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Sample records for metal detoxification prospects

  1. Molecular Genetics of Metal Detoxification: Prospects for Phytoremediation

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    Ow, David W. ow@pgec.ams.usda.gov

    2000-09-01

    Unlike compounds that can be broken down, the remediation of most heavy metals and radionuclides requires physical extraction from contaminated sources. Plants can extract inorganics, but effective phytoextraction requires plants that produce high biomass, grow rapidly and possess high capacity-uptake for the inorganic substance. Either hyperaccumulator plants must be bred for increased growth and biomass or hyperaccumulation traits must be engineered into fast growing, high biomass plants. This latter approach requires fundamental knowledge of the molecular mechanisms in the uptake and storage of inorganics. Much has been learned in recent years on how plants and certain fungi chelate and transport selected heavy metals. This progress has been facilitated by the use of Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a model system. The use of a model organism for study permits rapid characterization of the molecular process. As target genes are identified in a model organism, their sequences can be modified for expression in a heterologous host or aid in the search of homologous genes in more complex organisms. Moreover, as plant nutrient uptake is intrinsically linked to the association with rhizospheric fungi, elucidating metal sequestration in this fungus permits additional opportunities for engineering rhizospheric microbes to assist in phytoextraction.

  2. Heavy metal detoxification in eukaryotic microalgae.

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    Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; Peña-Castro, Julián Mario; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2006-06-01

    Microalgae are aquatic organisms possessing molecular mechanisms that allow them to discriminate non-essential heavy metals from those essential ones for their growth. The different detoxification processes executed by algae are reviewed with special emphasis on those involving the peptides metallothioneins, mainly the post transcriptionally synthesized class III metallothioneins or phytochelatins. Also, the features that make microalgae suitable organisms technologies specially to treat water that is heavily polluted with metals is discussed.

  3. Metal accumulation and detoxification mechanisms in mycorrhizal Betula pubescens.

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    Fernández-Fuego, D; Bertrand, A; González, A

    2017-12-01

    Metal detoxification in plants is a complex process that involves different mechanisms, such as the retention of metals to the cell wall and their chelation and subsequent compartmentalization in plant vacuoles. In order to identify the mechanisms involved in metal accumulation and tolerance in Betula pubescens, as well as the role of mycorrhization in these processes, mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants were grown in two industrial soils with contrasting concentrations of heavy metals. Mycorrhization increased metal uptake at low metal concentrations in the soil and reduced it at high metal concentrations, which led to an enhanced growth and biomass production of the host when growing in the most polluted soil. Our results suggest that the sequestration on the cell wall is the main detoxification mechanism in white birch exposed to acute chronic metal-stress, while phytochelatins play a role mitigating metal toxicity inside the cells. Given its high Mn and Zn root-to-shoot translocation rate, Betula pubescens is a very promising species for the phytoremediation of soils polluted with these metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Metal transformation as a strategy for bacterial detoxification of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, Ashraf M M; Al Abboud, Mohamed A; Khatib, Sayeed I

    2018-01-01

    Microorganisms can modify the chemical and physical characters of metals leading to an alteration in their speciation, mobility, and toxicity. Aqueous heavy metals solutions (Hg, Cd, Pb, Ag, Cu, and Zn) were treated with the volatile metabolic products (VMPs) of Escherichia coli Z3 for 24 h using aerobic bioreactor. The effect of the metals treated with VMPs in comparison to the untreated metals on the growth of E. coli S1 and Staphylococcus aureus S2 (local isolates) was examined. Moreover, the toxic properties of the treated and untreated metals were monitored using minimum inhibitory concentration assay. A marked reduction of the treated metals toxicity was recorded in comparison to the untreated metals. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis revealed the formation of metal particles in the treated metal solutions. In addition to heavy metals at variable ratios, these particles consisted of carbon, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen elements. The inhibition of metal toxicity was attributed to the existence of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide in the VMPs of E. coli Z3 culture that might responsible for the transformation of soluble metal ions into metal complexes. This study clarified the capability of E. coli Z3 for indirect detoxification of heavy metals via the immobilization of metal ions into biologically unavailable species. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Contrasting metal detoxification in polychaetes, bivalves and fish from a contaminated bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenhong; Xu, Zhizhen; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2015-02-01

    Jinzhou Bay in Bohai, Northern China, is historically contaminated with metals, but the organisms living in such contaminated environments are much less well studied. In this study, we contrasted the different subcellular and detoxification responses of polychaetes, bivalves and fish collected from different contaminated sites in Jinzhou Bay. In polychaete Neanthes japonica, metal-rich granule (MRG) was the main biologically detoxified metal compartment, and metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) detoxified a relatively smaller fraction of accumulated metals. The importance of MRG increased whereas that of MTLP decreased with increasing metal bioaccumulation. Detoxification in the two bivalves was similar to that in the polychaetes. However, the MRG appeared to play only a minor role in metal binding and detoxification in the gills and livers of fish, whereas MTLP was the dominating detoxification pool. Cellular debris was an important pool binding with metals in the three marine animals. Our study highlighted the contrasting cellular binding and detoxification among different marine organisms living in contaminated environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of pH in heavy metal detoxification by biosorption from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high level of toxic metal pollution in the environment is a result of increased human activities. The hydrogen ion concentration of solutions has been known to affect reactions in solutions. The role of pH in As(V), Pb(II) and Hg(II) ions detoxification by bio-sorption from aqueous solutions using coconut fiber and sawdust ...

  7. Omics and biotechnology of arsenic stress and detoxification in plants: current updates and prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Smita; Dubey, Rama Shanker; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As), a naturally occurring metallic element, is a dreadful health hazard to millions of people across the globe. Arsenic is present in low amount in the environment and originates from anthropogenic impact and geogenic sources. The presence of As in groundwater used for irrigation is a worldwide problem as it affects crop productivity, accumulates to different tissues and contaminates food chain. The consumption of As contaminated water or food products leads to several diseases and even death. Recently, studies have been carried out to explore the biochemical and molecular mechanisms which contribute to As toxicity, accumulation, detoxification and tolerance acquisition in plants. This information has led to the development of the biotechnological tools for developing plants with modulated As tolerance and detoxification to safeguard cellular and genetic integrity as well as to minimize food chain contamination. This review aims to provide current updates about the biochemical and molecular networks involved in As uptake by plants and the recent developments in the area of functional genomics in terms of developing As tolerant and low As accumulating plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Oxidative stress and DNA repair and detoxification gene expression in adolescents exposed to heavy metals living in the Milazzo-Valle del Mela area (Sicily, Italy

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    Gabriele Pizzino

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Continuous exposure at relatively low concentrations of heavy metals is associated with increased oxidative DNA damage and impaired expression of DNA repair and detoxification genes in adolescents.

  9. Activated sludge respirometry to assess solar detoxification of a metal finishing effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Juanes, L.; Amat, A.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Escuela Politecnica Superior de Alcoy, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, E-03801 Alcoy (Spain); Arques, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Escuela Politecnica Superior de Alcoy, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, E-03801 Alcoy (Spain)], E-mail: aarques@txp.upv.es; Bernabeu, A.; Silvestre, M.; Vicente, R. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Escuela Politecnica Superior de Alcoy, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, E-03801 Alcoy (Spain); Ano, E. [Departamento de Gestion e Innovacion, Area de producto y desarrollo sostenible, Asociacion de Investigacion de la Industria del Juguete, Conexas y Afines (AIJU), Avda. de la industria, 23, 03440 Ibi (Spain)], E-mail: m.ambiente@aiju.info

    2008-05-30

    Inhibition of the respiration of activated sludge has been tested as a convenient method to estimate toxicity of aqueous solutions containing copper and cyanide, such as metal finishing effluents; according to this method, an EC{sub 50} of 0.5 mg/l was determined for CN{sup -} and 3.0 mg/l for copper. Solar detoxification of cyanide-containing solutions was studied using TiO{sub 2}, but this process was unfavourable because of the inhibitory role that plays the copper ions present in real effluents on the oxidation of cyanide. On the other hand, the oxidative effect of hydrogen peroxide was greatly enhanced by Cu{sup 2+} and solar irradiation, as complete elimination of free and complexed cyanide could be accomplished, together with precipitation of copper, in experiments carried out at pilot plant scale with real metal finishing effluents. Under these conditions, total detoxification was achieved according to respirometric measurements although some remaining toxicity was determined by more sensitive Vibrio fischeri luminescent assay.

  10. Activated sludge respirometry to assess solar detoxification of a metal finishing effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos-Juanes, L.; Amat, A.M.; Arques, A.; Bernabeu, A.; Silvestre, M.; Vicente, R.; Ano, E.

    2008-01-01

    Inhibition of the respiration of activated sludge has been tested as a convenient method to estimate toxicity of aqueous solutions containing copper and cyanide, such as metal finishing effluents; according to this method, an EC 50 of 0.5 mg/l was determined for CN - and 3.0 mg/l for copper. Solar detoxification of cyanide-containing solutions was studied using TiO 2 , but this process was unfavourable because of the inhibitory role that plays the copper ions present in real effluents on the oxidation of cyanide. On the other hand, the oxidative effect of hydrogen peroxide was greatly enhanced by Cu 2+ and solar irradiation, as complete elimination of free and complexed cyanide could be accomplished, together with precipitation of copper, in experiments carried out at pilot plant scale with real metal finishing effluents. Under these conditions, total detoxification was achieved according to respirometric measurements although some remaining toxicity was determined by more sensitive Vibrio fischeri luminescent assay

  11. Heavy Metal Detoxification by Different Bacillus Species Isolated from Solar Salterns

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    Syed, Shameer; Chinthala, Paramageetham

    2015-01-01

    The biosorption mechanism is an alternative for chemical precipitation and ultrafiltration which have been employed to treat heavy metal contamination with a limited success. In the present study, three species of Bacillus which were isolated from solar salterns were screened for their detoxification potential of the heavy metals, lead, chromium, and copper, by biosorption. Biosorption potential of each isolate was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) as the amount of metal present in the medium after the treatment with the isolates. Bacterial isolates, Bacillus licheniformis NSPA5, Bacillus cereus NSPA8, and Bacillus subtilis NSPA13, showed significant level of lead biosorption with maximum of 87–90% by Bacillus cereus NSPA8. The biosorption of copper and chromium was relatively low in comparison with lead. With the obtained results, we have concluded that the bacterial isolates are potential agents to treat metal contamination in more efficient and ecofriendly manner. PMID:26525498

  12. Heavy Metal Detoxification by Different Bacillus Species Isolated from Solar Salterns

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    Shameer Syed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The biosorption mechanism is an alternative for chemical precipitation and ultrafiltration which have been employed to treat heavy metal contamination with a limited success. In the present study, three species of Bacillus which were isolated from solar salterns were screened for their detoxification potential of the heavy metals, lead, chromium, and copper, by biosorption. Biosorption potential of each isolate was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS, Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES, and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS as the amount of metal present in the medium after the treatment with the isolates. Bacterial isolates, Bacillus licheniformis NSPA5, Bacillus cereus NSPA8, and Bacillus subtilis NSPA13, showed significant level of lead biosorption with maximum of 87–90% by Bacillus cereus NSPA8. The biosorption of copper and chromium was relatively low in comparison with lead. With the obtained results, we have concluded that the bacterial isolates are potential agents to treat metal contamination in more efficient and ecofriendly manner.

  13. Detoxification of multiple heavy metals by a half-molecule ABC transporter, HMT-1, and coelomocytes of Caenorhabditis elegans.

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    Marc S Schwartz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Developing methods for protecting organisms in metal-polluted environments is contingent upon our understanding of cellular detoxification mechanisms. In this regard, half-molecule ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters of the HMT-1 subfamily are required for cadmium (Cd detoxification. HMTs have conserved structural architecture that distinguishes them from other ABC transporters and allows the identification of homologs in genomes of different species including humans. We recently discovered that HMT-1 from the simple, unicellular organism, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, SpHMT1, acts independently of phytochelatin synthase (PCS and detoxifies Cd, but not other heavy metals. Whether HMTs from multicellular organisms confer tolerance only to Cd or also to other heavy metals is not known.Using molecular genetics approaches and functional in vivo assays we showed that HMT-1 from a multicellular organism, Caenorhabditis elegans, functions distinctly from its S. pombe counterpart in that in addition to Cd it confers tolerance to arsenic (As and copper (Cu while acting independently of pcs-1. Further investigation of hmt-1 and pcs-1 revealed that these genes are expressed in different cell types, supporting the notion that hmt-1 and pcs-1 operate in distinct detoxification pathways. Interestingly, pcs-1 and hmt-1 are co-expressed in highly endocytic C. elegans cells with unknown function, the coelomocytes. By analyzing heavy metal and oxidative stress sensitivities of the coelomocyte-deficient C. elegans strain we discovered that coelomocytes are essential mainly for detoxification of heavy metals, but not of oxidative stress, a by-product of heavy metal toxicity.We established that HMT-1 from the multicellular organism confers tolerance to multiple heavy metals and is expressed in liver-like cells, the coelomocytes, as well as head neurons and intestinal cells, which are cell types that are affected by heavy metal poisoning in humans. We also showed

  14. Exploring metal detoxification and accumulation potential during vermicomposting of Tea factory coal ash: sequential extraction and fluorescence probe analysis

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    Goswami, Linee; Pratihar, Sanjay; Dasgupta, Suman; Bhattacharyya, Pradip; Mudoi, Pronab; Bora, Jayanta; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-07-01

    Metal contamination from coal ashes (CAs) is widely recognized as a significant environmental concern. To learn more about metal detoxification and accumulation potential of earthworm species, metal-rich tea factory coal ashes (TFCA) were fed to Eisenia fetida and Lampito mauritii by employing a fluorescent tag detection method. Fascinatingly, on feeding fluorescence probed Zn and Cd along with cow dung to Eisenia fetida, the detection of the gut-proteins with a molecular mass higher than 100 kDa was a distinct evidence of metal binding. Significant increases were observed in the content of humified organic C [humic acid (HAC) and fulvic acid C (FAC)] and degree of humification during vermicomposting. Concurrently, considerably large amount of toxic metals (Cr, Cd, Pb, and Zn) was transformed from exchangeable to recalcitrant (organic matter and mineral bound) fractions. Moreover, total metal concentrations were reduced with high removal efficiency upon vermicomposting.

  15. Role of phosphate fertilizers in heavy metal uptake and detoxification of toxic metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D K; Chatterjee, S; Datta, S; Veer, V; Walther, C

    2014-08-01

    As a nonrenewable resource, phosphorus (P) is the second most important macronutrient for plant growth and nutrition. Demand of phosphorus application in the agricultural production is increasing fast throughout the globe. The bioavailability of phosphorus is distinctively low due to its slow diffusion and high fixation in soils which make phosphorus a key limiting factor for crop production. Applications of phosphorus-based fertilizers improve the soil fertility and agriculture yield but at the same time concerns over a number of factors that lead to environmental damage need to be addressed properly. Phosphate rock mining leads to reallocation and exposure of several heavy metals and radionuclides in crop fields and water bodies throughout the world. Proper management of phosphorus along with its fertilizers is required that may help the maximum utilization by plants and minimum run-off and wastage. Phosphorus solubilizing bacteria along with the root rhizosphere of plant integrated with root morphological and physiological adaptive strategies need to be explored further for utilization of this extremely valuable nonrenewable resource judiciously. The main objective of this review is to assess the role of phosphorus in fertilizers, their uptake along with other elements and signaling during P starvation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Detoxification of a Sulfur Mustard Simulant Using a BODIPY-Functionalized Zirconium-Based Metal-Organic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilgan, Ahmet; Islamoglu, Timur; Howarth, Ashlee J; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

    2017-07-26

    Effective detoxification of chemical warfare agents is a global necessity. As a powerful photosensitizer, a halogenated BODIPY ligand is postsynthetically appended to the Zr 6 nodes of the metal-organic framework (MOF), NU-1000, to enhance singlet oxygen generation from the MOF. The BODIPY/MOF material is then used as a heterogeneous photocatalyst to produce singlet oxygen under green LED irradiation. The singlet oxygen selectively detoxifies the sulfur mustard simulant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), to the less toxic sulfoxide derivative (2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfoxide, CEESO) with a half-life of approximately 2 min.

  17. Detoxification of a Lignocellulosic Waste from a Pulp Mill to Enhance Its Fermentation Prospects

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    Tamara Llano

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Detoxification is required for sugar bioconversion and hydrolyzate valorization within the biorefining concept for biofuel or bio-product production. In this work, the spent sulfite liquor, which is the main residue provided from a pulp mill, has been detoxified. Evaporation, overliming, ionic exchange resins, and adsorption with activated carbon or black carbon were considered to separate the sugars from the inhibitors in the lignocellulosic residue. Effectiveness in terms of total and individual inhibitor removals, sugar losses and sugar-to-inhibitor removal ratio was determined. The best results were found using the cation exchange Dowex 50WX2 resin in series with the anion exchange Amberlite IRA-96 resin, which resulted in sugar losses of 24.2% with inhibitor removal of 71.3% of lignosulfonates, 84.8% of phenolics, 82.2% acetic acid, and 100% of furfurals. Apart from exchange resins, the results of evaporation, overliming, adsorption with activated carbon and adsorption with black carbon led to total inhibitor removals of 8.6%, 44.9%, 33.6% and 47.6%, respectively. Finally, some fermentation scenarios were proposed in order to evaluate the most suitable technique or combination of techniques that should be implemented in every case.

  18. Physiological and molecular responses to heavy metal stresses suggest different detoxification mechanism of Populus deltoides and P. x canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyó, Dániel; Horváth, Edit; Németh, Edit; Leviczky, Tünde; Takács, Kinga; Lehotai, Nóra; Feigl, Gábor; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna; Ördög, Attila; Gallé, Róbert; Csiszár, Jolán; Szabados, László; Erdei, László; Gallé, Ágnes

    2016-08-20

    Plants have divergent defense mechanisms against the harmful effects of heavy metals present in excess in soils and groundwaters. Poplars (Populus spp.) are widely cultivated because of their rapid growth and high biomass production, and members of the genus are increasingly used as experimental model organisms of trees and for phytoremediation purposes. Our aim was to investigate the copper and zinc stress responses of three outstanding biomass producer bred poplar lines to identify such transcripts of genes involved in the detoxification mechanisms, which can play an important role in the protection against heavy metals. Poplar cuttings were grown hydroponically and subjected to short-term (one week) mild and sublethal copper and zinc stresses. We evaluated the effects of the applied heavy metals and the responses of plants by detecting the changes of multiple physiological and biochemical parameters. The most severe cellular oxidative damage was caused by 30μM copper treatment, while zinc was less harmful. Analysis of stress-related transcripts revealed genotype-specific differences that are likely related to alterations in heavy metal tolerance. P. deltoides clones B-229 and PE 19/66 clones were clearly more effective at inducing the expression of various genes implicated in the detoxification process, such as the glutathione transferases, metallothioneins, ABC transporters, (namely PtGSTU51, PxMT1, PdABCC2,3), while the P. canadensis line M-1 accumulated more metal, resulting in greater cellular oxidative damage. Our results show that all three poplar clones are efficient in stress acclimatization, but with different molecular bases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Possible Roles of Plant Sulfurtransferases in Detoxification of Cyanide, Reactive Oxygen Species, Selected Heavy Metals and Arsenate

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    Parvin Most

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants and animals have evolved various potential mechanisms to surmount the adverse effects of heavy metal toxicity. Plants possess low molecular weight compounds containing sulfhydryl groups (-SH that actively react with toxic metals. For instance, glutathione (γ-Glu-Cys-Gly is a sulfur-containing tripeptide thiol and a substrate of cysteine-rich phytochelatins (γ-Glu-Cys2–11-Gly (PCs. Phytochelatins react with heavy metal ions by glutathione S-transferase in the cytosol and afterwards they are sequestered into the vacuole for degradation. Furthermore, heavy metals induce reactive oxygen species (ROS, which directly or indirectly influence metabolic processes. Reduced glutathione (GSH attributes as an antioxidant and participates to control ROS during stress. Maintenance of the GSH/GSSG ratio is important for cellular redox balance, which is crucial for the survival of the plants. In this context, sulfurtransferases (Str, also called rhodaneses, comprise a group of enzymes widely distributed in all phyla, paving the way for the transfer of a sulfur atom from suitable sulfur donors to nucleophilic sulfur acceptors, at least in vitro. The best characterized in vitro reaction is the transfer of a sulfane sulfur atom from thiosulfate to cyanide, leading to the formation of sulfite and thiocyanate. Plants as well as other organisms have multi-protein families (MPF of Str. Despite the presence of Str activities in many living organisms, their physiological role has not been clarified unambiguously. In mammals, these proteins are involved in the elimination of cyanide released from cyanogenic compounds. However, their ubiquity suggests additional physiological functions. Furthermore, it is speculated that a member of the Str family acts as arsenate reductase (AR and is involved in arsenate detoxification. In summary, the role of Str in detoxification processes is still not well understood but seems to be a major function in the organism.

  20. Metal organic frameworks for the catalytic detoxification of chemical warfare nerve agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.; Katz, Michael J.; Mondloch, Joseph E.

    2017-04-18

    A method of using a metal organic framework (MOF) comprising a metal ion and an at least bidendate organic ligand to catalytically detoxify chemical warfare nerve agents including exposing the metal-organic-framework (MOF) to the chemical warfare nerve agent and catalytically decomposing the nerve agent with the MOF.

  1. Accumulation and detoxification of metals and arsenic in tissues of cattle (Bos taurus), and the risks for human consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roggeman, Saskia, E-mail: saskiaroggeman@gmail.com [Laboratory for Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171/U7, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); de Boeck, Gudrun [Laboratory for Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171/U7, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); De Cock, Hilde [General Medical Laboratory (Medvet/AML), Department of Pathology, Emiel Vloorsstraat 9, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven [Laboratory for Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171/U7, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate metal accumulation and detoxification processes in cattle from polluted and unpolluted areas. Therefore dairy cows from farms and free ranging Galloway cows from nature reserves were used as study animals. The concentrations of Ag, Cd, Pb, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and As were determined in muscle, kidney, liver and lungs of cattle from polluted and reference areas in Belgium. In kidney and liver also the metallothionein concentrations were measured. For Ag, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn and As the concentrations in the different tissues were significantly higher in the sampled Galloways than in the sampled dairy cows. On the other hand Cd and Pb were significantly higher in tissues of both cattle breeds from polluted sites. Cadmium seemed to be the most important metal for metallothionein induction in kidneys whereas Zn seemed to be the most important metal for the induction of metallothionein in the liver. This study also suggested that only for Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake occurs via the lungs. Although in muscle none of the Cd and Pb levels exceeded the European limits for human consumption, 40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys of all examined cows were above the European limit for cadmium. Based on the existing minimum risk levels (MRLs) for chronic oral exposure, the present results suggested that a person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g cow meat per day because of the Cr levels in the muscles. - Highlights: •Cadmium induced metallothionein in kidney while Zn induced metallothionein in liver. •For Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake happens via the lungs. •40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys exceeded the European limit for cadmium. •A person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g bovine meat per day.

  2. Accumulation and detoxification of metals and arsenic in tissues of cattle (Bos taurus), and the risks for human consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggeman, Saskia; de Boeck, Gudrun; De Cock, Hilde; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate metal accumulation and detoxification processes in cattle from polluted and unpolluted areas. Therefore dairy cows from farms and free ranging Galloway cows from nature reserves were used as study animals. The concentrations of Ag, Cd, Pb, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and As were determined in muscle, kidney, liver and lungs of cattle from polluted and reference areas in Belgium. In kidney and liver also the metallothionein concentrations were measured. For Ag, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn and As the concentrations in the different tissues were significantly higher in the sampled Galloways than in the sampled dairy cows. On the other hand Cd and Pb were significantly higher in tissues of both cattle breeds from polluted sites. Cadmium seemed to be the most important metal for metallothionein induction in kidneys whereas Zn seemed to be the most important metal for the induction of metallothionein in the liver. This study also suggested that only for Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake occurs via the lungs. Although in muscle none of the Cd and Pb levels exceeded the European limits for human consumption, 40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys of all examined cows were above the European limit for cadmium. Based on the existing minimum risk levels (MRLs) for chronic oral exposure, the present results suggested that a person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g cow meat per day because of the Cr levels in the muscles. - Highlights: •Cadmium induced metallothionein in kidney while Zn induced metallothionein in liver. •For Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake happens via the lungs. •40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys exceeded the European limit for cadmium. •A person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g bovine meat per day

  3. Detoxification of toxic heavy metals by marine bacteria highly resistant to mercury

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De; Ramaiah, N.; Vardanyan, L.

    -resistance (De Rore et al., 1994). Hg 2+ , Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ are of serious concern as they are non-biodegradable, highly toxic and are present in a variety of waste streams that contaminate the environment. These three metals are included on the US..., Sn, Cu, and Pb was found in a bacterium isolated on the basis of tributyltin resistance (Pain and Cooney, 1998). The present study focuses on 13 marine bacterial strains that are highly resistant to mercury (De et al., 2003) and investigates...

  4. Herbal medicine, radical scavenger and metal detoxification: bioinorganic, complexity and nano science perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumitro, Sutiman B.; Alit, Sukmaningsih

    2018-03-01

    Developing Complexity Science and Nano Biological perspective giving the ideas of interfacing between modern physical and biological sciences for more comprehensive understanding of life. The study of bioinorganic is a trans-disciplinary, and will initiate the way to more comprehensive and better understanding life. We can talk about energy generation, motive forces and energy transfer at the level of macromolecules. We can then develop understanding biological behavior on nano size biological materials and its higher order using modern physics as well as thermodynamic law. This is a necessity to ovoid partial understanding of life that are not match with holism. In animal tissues, the accumulation or overwhelmed production of free radicals can damage cells and are believed to accelerate the progression of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and age-related diseases. Thus a guarded balance of radical species is imperative. Edward Kosower [1] proposed an idea of biradical in an aromatic organic compounds. Each of which having unpaired electrons. The magnetic force of this compound used for making agregation based on their magnetic characters. Bioinorganic low molecular weight complex compounds composing herbal medicine can bind toxic metals. This low molecular weight complex molecules then easily excerted the metals from the body, removing them from their either intracellular or extracellular existences. This bioinorganic chelation potential is now inspiring a new therapeutic strategies.

  5. Pb detoxification in Equisetum diffusum

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    Deepak Pant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current research highlights the use of aquatic macrophyte Equisetum diffusum (Himalayan horsetail for lead detoxification. This plant species can grow in waste cathode ray tube (CRT powder and absorbs its Pb. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF analysis of plant ash shows that 68 mg/kg lead concentration in the untreated plant was improved to 7600 mg/kg in CRT powder after 90 days. The role of monosilicic and/or monoplumbic acid as reaction intermediates for Pb detoxification and associated bioaccumulation is proposed. Pb detoxification in E. diffusum is mainly rendering around the iso-electronic nature of Pb and Si and forms similar phytochelatin (PC complexes with available family of peptide ligands. The study focuses on the underlying functions of silicon containing plants in metal detoxification.

  6. Prospects for use of radiation for metal and alloy treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovskij, E.A.; Krasnoshchekov, M.M.; Pereverzev, D.D.

    1978-01-01

    Analyzed were the prospects for electron and neutron irradiation application for metal and alloy heat treatment. Advantages of such treatment are as follows: possibility of local treatments; possibility of production of surface hardened layers with differentiated characteristics; decrease in heat treatment time; improvement of characteristics of diffusion and electrolytic coatings; possibility of metal treatment in gaseous or liquid medium; improvement of strength and antifrictional characteristics of metals etc. These advantages show application prospects for the treatment method with irradiation for the increase of durability of carburized and sulphidized surfaces of pieces, of various electrolytic coatings and non-hardening metal friction surfaces

  7. Oxidative stress and DNA repair and detoxification gene expression in adolescents exposed to heavy metals living in the Milazzo-Valle del Mela area (Sicily, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzino, Gabriele; Bitto, Alessandra; Interdonato, Monica; Galfo, Federica; Irrera, Natasha; Mecchio, Anna; Pallio, Giovanni; Ramistella, Vincenzo; De Luca, Filippo; Minutoli, Letteria; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica

    2014-01-01

    The area of Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Sicily, Italy) is considered at high risk of environmental crisis by regional authorities. To measure oxidative-stress, DNA repair and detoxification genes in school children living near the industrial area and in age-matched controls. The parent study was a biomonitoring investigation evaluating heavy metal urine levels in 226 children aged 12-14 years, living in the high risk area, and in 29 age-matched controls living 45 km far from the industrial site. In the present study 67 exposed adolescents and 29 controls were included. Samples were analyzed for urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8OHdG) levels, and gene expression of OGG1 (DNA repair gene), NQO1, ST13, and MT1A (detoxifying genes). Urinary cadmium was higher (p = 0.0004) in exposed [geometric mean, 0.46 µg/L; 25th-75th percentile: 0.3-0.56] than in control adolescents [geometric mean, 0.26 µg/L; 25th-75th percentile: 0.2-0.3]. Chromium was also significantly elevated in exposed [geometric mean, 1.52 µg/L; 25th-75th percentile: 1.19-1.93] compared with controls [geometric mean, 1.25 µg/L; 25th-75th percentile: 1.05-1.48; p = 0.02]. Urinary 8-OHdG concentration was greater in exposed than in controls (71.49 vs 61.87 µg/L, p = 0.02), and it was correlated with cadmium levels (r = 0.46, p heavy metals is associated with increased oxidative DNA damage and impaired expression of DNA repair and detoxification genes in adolescents.

  8. Detoxification of insecticides, allechemicals and heavy metals by glutathione S-transferase SlGSTE1 in the gut of Spodoptera litura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhi-Bin; Zou, Xiao-Peng; Zhang, Ni; Feng, Qi-Li; Zheng, Si-Chun

    2015-08-01

    Insect glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play important roles in detoxifying toxic compounds and eliminating oxidative stress caused by these compounds. In this study, detoxification activity of the epsilon GST SlGSTE1 in Spodoptera litura was analyzed for several insecticides and heavy metals. SlGSTE1 was significantly up-regulated by chlorpyrifos and xanthotoxin in the midgut of S. litura. The recombinant SlGSTE1 had Vmax (reaction rate of the enzyme saturated with the substrate) and Km (michaelis constant and equals to the substrate concentration at half of the maximum reaction rate of the enzyme) values of 27.95 ± 0.88 μmol/min/mg and 0.87 ± 0.028 mmol/L for glutathione, respectively, and Vmax and Km values of 22.96 ± 0.78 μmol/min/mg and 0.83 ± 0.106 mmol/L for 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, respectively. In vitro enzyme indirect activity assay showed that the recombinant SlGSTE1 possessed high binding activities to the insecticides chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin, malathion, phoxim and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT). SlGSTE1 showed higher binding activity to toxic heavy metals cadmium, chromium and lead than copper and zinc that are required for insect normal growth. Western blot analysis showed that SlGSTE1 was induced in the gut of larvae fed with chlorpyrifos or cadmium. SlGSTE1 also showed high peroxidase activity. All the results together indicate that SlGSTE1 may play an important role in the gut of S. litura to protect the insect from the toxic effects of these compounds and heavy metals. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Effect of long-term human exposure to environmental heavy metals on the expression of detoxification and DNA repair genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Bakheet, Saleh A; Attafi, Ibraheem M; Maayah, Zaid H; Abd-Allah, Adel R; Asiri, Yousif A; Korashy, Hesham M

    2013-10-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of long-term environmental human exposure to three heavy metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg), on the expression of detoxifying, xenobiotic metabolizing, and DNA repair genes in Mahd Ad-Dahab city. The study groups consisted of 40 healthy male residents (heavy metal-exposed) and 20 healthy male from Riyadh city, 700 km away, and served as control group. The heavy metal-exposed group with high exposure to Pb, Cd, or Hg was divided into three subgroups Pb-, Cd-, and Hg-exposed groups, respectively. The mRNA expression levels of detoxifying, NQO1, HO-1, GSTA1, MT-1, and HSP70, were significantly decreased in all heavy metal-exposed group as compared to control group. This was accompanied with a proportional decrease in the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing gene, cytochrome P4501A1. On the other hand, the DNA repair gene OGG1 and the 8-OHdG level were dramatically inhibited in Cd-exposed group only. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Trends in detoxification enzymes and heavy metal accumulation in ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) inhabiting a gradient of pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, David; Jepson, Paul; Laskowski, Ryszard

    2002-05-01

    Non-specfic carboxylesterase and glutathione S-transferase activity was measured in the ground beetle, Pterosthicus oblongopunctatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae), from five sites along a gradient of heavy metal pollution. A previous study determined that beetles from the two most polluted sites (site codes OLK2 and OLK3) were more susceptible to additional stressors compared with beetles from the reference site (Stone et al., Environ. Pollut. 113, 239-244 2001), suggesting the possibility of physiological impairment. Metal body burdens in ground beetles from five sites along the gradient ranged from 79 to 201 microg/g Zn, 0.174 to 8.66 microg/g Pb and 1.14 to 10.8 microg/g Cd, whereas Cu seemed to be efficiently regulated regardless of metal levels in the soil. Beetle mid- and hindguts were homogenized and the soluble fraction containing glutathione S-transferase (GST) and carboxylesterase (CaE) was assayed using kinetic analyses. Significantly higher levels of GST were found only in female beetles from the most polluted sites (OLK2 and OLK3; P=0.049, Pground beetles in association with metal body burdens.

