the correct material systems with greater than 95% accuracy. The system also identifies both representative and atypical powder images. These results suggest the possibility of measuring variations in powders as a function of processing history, relating microstructural features of powders to properties relevant to their performance in AM processes, and defining objective material standards based on visual images. A significant advantage of the computer vision approach is that it is autonomous, objective, and repeatable.

  2. Effect of Current Pathways During Spark Plasma Sintering of an Aluminum Alloy Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Frank; McWilliams, Brandon; Cho, Kyu

    2016-12-01

    Spark plasma sintering has been a well-studied processing technique primarily for its very high cooling and heating rates. However, the underlying phenomenon driving the sintering behavior of powders under an electric field is still poorly understood. In this study, we look at the effect of changing current pathways through the powder bed by changing die materials, from conductive graphite to insulating boron nitride for sintering aluminum alloy 5083 powder. We found that the aluminum powder itself was insulating and that by changing the current paths, we had to find alternate processing methods to initiate sintering. Altering the current pathways led to faster temperature raises and faster melting (and potentially densification) of the aluminum powder. A flash sintering effect in metallic powders is observed in which the powder compact undergoes a rapid transition from electrically insulating to conducting at a temperature of 583 K (310 °C).

  3. Device for preparing combinatorial libraries in powder metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shoufeng; Evans, Julian R G

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a powder-metering, -mixing, and -dispensing mechanism that can be used as a method for producing large numbers of samples for metallurgical evaluation or electrical or mechanical testing from multicomponent metal and cermet powder systems. It is designed to make use of the same commercial powders that are used in powder metallurgy and, therefore, to produce samples that are faithful to the microstructure of finished products. The particle assemblies produced by the device could be consolidated by die pressing, isostatic pressing, laser sintering, or direct melting. The powder metering valve provides both on/off and flow rate control of dry powders in open capillaries using acoustic vibration. The valve is simple and involves no relative movement, avoiding seizure with fine powders. An orchestra of such valves can be arranged on a building platform to prepare multicomponent combinatorial libraries. As with many combinatorial devices, identification and evaluation of sources of mixing error as a function of sample size is mandatory. Such an analysis is presented.

  4. Fabrication of silicon nitride/boron nitride nanocomposite powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Si3N4/BN nanocomposite powders with the microstructure of the micro-sized α-Si3N4 particles coated with nano-sized BN particles were synthesized via the chemical reaction of boric acid, urea, and α-Si3N4 powder in a hydrogen gas. The results of XRD, TEM, and selected area electron diffraction showed that amorphous BN and a little amount of turbostratic BN(t-BN) were coated on Si3N4 particles as the second phase after reaction at 1100℃. After reheating the composite powders at 1450℃ in a nitrogen gas, the amorphous and turbostratic BN is transformed into h-BN. These nanocomposite powders can be used to prepare Si3N4/BN ceramic composites by hot-pressing at 1800℃, which have perfect machinability and can be drilled with normal metal tools.

  5. Induction plasma spheroidization of tungsten and molybdenum powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The melting, evaporation and oxidation behaviors as well as the solidification phenomena of tungsten and molybdenum in induction plasma were studied. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the morphology and the cross section of plasma-processed powders. X-ray diffraction was used to analyze the oxides formed on the particle surface of these two metals. The influence of spray chamber pressure on the spheroidization and oxidation phenomena was discussed. The results show that fewer Mo particles than W particles are spheroidized at the same powder feed rate under the same plasma spray condition although molybdenum has a lower melting point. A small fraction of tungsten is evaporized and condensed either on the surface of tungsten particles nearby or on the wall of spray chamber. Tungsten oxides were found in tungsten powder processed under soft vacuum condition. Extremely large grains form inside some spheroidized particles of tungsten powder.

  6. JPRS Report Science & Technology Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    8, 47 (1988). 7. P. D. Zavitsanos and A. Gatti, "The Use of Self- Propagating Reactions for the Synthesis of High Density Titanium Diboride." 8...Contents: The insulating coating is removed; pickling ; metal plating with Sb, Zn, Sn and Ni; 0.76 W/kg (before treatment: 0.91) 28. Powders for

  7. 2015欧洲粉末冶金大会的金属增材制造:高温合金、粉末雾化、喷墨和激光金属沉积工艺的进展%Metal AM at Euro PM2015:superalloys,powder atomization and advances in inkjet and LMD processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Whittaker

    2016-01-01

    In the part two of report on technical advances in metal AM at the Euro PM2015 congress,Reims, France,October 4-7 2015,Dr David Whittaker reported on six further papers presented at the conference very well attended metal AM sessions. These papers cover the heat treatment of IN939 superalloy parts,the production of Ni718 superalloy powder,advances in inkjet-based metal AM and the production of gears by laser metal deposi-tion (LMD).%2015欧洲粉末冶金会议于2015年10月4—7日在法国兰斯(Reims)举行。本届大会报告的第二部分是关于金属增材制造的进展,David博士就会议中有关金属增材制造的6篇论文作了报告。这些论文涵盖了IN939高温合金制件的热处理、Ni718高温合金粉末的生产、喷墨金属增材制造和激光金属沉积(LMD)生产齿轮的进展。

  8. Low Temperature Powder Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) • Legacy primers contain hexavalent chrome • Conventional powder coatings...panels • Third panel exhibited a single filament extending slightly beyond allowable tolerance Filiform Corrosion Resistance LTCPC on 2024 T-3 Clad ...LTCPC on 2024 T-3 Clad O G D E N A I R L O G I S T I C S C E N T E R BE AMERICA’S BEST JTP Results • LTCPC performance similar or better than wet

  9. A Nonvolume Preserving Plasticity Theory with Applications to Powder Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassenti, B. N.

    1983-01-01

    A plasticity theory has been developed to predict the mechanical response of powder metals during hot isostatic pressing. The theory parameters were obtained through an experimental program consisting of hydrostatic pressure tests, uniaxial compression and uniaxial tension tests. A nonlinear finite element code was modified to include the theory and the results of themodified code compared favorably to the results from a verification experiment.

  10. One step HIP canning of powder metallurgy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhas, John J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A single step is relied on in the canning process for hot isostatic pressing (HIP) powder metallurgy composites. The binders are totally removed while the HIP can of compatible refractory metal is sealed at high vacuum and temperature. This eliminates outgassing during hot isostatic pressing.

  11. Powder Metallurgy Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The facility is uniquely equipped as the only laboratory within DA to conduct PM processing of refractory metals and alloys as well as the processing of a wide range...

  12. Study of Transport and Micro-structural properties of Magnesium Di-Boride Strand under react and bend mode and bend and react mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Ananya; Das, Subrat Kumar; Bano, Anees; Pradhan, Subrata

    2017-04-01

    I-V characterization of commercial multi-filamentary Magnesium Di-Boride (MgB2) wire of diameter 0.83 mm were studied in Cryocooler at self-field I-V characterization system under both react and bend mode and bend and react mode for a range of temperature 6 K - 25 K. This study is of practical technical relevance where the heat treatment of the superconducting wire makes the wire less flexible for winding in magnet and in other applications. In the present work the bending diameter was varied from 40 mm to 20 mm and for each case critical current (Ic) of the strand is measured for above range of temperature. A customized sample holder is fabricated and thermally anchored with the 2nd cold stage of Cryocooler. It is observed from the measurement that the strand is more susceptible to degradation for react and bend cases. The transport measurement of the strand was accompanied by SEM analyses of bend samples. Also the tensile strength of the raw strands and the heat treated strands were carried out at room temperature in Universal Testing Machine (UTM) to have an estimate about the limiting winding tension value during magnet fabrication.

  13. Sintering of titanium alloy by powder metallurgy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosme, C.R.M. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil); Henriques, V.A.R.; Cairo, C.A.A.; Taddei, E.B. [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Titanium alloys are suitable for biomaterial applications, considering its biocompatibility and low elastic modulus compared to steel. Bone resorption in this case can be reduced by load sharing between the implant and natural bone.Starting powders were obtained by hydride method, carried out under positive hydrogen pressure at 500 deg C for titanium and 800 deg C for Nb, Zr and Ta powders. After reaching the nominal temperature, the material was held for 3h, with subsequent cooling to room temperature and milling of the friable hydride. Samples were produce by mixing of initial metallic powders followed by and cold isostatic pressing. Subsequent densification by sintering was performed at temperature range between 900 and 1700 deg C. Characterization was carried out with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and microhardness measurements. Microstructural examinations revealed higher amount of &⧣946;-phase for higher sintering temperature and dissolution of Ta and NB particles. In vitro tests revealed low cytotoxicity of sintered samples. (author)

  14. Preparation of Pure Copper Powder from Acidic Copper Chloride Waste Etchant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The method for the recycling of copper from copper chloride solution was developed. This process consists of extraction of copper, purification and particle size reduction. In the first step, reductive metal scraps were added to acidic copper chloride waste enchants produced in the PCB industry to obtain copper powder.Composition analysis showed that this powder contained impurities such as Fe, Ni, and water. So, drying and purification were carried out by using microwave and a centrifugal separator. Thereby the copper powder had a purity of higher than 99% and spherical form in morphology. The copper powder size was decreased by ball milling.

  15. Hot extrusion of Be–Ti powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurinskiy, P., E-mail: petr.kurinskiy@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials—Applied Materials Physics (IAM—AWP), PO Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Leiste, H. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials—Applied Materials Physics (IAM—AWP), PO Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Goraieb, A.A. [Karlsruhe Beryllium Handling Facility (KBHF GmbH), Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Mueller, S. [Extrusion Research and Development Center, TU Berlin, Sekr. TIB 4/1-2, Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25, 13355 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Extrusion in double-walled containment of Be–Ti blended powder was investigated. • Fabrication of Be–Ti rods by extrusion at 700 °C showed more satisfactory results compared to an extrusion at 900 °C. • Factors which influence homogeneous and stable metal flow during extrusion are discussed. - Abstract: Be–30.8 wt.%Ti powder mixture was extruded in copper and steel containers at 700 and 900 °C, respectively. In both cases, achieved extrusion ratio was 7:1. Investigations of microstructure of manufactured Be–Ti rods revealed that processing temperature has a great influence on the metal flow during the extrusion as well as formation of beryllide phases. The results obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis proved that brittle intermetallic phases were formed by processing at 900 °C; while no evidence of reaction between beryllium and titanium was detected after extrusion at 700 °C. Additionally, high-temperature annealing tests of produced Be–Ti samples were performed in order to study the evolution of the phase composition after the heat treatment. The effects of different mechanical properties of core materials (beryllium and titanium) and containers on uniform deformation are discussed in this work.

  16. Direct reduction of hematite powders in a fluidized bed reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingshan Zhu; Rongfang Wu; Hongzhong Li

    2013-01-01

    Ultrafine hematite powder was reduced to produce ultrafine iron powder in a 50%Ar-50%H2 atmosphere at 450-550 ℃ in a fluidized bed reactor.The ultrafine hematite powder shows the typical agglomerating fluidization behavior with large agglomerates fluidized at the bottom of the bed and small agglomerates fluidized at the upper part of the bed.It was found that defluidization occurred even at the low temperature of 450 ℃ with low metallization rate.Defluidization was attributed mainly to the sintering of the newly formed iron particles.Granuation was employed to improve the fluidization quality and to tackle the defluidization problem,where granules fluidized like a Geldart's group A powder.Granulation was found to effectively reduce defluidization during reduction,without however sacrificing reduction speed.The asreduced iron powders from both the ultrafine and the granulated hematite exhibited excellent sintering activity,that is,fast sintering at temperature of as low as ~580 ℃,which is much superior as compared to that of nano/ultrafine iron powders made by other processes,

  17. Method of manufacturing powder particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borra, J.P.D.

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of manufacturing a dry powder particle, preferably using electro-hydrodynamic spraying, wherein two oppositely charged aerosol streams are contacted. The invention allows for the manufacture of powders having various, controllable compositions and shapes. In

  18. Method of manufacturing powder particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borra, J.P.D.

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of manufacturing a dry powder particle, preferably using electro-hydrodynamic spraying, wherein two oppositely charged aerosol streams are contacted. The invention allows for the manufacture of powders having various, controllable compositions and shapes. In particu

  19. CHINESE RE POLISHING POWDER INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Due to its high polishing efficiency, long working life and wide application range, RE polishing powder has become the most popular fine polishing material. In recent years, accompanying the rapid development of electronic information technology, the demand for polishing powder is

  20. Pulsed microwave discharges in powder mixtures: Status, problems, and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batanov, G. M.; Kossyi, I. A.