  11. Prospects for separating heavy metal from contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langen, M.; Hoberg, H.; Hamacher, B.

    1994-01-01

    For decades, large quantities of organic and inorganic pollutants have been brought into the soil as a result of the industrial operations of smelting and coking plants. This paper reports on the prospects of separating heavy metals from soil contaminated by smelting and coking plants by means of a physical/chemical washing procedure. Besides the description of virgin soil characteristics, cleaning results and process parameters of calssification, density separation and flotation processes are presented. It is shown that heavy metal pollution of virgin soil can be reduced by the classical process stages of soil washing. The metal content of virgin soil are critically assessed whereby the limits of the physical-chimical washing process will also be entered into. Emphasis is placed on the significance of the determination of limiting values for inorganic contamination, especially for soil contaminated with both organic and inorganic pollution. (orig.) [de

  12. Metallic ion release after knee prosthesis implantation: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lons, Adrien; Putman, Sophie; Pasquier, Gilles; Migaud, Henri; Drumez, Elodie; Girard, Julien

    2017-12-01

    Metal-on-metal (MoM) hip replacement bearings produce metallic ions that can cause health complications. Metallic release also occurs with other materials, but data on metallic ion levels after knee arthroplasty are sparse. We postulate that knee replacement generates elevating metallic ions (chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co) and titanium (Ti)) during the first year after implantation. This ongoing prospective study included all patients who underwent the same type of knee arthroplasty between May and December 2013. Cr, Co and Ti levels were measured in whole blood at pre-operation and one-year follow-up (6 and 12 months). Clinical and radiographic data (range of motion, Oxford, International Knee Society (IKS) and satisfaction scores) were recorded. In 90 patients, preoperative Cr, Co and Ti metallic ion levels were respectively 0.45 μg/l, 0.22 μg/l, 2.94 μg/l and increased to 1.27 μg/l, 1.41 μg/l, 4.08 μg/l (p < 0.0001) at last one-year follow-up. Mean Oxford and IKS scores rose, respectively, from 45.9 (30-58) and 24.9 (12-52) to 88.3 (0-168) and 160.8 (93-200) (p < 0.001). After the implantation of knee arthroplasty, we found significant blood elevation of Cr, Co and Ti levels one year after implantation exceeding the normal values. This metallic ion release could lead to numerous effects: allergy, hypersensitivity, etc.

  13. Nickel detoxification and plant growth promotion by multi metal resistant plant growth promoting Rhizobium species RL9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Parvaze Ahmad; Khan, Mohammad Saghir

    2013-07-01

    Pollution of the biosphere by heavy metals is a global threat that has accelerated dramatically since the beginning of industrial revolution. The aim of the study is to check the resistance of RL9 towards the metals and to observe the effect of Rhizobium species on growth, pigment content, protein and nickel uptake by lentil in the presence and absence of nickel. The multi metal tolerant and plant growth promoting Rhizobium strain RL9 was isolated from the nodules of lentil. The strain not only tolerated nickel but was also tolerant o cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, zinc and copper. The strain tolerated nickel 500 μg/mL, cadmium 300 μg/mL, chromium 400 μg/mL, lead 1,400 μg/mL, zinc 1,000 μg/mL and copper 300 μg/mL, produced good amount of indole acetic acid and was also positive for siderophore, hydrogen cyanide and ammonia. The strain RL9 was further assessed with increasing concentrations of nickel when lentil was used as a test crop. The strain RL9 significantly increased growth, nodulation, chlorophyll, leghaemoglobin, nitrogen content, seed protein and seed yield compared to plants grown in the absence of bioinoculant but amended with nickel The strain RL9 decreased uptake of nickel in lentil compared to plants grown in the absence of bio-inoculant. Due to these intrinsic abilities strain RL9 could be utilized for growth promotion as well as for the remediation of nickel in nickel contaminated soil.

  14. Prospective Comparison of a Metal-Free Ceramic Total Knee Arthroplasty with an Identical Metal System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieb, Klemens; Ullmann, David; Metzinger, Katharina; Kramar, Reinhard; Mauerer, Andreas; Hofstätter, Stefan; Fiala, Rainer

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this open-label, prospective, short-term study was to carry out an initial comparison of a completely metal-free ceramic with a geometrically identical metallic arthroplasty over a 1-year follow-up period. This study investigates a completely metal-free system using a composite matrix material containing aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 , BPK-S Integration, Peter Brehm GmbH, Weisendorf, Germany) or zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 , BPK-S Integration Ceramic, Biolox Delta-CeramTec GmbH, Plochingen, Germany). Eighty patients (40 in each group) received either a completely metal-free ceramic system (matrix of aluminum and zirconium oxide) or an anatomically identical metallic knee system made of a cobalt-chromium alloy. Clinical assessment was performed preoperatively, and during follow-up at 3 and 12 months, using the Knee Society Score, Oxford Knee Score, and EQ-5D-VAS. For radiological evaluation, standard preoperative and postoperative standardized radiographs were taken at the given follow-up visits. The postoperative clinical scores improved significantly at the 3- and 12-month follow-ups, but did not differ statistically between the two groups. The radiologically evaluated mean postoperative mechanical and anatomical axes showed proper alignment within both groups at all times. No revision surgery had to be performed, and no complications or loosening were recorded whatsoever. To our knowledge, this is the first study comparing a total ceramic metal-free knee system with a geometrically identical metallic TKA (total knee arthroplasty). Longer follow-ups will be required to demonstrate the overall efficiency of this TKR and perhaps to expand its medical indication. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, T.M.; Stewart, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    Economically feasible processes that reduce the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids by reclaiming, reusing, and recycling spent acids and metal salts are being developed and demonstrated. The acids used in the demonstrations are generated during metal-finishing operations used in nuclear fuel fabrication; HF-HNO 3 , HNO 3 , and HNO 3 -H 2 SO 4 wastes result from Zr etching, Cu stripping, and chemical milling of U. At discharge, wastes contain high concentrations of acid and one major metal impurity. The waste minimization process used to reclaim acid from these three streams incorporates three processes for acid regeneration and reclamation. Normally, HNO 3 remains in the bottoms when an aqueous acid solution is distilled; however, in the presence of H 2 SO 4 , HNO 3 will distill to the overhead stream. In this process, nitrates and fluorides present as free acid and metal salts can be reclaimed as acid for recycle to the metal-finishing processes. Uranium present in the chemical milling solution can be economically recovered from distillation bottoms and refined. Using acid distillation, the volume of chemical milling solution discharged as waste can be reduced by as much as 60% depending on the H 2 SO 4 concentration. A payback period of 2.2 years has been estimated for this process. The development and demonstration of precipitation and distillation processes for detoxification and reclamation of waste acid is supported by the US Department of Energy's Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP)

  16. Cast bulk metallic glass alloys: prospects as wear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Dogan, Omer N.; Shiflet, Gary J. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA)

    2005-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses are single phase materials with unusual physical and mechanical properties. One intriguing area of possible use is as a wear material. Usually, pure metals and single phase dilute alloys do not perform well in tribological conditions. When the metal or alloy is lightweight, it is usually soft leading to galling in sliding situations. For the harder metals and alloys, their density is usually high, so there is an energy penalty when using these materials in wear situations. However, bulk metallic glasses at the same density are usually harder than corresponding metals and dilute single phase alloys, and so could offer better wear resistance. This work will discuss preliminary wear results for metallic glasses with densities in the range of 4.5 to 7.9 g/cc. The wear behavior of these materials will be compared to similar metals and alloys.

  17. Arsenic Detoxification by Geobacter Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Yan; Walker, David J F; Vautour, Kaitlin E; Dixon, Steven; Holmes, Dawn E

    2017-02-15

    Insight into the mechanisms for arsenic detoxification by Geobacter species is expected to improve the understanding of global cycling of arsenic in iron-rich subsurface sedimentary environments. Analysis of 14 different Geobacter genomes showed that all of these species have genes coding for an arsenic detoxification system (ars operon), and several have genes required for arsenic respiration (arr operon) and methylation (arsM). Genes encoding four arsenic repressor-like proteins were detected in the genome of G. sulfurreducens; however, only one (ArsR1) regulated transcription of the ars operon. Elimination of arsR1 from the G. sulfurreducens chromosome resulted in enhanced transcription of genes coding for the arsenic efflux pump (Acr3) and arsenate reductase (ArsC). When the gene coding for Acr3 was deleted, cells were not able to grow in the presence of either the oxidized or reduced form of arsenic, while arsC deletion mutants could grow in the presence of arsenite but not arsenate. These studies shed light on how Geobacter influences arsenic mobility in anoxic sediments and may help us develop methods to remediate arsenic contamination in the subsurface. This study examines arsenic transformation mechanisms utilized by Geobacter, a genus of iron-reducing bacteria that are predominant in many anoxic iron-rich subsurface environments. Geobacter species play a major role in microbially mediated arsenic release from metal hydroxides in the subsurface. This release raises arsenic concentrations in drinking water to levels that are high enough to cause major health problems. Therefore, information obtained from studies of Geobacter should shed light on arsenic cycling in iron-rich subsurface sedimentary environments, which may help reduce arsenic-associated illnesses. These studies should also help in the development of biosensors that can be used to detect arsenic contaminants in anoxic subsurface environments. We examined 14 different Geobacter genomes and found

  18. Prospect of metallic mineralization in Gbongan area of southwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective was to determine the distribution pattern of some heavy metals in the area, with a view to discovering any indication of metallic mineralization. The samples were air-dried and the minus 80 mesh fraction analysed for Au, Ta, Co, Sn, Fe, Ni, Mn, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Cu, after hot HCIO4/HNO3 (7:3) acids digestion, ...

  19. Allergy to orthopedic metal implants - a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kręcisz, Beata; Kieć-Świerczyńska, Marta; Chomiczewska-Skóra, Dorota

    2012-09-01

    Evaluation of the allergenic properties of the metal knee or hip joint implants 24 months post surgery and assessment of the relation between allergy to metals and metal implants failure. The study was conducted in two stages. Stage I (pre-implantation) - 60 patients scheduled for arthroplasty surgery. Personal interview, dermatological examination and patch testing with 0.5% potassium dichromate, 1.0% cobalt chloride, 5.0% nickel sulfate, 2.0% copper sulfate, 2.0% palladium chloride, 100% aluminum, 1% vanadium chloride, 5% vanadium, 10% titanium oxide, 5% molybdenum and 1% ammonium molybdate tetrahydrate were performed. Stage II (post-surgery) - 48 subjects participated in the same procedures as those conducted in Stage I. Stage I - symptoms of "metal dermatitis" were found in 21.7% of the subjects: 27.9% of the females, 5.9% of the males. Positive patch test results were found in 21.7% of the participants, namely to: nickel (20.0%); palladium (13.3%); cobalt (10.0%); and chromium (5.9%). The allergy to metals was confirmed by patch testing in 84.6% of the subjects with a history of metal dermatitis. Stage II - 10.4% of the participants complained about implant intolerance, 4.2% of the examined persons reported skin lesions. Contact allergy to metals was found in 25.0% of the patients: nickel 20.8%, palladium 10.4%, cobalt 16.7%, chromium 8.3%, vanadium 2.1% Positive post-surgery patch tests results were observed in 10.4% of the patients. The statistical analysis of the pre- and post-surgery patch tests results showed that chromium and cobalt can be allergenic in implants. Metal orthopedic implants may be the primary cause of allergies. that may lead to implant failure. Patch tests screening should be obligatory prior to providing implants to patients reporting symptoms of metal dermatitis. People with confirmed allergies to metals should be provided with implants free from allergenic metals.

  20. Newer approaches to opioid detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Sarkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Opioid use disorders present with distressing withdrawal symptoms at the time of detoxification. The pharmacological agents and methods currently in use for detoxification mainly include buprenorphine, methadone, and clonidine. Many other pharmacological agents have been tried for opioid detoxification. This review takes a look at the newer pharmacological options, both opioid agonists and non-agonist medications that have been utilized for detoxification. Peer reviewed articles were identified using PubMed and PsychInfo databases. The keywords included for the search were a combination of ′opioid′ and ′detoxification′ and their synonyms. All the articles published in the last 10 years were screened for. Relevant data was extracted from identified studies. Many newer pharmacological agents have been tried in detoxification of opioids. However, the quest for a safe, efficacious, cost-effective pharmacological option which requires minimal monitoring still continues. The role of non-pharmacological measures and alternative medicine needs further evaluation.

  1. Detoxification and recovery capacities of Corbicula fluminea after an industrial metal contamination (Cd and Zn): a one-year depuration experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arini, A; Daffe, G; Gonzalez, P; Feurtet-Mazel, A; Baudrimont, M

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the recovery capacity of the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea subjected to industrial metal discharges (Cd, Zn). After a 24-day exposure in a metal-contaminated river, bivalves were transferred and maintained in the laboratory for one year under metal-free conditions. Metal accumulation, metallothionein production and genetic expressions of genes involved in metal stress were studied. Results demonstrated the high persistence of Cd in tissues (only 73% eliminated after 365 days) whereas Zn was rapidly depurated. The Cd half-life was estimated around 240 days. Metallothioneins were strongly induced within the 28 first days of decontamination, then decreased by 45% after 365 days. The metal exposure of bivalves led to a significant gene induction. After 28 days, most of the genes were no longer overexpressed, suggesting that the bivalves may withstand small amounts of non-essential metals in their tissues without showing signs of detrimental effects on the tested genes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biogenic synthesis of metallic nanoparticles and prospects toward green chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, Syed Farooq; Assal, Mohamed E; Khan, Mujeeb; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H; Liz-Marzán, Luis M

    2015-06-07

    The immense importance of nanoparticles and their applications is a strong motivation for exploring new synthetic techniques. However, due to strict regulations that manage the potential environmental impacts greener alternatives for conventional synthesis are the focus of intense research. In the scope of this perspective, a concise discussion about the use of green reducing and stabilizing agents toward the preparation of metal nanoparticles is presented. Reports on the synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles using plant extracts, ascorbic acid and sodium citrate as green reagents are summarized and discussed, pointing toward an urgent need of understanding the mechanistic aspects of the involved reactions.

  3. Underpotential deposition of metals-Progress and prospects in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Underpotential deposition (UPD) of metals is analysed from the perspective of phenomenological and statistical thermodynamic considerations; the parameters influencing the UPD shift have been quantitatively indicated using a general formalism. The manner in which the macroscopic properties pertaining to the ...

  4. Underpotential deposition of metals – Progress and prospects in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2005-05-06

    May 6, 2005 ... Underpotential deposition; work function; surface coverage; phase transitions. 1. ... been employed to comprehend the UPD mecha- ..... texts also.39. Since the properties of metals are dependent to a greater extent on the valence electrons rather than on the tightly bound core electrons, the pseudopo-.

  5. Bats as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution: history and prospect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zukal, Jan; Pikula, J.; Banďouchová, H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 3 (2015), s. 220-227 ISSN 1616-5047 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Bioaccumulation * Chiroptera * Heavy metals * Metalloids * Review Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.595, year: 2015

  6. Future prospects of antibacterial metal nanoparticles as enzyme inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Khan Behlol Ayaz; Raman, Thiagarajan; Veerappan, Anbazhagan

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles are being widely used as antibacterial agents with metal nanoparticles emerging as the most efficient antibacterial agents. There have been many studies which have reported the mechanism of antibacterial activity of nanoparticles on bacteria. In this review we aim to emphasize on all the possible mechanisms which are involved in the antibacterial activity of nanoparticles and also to understand their mode of action and role as bacterial enzyme inhibitor by comparing their antibacterial mechanism to that of antibiotics with enzyme inhibition as a major mechanism. With the emergence of widespread antibiotic resistance, nanoparticles offer a better alternative to our conventional arsenal of antibiotics. Once the biological safety of these nanoparticles is addressed, these nanoparticles can be of great medical importance in our fight against bacterial infections. - Highlights: • Mechanisms of antibiotics and metal nanoparticles resemble one another. • Bactericidal mechanisms of NPs are cell wall damage, and ROS generation. • Metal NPs inhibit membrane synthesis enzyme. • NPs can be used as antibacterial agents. • NP as antibacterial strategy important due to widespread antibiotic resistance

  7. Self-expandable metal stents for malignant gastric outlet obstruction: A pooled analysis of prospective literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Halsema, Emo E.; Rauws, Erik A. J.; Fockens, Paul; van Hooft, Jeanin E.

    2015-01-01

    To provide an overview of the clinical outcomes of self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) placement for malignant gastric outlet obstruction (MGOO). A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed of the literature published between January 2009 and March 2015. Only prospective studies that

  8. Thermodynamic Studies of Cu(I) and Other d10 Metal Ions Binding to Proteins in the Copper Homeostasis Pathway and the Organomercurial Detoxification Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Michael James

    Copper(I) is the predominant oxidation state of this essential metal in living cells due to reducing intracellular conditions. Because of deleterious copper-mediated Fenton chemistry, intracellular copper trafficking pathways involve strict regulation by metallochaperone proteins. Previous studies of the 68-residue metallochaperone, HAH1, have shown that it coordinates Cu(I) with two cysteines for transport from Ctr1 in the cell membrane to ATPases in the Golgi network. Using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and methods to suppress oxidation and disproportionation of Cu(I), the thermodynamics of Cu(I), as well as other metal ions, binding to HAH1 have been accurately quantified. During the course of this study, the Cu(I) binding thermodynamics with the stabilizing ligand hexamethyltrien were determined in order to accurately quantify the Cu(I) binding thermodynamics with proteins, and revealed an unexpected Cu(I) coordination chemistry with this ligand. In addition, HAH1 binding the Cu(I) analogue Ag(I), the abundant cellular metal ion Zn(II), and the thiophilic toxic metal ion Hg(II), have been quantified. The binding thermodynamics of these metal ions were also determined in the presence of glutathione to more accurately model physiological conditions. HAH1 has a high affinity for Cu(I), which is both enthalpically and entropically favorable. It has a substantially lower affinity for Zn(II), which is entropically favored, suggesting that Zn(II) is not able to compete with Cu(I) for HAH1 in vivo. However, HAH1 has an exceptionally high affinity for Hg(II), with its larger thiophilicity, and it will displace Cu(I). Mercury(II) and particularly organomercurial compounds are very toxic, yet proteins from the bacterial mer operon provide resistance to this toxicity. In particular, the organomercurial lyase MerB, whose only known structural homologue is a putative copper metallochaperone, is responsible for cleavage of the carbon-mercury bond of MeHg(II) and

  9. A common highly conserved cadmium detoxification mechanism from bacteria to humans: heavy metal tolerance conferred by the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter SpHMT1 requires glutathione but not metal-chelating phytochelatin peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prévéral, Sandra; Gayet, Landry; Moldes, Cristina; Hoffmann, Jonathan; Mounicou, Sandra; Gruet, Antoine; Reynaud, Florie; Lobinski, Ryszard; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Vavasseur, Alain; Forestier, Cyrille

    2009-02-20

    Cadmium poses a significant threat to human health due to its toxicity. In mammals and in bakers' yeast, cadmium is detoxified by ATP-binding cassette transporters after conjugation to glutathione. In fission yeast, phytochelatins constitute the co-substrate with cadmium for the transporter SpHMT1. In plants, a detoxification mechanism similar to the one in fission yeast is supposed, but the molecular nature of the transporter is still lacking. To investigate further the relationship between SpHMT1 and its co-substrate, we overexpressed the transporter in a Schizosaccharomyces pombe strain deleted for the phytochelatin synthase gene and heterologously in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in Escherichia coli. In all organisms, overexpression of SpHMT1 conferred a markedly enhanced tolerance to cadmium but not to Sb(III), AgNO(3), As(III), As(V), CuSO(4), or HgCl(2). Abolishment of the catalytic activity by expression of SpHMT1(K623M) mutant suppressed the cadmium tolerance phenotype independently of the presence of phytochelatins. Depletion of the glutathione pool inhibited the SpHMT1 activity but not that of AtHMA4, a P-type ATPase, indicating that GSH is necessary for the SpHMT1-mediated cadmium resistance. In E. coli, SpHMT1 was targeted to the periplasmic membrane and led to an increased amount of cadmium in the periplasm. These results demonstrate that SpHMT1 confers cadmium tolerance in the absence of phytochelatins but depending on the presence of GSH and ATP. Our results challenge the dogma of the two separate cadmium detoxification pathways and demonstrate that a common highly conserved mechanism has been selected during the evolution from bacteria to humans.

  10. Territory of Upper Volta. Interest and Programme of Prospecting for Radioactive Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1958-04-01

    The costs of a programme for prospecting for radioactive metals (esp. Uranium) can amount to a total cost of the order of 600 to 700 millions FF over 10 years. Such a programme represents a rather high risk, because in order to succeed, a reserve capable to pay for the programme must be found in the foreseen period. The first part of the report describes the Uranium reserves already known in Africa [fr

  11. SVM-based base-metal prospectivity modeling of the Aravalli Orogen, Northwestern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porwal, Alok; Yu, Le; Gessner, Klaus

    2010-05-01

    The Proterozoic Aravalli orogen in the state of Rajasthan, northwestern India, constitutes the most important metallogenic province for base-metal deposits in India and hosts the entire economically viable lead-zinc resource-base of the country. The orogen evolved through near-orderly Wilson cycles of repeated extensional and compressional tectonics resulting in sequential opening and closing of intracratonic rifts and amalgamation of crustal domains during a circa 1.0-Ga geological history from 2.2 Ga to 1.0 Ga. This study develops a conceptual tectonostratigraphic model of the orogen based on a synthesis of the available geological, geophysical and geochronological data followed by deep-seismic-reflectivity-constrained 2-D forward gravity modeling, and links it to the Proterozoic base-metal metallogeny in the orogen in order to identify key geological controls on the base-metal mineralization. These controls are translated into exploration criteria for base-metal deposits, validated using empirical spatial analysis, and used to derive input spatial variables for model-based base-metal prospectivity mapping of the orogen. A support vector machine (SVM) algorithm augmented by incorporating a feature selection procedure is used in a GIS environment to implement the prospectivity mapping. A comparison of the SVM-derived prospectivity map with the ones derived using other established models such as neural-networks, logistic regression, and Bayesian weights-of-evidence indicates that the SVM outperforms other models, which is attributed to the capability of the SVM to return robust classification based on small training datasets.

  12. Problems and prospects concerning the phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptsik, G. N.

    2014-09-01

    The current state, problems, and prospects of phymoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils are analyzed. The main attention is paid to the phytoextraction and phytostabilization as the most widespread and alternative methods of soil phytoremediation. The efficiency of phymoremediation is related to the natural capability of plants for the accumulation and translocation of metals, their tolerance to a high content of metals, the plant biomass, and the amendments applied. The advantages and disadvantages of phytoremediation as compared to other methods of remediation of polluted soils in situ are considered. Examples of successful phytoextraction and phytomining for cleaning up of contaminated soils in Rasteburg (South Africa) and the phytostabilization of technogenic barrens nearby the copper-nickel plants in Sudbury (Ontario, Canada) and in the Kola Subarctic (Russia) are presented.

  13. Complete detoxification is the most effective treatment of medication-overuse headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Louise Ninett; Munksgaard, Signe Bruun; Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2018-01-01

    Background There is lack of evidence on how to detoxify medication-overuse headache. Aim To compare the effect of complete stop of acute medication with restricted intake. Methods Medication-overuse headache patients were included in a prospective, outpatient study and randomized to two months' d...... Both detoxification programs were very effective. Detoxification without analgesics or acute migraine-medication was the most effective program. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02903329)....

  14. Glutathione-Dependent Detoxification Processes in Astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dringen, Ralf; Brandmann, Maria; Hohnholt, Michaela C

    2015-01-01

    component in many of the astrocytic detoxification processes is the tripeptide glutathione (GSH) which serves as electron donor in the GSH peroxidase-catalyzed reduction of peroxides. In addition, GSH is substrate in the detoxification of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds by GSH-S-transferases which...... knowledge on the GSH metabolism of astrocytes with a special emphasis on GSH-dependent detoxification processes....

  15. Enzyme therapeutics for systemic detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Jie; Lu, Yunfeng

    2015-08-01

    Life relies on numerous biochemical processes working synergistically and correctly. Certain substances disrupt these processes, inducing living organism into an abnormal state termed intoxication. Managing intoxication usually requires interventions, which is referred as detoxification. Decades of development on detoxification reveals the potential of enzymes as ideal therapeutics and antidotes, because their high substrate specificity and catalytic efficiency are essential for clearing intoxicating substances without adverse effects. However, intrinsic shortcomings of enzymes including low stability and high immunogenicity are major hurdles, which could be overcome by delivering enzymes with specially designed nanocarriers. Extensive investigations on protein delivery indicate three types of enzyme-nanocarrier architectures that show more promise than others for systemic detoxification, including liposome-wrapped enzymes, polymer-enzyme conjugates, and polymer-encapsulated enzymes. This review highlights recent advances in these nano-architectures and discusses their applications in systemic detoxifications. Therapeutic potential of various enzymes as well as associated challenges in achieving effective delivery of therapeutic enzymes will also be discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Extraction of metals from ores by bacterial leaching: present status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, D.P.

    1977-01-01

    The principal organism effecting bacterial leaching of ferrous and sulfide ores is Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, though other thiobacilli and other bacteria may be involved. The process depends on (a) direct solubilization of metal sulfides by bacterial oxidation; (b) dissolution of metal sulfides or oxides by ferric iron produced by bacterial pyrite oxidation. Mining spoil dumps and low grade ores can be leached for copper or uranium by cheap low-level technology. Dump leaching enables maximum recovery of valuable metal from any ore, but makes possible exploitation of very low grade Cu and U ores. Continuous extraction processes are possible where a continuously growing bacterial culture is fed with pyritic ores (or FeSO 4 or other sulfide) and continuous metal solubilization proceeds. Intimate contact between the bacteria and the ore to be leached (especially with uranium oxide ores) is not always necessary: leaching of UO 2 ores probably depends only on ferric iron reaction with the ore. Degradation of pyrite-containing rocks may also be developed as part of future recovery processes for petroleum from oil shales. Two-stage leaching systems present the best prospect for developing a higher-level technology for metal extraction. State 1: bacterial generation of Fe 3+ from pyrite or a Fe 2+ source; Stage 2: chemical leaching of ore by Fe 3+ in acid solution. Two-stage processes can be surface processes using crushed or milled ores or can be applied to underground solution mining, when an ore (e.g. uranium) can be leached by pumping Fe 3+ solutions through shattered underground deposits, metal recovered (e.g. solvent extraction) and Fe 3+ regenerated by bacterial oxidation at the surface. The use of controlled continuous microbial cultures to generate either bacteria or ferric iron is outlined

  17. Prospects for Ukrainian ferrous metals in the post-soviet period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, R.M.; Bond, A.R.

    1998-01-01

    Two specialists on the mineral industries of the countries of the former USSR survey current problems confronting producers of ferrous metals in Ukraine and future prospects for domestic production and exports. A series of observations documenting the importance of ferrous metals production to Ukraine's economy is followed by sections describing investment plans and needs in the sector, and the role played by Ukraine within the iron and steel industry of the Soviet Union. The focus then turns to assessment of the current regional and global competitive position of Ukrainian producers for each of the major commodities of the sector-iron ore, manganese ore, ferroalloys, steel, and the products of the machine manufacturing and metal working industries. In conclusion, the paper discusses a potential regional industrial integration strategy analogous to that employed in the United States' Great Lakes/Midwest region, which possesses similar types of iron ore deposits and similar transport cost advantages and metallurgical and manufacturing industries. Journal of Economic Literature, Classification Numbers: F14, L61, L72. 1 table, 26 references.

  18. Detoxification enzymes activities in deltamethrin and bendiocarb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detoxification enzymes activities in deltamethrin and bendiocarb resistant and susceptible malarial vectors ( Anopheles gambiae ) breeding in Bichi agricultural and residential sites, Kano state, Nigeria.

  19. Prediction of withdrawal symptoms during opioid detoxification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Boukje A G; Krabbe, Paul F M; De Jong, Cor A J; van der Staak, Cees P F

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The severity of self-reported withdrawal symptoms varies during detoxification of opioid-dependent patients. The aim of this study is to identify subgroups of withdrawal symptoms within the detoxification trajectory and to predict the severity of withdrawal symptoms on the basis of

  20. Prediction of withdrawal symptoms during opioid detoxification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, B.A.G.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Staak, C.P.F. van der

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The severity of self-reported withdrawal symptoms varies during detoxification of opioid-dependent patients. The aim of this study is to identify subgroups of withdrawal symptoms within the detoxification trajectory and to predict the severity of withdrawal symptoms on the basis of

  1. Treatment of osteochondral defects of the talus with a metal resurfacing inlay implant after failed previous surgery: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, C. J. A.; van Eekeren, I. C. M.; Reilingh, M. L.; Sierevelt, I. N.; van Dijk, C. N.

    2013-01-01

    We have evaluated the clinical effectiveness of a metal resurfacing inlay implant for osteochondral defects of the medial talar dome after failed previous surgical treatment. We prospectively studied 20 consecutive patients with a mean age of 38 years (20 to 60), for a mean of three years (2 to 5)

  2. Study on Gold and base metal occurrence in Uluwai Prospect, Western Latimojong Mountain, South Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulana, Adi; Jaya, Asri; Imai, Akira

    2018-02-01

    Uluwai Prospect is located in the northern part of South Arm of Sulawesi along the eastern part of the Kalosi Fold Belt and Latimojong Mountain. The area is generally characterized by moderate to rugged topography area with elevation in the range of 700 to 1400 m above sea level in the mountainous complex called Latimojong Mountain Complex. The mineralization is characterized by a relatively simple sulphide ore mineral assemblage consists of pyrite, sphalerite and chalcopyrite. Samples were collected in areas showing abundant sulphide minerals where younger faults cut the bedding and foliation of country rocks. A number of silicified zones have been observed, as well as float material containing disseminated pyrite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite with hematite, goethite and limonite. Some alteration types have been observed including sericitization, albitization, carbonatization and silisification. The samples collected indicated that the mineralisation is contained within metasedimentary (sandstone to mudstone) and greenschist. Geochemical analyses from 16 samples including 5 stream sediment samples indicated that the most promising mineralization occur in the prospect area are copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn). This is also supported by the abundance of chalcopyrite and sphalerite in some highly altered samples. Assaying of the collected samples revealed most of samples contain relatively low gold (Au) concentration. However, two samples contain 0.007 and 0.01 ppm of Au. In the mineralized area, Zn concentrations are up to 134 ppm, Cu up to 120 ppm and Pb up to 18 ppm and As up to 70 ppm. There is no clear relationship that exists between Au and the base metals except that one of the samples with highest Au values tend to have high Zn and As. This unclear pattern also shown by Cu, Pb and Zn. Base metal concentration in stream sediment samples show a relatively stable pattern than in rock samples. Arsenic tends to be elevated in base metal rich samples. Sb and Mo are

  3. Enzymatic Mercury Detoxification: The Regulatory Protein MerR

    CERN Multimedia

    Ctortecka, B; Walsh, C T; Comess, K M

    2002-01-01

    Mercury ions and organomercurial reagents are extremely toxic due to their affinity for thiol groups. Many bacteria contain an elaborate detoxification system for a metabolic conversion of toxic Hg$^{2+}$ or organomercurials to less toxic elemental Hg$^0$. The main components of the enzymatic mercury detoxification (see Fig. 1) are the regulatory protein MerR (mercury responsive genetic switch), the organomercurial lyase MerB (cleavage of carbon mercury bonds), and the mercuric ion reductase MerA (reduction of mercuric ions). In these proteins Hg$^{2+}$ is usually coordinated by the thiol groups of cysteines. We utilize the nuclear quadrupole interaction (NQI) of ${\\rm^{199m}}$Hg detected by time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) to identify the Hg metal site geometries in these proteins in order to elucidate the molecular origin of the ultrasensitivity, selectivity and reaction mechanism of this detoxification system. The short lived TDPAC probe ${\\rm^{199m}}$Hg ($\\tau_{1/2} =$ 43 min) is su...

  4. Engineered photocatalysts for detoxification of waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumder, S.A.; Prairie, M.R.; Shelnutt, J.A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Khan, S.U.M. [Duquesne Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry] [and others

    1996-12-01

    This report describes progress on the development of engineered photocatalysts for the detoxification of water polluted with toxic organic compounds and heavy metals. We examined a range of different oxide supports (titania, alumina, magnesia and manganese dioxide) for tin uroporphyrin and investigated the efficacy of a few different porphyrins. A water-soluble octaacetic-acid-tetraphenylporphyrin and its derivatives have been synthesized and characterized in an attempt to design a porphyrin catalyst with a larger binding pocket. We have also investigated photocatalytic processes on both single crystal and powder forms of semiconducting SiC with an ultimate goal of developing a dual-semiconductor system combining TiO{sub 2} and SiC. Mathematical modeling was also performed to identify parameters that can improve the efficiency of SiC-based photocatalytic systems. Although the conceptual TiO{sub 2}/SiC photodiode shows some promises for photoreduction processes, SiC itself was found to be an inefficient photocatalyst when combined with TiO{sub 2}. Alternative semiconductors with bandgap and band potentials similar to SiC should be tested in the future for further development and a practical utilization of the dual photodiode concept.

  5. GOLD ACRES BIOLOGICAL HEAP DETOXIFICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many active mine sites, mines in closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, soluble...

  6. Assessment of Radioactive Materials and Heavy Metals in the Surface Soil around the Bayanwula Prospective Uranium Mining Area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Haribala; Hu, Bitao; Wang, Chengguo; Bao, Shanhu; Sai, Gerilemandahu; Xu, Xiao; Zhang, Shuai; Li, Yuhong

    2017-03-14

    The present work is the first systematic and large scale study on radioactive materials and heavy metals in surface soil around the Bayanwula prospective uranium mining area in China. In this work, both natural and anthropogenic radionuclides and heavy metals in 48 surface soil samples were analyzed using High Purity Germanium (HPGe) γ spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The obtained mean activity concentrations of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K, and 137 Cs were 25.81 ± 9.58, 24.85 ± 2.77, 29.40 ± 3.14, 923.0 ± 47.2, and 5.64 ± 4.56 Bq/kg, respectively. The estimated average absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose rate were 76.7 ± 3.1 nGy/h and 83.1 ± 3.8 μ Sv, respectively. The radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, and internal hazard index were also calculated, and their mean values were within the acceptable limits. The estimated lifetime cancer risk was 3.2 × 10 -4 /Sv. The heavy metal contents of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb from the surface soil samples were measured and their health risks were then assessed. The concentrations of all heavy metals were much lower than the average backgrounds in China except for lead which was about three times higher than that of China's mean. The non-cancer and cancer risks from the heavy metals were estimated, which are all within the acceptable ranges. In addition, the correlations between the radionuclides and the heavy metals in surface soil samples were determined by the Pearson linear coefficient. Strong positive correlations between radionuclides and the heavy metals at the 0.01 significance level were found. In conclusion, the contents of radionuclides and heavy metals in surface soil around the Bayanwula prospective uranium mining area are at a normal level.

  7. Bacterial mediated alleviation of heavy metal stress and decreased accumulation of metals in plant tissues: Mechanisms and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etesami, Hassan

    2018-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution of agricultural soils is one of main concerns causing some of the different ecological and environmental problems. Excess accumulation of these metals in soil has changed microbial community (e.g., structure, function, and diversity), deteriorated soil, decreased the growth and yield of plant, and entered into the food chain. Plants' tolerance to heavy metal stress needs to be improved in order to allow growth of crops with minimum or no accumulation of heavy metals in edible parts of plant that satisfy safe food demands for the world's rapidly increasing population. It is well known that PGPRs (plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria) enhance crop productivity and plant resistance to heavy metal stress. Many recent reports describe the application of heavy metal resistant-PGPRs to enhance agricultural yields without accumulation of metal in plant tissues. This review provides information about the mechanisms possessed by heavy metal resistant-PGPRs that ameliorate heavy metal stress to plants and decrease the accumulation of these metals in plant, and finally gives some perspectives for research on these bacteria in agriculture in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Antivesication by Simultaneous Prophylaxis and Detoxification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kwong, Cecil

    1996-01-01

    Our project DAMD17-93-C-3186 entitled 'Antivesication by Simultaneous Prophylaxis and Detoxification' has been directed toward the development of a new topically applied pretreatment that will prevent...

  9. ETS: DEVELOPMENT OF A PHOTOTHERMAL DETOXIFICATION UNIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has long been interest in utilizing photochemical methods for destroying hazardous organic materials. Unfortunately, the direct application of classic, low temperature photochemical processes to hazardous waste detoxification is often too slow to be practical for wide spre...

  10. Use of algae for removing heavy metal ions from wastewater: progress and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S K; Gaur, J P

    2005-01-01

    Many algae have immense capability to sorb metals, and there is considerable potential for using them to treat wastewaters. Metal sorption involves binding on the cell surface and to intracellular ligands. The adsorbed metal is several times greater than intracellular metal. Carboxyl group is most important for metal binding. Concentration of metal and biomass in solution, pH, temperature, cations, anions and metabolic stage of the organism affect metal sorption. Algae can effectively remove metals from multi-metal solutions. Dead cells sorb more metal than live cells. Various pretreatments enhance metal sorption capacity of algae. CaCl2 pretreatment is the most suitable and economic method for activation of algal biomass. Algal periphyton has great potential for removing metals from wastewaters. An immobilized or granulated biomass-filled column can be used for several sorption/desorption cycles with unaltered or slightly decreased metal removal. Langmuir and Freundlich models, commonly used for fitting sorption data, cannot precisely describe metal sorption since they ignore the effect of pH, biomass concentration, etc. For commercial application of algal technology for metal removal from wastewaters, emphasis should be given to: (i) selection of strains with high metal sorption capacity, (ii) adequate understanding of sorption mechanisms, (iii) development of low-cost methods for cell immobilization, (iv) development of better models for predicting metal sorption, (v) genetic manipulation of algae for increased number of surface groups or over expression of metal binding proteins, and (vi) economic feasibility.

  11. Esterase detoxification of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors by ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organophosphate (OP) and N-methylcarbamate pesticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), but differences in metabolism and detoxification can influence potency of these pesticides across and within species. Carboxylesterase (CaE) and A-esterase (paraoxonase, PON) are considered factors underlying age-related sensitivity differences. We used an in vitro system to measure detoxification of AChE-inhibiting pesticides mediated via these esterases. Recombinant human AChE was used as a bioassay of inhibitor concentration following incubation with detoxifying tissue: liver plus Ca+2 (to stimulate PONs, measuring activity of both esterases) or EGTA (to inhibit PONs, thereby measuring CaE activity). Inhibitory concentrations of aldicarb, chlorpyrifos oxon, malaoxon, methamidophos, oxamyl, paraoxon, and methyl paraoxon were incubated with liver from adult male rat or one of 20 commercially provided human (11-83 years of age) liver samples. Detoxification was the difference in inhibition produced by the pesticide alone or in combination with liver plus Ca+2 or EGTA. Generally, rat liver produced more detoxification than did the human samples. There were large detoxification differences, which were not correlated with age or sex, across human samples for some pesticides (especially malaoxon, chlorpyrifos oxon) but not for others (e.g., aldicarb, methamidophos). Chlorpyrifos oxon was detoxified only in the presence of Ca+2 in both rat and human livers. Detoxification of pa

  12. Self-expandable metal stents for malignant gastric outlet obstruction: A pooled analysis of prospective literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Halsema, Emo E; Rauws, Erik A J; Fockens, Paul; van Hooft, Jeanin E

    2015-11-21

    To provide an overview of the clinical outcomes of self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) placement for malignant gastric outlet obstruction (MGOO). A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed of the literature published between January 2009 and March 2015. Only prospective studies that reported on the clinical success of stent placement for MGOO were included. The primary endpoint was clinical success, defined according to the definition used in the original article. Data were pooled and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Subgroup analyses were performed for partially covered SEMSs (PCSEMSs) and uncovered SEMSs (UCSEMSs) using Fisher's exact test. A total of 19 studies, including 1281 patients, were included in the final analysis. Gastric (42%) and pancreatic (37%) cancer were the main causes of MGOO. UCSEMSs were used in 76% of patients and PCSEMSs in 24%. The overall pooled technical success rate was 97.3% and the clinical success rate was 85.7%. Stent dysfunction occurred in 19.6% of patients, mainly caused by re-obstruction (12.6%) and stent migration (4.3%), and was comparable between PCSEMSs and UCSEMSs (21.2% vs 19.1%, respectively, P = 0.412). Re-obstruction was more common with UCSEMSs (14.9% vs 5.1%, P < 0.001) and stent migration was more frequent after PCSEMS placement (10.9% vs 2.2%, P < 0.001). The overall perforation rate was 1.2%. Bleeding was reported in 4.1% of patients, including major bleeding in 0.8%. The median stent patency ranged from 68 to 307 d in five studies. The median overall survival ranged from 49 to 183 d in 13 studies. The clinical outcomes in this large population showed that enteral stent placement was feasible, effective and safe. Therefore, stent placement is a valid treatment option for the palliation of MGOO.

  13. Self-expandable metal stents for malignant gastric outlet obstruction: A pooled analysis of prospective literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Halsema, Emo E; Rauws, Erik AJ; Fockens, Paul; van Hooft, Jeanin E

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To provide an overview of the clinical outcomes of self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) placement for malignant gastric outlet obstruction (MGOO). METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed of the literature published between January 2009 and March 2015. Only prospective studies that reported on the clinical success of stent placement for MGOO were included. The primary endpoint was clinical success, defined according to the definition used in the original article. Data were pooled and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Subgroup analyses were performed for partially covered SEMSs (PCSEMSs) and uncovered SEMSs (UCSEMSs) using Fisher’s exact test. RESULTS: A total of 19 studies, including 1281 patients, were included in the final analysis. Gastric (42%) and pancreatic (37%) cancer were the main causes of MGOO. UCSEMSs were used in 76% of patients and PCSEMSs in 24%. The overall pooled technical success rate was 97.3% and the clinical success rate was 85.7%. Stent dysfunction occurred in 19.6% of patients, mainly caused by re-obstruction (12.6%) and stent migration (4.3%), and was comparable between PCSEMSs and UCSEMSs (21.2% vs 19.1%, respectively, P = 0.412). Re-obstruction was more common with UCSEMSs (14.9% vs 5.1%, P < 0.001) and stent migration was more frequent after PCSEMS placement (10.9% vs 2.2%, P < 0.001). The overall perforation rate was 1.2%. Bleeding was reported in 4.1% of patients, including major bleeding in 0.8%. The median stent patency ranged from 68 to 307 d in five studies. The median overall survival ranged from 49 to 183 d in 13 studies. CONCLUSION: The clinical outcomes in this large population showed that enteral stent placement was feasible, effective and safe. Therefore, stent placement is a valid treatment option for the palliation of MGOO. PMID:26604654

  14. Metagenomics reveals that detoxification systems are underrepresented in marine bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Alm Rosenblad, Magnus; Molin, Mikael; Blomberg, Anders

    2014-09-01

    Environmental shotgun sequencing (metagenomics) provides a new way to study communities in microbial ecology. We here use sequence data from the Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) expedition to investigate toxicant selection pressures revealed by the presence of detoxification genes in marine bacteria. To capture a broad range of potential toxicants we selected detoxification protein families representing systems protecting microorganisms from a variety of stressors, such as metals, organic compounds, antibiotics and oxygen radicals. Using a bioinformatics procedure based on comparative analysis to finished bacterial genomes we found that the amount of detoxification genes present in marine microorganisms seems surprisingly small. The underrepresentation is particularly evident for toxicant transporters and proteins involved in detoxifying metals. Exceptions are enzymes involved in oxidative stress defense where peroxidase enzymes are more abundant in marine bacteria compared to bacteria in general. In contrast, catalases are almost completely absent from the open ocean environment, suggesting that peroxidases and peroxiredoxins constitute a core line of defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the marine milieu. We found no indication that detoxification systems would be generally more abundant close to the coast compared to the open ocean. On the contrary, for several of the protein families that displayed a significant geographical distribution, like peroxidase, penicillin binding transpeptidase and divalent ion transport protein, the open ocean samples showed the highest abundance. Along the same lines, the abundance of most detoxification proteins did not increase with estimated pollution. The low level of detoxification systems in marine bacteria indicate that the majority of marine bacteria have a low capacity to adapt to increased pollution. Our study exemplifies the use of metagenomics data in ecotoxicology, and in particular how anthropogenic

  15. Nutritional aspects of detoxification in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, John C

    2015-01-01

    Detoxification is a vital cellular task that, if lacking, can lead to early morbidity and mortality. The process of detoxification involves the mobilization, biotransformation, and elimination of toxicants of exogenous and endogenous origin. This article discusses the phase I and phase II detoxification and biotransformation pathways and promotes using food to support these highly complex processes. The author identifies the comprehensive elimination diet as a useful therapeutic tool for clinicians and patients to use to achieve detoxification. Using this diet, the patient removes the most common allergenic foods and beverages from the diet and replaces them with nonallergenic choices for a period of 4 wk, gradually adding back the eliminated foods and observing their effects. Another effective clinical tool that the author discusses is the detox-focused core food plan, which identifies the variety of foods required to supply key nutrients that can maximize the effectiveness of detoxification. Finally, the author provides a case study in which these tools were used to help a patient suffering from major, debilitating illnesses that resulted from exposure to malathion, including severe vomiting and diarrhea, headaches, night sweats, severe arthralgias and myalgias, episcleritis, and shortness of breath. The article details the interventions used and the clinical results (ie, successful resolution of most issues after 3 mo).

  16. A comparison of absorbable screws and metallic plates in treating calcaneal fractures: a prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingwei; Ebraheim, Nabil; Lausé, Gregory E; Xiao, Baiping; Xu, Rongming

    2012-02-01

    Intra-articular calcaneal fractures are more likely to suffer consequences in terms of pain and disability. Many studies have suggested that operative treatment for these fractures may result in better outcomes than nonoperative treatment. The metallic screws and plates are among the most common alternatives to stabilize calcaneal fractures. However, the complications of plating of calcaneal fractures are not uncommon. Complications such as infection, poor wound healing, and soft tissue irritation exist. With the advent of bioabsorbable screws, many reports have demonstrated favorable results in treating intra-articular fractures with these screws. The comparative outcomes of operative treatment of calcaneal fractures stabilized with plates and absorbable screws are rarely reported. The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical outcomes and complications related to fracture stabilization with plates and absorbable screws. Ninety-seven patients with intra-articular calcaneal fractures were managed at our institution between February 2007 and March 2009. In this prospective, randomized study, the plates were used in 52 cases (group A), and the absorbable screws were used in 47 cases (group B). There were 71 men and 26 women who had a mean age of 41 years (range, 19–67 years). The clinical outcome and complications were assessed and compared. The adjusted American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot Scale (subjective component only), Foot Function Index, and the calcaneal fracture scoring system were used to assess the results. The patients were followed up at an average of 23 months (range, 15–32 months). Radiographically, there were no nonunions in either group. One year after operation, in group A and B, the mean adjusted American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot Score were 71.6 ± 12.5 and 72.3 ± 17.4, respectively (p > 0.05); the mean Foot Function Index score were 21.4 ± 6.6 and 22.7 ±5.2, respectively (p > 0.05); and

  17. Assessment of Radioactive Materials and Heavy Metals in the Surface Soil around the Bayanwula Prospective Uranium Mining Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haribala Bai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work is the first systematic and large scale study on radioactive materials and heavy metals in surface soil around the Bayanwula prospective uranium mining area in China. In this work, both natural and anthropogenic radionuclides and heavy metals in 48 surface soil samples were analyzed using High Purity Germanium (HPGe γ spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The obtained mean activity concentrations of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs were 25.81 ± 9.58, 24.85 ± 2.77, 29.40 ± 3.14, 923.0 ± 47.2, and 5.64 ± 4.56 Bq/kg, respectively. The estimated average absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose rate were 76.7 ± 3.1 nGy/h and 83.1 ± 3.8 μSv, respectively. The radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, and internal hazard index were also calculated, and their mean values were within the acceptable limits. The estimated lifetime cancer risk was 3.2 × 10−4/Sv. The heavy metal contents of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb from the surface soil samples were measured and their health risks were then assessed. The concentrations of all heavy metals were much lower than the average backgrounds in China except for lead which was about three times higher than that of China’s mean. The non-cancer and cancer risks from the heavy metals were estimated, which are all within the acceptable ranges. In addition, the correlations between the radionuclides and the heavy metals in surface soil samples were determined by the Pearson linear coefficient. Strong positive correlations between radionuclides and the heavy metals at the 0.01 significance level were found. In conclusion, the contents of radionuclides and heavy metals in surface soil around the Bayanwula prospective uranium mining area are at a normal level.

  18. Antioxidant and detoxification responses of oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis in a multimetal-contaminated estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2016-11-01

    The contaminated oysters discovered in the Pearl River Estuary (Guangdong province, China) contained high levels of metals in their tissues, especially Cu and Zn, indicating that this large and densely urbanized estuary in Southern China suffers from serious metal pollution. The present study aimed to investigate the impacts of multimetal pollution in the Pearl River Estuary on oyster antioxidant and detoxification systems. The responses of various biochemical biomarkers in the ecologically important oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis collected from 7 sites in the Pearl River Estuary were quantified. Significant correlations were demonstrated between the accumulation of Cu and Zn and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation) and oxidative stress defenses (catalase, glutathione peroxidase) in the oyster gills. Significant correlations between the accumulation of Cd and Cu and detoxification (glutathione and glutathione transferase) in the gills were also documented. Interestingly, metallothionein concentrations were positively correlated with Cd, but negatively correlated with Cu, Ni, and Zn concentrations in the gills. These measurements indicated that Cu in the Pearl River Estuary induced various biochemical responses in the oysters and influenced the susceptibility of oysters to environmental stress. The present study has provided the first evidence of antioxidant and detoxification responses in native contaminated oysters from a field environment seriously contaminated by metals. Coupling biomarkers with tissue metal concentration measurements was a promising approach to identify the metals causing biological impacts in a multimetal-contaminated estuary. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2798-2805. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  19. Sulfide intrusion and detoxification in seagrasses ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    is known about the strategies of seagrasses to survive sulfide intrusion, their potential detoxification mechanisms and sulfur nutrition in general. By a global review of sulfide intrusion, coupled with a series of field studies and in situ experiments we elucidate sulfide intrusion and different...... not present in terrestrial plants at that level. Sulfide is not necessarily toxic but used as sulfur nutrition, presupposing healthy seagrass ecosystems that can support detoxification mechanisms. Presence or absence of those mechanisms determines susceptibility of seagrass ecosystems to sediment sulfide...

  20. Sulfide intrusion and detoxification in Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Sulfide intrusion in seagrasses represents a global threat to seagrasses. In contrast seegrasses grow in hostile sediments, where they are constantly exposed to sulfide intrusion. Little is known about the strategies to survive sulfide intrusion, if there are detoxification mechanisms and sulfur...... indicating a possible role of sulfide in the sulfur nutrition beside the detoxification function. Our results suggest different adaptations of Z. marina to reduced sediments and sulfide intrusion ranging from bacterial and chemical reoxidation of sulfide to sulfate to incorporation of sulfide into organic...

  1. State of the art and prospective of large scale applications of YBCO thick films grown on metallic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boffa, Vincenzo

    1997-09-01

    In the framework of the high temperature superconducting materials, YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO) shows very interesting intrinsic superconducting transport properties at temperature higher than the liquid nitrogen temperature. These properties are very important in large scale applications: transport of energy, magnets, transformers, etc. Unfortunately the potential of this material cannot be achieved today, since it is very difficult to manufacture YBCO based tapes or cables. In the last years several groups have tried to overcome the problems with new fabrication techniques. In the present report the state of the art and the prospective in the field of YBCO film fabrication on metallic substrates are presented

  2. Chinese herbal medicine shenqi detoxification granule ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shenqi Detoxification Granule (SDG), a traditional Chinese herbal formula, has been used for treatment of chronic renal failure in clinic for many years. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the efficacy, and explore the mechanism of SDG to inhibit the progression of renal fibrosis, study was carried out using the ...

  3. Transcriptional regulation of xenobiotic detoxification in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Jyoti R.; Horner, Michael A.; Lam, Geanette; Thummel, Carl S.

    2011-01-01

    Living organisms, from bacteria to humans, display a coordinated transcriptional response to xenobiotic exposure, inducing enzymes and transporters that facilitate detoxification. Several transcription factors have been identified in vertebrates that contribute to this regulatory response. In contrast, little is known about this pathway in insects. Here we show that the Drosophila Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factor 2) ortholog CncC (cap ‘n’ collar isoform-C) is a central regulator of xenobiotic detoxification responses. A binding site for CncC and its heterodimer partner Maf (muscle aponeurosis fibromatosis) is sufficient and necessary for robust transcriptional responses to three xenobiotic compounds: phenobarbital (PB), chlorpromazine, and caffeine. Genetic manipulations that alter the levels of CncC or its negative regulator, Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1), lead to predictable changes in xenobiotic-inducible gene expression. Transcriptional profiling studies reveal that more than half of the genes regulated by PB are also controlled by CncC. Consistent with these effects on detoxification gene expression, activation of the CncC/Keap1 pathway in Drosophila is sufficient to confer resistance to the lethal effects of the pesticide malathion. These studies establish a molecular mechanism for the regulation of xenobiotic detoxification in Drosophila and have implications for controlling insect populations and the spread of insect-borne human diseases. PMID:21896655

  4. Rapid detoxification from opioid dependence under general anaesthesia versus standard methadone tapering : abstinence rates and withdrawal distress experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, Paul F M; Koning, Jeroen P F; Heinen, Nadia; Laheij, Robert J F; van Cauter, R M Victory; De Jong, Cor A J

    The aim of this work was to study abstinence rates and withdrawal effects of rapid detoxification of opioid-dependents under general anaesthesia (RD-GA) compared to standard methadone tapering (SMT) using a prospective clinical trial with a follow-up of 3 months, as a preliminary study at the

  5. Rapid detoxification from opioid dependence under general anaesthesia versus standard methadone tapering: abstinence rates and withdrawal distress experiences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, P.F.M.; Koning, J.P.; Heinen, N.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Cauter, R.M.V. van; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study abstinence rates and withdrawal effects of rapid detoxification of opioid-dependents under general anaesthesia (RD-GA) compared to standard methadone tapering (SMT) using a prospective clinical trial with a follow-up of 3 months, as a preliminary study at the

  6. Detoxification Mechanisms of Mercury Toxicity in Plants: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Shrivastava

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is one of the most toxic heavy metals present in the earth’s crust. It has been considered as environmental pollutant because of its potent toxicity to plants and humans. In this review, we discuss mercury toxicity responses on plant metabolism and its detoxification mechanism by phytochelatins and antioxidant enzymes. Some light is also shed on selenium antagonistic study with mercury. Due to its potential toxicity, it has attracted attention in fields of soil science and plant nutrition. Mercury has harmful toxic effects on the molecular and physiobiochemical behavior of plants. Mostly research work has been done on seed germination, and shoot, root, and leaf morphology. Enzyme responses with respect to mercury as a result Hg accumulated in food chain is also reviewed here. Hence, this review may provide a compiled data for other researches in this direction, to provide a better mechanism or details about mercury’s noxious effect in the ecosystem.

  7. Dipole polarizability of alkali-metal (Na, K, Rb)-alkaline-earth-metal (Ca, Sr) polar molecules: Prospects for alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopakumar, Geetha; Abe, Minori; Hada, Masahiko; Kajita, Masatoshi

    2014-06-01

    Electronic open-shell ground-state properties of selected alkali-metal-alkaline-earth-metal polar molecules are investigated. We determine potential energy curves of the 2Σ+ ground state at the coupled-cluster singles and doubles with partial triples (CCSD(T)) level of electron correlation. Calculated spectroscopic constants for the isotopes (23Na, 39K, 85Rb)-(40Ca, 88Sr) are compared with available theoretical and experimental results. The variation of the permanent dipole moment (PDM), average dipole polarizability, and polarizability anisotropy with internuclear distance is determined using finite-field perturbation theory at the CCSD(T) level. Owing to moderate PDM (KCa: 1.67 D, RbCa: 1.75 D, KSr: 1.27 D, RbSr: 1.41 D) and large polarizability anisotropy (KCa: 566 a.u., RbCa: 604 a.u., KSr: 574 a.u., RbSr: 615 a.u.), KCa, RbCa, KSr, and RbSr are potential candidates for alignment and orientation in combined intense laser and external static electric fields.

  8. Prospective analysis of human leukocyte functional tests reveals metal sensitivity in patients with hip implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to examine the reactivity of peripheral human leukocytes to various metal ions prior and following hip replacement in order to investigate implant-induced metal sensitivity. Methods Three patient groups were set up: (1) individuals without implants and no history of metal allergy (7 cases), (2) individuals without implants and known history of metal allergy (7 cases), and (3) patients undergoing cementless hip replacement (40 cases). Blood samples were taken in groups 1 and 2 at three different occasions; in group 3, prior and 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after surgery. Peripheral leukocytes were separated and left either untreated or challenged with Ti, NiCl2, CoCl2, CrCl3, and phytohemagglutinin. Cell proliferation, cytokine release, and leukocyte migration inhibition assays were performed. Metal-induced reactivity was considered when all three assays showed significant change. Skin patch tests were also carried out. Results Both skin patch tests and leukocyte functional tests were negative in group 1, and both were positive in group 2. In group 3, after 6 months, 12% of the patients showed reactivity to the tested metals except for NiCl2. Following the 36-month period, 18% of group three became sensitive to metals (including all the earlier 12%). In contrast, patch tests were negative at each time point in group 3. Conclusions Orthopedic implant material may induce metal reactivity after implantation in a manner where susceptibility is yet to be elucidated. Leukocyte triple assay technique might be a useful tool to test implant material-related sensitivity. PMID:23680415

  9. Recent Developments of Flexible CdTe Solar Cells on Metallic Substrates: Issues and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Aliyu; M. A. Islam; N. R. Hamzah; M. R. Karim; M. A. Matin; K. Sopian; N. Amin

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the key issues in the fabrication of CdTe solar cells on metallic substrates, their trends, and characteristics as well as effects on solar cell performance. Previous research works are reviewed while the successes, potentials, and problems of such technology are highlighted. Flexible solar cells offer several advantages in terms of production, cost, and application over glass-based types. Of all the metals studied as substrates for CdTe solar cells, molybdenum appears...

  10. Prospects and merits of metal-clad semiconductor lasers from nearly UV to far IR

    OpenAIRE

    Khurgin, Jacob B.

    2015-01-01

    Using metal-clad (or plasmonic) waveguide structures in semiconductor lasers carries a promise of reduced size, threshold, and power consumption. This promise is put to a rigorous theoretical test, that takes into account increased waveguide loss, Auger recombination, and Purcell enhancement of spontaneous recombination. The conclusion is that purported benefits of metal waveguides are small to nonexistent for all the band-to-band and intersubband lasers operating from UV to Mid-IR range, wit...

  11. Challenges and Prospect of Non-aqueous Non-alkali (NANA) Metal-Air Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Danny; Shvartsev, Boris; Ein-Eli, Yair

    2016-12-01

    Non-aqueous non-alkali (NANA) metal-air battery technologies promise to provide electrochemical energy storage with the highest specific energy density. Metal-air battery technology is particularly advantageous being implemented in long-range electric vehicles. Up to now, almost all the efforts in the field are focused on Li-air cells, but other NANA metal-air battery technologies emerge. The major concern, which the research community should be dealing with, is the limited and rather poor rechargeability of these systems. The challenges we are covering in this review are related to the initial limited discharge capacities and cell performances. By comprehensively reviewing the studies conducted so far, we show that the implementation of advanced materials is a promising approach to increase metal-air performance and, particularly, metal surface activation as a prime achievement leading to respectful discharge currents. In this review, we address the most critical areas that need careful research attention in order to achieve progress in the understanding of the physical and electrochemical processes in non-aqueous electrolytes applied in beyond lithium and zinc air generation of metal-air battery systems.

  12. Longevity of metal-ceramic crowns cemented with self-adhesive resin cement: a prospective clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondani, Lucas Pradebon; Pereira-Cenci, Tatiana; Wandsher, Vinicius Felipe; Pereira, Gabriel Kalil; Valandro, Luis Felipe; Bergoli, César Dalmolin

    2017-04-10

    Resin cements are often used for single crown cementation due to their physical properties. Self-adhesive resin cements gained widespread due to their simplified technique compared to regular resin cement. However, there is lacking clinical evidence about the long-term behavior of this material. The aim of this prospective clinical trial was to assess the survival rates of metal-ceramic crowns cemented with self-adhesive resin cement up to six years. One hundred and twenty-nine subjects received 152 metal-ceramic crowns. The cementation procedures were standardized and performed by previously trained operators. The crowns were assessed as to primary outcome (debonding) and FDI criteria. Statistical analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier statistics and descriptive analysis. Three failures occurred (debonding), resulting in a 97.6% survival rate. FDI criteria assessment resulted in scores 1 and 2 (acceptable clinical evaluation) for all surviving crowns. The use of self-adhesive resin cement is a feasible alternative for metal-ceramic crowns cementation, achieving high and adequate survival rates.

  13. Longevity of metal-ceramic crowns cemented with self-adhesive resin cement: a prospective clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Pradebon BRONDANI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Resin cements are often used for single crown cementation due to their physical properties. Self-adhesive resin cements gained widespread due to their simplified technique compared to regular resin cement. However, there is lacking clinical evidence about the long-term behavior of this material. The aim of this prospective clinical trial was to assess the survival rates of metal-ceramic crowns cemented with self-adhesive resin cement up to six years. One hundred and twenty-nine subjects received 152 metal-ceramic crowns. The cementation procedures were standardized and performed by previously trained operators. The crowns were assessed as to primary outcome (debonding and FDI criteria. Statistical analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier statistics and descriptive analysis. Three failures occurred (debonding, resulting in a 97.6% survival rate. FDI criteria assessment resulted in scores 1 and 2 (acceptable clinical evaluation for all surviving crowns. The use of self-adhesive resin cement is a feasible alternative for metal-ceramic crowns cementation, achieving high and adequate survival rates.

  14. A prospective 10-year study of metal ceramic single crowns and fixed dental prosthesis retainers in private practice settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitemeier, Bernd; Hänsel, Kristina; Kastner, Christian; Weber, Anke; Walter, Michael H

    2013-03-01

    Metal ceramic restorations are widely used in prosthodontics, but long-term data on their clinical performance in private practice settings based on prospective trials are sparse. This clinical trial was designed to provide realistic long-term survival rates for different outcomes related to tooth loss, crown loss, and metal ceramic defect. Ninety-five participants were provided with 190 noble metal ceramic single crowns and 138 participants with 276 fixed dental prosthesis retainer crowns on vital posterior teeth. Follow-up examinations were scheduled 2 weeks after insertion, annually up to 8 years, and after 10 years. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses, Mantel-Cox logrank tests, and Cox regression analyses were conducted. Because of variations in the time of the last examinations, the maximum observation period was 12.1 years. For the primary outcome 'loss of crown or tooth', the Kaplan-Meier survival rate was 94.3% ±1.8% (standard error) at 8.0 years (last outcome event) for single crowns and 94.4% ±1.5% at 11.0 years for fixed dental prosthesis retainer crowns. The difference between the survival functions was not significant (P>.05). For the secondary outcome 'metal ceramic defect', the survival rate was 88.8% ±3.2% at 11.0 years for single crowns and 81.7% ±3.5% at 11.0 years for fixed dental prosthesis retainer crowns. In Cox regression models, the only significant covariates for the outcome event 'metal ceramic defect' were bruxism in the medical history (single crowns) and signs and symptoms of bruxism (fixed dental prosthesis retainer crowns) with hazard ratios of 3.065 (95% CI 1.063 - 8.832) and 2.554 (95% CI 1.307 - 4.992). Metal ceramic crowns provided in private practice settings show good longevity. Bruxism appears to indicate a risk for metal ceramic defects. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Wide binaries in Tycho-Gaia II: metallicities, abundances and prospects for chemical tagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jeff J.; Chanamé, Julio; Agüeros, Marcel A.

    2018-02-01

    From our recent catalogue based on the first Gaia data release (TGAS), we select wide binaries in which both stars have been observed by the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) or the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST). Using RAVE and LAMOST metallicities and RAVE Mg, Al, Si, Ti and Fe abundances, we find that the differences in the metallicities and elemental abundances of components of wide binaries are consistent with being due to observational uncertainties, in agreement with previous results for smaller and more restricted samples. The metallicity and elemental abundance consistency between wide binary components presented in this work confirms their common origin and bolsters the status of wide binaries as 'mini-open clusters'. Furthermore, this is evident that wide binaries are effectively co-eval and co-chemical, supporting their use for, e.g. constraining age-activity-rotation relations, the initial-final mass relation for white dwarfs and M-dwarf metallicity indicators. Additionally, we demonstrate that the common proper motion, common parallax pairs in TGAS with the most extreme separations (s ≳ 0.1 pc) typically have inconsistent metallicities, radial velocities or both and are therefore likely to be predominantly comprised of random alignments of unassociated stars with similar astrometry, in agreement with our previous results. Finally, we propose that wide binaries form an ideal data set with which we can test chemical tagging as a method to identify stars of common origin, particularly because the stars in wide binaries span a wide range of metallicities, much wider than that spanned by nearby open clusters.

  16. Methods for establishing baseline values for heavy metals in agricultural soils: prospects for colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Rueda Saa, Germán; Rodríguez Victoria, Jenny Alexandra; Madriñán Molina, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    Los problemas ambientales de los metales pesados en los suelos están relacionados con su carácter tóxico cuando se acumulan o cuando interactüan con algunas propiedades especificas, se movilizan a  través del perfil a la cadena trófica mediante los cuerpos de agua o los cultivos y pueden llegar a afectar la salud humana. En países desarrollados el establecimiento de valores de referencia de estos metales ha permitido el mejoramiento de la planeación y la gestión ambiental del recurso suelo, y...