    2015-10-01

    Results of experiments on the excitation of pulsed microwave discharges by gyrotron radiation (λ = 4 mm, P 0 = 100-500 kW, τ = 1-10 ms) in the volumes and on the surfaces of metal-dielectric powder mixtures are presented. It is shown that there are two phases of discharge development: the spark phase, accompanied by a partial evaporation of the powder material, and the phase of a developed discharge, characterized by a plasma density of ˜1017 cm-3, high absorption, and high temperatures (˜5-10 kK) in a thin layer (˜0.1-0.2 mm) of plasma and vapor. It is demonstrated that the conductivity induced in the targets by UV radiation play an important role in the microwave absorption by powder grains. It is found that, in the course of the discharge, a conductive metal mesh forms in the powder volume as a result of metal evaporation. Reactions of high-temperature synthesis were initiated in various powder mixtures (Ti + B, Al + Fe2O3, Mo + B, etc.). It is shown that the reactions of high-temperature synthesis last for up to 0.1 s and are accompanied by the evaporation of powder grains and the formation of an aerosol cloud due to free expansion of reactants from the sample surface. The possibility of experimentally studying the kinetics of reactions of high-temperature synthesis is demonstrated. It is noticed that microwave discharges can be used to initiate plasmachemical reactions on the surfaces of radioparent materials in active gaseous media.

  1. An Overview on the Installation of Obtaining Aluminum Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Suárez Lisca

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the instrumentation required for obtaining metallic powder by combining the thermal and mechanical impact between the liquid and other fluid. A brief review of existing methods for the production of aluminum powder is made, and then a calculation methodology for the design and dimensioning of an atomization tower is elaborated, which will be used to obtain the diameter of particles ranging from 100 to 300 micrometer in an argon atmosphere of a discontinuous process. In the designed atomization tower the liquid metal is broken up by the action of a flow of pressurized gas supplied from a blower to spray nozzles, and then the liquid metal enters the granulation chamber impelled by a piston. The total cost of the installation is determined and the general aspects on how to operate and maintain the facility expounded.

  2. Powder-Bed Stabilization for Powder-Based Additive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Zocca

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The most successful additive manufacturing (AM technologies are based on thelayer-by-layer depositionof a flowable powder. Although considered as the third industrial revolution, one factor still limiting these processes to become completely autonomous is the often necessary build-up of support structures. Besides the prevention of lateral shifts of the part during the deposition of layers, the support assures quality and stability to the built process. The loose powder itself surrounding the built object, or so-called powder-bed, does not provide this sustenance in most existent technology available. Here we present a simple but effective and economical method for stabilizing the powder-bed, preventing distortions in the geometry with no need for support structures. This effect, achieved by applying an air flow through the powder-bed, is enabling an entirely autonomous generation of parts and is a major contribution to all powder-based additive manufacturing technologies. Moreover, it makes powder-based AM independent of gravitational forces, which will facilitate crafting items in space from a variety of powdery materials.

  3. Organic Fingerprint Powders Based on Fluorescent Phloxine B Dye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Sodhi

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel fingerpript powders based on organic dye (phJoxine B have been prepared using insoluble salts as adhesive matrials in place of costly resinous polymers (which most conventional powders incorporate. Sharp and clear prints have been developed on a wide range of surfaces, such as paper, I plastic, glass, bakelite, enamelled metal and polished wood. The fluorescent nature of phloxine B assists in developing weak prints und.er ultraviolet light which can assist a forensic scientist for lifting  fingerprints frqm the scene of crime and also a defence scientist for establishing the identity of deceased native soldiers as well as of prisoners of war.

  4. Nano powders, components and coatings by plasma technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Timothy N. (Inventor); Antony, Leo V. M. (Inventor); O'Dell, Scott (Inventor); Power, Chris (Inventor); Tabor, Terry (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Ultra fine and nanometer powders and a method of producing same are provided, preferably refractory metal and ceramic nanopowders. When certain precursors are injected into the plasma flame in a reactor chamber, the materials are heated, melted and vaporized and the chemical reaction is induced in the vapor phase. The vapor phase is quenched rapidly to solid phase to yield the ultra pure, ultra fine and nano product. With this technique, powders have been made 20 nanometers in size in a system capable of a bulk production rate of more than 10 lbs/hr. The process is particularly applicable to tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, tungsten carbide, molybdenum carbide and other related materials.

  5. Characterization and comparison of PZT powder synthesis by solid state and sol gel methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Pakizeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available   This paper describes the synthesis of Pb(Zr0.95Ti0.05O3 powder by sol gel and solid state methods. PZT powders were fabricated by solid-state reaction process using metal oxides and in sol gel method salts and organic compounds were employed. The powders were calcined at 700 and 950 oC in sol gel and solid state methods, respectively. The synthesized powders were analyzed by FTIR and XRD. The average crystal grain size of PZT powders determined by X-ray diffraction method using the Scherrer equation, and in sol gel and solid state methods measured 42 and 330 nm, respectively. The optical constants of powders were evaluated and compaed using FTIR transmittance spectroscopy and Kramers-Kronig analysis.

  6. Effect of Powder Reuse Times on Additive Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V by Selective Electron Beam Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H. P.; Qian, M.; Liu, N.; Zhang, X. Z.; Yang, G. Y.; Wang, J.

    2015-03-01

    An advantage of the powder-bed-based metal additive manufacturing (AM) processes is that the powder can be reused. The powder reuse or recycling times directly affect the affordability of the additively manufactured parts, especially for the AM of titanium parts. This study examines the influence of powder reuse times on the characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V powder, including powder composition, particle size distribution (PSD), apparent density, tap density, flowability, and particle morphology. In addition, tensile samples were manufactured and evaluated with respect to powder reuse times and sample locations in the powder bed. The following findings were made from reusing the same batch of powder 21 times for AM by selective electron beam melting: (i) the oxygen (O) content increased progressively with increasing reuse times but both the Al content and the V content remained generally stable (a small decrease only); (ii) the powder became less spherical with increasing reuse times and some particles showed noticeable distortion and rough surfaces after being reused 16 times; (iii) the PSD became narrower and few satellite particles were observed after 11 times of reuse; (iv) reused powder showed improved flowability; and (v) reused powder showed no measurable undesired influence on the AM process and the samples exhibited highly consistent tensile properties, irrespective of their locations in the powder bed. The implications of these findings were discussed.

  7. Surface Finish after Laser Metal Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombouts, M.; Maes, G.; Hendrix, W.; Delarbre, E.; Motmans, F.

    Laser metal deposition (LMD) is an additive manufacturing technology for the fabrication of metal parts through layerwise deposition and laser induced melting of metal powder. The poor surface finish presents a major limitation in LMD. This study focuses on the effects of surface inclination angle and strategies to improve the surface finish of LMD components. A substantial improvement in surface quality of both the side and top surfaces has been obtained by laser remelting after powder deposition.

  8. Development and characterization of Powder Metallurgy (PM) 2XXX series Al alloy products and Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) 2XXX Al/SiC materials for high temperature aircraft structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellman, D. J.; Gurganus, T. B.; Walker, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a series of material studies performed by the Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company over the time period from 1980 to 1991 are discussed. The technical objective of these evaluations was to develop and characterize advanced aluminum alloy materials with temperature capabilities extending to 350 F. An overview is given of the first five alloy development efforts under this contract. Prior work conducted during the first five modifications of the alloy development program are listed. Recent developments based on the addition of high Zr levels to an optimum Al-Cu-Mg alloy composition by powder metallurgy processing are discussed. Both reinforced and SiC or B4C ceramic reinforced alloys were explored to achieve specific target goals for high temperature aluminum alloy applications.

  9. Black powder in gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherik, Abdelmounam [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-07-01

    Despite its common occurrence in the gas industry, black powder is a problem that is not well understood across the industry, in terms of its chemical and physical properties, source, formation, prevention or management of its impacts. In order to prevent or effectively manage the impacts of black powder, it is essential to have knowledge of its chemical and physical properties, formation mechanisms and sources. The present paper is divided into three parts. The first part of this paper is a synopsis of published literature. The second part reviews the recent laboratory and field work conducted at Saudi Aramco Research and Development Center to determine the compositions, properties, sources and formation mechanisms of black powder in gas transmission systems. Microhardness, nano-indentation, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques were used to analyze a large number of black powder samples collected from the field. Our findings showed that black powder is generated inside pipelines due to internal corrosion and that the composition of black powder is dependent on the composition of transported gas. The final part presents a summary and brief discussion of various black powder management methods. (author)

  10. (TECTONA GRANDIS LEAF POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the adsorption potential of Teak (Tectona grandis leaf powder (TLP toremove Methylene blue (MB and Malachite Green (MG dye molecules from aqueoussolution was investigated. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the influenceof operational parameters such as, pH (2−9, adsorbent dosage (1−7 g/L, contact time(15−150 minutes and initial dye concentration (20−120 mg/L at stirring speed of 150rpm for the adsorption of MB and MG on TLP. Maximum removal efficiency of 98.4%and 95.1% was achieved for MB and MG dye, respectively. The experimentalequilibrium data were analysed using Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isothermmodels and it was found that, it fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm model. Thesurface structure and morphology of the adsorbent was characterized using scanningelectron microscopy (SEM and the presence of functional groups and its interactionwith the dye molecules were analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR. Based on the investigation, it has been demonstrated that the teak leaf powderhas good potential for effective adsorption of methylene blue and malachite green dye.

  11. Consolidation of powders of the superconductor YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-. delta. / by high energy-high rate processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.Y.; Persad, C.; Swinnea, J.S.; Marcus, H.L.; Steinfink, H. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (USA). Center for Materials Science and Engineering)

    1988-01-01

    The consolidation response of powders of the superconducting compound YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-{delta}/ by itself and admixed with metal powders is reported. The processing approach relies on short duration (powders under applied pressures of 200 MPa to 400 MPa. Powders and fabricated disk concepts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  12. Influence of Metal Diboride and Dy2O3 Additions on Microstructure and Properties of MgB2 Fabricated at High Temperatures and under Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Sumption, M D; Collings, E W

    2016-07-13

    High temperatures and under pressure (HTP) processing has been used to study the effects of chemical doping in MgB2. ZrB2, TiB2 and NbB2 were selected as additives since, like MgB2, they have an AlB2-type structure and similar lattice parameters. Dy2O3 was selected as it has been reported to generate nanoscale, secondary intragrain phases in MgB2. While C is known to enter the B-sublattice readily, attempts to dope Zr and other elements onto the Mg site have been less successful due to slow bulk diffusion, low solubility in MgB2, or both. We have used high-temperature, solid-state sintering (1500 °C), as well as excursions through the peritectic temperature (up to 1700 °C), to investigate both of these limitations. Bulk MgB2 samples doped with MB2 (M = Zr, Ti and Nb) and Dy2O3 additions were synthesized and then characterized. Lattice distortion and high densities of crystal defects were observed in the MgB2 grains around nano-sized MB2 inclusions, this highly defected band contributed to a large increase in Bc2 but was not large enough to increase the irreversibility field. In contrast, distributed intragrain precipitates were formed by Dy2O3 additions which did not change the lattice parameters, Tc, Tc distribution or Bc2 of MgB2, but modified the flux pinning.

  13. Influence of Metal Diboride and Dy2O3 Additions on Microstructure and Properties of MgB2 Fabricated at High Temperatures and under Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Sumption, M. D.; Collings, E. W.

    2016-07-01

    High temperatures and under pressure (HTP) processing has been used to study the effects of chemical doping in MgB2. ZrB2, TiB2 and NbB2 were selected as additives since, like MgB2, they have an AlB2-type structure and similar lattice parameters. Dy2O3 was selected as it has been reported to generate nanoscale, secondary intragrain phases in MgB2. While C is known to enter the B-sublattice readily, attempts to dope Zr and other elements onto the Mg site have been less successful due to slow bulk diffusion, low solubility in MgB2, or both. We have used high-temperature, solid-state sintering (1500 °C), as well as excursions through the peritectic temperature (up to 1700 °C), to investigate both of these limitations. Bulk MgB2 samples doped with MB2 (M = Zr, Ti and Nb) and Dy2O3 additions were synthesized and then characterized. Lattice distortion and high densities of crystal defects were observed in the MgB2 grains around nano-sized MB2 inclusions, this highly defected band contributed to a large increase in Bc2 but was not large enough to increase the irreversibility field. In contrast, distributed intragrain precipitates were formed by Dy2O3 additions which did not change the lattice parameters, Tc, Tc distribution or Bc2 of MgB2, but modified the flux pinning.

  14. Improving Powder Injection Molding: an Opportunity for the Aerospace Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Emri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with powder injection molding (PIM technology of metal and ceramis powders using polyoximethylene (POM binder. In this study, two ways to decrease the viscosity of PIM feedstock materials with polyoxymethylene were investigated. The first way was to reduce the average molecular weight (AMV of the binder and the second one to select a polydisperse particle size distribution with high maximum packing fraction. It was shown that binder with AMW equal to 24410 g/mol gives required level of viscosity around 10 Pa/s. It was shown that using the low disperse powder with wide size distribution can lead to volumetric loading of approximately 83 %. Moreover, using such a feedstock has viscosity lower than required by PIM technology 1000 Pa/s.