  17. Use prospect of the of athermic technologies of metal softening for rolling stock elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Grischenko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of work is the possibility estimation of аthermic technologies use of cold-deformed metal softening for elements of railway car body and wheel. Methodology. The material for research is the carbon steel of the wheel rim fragment containing 0.55%С, 0.74%Mn, 0.33%Si, and the steel 20. The wheel steel is studied after heat strengthening and cold work after operation. Steel 20 is studied after plastic cold work by rolling. Electric pulse treatment (ET is carried out on the special equipment. As the property of metal strength the Vickers hardness number is used. The microstructure research is carried out using the light and electronic microscope. Findings. During operation of the rolling stock elements with different strength level origin of damages on metallic surfaces is caused by a simultaneous load action. Taking into account that forming of breakdown sites is largely determined by the state of metal volumes nearby the places of maximal active voltages, the technology development of defect accumulation slowdown or the level of active voltages development allow one to prolong the operating term of rolling stock elements. After electric pulse treatment of the wheel rim fragment the regular changes of metal internal structure corresponded to the hardness changes. The hardness of low carbon steel increases proportional to the increase of the level of cold work by rolling. Alternating bending of the cold-deformed flat is accompanied by strength decrease, which is caused by the metal substructure changes. Originality. The softening process of the cold-worked steel is accompanied by substructure changes, which to a greater extent correspond to the hardening development from the plastic cold-work: dispersion of the dislocation cellular structure, formation of the new sub boundaries and displacement of the formed sub boundaries. Practical value. Introduction of electric pulse treatment in the conditions of railway depots repair base

  18. Heavy metals-bioremediation by highly radioresistant Deinococcus radiodurans biofilm prospective use in nuclear reactor decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Sudhir K.; Subba Rao, T.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, rapid growth of chemical industries have enhanced the heavy metal contamination in water, thereby raising environmental concerns. In the nuclear power industry, decontamination procedure also generates radioactive heavy metal containing wastes. Radio-resistant Deinococcus radiodurans R1 is reported to be a potential candidate for the treatment of low active waste material. To use any bacterium for bioremediation purpose, knowledge about its biofilm production characteristics is a prerequisite. This is because biofilm-mediated bioremediation processes are more efficient as compared to processes mediated by their planktonic counterparts. However, so far there are no reports on the biofilm producing capability of D. radiodurans. We observed that tagging of D. radiodurans by a plasmid harbouring gfp and kan R conferred significant biofilm producing property to the bacterium. Chemical analysis of biofilm matrix components produced by D. radiodurans showed that the matrix consists primarily of proteins and carbohydrates with small amount of extracellular DNA (eDNA). Further, we studied the effect of Ca 2+ on D. radiodurans biofilm formation and it was observed that D. radiodurans biofilm formation was enhanced at higher concentrations of Ca 2+ . We investigated the capability of D. radiodurans biofilm to remove the heavy metals Co and Ni from synthetic waste streams. Results showed that Ca 2+ enhanced the bioremediation of both heavy metals (Co, Ni) by D. radiodurans biofilms in a highly significant manner. In the presence of 50 mM Ca 2+ 35% Co removal and 25% Ni removal was observed, when compared to biofilm grown in the absence of Ca 2+ , which showed mere 7% Co and 3% Ni removal, respectively. The results showed that the presence of Ca 2+ significantly enhanced exopolysaccharide and eDNA (both negatively charged) production in the biofilm matrix. This indicated adsorption could be the major mechanism behind enhanced biofilm mediated removal

  19. Recent Developments of Flexible CdTe Solar Cells on Metallic Substrates: Issues and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Aliyu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the key issues in the fabrication of CdTe solar cells on metallic substrates, their trends, and characteristics as well as effects on solar cell performance. Previous research works are reviewed while the successes, potentials, and problems of such technology are highlighted. Flexible solar cells offer several advantages in terms of production, cost, and application over glass-based types. Of all the metals studied as substrates for CdTe solar cells, molybdenum appears the most favorable candidate, while close spaced sublimation (CSS, electrodeposition (ED, magnetic sputtering (MS, and high vacuum thermal evaporation (HVE have been found to be most common deposition technologies used for CdTe on metal foils. The advantages of these techniques include large grain size (CSS, ease of constituent control (ED, high material incorporation (MS, and low temperature process (MS, HVE, ED. These invert-structured thin film CdTe solar cells, like their superstrate counterparts, suffer from problems of poor ohmic contact at the back electrode. Thus similar strategies are applied to minimize this problem. Despite the challenges faced by flexible structures, efficiencies of up to 13.8% and 7.8% have been achieved in superstrate and substrate cell, respectively. Based on these analyses, new strategies have been proposed for obtaining cheaper, more efficient, and viable flexible CdTe solar cells of the future.

  20. Community detoxification for alcohol dependence: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Abhijit; Endsley, Paige; Bhatia, Urvita; Fuhr, Daniela C; Noorani, Aneesa; Naik, Aresh; Murthy, Pratima; Velleman, Richard

    2017-05-01

    Despite the potential advantages of community detoxification for alcohol dependence, in many countries the available resources are mostly focused on specialist services that are resource-intensive, and often difficult to access because of financial or geographical factors. The aim of this systematic review is to synthesise the existing literature about the management of alcohol detoxification in the community to examine its effectiveness, safety, acceptability and feasibility. The systematic review was guided by an a priori defined protocol consistent with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement. Cochrane library, Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Global Health and CINAHL databases were searched using appropriate search terms. A qualitative synthesis of the data was conducted as the heterogeneity of study designs, samples and outcomes measured precluded a meta-analyses. Twenty studies with a range of designs were eligible for the review. Community detoxification had high completion rates and was reported to be safe. Compared to patients undergoing facility based detoxification, those who underwent community detoxification had better drinking outcomes. Community detoxification was cheaper than facility based detoxification and generally had good acceptability by various stakeholders. For certain patients, community detoxification should be considered as a viable option to increase access to care. Although the current evidence base to some extent supports the case for community detoxification there is a need for more randomised controlled trials testing the cost effectiveness of community detoxification in comparison with inpatient detoxification. [Nadkarni A, Endsley P, Bhatia U, Fuhr DC, Noorani A, Naik A, Murthy P, Velleman R. Community detoxification for alcohol dependence: A systematic review Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:389-399]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  1. Individualization of metal stents for management of gastric outlet obstruction caused by distal stomach cancer: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ding; Bao, Yin-Su; Liu, Yong-Pan

    2013-08-01

    The use of various kinds of metal stents has emerged as an effective palliative treatment for malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO). However, most of these metal stents were designed for use in the esophagus or intestine and have a high incidence of stent obstruction and stent migration when used elsewhere. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of individualized stents (designed according to the shape and size of the GOO) in order to determine whether such stents could reduce the incidence of stent obstruction and migration. Multicenter, prospective, clinical trial. Two tertiary-care referral centers. Thirty-seven patients who presented with symptomatic unresectable malignant GOO caused by distal gastric cancer between April 2005 and June 2009. Placement of the individualized metal stents. The primary endpoint was to optimize stent resolution of proximal obstruction as determined by a GOO scoring system. Secondary endpoints were success rates, survival rates, and adverse events. Technical and clinical success was achieved in 97.3% and 94.4% of patients, respectively. The rate of resolution of proximal obstruction by a proximal stent was 97.3%. There were no procedure-related perforations or deaths. No stent migration or obstruction by tumor growth were found. The mean survival time was 232 days (range 28-387 days). A single-arm study in tertiary-care centers. Placement of individualized stents is a safe and effective modality for the palliation of malignant GOO caused by distal stomach cancer and can help reduce tumor ingrowth and stent migration. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Metal-ceramic crowns cemented with two luting agents: short-term results of a prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwowarczyk, Andree; Schick, Karina; Lauer, Hans-Christoph

    2012-06-01

    A prospective, randomized, controlled, split-mouth trial was performed to evaluate the cementation modes for metal-ceramic crowns. A total of 40 fully veneered metal-ceramic crowns were delivered in the posterior jaw segments of 20 patients using either a self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX Unicem Aplicap, 3M ESPE; n = 20) or a zinc oxide phosphate cement (Hoffmann's Cement, Hoffmann; n = 20). Thirteen parameters related to the abutment teeth and their periodontal status were evaluated. A visual analog scale was used to assess the sensitivity of the abutment teeth by patient-based outcomes. Data were statistically analyzed by a single-classification ANOVA (α = 0.05) and logistic regression analysis. The results presented were obtained after a mean observation period of 1.8 years. The dropout rate was 0%. None of the abutment teeth exhibited secondary caries at the restoration margins. No significant differences were demonstrated between the luting agents based on visual analog scale (p > 0.05), hypersensitivity (OR = 1.31), abutment mobility (p > 0.05), or probing depths (p > 0.05). Based on the sulcus fluid flow rates, a significantly greater mean difference was obtained with zinc oxide phosphate cement than with self-adhesive resin cement (9.2 units; p = 0.0006). Significant differences between the baseline examination and the follow-up examinations for sulcus bleeding index (p = 0.0013) and plaque index (p cement types showed scarcely any differences between the parameters investigated. The outcomes of cementing fully veneered metal-ceramic crowns were equally good with self-adhesive resin cement as with the clinically proven zinc oxide phosphate cement.

  3. Preparation and application prospects metal containing biocorrectors as part of film coverings to maintain human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Lazurina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of mixed-ligand complex formation is important problem of coordination chemistry currently. The ligands of different nature within the domestic environment of the complex, have a mutual influence, changing the chemical properties of complexes (acid-base, oxidation-reduction, the rate of ligand substitution in the internal environment and their biological activity. According to the literature, the issues of mutual influence of ligands, which leads to a change in the reactivity of the complexes have been widely studied with the assistance of ligands of different nature. In recent years sharply increased interest in nanoobjects of different nature. This is due to the fact that many of the physical, chemical and biological properties of the nanoparticles significantly different characteristics from those of larger (macroscopic objects. The aim of the study was to examine the conditions of formation (ratio of components, acidity in solutions of mixed-metal biocomplexes copper. The studies have shown that the conditions of synthesis have significant impact on obtaining nanoparticles of zinc, copper and cobalt. The study of morphology and size of the resulting nanoparticles were performed on a scanning electron microscope Quanta FEG 650 in high vacuum (pressure in the chamber 8⋅10-3 to 3⋅10-3 Pa mode. The resulting nanoparticles are studied metal particles kanglomeraty complex structure of various shapes and sizes up to 200 nm, and the crystals are spherical shape sizes of 40–90 nm. It is shown that metal complexation with drugs (ligands leads to improvement of antimicrobial activity spectrum and expansion relative to the parent ligands, the studied biocomplexes are harmless biologically active substances, which can be recommended for further study.

  4. Geological structure and prospects of noble metal ore mineralization of the Khayrkhan gabbroid massif (Western Mongolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurumshieva, K. R.; Gertner, I. F.; Tishin, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    An analysis of the distribution of noble metals in zones of sulfide mineralization makes it possible to justify the isolation of four ore-bearing horizons with a specific geochemical zonation. A rise in the gold content relative to palladium and platinum is observed from the bottom upwards along the section of the stratified series of gabbroids. The study of the mineral phases of sulphides and the noble minerals itself indicates the evolution of hydrothermal solutions, which determines the different activity and mobility of the fluid (mercury, tellurium, sulfur) and ore (copper, nickel, iron, platinum, gold and silver) components.

  5. Changes in Nutrition-Related Behaviors in Alcohol-Dependent Patients After Outpatient Detoxification: The Role of Chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Anna; Rohdemann, Maren; Landes, Tom; Engel, Katharina; Banas, Roman; Heinz, Andreas; Müller, Christian A

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported changes in nutrition-related behaviors in alcohol-dependent patients after alcohol detoxification, but prospective studies assessing the effects of these changes on maintaining abstinence are lacking. To assess changes in craving and consumption of chocolate and other sweets over time up to six months after outpatient alcohol detoxification treatment and to detect differences in abstinent versus nonabstinent patients. One hundred and fifty alcohol-dependent patients were included in this prospective observational study. Participants completed self-report questionnaires on nutrition-related behaviors and craving before detoxification treatment (baseline, t1), one week (t2), one month (t3), and six months later (t4). Significant changes in craving for and consumption of chocolate as well as in craving for other sweets were observed over time. Increases were most prominent within the first month. Patients who remained abstinent until t3 consumed three times more chocolate than nonabstainers. One quarter of the patients switched from being rare (t1) to frequent (t3) chocolate eaters, and 84% of these remained abstinent until t3. No significant correlations were found between craving for alcohol and craving for or consumption of chocolate or other sweets. In the first month after outpatient alcohol detoxification treatment, significant changes in nutrition-related behaviors were observed. These changes were not associated with alcohol craving. For a subgroup, increasing the frequency of chocolate consumption might be a temporary protective factor with respect to alcohol relapse.

  6. General anaesthesia does not improve outcome in opioid antagonist detoxification treatment : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Cor A J; Laheij, Robert J F; Krabbe, Paul F M

    AIM: Opioid detoxification by administering opioid-antagonists under general anaesthesia has caused considerable controversy. This study is conducted to determine whether rapid detoxification under general anaesthesia results in higher levels of opioid abstinence than rapid detoxification without

  7. General anaesthesia does not improve outcome in opioid antagonist detoxification treatment: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.J. de; Laheij, R.J.F.; Krabbe, P.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Opioid detoxification by administering opioid-antagonists under general anaesthesia has caused considerable controversy. This study is conducted to determine whether rapid detoxification under general anaesthesia results in higher levels of opioid abstinence than rapid detoxification without

  8. General anaesthesia does not improve outcome in opioid antagonist detoxification treatment: a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.J. de; Laheij, R.J.F.; Krabbe, P.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    Aim  Opioid detoxification by administering opioid-antagonists under general anaesthesia has caused considerable controversy. This study is conducted to determine whether rapid detoxification under general anaesthesia results in higher levels of opioid abstinence than rapid detoxification without

  9. Neurotoxicity of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caito, Samuel; Aschner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Metals are frequently used in industry and represent a major source of toxin exposure for workers. For this reason governmental agencies regulate the amount of metal exposure permissible for worker safety. While essential metals serve physiologic roles, metals pose significant health risks upon acute and chronic exposure to high levels. The central nervous system is particularly vulnerable to metals. The brain readily accumulates metals, which under physiologic conditions are incorporated into essential metalloproteins required for neuronal health and energy homeostasis. Severe consequences can arise from circumstances of excess essential metals or exposure to toxic nonessential metal. Herein, we discuss sources of occupational metal exposure, metal homeostasis in the human body, susceptibility of the nervous system to metals, detoxification, detection of metals in biologic samples, and chelation therapeutic strategies. The neurologic pathology and physiology following aluminum, arsenic, lead, manganese, mercury, and trimethyltin exposures are highlighted as classic examples of metal-induced neurotoxicity. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Detoxification is the primary task in overusing patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jes

    2011-01-01

    Background: Common practice in patients overusing medication is to place major emphasis on detoxification.Overview: This is based on decades of disappointing experience trying to treat patients with prophylactics despite medication overuse. Several trials have shown that, when patients are taken...... off medication overuse, approximately 50% of them get so much better that prophylactic drug treatment is no longer needed. There is no doubt that detoxification by one means or another is of crucial importance in the initial steps of treating patients who have a medication overuse. The methodology...... for detoxification may vary from country to country. Likewise, it varies whether patients are placed on prophylactic treatment simultaneously with detoxification or after a drug-free period of 2 months. Only future long-term studies can show whether one approach or the other is preferable.Conclusion: Detoxification...

  11. CYANIDE HEAP BILOGICAL DETOXIFICATION - PHASE II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many active mine sites, mines in closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, soluble...

  12. A NEW TREND IN MAGNETIC-PULSE METAL WORKING ASSOCIATED WITH THIN-WALLED SHEET METAL ATTRACTION. HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Gnatov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the scope of this article, a summary is presented on the main world achievements of the new trend in magnetic-pulse metal working associated with attraction of specified sheet metal sections in vehicle production and repair. The importance of the new trend has been justified, its basic sources disclosed. Alternative straightening methods for damaged sheet metals are given.

  13. Zinc Detoxification: A Functional Genomics and Transcriptomics Analysis in Drosophila melanogaster Cultured Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E. Mohr

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cells require some metals, such as zinc and manganese, but excess levels of these metals can be toxic. As a result, cells have evolved complex mechanisms for maintaining metal homeostasis and surviving metal intoxication. Here, we present the results of a large-scale functional genomic screen in Drosophila cultured cells for modifiers of zinc chloride toxicity, together with transcriptomics data for wild-type or genetically zinc-sensitized cells challenged with mild zinc chloride supplementation. Altogether, we identified 47 genes for which knockdown conferred sensitivity or resistance to toxic zinc or manganese chloride treatment, and >1800 putative zinc-responsive genes. Analysis of the ‘omics data points to the relevance of ion transporters, glutathione (GSH-related factors, and conserved disease-associated genes in zinc detoxification. Specific genes identified in the zinc screen include orthologs of human disease-associated genes CTNS, PTPRN (also known as IA-2, and ATP13A2 (also known as PARK9. We show that knockdown of red dog mine (rdog; CG11897, a candidate zinc detoxification gene encoding an ABCC-type transporter family protein related to yeast cadmium factor (YCF1, confers sensitivity to zinc intoxication in cultured cells, and that rdog is transcriptionally upregulated in response to zinc stress. As there are many links between the biology of zinc and other metals and human health, the ‘omics data sets presented here provide a resource that will allow researchers to explore metal biology in the context of diverse health-relevant processes.

  14. In vivo Spondias mombin leaves and detoxification of reactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vivohypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effects of aqueous extract of Spondias mombin leaves and detoxification of reactive oxygen species in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Etah Etah Nkanu, Sikirullai Olatunde Jeje, Daniel Ewa Ikpi, Gabriel Otu Ujong ...

  15. Biocatalytic Buffering System for Detoxification of Nerve Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaar, Joel L; Koepsel, Richard; Russell, Alan J

    2005-01-01

    .... In the enzymatic hydrolysis of nerve agents, to prevent inaction of the enzyme prior to complete conversion of the toxin, tight control of pH over the full time course of detoxification is required...

  16. Different interactions of fungi with toxic metals

    OpenAIRE

    Fanelli, Corrado; Fabbri, Anna Adele; Pilo, Giuseppina; Luongo, Laura; Corazza, Luciana; Melis, Pietro

    1994-01-01

    Many papers have reported the uptake and translocation of toxic metals and radionuclides to fruit bodies of edible fungi and also to mycelia biomass. Our aim is to study how to reduce the metal phytotoxicity by mychorrizal fungi pointing at land reclamation and at the detoxification of metal/radionuclides-containing industrial effluents.

  17. Inpatient versus other settings for detoxification for opioid dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, E; Ison, J; Strang, J

    2005-04-18

    There are a complex range of variables that can influence the course and subjective severity of opioid withdrawal. There is a growing evidence for the effectiveness of a range of medically-supported detoxification strategies, but little attention has been paid to the influence of the setting in which the process takes place. To evaluate the effectiveness of any inpatient opioid detoxification programme when compared with all other time-limited detoxification programmes on the level of completion of detoxification, the intensity and duration of withdrawal symptoms, the nature and incidence of adverse effects, the level of engagement in further treatment post-detoxification, and the rates of relapse post-detoxification. Electronic databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL - The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2004); MEDLINE (January 1966-March 2004); EMBASE (January 1988-March 2004); PsycInfo (January 1967-March 2004); CINAHL (January 1982-March 2004). In addition the Current Contents, Biological Abstracts, Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Index were searched. Randomised controlled clinical trials comparing inpatient opioid detoxification (any drug or psychosocial therapy) with other time-limited detoxification programmes (including residential units that are not staffed 24 hours per day, day-care facilities where the patient is not resident for 24 hours per day, and outpatient or ambulatory programmes, and using any drug or psychosocial therapy). All abstracts were independently inspected by two reviewers (ED & JI) and relevant papers were retrieved and assessed for methodological quality using Cochrane Reviewers' Handbook criteria. Only one study met the inclusion criteria. This did not explicitly report the number of participants in each group that successfully completed the detoxification process, but the published data allowed us to deduce that 7 out of 10 (70%) in the inpatient detoxification group were opioid-free on discharge

  18. CYANIDE HEAP BIOLOGICAL DETOXIFICATION - PHASE II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many active mine sites, mines in the closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, solu...

  19. Current knowledge of detoxification mechanisms of xenobiotic in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Youhui; Diao, Qingyun

    2017-01-01

    The western honey bee Apis mellifera is the most important managed pollinator species in the world. Multiple factors have been implicated as potential causes or factors contributing to colony collapse disorder, including honey bee pathogens and nutritional deficiencies as well as exposure to pesticides. Honey bees' genome is characterized by a paucity of genes associated with detoxification, which makes them vulnerable to specific pesticides, especially to combinations of pesticides in real field environments. Many studies have investigated the mechanisms involved in detoxification of xenobiotics/pesticides in honey bees, from primal enzyme assays or toxicity bioassays to characterization of transcript gene expression and protein expression in response to xenobiotics/insecticides by using a global transcriptomic or proteomic approach, and even to functional characterizations. The global transcriptomic and proteomic approach allowed us to learn that detoxification mechanisms in honey bees involve multiple genes and pathways along with changes in energy metabolism and cellular stress response. P450 genes, is highly implicated in the direct detoxification of xenobiotics/insecticides in honey bees and their expression can be regulated by honey/pollen constitutes, resulting in the tolerance of honey bees to other xenobiotics or insecticides. P450s is also a key detoxification enzyme that mediate synergism interaction between acaricides/insecticides and fungicides through inhibition P450 activity by fungicides or competition for detoxification enzymes between acaricides. With the wide use of insecticides in agriculture, understanding the detoxification mechanism of insecticides in honey bees and how honeybees fight with the xenobiotis or insecticides to survive in the changing environment will finally benefit honeybees' management.

  20. Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates: Inhibition and detoxification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmqvist, E.

    1998-02-01

    The ethanol yield and productivity obtained during fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates is decreased due to the presence of inhibiting compounds, such as weak acids, furans and phenolic compounds produced during hydrolysis. Evaluation of the effect of various biological, physical and chemical detoxification treatments by fermentation assays using Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to characterise inhibitors. Inhibition of fermentation was decreased after removal of the non-volatile compounds, pre-fermentation by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei, treatment with the lignolytic enzyme laccase, extraction with ether, and treatment with alkali. Yeast growth in lignocellulosic hydrolysates was inhibited below a certain fermentation pH, most likely due to high concentrations of undissociated weak acids. The effect of individual compounds were studied in model fermentations. Furfural is reduced to furfuryl alcohol by yeast dehydrogenases, thereby affecting the intracellular redox balance. As a result, acetaldehyde accumulated during furfural reduction, which most likely contributed to inhibition of growth. Acetic acid (10 g 1{sup -1}) and furfural (3 g 1{sup -1}) interacted antagonistically causing decreased specific growth rate, whereas no significant individual or interaction effects were detected by the lignin-derived compound 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2 g 1{sup -1}). By maintaining a high cell mass density in the fermentor, the process was less sensitive to inhibitors affecting growth and to fluctuations in fermentation pH, and in addition the depletion rate of bioconvertible inhibitors was increased. A theoretical ethanol yield and high productivity was obtained in continuous fermentation of spruce hydrolysate when the cell mass concentration was maintained at a high level by applying cell recirculation 164 refs, 16 figs, 5 tabs

  1. N-acyl thioureas - selective ligands for complexing of heavy metals and noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, M.

    1992-01-01

    Acyl thioureas are complexing agents for heavy metals that are easily produced and very stable. Their favourable toxicological data make them particularly suitable for industrial applications, e.g. detoxification of metallic process solutions or solvent extraction of metals. (orig.) [de

  2. Detoxification effects of phytonutrients against environmental toxicants and sharing of clinical experience on practical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Raymond Tsz Man

    2017-04-01

    According to the Food and Health Bureau and Trade and Industry Department of the Hong Kong Government, 90 % of the total food supply in Hong Kong was imported from the Mainland China. In addition, the hidden or illegal use of prohibited pesticides, food adulteration (e.g., using industrial salt in food processing, using gutter oil as cooking oil), and pollutions were periodically reported by the media. Excessive exposure to toxic heavy metals or persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from diet or environmental is inevitable amid industrialization and pollution. Understanding of the detoxification ability among nutrients in plant-based food (i.e., phytonutrients in green tea, onion, garlic, coriander, and turmeric) offers therapeutic and preventive effects against the poisoning effects due to these pollutants. Oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory actions are the common mechanisms for heavy metals or POPs toxicities, while phytonutrients counteracts these cellular insults by anti-oxidation, upregulation of anti-inflammatory pathways, and chelation.

  3. Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions of China’s Non-Metallic Mineral Products Industry: Present State, Prospects and Policy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Hu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available China is the largest non-metallic mineral producer in the world and one of the key consumers of four major non-metallic mineral products, including cement, refractories, plate glass and ceramics. The non-metallic mineral products industry’s rapid growth has brought about a large demand for energy. The present study provides an overview of China’s non-metallic mineral products industry in terms of production, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. In this industry, the energy efficiency is relatively low and the level of carbon dioxide emission is much higher than developed countries’ average. This study interprets the effects of some newly issued policies and analyses the influential factors in achieving energy conservation and emission reduction goals. It also discusses the prospects for saving energy and emission reduction in the industry. Retrofitting facilities and using new production technologies is imperative. Additionally, implementing market-based policies, promoting industrial transformation and effective international cooperation would help decrease carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption.

  4. Current and Emerging Detoxification Therapies for Critical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett A. Howell

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity resulting from prescription drugs such as tricyclic antidepressants and cardioactive steroids, as well as drugs of abuse and exposure to environmental chemicals, represents a major need for detoxification treatments. Particles and colloids, antibody fragments (Fab, and indirect treatment methods such as macroemulsions, are currently being developed or employed as detoxification therapies. Colloids, particles, and protein fragments typically mitigate toxicity by binding to the toxin and reducing its concentration in vital organs. Indirect methods such as macroemulsions and sodium bicarbonate act directly on the affected organs, rather than the toxin. In this review, key design parameters (i.e. binding affinity, biocompatibility, pharmacokinetics are discussed for each type of detoxification treatment. In addition, some of the latest research in each area is reviewed.

  5. MicroRNAs as key mediators of hepatic detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yemiao; Xiao, Jingfang; Zhang, Xinli; Bian, Xiuwu

    2016-08-10

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short noncoding RNAs that modulate gene expression at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Many studies have extensively revealed the significance of miRNAs in mediating liver development and diseases. However, their role in hepatic detoxification processes has been explored only recently. In this review, we summarized the up-to-date knowledge about miRNA dependent regulation of enzymes involved in all three phases of the drugs and xenobiotics detoxification process. We also discussed the role of miRNA in regulating some upstream nuclear receptors involving gene expression of enzymes for detoxification process in liver. The toxicological significance of miRNAs in liver diseases and future research perspectives are finally presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identifying genes and gene networks involved in chromium metabolism and detoxification in Crambe abyssinica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zulfiqar, Asma, E-mail: asmazulfiqar08@yahoo.com [Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, 270 Stockbridge Road, University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Paulose, Bibin, E-mail: bpaulose@psis.umass.edu [Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, 270 Stockbridge Road, University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Chhikara, Sudesh, E-mail: sudesh@psis.umass.edu [Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, 270 Stockbridge Road, University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Dhankher, Om Parkash, E-mail: parkash@psis.umass.edu [Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, 270 Stockbridge Road, University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Chromium pollution is a serious environmental problem with few cost-effective remediation strategies available. Crambe abyssinica (a member of Brassicaseae), a non-food, fast growing high biomass crop, is an ideal candidate for phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated soils. The present study used a PCR-Select Suppression Subtraction Hybridization approach in C. abyssinica to isolate differentially expressed genes in response to Cr exposure. A total of 72 differentially expressed subtracted cDNAs were sequenced and found to represent 43 genes. The subtracted cDNAs suggest that Cr stress significantly affects pathways related to stress/defense, ion transporters, sulfur assimilation, cell signaling, protein degradation, photosynthesis and cell metabolism. The regulation of these genes in response to Cr exposure was further confirmed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Characterization of these differentially expressed genes may enable the engineering of non-food, high-biomass plants, including C. abyssinica, for phytoremediation of Cr-contaminated soils and sediments. - Highlights: > Molecular mechanism of Cr uptake and detoxification in plants is not well known. > We identified differentially regulated genes upon Cr exposure in Crambe abyssinica. > 72 Cr-induced subtracted cDNAs were sequenced and found to represent 43 genes. > Pathways linked to stress, ion transport, and sulfur assimilation were affected. > This is the first Cr transcriptome study in a crop with phytoremediation potential. - This study describes the identification and isolation of differentially expressed genes involved in chromium metabolism and detoxification in a non-food industrial oil crop Crambe abyssinica.

  7. Tissue metal levels in Muskrat (Ondatra zibethica) collected near the Sudbury (Ontario) ore-smelters; prospects for biomonitoring marsh pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, G.H.

    2004-01-01

    An examination of tissue metal levels in Sudbury-area muskrat (Ondatra zibethica) revealed that animals collected in the vicinity of the local ore-smelters contained elevated burdens of Cd and Ni in their liver and kidneys. Respective tissue concentrations averaged 2-fold and 3- to 6-fold higher than background values and are believed to reflect accumulations resulting from food chain contamination in regional marshes, including that reportedly characterizing Typha latifolia stands--their primary food source--and adherent sediments which may be consumed inadvertently while feeding. No evidence of site-influence or enhanced tissue metal levels was seen for Cu, Pb or Zn. While Cd : Ni accumulations were positively correlated in both the liver (r=0.78) and the kidneys (r=0.65), between-tissue comparisons indicated that hepatic : renal burdens were significantly correlated (r=0.75) only in the case of Ni. With the exception of 30-35% lower hepatic Zn levels in females relative to males within the Sudbury population, tissue metal levels did not vary according to sex or age class at either site. Our findings substantiate the potential of muskrat to serve as useful bioindicators/monitors of metal pollution in semi-aquatic environments. - Muskrats appear to be useful bioindicators of metal pollution in semi-aquatic environments

  8. 42 CFR 2.34 - Disclosures to prevent multiple enrollments in detoxification and maintenance treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... detoxification and maintenance treatment programs. 2.34 Section 2.34 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... detoxification and maintenance treatment programs. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section: Central... information about individuals applying for maintenance treatment or detoxification treatment for the purpose...

  9. Detoxification of copper fungicide using EDTA-modified cellulosic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-04

    Feb 4, 2009 ... detoxification of a copper fungicide (KOCIDE 101) using maize cob, a cellulosic material, was studied. Based on copper as the active agent (after a ... Made from CuSO4 and lime. Used as a spray. Copper oxychloride ..... feasible when there is contact between the maize cob and the Cu(II) ions. Therefore ...

  10. Modulation of central sensitisation by detoxification in MOH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munksgaard, Signe B; Bendtsen, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2013-01-01

    detoxification. For baseline comparison, we tested 40 healthy controls. We measured cephalic and extra-cephalic pressure-pain thresholds and supra-threshold pressure-pain scores and extra-cephalic pain thresholds, supra-threshold pain scores and temporal summation for electrical stimulation.ResultsOf the 35...

  11. Influence of Manganese on Ochratoxin A Detoxification in Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    It is clear from above that farmers could encounter problems of ochratoxin A toxicity caused by feeding animals with ochratoxin A contaminated feeds. A lot of efforts have been made to detoxify Ochratoxin A in animals. Items used for the detoxification include, phenylalanine, activated charcoal and calcium aluminosilicate.

  12. Sensing and detoxification devices in public building spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traberg-Borup, Steen; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Afshari, Alireza

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes commonly used ventilation principles and where sensig and detoxification devices could be integrated in public buidings in an effort to warn and protect citizens against surprise attacks by toxic agents. The release of toxic agents may be outdoors, in a single indoor spot...

  13. Detoxification of copper fungicide using EDTA-modified cellulosic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pesticides are poisons and can be particularly dangerous when misused or carelessly disposed. The detoxification of a copper fungicide (KOCIDE 101) using maize cob, a cellulosic material, was studied. Based on copper as the active agent (after a sorption period of 1 h), the concentration of the fungicide reduced from an ...

  14. Microwave fluidized-bed detoxification of hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, R.

    1991-11-01

    Our ongoing research and development (R D) work focuses on demonstrating the technical feasibility of total detoxification of C1HC'' hazardous waste by using microwave energy. In addition, we investigated the capability of nahacolite for in-bed scavenging of HC1 and found it to be very effective. So far, detoxification of halocarbon vapor and liquid waste forms has been achieved. Microwave energy heats and activates the particulates of silicon carbide (SiC) and promotes chemical interactions, facilitating total detoxification of chlorinated hydrocarbons (TCEs) in an air-stream over SiC-fluidized beds under mild (<600{degrees}) conditions. The SiC promotes surface-enhanced reactions and also is a heating transfer medium. These microwave-assisted processes appear to be extremely energy efficient. The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) team can demonstrate the microwave fluidized bed (MFB) technology for total detoxification of halocarbon waste streams. The technology is applicable for treatment of hazardous waste at DOE sites. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Opioid detoxification : from controlled clinical trial to clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Boukje A G; De Jong, Cor A J; Wensing, Michel; Krabbe, Paul F M; van der Staak, Cees P F

    2010-01-01

    Controlled clinical trials have high internal validity but suffer from difficulties in external validity. This study evaluates the generalizability of the results of a controlled clinical trial on rapid detoxification in the everyday clinical practice of two addiction treatment centers. The results

  16. Influence of Manganese on Ochratoxin A Detoxification in Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Influence of manganese on ochratoxin A detoxification was studied in 3- month old female white albino rats administered with 0.00, 500 and 500μg/kg body weight of ochratoxin A intraperitoneally daily for five days. In addition to the ochratoxin A, 0.5ml of 5% Manganese (II) chloride was administered to one of the test ...