  15. Synthesis of nanosized tungsten powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Nanosized tungsten powder was synthesized by means of different methods and under different conditions with nanosized WO3 powder. The powder and the intermediate products were characterized using XRD, SEM, TEM, BET (Brunauer Emmett Teller Procedure) and SAXS (X-ray diffracto-spectrometer/Kratky small angle scattering goniometer). The results show that nanosized WO3 can be completely reduced to WO2 at 600℃ after 40 min, and WO2 can be reduced to W at 700℃ after 90 min, moreover, the mean size of W particles is less than 40 nm. Furthermore, the process of WO3→WO2→W excelled that of WO3→W in getting stable nanosized tungsten powder with less grain size.

  16. Coating metals on micropowders by magnetron sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Magnetron sputtering was used to coat various metals on micropowder surfaces. By using this method, the fine particles are better dispersed and can therefore be coated more homogeneously. The micro-powders used include cenospheres from fly ash of coal-burning electric power plants (diameter 40-200 μm and particle density 0.7±0.1 g/cm3), as well as carborundum particles of different sizes. Aluminum, silver, copper, cobalt and nickel were used as the coating metals. Tests showed that the coated metal film was compact adhering tightly on the base powders, and the coated powders possess adequate flow properties.

  17. Hydrogen solubility in FLiNaK mixed with titanium powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, Juro, E-mail: yagi.juro@LHD.nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Sagara, Akio [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Watanabe, Takashi [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka-shi, Shizuoka-ken 422-8529 (Japan); Tanaka, Teruya; Takayama, Sadatsugu; Muroga, Takeo [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The hydrogen solubility in a FLiNaK mixed with Ti powder was investigated. • A significant increase in hydrogen solubility was observed. • Controlling the purity of the molten salt was found to be one of the key issues. • A vanadium alloy would be compatible with the Ti powder/molten salt mixture. - Abstract: The hydrogen solubility in a FLiNaK molten salt mixed with Ti powder was investigated. A hydrogen-soluble metal powder mixed with a molten salt can increase the effective hydrogen solubility of the molten salt, which is currently a major disadvantage of molten salts. A significant increase in hydrogen solubility was observed, even with a mass fraction of Ti powder of only 0.1 wt%. The increase of hydrogen solubility was so large that a vanadium alloy would be compatible with the Ti powder/molten salt mixture, unlike typical molten salts that result in an unacceptably large tritium inventory in the vanadium alloy. In addition, contamination of the Ti powder by oxidation suppressed the hydrogen uptake and release capability. Controlling the purity of the molten salt was found to be one of the key issues for the metal powder mixture concept.

  18. Characterisation of poly(methyl methacrylate) film deposited on iron powder particles by electropolymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriňák, Andrej; Oriňáková, Renáta; Heile, Andreas; Talian, Ivan; Terhorst, Markus; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F.

    2007-09-01

    Iron powder microparticles were coated with a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film by electropolymerization in a fluidised bed reactor. The formation of a PMMA coating on the microparticles' surface was studied with pyrolysis gas chromatography (Py-GC) fingerprinting as well as time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). While Py-GC can provide information about PMMA bulk formation and quick information about PMMA deposition on iron microparticles, TOF-SIMS can give detailed information about particle surface PMMA coatings. A TOF-SIMS study was performed in both, positive and negative ion modes with Bi + and Bi3+ primary ions. Static TOF-SIMS macroscans of powder microparticle surface resulted in the identification of the regions with species related to the PMMA fragments in the negative ion region (Bi3+). TOF-SIMS results confirmed that PMMA coating on the iron powder microparticle surface formed an incoherent and inhomogeneous film. PMMA coating was somewhere very thin to supply a sufficient positive charged secondary ion signal. Plating of metallic powder particles by polymeric coating enables the modification of surface and structural properties of materials used in powder metallurgy. PMMA coated iron powder microparticles can be innovative as lubricants in such a way that, when they are subjected to pressure, they burst and release carbon to metal powder. The main aim of this research work is to characterise PMMA coatings deposited by electropolymerization on the surface of iron powder microparticles.

  19. Gas-Phase Combustion Synthesis of Aluminum Nitride Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelbaum, R. L.; Lottes, C. R.; Huertas, J. I.; Rosen, L. J.

    1996-01-01

    Due to its combined properties of high electrical resistivity and high thermal conductivity aluminum nitride (AlN) is a highly desirable material for electronics applications. Methods are being sought for synthesis of unagglomerated, nanometer-sized powders of this material, prepared in such a way that they can be consolidated into solid compacts having minimal oxygen content. A procedure for synthesizing these powders through gas-phase combustion is described. This novel approach involves reacting AlCl3, NH3, and Na vapors. Equilibrium thermodynamic calculations show that 100% yields can be obtained for these reactants with the products being AlN, NaCl, and H2. The NaCl by-product is used to coat the AlN particles in situ. The coating allows for control of AlN agglomeration and protects the powders from hydrolysis during post-flame handling. On the basis of thermodynamic and kinetic considerations, two different approaches were employed to produce the powder, in co-flow diffusion flame configurations. In the first approach, the three reactants were supplied in separate streams. In the second, the AlCl3 and NH3 were premixed with HCl and then reacted with Na vapor. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra of as-produced powders show only NaCl for the first case and NaCl and AlN for the second. After annealing at 775 C tinder dynamic vacuum, the salt was removed and XRD spectra of powders from both approaches show only AlN. Aluminum metal was also produced in the co-flow flame by reacting AlCl3 with Na. XRD spectra of as-produced powders show the products to be only NaCl and elemental aluminum.

  20. Interfacial Microstructure and Properties of Steel/Aluminum Powder Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUAN Jiang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on first-principles density functional theory, the Fe/Al interface model of steel/aluminum laser welding was constructed by layer technique. The Fe/Al interface was studied by metal atom X (X=Sn, Sr, Zr, Ce, La.The results show that Sn, Sr and Ce preferentially displace the Al atoms at the Fe/Al interface, while La and Zr preferentially displace the Fe atoms at the Fe/Al interface. Alloying promotes the transfer of Fe/Al interfacial electrons between different orbits, enhances the ionic bond properties of Fe-Al, improves the Fe/Al interface binding capacity, improves the brittle fracture of Fe/Al interface, and the alloying effect of Sn most notable. On the basis of this, the laser lap welding test of Sn and Zr powder was carried out on 1.4mm thick DC51D+ZF galvanized steel and 1.2mm thick 6016 aluminum alloy specimen. The results show that the addition of powder can promote the flowability of the molten bath and change the composition and microstructure of the joint interface. The tensile strength of the steel/aluminum joint is 327.41MPa and the elongation is 22.93% with the addition of Sn powder, which is obviously improved compared with the addition of Zr powder and without the addition of powder.

  1. Increased hydrogen uptake of MOF-5 by powder densification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Donald; Purewal, Justin; Liu, Dong'an; Sudik, Andrea; Yang, Jun; Maurer, Stefan; Muller, Ulrich

    2011-03-01

    The metal-organic framework MOF-5 has attracted significant attention due to its ability to store large quantities of H2 by mass, up to 10 wt.% absolute at 70 bar at 77K. On the other hand, since MOF-5 is typically obtained as a bulk powder, it exhibits a low volumetric density and poor thermal conductivity---both of which are undesirable characteristics for a hydrogen storage material. Here we explore the extent to which powder densification can overcome these deficiencies, as well as to characterize the impact of densification on crystallinity, pore volume, surface area, and crush strength. MOF-5 powder was processed into cylindrical tablets with densities up to 1.6 g/cm3 by mechanical compaction. We find that optimal hydrogen storage properties are achieved for ρ ~ 0.5 g/cm3 , yielding a 350% increase in volumetric H2 density with only a modest 15% reduction in gravimetric H2 excess in comparison to the powder. Higher densities result in larger reductions in gravimetric excess. Total pore volume and surface area decrease commensurately with the gravimetric capacity, and are linked to an incipient amorphization transformation. Nevertheless, a large fraction of MOF-5 crystallinity remains intact in densities up to 0.75 g/cm3 , as confirmed from powder XRD.

  2. A density-dependent endochronic plasticity for powder compaction processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshiani, A.; Khoei, A. R.; Mofid, M.

    This paper is concerned with the numerical modeling of powder cold compaction process using a density-dependent endochronic plasticity model. Endochronic plasticity theory is developed based on a large strain plasticity to describe the nonlinear behavior of powder material. The elastic response is stated in terms of hypoelastic model and endochronic plasticity constitutive equations are stated in unrotated frame of reference. A trivially incrementally objective integration scheme for rate constitutive equations is established. Algorithmic modulus consistent with numerical integration algorithm of constitutive equations is extracted. It is shown how the endochronic plasticity describes the behavior of powder material from the initial stage of compaction to final stage, in which material behaves as solid metals. It is also shown that some commonly used plasticity models for powder material can be derived as special cases of the proposed endochronic theory. Finally, the numerical schemes are examined for efficiency in the modeling of a plain bush, a rotational-flanged and a shaped tablet powder compaction component.

  3. Method for producing microcomposite powders using a soap solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maginnis, Michael A.; Robinson, David A.

    1996-01-01

    A method for producing microcomposite powders for use in superconducting and non-superconducting applications. A particular method to produce microcomposite powders for use in superconducting applications includes the steps of: (a) preparing a solution including ammonium soap; (b) dissolving a preselected amount of a soluble metallic such as silver nitrate in the solution including ammonium soap to form a first solution; (c) adding a primary phase material such as a single phase YBC superconducting material in particle form to the first solution; (d) preparing a second solution formed from a mixture of a weak acid and an alkyl-mono-ether; (e) adding the second solution to the first solution to form a resultant mixture; (f) allowing the resultant mixture to set until the resultant mixture begins to cloud and thicken into a gel precipitating around individual particles of the primary phase material; (g) thereafter drying the resultant mixture to form a YBC superconducting material/silver nitrate precursor powder; and (h) calcining the YBC superconducting material/silver nitrate precursor powder to convert the silver nitrate to silver and thereby form a YBC/silver microcomposite powder wherein the silver is substantially uniformly dispersed in the matrix of the YBC material.

  4. Microstructural Development in Al-Si Powder During Rapid Solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genau, Amber Lynn [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Powder metallurgy has become an increasingly important form of metal processing because of its ability to produce materials with superior mechanical properties. These properties are due in part to the unique and often desirable microstructures which arise as a result of the extreme levels of undercooling achieved, especially in the finest size powder, and the subsequent rapid solidification which occurs. A better understanding of the fundamental processes of nucleation and growth is required to further exploit the potential of rapid solidification processing. Aluminum-silicon, an alloy of significant industrial importance, was chosen as a model for simple eutectic systems displaying an unfaceted/faceted interface and skewed coupled eutectic growth zone, Al-Si powder produced by high pressure gas atomization was studied to determine the relationship between microstructure and alloy composition as a function of powder size and atomization gas. Critical experimental measurements of hypereutectic (Si-rich) compositions were used to determine undercooling and interface velocity, based on the theoretical models which are available. Solidification conditions were analyzed as a function of particle diameter and distance from nucleation site. A revised microstructural map is proposed which allows the prediction of particle morphology based on temperature and composition. It is hoped that this work, by providing enhanced understanding of the processes which govern the development of the solidification morphology of gas atomized powder, will eventually allow for better control of processing conditions so that particle microstructures can be optimized for specific applications.

  5. Flake tantalum powder for manufacturing electrolytic capacitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jilin; YANG Guoqi; PAN Luntao; LIU Hongdong; BAO Xifang

    2008-01-01

    The FTP200 flake tantalum powder was introduced.The microstructures of the powder with leaf-like primary particles having an average flakiness of 2 to 20 and porous agglomerated particles were observed.The chemical composition,physical properties,and electrical properties of the FTP200 powder were compared with those of the FTW300 nodular powder.The FTP200 powder is more sinter-resistant,and the surface area of the flake tantalum powder under sintering at high temperature has less loss than that of the nodular tantalum powder.The specific capacitance of the flake tantalum powder is higher than that of the nodular tantalum powder with the same surface area when anodized at high voltage,Thus,the flake tantalum powder is suitable for manufacturing tantalum solid electrolytic capacitors in the range of median and high (20-63 V) voltages.

  6. Sintering behaviour and microstructure of 3Y-TZP + 8 mol% CuO nano-powder composite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ran, S.; Winnubst, A.J.A.; Koster, H.; Veen, de P.J.; Blank, D.H.A.