  17. Widespread Chemical Detoxification of Alkaloid Venom by Formicine Ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBrun, Edward G; Diebold, Peter J; Orr, Matthew R; Gilbert, Lawrence E

    2015-10-01

    The ability to detoxify defensive compounds of competitors provides key ecological advantages that can influence community-level processes. Although common in plants and bacteria, this type of detoxification interaction is extremely rare in animals. Here, using laboratory behavioral assays and analyses of videotaped interactions in South America, we report widespread venom detoxification among ants in the subfamily Formicinae. Across both data sets, nine formicine species, representing all major clades, used a stereotyped grooming behavior to self-apply formic acid (acidopore grooming) in response to fire ant (Solenopsis invicta and S. saevissima) venom exposure. In laboratory assays, this behavior increased the survivorship of species following exposure to S. invicta venom. Species expressed the behavior when exposed to additional alkaloid venoms, including both compositionally similar piperidine venom of an additional fire ant species and the pyrrolidine/pyrroline alkaloid venom of a Monomorium species. In addition, species expressed the behavior following exposure to the uncharacterized venom of a Crematogaster species. However, species did not express acidopore grooming when confronted with protein-based ant venoms or when exposed to monoterpenoid-based venom. This pattern, combined with the specific chemistry of the reaction of formic acid with venom alkaloids, indicates that alkaloid venoms are targets of detoxification grooming. Solenopsis thief ants, and Monomorium species stand out as brood-predators of formicine ants that produce piperidine, pyrrolidine, and pyrroline venom, providing an important ecological context for the use of detoxification behavior. Detoxification behavior also represents a mechanism that can influence the order of assemblage dominance hierarchies surrounding food competition. Thus, this behavior likely influences ant-assemblages through a variety of ecological pathways.

  18. Simvastatin effects on detoxification mechanisms in Danio rerio embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, V; Santos, M M; Moradas-Ferreira, P; Ferreira, M

    2016-06-01

    The transcription and protein activity of defence mechanisms such as ABC transporters, phase I and II of cellular detoxification and antioxidant enzymes can be altered in the presence of emerging contaminants such as pharmaceuticals impacting the overall detoxification mechanism. The present work aimed to characterise the effects of simvastatin on the detoxification mechanisms of embryonic stages of Danio rerio. In a first approach, constitutive transcription of key genes involved in detoxification was determined. Embryos were collected at different developmental stages, and transcription patterns of genes coding for ABC transporters, phase I and II and oxidative stress were analysed. With exception of abcc2, all genes seem to be from maternal transfer (0-2 hpf). Embryos were then exposed to different concentrations of simvastatin (5 and 50 μg/L), verapamil and MK571 (10 μM; ABC protein inhibitors) and a combination of simvastatin and ABC inhibitors. mRNA expression levels of abcb4, abcc1, abcc2, abcg2, cyp1a, cyp3a65, gst, sod, cat was evaluated. Accumulation assays to measure ABC proteins activity and activity of EROD, GST, CAT and Cu/ZnSOD, were also undertaken. Simvastatin acted as a weak inhibitor of ABC proteins and increased EROD and GST activity, whereas Cu/ZnSOD and CAT activity were decreased. Simvastatin up-regulated abcb4 and cyp3a65 transcription (both concentrations), as well as abcc1 and abcc2 at 50 μg/L, and down-regulated gst, sod, cat at 5 μg/L. In conclusion, our data revealed the interaction of simvastatin with detoxification mechanisms highlighting the importance of monitoring the presence of this emerging contaminant in aquatic environments.

  19. Revelations from the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans on the Complex Interplay of Metal Toxicological Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebany J. Martinez-Finley

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metals have been definitively linked to a number of disease states. Due to the widespread existence of metals in our environment from both natural and anthropogenic sources, understanding the mechanisms of their cellular detoxification is of upmost importance. Organisms have evolved cellular detoxification systems including glutathione, metallothioneins, pumps and transporters, and heat shock proteins to regulate intracellular metal levels. The model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans, contains these systems and provides several advantages for deciphering the mechanisms of metal detoxification. This review provides a brief summary of contemporary literature on the various mechanisms involved in the cellular detoxification of metals, specifically, antimony, arsenic, cadmium, copper, manganese, mercury, and depleted uranium using the C. elegans model system for investigation and analysis.

  20. Drug-eluting or bare-metal stents for large coronary vessel stenting? The BASKET-PROVE (PROspective Validation Examination) trial: Study protocol and design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfisterer, M.; Bertel, O.; Bonetti, P.O.

    2008-01-01

    Background Based on a subgroup analysis of 18-month BAsel Stent Kosten Effektivitats Trial (BASKET) outcome data, we hypothesized that very late (>12 months) stent thrombosis occurs predominantly after drug-eluting stent implantation in large native coronary vessel stenting. Methods To prove...... or refute this hypothesis, we set up an 11-center 4-country prospective trial of 2260 consecutive patients treated with >= 3.0-mm stents only, randomized to receive Cypher (Johnson & Johnson, Miami Lakes, FL), Vision (Abbott Vascular, Abbott Laboratories, IL), or Xience stents (Abbott Vascular). Only...... to cobalt-chromium bare-metal stents in this relevant, low-risk group of everyday patients. In addition, a comparison with similar BASKET patients will allow to estimate the impact of 12-versus 6-month dual antiplatelet therapy on these outcomes Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...

  1. miR395 is involved in detoxification of cadmium in Brassica napus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liu Wei; Song, Jian Bo; Shu, Xia Xia; Zhang, Yun; Yang, Zhi Min

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Involvement of miR395 in sulfate uptake and assimilation in B. napus. ► miR395 regulation of Cd accumulation and distribution in B. napus. ► Depression of Cd-induced oxidative stress by miR395. -- Abstract: The toxic metal cadmium (Cd) constitutes one of the major inorganic contaminants in environments. microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous non-coding small RNAs. miR395 is conserved and regulates sulfate assimilation and distribution in higher plants, but whether it is involved in detoxification of Cd in plants has not been described. In this study, transgenic rapeseed (Brassica napus) over-expressing miR395 was identified under Cd stress. miR395-over-expressing plants showed a lower degree of Cd-induced oxidative stress than wild type. By contrast, chlorophyll, glutathione and non-protein thiols contents were higher in the transformants than wild type. Determination of growth response showed that 35S::MIR395 plants accumulated higher levels of biomass and sulfur than wild type under Cd exposure. miR395 transgenic plants had higher levels of Cd in plants, particularly at the high supply of Cd in the medium, but they tended to repress Cd translocation from roots to shoots. Simultaneously, expression of metal-tolerance genes such as BnPCS1, BnHO1 and Sultr1;1 was up-regulated under Cd stress, and the expression of the genes was more pronounced in 35S::MIR395 plants than in wild type. These results suggest that miR395 would be involved in detoxification of Cd in B. napus

  2. The Prospective Toxic Effects of Some Heavy Metals Overload in Surface Drinking Water of Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RA Mandour

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The concentration of heavy metals in drinking water is very important. Objectives: To to evaluate the chemistry of some heavy metals in surface drinking water of Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt. Methods: 51 surface drinking water samples were collected from the main surface water stations and compact units in October 2009 and analyzed chemically. 26 water samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer for iron, manganese, lead, nickel, chromium, zinc, copper, cobalt, aluminum, and cadmium concentrations. Results: Aluminum concentration was slightly high in water sample of Bosat network. Cadmium concentration in samples of up-streams of shark and Mit-Khamis stations, networks of Mit-Antar, Demera, Bosat, Bilqas, El-satamony, El-Gamalia, Mit-asim and Bilqas station exceeded the permissible limits of Egyptian Ministry of Health (EMH, 2007 and World Health Organization (WHO, 2008. The nickel concentration in the network samples taken from Shoha, Bosat and El-Gamalia as well as up-stream of Bosat station exceeded the permissible limits. Also, lead concentrations of the network samples of Shoha, Mit-Antar, Demera and Nabaru exceeded the permissible limits. Conclusion: Regular chemical analysis of surface drinking water is required. Since these heavy metals are most likely originate from steel, plastics and batteries industries working in the region, we believe that activities of these industries must be stopped or at least limited in urban zones.

  3. Prospective, multi-center evaluation of a silicon carbide coated cobalt chromium bare metal stent for percutaneous coronary interventions: Two-year results of the ENERGY Registry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erbel, Raimund, E-mail: erbel@uk-essen.de [Department of Cardiology, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany); Eggebrecht, Holger [Cardioangiological Center Bethanien (CCB), Frankfurt (Germany); Roguin, Ariel [Department of Cardiology, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa (Israel); Schroeder, Erwin [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cliniques Universitaires de Mont-Godinne, Yvoir (Belgium); Philipp, Sebastian [Department Internal Medicine/Cardiology, Elbe Klinikum Stade, Stade (Germany); Heitzer, Thomas [Department of Cardiology, Heart Center Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany); Schwacke, Harald [Department of Internal Medicine, Diakonissen-Stiftungs- Krankenhaus Speyer (Germany); Ayzenberg, Oded [The Heart Institute, Kaplan Medical Center, Rehovot (Israel); Serra, Antonio [Servicio de Cardiología, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, España (Spain); Delarche, Nicolas [Cardiology unit, Pau General Hospital, Pau (France); Luchner, Andreas [Department of Internal Medicine/Cardiology, Universitätsklinikum Regensburg (Germany); Slagboom, Ton [Department of Cardiology, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-11-15

    Background: Novel bare metal stents with improved stent design may become a viable alternative to drug-eluting stents in certain patient groups, particularly, when long-term dual antiplatelet therapy should be avoided. Purpose: The ENERGY registry aimed to assess the safety and benefits of a cobalt–chromium thin strut bare metal stent with a passive coating in a large series of patients under real-world conditions. Methods and materials: This prospective registry recruited 1016 patients with 1074 lesions in 48 centers from April to November 2010. The primary endpoint was the rate of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction and clinically driven target lesion revascularization. Results: More than half of the lesions (61.0%) were type A/B1 lesions, mean lesion length was 14.5 ± 6.5 mm and mean reference vessel diameter 3.2 ± 0.5 mm. MACE rates at 6, 12 and 24 months were 4.9%, 8.1% and 9.4%, target lesion revascularization rates 2.8%, 4.9% and 5.4% and definite stent thrombosis rates 0.5%, 0.6% and 0.6%. Subgroups showed significant differences in baseline and procedural characteristics which did not translate into significantly different clinical outcomes. Specifically, MACE rates at 24 months were 13.5% in diabetics, 8.6% in small stents and 9.6% in acute coronary syndrome patients. Conclusion: The population of ENERGY reflects real-world conditions with bare metal stents being mainly used in simple lesions. In this setting, percutaneous coronary intervention using a cobalt–chromium thin strut bare metal stent with a passive coating showed very good results up to 24 months. (ClinicalTrials.gov:NCT01056120) Summary for annotated table of contents: The ENERGY international registry evaluated the safety and benefits of a cobalt–chromium thin strut bare metal stent with passive coating in 1016 patients under real-world conditions until 2 years. Results were encouraging with a low composite rate of cardiac death

  4. Prospective, multi-center evaluation of a silicon carbide coated cobalt chromium bare metal stent for percutaneous coronary interventions: Two-year results of the ENERGY Registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erbel, Raimund; Eggebrecht, Holger; Roguin, Ariel; Schroeder, Erwin; Philipp, Sebastian; Heitzer, Thomas; Schwacke, Harald; Ayzenberg, Oded; Serra, Antonio; Delarche, Nicolas; Luchner, Andreas; Slagboom, Ton

    2014-01-01

    Background: Novel bare metal stents with improved stent design may become a viable alternative to drug-eluting stents in certain patient groups, particularly, when long-term dual antiplatelet therapy should be avoided. Purpose: The ENERGY registry aimed to assess the safety and benefits of a cobalt–chromium thin strut bare metal stent with a passive coating in a large series of patients under real-world conditions. Methods and materials: This prospective registry recruited 1016 patients with 1074 lesions in 48 centers from April to November 2010. The primary endpoint was the rate of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction and clinically driven target lesion revascularization. Results: More than half of the lesions (61.0%) were type A/B1 lesions, mean lesion length was 14.5 ± 6.5 mm and mean reference vessel diameter 3.2 ± 0.5 mm. MACE rates at 6, 12 and 24 months were 4.9%, 8.1% and 9.4%, target lesion revascularization rates 2.8%, 4.9% and 5.4% and definite stent thrombosis rates 0.5%, 0.6% and 0.6%. Subgroups showed significant differences in baseline and procedural characteristics which did not translate into significantly different clinical outcomes. Specifically, MACE rates at 24 months were 13.5% in diabetics, 8.6% in small stents and 9.6% in acute coronary syndrome patients. Conclusion: The population of ENERGY reflects real-world conditions with bare metal stents being mainly used in simple lesions. In this setting, percutaneous coronary intervention using a cobalt–chromium thin strut bare metal stent with a passive coating showed very good results up to 24 months. (ClinicalTrials.gov:NCT01056120) Summary for annotated table of contents: The ENERGY international registry evaluated the safety and benefits of a cobalt–chromium thin strut bare metal stent with passive coating in 1016 patients under real-world conditions until 2 years. Results were encouraging with a low composite rate of cardiac death

  5. Metodologías para establecer valores de referencia de metales pesados en suelos agrícolas: perspectivas para Colombia Methods for establishing baseline values for heavy metals in agricultural soils:: Prospects for Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Rueda Saa

    2011-07-01

    in the environmental management plans of soils. Baseline values are transforming in a control tool for environmental agencies to test the impact of heavy metals in a variety of agricultural activities. This article analyses different concepts related to heavy metals levels in agricultural soils and the incidents of the soil characteristics on their concentration, at the same time some methodologies to obtain specific baseline values from identification of the natural concentration are reviewed. Also included are some prospects for Colombia related to soil protection and remediation. Currently, in Colombia there are no studies related to obtain baseline values of heavy metals in agricultural soils. For this reason it is necessary to get support from government agencies such as the Ministry of Environment, housing and territorial development and Ministry of agriculture, in order to start and develop research in some primary agricultural sectors to guarantee the production and the environmental sustainability of soils.

  6. Dipole polarizability of alkali-metal (Na, K, Rb)–alkaline-earth-metal (Ca, Sr) polar molecules: Prospects for alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopakumar, Geetha, E-mail: geetha@tmu.ac.jp; Abe, Minori; Hada, Masahiko [Department of Chemistry, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); JST, CREST, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Kajita, Masatoshi [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan)

    2014-06-14

    Electronic open-shell ground-state properties of selected alkali-metal–alkaline-earth-metal polar molecules are investigated. We determine potential energy curves of the {sup 2}Σ{sup +} ground state at the coupled-cluster singles and doubles with partial triples (CCSD(T)) level of electron correlation. Calculated spectroscopic constants for the isotopes ({sup 23}Na, {sup 39}K, {sup 85}Rb)–({sup 40}Ca, {sup 88}Sr) are compared with available theoretical and experimental results. The variation of the permanent dipole moment (PDM), average dipole polarizability, and polarizability anisotropy with internuclear distance is determined using finite-field perturbation theory at the CCSD(T) level. Owing to moderate PDM (KCa: 1.67 D, RbCa: 1.75 D, KSr: 1.27 D, RbSr: 1.41 D) and large polarizability anisotropy (KCa: 566 a.u., RbCa: 604 a.u., KSr: 574 a.u., RbSr: 615 a.u.), KCa, RbCa, KSr, and RbSr are potential candidates for alignment and orientation in combined intense laser and external static electric fields.

  7. Continuous measurement of DTPA-clearance in extracorporeal detoxification circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenhagen, D; Ahrenholz, P; Roy, T; Esther, G; Kiencke, H; Klinkmann, H

    1981-01-01

    A new method for investigating clearances is described. DTPA labelled with technetium 99m (MW: 496 daltons) is used as an agent to be measured. Continuous determination of the DTPA-clearance is possible in extracorporeal detoxification circuits including dialyzers, hemofilters and hemoperfusion columns. As an example, DTPA-clearances are given for two different dialyzers. In comparison to clearance measurements of peak 7, DTPA-clearance was very similar to that obtained for peak 7.

  8. Continuous measurement of DTPA-clearance in extracorporeal detoxification circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkenhagen, D.; Ahrenholz, P.; Roy, T.; Esther, G.; Kiencke, H.; Klinkmann, H.

    1981-01-01

    A new method for investigating clearances is described. DTPA labelled with technetium 99m (MW: 496 daltons) is used as an agent to be measured. Continuous determination of the DTPA-clearance is possible in extracorporeal detoxification circuits including dialyzers, hemofilters and hemoperfusion columns. As an example, DTPA-clearances are given for two different dialyzers. In comparison to clearance measurements of peak 7, DTPA-clearance was very similar to that obtained for peak 7.

  9. The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS prisons project pilot study: protocol for a randomised controlled trial comparing dihydrocodeine and buprenorphine for opiate detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalton Richard

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United Kingdom (UK, there is an extensive market for the class 'A' drug heroin. Many heroin users spend time in prison. People addicted to heroin often require prescribed medication when attempting to cease their drug use. The most commonly used detoxification agents in UK prisons are buprenorphine, dihydrocodeine and methadone. However, national guidelines do not state a detoxification drug of choice. Indeed, there is a paucity of research evaluating the most effective treatment for opiate detoxification in prisons. This study seeks to address the paucity by evaluating routinely used interventions amongst drug using prisoners within UK prisons. Methods/Design The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS Prisons Pilot Study will use randomised controlled trial methodology to compare the open use of buprenorphine and dihydrocodeine for opiate detoxification, given in the context of routine care, within HMP Leeds. Prisoners who are eligible and give informed consent will be entered into the trial. The primary outcome measure will be abstinence status at five days post detoxification, as determined by a urine test. Secondary outcomes during the detoxification and then at one, three and six months post detoxification will be recorded.

  10. Rice Transcriptome Analysis to Identify Possible Herbicide Quinclorac Detoxification Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenying eXu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Quinclorac is a highly selective auxin-type herbicide, and is widely used in the effective control of barnyard grass in paddy rice fields, improving the world’s rice yield. The herbicide mode of action of quinclorac has been proposed and hormone interactions affect quinclorac signaling. Because of widespread use, quinclorac may be transported outside rice fields with the drainage waters, leading to soil and water pollution and environmental health problems.In this study, we used 57K Affymetrix rice whole-genome array to identify quinclorac signaling response genes to study the molecular mechanisms of action and detoxification of quinclorac in rice plants. Overall, 637 probe sets were identified with differential expression levels under either 6 or 24 h of quinclorac treatment. Auxin-related genes such as GH3 and OsIAAs responded to quinclorac treatment. Gene Ontology analysis showed that genes of detoxification-related family genes were significantly enriched, including cytochrome P450, GST, UGT, and ABC and drug transporter genes. Moreover, real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that top candidate P450 families such as CYP81, CYP709C and CYP72A genes were universally induced by different herbicides. Some Arabidopsis genes for the same P450 family were up-regulated under quinclorac treatment.We conduct rice whole-genome GeneChip analysis and the first global identification of quinclorac response genes. This work may provide potential markers for detoxification of quinclorac and biomonitors of environmental chemical pollution.

  11. Is arsenic biotransformation a detoxification mechanism for microorganisms?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, M. Azizur, E-mail: Mohammad.Rahman@uts.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Sustainability, School of the Environment, Faculty of Science, University of Technology, P.O. Box 123, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Hassler, Christel [Marine and Lake Biogeochemistry, Institute F. A. Forel, University of Geneva, 10 rte de Suisse, Versoix, 1290 Switzerland (Switzerland)

    2014-01-15

    Arsenic (As) is extremely toxic to living organisms at high concentration. In aquatic systems, As exists in different chemical forms. The two major inorganic As (iAs) species are As{sup V}, which is thermodynamically stable in oxic waters, and As{sup III}, which is predominant in anoxic conditions. Photosynthetic microorganisms (e.g., phytoplankton and cyanobacteria) take up As{sup V}, biotransform it to As{sup III}, then biomethylate it to methylarsenic (MetAs) forms. Although As{sup III} is more toxic than As{sup V}, As{sup III} is much more easily excreted from the cells than As{sup V}. Therefore, majority of researchers consider the reduction of As{sup V} to As{sup III} as a detoxification process. The biomethylation process results in the conversion of toxic iAs to the less toxic pentavalent MetAs forms (monomethylarsonate; MMA{sup V}, dimethylarsonate; DMA{sup V}, and trimethylarsenic oxide; TMAO{sup V}) and trimethylarsine (TMAO{sup III}). However, biomethylation by microorganisms also produces monomethylarsenite (MMA{sup III}) and dimethylarsenite (DMA{sup III}), which are more toxic than iAs, as a result of biomethylation by the microorganisms, demonstrates the need to reconsider to what extent As biomethylation contributes to a detoxification process. In this review, we focused on the discussion of whether the biotransformation of As species in microorganisms is really a detoxification process with recent data.

  12. Is arsenic biotransformation a detoxification mechanism for microorganisms?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M. Azizur; Hassler, Christel

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is extremely toxic to living organisms at high concentration. In aquatic systems, As exists in different chemical forms. The two major inorganic As (iAs) species are As V , which is thermodynamically stable in oxic waters, and As III , which is predominant in anoxic conditions. Photosynthetic microorganisms (e.g., phytoplankton and cyanobacteria) take up As V , biotransform it to As III , then biomethylate it to methylarsenic (MetAs) forms. Although As III is more toxic than As V , As III is much more easily excreted from the cells than As V . Therefore, majority of researchers consider the reduction of As V to As III as a detoxification process. The biomethylation process results in the conversion of toxic iAs to the less toxic pentavalent MetAs forms (monomethylarsonate; MMA V , dimethylarsonate; DMA V , and trimethylarsenic oxide; TMAO V ) and trimethylarsine (TMAO III ). However, biomethylation by microorganisms also produces monomethylarsenite (MMA III ) and dimethylarsenite (DMA III ), which are more toxic than iAs, as a result of biomethylation by the microorganisms, demonstrates the need to reconsider to what extent As biomethylation contributes to a detoxification process. In this review, we focused on the discussion of whether the biotransformation of As species in microorganisms is really a detoxification process with recent data

  13. Pollutant exposure at wastewater treatment works affects the detoxification organs of an urban adapter, the Banana Bat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidoo, Samantha; Vosloo, Dalene; Schoeman, M. Corrie

    2016-01-01

    The Banana Bat, Neoromicia nana, exploits pollution-tolerant chironomids at wastewater treatment works (WWTWs). We investigated how pollutant exposure impacts the detoxification organs, namely the liver and kidney of N. nana. (i) We performed SEM-EDS to quantify metal content and mineral nutrients, and found significant differences in essential metal (Fe and Zn) content in the liver, and significant differences in Cu and one mineral nutrient (K) in the kidneys. (ii) We performed histological analysis and found more histopathological lesions in detoxification organs of WWTW bats. (iii) We calculated hepatosomatic/renalsomatic indices (HSI/RSI) to investigate whole organ effects, and found significant increases in organ size at WWTWs. (iv) We quantified metallothionein 1E (MT1E), using Western Blot immunodetection. Contrary to predictions, we found no significant upregulation of MT1E in bats at WWTWs. Ultimately, N. nana exploiting WWTWs may suffer chronic health problems from sub-lethal damage to organs responsible for detoxifying pollutants. - Highlights: • We measured pollutant exposure effects on detoxification organs in bats. • Iron, zinc, copper and potassium levels were altered in pollutant-exposed bats. • There was no significant upregulation of metallothionein in liver or kidney. • Pollutant-exposed bats had increased organ indices and histopathological lesions. • These organ effects suggest health risks and increased mortality in the long-term. - Wastewater treatment plants provide a short-term benefit of abundant pollution-tolerant prey, but cause long-term physiological damage to the liver and kidneys in urban bats.

  14. Comparison of Hypersensitivity in Metal Ceramic Crowns cemented with Zinc Phosphate and Self-adhesive Resin: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Thatapudi; Garhnayak, Mirna; Garhnayak, Lokanath; Dhal, Angurbala; Kar, Aswini K

    2017-10-01

    Luting agents used to fix artificial prostheses, such as fixed partial denture (FPD) to tooth are basically viscous in nature and show chemical reaction for fixation. Postcementation hypersensitivity is a frequent complaint of patients. The present study was conducted to compare postcementation hypersensitivity with zinc phosphate and self-adhesive resin in complete coverage crown. This study included 30 patients in which 60 porcelein fused to metal crowns was placed. Two metal crowns were placed in each patient in nonantagonis-tic contralateral quadrants. First crown was cemented with zinc phosphate cement, while the other was cemented with self-adhesive resin. Hypersensitivity was evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS) score and by clinical test. For clinical evaluation of sensitivity, hot and cold water was applied to the cervical margin of restoration for 5 seconds and response was recorded. This study consisted of 30 patients in which 60 crowns were given. There was no statistical difference in VAS score of mastication in zinc phosphate cement recorded at baseline, 1 week, 4 weeks, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years (p > 0.05). Cold response also did not show a significant difference at six time points. Warm response showed slight decrease in subsequent time points but was nonsignificant (p > 0.05). Similarly, with self-adhesive resin cement, VAS score during mastication, hot and cold response was statistically nonsignificant (p > 0.05). Postcementation hypersensitivity is a frequent complaint that patient may experience. However, we found no statistically significant difference in both cements tested. Postcementation hypersensitivity is an unpleasant sensation experienced by patients. This may affect the success of any prosthesis. Thus, selection of luting agent for cementation plays an important role to eliminate this symptom.

  15. Detoxification of azo dyes in the context of environmental processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Deepak; Mishra, Vandana; Sharma, Radhey Shyam

    2016-07-01

    Azo dyes account for >70% of the global industrial demand (∼9 million tons). Owing to their genotoxic/carcinogenic potential, the annual disposal of ∼4,500,000 tons of dyes and/or degraded products is an environmental and socio-economic concern. In comparison to physico-chemical methods, microbe-mediated dye degradation is considered to be low-input, cost-effective and environmentally-safe. However, under different environmental conditions, interactions of chemically diverse dyes with metabolically diverse microbes produce metabolites of varying toxicity. In addition, majority of studies on microbial dye-degradation focus on decolorization with least attention towards detoxification. Therefore, the environmental significance of microbial dye detoxification research of past >3 decades is critically evaluated with reference to dye structure and the possible influence of microbial interactions in different environments. In the absence of ecosystem-based studies, the results of laboratory-based studies on dye degradation, metabolite production and their genotoxic impact on model organisms are used to predict the possible fate and consequences of azo dyes/metabolites in the environment. In such studies, the predominance of fewer numbers of toxicological assays that too at lower levels of biological organization (molecular/cellular/organismic) suggests its limited ecological significance. Based on critical evaluation of these studies the recommendations on inclusion of multilevel approach (assessment at multiple levels of biological organization), multispecies microcosm approach and native species approach in conjunction with identification of dye metabolites have been made for future studies. Such studies will bridge the gap between the fundamental knowledge on dye-microbe-environment interactions and its application to combat dye-induced environmental toxicity. Thus an environmental perspective on dye toxicity in the background of dye structure and effects of

  16. Contributions of ludic care in nursing to chemical detoxification due to the use of crack cocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Aparecida Pavanatto

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to understand the contributions of ludic care in nursing by stimulating the acceptance of chemical detoxification from crack on the perception of people in the detoxification process. METHODS: an exploratory, descriptive study with a qualitative approach, performed with five people hospitalized for chemical detoxification from crack, from March to July 2013 in a chemical detox unit of a midsize hospital in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul. Data was collected using a semi-structured interview and was subjected to content analysis. RESULTS: Two categories emerged: Ludic care in nursing as a stimulus to the acceptance of chemical detoxification; Ludic care in nursing in the promotion for healthy living after chemical detoxification. CONCLUSION: ludic care in nursing proved to enhance the acceptance of chemical detoxification from crack in the reality investigated.

  17. Evaluation of hypersensitivity after the placement of metal-ceramic crowns cemented with two luting agents: Long-term results of a prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozmacs, Carla; Schaper, Katharina; Lauer, Hans-Christoph; Piwowarczyk, Andree

    2017-09-01

    Different luting materials are available for the cementation of fixed dental prostheses. Postcementation hypersensitivity is an occasional complication in the definitive delivery. How the choice of luting agent affects long-term postcementation sensitivity is unknown. The purpose of this prospective, randomized, controlled, split-mouth clinical trial was to compare the hypersensitivity of 2 cementation methods for metal-ceramic crowns. The primary endpoint was the evaluation of differences in hypersensitivity between the study groups over a study period of 5 years. The study investigated 20 participants with 40 metal-ceramic crowns cemented with either zinc phosphate cement or a self-adhesive resin cement, each in nonantagonistic contralateral quadrants (observation period of 5 years). The data regarding postcementation hypersensitivity included continuous patient-related outcome variables assessed using a visual analog scale (sign test; primary endpoint, level of significance α/3=.0167; secondary endpoint, level of significance, α=.05) and categorical variables represented by yes/no replies (absolute and relative frequencies). The sensitivity of teeth was controlled in relation to mastication, air streams, and hot and cold temperatures. The observation period was 5 years, with a dropout rate of 12.5% in the last 2 years. The results indicated no significant differences between the cement groups for patient- and clinical-related outcomes at any of the observed time points. As no differences were found between the 2 different cementation modes with respect to developing hypersensitivity after 5 years, the choice of a luting agent remains an individual practitioner decision. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF PASSIVE DETOXIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR GOLD HEAP LEACH STOCKPILED WASTES

    OpenAIRE

    M.P. Belykh; A.Yu. Chikin; S.V. Petrov; N.L. Belkova

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. The processes of biopassive detoxication are of special interest for the solution of environmental issues of detoxification of gold heap leach cyanide-bearing wastes whose detoxification period is unlimited. These processes are based on spontaneous degradation of cyanides under the influence of natural factors including the action of autochthonous bacterial community. The purpose of the work is to develop a biopassive detoxification technology of heap leach stockpiled wastes. Methods...

  19. Functional Characterization and Expression of Molluscan Detoxification Enzymes and Transporters Involved in Dietary Allelochemical Resistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whalen, Kristen E

    2008-01-01

    .... Inhibition of Cyphoma GST activity by gorgonian extracts and selected allelochemicals (i.e., prostaglandins) indicated that gorgonian diets contain substrates for molluscan detoxification enzymes...

  20. A Multicenter, Prospective Study of a New Fully Covered Expandable Metal Biliary Stent for the Palliative Treatment of Malignant Bile Duct Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bret T. Petersen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Study Aims. Endoscopic placement of self-expanding metal stents (SEMSs is indicated for palliation of inoperable malignant biliary obstruction. A fully covered biliary SEMS (WallFlex Biliary RX Boston Scientific, Natick, USA was assessed for palliation of extrahepatic malignant biliary obstruction. Patients and Methods. 58 patients were included in this prospective, multicenter series conducted under an FDA-approved IDE. Main outcome measurements included (1 absence of stent occlusion within six months or until death, whichever occurred first and (2 technical success, need for reintervention, bilirubin levels, stent patency, time to stent occlusion, and adverse events. Results. Technical success was achieved in 98% (57/58, with demonstrated acute removability in two patients. Adequate clinical palliation until completion of followup was achievedin 98% (54/55 of evaluable patients, with 1 reintervention due to stent obstruction after 142 days. Mean total bilirubin decreased from 8.9 mg/dL to 1.2 mg/dL at 1 month. Device-related adverse events were limited and included 2 cases of cholecystitis. One stent migrated following radiation therapy. Conclusions. The WallFlex Biliary fully covered stent yielded technically successful placement with uncomplicated acute removal where required, appropriate reduction in bilirubin levels, and low rates of stent migration and occlusion. This SEMS allows successful palliation of malignant extrahepatic biliary obstruction.