    2007-01-01

    Nanocrystalline 3Y-TZP and copper-oxide powders were prepared by co-precipitation of metal chlorides and copper oxalate complexation– precipitation, respectively.Asignificant enhancement in sintering activity of 3Y-TZP nano-powders, without presence of liquid phase,was achieved by addition of 8 mol%

  7. Adsorption of Copper from Aqueous Solution Using Mango Seed Powder

    OpenAIRE

    Samiksha V. Ashtikar; Amruta D. Parkhi

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was the removal of copper metal ions from aqueous solution using mango seed powder as low cost adsorbent. The influences of contact time, adsorbent doses & temperature were studied in batch experiments at room temperature. The results showed that with increase in the contact time percent removal of copper increases. The adsorption was rapid during first 45 minutes & equilibrium was reached in 90 minutes. The results also showed that with increase in ...

  8. Kinetic model of hot-metal desulfurization by deep injection of synthetic powder mixtures - Part II; Modelo cinetico da dessulfuracao do gusa na panela atraves de injecao de misturas sinteticas - parte II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sesshadri, V. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Metalurgia; Silva, C.A. da; Silva, I.A. da [Ouro Preto Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Metalurgia

    1995-12-31

    The model developed in Part I of this study was used to analyze a series of industrial trials of hot metal hot desulfurization by deep injection of Ca O base synthetic mixtures, using N{sub 2} as carrier gas. The model allows the simulation of the industrial practice and, under the examined conditions it was observed that the major contribution for the process desulfurization come from the top slag. However, since the values range covered by some other parameters were not extensive enough to affect the desulfurization, further experiments are required to fully assess the the influence of these variables 28 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Study of the behaviour under neutron irradiation of hafnium diboride; Etude du comportement sous irradiation neutronique du diborure d`hafnium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheminant-Coatanlem, P

    1998-12-31

    Owing to its good neutron cross section and to its high melting point, hafnium diboride is a potential candidate for a use as neutron absorbing material in control rod of pressurized water reactor of the next generation. The main causes of damage under neutron irradiation in this ceramic are due to the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li reaction that introduces in the crystal structure new atoms and point defects. The materials under consideration are the stoichiometric HfB{sub 2} compound and the HfB{sub 2} + 10 vol. % Hf compound. They are been irradiated with neutrons at several fluences and temperatures. Electron irradiations, helium and lithium implantations have been carried out in order to simulate the creation of point defects and/or fission products. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy have been used to determine damage mechanisms in HfB{sub 2}. At a low temperature (<500 deg C), irradiation defects precipitate in dislocation loops of both nature, interstitial and vacancy. Those loops have a particular organisation in the HfB{sub 2} lattice: vacancy loops are lying in the basal plane and interstitial loops in planes perpendicular to basal planes. This induces anisotropic deformation of grains that originates internal stress development. These stresses are associated with the dislocation staking and consequently with the cavity formation at grain boundaries. At a higher temperature (>700 deg C), the same dislocation loops are observed. But, in addition, the irradiation defects diffuse to grain boundaries where helium bubbles are formed. The damage caused by this latter mechanism becomes predominant. The HfB{sub 2} + 10 vol. % Hf materials is more resistant under neutron irradiation than the HfB{sub 2} pellets that display a very damaged surface. This result is explained by the fact that, on the one band, the HfB{sub 2} + 10 vol. % Hf pellets have a higher toughness than the HfB{sub 2} pellets and, on the other hand, the HfB{sub 2} + 10 vol. % Hf

  10. Powder lubrication of faults by powder rolls in gouge zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Madden, A. S.; Reches, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Powder-lubrication by fault gouge can be an effective mechanism of dynamic weakening of faults (Reches & Lockner, 2010); however, the physical mechanisms of this lubrication are poorly understood. While the flow of coarse-grained (> 100 μm) materials, e.g. glass beads or quartz sand, was extensively studied, the flow of fine-grained (nano-powders, have remained enigmatic. We report here experimental results of a new efficient mechanism for powder lubrication. We conducted friction tests on high-velocity rotary shear apparatus (Reches & Lockner, 2010). Two types of experimental faults were tested: (1) faults made of solid, igneous rocks (granite, tonalite and diorite); and (2) fault-zones made of 2-3 mm thick layer of granular materials (oolites, calcite or gypsum) sheared in a confined cell. We performed 21 runs with total slip of 0.14-13 m, normal stress of 1.2-14.5 MPa, slip velocity of 0.012-0.97 m/s. The ultra-microscopic (SEM and AFM) analysis of the experimental slip surfaces revealed two outstanding features in 17 out of the 21 experiments: (1) localized fault-slip along Principal Slip Zones (PSZs) that are composed of a dense, shiny, cohesive crust, 0.5-1 micron thick, that overlaid a porous substrate, and (2) elongated rolls composed of gouge-powder into three-dimensional structures of closely-packed powder grains, (20-50 nm in size). The rolls are cylindrical, 0.75-1.4 micron wide, and 1.7-30 micron long, with smooth outer surface, and laminated, concentric layers of compacted grains. The rolls were exclusively found on the PSZs. Many rolls were destroyed fracturing and smearing on the PSZ, suggesting that the rolls underwent a life cycle of formation and destruction. Significant macroscopic friction reduction was measured in experiments with observed rolls, and no (or minor) friction reduction in the four experiments without rolls. The final, reduced friction coefficients have a general reciprocal relation to the rolls surface coverage, suggesting that

  11. Effect of pressure on structural, electronic, mechanical and optical properties of ruthenium diboride with oP12-type structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, S.; Ciftci, Y. O.; Mogulkoc, Y.; Tatar, A.

    2016-07-01

    The structural parameters, electronic, elastic, hardness and optical properties of oP12-type RuB2 ( Space group Pnma, No: 62) are investigated by means of density functional theory method within local-density approximation as a function of pressure. It is shown that the results at 0 GPa pressure are in good agreement with related theoretical and experimental data. The pressure dependence of elastic constants, special bond lengths, Mulliken bond populations, hardness, energy band gaps, charge densities and optical properties such as dielectric function, absorption coefficient, reflectivity function, extinction coefficient, refractive index, energy loss spectrum of oP12-type RuB2 have been investigated. It is observed that the oP12-type RuB2 compound exhibits anisotropic compressibility under hydrostatic pressure: c-direction is more compressible than a- and b-directions, due to the different bond stiffness and bond angle changes. From calculated partial density of states, Mulliken populations and 2D/3D electron densities, the nature of chemical bonding for RuB2 can be recognized as a combination of partially covalent, ionic and metallic bonds. The calculated hardness value shows that oP12- type RuB2 is hard material.

  12. Adsorption of Copper from Aqueous Solution Using Mango Seed Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiksha V. Ashtikar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was the removal of copper metal ions from aqueous solution using mango seed powder as low cost adsorbent. The influences of contact time, adsorbent doses & temperature were studied in batch experiments at room temperature. The results showed that with increase in the contact time percent removal of copper increases. The adsorption was rapid during first 45 minutes & equilibrium was reached in 90 minutes. The results also showed that with increase in the adsorbent doses & temperature percent removal of copper increases. Thus mango seeds have the potential to be applied as alternative low-cost biosorbent in the remediation of heavy metal contamination in waste water.

  13. Introduction to powder metallurgy processes for titanium manufacturing; Introduccion al procesado pulvimetalurgico del titanio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban, P. G.; Bolzoni, L.; Ruiz-Navas, E. M.; Gordo, E.

    2011-07-01

    The development of new extraction processes to produce titanium in powder form leads Powder Metallurgy to an advantage position among the manufacturing processes for titanium. The cost reduction of base material, coupled with the economy of the powder metallurgy processes, give titanium industry the chance to diversify its products, which could lead to production volumes able to stabilise the price of the metal. This work reviews some of the Powder Metallurgy techniques for the manufacturing of titanium parts, and describes the two typical approaches for titanium manufacturing: Blending Elemental and Prealloyed Powders. Among others, conventional pressing and sintering are described, which are compared with cold and hot isostatic pressing techniques. Real and potential applications are described. (Author) 71 refs.

  14. Investigation of Structure and Physico-Mechanical Properties of Composite Materials Based on Copper - Carbon Nanoparticles Powder Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovtun V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Physico-mechanical and structural properties of electrocontact sintered copper matrix- carbon nanoparticles composite powder materials are presented. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the influence of preliminary mechanical activation of the powder system on distribution of carbon nanoparticles in the metal matrix. Mechanical activation ensures mechanical bonding of nanoparticles to the surface of metal particles, thus giving a possibility for manufacture of a composite with high physico-mechanical properties.

  15. Light metal production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qinbai

    2016-04-19

    An electrochemical process for the production of light metals, particularly aluminum. Such a process involves contacting a light metal source material with an inorganic acid to form a solution containing the light metal ions in high concentration. The solution is fed to an electrochemical reactor assembly having an anode side containing an anode and a cathode side containing a cathode, with anode side and the cathode side separated by a bipolar membrane, with the solution being fed to the anode side. Light metal ions are electrochemically transferred through the bipolar membrane to the cathode side. The process further involves reducing the light metal ions to light metal powder. An associated processing system is also provided.

  16. Cast Iron swarf: problematic and powder metallurgy applications. Las virutas de fundicion: problematica y utilizacion pulvimetalurgica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco, F.; Torralba, J.M.; Garcia-Cambronero, L.E.; Ruiz-Prieto, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews most works dedicated to studying the recycling of cast iron swarf as raw materials for obtaining metallic powders which will be used to manufacture iron and steel parts. The fact that today all the powder consumed by the Spanish P/M industry is imported and that the conventional recycling of cast iron swarfs poses many problems, make the conclusions of this work very interesting. (Author)

  17. Physical-Chemical Characterization of Nanodispersed Powders Produced by a Plasma-Chemical Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. GEORGIEVA; G. VISSOKOV; Iv. GRANCHAROV

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a review on the physical-chemical properties and characteristics of plasma-chemically produced nanodispersed powders (NDP), such as metals, oxides, nitrides, carbides, and catalysts. The plasma-chemical preparation of the powders was carried out in thermal plasma (TP) created by means of high-current electric arcs, plasma jets, high-frequency (HF) discharges, etc. We also discuss certain properties and characteristics of the NDPs, which are determined largely by the conditions of preparation.

  18. Pd Coated BaTiO3 Powder for Internal Electrode Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Stephenson

    2002-01-01

    new low cost air fired electrode technology. This paper presents a new electrode technology incorporating a uniform, continually coated AgPd over engineered dielectric particles. The resulting powder greatly reduces the consumption of precious metal, and provides superior thermal mechanical properties. This is achieved by matching the core ceramic structure of the powder to the manufacturer's dielectric, thereby controlling shrinkage while maintaining desired electrical properties.

  19. Inspection of Powder Flow During LMD Deposition by High Speed Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Javier; Rodríguez, Ángel; Amado, José Manuel; Yáñez, Armando J.

    Laser cladding and LMD (Laser Metal Deposition) processes are continuously gaining ground in aerospace and energy industries. One of the known issues with that kind of processes is the difficulty of maintaining a constant and well distributed powder flow mass rate between the nozzle and the substrate. In this work, a method for real time inspection of powder distribution and mass flow rate is presented. Inference of mass flow rate and powder distribution is made using a high speed camera and a laser illumination device. Both on-process and off-process monitoring can be achieved. Different experimental results for the validation of the proposed method are presented.

  20. Method of Making Fine Lithium Iron Phosphate/Carbon-Based Powders with an Olivine Type Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Amit (Inventor); Dhamne, Abhijeet (Inventor); Skandan, Ganesh (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Processes for producing fine LiFePO.sub.4/C and nanostructured LiFe.sub.xM.sub.1-xPO.sub.4/C composite powders, where 1.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.1 and M is a metal cation. Electrodes made of either nanostructured LiFe.sub.xM.sub.1-xPO.sub.4 powders or nanostructured LiFe.sub.xM.sub.1-xPO.sub.4/C composite powders exhibit excellent electrochemical properties. That will provide high power density, low cost and environmentally friendly rechargeable Li-ion batteries.

  1. Micro powder injection molding——large scale production technology for micro-sized components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Micro powder injection molding (μPIM),a miniaturized variant of powder injection molding,has advantages of shape complexity,applicability to many materials and good mechanical properties. Co-injection molding has been realized between met-als and ceramics on micro components,which become the first breakthrough within the PIM field. Combined with the prominent characteristics of high features/cost ratio,micro powder injection molding becomes a potential technique for large scale production of intricate and three-dimensional micro components or micro-structured components in microsystems technology (MST) field.

  2. Micro powder injection molding-large scale production technology for micro-sized components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN HaiQing; JIA ChengChang; QU XuanHui

    2008-01-01

    Micro powder injection molding (μPIM), a miniaturized variant of powder injection molding, has advantages of shape complexity, applicability to many materials and good mechanical properties. Co-injection molding has been realized between metals and ceramics on micro components, which become the first breakthrough within the PIM field. Combined with the prominent characteristics of high features/cost ratio, micro powder injection molding becomes a potential technique for large scale production of intricate and three-dimensional micro components or microstructured components in microsystems technology (MST) field.

  3. Electrodeposition of Fe powder from acid electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VESNA M. MAKSIMOVIC

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Polarization characteristics of the electrodeposition processes of Fe powders from sulfate and chloride electrolytes and the morphology of the obtained powders were investigated. The morphology depended on the anion presence in the electrolyte but not on the current density in the investigated range. A characteristic feature of the dendritic powder with cauliflower endings obtained from sulfate electrolyte is the presence of cone-like cavities and the crystallite morphology of the powders surface. On the other hand, Fe powders electrodeposited from chloride electrolyte appear in the form of agglomerates. A soap solution treatment applied as a method of washing and drying provides good protection from oxidation of the powders.

  4. Direct laser powder deposition - 'State of the Art'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, J.W.

    1999-11-01

    Recent developments on Laser Cladding and Rapid Prototyping have led to Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) technologies that produce net shape metal components by laser fusion of metal powder alloys. These processes are known by various names such as Directed Light Fabrication (DLF{trademark}), Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS{trademark}), and Direct Metal Deposition (DMD{trademark}) to name a few. These types of processes can be referred to as direct laser powder deposition (DLPD). DLPD involves fusing metal alloy powders in the focal point of a laser (or lasers) that is (are) being controlled by Computer Aided Design-Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology. DLPD technology has the capability to produce fully dense components with little need for subsequent processing. Research and development of DLPD is being conducted throughout the world. The list of facilities conducting work in this area continues to grow (over 25 identified in North America alone). Selective Laser Sintering (SLS{trademark}) is another type of SFF technology based on laser fusion of powder. The SLS technology was developed as a rapid prototyping technique, whereas DLPD is an extension of the laser cladding technology. Most of the effort in SLS has been directed towards plastics and ceramics. In SLS, the powder is pre-placed by rolling out a layer for each laser pass. The computer control selects where in the layer the powder will be sintered by the laser. Sequential layers are sintered similarly forming a shape. In DLPD, powder is fed directly into a molten metal pool formed at the focal point of the laser where it is melted. As the laser moves on the material it rapidly resolidifies to form a shape. This talk elaborates on the state of these developments.

  5. Homogeneous Precipitation of Nickel Hydroxide Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bora Mavis

    2003-12-12

    Precipitation and characterization of nickel hydroxide powders were investigated. A comprehensive precipitation model incorporating the metal ion hydrolysis, complexation and precipitation reactions was developed for the production of the powders with urea precipitation method. Model predictions on Ni{sup 2+} precipitation rate were confirmed with precipitation experiments carried out at 90 C. Experimental data and model predictions were in remarkable agreement. Uncertainty in the solubility product data of nickel hydroxides was found to be the large contributor to the error. There were demonstrable compositional variations across the particle cross-sections and the growth mechanism was determined to be the aggregation of primary crystallites. This implied that there is a change in the intercalate chemistry of the primary crystallites with digestion time. Predicted changes in the concentrations of simple and complex ions in the solution support the proposed mechanism. The comprehensive set of hydrolysis reactions used in the model described above allows the investigation of other systems provided that accurate reaction constants are available. the fact that transition metal ions like Ni{sup 2+} form strong complexes with ammonia presents a challenge in the full recovery of the Ni{sup 2+}. On the other hand, presence of Al{sup 3+} facilitates the complete precipitation of Ni{sup 2+} in about 3 hours of digestion. A challenge in their predictive modeling studies had been the fact that simultaneous incorporation of more than one metal ion necessitates a different approach than just using the equilibrium constants of hydrolysis, complexation and precipitation reactions. Another limitation of using equilibrium constants is that the nucleation stage of digestion, which is controlled mainly by kinetics, is not fully justified. A new program released by IBM Almaden Research Center (Chemical Kinetics Simulator{trademark}, Version 1.01) lets the user change the order of

  6. POWDER COATINGS: A TECHNOLOGY REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1995, surface coatings accounted for nearly 2.55 million Mg of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions nationally, which is more than 12% of VOC emissions from all sources. In recent years, powder coatings have been steadily gaining popularity as an alternative to solvent-bo...

  7. Mask materials for powder blasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensink, Henk; Jansen, Henri V.; Berenschot, J.W.; Elwenspoek, Miko C.

    2001-01-01

    Powder blasting, or abrasive jet machining (AJM), is a technique in which a particle jet is directed towards a target for mechanical material removal. It is a fast, cheap and accurate directional etch technique for brittle materials such as glass, silicon and ceramics. The particle jet (which expand

  8. Surface Characteristics and Catalytic Activity of Copper Deposited Porous Silicon Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yusri Abdul Halim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Porous structured silicon or porous silicon (PS powder was prepared by chemical etching of silicon powder in an etchant solution of HF: HNO3: H2O (1:3:5 v/v. An immersion time of 4 min was sufficient for depositing Cu metal from an aqueous solution of CuSO4 in the presence of HF. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis revealed that the Cu particles aggregated upon an increase in metal content from 3.3 wt% to 9.8 wt%. H2-temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR profiles reveal that re-oxidation of the Cu particles occurs after deposition. Furthermore, the profiles denote the existence of various sizes of Cu metal on the PS. The Cu-PS powders show excellent catalytic reduction on the p-nitrophenol regardless of the Cu loadings.

  9. Glass surface metal deposition with high-power femtosecond fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Deng, Cheng; Bai, Shuang

    2016-12-01

    Using femtosecond fiber laser-based additive manufacturing (AM), metal powder is deposited on glass surface for the first time to change its surface reflection and diffuse its transmission beam. The challenge, due to mismatch between metal and glass on melting temperature, thermal expansion coefficient, brittleness, is resolved by controlling AM parameters such as power, scan speed, hatching, and powder thickness. Metal powder such as iron is successfully deposited and demonstrated functions such as diffusion of light and blackening effects.

  10. Metals Additive ManufacturingGreat Promise in Mitigating Shortages but Some Risks Remain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    metals AM such as Selective Laser Melting, Laser Cutting, Direct Metal Laser Sintering and Electron Beam Melting (EBM) and collectively refers to...welding approach during which a computer-controlled laser or electron beam is moved over a bed of powder, fusing or sintering the powder selec- tively to...Group Figure 1. The Powder Bed Metal Fusion Additive Manufacturing Process Laser Unsintered material in previous layers Roller Laser

  11. Quasiclassical theory of the vortex state in unconventional systems. Study of magnesium diboride and d-wave superconductors; Quasiklassische Theorie des Vortexzustandes in unkonventionellen Systemen. Betrachtung zu Magnesiumdiborid und d-Wellen-Supraleitern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graser, S.

    2006-07-01

    The two-band superconductor magnesium diboride as well as the high temperature cuprates belong to the class of type-II superconductors. In these systems between an upper and a lower critical magnetic field one can only find an incomplete Meissner effect und magnetic flux penetrates the superconductor in form of quantized flux tubes, so-called vortices. This work is devoted to the vortex state in magnesium diboride and the interplay of vortices and boundaries in d-wave superconductors. First of all analytical results for the quasiparticle density of states in high magnetic fields are obtained within the framework of the quasiclassical theory. Especially the influence of the Fermi surface topology on the spatially averaged quasiparticle density of states is discussed in detail. Furthermore selfconsistent numerical calculations of the pairing potential around an isolated vortex - a model of the vortex state in the vicinity of the lower critical field - are performed. In this context the unusual shrinkage of the vortex core with decreasing temperature, visible only in very clean superconductors and known as the Kramer-Pesch-effect, is examined for a two-band system. The last chapter is concerned with the influence of the flow-field of an isolated phase vortex on the Andreev bound states at the surface of a d-wave superconductor. The local suppression of the Andreev bound states in a shadow-like region between vortex and boundary is the main result and consequences of this ''vortexshadow-effect'' are discussed. (orig.)

  12. In-situ P/M Al/(ZrB{sub 2} + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) MMCs: Processing, microstructure and mechanical characterization[Powder Metallurgy, Metal Matrix Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, C.F.; Froyen, L.

    1999-12-10

    In-situ metal matrix composites (MMCs) offer significant advantages over conventional MMCs from both a technical and an economic standpoint. In this paper, an in-situ MMC, i.e., Al/(10 vol.% Zr2B + 9.2 vol.% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), is produced starting from Al + ZrO{sub 2} + B by reactive sintering and subsequently densified by hot-pressing. The formation mechanism of ZrB{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in Al matrix is studied by XRD, thermal analysis and microstructural characterization. Reaction kinetics are also investigated based on the results of the reaction mechanism. The properties are evaluated in terms of microstructural characterization, Young's modulus and bending tests. The in-situ processing involves four intermediate steps and the transitional phases are AlB{sub 2}, Zr(O, B){sub 2} and (Zr, Al)(B, O){sub 2}. Regarding the reaction kinetics, conversion fraction vs time relationships have been established for the last three intermediate steps.

  13. Advanced composites take a powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holty, D.W. (Custom Composite Materials, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1993-06-01

    To a professional chemist with more than 25 years of industrial experience, the world of advanced composites is a fascinating new venue. Here resins and fibers come together in a completely synergistic partnership, achieving marvels of strength and light weight that make advanced composite materials virtually the only solution for challenging applications. In the late 1980s, Professor John Muzzy of the Georgia Institute of Technology, was intrigued by the physical properties of thermoplastics, and he developed a new way to bring the thermoplastic resins together with high-performance fibers. As part of the work Muzzy did with Lockheed and NASA he demonstrated that electrostatic powder coating was an attractive new method for combining thermoplastic resins with reinforcing fibers. Presentation of this work by Lockheed at a government-industry conference led to a new project for Muzzy, sponsored by NASA Langley. Powder prepregging proved to be the attractive alternative that NASA was looking for. While working on powder prepregging with LaRC-TPI, Muzzy and his colleagues developed methods for exposing all of the fibers to the powder to improve the distribution of the resin on the tow, a continuous bundle of filaments. Optimal resin distribution was achieved by spreading the moving tow. A very flexible towpreg was produced by maintaining the spread tow through the powder coating chamber and into the oven, where the resin particles were fused to the individual filaments. Muzzy's invention has enabled Custom Composite Materials, Inc. to offer resin/fiber combinations based on thermoplastic resins such as nylon and polypropylene. Beyond the expected advantages over epoxy thermoset systems, they are beginning to exploit a fundamental property of thermoplastic resins: viscoelasticity, which can be defined as the resistance to flow as a function of applied stress. Thermoplastics have a much higher viscoelasticity than thermosets.

  14. Ultra fine tantalum powder for advanced capacitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Ultra fine tantalum and niobium powders are applicable in many areas of engineering. Of particular significance are high purity powders that are usable in production of high capacitance capacitors and superconductors.

  15. Ultra fine tantalum powder for advanced capacitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nebera; A.; Markusbkin; Yu.; Azarov; V.; Ermolaev; N.

    2005-01-01

    Ultra fine tantalum and niobium powders are applicable in many areas of engineering. Of particular significance are high purity powders that are usable in production of high capacitance capacitors and superconductors.……

  16. Inhalation toxicity of 316L stainless steel powder in relation to bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockmann-Juvala, H; Hedberg, Y; Dhinsa, N K; Griffiths, D R; Brooks, P N; Zitting, A; Wallinder, I Odnevall; Santonen, T

    2013-11-01

    The Globally Harmonized System for Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) considers metallic alloys, such as nickel (Ni)-containing stainless steel (SS), as mixtures of substances, without considering that alloys behave differently compared to their constituent metals. This study presents an approach using metal release, explained by surface compositional data, for the prediction of inhalation toxicity of SS AISI 316L. The release of Ni into synthetic biological fluids is >1000-fold lower from the SS powder than from Ni metal, due to the chromium(III)-rich surface oxide of SS. Thus, it was hypothesized that the inhalation toxicity of SS is significantly lower than what could be predicted based on Ni metal content. A 28-day inhalation study with rats exposed to SS 316L powder (<4 µm, mass median aerodynamic diameter 2.5-3.0 µm) at concentrations up to 1.0 mg/L showed accumulation of metal particles in the lung lobes, but no signs of inflammation, although Ni metal caused lung toxicity in a similar published study at significantly lower concentrations. It was concluded that the bioaccessible (released) fraction, rather than the elemental nominal composition, predicts the toxicity of SS powder. The study provides a basis for an approach for future validation, standardization and risk assessment of metal alloys.