  1. Immediate loading of mandibular overdentures supported by unsplinted direct laser metal-forming implants: results from a 1-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Carlo; Mangano, Francesco G; Shibli, Jamil A; Ricci, Massimiliano; Perrotti, Vittoria; d'Avila, Susana; Piattelli, Adriano

    2012-01-01

    At present, only some studies have dealt with immediate loading of unsplinted implants supporting mandibular overdentures. The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate treatment outcomes of mandibular overdentures supported by four one-piece, unsplinted, immediately loaded, direct laser metal-forming (DLMF) implants by assessing implant survival rate, implant success, marginal bone loss, and prosthetic complications. A total of 96 one-piece DLMF implants were inserted in the edentulous mandible of 24 patients. Four implants were placed in each edentulous mandible. Immediately after implant placement, a mandibular overdenture was connected to the implants. At 1-year follow-up, clinical, radiographic, and prosthetic parameters were assessed. Success criteria included absence of pain, suppuration, and implant mobility; absence of continuous peri-implant radiolucency; and distance between the implant shoulder and the first visible bone contact loading time, the overall implant survival rate was 98.9%, with only one implant lost. Among the surviving 95 implants, two did not fulfill the success criteria; therefore, the implant success rate was 97.8%. The mean distance between the implant shoulder and the first visible bone contact was 0.28 ± 0.30 mm (95% confidence interval, 0.24 to 0.32). Some prosthetic complications were reported. Based on the present results and within the limits of this study, the immediate loading of four unsplinted DLMF implants by means of ball attachment-supported mandibular overdentures seems to represent a safe and successful procedure.

  2. Scopolamine detoxification technique for heroin dependence: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng; Li, Longhui; Shen, Wenwen; Shen, Xueyong; Yang, Guodong; Zhou, Wenhua

    2013-12-01

    Easing psychological symptoms associated with heroin use and heroin relapse are important goals in the treatment of heroin dependence. However, most detoxification methods are designed to decrease withdrawal-related discomfort and complications, but not to reduce the psychological effects of heroin addiction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of scopolamine detoxification technique (SDT) relative to standard methadone detoxification (MD) to treat heroin withdrawal and psychological symptoms associated with heroin use and relapse. In this 10-week randomized, controlled trial, treatment-seeking heroin-dependent participants were enrolled consecutively from Ningbo Addiction Research and Treatment Center, Ningbo, China. Opioid dependence was confirmed by a naloxone challenge test. Participants were included if they met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) criteria for opioid dependence, were without major comorbid psychiatric illness, and were not allergic to scopolamine and chlorpromazine. Participants (N = 91; 18-50 years) were admitted to inpatient beds for 15 days and randomly assigned to receive either SDT (N = 46) or MD (N = 45) prior to being discharged and undergoing 8 weeks of outpatient treatment. During the inpatient stay, all participants received methadone during days 1-3. Those in the MD group then underwent a 10-day gradual dose-reduction regimen. Those in the SDT group underwent an SDT, such that subjects were given scopolamine (0.03-0.05 mg/kg, intravenously) and chlorpromazine (0.6-1.0 mg/kg, intravenously) under light anesthesia for 4-6 h once per day on days 4-6 or 4-7, depending on the severity of opioid-withdrawal symptoms. Self-reported withdrawal symptoms were assessed each day during the in-patient treatment phase. Heroin craving (assessed using a visual analog scale), Beck Depression Inventory, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, and working memory and attention tests (assessed using the

  3. The Retinoblastoma Tumor Suppressor Regulates a Xenobiotic Detoxification Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz Robles, Maria Teresa; Case, Ashley; Chong, Jean-Leon; Leone, Gustavo; Pipas, James M.

    2011-01-01

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (pRb) regulates cell cycle entry, progression and exit by controlling the activity of the E2F-family of transcription factors. During cell cycle exit pRb acts as a transcriptional repressor by associating with E2F proteins and thereby inhibiting their ability to stimulate the expression of genes required for S phase. Indeed, many tumors harbor mutations in the RB gene and the pRb-E2F pathway is compromised in nearly all types of cancers. In this report we show that both pRb and its interacting partners, the transcriptional factors E2F1-2-3, act as positive modulators of detoxification pathways important for metabolizing and clearing xenobiotics—such as toxins and drugs—from the body. Using a combination of conventional molecular biology techniques and microarray analysis of specific cell populations, we have analyzed the detoxification pathway in murine samples in the presence or absence of pRb and/or E2F1-2-3. In this report, we show that both pRb and E2F1-2-3 act as positive modulators of detoxification pathways in mice, challenging the conventional view of E2F1-2-3 as transcriptional repressors negatively regulated by pRb. These results suggest that mutations altering the pRb-E2F axis may have consequences beyond loss of cell cycle control by altering the ability of tissues to remove toxins and to properly metabolize anticancer drugs, and might help to understand the formation and progression rates of different types of cancer, as well as to better design appropriate therapies based on the particular genetic composition of the tumors. PMID:22022495

  4. Functions, Evolution, and Application of the Supramolecular Machines of Hg Detoxification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Susan M.

    2009-11-27

    The bacterial mercury resistance (mer) operon functions in Hg biogeochemistry and bioremediation by converting reactive inorganic [Hg(II)] and organic [RHg(I)] mercurials to relatively inert monoatomic mercury vapor, Hg(0). Its genes regulate expression (MerR, MerD, MerOP), import Hg(II) (MerT, MerP, and MerC), and demethylate (MerB) and reduce (MerA) mercurials. We focus on how these components interact with each other and with the host cell to allow cells to survive and detoxify Hg compounds. Understanding how this ubiquitous detoxification system fits into the biology and ecology of its bacterial host is essential to guide interventions that support and enhance Hg remediation. At a more basic level, studies of interactions between the metal ion trafficking proteins in this pathway provide insights into general mechanisms used by proteins in pathways involved in trafficking of other metal ions in cells of all types of organisms, including pathways for essential metal ions such as Cu and Zn and other toxic metal ions such as Cd. In this project we focused on investigations of proteins from mer operons found in gamma-proteobacteria with specific objectives to use biophysical and biochemical approaches to detect and define (1) interactions between the structural components of the key detoxifying mer operon enzyme, mercuric ion reductase (MerA), (2) interactions between the components of MerA and the other mer operon enzyme, organomercurial lyase (MerB), and (3) to investigate the structure and interactions of integral membrane transport proteins, MerT and MerC, with MerA.

  5. PEI detoxification of pretreated spruce for high solids ethanol fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, David; Sveding, Per Viktor; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    . In batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), up to 76% cellulose to ethanol conversion was achieved resulting in a concentration of 51 g/kg of ethanol. Key to obtaining this high ethanol yield at these conditions was the use of a detoxification technology based on applying a soluble...... ethanol production from spruce performing the whole process, from pretreatment to hydrolysis and fermentation, at 30% dry matter (equivalent to similar to 20% WIS). Hydrolysis and fermentation was performed in a horizontal free fall mixing reactor enabling efficient mixing at high solids loadings...

  6. Sulfide Intrusion and Detoxification in the Seagrass Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Gaseous sulfide intrusion into seagrasses growing in sulfidic sediments causes little or no harm to the plant, indicating the presence of an unknown sulfide tolerance or detoxification mechanism. We assessed such mechanism in the seagrass Zostera marina in the laboratory and in the field...... as sulfate throughout the plant. We conclude that avoidance of sulfide exposure by reoxidation of sulfide in the rhizosphere or aerenchyma and tolerance of sulfide intrusion by incorporation of sulfur in the plant are likely major survival strategies of seagrasses in sulfidic sediments....

  7. Furfural tolerance and detoxification mechanism inCandida tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shizeng; Cheng, Gang; Joshua, Chijioke; He, Zijun; Sun, Xinxiao; Li, Ruimin; Liu, Lexuan; Yuan, Qipeng

    2016-01-01

    Current biomass pretreatment by hydrothermal treatment (including acid hydrolysis, steam explosion, and high-temperature steaming) and ionic liquids generally generate inhibitors to the following fermentation process. Furfural is one of the typical inhibitors generated in hydrothermal treatment of biomass. Furfural could inhibit cell growth rate and decrease biofuel productivity of microbes. Candida tropicalis is a promising microbe for the production of biofuels and value-added chemicals using hemicellulose hydrolysate as carbon source. In this study, C. tropicalis showed a comparable ability of furfural tolerance during fermentation. We investigated the mechanism of C. tropicalis 's robust tolerance to furfural and relevant metabolic responses to obtain more information for metabolic engineering of microbes for efficient lignocellulose fermentation. Candida tropicalis showed comparable intrinsic tolerance to furfural and a fast rate of furfural detoxification. C. tropicalis 's half maximal inhibitory concentration for furfural with xylose as the sole carbon source was 3.69 g/L, which was higher than that of most wild-type microbes reported in the literature to our knowledge. Even though furfural prolonged the lag phase of C. tropicalis , the final biomass in the groups treated with 1 g/L furfural was slightly greater than that in the control groups. By real-time PCR analysis, we found that the expression of ADH1 in C. tropicalis ( ctADH1 ) was induced by furfural and repressed by ethanol after furfural depletion. The expression of ctADH1 could be regulated by both furfural and ethanol. After the disruption of gene ctADH1 , we found that C. tropicalis 's furfural tolerance was weakened. To further confirm the function of ctADH1 and enhance Escherichia coli 's furfural tolerance, ctADH1 was overexpressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The rate of furfural degradation in E. coli BL21 (DE3) with pET-ADH1 (high-copy plasmid) and pCS-ADH1 (medium-copy plasmid) was increased

  8. Genetic basis and importance of metal resistant genes in bacteria for bioremediation of contaminated environments with toxic metal pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Surajit; Dash, Hirak R; Chakraborty, Jaya

    2016-04-01

    Metal pollution is one of the most persistent and complex environmental issues, causing threat to the ecosystem and human health. On exposure to several toxic metals such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and mercury, several bacteria has evolved with many metal-resistant genes as a means of their adaptation. These genes can be further exploited for bioremediation of the metal-contaminated environments. Many operon-clustered metal-resistant genes such as cadB, chrA, copAB, pbrA, merA, and NiCoT have been reported in bacterial systems for cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, and nickel resistance and detoxification, respectively. The field of environmental bioremediation has been ameliorated by exploiting diverse bacterial detoxification genes. Genetic engineering integrated with bioremediation assists in manipulation of bacterial genome which can enhance toxic metal detoxification that is not usually performed by normal bacteria. These techniques include genetic engineering with single genes or operons, pathway construction, and alternations of the sequences of existing genes. However, numerous facets of bacterial novel metal-resistant genes are yet to be explored for application in microbial bioremediation practices. This review describes the role of bacteria and their adaptive mechanisms for toxic metal detoxification and restoration of contaminated sites.

  9. Predicting Inpatient Detoxification Outcome of Alcohol and Drug Dependent Patients: The Influence of Sociodemographic Environment, Motivation, Impulsivity, and Medical Comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Sofin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. This prospective study aims to identify patient characteristics as predictors for treatment outcome during inpatient detoxification treatment for drug and alcohol dependent patients. Methods. A mixed gender sample of 832 consecutively admitted drug and alcohol dependent patients were interviewed by an experienced physician. The impact of a variety of factors concerning social environment, therapy motivation, impulsivity related variables, medical history, and addiction severity on treatment outcome was examined. Results. 525 (63.1% of the patients completed detoxification treatment whereas 307 (36.9% dropped out prematurely. Being female, living in a partnership, having children, being employed, and having good education were predictive for a positive outcome. Family, health, the fear of losing the job, prosecution, and emergency admission were significant motivational predictors for treatment outcome. Being younger, history of imprisonment, and the number of previous drop-outs were predictive for a negative outcome. Conclusions. Variables concerning social environment and the number of previous drop-outs have been identified as best predictors for treatment outcome. Socially stable patients benefit from the current treatment setting and treatment shall be adapted for patients with negative predictors. Treatment may consequently be tailored with respect to intervention type, duration, and intensity to improve the outcome for those patients that fulfil criteria with negative impact on treatment retention.

  10. Mutagenicity of quinones: pathways of metabolic activation and detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesis, P L; Levin, D E; Smith, M T; Ernster, L; Ames, B N

    1984-01-01

    The mutagenicity of various quinones, a class of compounds widely distributed in nature, is demonstrated in the Salmonella TA104 tester strain. The metabolic pathways by which four quinones, menadione, benzo[a]pyrene 3,6-quinone, 9,10-phenanthrenequinone, and danthron, caused mutagenicity in this test system were investigated in detail as were the detoxification pathways. The two-electron reduction of these quinones by NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase (DT-diaphorase) was not mutagenic, whereas the one-electron reduction, catalyzed by NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase, was mutagenic, except for danthron, which was only slightly mutagenic. The mutagenicity of the quinones via this pathway was found to be attributable to the generation of oxygen radicals. The cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase also played a significant role in the detoxification and bioactivation of these quinones. For example, phenanthrenequinone was converted to a nonmutagenic metabolite in a cytochrome P-450-dependent reaction, whereas danthron was converted to a highly mutagenic metabolite. These studies show the complexity of metabolic pathways involved in the mutagenicity of quinones. PMID:6584903

  11. Quantification and detoxification of aflatoxin in food items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisa, A.U.; Hina, S.; Ejaz, N.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify and detoxify the antitoxins in food items. For this purpose, total 30 samples of food were collected. The samples were quantified using thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the presence of aflatoxin level in food items. Out of them aflatoxins were not found in 10 samples. Remaining 20 aflatoxins +ve samples were treated with various chemical solutions i.e. 0.1% HCl, 0.3%HCl, 0.5% HCI, 10% citric acid, 30% citric acid, 50% calcium hydroxide, 0.2 and 0.3% NaOCl, 96% ethanol and 99% acetone for detoxification. The aflatoxins were reduced to 55.1%, 90.9%, 28.08% and 80.0% in Super Sella rice, Super Basmati rice, Brown rice and White rice, respectively. The aflatoxin level was reduced in maize grain, damaged wheat, peanut, figs and dates upto 31.3 %, 64.3 %, 63.6%, 42.7% and 19.8%, respectively. Aflatoxins were detoxified in cereals Dal Chana, Dal Mash, Dal Masoor, turmeric (Haldi) and Nigela seeds (Kalwangi) upto 70.5%, 83.0%, 46.2%, 82.09% and 36.9%, respectively. Reduction of aflatoxins was carried out 39.7 %,7.l % 39.5% 82.0% and 62.0% in red chilli, makhana, corn flakes, desert (Kheer Mix) and pistachio. The significant results (p = 0.042) of detoxification of aflatoxins in food items were obtained from present study. (author)

  12. Client Impact Study of Six Detoxification Centers ("Sub-Acute Receiving Centers").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Steven E.; And Others

    Results are reported of a study to determine the effects of detoxification centers on the people who use their services. A detoxification center is "a social rehabilitation facility established for the purpose of facilitating access into care and rehabilitation by detoxifying and evaluating the person and providing entrance into the continuum…

  13. 21 CFR 1304.24 - Records for maintenance treatment programs and detoxification treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records for maintenance treatment programs and detoxification treatment programs. 1304.24 Section 1304.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION... treatment programs and detoxification treatment programs. (a) Each person registered or authorized (by...

  14. Effects of gamma-ray-induced free radicals on the metal content and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metallothioneins (MTs), a low-mass class of metalloproteins, are characterized by a high thiolate sulphur and metal content. MTs are involved in metal homeostasis and heavy metal detoxification, and are efficient scavengers of free radicals. This article describes zinc release from human MT-1 and modification of its amino ...

  15. A performance measure for continuity of care after detoxification: relationship with outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Margaret T; Horgan, Constance M; Garnick, Deborah W; Acevedo, Andrea; Panas, Lee; Ritter, Grant A; Dunigan, Robert; Babakhanlou-Chase, Hermik; Bidorini, Alfred; Campbell, Kevin; Haberlin, Karin; Huber, Alice; Lambert-Wacey, Dawn; Leeper, Tracy; Reynolds, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Administrative data from five states were used to examine whether continuity of specialty substance abuse treatment after detoxification predicts outcomes. We examined the influence of a 14-day continuity of care process measure on readmissions. Across multiple states, there was support that clients who received treatment for substance use disorders within 14-days after discharge from detoxification were less likely to be readmitted to detoxification. This was particularly true for reducing readmissions to another detoxification that was not followed with treatment and when continuity of care was in residential treatment. Continuity of care in outpatient treatment was related to a reduction in readmissions in some states, but not as often as when continuity of care occurred in residential treatment. A performance measure for continuity of care after detoxification is a useful tool to help providers monitor quality of care delivered and to alert them when improvement is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Performance Measure for Continuity of Care After Detoxification: Relationship With Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Margaret T.; Horgan, Constance M.; Garnick, Deborah W.; Acevedo, Andrea; Panas, Lee; Ritter, Grant A.; Dunigan, Robert; Babakhanlou-Chase, Hermik; Bidorini, Alfred; Campbell, Kevin; Haberlin, Karin; Huber, Alice; Lambert-Wacey, Dawn; Leeper, Tracy; Reynolds, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Administrative data from five states were used to examine whether continuity of specialty substance abuse treatment after detoxification predicts outcomes. We examined the influence of a 14-day continuity of care process measure on readmissions. Across multiple states, there was support that clients who received treatment for substance use disorders within 14-days after discharge from detoxification were less likely to be readmitted to detoxification. This was particularly true for reducing readmissions to another detoxification that was not followed with treatment and when continuity of care was in residential treatment. Continuity of care in outpatient treatment was related to a reduction in readmissions in some states, but not as often as when continuity of care occurred in residential treatment. A performance measure for continuity of care after detoxification is a useful tool to help providers monitor quality of care delivered and to alert them when improvement is needed. PMID:24912862

  17. Zinc Detoxification Is Required for Full Virulence and Modification of the Host Leaf Ionome by Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Fernando; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential element for all forms of life because it is a structural or catalytic cofactor of many proteins, but it can have toxic effects at high concentrations; thus, microorganisms must tightly regulate its levels. Here, we evaluated the role of Zn homeostasis proteins in the virulence of the xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, causal agent of Pierce's disease of grapevine, among other diseases. Two mutants of X. fastidiosa 'Temecula' affected in genes which regulate Zn homeostasis (zur) and Zn detoxification (czcD) were constructed. Both knockouts showed increased sensitivity to Zn at physiologically relevant concentrations and increased intracellular accumulation of this metal compared with the wild type. Increased Zn sensitivity was correlated with decreased growth in grapevine xylem sap, reduced twitching motility, and downregulation of exopolysaccharide biosynthetic genes. Tobacco plants inoculated with either knockout mutant showed reduced foliar symptoms and a much reduced (czcD) or absent (zur) modification of the leaf ionome (i.e., the mineral nutrient and trace element composition), as well as reduced bacterial populations. The results show that detoxification of Zn is crucial for the virulence of X. fastidiosa and verifies our previous findings that modification of the host leaf ionome correlates with bacterial virulence.

  18. Long-term safety and outcome of a temporary self-expanding metallic stent for achalasia: a prospective study with a 13-year single-center experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jun-Gong; Li, Yong-Dong; Li, Ming-Hua; Shang, Ke-Zhong; Cheng, Ying-Sheng; Chen, Ni-Wei; Chen, Wei-Xiong

    2009-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the long-term clinical safety and efficacy of a newly designed self-expanding metallic stent (SEMS) in the treatment of patients with achalasia. Seventy-five patients with achalasia were treated with a temporary SEMS with a 30-mm diameter. The SEMSs were placed under fluoroscopic guidance and removed by gastroscopy 4-5 days after stent placement. Follow-up data focused on dysphagia score, technique and clinical success, clinical remissions and failures, and complications and was performed at 6 months, 1 year, and within 3 to 5 years, 5 to 8 years, 8 to 10 years, and >10 years postoperatively. Stent placement was technically successful in all patients. Complications included stent migration (n=4, 5.33%), chest pain (n=28, 38.7%), reflux (n=15, 20%), and bleeding (n=9, 12%). No perforation or 30-day mortality occurred. Clinical success was achieved in all patients 1 month after stent removal. The overall remission rates at 6 months, 1, 1-3, 3-5, 5-8, 8-10, and >10 year follow-up periods were 100%, 96%, 93.9%, 90.9%, 100%, 100%, and 83.3%, respectively. Stent treatment failed in six patients, and the overall remission rate in our series was 92%. The median and mean primary patencies were 2.8 ± 0.28 years (95% CI: 2.25-3.35) and 4.28 ± 0.40 years (95% CI: 3.51-5.05), respectively. The use of temporary SEMSs with 30-mm diameter proved to be a safe and effective approach for managing achalasia with a long-term satisfactory clinical remission rate. (orig.)

  19. Effective treatment of benign biliary strictures with a removable, fully covered, self-expandable metal stent: A prospective, multicenter European study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Arthur; Pickartz, Tilman; Lerch, Markus M; Fanelli, Fabrizio; Fiocca, Fausto; Lucatelli, Pierleone; Cereatti, Fabrizio; Hoffmeister, Albrecht; van Steenbergen, Werner; Kraft, Matthias; Meier, Benjamin; Caca, Karel

    2017-04-01

    Temporary placement of removable, fully covered, self-expandable metal stents (fcSEMS) for treatment of benign biliary strictures (BBS) has been reported to be effective. However, the optimal extraction time point remains unclear and stent migration has been a major concern. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this treatment modality using an fcSEMS with a special antimigration design and prolonged stent indwell time. We performed a prospective, single-arm study at six tertiary care centers in Europe. Patients with BBS underwent endoscopic or percutaneous implantation of an fcSEMS (GORE® VIABIL® Biliary Endoprosthesis, W.L. Gore & Associates, Flagstaff, AZ, USA). The devices were scheduled to be removed nine months later, and patients were to return for follow-up for an additional 15 months. Forty-three patients were enrolled in the study. Stricture etiology was chronic pancreatitis in the majority of patients (57.5%). All fcSEMS were placed successfully, either endoscopically (76.7%) or percutaneously (23.3%). Stent migration was observed in two patients (5.2%). Primary patency of the SEMS prior to removal was 73.0%. All attempted stent removals were successful. At removal, stricture was resolved or significantly improved without need for further therapy in 78.9% of patients. Stricture recurrence during a follow-up of two years post-implant was observed in two patients. Temporary placement of the fcSEMS is a feasible, safe and effective treatment for BBS. The design of the device used in this study accounts for very low migration rates and facilitates easy stent retrieval, even after it has been in place for up to 11 months.

  20. Disentangling detoxification: gene expression analysis of feeding mountain pine beetle illuminates molecular-level host chemical defense detoxification mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne A Robert

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a native species of bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae that caused unprecedented damage to the pine forests of British Columbia and other parts of western North America and is currently expanding its range into the boreal forests of central and eastern Canada and the USA. We conducted a large-scale gene expression analysis (RNA-seq of mountain pine beetle male and female adults either starved or fed in male-female pairs for 24 hours on lodgepole pine host tree tissues. Our aim was to uncover transcripts involved in coniferophagous mountain pine beetle detoxification systems during early host colonization. Transcripts of members from several gene families significantly increased in insects fed on host tissue including: cytochromes P450, glucosyl transferases and glutathione S-transferases, esterases, and one ABC transporter. Other significantly increasing transcripts with potential roles in detoxification of host defenses included alcohol dehydrogenases and a group of unexpected transcripts whose products may play an, as yet, undiscovered role in host colonization by mountain pine beetle.

  1. Detoxification with titration and tapering in gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) dependent patients : The Dutch GHB monitor project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Boukje A G; Kamal, Rama; van Noorden, Martijn S; de Haan, Hein; Loonen, Anton J.M.; De Jong, Cor A J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) detoxification procedures have been insufficiently studied for effectiveness and safety. Based on case reports, benzodiazepines are generally regarded as first-choice agents in GHB detoxification. Detoxification by titration and tapering (DeTiTap)

  2. Plasma application for detoxification of Jatropha phorbol esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongmany, S.; Matsuura, H.; Furuta, M.; Okuda, S.; Imamura, K.; Maeda, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Atmospheric pressure non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma generated by helium gas at high voltage and input power of about 50 W was first applied to detoxification of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters (J. PEs) as well as standard phorbol ester (4β-12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate, TPA) in water and methanol. Plasma irradiation on the solution sample was conducted for 15 min. In aqueous solution, only 16% of TPA was degraded and complete degradation of J. PEs was observed. On the contrary, complete degradation of both TPA and J. PEs in methanol was achieved by the same plasma irradiation condition. Hydroxyl radical (•OH) generated by plasma irradiation of the solution is expected as the main radical inducing the degradation of PEs.

  3. Solar photocatalytic degradation and detoxification of EU priority substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hincapie, M. [Facultad de Ingeniera Ambiental, Universidad de Medellin, Carrera 87 No. 30-65, P.O. Box 1983, Medellin (Colombia); Maldonado, M.I.; Oller, I.; Gernjak, W.; Malato, S. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT, Carretera Senes km4, 04200 Tabernas (Almeria) (Spain); Sanchez-Perez, J.A.; Ballesteros, M.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Almeria Crta de Sacramento s/n, 04120 Almeria (Spain)

    2005-04-15

    Several different pesticides (alachlor, atrazine, chlorfenvinphos, diuron, isoproturon and pentachlorophenol) considered PS (priority substances) by the European Commission and dissolved in water at 50mg/L (or at maximum water solubility) have been degraded at pilot-plant scale using photo-Fenton and TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis driven by solar energy. Two different iron concentrations (2 and 55mg/L) and TiO{sub 2} at 200mg/L have been tested and discussed, using mainly TOC mineralisation for comparison of treatment effectiveness. Vibrio fischeri (Microtox{sup (}R)) toxicity assays were also employed for evaluating the photocatalytic treatments, and comparison between these results and parent compound disappearance, TOC evolution and anion (or ammonia) release were discussed. Almost complete mineralisation and total detoxification were always attained. It has been demonstrated that evolution of chloride could be a key-parameter for predicting toxicity of chlorinated compounds.

  4. Detoxification of organophosphate nerve agents by bacterial phosphotriesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, Eman; Raushel, Frank M.

    2005-01-01

    Organophosphates have been widely used as insecticides and chemical warfare agents. The health risks associated with these agents have necessitated the need for better detoxification and bioremediation tools. Bacterial enzymes capable of hydrolyzing the lethal organophosphate nerve agents are of special interest. Phosphotriesterase (PTE) isolated from the soil bacteria Pseudomonas diminuta displays a significant rate enhancement and substrate promiscuity for the hydrolysis of organophosphate triesters. Directed evolution and rational redesign of the active site of PTE have led to the identification of new variants with enhanced catalytic efficiency and stereoselectivity toward the hydrolysis of organophosphate neurotoxins. PTE has been utilized to protect against organophosphate poisoning in vivo. Biotechnological applications of PTE for detection and decontamination of insecticides and chemical warfare agents are developing into useful tools. In this review, the catalytic properties and potential applications of this remarkable enzyme are discussed

  5. Technical Procedures Management in Gas-Phase Detoxification Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona Garcia, A. I.; Sanchez Cabrero, B.

    2000-01-01

    The natural cycle of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) has been disturbed by the industrial and socioeconomic activities of human beings. This imbalance in the environment has affected the ecosystems and the human health. Initiatives have been planned to mitigate these adverse effects. In order to minimize the hazardous effects, initiatives have been proposed for the treatment of gaseous emissions. The solar photo catalysis appears as a clear and renewable technology in front of the conventional ones.In CIEMAT this line is being investigated as the base of a future implementation at a pre industrial scale.Technical procedures are written in this document for testing Gas-Phase detoxification at lab scale in the Renewable Energy Department (DER) CIEMAT- Madrid to eliminate the VOCs by using the solar photo catalysis technology. (Author) 34 refs

  6. Effects of depleted uranium chronic exposure on detoxification systems in vivo and in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouas, C.

    2010-01-01

    Uranium (U) is a heavy metal naturally presents in the environment. The aim of this work is to study effects of a U exposure on organs involved in the detoxification: the kidney and the liver (and notably the xenobiotics metabolizing enzymes (XME)). In order to mimic population chronic exposure, rats were contaminated during 9 months through the drinking water (40 mg/L). In vivo results show that U, in our experimental conditions, does not induce neither nephrotoxicity nor sensitivity to increase a renal toxicity induced by gentamicin. In the liver, U provokes impairments on the XME gene expression, particularly CYP3A. Nevertheless, paracetamole metabolism is modified only if it is administrated at a hepatotoxic dose. The in vitro results suggest an indirect effect of uranium on the XME, probably dependant of body adaptation mechanisms. Besides, in vitro studies were underline cytotoxic properties of U as well as the localisation of its soluble and/or participated forms in cytoplasmic and nuclear compartment. (author)

  7. BOA detoxification of four summer weeds during germination and seedling growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Margot; Marocco, Adriano; Tabaglio, Vincenzo

    2012-07-01

    A recent greenhouse study revealed a significant reduction of germination and growth of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) and common purslane (Portulaca oleracea) by rye mulch, whereas velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) and common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album) were not suppressed. Since BOA detoxification by metabolic alteration may influence the relation between the benzoxazinoid content of the soil mulch and weed suppression, we tested the dynamics in BOA detoxification in different plant organs of three and 10-day-old seedlings of four warm season weeds incubated with five BOA concentrations (4, 20, 40, 80, and 200 μmol g(-1) fresh weight). In addition, germination and length of 3-day-old seedlings were measured after exposure to 0, 0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15 μmol BOA. Finally, we tested the influence of the MDR translocator inhibitors verapamil, nifedipine, and the GST inhibitor ethycrynic acid on BOA accumulation and detoxification activity. Due to BOA-detoxification, all weeds were able to grow in environments with low BOA contents. At higher contents, Abutilon theophrasti and Chenopodium album had a better chance to survive because of highly active mechanisms that avoided the uptake of BOA (A. theophrasti) and of efficient detoxification activities in youngest seedlings (C. album). The interpretation of all of the data gave the following sequence of increasing sensitivity: A. theophrasti detoxification of BOA influences the survival of certain weeds in environments enriched with this allelochemical. Therefore, detoxification processes affect the potential for weed suppression by soil allelochemicals in sustainable weed management.

  8. Detoxification of organophosphate residues using phosphotriesterase and their evaluation using flow based biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rupesh K; Istamboulie, George; Bhand, Sunil; Marty, Jean-Louis

    2012-10-01

    Among known pesticide groups, organophosphates (OPs) have grasped attention due to their hazardous nature and their applications as pesticides and chemical weapons. This work presents the development of cost-effective column based biosensor for detoxification of OPs in water and milk. Enzyme phosphotriesterase (PTE) was immobilized on an activated Sepharose 4B via covalent coupling using an Omnifit glass column. Three different OPs, ethyl paraoxon (EPOx), malaoxon (MAO) and chlorpyriphos-oxon (CPO) were spiked in water and milk to test the detoxification of OPs. Mixtures of these pesticides were also tested to check the cumulative detoxification in the real samples. The efficiency of detoxification was evaluated using a highly sensitive acetylcholinesterase (AChE) B394 biosensor based flow system. The column conditions were optimized for the detoxification studied. The method was shown to be promising when we tested real milk samples spiked with OPs. Detoxification obtained in milk was up to 86% whereas in water, 100% detoxification was obtained. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mothers' experiences of their children's detoxification in the home: results from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hout, Marie Claire; Bingham, Tim

    2012-07-01

    Detoxification from alcohol and/or drugs and the achievement of abstinence without formal treatment is often preferred using community-based supports from local GPs and family. Family members are often involved in the sourcing of information on detoxification and treatment options, user advocacy and provision of remedial supports while detoxifying within the family home. The aim of the research was to describe and explore family experiences of self-detoxification processes from the perspectives of mothers in the Mid West of Ireland. A convenience sample of adult mothers who had experienced their child detoxifying in the home (n=9) were interviewed. The findings illustrated varied personal definitions of detoxification. Addiction stigma and costly experiences of treatment and after care pathways facilitated home detoxification attempts. A lack of GP advice, support and information around safe home detoxification was observed to contribute to information and support seeking from friends, family and community members with home detoxification experience. Self-medication of both licit and illicit substances while detoxifying, and relapse cycles were common. The research highlights the need for inclusive health and social supports provided by GPs, community nurses, RGNs and district nurses for families and individuals detoxifying in the home setting.

  10. Buprenorphine versus dihydrocodeine for opiate detoxification in primary care: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Clive E

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many drug users present to primary care requesting detoxification from illicit opiates. There are a number of detoxification agents but no recommended drug of choice. The purpose of this study is to compare buprenorphine with dihydrocodeine for detoxification from illicit opiates in primary care. Methods Open label randomised controlled trial in NHS Primary Care (General Practices, Leeds, UK. Sixty consenting adults using illicit opiates received either daily sublingual buprenorphine or daily oral dihydrocodeine. Reducing regimens for both interventions were at the discretion of prescribing doctor within a standard regimen of not more than 15 days. Primary outcome was abstinence from illicit opiates at final prescription as indicated by a urine sample. Secondary outcomes during detoxification period and at three and six months post detoxification were recorded. Results Only 23% completed the prescribed course of detoxification medication and gave a urine sample on collection of their final prescription. Risk of non-completion of detoxification was reduced if allocated buprenorphine (68% vs 88%, RR 0.58 CI 0.35–0.96, p = 0.065. A higher proportion of people allocated to buprenorphine provided a clean urine sample compared with those who received dihydrocodeine (21% vs 3%, RR 2.06 CI 1.33–3.21, p = 0.028. People allocated to buprenorphine had fewer visits to professional carers during detoxification and more were abstinent at three months (10 vs 4, RR 1.55 CI 0.96–2.52 and six months post detoxification (7 vs 3, RR 1.45 CI 0.84–2.49. Conclusion Informative randomised trials evaluating routine care within the primary care setting are possible amongst drug using populations. This small study generates unique data on commonly used treatment regimens.

  11. Detoxification of medication-overuse headache by a multidisciplinary treatment programme is highly effective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munksgaard, Signe B; Bendtsen, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2012-01-01

    the acceptability, feasibility and outcome of these two regimes in a non-randomised open-label study. Methods: Patients able to undergo outpatient detoxification, with medication-overuse headache that had previously been unsuccessfully treated by specialists and without significant co-morbidities were treated...... and only 61.9% of these patients needed prophylactics after two months compared with 84.8% in programme A. Conclusions: Both structured detoxification programmes proved highly effective with one-year close follow-up in previously treatment-resistant patients with medication-overuse headache. We suggest...... multidisciplinary education for patients in groups and delaying initiation of prophylactics until after the detoxification....

  12. Mixed Waste Treatment Using the ChemChar Thermolytic Detoxification Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchynka, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    This R and D program addresses the treatment of mixed waste employing the ChemChar Thermolytic Detoxification process. Surrogate mixed waste streams will be treated in a four inch diameter, continuous feed, adiabatic reactor with the goal of meeting all regulatory treatment levels for the contaminants in the surrogates with the concomitant production of contaminant free by-products. Successful completion of this program will show that organic contaminants in mixed waste surrogates will be converted to a clean, energy rich synthesis gas capable of being used, without further processing, for power or heat generation. The inorganic components in the surrogates will be found to be adsorbed on a macroporous coal char activated carbon substrate which is mixed with the waste prior to treatment. These contaminants include radioactive metal surrogate species, RCRA hazardous metals and any acid gases formed during the treatment process. The program has three main tasks that will be performed to meet the above objectives. The first task is the design and construction of the four inch reactor at Mirage Systems in Sunnyvale, CA. The second task is production and procurement of the activated carbon char employed in the ChemChartest runs and identification of two surrogate mixed wastes. The last task is testing and operation of the reactor on char/surrogate waste mixtures to be performed at the University of Missouri. The deliverables for the project are a Design Review Report, Operational Test Plan, Topical Report and Final Report. This report contains only the results of the design and construction carbon production-surrogate waste identification tasks.Treatment of the surrogate mixed wastes has just begun and will not be reported in this version of the Final Report. The latter will be reported in the final version of the Final Report.

  13. Detoxification of hexavalent chromium by Leucobacter sp. uses a reductase with specificity for dihydrolipoamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, Abhipsa; Krishnan, Chandraraj

    2016-02-01

    Leucobacter sp. belongs to the metal stressed community and possesses higher tolerance to metals including chromium and can detoxify toxic hexavalent chromium by reduction to less toxic trivalent chromium. But, the mechanism of reduction of hexavalent chromium by Leucobacter sp. has not been studied. Understanding the enzyme catalyzing reduction of chromium is important to improve the species for application in bioremediation. Hence, a soluble reductase catalyzing the reduction of hexavalent chromium was purified from a Leucobacter sp. and characterized. The pure chromate reductase was obtained from the cell-free extract through hydrophobic interaction and gel filtration column chromatographic methods. It was a monomeric enzyme and showed similar molecular weights in both gel filtration (∼68 KDa) and SDS-PAGE (64 KDa). It reduced Cr(VI) using both NADH and NADPH as the electron donor, but exhibited higher activity with NADH. The optimal activity was found at pH 5.5 and 30 °C. The K(m) and V(max) for Cr(VI) reduction with NADH were 46.57 μM and 0.37 μmol min(-1) (mg protein) (-1), respectively. The activity was inhibited by p-hydroxy mercury benzoate, Ag(2+) and Hg(2+) indicating the role of thiol groups in the catalysis. The spectrophotometric analysis of the purified enzyme showed the absence of bound flavin in the enzyme. The N-terminal amino acid sequence and LC/MS analysis of trypsin digested purified enzyme showed similarity to dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase. The purified enzyme had dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase activity with dihydrolipoamide as the substrate, which suggested that Leucobacter sp. uses reductase with multiple substrate specificity for reduction of Cr(VI) detoxification. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Mixed Waste Treatment Using the ChemChar Thermolytic Detoxification Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchynka, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    This R and D program addresses the treatment of mixed waste employing the ChemChar Thermolytic Detoxification process. Surrogate mixed waste streams will be treated in a four inch diameter, continuous feed, adiabatic reactor with the goal of meeting all regulatory treatment levels for the contaminants in the surrogates with the concomitant production of contaminant free by-products. Successful completion of this program will show that organic contaminants in mixed waste surrogates will be converted to a clean, energy rich synthesis gas capable of being used, without further processing, for power or heat generation. The inorganic components in the surrogates will be found to be adsorbed on a macroporous coal char activated carbon substrate which is mixed with the waste prior to treatment. These contaminants include radioactive metal surrogate species, RCRA hazardous metals and any acid gases formed during the treatment process. The program has three main tasks that will be performed to meet the above objectives. The first task is the design and construction of the four inch reactor at Mirage Systems in Sunnyvale, CA. The second task is production and procurement of the activated carbon char employed in the ChemChartest runs and identification of two surrogate mixed wastes. The last task is testing and operation of the reactor on char/surrogate waste mixtures to be performed at the University of Missouri. The deliverables for the project are a Design Review Report, Operational Test Plan, Topical Report and Final Report. This report contains only the results of the design and construction carbon production-surrogate waste identification tasks.Treatment of the surrogate mixed wastes has just begun and will not be reported in this version of the Final Report. The latter will be reported in the final version of the Final Report

  15. 77 FR 72752 - Opioid Drugs in Maintenance and Detoxification Treatment of Opiate Addiction; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... and Detoxification Treatment of Opiate Addiction; Proposed Modification of Dispensing Restrictions for... of a patient's responsibility and stability to receive opioid addiction treatment medication. Opioid... addiction. The special authorization is required under federal law because these medications can be abused...

  16. Esterase detoxification of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors by human or rat liver in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organophosphate (OP) and N-methylcarbamate pesticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), but differences in metabolism and detoxification can influence potency of these pesticides across and within species. Carboxylesterase (CaE) and A-esterase (paraoxonase, PON) are considered...

  17. Detoxification and oxidative stress responses along with microcystins accumulation in Japanese quail exposed to cyanobacterial biomass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pašková, Veronika; Adamovský, Ondřej; Pikula, J.; Skočovská, B.; Bandouchová, H.; Horáková, J.; Babica, Pavel; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Hilscherová, Klára

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 398, 1-3 (2008), s. 34-47 ISSN 0048-9697 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : cyanobacteria * detoxification * quails Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.579, year: 2008

  18. Performance contracting to engage detoxification-only patients into continued rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Sean J; Dugosh, Karen Leggett; Lynch, Kevin G

    2011-03-01

    In 2006, only 18.7% of Delaware's detoxification patients were admitted to continuing recovery-oriented treatment within 30 days after discharge. In response, Delaware established financial contingencies to (1) maintain 90% detoxification occupancy, (2) make receipt of 10% of the facility's monthly reimbursement contingent on 25% of patients entering treatment, and (3) provide a $500 bonus for every patient with three or more prior detoxification visits who was retained in treatment. Under the performance contract, the detoxification provider (1) maintained the 90% occupancy requirement, (2) achieved the 25% treatment entry target for 7 of 12 months, and (3) observed only 8% (27/337) of detoxification completions that met the targeted length of stay. Continuation to and retention in treatment was even more constrained for patients with three or more prior detoxifications. Contrary to the policy intent, the number of patients with three or more detoxifications in fiscal year (FY) 2008 is nearly triple that of FY 2006. The modest gain in the transition rate was achieved without changes in patient access; the FY 2008 patient population reported significantly higher rates of homelessness and a younger age of first use than before the performance contract in FY 2006. Performance contracting may offer promise for improving transition to treatment rates. However, the unique needs of detoxification patients, the treatment capacity of each level of care to meet patient needs, and the structure of the performance contract must be carefully considered. Performance contracting efforts may be strengthened when service contracts across the system are tightly synchronized. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nanochemistry of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeev, Gleb B

    2001-01-01

    The results of studies on the nanochemistry of metals published in recent years are generalised. Primary attention is centred on the methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles and their chemical reactions. The means of stabilisation of nanoparticles which involve individual metals and incorporate atoms of several metals are considered as well as their physicochemical properties. Self-assembling processes of nanoparticles are described. The prospects of using metal nanoparticles in semiconductor devices, catalysis, biology and medicine are discussed. The bibliography includes 165 references.

  20. Antioxidant and drug detoxification potentials of Hibiscus sabdariffa anthocyanin extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Salawu, Nasir A; Yakubu, Musa T; Oladiji, Adenike T; Akanji, Musbau A; Okogun, Joseph I

    2011-04-01

    The antioxidant and drug metabolizing potentials of Hibiscus anthocyanin extract in CCl(4)- induced oxidative damage of rat liver was investigated. Hibiscus anthocyanin extract effectively scavenge α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide ion, and hydrogen peroxide. It produced a 92% scavenging effect of DPPH radical at a concentration of 2.0 mg/mL. Hibiscus anthocyanin extract produced a 69 and 90% scavenging effect on superoxide ion and hydrogen peroxide, respectively, at 1.0 mg/mL, which compared favorably with the synthetic antioxidant (butylated hydroanisole and α-tocopherol). A reducing power of this anthocyanin was examined using K(3)Fe(CN)(6). Hibiscus anthocyanin extract has reducing power that is approximately 2-fold that of the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroanisole. Hibiscus anthocyanin extract produced a significantly increase and completely attenuated the CCl(4)-mediated decrease in antioxidant enzymes (e.g., catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase). However, the level of nonenzymic antioxidant molecules (i.e., vitamins C and E) were significant preserved by Hibiscus anthocyanin extract. There was an induction of phase II drug-detoxifying enzymes: glutathione S-transferase, NAD(H):quinone oxidoreductase, and uridyl diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase by 65, 45, and 57%, respectively. In view of these properties, Hibiscus sabdariffa anthocyanin extract can act as a prophylactic by intervening as a free radical scavenger both in vitro and in vivo as well as inducing the phase II drug detoxification enzymes.

  1. Oxazaphosphorine bioactivation and detoxification: the role of xenobiotic receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Wang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxazaphosphorines, with the most representative members including cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and trofosfamide, constitute a class of alkylating agents that have a broad spectrum of anticancer activity against many malignant ailments including both solid tumors such as breast cancer and hematological malignancies such as leukemia and lymphoma. Most oxazaphosphorines are prodrugs that require hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes to generate active alkylating moieties before manifesting their chemotherapeutic effects. Meanwhile, oxazaphosphorines can also be transformed into non-therapeutic byproducts by various drug-metabolizing enzymes. Clinically, oxazaphosphorines are often administered in combination with other chemotherapeutics in adjuvant treatments. As such, the therapeutic efficacy, off-target toxicity, and unintentional drug–drug interactions of oxazaphosphorines have been long-lasting clinical concerns and heightened focuses of scientific literatures. Recent evidence suggests that xenobiotic receptors may play important roles in regulating the metabolism and clearance of oxazaphosphorines. Drugs as modulators of xenobiotic receptors can affect the therapeutic efficacy, cytotoxicity, and pharmacokinetics of coadministered oxazaphosphorines, providing a new molecular mechanism of drug–drug interactions. Here, we review current advances regarding the influence of xenobiotic receptors, particularly, the constitutive androstane receptor, the pregnane X receptor and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, on the bioactivation and detoxification of oxazaphosphorines, with a focus on cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide.

  2. Multiple Pesticides Detoxification Function of Maize (Zea mays) GST34.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongzhi; Xu, Li; Pang, Sen; Liu, Zhiqian; Zhao, Weisong; Wang, Chengju

    2017-03-08

    ZmGST34 is a maize Tau class GST gene and was found to be differently expressed between two maize cultivars differing in tolerance to herbicide metolachlor. To explore the possible role of ZmGST34 in maize development, the expression pattern and substrate specificity of ZmGST34 were characterized by quantitative RT-PCR and heterologous expression system, respectively. The results indicated that the expression level of ZmGST34 was increased ∼2-5-fold per day during the second-leaf stage of maize seedling. Chloroacetanilide herbicides or phytohormone treatments had no influence on the expression level of ZmGST34, suggesting that ZmGST34 is a constitutively expressed gene in maize seedling. Heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and in Arabidopsis thaliana proved that ZmGST34 can metabolize most chloroacetanilide herbicides and increase tolerance to these herbicides in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. The constitutive expression pattern and broad substrate activity of ZmGST34 suggested that this gene may play an important role in maize development in addition to the detoxification of pesticides.

  3. Azoreductase and dye detoxification activities of Bacillus velezensis strain AB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafana, Amit; Chakrabarti, Tapan; Devi, Sivanesan Saravana

    2008-01-01

    Azo dyes are known to be a very important and widely used class of toxic and carcinogenic compounds. Although lot of research has been carried out for their removal from industrial effluents, very little attention is given to changes in their toxicity and mutagenicity during the treatment processes. Present investigation describes isolation of a Bacillus velezensis culture capable of degrading azo dye Direct Red 28 (DR28). Azoreductase enzyme was isolated from it, and its molecular weight was found to be 60 kDa. The enzyme required NADH as cofactor and was oxygen-insensitive. Toxicity and mutagenicity of the dye during biodegradation was monitored by using a battery of carefully selected in vitro tests. The culture was found to degrade DR28 to benzidine and 4-aminobiphenyl, both of which are potent mutagens. However, on longer incubation, both the compounds were degraded further, resulting in reduction in toxicity and mutagenicity of the dye. Thus, the culture seems to be a suitable candidate for further study for both decolourization and detoxification of azo dyes, resulting in their safe disposal.

  4. Expression profiling of Crambe abyssinica under arsenate stress identifies genes and gene networks involved in arsenic metabolism and detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandasamy Suganthi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arsenic contamination is widespread throughout the world and this toxic metalloid is known to cause cancers of organs such as liver, kidney, skin, and lung in human. In spite of a recent surge in arsenic related studies, we are still far from a comprehensive understanding of arsenic uptake, detoxification, and sequestration in plants. Crambe abyssinica, commonly known as 'abyssinian mustard', is a non-food, high biomass oil seed crop that is naturally tolerant to heavy metals. Moreover, it accumulates significantly higher levels of arsenic as compared to other species of the Brassicaceae family. Thus, C. abyssinica has great potential to be utilized as an ideal inedible crop for phytoremediation of heavy metals and metalloids. However, the mechanism of arsenic metabolism in higher plants, including C. abyssinica, remains elusive. Results To identify the differentially expressed transcripts and the pathways involved in arsenic metabolism and detoxification, C. abyssinica plants were subjected to arsenate stress and a PCR-Select Suppression Subtraction Hybridization (SSH approach was employed. A total of 105 differentially expressed subtracted cDNAs were sequenced which were found to represent 38 genes. Those genes encode proteins functioning as antioxidants, metal transporters, reductases, enzymes involved in the protein degradation pathway, and several novel uncharacterized proteins. The transcripts corresponding to the subtracted cDNAs showed strong upregulation by arsenate stress as confirmed by the semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Conclusions Our study revealed novel insights into the plant defense mechanisms and the regulation of genes and gene networks in response to arsenate toxicity. The differential expression of transcripts encoding glutathione-S-transferases, antioxidants, sulfur metabolism, heat-shock proteins, metal transporters, and enzymes in the ubiquitination pathway of protein degradation as well as several unknown

  5. Development of protein based bioremediation and drugs for heavy metal toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opella, Stanley J.

    2001-09-18

    Structural studies were performed on several proteins of the bacterial detoxification system. These proteins are responsible for binding (MerP) and transport of heavy metals, including mercury, across membranes. The structural information obtained from NMR experiments provides insight into the selectivity and sequestration processes towards heavy metal toxins.

  6. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation: Final Phase II report: Summary of distillation and material degradation tests for FY 1987 and FY 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, T.M.; Stewart, T.L.

    1988-11-01

    The objective of the Waste Acid Detoxification and Reclamation project is to develop processes for reducing the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids. The primary incentives for implementing these types of waste minimization processes are regulatory and economic (that is, to meet requirements in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and reduce the cost for treatment, storage, and disposal). Two precipitation processes and a distillation process are being developed to minimize waste from fuel fabrication operations or other metal-finishing operations conducted at US Department of Energy Defense Programs (DOE-DP) facilities. Waste process acids such as (1) HF-HNO 3 etch solutions containing Zr as a major metal impurity, and (2) HNO 3 strip solutions containing Cu as a major metal impurity are detoxified and reclaimed by concurrently precipitating heavy metals and regenerating acid for recycle. Acid from a third waste acid stream generated from chemical milling operations is reclaimed by the use of distillation. This stream comprises HNO 3 and H 2 SO 4 containing U as the major metal impurity. Distillation allows NO 3 /sup /minus// to be displaced by SO 4 /sup /minus/2/ in metal salts; free HNO 3 is then vaporized from the U-bearing sulfate stream. In a downstream precipitation step, uranium can be recovered from the sulfate stream. This report summarizes distillation tests and candidate material degradation tests conducted during FY 1987 and FY 1988

  7. A 3-year prospective study of implant-supported, single-tooth restorations of all-ceramic and metal-ceramic materials in patients with tooth agenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, Mandana; Worsaae, Nils; Schiødt, Morten

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this clinical study was to describe outcome variables of all-ceramic and metal-ceramic implant-supported, single-tooth restorations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 59 patients (mean age: 27.9 years) with tooth agenesis and treated with 98 implant-supported single...... abutment materials. The frequency of biological complications was higher at restorations with all-ceramic restorations than metal-ceramic crowns. Loss of retention, which was only observed at metal-ceramic crowns, was the most frequent technical complication, and the marginal adaptations of all-ceramic...... restoration materials were registered. After 3 years, the patient-reported outcome variables at different restoration materials were not significantly different. CONCLUSION: The biological outcomes at the zirconia and metal abutments were comparable. All-ceramic crowns demonstrated better colour match...

  8. Mixed waste treatment using the ChemChar thermolytic detoxification technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchynka, D.

    1995-01-01

    The diversity of mixed waste matrices contained at Department of Energy sites that require treatment preclude a single, universal treatment technology capable of handling sludges, solids, heterogeneous debris, aqueous and organic liquids and soils. Versatility of the treatment technology, volume reduction and containment of the radioactive component of the mixed waste streams are three criteria to be considered when evaluating potential treatment technologies. The ChemChar thermolytic detoxification process being developed under this R and D contract is a thermal, chemically reductive technology that converts the organic portion of a mixed waste stream to an energy-rich synthesis gas while simultaneously absorbing volatile inorganic species (metals and acid gases) on a macroporous, carbon-based char. The latter is mixed with the waste stream prior to entering the reactor. Substoichiometric amounts of oxidant are fed into the top portion of the cylindrical reactor generating a thin, radial thermochemical reaction zone. This zone generates all the necessary heat to promote the highly endothermic reduction of the organic components in the waste in the lower portion of the reactor, producing, principally, hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The solid by-product is a regenerated carbon char that, depending on the inorganic loading, is capable for reuse. The in situ scrubbing of contaminants by the char within the reactor coupled with a char filter for final polishing produce an exceptionally clean synthesis gas effluent suitable for on-site generation of heat, steam or electricity. Despite the elevated temperatures in the thermochemical reaction zone, the reductive nature of the process precludes formation of nitrogen oxides and halogenated organic compound by-products

  9. Mixed waste treatment using the ChemChar thermolytic detoxification technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchynka, D.

    1995-12-31

    The diversity of mixed waste matrices contained at Department of Energy sites that require treatment preclude a single, universal treatment technology capable of handling sludges, solids, heterogeneous debris, aqueous and organic liquids and soils. Versatility of the treatment technology, volume reduction and containment of the radioactive component of the mixed waste streams are three criteria to be considered when evaluating potential treatment technologies. The ChemChar thermolytic detoxification process being developed under this R and D contract is a thermal, chemically reductive technology that converts the organic portion of a mixed waste stream to an energy-rich synthesis gas while simultaneously absorbing volatile inorganic species (metals and acid gases) on a macroporous, carbon-based char. The latter is mixed with the waste stream prior to entering the reactor. Substoichiometric amounts of oxidant are fed into the top portion of the cylindrical reactor generating a thin, radial thermochemical reaction zone. This zone generates all the necessary heat to promote the highly endothermic reduction of the organic components in the waste in the lower portion of the reactor, producing, principally, hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The solid by-product is a regenerated carbon char that, depending on the inorganic loading, is capable for reuse. The in situ scrubbing of contaminants by the char within the reactor coupled with a char filter for final polishing produce an exceptionally clean synthesis gas effluent suitable for on-site generation of heat, steam or electricity. Despite the elevated temperatures in the thermochemical reaction zone, the reductive nature of the process precludes formation of nitrogen oxides and halogenated organic compound by-products.

  10. Chromium speciation, bioavailability, uptake, toxicity and detoxification in soil-plant system: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Shamshad, Saliha; Rafiq, Marina; Khalid, Sana; Bibi, Irshad; Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Dumat, Camille; Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz

    2017-07-01

    Chromium (Cr) is a potentially toxic heavy metal which does not have any essential metabolic function in plants. Various past and recent studies highlight the biogeochemistry of Cr in the soil-plant system. This review traces a plausible link among Cr speciation, bioavailability, phytouptake, phytotoxicity and detoxification based on available data, especially published from 2010 to 2016. Chromium occurs in different chemical forms (primarily as chromite (Cr(III)) and chromate (Cr(VI)) in soil which vary markedly in term of their biogeochemical behavior. Chromium behavior in soil, its soil-plant transfer and accumulation in different plant parts vary with its chemical form, plant type and soil physico-chemical properties. Soil microbial community plays a key role in governing Cr speciation and behavior in soil. Chromium does not have any specific transporter for its uptake by plants and it primarily enters the plants through specific and non-specific channels of essential ions. Chromium accumulates predominantly in plant root tissues with very limited translocation to shoots. Inside plants, Cr provokes numerous deleterious effects to several physiological, morphological, and biochemical processes. Chromium induces phytotoxicity by interfering plant growth, nutrient uptake and photosynthesis, inducing enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species, causing lipid peroxidation and altering the antioxidant activities. Plants tolerate Cr toxicity via various defense mechanisms such as complexation by organic ligands, compartmentation into the vacuole, and scavenging ROS via antioxidative enzymes. Consumption of Cr-contaminated-food can cause human health risks by inducing severe clinical conditions. Therefore, there is a dire need to monitor biogeochemical behavior of Cr in soil-plant system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Role of the Cephalopod Digestive Gland in the Storage and Detoxification of Marine Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M. Costa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of cephalopods for fisheries and even aquaculture, is raising concerns on the relationship between these molluscs and environmental stressors, from climate change to pollution. However, how these organisms cope with environmental toxicants is far less understood than for other molluscs, especially bivalves, which are frontline models in aquatic toxicology. Although, sharing the same basic body plan, cephalopods hold distinct adaptations, often unique, as they are active predators with high growth and metabolic rates. Most studies on the digestive gland, the analog to the vertebrate liver, focused on metal bioaccumulation and its relation to environmental concentrations, with indication for the involvement of special cellular structures (like spherulae and proteins. Although the functioning of phase I and II enzymes of detoxification in molluscs is controversial, there is evidence for CYP-mediated bioactivation, albeit with lower activity than vertebrates, but this issue needs yet much research. Through novel molecular tools, toxicology-relevant genes and proteins are being unraveled, from metallothioneins to heat-shock proteins and phase II conjugation enzymes, which highlights the importance of increasing genomic annotation as paramount to understand toxicant-specific pathways. However, little is known on how organic toxicants are stored, metabolized and eliminated, albeit some evidence from biomarker approaches, particularly those related to oxidative stress, suggesting that these molluscs' digestive gland is indeed responsive to chemical aggression. Additionally, cause-effect relationships between pollutants and toxicopathic effects are little understood, thus compromising, if not the deployment of these organisms for biomonitoring, at least understanding how they are affected by anthropogenically-induced global change.

  12. The Role of the Cephalopod Digestive Gland in the Storage and Detoxification of Marine Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Ana P; Costa, Pedro M

    2017-01-01

    The relevance of cephalopods for fisheries and even aquaculture, is raising concerns on the relationship between these molluscs and environmental stressors, from climate change to pollution. However, how these organisms cope with environmental toxicants is far less understood than for other molluscs, especially bivalves, which are frontline models in aquatic toxicology. Although, sharing the same basic body plan, cephalopods hold distinct adaptations, often unique, as they are active predators with high growth and metabolic rates. Most studies on the digestive gland, the analog to the vertebrate liver, focused on metal bioaccumulation and its relation to environmental concentrations, with indication for the involvement of special cellular structures (like spherulae ) and proteins. Although the functioning of phase I and II enzymes of detoxification in molluscs is controversial, there is evidence for CYP-mediated bioactivation, albeit with lower activity than vertebrates, but this issue needs yet much research. Through novel molecular tools, toxicology-relevant genes and proteins are being unraveled, from metallothioneins to heat-shock proteins and phase II conjugation enzymes, which highlights the importance of increasing genomic annotation as paramount to understand toxicant-specific pathways. However, little is known on how organic toxicants are stored, metabolized and eliminated, albeit some evidence from biomarker approaches, particularly those related to oxidative stress, suggesting that these molluscs' digestive gland is indeed responsive to chemical aggression. Additionally, cause-effect relationships between pollutants and toxicopathic effects are little understood, thus compromising, if not the deployment of these organisms for biomonitoring, at least understanding how they are affected by anthropogenically-induced global change.

  13. Study rationale and protocol: prospective randomized comparison of metal ion concentrations in the patient's plasma after implantation of coated and uncoated total knee prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lützner, Jörg; Dinnebier, Gerd; Hartmann, Albrecht; Günther, Klaus-Peter; Kirschner, Stephan

    2009-10-14

    Any metal placed in a biological environment undergoes corrosion. Thus, with their large metallic surfaces, TKA implants are particularly prone to corrosion with subsequent release of metal ions into the human body which may cause local and systemic toxic effects and hypersensitivity reactions, and increase cancer risk. To address this problem, a new 7-layer zirconium coating developed especially for cobalt-chrome orthopaedic implants was tested biomechanically and found to lower metal ion release. The purpose of the proposed clinical trial is to compare the metal ion concentration in patients' plasma before and after implantation of a coated or uncoated TKA implant. In this randomised controlled trial, 120 patients undergoing primary TKA will be recruited at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery of the University Hospital in Dresden, Germany, and randomised to either the coated or uncoated prosthesis. Outcome assessments will be conducted preoperatively and at 3 months, 12 months and 5 years postoperatively. The primary clinical endpoint will be the chromium ion concentration in the patient's plasma after 1 and 5 years. Secondary outcomes include cobalt, molybdenum and nickel ion concentrations after 1 and 5 years, allergy testing for hypersensitivity against one of these metals, the Knee Society Score to assess clinical and physical function of the knee joint, the self-assessment Oxford Score and the Short Form 36 quality of live questionnaire. The metal ion concentration in the patient's plasma has been shown to increase after TKA, its eventual adverse effects being widely debated. In the light of this discussion, ways to reduce metal ion release from orthopaedic implants should be studied in detail. The results of this investigation may lead to a new method to achieve this goal. TRIALS REGISTER: Clinicaltrials registry NCT00862511.

  14. Study rationale and protocol: prospective randomized comparison of metal ion concentrations in the patient's plasma after implantation of coated and uncoated total knee prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Klaus-Peter

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Any metal placed in a biological environment undergoes corrosion. Thus, with their large metallic surfaces, TKA implants are particularly prone to corrosion with subsequent release of metal ions into the human body which may cause local and systemic toxic effects and hypersensitivity reactions, and increase cancer risk. To address this problem, a new 7-layer zirconium coating developed especially for cobalt-chrome orthopaedic implants was tested biomechanically and found to lower metal ion release. The purpose of the proposed clinical trial is to compare the metal ion concentration in patients' plasma before and after implantation of a coated or uncoated TKA implant. Methods/Design In this randomised controlled trial, 120 patients undergoing primary TKA will be recruited at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery of the University Hospital in Dresden, Germany, and randomised to either the coated or uncoated prosthesis. Outcome assessments will be conducted preoperatively and at 3 months, 12 months and 5 years postoperatively. The primary clinical endpoint will be the chromium ion concentration in the patient's plasma after 1 and 5 years. Secondary outcomes include cobalt, molybdenum and nickel ion concentrations after 1 and 5 years, allergy testing for hypersensitivity against one of these metals, the Knee Society Score to assess clinical and physical function of the knee joint, the self-assessment Oxford Score and the Short Form 36 quality of live questionnaire. Discussion The metal ion concentration in the patient's plasma has been shown to increase after TKA, its eventual adverse effects being widely debated. In the light of this discussion, ways to reduce metal ion release from orthopaedic implants should be studied in detail. The results of this investigation may lead to a new method to achieve this goal. Trials register Clinicaltrials registry NCT00862511

  15. Metals in fungal virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwien, Franziska; Skrahina, Volha; Kasper, Lydia; Hube, Bernhard; Brunke, Sascha

    2018-01-01

    Metals are essential for life, and they play a central role in the struggle between infecting microbes and their hosts. In fact, an important aspect of microbial pathogenesis is the 'nutritional immunity', in which metals are actively restricted (or, in an extended definition of the term, locally enriched) by the host to hinder microbial growth and virulence. Consequently, fungi have evolved often complex regulatory networks, uptake and detoxification systems for essential metals such as iron, zinc, copper, nickel and manganese. These systems often differ fundamentally from their bacterial counterparts, but even within the fungal pathogens we can find common and unique solutions to maintain metal homeostasis. Thus, we here compare the common and species-specific mechanisms used for different metals among different fungal species-focusing on important human pathogens such as Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus or Cryptococcus neoformans, but also looking at model fungi such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae or A. nidulans as well-studied examples for the underlying principles. These direct comparisons of our current knowledge reveal that we have a good understanding how model fungal pathogens take up iron or zinc, but that much is still to learn about other metals and specific adaptations of individual species-not the least to exploit this knowledge for new antifungal strategies. © FEMS 2017.

  16. Hemiarthroplasty for the treatment of complex proximal humeral fractures: does a trabecular metal prosthesis make a difference? A prospective, comparative study with a minimum 3-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fenglong; Zhu, Yiming; Lu, Yi; Liu, Xin; Wu, Guan; Jiang, Chunyan

    2014-10-01

    Proper positioning and healing of the greater tuberosity are key for functional shoulder recovery after hemiarthroplasty for complex proximal humeral fractures. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes after hemiarthroplasty between a trabecular metal prosthesis and a conventional prosthesis in the treatment of complex proximal humeral fractures. A prospective, comparative study was performed. We compared a trabecular metal shoulder prosthesis for the treatment of complex proximal humeral fractures in a cohort of 35 consecutive patients (TM group) with a conventional prosthesis in a cohort of 38 consecutive patients (conventional group). All the patients, with a mean age of 63.9 years, were prospectively followed-up for a mean time of 4.6 years (range, 3-6 years) after surgery. At the last follow-up, radiographic complication rates related to the greater tuberosity were lower in the TM group (6.1%) than in the conventional group (25.7%) (P = .028). The mean functional shoulder scores, as well as mean active forward elevation and external rotation, were better in the TM group than in the conventional group. Radiographic complication rates related to the greater tuberosity were significantly lower in the TM group than in the conventional group. The functional shoulder scores and active forward elevation and external rotation were all better in the TM group than in the conventional group. These findings could imply better healing potential of the greater tuberosity after hemiarthroplasty with a trabecular metal prosthesis to treat complex proximal humeral fractures. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Detoxification and elimination of nicotine by nectar-feeding birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch-Henning, S; Du Rand, E E; Nicolson, S W

    2017-05-01

    Many dilute nectars consumed by bird pollinators contain secondary metabolites, potentially toxic chemicals produced by plants as defences against herbivores. Consequently, nectar-feeding birds are challenged not only by frequent water excess, but also by the toxin content of their diet. High water turnover, however, could be advantageous to nectar consumers by enabling them to excrete secondary metabolites or their transformation products more easily. We investigated how the alkaloid nicotine, naturally present in nectar of Nicotiana species, influences osmoregulation in white-bellied sunbirds Cinnyris talatala and Cape white-eyes Zosterops virens. We also examined the metabolic fate of nicotine in these two species to shed more light on the post-ingestive mechanisms that allow nectar-feeding birds to tolerate nectar nicotine. A high concentration of nicotine (50 µM) decreased cloacal fluid output and increased its osmolality in both species, due to reduced food intake that led to dehydration. White-eyes excreted a higher proportion of the ingested nicotine-containing diet than sunbirds. However, sugar concentration did not affect nicotine detoxification and elimination. Both species metabolised nicotine, excreting very little unchanged nicotine. Cape white-eyes mainly metabolised nicotine through the cotinine metabolic pathway, with norcotinine being the most abundant metabolite in the excreta, while white-bellied sunbirds excreted mainly nornicotine. Both species also utilized phase II conjugation reactions to detoxify nicotine, with Cape white-eyes depending more on the mercapturic acid pathway to detoxify nicotine than white-bellied sunbirds. We found that sunbirds and white-eyes, despite having a similar nicotine tolerance, responded differently and used different nicotine-derived metabolites to excrete nicotine.