  17. Green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Curcuma longa tuber powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameli, Kamyar; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Zamanian, Ali; Sangpour, Parvanh; Shabanzadeh, Parvaneh; Abdollahi, Yadollah; Zargar, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Green synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles is a vastly developing area of research. Metallic nanoparticles have received great attention from chemists, physicists, biologists, and engineers who wish to use them for the development of a new-generation of nanodevices. In this study, silver nanoparticles were biosynthesized from aqueous silver nitrate through a simple and eco-friendly route using Curcuma longa tuber-powder extracts, which acted as a reductant and stabilizer simultaneously. Characterizations of nanoparticles were done using different methods, which included ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The ultraviolet-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanoparticles showed an absorption peak at around 415 nm. Transmission electron microscopy showed that mean diameter and standard deviation for the formation of silver nanoparticles was 6.30 ± 2.64 nm. Powder X-ray diffraction showed that the particles are crystalline in nature, with a face-centered cubic structure. The most needed outcome of this work will be the development of value-added products from C. longa for biomedical and nanotechnology-based industries.

  18. 21 CFR 73.2646 - Bronze powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bronze powder. 73.2646 Section 73.2646 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2646 Bronze powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive bronze powder shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  19. Development of a Reproducible Powder Characterization Method using a Powder Rheometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Søren Vinter; Allesø, Morten; Garnæs, Jørgen;

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a powder rheometer was used to measure flow characteristics of two pharmaceutical model powders. Precise measurements were obtained for one of the model powders whereas the results were less precise for the second powder. In conclusion, further work is needed to increase the mechan...

  20. New Strategies for Powder Compaction in Powder-based Rapid Prototyping Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budding, A.; Vaneker, Thomas H.J.

    2013-01-01

    In powder-based rapid prototyping techniques, powder compaction is used to create thin layers of fine powder that are locally bonded. By stacking these layers of locally bonded material, an object is made. The compaction of thin layers of powder mater ials is of interest for a wide range of

  1. Dry PMR-15 Resin Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Raymond D.; Roberts, Gary D.

    1988-01-01

    Shelf lives of PMR-15 polymides lengthened. Procedure involves quenching of monomer reactions by vacuum drying of PRM-15 resin solutions at 70 to 90 degree F immediately after preparation of solutions. Absence of solvent eliminates formation of higher esters and reduces formation of imides to negligible level. Provides fully-formulated dry PMR-15 resin powder readily dissolvable in solvent at room temperature immediately before use. Resins used in variety of aerospace, aeronautical, and commercial applications.

  2. Remediation of Ni2+-contaminated water using iron powder and steel manufacturing byproducts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Jian; ZHAO Wei-rong; XU Xin-hua; HAO Zhi-wei; LIU Yong; HE Ping; ZHOU Mi

    2006-01-01

    Steel manufacturing byproducts and commercial iron powders were tested in the treatment of Ni2+-contaminated water. Ni2+is a priority pollutant of some soils and groundwater. The use of zero-valent iron, which can reduce Ni2+ to its neural form appears to be an alternative approach for the remediation of Ni2+-contaminated sites. Our experimental data show that the removal efficiencies of Ni2+ were 95.15% and 94.68% at a metal to solution ratio of 20 g/L for commercial iron powders and the steel manufacturing byproducts in 60 min at room temperature, respectively. The removal efficiency reached 98.20% when the metal to solution ratio was40 g/L for commercial iron powders. Furthermore, we found that the removal efficiency was also largely affected by other factors such as the pHs of the treated water, the length of time for the metal to be in contact with the Ni2+-contaminated water, initial concentrations of metal solutions, particle sizes and the amount of iron powders. Surprisingly, the reaction temperature appeared to have little effect on the removal efficiency. Our study opens the way to further optimize the reaction conditions of in situ remediation of Ni2+ or other heavy metals on contaminated sites.

  3. Phase diagram of crushed powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodard, Sébastien; Jalbaud, Olivier; Saurel, Richard; Burtschell, Yves; Lapebie, Emmanuel

    2016-12-01

    Compression of monodisperse powder samples in quasistatic conditions is addressed in a pressure range such that particles fragmentation occurs while the solid remains incompressible (typical pressure range of 1-300 MPa for glass powders). For a granular bed made of particles of given size, the existence of three stages is observed during compression and crush up. First, classical compression occurs and the pressure of the granular bed increases along a characteristic curve as the volume decreases. Then, a critical pressure is reached for which fragmentation begins. During the fragmentation process, the granular pressure stays constant in a given volume range. At the end of this second stage, 20%-50% of initial grains are reduced to finer particles, depending on the initial size. Then the compression undergoes the third stage and the pressure increases along another characteristic curve, in the absence of extra fragmentation. The present paper analyses the analogies between the phase transition in liquid-vapour systems and powder compression with crush-up. Fragmentation diagram for a soda lime glass is determined by experimental means. The analogues of the saturation pressure and latent heat of phase change are determined. Two thermodynamic models are then examined to represent the crush-up diagram. The first one uses piecewise functions while the second one is of van der Waals type. Both equations of state relate granular pressure, solid volume fraction, and initial particle diameter. The piecewise functions approach provides reasonable representations of the phase diagram while the van der Waals one fails.

  4. Advances in powder diffraction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louer, D. [Lab. de Chimie du Solide et Inorganique Moleculaire, Rennes (France). Groupe de Cristallochimie

    1998-11-01

    Powder diffraction offers a wide spectrum of applications to solid-state scientists. The method traditionally used for phase analysis and the study of structural imperfections has benefited, in the last twenty years, from great advances in the instrumentation and computer-based approaches for pattern indexing and modelling. The factors at the origin of the metamorphosis of the method are presented. The major modern applications reported include quantitative analysis and the extraction of three-dimensional structural and microstructural properties. The use of pattern-fitting techniques for the characterization of the microstructure is discussed through applications to nanocrystalline materials. Remarkable results achieved in the solution of crystal structures are presented, as well as the impact in solid-state chemistry of powder crystallography, particularly for elucidating the crystal chemistry of families of compounds for which only powders are available. New strategies for solving the phase problem have been introduced and new classes of solids are being studied, such as drugs, coordination and organic compounds. (orig.) 100 refs.

  5. 自反应喷射成形过程中复合粉金属成分的氧化问题探讨%Discussion on Oxidation of Metallic Components in Composite Powders During Self-reactive Spray Forming Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宏伟; 马世宁; 孙晓峰; 王建江

    2011-01-01

    During forming Ti(C, N)-TiB2 by self-reactive spray, metallic components are easy to be oxidized ,which make the preforms contain the undesirable phase TiO2. To dissolve the problems, the rule of the metallic oxidation of the composite powders was studied by synthetic thermal analyzer, and the influences of 5wt% additive of A1 on the role of metallic oxidation and the structure and properties of the spray-formed preforms were discussed. The results show that during self-reactive forming process, the oxidation of the metallic components in the Ti-BaC-C system accords with parabola-linearity rule. After adding 5wt% A1 into the spraying system, the oxidation rule of the metallic components changes into linearity-parabola because the compact oxide film of A12O3 forms on the surface by the selective oxidation of Al and effectively restrains the oxidation of Ti. The relative density, hardness, flexural strength and fracture toughness of the preforms increases from 97.2%, 17.3 GPa, 387 MPa, 6.0 MPa. m1/2, to 97.7%, 20.6 GPa, 425 MPa, 7.3 MPa. m1/2, respectively.%针对利用Ti-BC-C体系复合粉制备Ti(C,N)-TiB陶瓷坯件时,复合粉中金属组元易被氧化,使喷射沉积坯件内含有有害相TiO的问题,利用综合热分析仪研究分析了该复合粉中金属组元Ti的氧化规律,探讨了向喷射体系中加入5wt%Al对复合粉氧化规律及喷射沉积坯件组织结构的影响.结果表明:在自反应喷射成形过程中,喷射体系中金属组元Ti的氧化机理遵从抛物线一线性氧化规律;复合粉体系中引入活性组元Al后,由于A1的选择氧化,在金属表面形成具有保护性作用的致密氧化膜A1O,有效抑制了Ti的氧化;金属的氧化机理转变为Ti-Al二元金属的线性-抛物线规律;喷射沉积坯件的致密度、硬度、弯曲强度和断裂韧性等性能也由97.2%、17.3GPa、387MPa、6.0MPa·m分别提高到97.7%、20.6 GPa、425 MPa、7.3 MPa·in.

  6. Powder Removal from Ti-6Al-4V Cellular Structures Fabricated via Electron Beam Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasib, Hazman; Harrysson, Ola L. A.; West, Harvey A.

    2015-03-01

    Direct metal fabrication systems like electron beam melting (EBM) and direct metal laser sintering (also called selective laser melting) are gaining popularity. One reason is the design and fabrication freedom that these technologies offer over traditional processes. One specific feature that is of interest is mesh or lattice structures that can be produced using these powder-bed systems. One issue with the EBM process is that the powder trapped within the structure during the fabrication process is sintered and can be hard to remove as the mesh density increases. This is usually not an issue for the laser-based systems since most of them work at a low temperature and the sintering of the powder is less of an issue. Within the scope of this project, a chemical etching process was evaluated for sintered powder removal using three different cellular structures with varying mesh densities. All meshes were fabricated via EBM using Ti6Al4V powder. The results are promising, but the larger the structures, the more difficult it is to completely remove the sintered powder without affecting the integrity of the mesh structure.

  7. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements of uranium and thorium powders and uranium ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judge, Elizabeth J. [Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Barefield, James E., E-mail: jbarefield@lanl.gov [Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Berg, John M. [Manufacturing Engineering and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Clegg, Samuel M.; Havrilla, George J.; Montoya, Velma M.; Le, Loan A.; Lopez, Leon N. [Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to analyze depleted uranium and thorium oxide powders and uranium ore as a potential rapid in situ analysis technique in nuclear production facilities, environmental sampling, and in-field forensic applications. Material such as pressed pellets and metals, has been extensively studied using LIBS due to the high density of the material and more stable laser-induced plasma formation. Powders, on the other hand, are difficult to analyze using LIBS since ejection and removal of the powder occur in the laser interaction region. The capability of analyzing powders is important in allowing for rapid analysis of suspicious materials, environmental samples, or trace contamination on surfaces since it most closely represents field samples (soil, small particles, debris etc.). The rapid, in situ analysis of samples, including nuclear materials, also reduces costs in sample collection, transportation, sample preparation, and analysis time. Here we demonstrate the detection of actinides in oxide powders and within a uranium ore sample as both pressed pellets and powders on carbon adhesive discs for spectral comparison. The acquired LIBS spectra for both forms of the samples differ in overall intensity but yield a similar distribution of atomic emission spectral lines. - Highlights: • LIBS analysis of mixed actinide samples: depleted uranium oxide and thorium oxide • LIBS analysis of actinide samples in powder form on carbon adhesive discs • Detection of uranium in a complex matrix (uranium ore) as a precursor to analyzing uranium in environmental samples.

  8. Recovery of yttrium from cathode ray tubes and lamps' fluorescent powders: experimental results and economic simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenzi, V; De Michelis, I; Ferella, F; Vegliò, F

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, yttrium recovery from fluorescent powder of lamps and cathode ray tubes (CRTs) is described. The process for treating these materials includes the following: (a) acid leaching, (b) purification of the leach liquors using sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, (c) precipitation of yttrium using oxalic acid, and (d) calcinations of oxalates for production of yttrium oxides. Experimental results have shown that process conditions necessary to purify the solutions and recover yttrium strongly depend on composition of the leach liquor, in other words, whether the powder comes from treatment of CRTs or lamp. In the optimal experimental conditions, the recoveries of yttrium oxide are about 95%, 55%, and 65% for CRT, lamps, and CRT/lamp mixture (called MIX) powders, respectively. The lower yields obtained during treatments of MIX and lamp powders are probably due to the co-precipitation of yttrium together with other metals contained in the lamps powder only. Yttrium loss can be reduced to minimum changing the experimental conditions with respect to the case of the CRT process. In any case, the purity of final products from CRT, lamps, and MIX is greater than 95%. Moreover, the possibility to treat simultaneously both CRT and lamp powders is very important and interesting from an industrial point of view since it could be possible to run a single plant treating fluorescent powder coming from two different electronic wastes.

  9. Novel Fe-based amorphous magnetic powder cores with ultra-low core losses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Amorphous magnetic alloy powders were prepared from bulk metallic glasses Fe74Cr2Mo2Sn2P10Si4B4C2 with supercooled liq-uid region of 32 K by water atomization.Amorphous magnetic powder core precursor was produced from a mixture of the amorphous alloy powder with addition of insulation and bonding materials by mold compacting at room temperature.After annealing the core precursor,the amorphous magnetic core exhibits superior magnetic properties as compared with molypermalloy powder core.The initial permeability up to 1 MHz was about 80,the flux density at 300 Oe was 1.06 T and the core loss at 100 kHz for Bm=0.1 T was only 329 kW/m3.The ultra-low core loss is attributed to the combination of relatively high resistivity and the amorphous structure of the Fe-based amorphous powder.Besides the outstanding magnetic properties,the Fe-based amorphous magnetic powder core had a much lower cost which renders the powder cores a potential candidate for a variety of industrial applications.

  10. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of 6061Al reinforced with silicon nitride particles, processed by powder metallurgy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amigo, V.; Ortiz, J.L.; Salvador, M.D.

    2000-01-31

    A critical step in the processing of Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) reinforced with ceramic particles is the insertion of these particles into the metal matrix alloy. This greatly influences the strength of the composite since it is controlled by the metal-particle interfacial bond strength. Because of the difficulty in wetting ceramic particles with molten metal, the Powder Metallurgy or PM route was developed. Powder Extrusion consolidates the composite to over 98% dense, and can be carried out below the Solidus Temperature of the alloy. The most important aspect of the microstructure is the distribution of the reinforcing particles, and this depends on the processing and fabrication routes involved, as well as the relative size of the matrix and reinforcing particles. Extrusion can homogenize the structure to some extent, but minimizing reinforcement inhomogeneity during initial processing is important to achieve optimum properties.

  11. Spectroscopic monitoring of metallic bonding in laser metal deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ya, Wei; Konuk, A.R.; Aarts, R.G.K.M.; Pathiraj, B.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    A new approach is presented in this paper to link optical emission spectrum analysis to the quality of clad layers produced with laser metal deposition (LMD). A Nd:YAG laser (λ = 1.064 μm) was used to produce clad tracks with Metco 42C powder on AISI 4140 steel substrate. The laser power was ramped

  12. Electrothermal Defect Detection in Powder Metallurgy Compacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzerrouk, Souheil; Ludwig, Reinhold; Apelian, Diran

    2006-03-01

    Faced with increasing market pressures, metal part manufacturers have turned to new processes and fabrication technologies. One of these processes is powder metallurgy (P/M), which is employed for low-cost, high-volume precision part manufacturing. Despite many advantages, the P/M process has created a number of challenges, including the need for high-speed quality assessment and control, ideally for each compact. Consequently, sophisticated quality assurance is needed to rapidly detect flaws early in the manufacturing cycle and at minimal cost. In this paper we will discuss our progress made in designing and refining an active infrared (IR) detection system for P/M compacts. After discussing the theoretical background in terms of underlying equations and boundary conditions, analytical and numerical solutions are presented that are capable of predicting temperature responses for various defect sizes and orientations of a dynamic IR testing system. Preliminary measurements with controlled and industrial samples have shown that this active IR methodology can successfully be employed to test both green-state and sintered P/M compacts. The developed system can overcome many limitations observed with a standard IR testing methodology such as emissivity, background calibration, and contact resistance.

  13. Facile one-pot synthesis of spherical zinc sulfide-carbon nanocomposite powders with superior electrochemical properties as anode materials for Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yong Seung; Kang, Yun Chan

    2013-10-21

    A novel and simple one-pot method of systematically synthesizing spherical metal sulfide-carbon composite powders is reported for the first time. The zinc sulfide-carbon composite is selected as the first target material. The prepared composite powders show superior electrochemical properties as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Hardface coating systems and methods for metal alloys and other materials for wear and corrosion resistant applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seals, Roland D.

    2015-08-18

    The present disclosure relates generally to hardface coating systems and methods for metal alloys and other materials for wear and corrosion resistant applications. More specifically, the present disclosure relates to hardface coatings that include a network of titanium monoboride (TiB) needles or whiskers in a matrix, which are formed from titanium (Ti) and titanium diboride (TiB.sub.2) precursors by reactions enabled by the inherent energy provided by the process heat associated with coating deposition and, optionally, coating post-heat treatment. These hardface coatings are pyrophoric, thereby generating further reaction energy internally, and may be applied in a functionally graded manner. The hardface coatings may be deposited in the presence of a number of fluxing agents, beta stabilizers, densification aids, diffusional aids, and multimode particle size distributions to further enhance their performance characteristics.

  15. [Identication of pearl powder and conch powder from different origins by differential scanning calorimetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; Li, Ming-hua; Yu, Kun-zi; Dong, Ya-juan; Zhang, Nan-ping; Hu, Xiao-ru; Wei, Feng; Ma, Shuang-cheng

    2015-04-01

    The paper is aimed to establish a methods for identication of pearl powder and conch powder from different origins. Hermetic aluminum pan was used to encapsulate samples. The optimal testing conditions were: heating rate 10 degrees C x min(-1), sample weight 3 mg and nitrogen gas flow rate 40 mL x min(-1). The enthalpy values of pearl powder and conch powder was obvious different. Identication of pearl powder and conch powder by DSC is a practical method for its accuracy, convenience and practificality.

  16. Neutron powder diffraction study of 239PuD x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartscher, W.; Boeuf, A.; Caciuffo, R.; Fournier, J. M.; Haschke, J. M.; Manes, L.; Rebizant, J.; Rustichelli, F.; Ward, J. W.

    1985-05-01

    A neutron powder diffraction study has been carried out on several deuterids of Plutonium (PuD 2.25,PuD 2.33, PuD 2.65) to determine the positions of deuterium atoms in the host metal f.c.c. lattice. It has been found that vacancies occur in the tetrahedral sites. Moreover, with increasing deuterium concentration, octahedral interstitial deuterium atoms are displaced from their ideal positions. These results can be explained by the formation of clusters. Finally, at low temperature, these compounds become ferromagnetically ordered. An ordered magnetic moment μ 0≈0.8 μ B has been measured on all compounds.

  17. Properties of porous magnesium prepared by powder metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čapek, Jaroslav; Vojtěch, Dalibor

    2013-01-01

    Porous magnesium-based materials are biodegradable and promising for use in orthopaedic applications, but their applications are hampered by their difficult fabrication. This work reports the preparation of porous magnesium materials by a powder metallurgy technique using ammonium bicarbonate as spacer particles. The porosity of the materials depended on the amount of ammonium bicarbonate and was found to have strong negative effects on flexural strength and corrosion behaviour. However, the flexural strength of materials with porosities of up to 28 vol.% was higher than the flexural strength of non-metallic biomaterials and comparable with that of natural bone.

  18. Rapidly solidified aluminum alloy powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S.S.; Chun, B.S.; Won, C.W.; Lee, B.S.; Kim, H.K.; Ryu, M. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Antolovich, S.D. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Miniaturization and weight reduction are becoming increasingly important in the fabrication of vehicles. In particular, aluminum-silicon alloys are the logical choice for automotive parts such as pistons and cylinders liners because of their excellent wear resistance and low coefficient of thermal expansion. However, it is difficult to produce aluminum-silicon alloys with silicon contents greater than 20 wt% via ingot metallurgy, because strength is drastically reduced by the coarsening of primary silicon particles. This article describes an investigation of rapid solidification powder metallurgy techniques developed in an effort to prevent coarsening of the primary silicon particles in aluminum-silicon alloys.

  19. Laser engineered surfaces from glass forming alloy powder precursors : Microstructure and wear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews, D. T. A.; Ocelik, V.; Branagan, D.; de Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2009-01-01

    Fe-based metallic glass forming powders have been deposited on mild steel substrates using high power laser cladding. Coatings microstructures have been analysed by scanning- and transmission-electron microscopy and at varying substrate dilutions, have been found to comprise a 100 to 500 nm interden

  20. Assessment of Powder Mixed EDM: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanimina Alexis Mouangué

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This project research undertakes the assessment of powder added electrical discharge machining (PMDM with focus on effect of additive powders and circulation systems. In PMEDM process, powder can be mixed with dielectric fluid either in the main EDM tank or in a separate tank in order to improve EDM machining performance. Different designs of powder mixed EDM circulating systems such as closed and opened systems with different sizes of tank are described in literature. Various devices such as stirrer, circulating pump etc. are placed in the tank in order to ensure the uniformity of powder mixed dielectric. Each design has its advantages and disadvantages and it might affect the EDM output results. Therefore, there is a need to review the PMEDM with respect to additive powders and circulation systems in order to identify the gap and propose an alternative for improving process.

  1. Adsorption of lignosulfonate compounds using powdered eggshell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Zulfikar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Batch adsorption of lignosulfonates using untreated powdered eggshell under the influences of mixing time, pH,particle size and dose of powdered eggshell was investigated. Adsorption isotherms of lignosulfonates onto powder eggshellwere also studied. Eggshells were collected from the Balubur traditional market in Bandung, Indonesia, washed with distilledwater, air dried, and then ground into powder of different particle sizes. Kinetic studies found that equilibrium time was ashigh as 90 minutes. From experiments carried out at different pH, it was observed that pH plays an important role in theadsorption of lignosulfonate compounds. It was also observed that particles size has no significant effect on the adsorptionof lignosulfonate compounds. The optimum dosage of powdered eggshell was 30 g/100 mL of 500 mg/L lignosulfonatesolution. Adsorption isotherms studied through the use of graphical methods revealed that the adsorption of lignosulfonatesonto powdered eggshell follows the Langmuir model.

  2. In-house characterization of protein powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Christian Grundahl; Nielsen, Ole Faurskov; Ståhl, Kenny

    2010-01-01

    X-ray powder diffraction patterns of lysozyme and insulin were recorded on a standard in-house powder diffractometer. The experimental powder diffraction patterns were compared with patterns calculated from Protein Data Bank coordinate data. Good agreement was obtained by including straightforward...... to include calculated H-atom positions did not improve the overall fit and was abandoned. The method devised was shown to be a quick and convenient tool for distinguishing precipitates and polymorphs of proteins....

  3. Risk Assessment of Baby Powder Exposure through Inhalation

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Min Chaul; Park, Jung Duck; Choi, Byung Soon; Park, So Young; Kim, Dong Won; Chung, Yong Hyun; HISANAGA, Naomi; Yu, Il Je

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the exposure risk through inhalation to baby powder for babies and adults under simulated conditions. Baby powder was applied to a baby doll and the amount of baby powder consumed per application was estimated. The airborne exposure to baby powder during application was then evaluated by sampling the airborne baby powder near the breathing zones of both the baby doll and the person applying the powder (the applicator). The average amount of baby powder consu...

  4. Effects of Technical Conditions on Structure, Morphology and Crystalline Size of Nanocrystalline Nd-Doped Ceria Powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yong; Wang Lingling; Liu Huangqing

    2004-01-01

    Nanocrystalline solid solution CeO2-Nd2O3 powders were prepared by low temperature combustion process.Special attention was paid to the influence of the glycine/metal ratio and calcination temperature on the powders phase structure, morphology and particle size.TG-DSC curves and XRD peaks of different glycine/metal ratio show that smaller particle size can be obtained with a slightly fuel-deficient ratio.XRD results indicate that the as-prepared powders are crystallized in a single fluorite structure.The crystalline size ranges from 9 to 24 nm, which increases with the increase of calcination temperature.The lower SEM images were characterized by the spongy and form-like microstructure of the powders.Organic agent may be gradually eliminated by high temperature calcination process.

  5. Development of TRIGA Fuel Fabrication by Powder Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Suwarno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The prospect of operation of the Indonesian TRIGA reactors may be jeopardizes in the future due to the lack of fuel and control rods. Both fuel and control rods may not longer be imported and should be developed domestically. The most specific technology to fabricate TRIGA fuel rod is the production of UZrH1.6 pellet. The steps include converting the massive U metal into powder in by hydriding-dehydriding technique and mixing the U and Zr powders. A research has been planned to conducted by the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN in Indonesia. Fixed amount of U-Zr mixed powders at the ratio of U/Zr = 10 wt% was pressed into a pellet with a diameter of 1.41 in and a thickness of 1 or 1.5 in, sintered at a temperature of 1200oC, followed by hydriding at 800oC to obtained UZrH1.6. The pellets, cladding, and other components were then fabricated into a fuel rod. A detailed discussion of the TRIGA fuel fabrication is presented in the paper.

  6. Electrical transport properties of manganite powders under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, M.G. [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Departamento de Fisica, FCEyN, UBA, and IFIBA (CONICET), Ciudad Universitaria, (C1428EHA) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Leyva, A.G. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CAC, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Gral Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Acha, C., E-mail: acha@df.uba.ar [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Departamento de Fisica, FCEyN, UBA, and IFIBA (CONICET), Ciudad Universitaria, (C1428EHA) Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    We have measured the electrical resistance of micrometric to nanometric powders of the La{sub 5/8-y}Pr{sub y}Ca{sub 3/8}MnO{sub 3} (LPCMO with y=0.3) manganite for hydrostatic pressures up to 4 kbar. By applying different final thermal treatments to samples synthesized by a microwave assisted denitration process, we obtained two particular grain characteristic dimensions (40 nm and 1000 nm) which allowed us to analyze the grain size sensitivity of the electrical conduction properties of both the metal electrode interface with manganite (Pt/LPCMO) and the intrinsic intergranular interfaces formed by the LPCMO powder, conglomerate under the only effect of external pressure. We also analyzed the effects of pressure on the phase diagram of these powders. Our results indicate that different magnetic phases coexist at low temperatures and that the electrical transport properties are related to the intrinsic interfaces, as we observe evidences of a granular behavior and an electronic transport dominated by the Space Charge limited Current mechanism.

  7. Ignition of pyrophoric powders: An entry-level model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alymov, M. I.; Seplyarskii, B. S.; Gordopolova, I. S.

    2015-11-01

    Chemically prepared metal nanopowders are normally pyrophoric, i.e. are liable to ignite spontaneously on exposure to air because of high reactivity and developed specific surface. On the other side, reliable theoretical models for spontaneous self-ignition of fine dispersed powders at room temperature have not been suggested so far. A deeper insight into the mechanism of the phenomenon would shed new light on the critical conditions for self-inflammation and thus would provide some clues for optimization of the passivation of fine dispersed powders. In this work, we formulated and analyzed an entry-level model for ignition of pyrophoric powders. Analysis of such a model in terms of the ignition theory gave the following results. Depending on the width of the reaction zone, the ignition may get started in either one or two stages. The duration of each stage was evaluated by using the approximate methods of combustion theory. The parametric limits for the model applicability were derived and the influence of sample length on the ignition process was explored as well.

  8. Interstitial control in titanium alloys produced by powder metallurgy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques, V.A.R.; Petroni, S.L.G.; Cairo, C.A.A. [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (AMR/CTA/IAE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial. Divisao de Materiais; Paula, M.S.M.; Galvani, E.T., E-mail: vinicius@iae.cta.br, E-mail: slpetroni@iae.cta.br, E-mail: Matheus@gmx.com, E-mail: ccairo@iae.cta.br, E-mail: eduardotgalvani@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial

    2009-07-01

    The titanium alloys are used for applications that demand high performance, including surgical implants and aerospace applications. Powder metallurgy is an advantageous alternative for titanium parts production with complex geometries at a relative low cost. Despite that, it is verified that the introduction of interstitial elements (oxygen, nitrogen and carbon) wile processing these alloys, though can increase hardness and mechanical resistance, which is frequently related to the reduction of ductility and fragility increase. The objective of this work is to investigate the influence of the interstitial elements in commercially pure Ti and Ti-{sup 13}Nb-{sup 13}Zr alloy produced by powder metallurgy (P/M). Samples were produced by the mixing of hydride metallic powders followed by uniaxial and cold isostatic pressing with subsequent densification by sintering at 1400 °C, in vacuum. Sintered samples were characterized for phase composition, microstructure and microhardness by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Vickers indentation, respectively. The interstitial content was analysed by Leco equipment. It was shown that the samples were sintered to high densities with a Widmanstatten microstructure. The oxygen and nitrogen contents are above the ELI (Extra Low Interstitial) and the critical issues were identified in the original blended elemental route. (author)

  9. The need for powder characterisation in the additive manufacturing industry and the establishment of a national facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson, Jeffrey Malcolm

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of powders used in additive manufacturing can have significant effects on process efficiencies and the quality of the final products. Powder sizes and morphologies need to be optimised for a particular process, and this requires the facilities to perform these measurements as well as provide a quality check on powder batches that are purchased. The establishment of a national powder characterisation facility has been identified by the Titanium Centre of Competence (a DST-funded initiative as a critical form of support for the development of a South African titanium metal industry. This paper discusses what effect the different powder characteristics can have on the selective laser sintering processes, as well as the state of development of this national facility.

  10. Preparation of silver powder through glycerol process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amit Sinha; B P Sharma

    2005-06-01

    High purity fine silver powder with uniform particle morphology was prepared through glycerol process. The process involves reduction of silver nitrate by glycerol under atmospheric conditions at a temperature below 175°C. Glycerol, in this process, acts as a solvent as well as a reducing agent. The powders prepared through this process were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical analysis. The powders were well crystalline and contained oxygen, carbon and hydrogen as impurities. Overall purity was better than 99.9%. The yield of silver powder was better than 99%.

  11. CVD carbon powders modified by ball milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazmierczak Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon powders produced using a plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD methods are an interesting subject of research. One of the most interesting methods of synthesizing these powders is using radio frequency plasma. This method, originally used in deposition of carbon films containing different sp2/sp3 ratios, also makes possible to produce carbon structures in the form of powder. Results of research related to the mechanical modification of these powders have been presented. The powders were modified using a planetary ball mill with varying parameters, such as milling speed, time, ball/powder mass ratio and additional liquids. Changes in morphology and particle sizes were measured using scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Phase composition was analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The influence of individual parameters on the modification outcome was estimated using statistical method. The research proved that the size of obtained powders is mostly influenced by the milling speed and the amount of balls. Powders tend to form conglomerates sized up to hundreds of micrometers. Additionally, it is possible to obtain nanopowders with the size around 100 nm. Furthermore, application of additional liquid, i.e. water in the process reduces the graphitization of the powder, which takes place during dry milling.

  12. How to freeze drop oscillations with powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Jeremy; Zhu, Ying; Vakarelski, Ivan; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur

    2012-11-01

    We present experiments that show when a water drop impacts onto a bed of fine, hydrophobic powder, the final form of the drop can be very different from the spherical form with which it impacts. For all drop impact speeds, the drop rebounds due to the hydrophobic nature of the powder. However, we observe that above a critical impact speed, the drop undergoes a permanent deformation to a highly non-spherical shape with a complete coverage of powder, thus creating a deformed liquid marble. This powder coating acts to freeze the drop oscillations during rebound.

  13. Possibility of Extrusion of Wood Powders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MIKI, Tsunehisa; TAKAKURA, Norio; IIZUKA, Takashi; YAMAGUCHI, Katsuhiko; KANAYAMA, Kouzou

    2003-01-01

    .... Effects of extrusion temperature, extrusion ratio, moisture content and particle size of the mixed wood powders on the flow characteristics, bending strength, hardness and bulk density of extruded...

  14. Fine grain tungsten produced with nanoscale powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Lin; Fang Zhao; Liying Zhang; Chengyi Wu; Zhimeng Guo

    2005-01-01

    Nanoscale tungsten powder was prepared by reducing nanoscale tungsten trioxide in hydrogen to WO2.90 and further to W powder. After compacted with a rubber die, the nanoscale tungsten powder was sintered in a high-temperature dilatometer to investigate its shrinkage process. The results show that the compact of the nanoscale tungsten powder starts to shrink at 1050℃ and ends at 1500℃. The shrinkage rate reaches the maximum value at 1210℃. The relative density of sintered samples is 96.4%, and its grain size is about 5.8 μm.

  15. Molecularly doped metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avnir, David

    2014-02-18

    , and dissolution during amalgam formation. The structures of these dopant@metal materials indicate that metals entrap the organic molecules within their agglomerated nanocrystals. As a result, these materials are porous, making the dopant accessible for chemical reactions, in particular for catalysis. We have prepared these materials in a variety of forms, including powder, granules, pressed discs, thin films, thick films, sub-micrometer particles, and nanometric particles decorating ceramic nanofibers. Entrapment and adsorption are very different processes. If entrapped, water-soluble molecules cannot be extracted, but the same molecules, if adsorbed, are easily washed away. Likewise, most of the special properties that we have observed, such as major improvements or changes in catalytic activity, completely different thermal gravimetric analysis behavior, and more, are observed only in the entrapped cases.

  16. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometric determination of acid-soluble metal elements chromium,manganese, zinc and copper in talcum powder%电感耦合等离子体原子发射光谱法测定滑石粉中酸溶金属元素铬锰锌铜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓静; 曾泽; 王长文; 仇薪越; 牟明仁; 富瑶; 沈桂玲; 刘向宽

    2011-01-01

    After digestion by aqua regia with microwave and selection of corresponding spectral lines at 267. 7, 257. 6, 213. 8 and 324. 7 nm as analytical lines, the acid-dissoluble metal elements including chromium, manganese, zinc and copper in talcum powder were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) under optimized conditions with radio frequency power of 1 250 W, auxiliary air flow rate of 0. 60 L/min and atomizer pressure of 26 psi. When the concentration of each testing element was 2. 0 μg/mL, the interferences caused by 20. 0 μg/mL of I-ron, magnesium, calcium, aluminum, zinc, nickel and copper were all less than 5 %. Since the contents of these elements in talcum powder were less than 1 %, their influence on the determination could be ignored. The detection limits of chromium, manganese, zinc and copper were 0. 004 8, 0. 003 8, 0. 001 and 0. 002 6 μg/mL, respectively. This proposed method was applied in actual samples, and the determination results were consistent with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with relative standard deviations (RSD, n = 8) of 1.1%-4. 2% and recoveries of 93 %-107 %.%以王水作溶剂,微波消解法消解样品,选择267.7、257.6、213.8和324.7 nm波长的光谱线分别作为铬、锰、锌和铜的分析线,在发射功率为1 250 W、辅助气流量为0.60 L/min、雾化器压力为26 psi的优化条件下以电感耦合等离子体原子发射光谱法(ICP-AES)测定了滑石粉中酸溶金属元素铬、锰、锌、铜含量.样品中的基体组分硅酸镁在王水中的溶解量很少,对测定没有影响.当测定待测元素浓度均为2.0μg/mL的溶液时,20.0 μg/mL的铁、镁、钙、铝、锌、镍、铜对待测元素的干扰均小于5%.由于滑石粉中这些元素含量小于1%,因此它们对测定的影响可以忽略.铬、锰、锌、铜的检出限分别为0.004 8、0.003 8、0.001、0.002 6μg/mL.滑石粉样品分析

  17. Laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing: Effects of main physical processes on dynamical melt flow and pore formation from mesoscopic powder simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Khairallah, Saad A; Rubenchik, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    There is a need in laser powder-bed fusion of metals to produce high quality parts without pores by better understanding the complex interplay of process parameters. This study considers the main physical phenomena involved in laser powder interactions using a high fidelity three-dimensional mesoscopic simulation model of 316L stainless steel powder. The model emphasizes the importance of the recoil pressure and the Marangoni effect in generating strong dynamical melt flow and the role of radiative and evaporative cooling at capping the maximum surface temperature. The melt track is divided into an indentation, transition and tail end regions, each being the stage of specific physical effects. Pore formation mechanisms are observed at the edge of a scan track, at the melt pool bottom center during collapse of the indentation, and at the end of the melt track during laser power ramp down. Remedies to these undesirable pores are discussed.

  18. Wall-slip of highly filled powder injection molding compounds: Effect of flow channel geometry and roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausnerova, Berenika; Sanetrnik, Daniel [Dept. of Production Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, nám. T.G. Masaryka 5555, 760 01 Zlín, Czech Republic and Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nad Ovc (Czech Republic); Paravanova, Gordana [Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nad Ovcírnou 3685, 760 01 Zlín (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-15

    The paper deals with the rheological behavior of highly filled compounds proceeded via powder injection molding (PIM) and applied in many sectors of industry (automotive, medicine, electronic or military). Online rheometer equipped with slit dies varying in surface roughness and dimensions was applied to investigate the wall-slip as a rheological phenomenon, which can be considered as a parameter indicating the separation of compound components (polymer binder and metallic powder) during high shear rates when injection molded.

  19. An Investigation on the Microstructure of Multi-phase Composite Coatings Synthesized by Plasma Spraying Self-reaction Composite Powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONGYan-chun; YANDian-ran; HeJi-ning; LiXiang-zhi; ZHANGJian-xin; NIUEr-wu

    2004-01-01

    Multi-phase self-reacLion composite (denoted as MPc) coatings containing ceramic and metal multi-phases were fabricated by plasma spraying Fe2O3-Al composite powders. This technology successfully combines self-propagating high-temperature synthesis with plasma spraying. The morphology of the composite powders was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The phase composition and microstructure of the composite coating are studied.

  20. An Investigation on the Microstructure of Multi-phase Composite Coatings Synthesized by Plasma Spraying Self-reaction Composite Powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yan-chun; YAN Dian-ran; HE Ji-ning; LI Xiang-zhi; ZHANG Jian-xin; NIU Er-wu

    2004-01-01

    Multi-phase self-reaction composite (denoted as MPc) coatings containing ceramic and metal multi-phases were fabricated by plasma spraying Fe2O3-Al composite powders. This technology successfully combines self-propagating high-temperature synthesis with plasma spraying. The morphology of the composite powders was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The phase composition and microstructure of the composite coating are studied.