  18. Detoxification of hexavalent chromate by growing Paecilomyces lilacinus XLA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xingjian; Xia, Lu; Chen, Wenli; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2017-06-01

    In the study, the capability of Paecilomyces lilacinus XLA (CCTCC: M2012135) to reduce Cr 6+ and its main antagonistic mechanisms to Cr 6+ were experimentally evaluated. Activated growing fungus XLA efficiently reduced over 90% Cr 6+ in the media with Cr 6+ concentration below 100 mg L -1 at pH 6 after 14 days. After 1-day exposure to 100 mg L -1 Cr 6+ , nearly 50% of Cr 6+ was reduced. Moreover, SO 4 2- stimulated Cr 6+ reduction, whereas other interferential ions inhibited Cr 6+ reduction. The interaction mechanisms between XLA and Cr 6+ mainly involve biotransformation, biosorption, and bioaccumulation, as detected by electron microscopy and chemical methods. The lower concentrations of Cr 6+ (5 and 50 mg L -1 ) stimulated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) level in XLA, respectively, but the higher concentration of Cr 6+ (150 mg L -1 ) decreased the enzymatic activities and GSH concentration. The results implied that SOD, CAT and GSH were defensive guards to the oxidant stress produced by Cr 6+ . All these extracellular/intracellular defense systems endowed XLA with the ability to resist and detoxify Cr 6+ by transforming its valent species. The fungus XLA could efficiently reduce Cr 6+ under different environmental conditions (pH, interferential ions, and concentration). Moreover, XLA could endure the high concentration of Cr 6+ probably due to its high biotransformation capability of Cr 6+ and intracellular antioxidant systems for the detoxification of ROS generated by external Cr 6+ . All these results suggested that the fungus XLA can be applied to remediation of Cr 6+ -contaminated environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gossypol toxicity and detoxification in Helicoverpa armigera and Heliothis virescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krempl, Corinna; Heidel-Fischer, Hanna M; Jiménez-Alemán, Guillermo Hugo; Reichelt, Michael; Menezes, Riya Christina; Boland, Wilhelm; Vogel, Heiko; Heckel, David G; Joußen, Nicole

    2016-11-01

    Gossypol is a polyphenolic secondary metabolite produced by cotton plants, which is toxic to many organisms. Gossypol's aldehyde groups are especially reactive, forming Schiff bases with amino acids of proteins and cross-linking them, inhibiting enzyme activities and contributing to toxicity. Very little is known about gossypol's mode of action and its detoxification in cotton-feeding insects that can tolerate certain concentrations of this compound. Here, we tested the toxicity of gossypol and a gossypol derivative lacking free aldehyde groups (SB-gossypol) toward Helicoverpa armigera and Heliothis virescens, two important pests on cotton plants. Larval feeding studies with these two species on artificial diet supplemented with gossypol or SB-gossypol revealed no detectable toxicity of gossypol, when the aldehyde groups were absent. A cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP6AE14, is upregulated in H. armigera feeding on gossypol, and has been claimed to directly detoxify gossypol. However, using in vitro assays with heterologously expressed CYP6AE14, no metabolites of gossypol were detected, and further studies suggest that gossypol is not a direct substrate of CYP6AE14. Furthermore, larvae feeding on many other plant toxins also upregulate CYP6AE14. Our data demonstrate that the aldehyde groups are critical for the toxicity of gossypol when ingested by H. armigera and H. virescens larvae, and suggest that CYP6AE14 is not directly involved in gossypol metabolism, but may play a role in the general stress response of H. armigera larvae toward plant toxins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Detoxification of hexavalent chromium by an indigenous facultative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    s

    2013-03-06

    As3+) significantly affected the ... Key words: Treated tannery effluent, chromate resistant bacteria, minimal inhibitory concentration, heavy metal ions. .... determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of. Cr (VI) for ...

  1. Prospective construction and validation of a prognostic score to identify patients who benefit from third-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer in terms of overall survival: the METAL3 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filleron, Thomas; Bonnetain, Franck; Mancini, Julien; Martinez, Alejandra; Roché, Henri; Dalenc, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is an incurable disease and represents a complex therapeutic challenge for oncologists. Despite the possibility of prescribing new agents such as tailored therapy, cytotoxic chemotherapy and hormone therapy remain the major treatments for MBC. Several lines of chemotherapy can be proposed for these patients, but beyond the second-line, evidence of effectiveness is lacking and such treatment has important associated toxicity affecting quality of life (QoL). Prospective data on third-line chemotherapy is very poor. There is no recent retrospective data and it mainly includes single-centre experiences. Moreover, prognostic parameters considered in these retrospective studies are limited to clinico-pathological factors. Previous reports don't evaluate prognostic impact of circulating tumour cells (CTC) and baseline QoL. METAL3 METAstatic Line 3 is a prospective, multicentric trial designed to prospectively construct a prognostic score (including selected clinico-pathological factors, CTC and baseline QoL) to identify patients who benefit from third-line chemotherapy for MBC in terms of overall survival (training cohort). Score will then be validated with another cohort (validation cohort). The aim of this paper is to review literature data on third-line chemotherapy for MBC and to describe in detail our prospective study. We hope that this prognostic score could be used by physicians to develop new therapeutic strategies when there will be limited benefit of third-line chemotherapy; this score will also help to improve patient information on their outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A 3-year prospective study of implant-supported, single-tooth restorations of all-ceramic and metal-ceramic materials in patients with tooth agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mandana; Worsaae, Nils; Schiødt, Morten; Gotfredsen, Klaus

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this clinical study was to describe outcome variables of all-ceramic and metal-ceramic implant-supported, single-tooth restorations. A total of 59 patients (mean age: 27.9 years) with tooth agenesis and treated with 98 implant-supported single-tooth restorations were included in this study. Two patients did not attend baseline examination, but all patients were followed for 3 years. The implants supported 52 zirconia, 21 titanium and 25 gold alloy abutments, which retained 64 all-ceramic and 34 metal-ceramic crowns. At baseline and 3-year follow-up examinations, the biological outcome variables such as survival rate of implants, marginal bone level, modified Plaque Index (mPlI), modified Sulcus Bleeding Index (mBI) and biological complications were registered. The technical outcome variables included abutment and crown survival rate, marginal adaptation of crowns, cement excess and technical complications. The aesthetic outcome was assessed by using the Copenhagen Index Score, and the patient-reported outcomes were recorded using the OHIP-49 questionnaire. The statistical analyses were mainly performed by using mixed model of ANOVA for quantitative data and PROC NLMIXED for ordinal categorical data. The 3-year survival rate was 100% for implants and 97% for abutments and crowns. Significantly more marginal bone loss was registered at gold-alloy compared to zirconia abutments (P = 0.040). The mPlI and mBI were not significantly different at three abutment materials. The frequency of biological complications was higher at restorations with all-ceramic restorations than metal-ceramic crowns. Loss of retention, which was only observed at metal-ceramic crowns, was the most frequent technical complication, and the marginal adaptations of all-ceramic crowns were significantly less optimal than metal-ceramic crowns (P = 0.020). The professional-reported aesthetic outcome demonstrated significantly superior colour match of all-ceramic over metal

  3. Identification and characterization of Cd-induced peptides in Egeria densa (water weed): Putative role in Cd detoxification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malec, Przemyslaw; Maleva, Maria G.; Prasad, M.N.V.; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2009-01-01

    Egeria densa has ability to grow in heavy metal contaminated and polluted bodies of water. Shoots exposed to Cd at concentrations up to 300 μM for 7 days showed a pronounced decrease in chlorophyll a and in total protein concentration. Thiol-containing compounds and low-molecular-weight polypeptides were detected in Cd-treated plant extracts by gel filtration chromatography. Two Cd-binding fractions, a thiol-enriched fraction and a non-thiol fraction with a lower molecular weight were identified in extracts by gel filtration. The main fraction of thiol-containing polypeptide, purified by gel filtration and anion-exchange chromatography had a molecular weight of ∼10 kDa. This peptide was characterized by a broad absorption band specific to mercaptide bonds and Cd-sensitive fluorescence emission of aromatic amino acid residues. Our results indicate that cadmium exposure of plants resulted in both a formation of thiol-enriched cadmium complexing peptides and a synthesis of low-molecular-weight metal chelators. The putative role of these compounds in Cd detoxification is discussed.

  4. Detoxification of cruciferous phytoalexins in Botrytis cinerea: spontaneous dimerization of a camalexin metabolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedras, M Soledade C; Hossain, Sajjad; Snitynsky, Ryan B

    2011-02-01

    Phytopathogenic fungi are able to overcome plant chemical defenses through detoxification reactions that are enzyme mediated. As a result of such detoxifications, the plant is quickly depleted of its most important antifungal metabolites and can succumb to pathogen attack. Understanding and predicting such detoxification pathways utilized by phytopathogenic fungi could lead to approaches to control plant pathogens. Towards this end, the inhibitory activities and metabolism of the cruciferous phytoalexins camalexin, brassinin, cyclobrassinin, and brassilexin by the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea Pers. (teleomorph: Botryotinia fuckeliana) was investigated. Brassilexin was the most antifungal of the phytoalexins, followed by camalexin, cyclobrassinin and brassinin. Although B. cinerea is a species phylogenetically related to the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib) de Bary, contrary to S. sclerotiorum, detoxification of strongly antifungal phytoalexins occurred via either oxidative degradation or hydrolysis but not through glucosylation, suggesting that glucosyl transferases are not involved. A strongly antifungal bisindolylthiadiazole that B. cinerea could not detoxify was discovered, which resulted from spontaneous oxidative dimerization of 3-indolethiocarboxamide, a camalexin detoxification product. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship between knockdown resistance, metabolic detoxification and organismal resistance to pyrethroids in Anopheles sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Daibin; Chang, Xuelian; Zhou, Guofa; He, Zhengbo; Fu, Fengyang; Yan, Zhentian; Zhu, Guoding; Xu, Tielong; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Wang, Mei-Hui; Cui, Liwang; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Bin; Yan, Guiyun

    2013-01-01

    Anopheles sinensis is the most important vector of malaria in Southeast Asia, including China. Currently, the most effective measure to prevent malaria transmission relies on vector control through the use of insecticides, primarily pyrethroids. Extensive use of insecticides poses strong selection pressure on mosquito populations for resistance. Resistance to insecticides can arise due to mutations in the insecticide target site (target site resistance), which in the case of pyrethroids is the para-type sodium channel gene, and/or the catabolism of the insecticide by detoxification enzymes before it reaches its target (metabolic detoxification resistance). In this study, we examined deltamethrin resistance in An. sinensis from China and investigated the relative importance of target site versus metabolic detoxification mechanisms in resistance. A high frequency (>85%) of nonsynonymous mutations in the para gene was found in populations from central China, but not in populations from southern China. Metabolic detoxification as measured by the activity of monooxygenases and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) was detected in populations from both central and southern China. Monooxygenase activity levels were significantly higher in the resistant than the susceptible mosquitoes, independently of their geographic origin. Stepwise multiple regression analyses in mosquito populations from central China found that both knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations and monooxygenase activity were significantly associated with deltamethrin resistance, with monooxygenase activity playing a stronger role. These results demonstrate the importance of metabolic detoxification in pyrethroid resistance in An. sinensis, and suggest that different mechanisms of resistance could evolve in geographically different populations.

  6. A Stage I Pilot Study of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Methadone Detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotts, Angela L.; Green, Charles; Masuda, Akihiko; Grabowski, John; Wilson, Kelly; Northrup, Thomas; Moeller, F. Gerard; Schmitz, Joy

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND While agonist replacement therapies are effective for managing opioid dependence, community treatment programs are increasingly choosing detoxification. Unfortunately, success rates for opioid detoxification are very low, in part, due to physical and psychological symptoms associated with opioid withdrawal. Few behavior therapies specifically address the distressing experiences specific to opioid withdrawal. A novel behavioral treatment, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), works from the premise that the avoidance of unpleasant private experiences (thoughts, feelings, bodily sensations) is ubiquitous yet may be pathogenic, resulting in treatment drop-out and further drug use. METHODS This Stage I pilot study developed and tested an ACT-based opioid detoxification behavioral therapy. Opioid dependent patients (N = 56) who were attending a licensed methadone clinic were randomized to receive either 24 individual therapy sessions of ACT or Drug Counseling (DC) in the context of a 6-month methadone dose reduction program. RESULTS While no difference was found on opioid use during treatment, 37% of participants in the ACT condition were successfully detoxified at the end of treatment compared to 19% of those who received DC. Fear of detoxification was also reduced across time in the ACT condition relative to DC. CONCLUSION This first study of ACT to assist opioid detoxification indicates promise. Research is needed to refine specific treatment strategies for this population to further strengthen effects. PMID:22425411

  7. Mechanistic insight into acrylate metabolism and detoxification in marine dimethylsulfoniopropionate-catabolizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Cao, Hai-Yan; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Li, Chun-Yang; Li, Ping-Yi; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Qin, Qi-Long; Todd, Jonathan D; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2017-09-01

    Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) cleavage, yielding dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and acrylate, provides vital carbon sources to marine bacteria, is a key component of the global sulfur cycle and effects atmospheric chemistry and potentially climate. Acrylate and its metabolite acryloyl-CoA are toxic if allowed to accumulate within cells. Thus, organisms cleaving DMSP require effective systems for both the utilization and detoxification of acrylate. Here, we examine the mechanism of acrylate utilization and detoxification in Roseobacters. We propose propionate-CoA ligase (PrpE) and acryloyl-CoA reductase (AcuI) as the key enzymes involved and through structural and mutagenesis analyses, provide explanations of their catalytic mechanisms. In most cases, DMSP lyases and DMSP demethylases (DmdAs) have low substrate affinities, but AcuIs have very high substrate affinities, suggesting that an effective detoxification system for acylate catabolism exists in DMSP-catabolizing Roseobacters. This study provides insight on acrylate metabolism and detoxification and a possible explanation for the high K m values that have been noted for some DMSP lyases. Since acrylate/acryloyl-CoA is probably produced by other metabolism, and AcuI and PrpE are conserved in many organisms across all domains of life, the detoxification system is likely relevant to many metabolic processes and environments beyond DMSP catabolism. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Negative moods correlate with craving in female methamphetamine users enrolled in compulsory detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Wenwen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methamphetamine (METH use, especially in females, has become a growing public health concern in China. In this study, we aimed to characterize the factors that contributed to drug craving in female METH users under isolated compulsory detoxification. We characterized factors contributing to craving such as duration of detoxification, history of drug use and self-reported mood state. Methods Subjects (N=113 undergoing a 1- to 3-year METH detoxification program were recruited from the Zhejiang Compulsory Detoxification Center for Women. The Questionnaire of METH-use Urge (QMU was used to evaluate the level of craving for METH. The Abbreviate Profile of Mood States (A-POMS was applied as an assessment for the negative mood disturbances. Results The participants were at a mean age of 25.2, primarily lowly educated and unemployed, and single. Smoking was the only route of METH administration at an average dose of 0.5 g/day, and 4 times/week. The reported craving level was positively correlated with the negative mood disturbances and the weekly dose of METH, but independent of the duration of detoxification. Furthermore, all five aspects of negative mood disturbances, including fatigue, bewilderment, anxiety, depression and hostility, were shown to positively correlate to the self-reported craving level after controlling for weekly dose of METH. Conclusions The data demonstrate a robust correlation between mood distress and craving for METH. Our results call for close evaluation of mood distress in treatment of METH users in China.

  9. Cross-sectional assessment of infants’ exposure to toxic metals through breast milk in a prospective cohort study of mining communities in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kwaku Bansa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although breastfeeding of infants is recommended globally, the fact that maternal toxic metal stores are mobilised into breast milk implies infants, whose mothers live and work in mining communities, are at risk of multiple exposure to mining related toxic metals, such as Lead (Pb, Mercury (Hg, Cadmium (Cd and Arsenic (As, through breast milk intake, in addition to in utero exposure. Method A total of 114 mother-baby pairs, recruited from two community hospitals servicing mining communities in two different regions in Ghana (57 each, were involved in this study. When the babies were 3 months old, the amount of breast milk intake, concentrations of selected toxic metals in the breast milk and therefore the amount of toxic metals exposure through breast milk were determined. The study also, determined the amount of these toxic metals in the hair and urine of each mother-baby pair at 3 months postpartum. Results Based on the amounts of milk intake and non-milk oral intakes (geometric mean of 0.701 (95% CL 0.59–0.81 Kg/day and median of 0.22 Kg/day respectively, 90% of the babies were determined to have been exclusively breastfed. The amounts of most of the toxic metals in breast milk were higher than the WHO set limits and for 46.4%, 33.3% and 4.4% of the babies, their intake of As, Hg and Pb respectively were above the WHO provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI values. Conclusion An appreciable proportion of babies living within the communities served by the Mangoasi Community Hospital in the Obuasi Municipality of the Ashanti Region and the Dompime Health Centre in the Tarkwa Municipality of the Western Region were exposed to Hg, As and Pb through breast milk in excess of what they should and these may have health implication for the infants and therefore calls for interventions.

  10. Cross-sectional assessment of infants' exposure to toxic metals through breast milk in a prospective cohort study of mining communities in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansa, David Kwaku; Awua, Adolf Kofi; Boatin, Rose; Adom, Theodosia; Brown-Appiah, Edward Christian; Amewosina, Kennedy Kwame; Diaba, Akusika; Datoghe, Dominic; Okwabi, Wilhelmina

    2017-05-25

    Although breastfeeding of infants is recommended globally, the fact that maternal toxic metal stores are mobilised into breast milk implies infants, whose mothers live and work in mining communities, are at risk of multiple exposure to mining related toxic metals, such as Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg), Cadmium (Cd) and Arsenic (As), through breast milk intake, in addition to in utero exposure. A total of 114 mother-baby pairs, recruited from two community hospitals servicing mining communities in two different regions in Ghana (57 each), were involved in this study. When the babies were 3 months old, the amount of breast milk intake, concentrations of selected toxic metals in the breast milk and therefore the amount of toxic metals exposure through breast milk were determined. The study also, determined the amount of these toxic metals in the hair and urine of each mother-baby pair at 3 months postpartum. Based on the amounts of milk intake and non-milk oral intakes (geometric mean of 0.701 (95% CL 0.59-0.81) Kg/day and median of 0.22 Kg/day respectively), 90% of the babies were determined to have been exclusively breastfed. The amounts of most of the toxic metals in breast milk were higher than the WHO set limits and for 46.4%, 33.3% and 4.4% of the babies, their intake of As, Hg and Pb respectively were above the WHO provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) values. An appreciable proportion of babies living within the communities served by the Mangoasi Community Hospital in the Obuasi Municipality of the Ashanti Region and the Dompime Health Centre in the Tarkwa Municipality of the Western Region were exposed to Hg, As and Pb through breast milk in excess of what they should and these may have health implication for the infants and therefore calls for interventions.

  11. Environmental prospection for PCDD/PCDF, PAH, PCB and heavy metals around the incinerator power plant of Reggio Emilia town (Northern Italy) and surrounding main roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, F; Cavalchi, B; Martinelli, G; Pecchini, G; Renna, E; Scaroni, I; Bertacchi, M; Bigliardi, G

    2005-03-01

    Samples of soil, sediment and pine needles from the Reggio Emilia area were analysed in order to estimate the environmental pollution caused by an MSWI. PCDD/PCDF, PCB, PAH and metals were analysed in the collected samples. The data obtained showed relatively low pollution levels. Indeed, the PCDD/PCDF and PCB data were comparable to the values usually found in the grazing areas of the European Union countries. Metal concentrations in soils and sediments may be related to local geological occurrences and to agricultural activities. PAH values are significantly lower than the limit values set by the Italian law.

  12. Speciation in Metal Toxicity and Metal-Based Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M. Templeton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Metallic elements, ions and compounds produce varying degrees of toxicity in organisms with which they come into contact. Metal speciation is critical to understanding these adverse effects; the adjectives “heavy” and “toxic” are not helpful in describing the biological properties of individual elements, but detailed chemical structures are. As a broad generalization, the metallic form of an element is inert, and the ionic salts are the species that show more significant bioavailability. Yet the salts and other chelates of a metal ion can give rise to quite different toxicities, as exemplified by a range of carcinogenic potential for various nickel species. Another important distinction comes when a metallic element is organified, increasing its lipophilicity and hence its ability to penetrate the blood brain barrier, as is seen, for example, with organic mercury and tin species. Some metallic elements, such as gold and platinum, are themselves useful therapeutic agents in some forms, while other species of the same element can be toxic, thus focusing attention on species interconversions in evaluating metal-based drugs. The therapeutic use of metal-chelating agents introduces new species of the target metal in vivo, and this can affect not only its desired detoxification, but also introduce a potential for further mechanisms of toxicity. Examples of therapeutic iron chelator species are discussed in this context, as well as the more recent aspects of development of chelation therapy for uranium exposure.

  13. Remote sensing and GIS prospectivity mapping for magmatic-hydrothermal base- and precious-metal deposits in the Honghai district, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gongwen; Du, Wenhui; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we constructed an exploration target model for volcanogenic massive sulfide and hydrothermal deposits in Honghai district (China) using moderate resolution ETM+, ASTER, and hyperspectral Hyperion images and high resolution ZY-3 images, and weights-of-evidence (WofE) analysis and concentration-area (C-A) fractal modeling. The methodology and mapping steps were: (1) ETM + images were used to extract hydroxyl and iron-oxide alterations for identification of linear and ring fault structures and prospective zones in regional scale; (2) ASTER images were used to extract SiO2 index, kaolinite, chlorite, propylite, potassium, carbonate, and limonite alterations for identification of mineralization zones in district scale; (3) hyperspectral Hyperion images were analyzed to identify mineral components for identification of Cusbnd Au deposit zones in district scale; (4) high resolution ZY-3 images were used to extract geological objects (e.g., volcanic rocks, integration, and linear and ring fault structures) and cross-validate multiple type alterations and their associations with lithological strata based on interpretation of ETM+ and ASTER images; (5) alteration/structural factors and geological objects were integrated for mineral prospectivity mapping by WofE analysis, and mineral prospectivity was classified by (C-A) fractal modeling. Ring faults, iron-oxide alteration, chlorite alteration and silicification are important exploration factors, whereas carbonate alteration, potassic alteration, and linear faults are secondary exploration factors. Ten exploration targets were recognized in the Honghai district.

  14. Practice and prospects of creation of equipment for reprocessing and utilization of contaminated metal wastes of plants of nuclear industry in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, G.P.

    2005-01-01

    Program of reprocessing and utilization of metallic radioactive wastes exists in Russia. In the framework of this program in nuclear industry it is accumulated forty years experience on taking-off-service, disassembly, decontamination and reprocessing of technological facilities. Some technical characteristics of the units used for these operations are represented [ru

  15. Plant responses to metal toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briat, J.F. [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France). Biochimie et physiologie moleculaire des plantes, CNRS, URA 2133; Lebrun, M. [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France). Biochimie et physiologie vegetale appliquee

    1999-01-01

    Increased metal concentration in the soils, up to toxic levels, is becoming an important environmental problem. Safety rule evolution will require solutions in order to cope with food safety rules, and to freeze metal leakage from heavily metal-poisoned soils, such as those from industrial fallows. In this context, plants could serve to develop bio-assays in order to promote new standards, more realistic than the mass of a given metal per kg of soil, that does not consider the metal bio-disponibility. Plants could also be used for phyto-extraction and/or phyto-stabilization. To reach these objectives, a genetic approach could be useful to generate metal-tolerant plants with enough biomass. In this work is more particularly studied the plant responses to metal toxicity. Metal toxicity for living organisms involves oxidative and /or genotoxic mechanisms. Plant protection against metal toxicity occurs, at least in part, through control of root metal uptake and of long distance metal transport. Inside cells, proteins such as ferritins and metallothioneins, and glutathione-derived peptides named phyto-chelatins, participate in excess metal storage and detoxification. Low molecular weight organic molecules, mainly organic acids and amino acids and their derivatives, also play an important role in plant metal homeostasis. When these systems are overloaded, oxidative stress defense mechanisms are activated. Molecular and cellular knowledge of these processes will be necessary to improve plant metal resistance. Occurrence of naturally tolerant plants which hyper accumulate metals provides helpful tools for this research. (authors) 130 refs.

  16. Detoxification mechanisms of honey bees (Apis mellifera) resulting in tolerance of dietary nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Rand, Esther E; Smit, Salome; Beukes, Mervyn; Apostolides, Zeno; Pirk, Christian W W; Nicolson, Susan W

    2015-07-02

    Insecticides are thought to be among the major factors contributing to current declines in bee populations. However, detoxification mechanisms in healthy, unstressed honey bees are poorly characterised. Alkaloids are naturally encountered in pollen and nectar, and we used nicotine as a model compound to identify the mechanisms involved in detoxification processes in honey bees. Nicotine and neonicotinoids have similar modes of action in insects. Our metabolomic and proteomic analyses show active detoxification of nicotine in bees, associated with increased energetic investment and also antioxidant and heat shock responses. The increased energetic investment is significant in view of the interactions of pesticides with diseases such as Nosema spp which cause energetic stress and possible malnutrition. Understanding how healthy honey bees process dietary toxins under unstressed conditions will help clarify how pesticides, alone or in synergy with other stress factors, lead to declines in bee vitality.

  17. Detoxification mechanisms of honey bees (Apis mellifera) resulting in tolerance of dietary nicotine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Esther E. du; Smit, Salome; Beukes, Mervyn; Apostolides, Zeno; Pirk, Christian W.W.; Nicolson, Susan W.

    2015-01-01

    Insecticides are thought to be among the major factors contributing to current declines in bee populations. However, detoxification mechanisms in healthy, unstressed honey bees are poorly characterised. Alkaloids are naturally encountered in pollen and nectar, and we used nicotine as a model compound to identify the mechanisms involved in detoxification processes in honey bees. Nicotine and neonicotinoids have similar modes of action in insects. Our metabolomic and proteomic analyses show active detoxification of nicotine in bees, associated with increased energetic investment and also antioxidant and heat shock responses. The increased energetic investment is significant in view of the interactions of pesticides with diseases such as Nosema spp which cause energetic stress and possible malnutrition. Understanding how healthy honey bees process dietary toxins under unstressed conditions will help clarify how pesticides, alone or in synergy with other stress factors, lead to declines in bee vitality. PMID:26134631

  18. Body metal concentrations and glycogen reserves in earthworms (Dendrobaena octaedra) from contaminated and uncontaminated forest soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Overgaard, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Stress originating from toxicants such as heavy metals can induce compensatory changes in the energy metabolism of organisms due to increased energy expenses associated with detoxification and excretion processes. These energy expenses may be reflected in the available energy reserves such as gly......Stress originating from toxicants such as heavy metals can induce compensatory changes in the energy metabolism of organisms due to increased energy expenses associated with detoxification and excretion processes. These energy expenses may be reflected in the available energy reserves...

  19. Outcomes of adult heroin users v. abstinent users four years after presenting for heroin detoxification treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zureida Khan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are no studies in South Africa (SA on the outcomes following detoxification and psychosocial rehabilitation of heroin-dependent patients. Objective. To compare the demographic, clinical, forensic and treatment data of active heroin users v. users who were abstinent at the time of interview 4 years after attending the Opioid Detoxification Unit at Stikland Hospital in the Western Cape Province, SA.  Method. Participants included patients above the age of 16 years who had been admitted to the Opioid Detoxification Unit at Stikland Hospital for heroin detoxification between July 2006 and June 2007. Participants were individually interviewed (either in person or tele­phonically using a structured self-report questionnaire to collect demographic, clinical, forensic and treatment data 4 years following heroin detoxification treatment at this unit.  Results. Of the participants, 60% were abstinent and a large portion (34% attributed this to social support. Furthermore, there was a significant (p=0.04 difference in the longest period of abstinence between the past user group and active users, with more participants in the past user group being abstinent for 18 months or longer (n=24, 57% than in the active users group (n=8, 29%. Active users (n=18, 64% had significantly (p=0.03 more legal problems than abstinent users (n=14, 33%. Most participants (n=38, 54% relapsed within 3 months after index detoxification and rehabilitation.  Conclusion. Active users had more legal problems than abstinent users, with social support structures playing a pivotal role in abstinence. Future research should assess the impact of interventions such as post-discharge social support programmes on criminality and heroin use in those that relapse following treatment.

  20. Ethanol from lignocellulose - Fermentation inhibitors, detoxification and genetic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhanced resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Simona

    2000-07-01

    Ethanol can be produced from lignocellulose by first hydrolysing the material to sugars, and then fermenting the hydrolysate with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hydrolysis using dilute sulphuric acid has advantages over other methods, however, compounds which inhibit fermentation are generated during this kind of hydrolysis. The inhibitory effect of aliphatic acids, furans, and phenolic compounds was investigated. The generation of inhibitors during hydrolysis was studied using Norway spruce as raw material. It was concluded that the decrease in the fermentability coincided with increasing harshness of the hydrolysis conditions. The decrease in fermentability was not correlated solely to the content of aliphatic acids or furan derivatives. To increase the fermentability, detoxification is often employed. Twelve detoxification methods were compared with respect to the chemical composition of the hydrolysate and the fermentability after treatment. The most efficient detoxification methods were anion-exchange at pH 10.0, overliming and enzymatic detoxification with the phenol-oxidase laccase. Detailed analyses of ion exchange revealed that anion exchange and unspecific hydrophobic interactions greatly contributed to the detoxification effect, while cation exchange did not. The comparison of detoxification methods also showed that phenolic compounds are very important fermentation inhibitors, as their selective removal with laccase had a major positive effect on the fermentability. Selected compounds; aliphatic acids, furans and phenolic compounds, were characterised with respect to their inhibitory effect on ethanolic fermentation by S. cerevisiae. When aliphatic acids or furans were compared, the inhibitory effects were found to be in the same range, but the phenolic compounds displayed widely different inhibitory effects. The possibility of genetically engineering S. cerevisiae to achieve increased inhibitor resistance was explored by heterologous expression of

  1. Proteomic and metabolomic analysis reveals rapid and extensive nicotine detoxification ability in honey bee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Rand, Esther E; Human, Hannelie; Smit, Salome; Beukes, Mervyn; Apostolides, Zeno; Nicolson, Susan W; Pirk, Christian W W

    2017-03-01

    Despite potential links between pesticides and bee declines, toxicology information on honey bee larvae (Apis mellifera) is scarce and detoxification mechanisms in this development stage are virtually unknown. Larvae are exposed to natural and synthetic toxins present in pollen and nectar through consumption of brood food. Due to the characteristic intensive brood care displayed by honey bees, which includes progressive feeding throughout larval development, it is generally assumed that larvae rely on adults to detoxify for them and exhibit a diminished detoxification ability. We found the opposite. We examined the proteomic and metabolomic responses of in vitro reared larvae fed nicotine (an alkaloid found in nectar and pollen) to understand how larvae cope on a metabolic level with dietary toxins. Larvae were able to effectively detoxify nicotine through an inducible detoxification mechanism. A coordinated stress response complemented the detoxification processes, and we detected significant enrichment of proteins functioning in energy and carbohydrate metabolism, as well as in development pathways, suggesting that nicotine may promote larval growth. Further exploration of the metabolic fate of nicotine using targeted mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that, as in adult bees, formation of 4-hydroxy-4-(3-pyridyl) butanoic acid, the result of 2'C-oxidation of nicotine, is quantitatively the most significant pathway of nicotine metabolism. We provide conclusive evidence that larvae are capable of effectively catabolising a dietary toxin, suggesting that increased larval sensitivity to specific toxins is not due to diminished detoxification abilities. These findings broaden the current understanding of detoxification biochemistry at different organizational levels in the colony, bringing us closer to understanding the capacity of the colony as a superorganism to tolerate and resist toxic compounds, including pesticides, in the environment. Copyright © 2017

  2. Microbial Remediation of Metals in Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietala, K. A.; Roane, T. M.

    Of metal-contaminated systems, metal-contaminated soils present the greatest challenge to remediation efforts because of the structural, physical, chemical, and biological heterogeneities encountered in soils. One of the confounding issues surrounding metal remediation is that metals can be readily re-mobilized, requiring constant monitoring of metal toxicity in sites where metals are not removed. Excessive metal content in soils can impact air, surface water, and groundwater quality. However, our understanding of how metals affect organisms, from bacteria to plants and animals, and our ability to negate the toxicity of metals are in their infancies. The ubiquity of metal contamination in developing and industrialized areas of the world make remediation of soils via removal, containment, and/or detoxification of metals a primary concern. Recent examples of the health and environmental consequences of metal contamination include arsenic in drinking water (Wang and Wai 2004), mercury levels in fish (Jewett and Duffy 2007), and metal uptake by agricultural crops (Howe et al. 2005). The goal of this chapter is to summarize the traditional approaches and recent developments using microorganisms and microbial products to address metal toxicity and remediation.

  3. Clinical outcomes of using lasers for peri-implantitis surface detoxification: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailoa, James; Lin, Guo-Hao; Chan, Hsun-Liang; MacEachern, Mark; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to compare the clinical outcomes of lasers with other commonly applied detoxification methods for treating peri-implantitis. An electronic search of four databases and a hand search of peer-reviewed journals for relevant articles were conducted. Comparative human clinical trials and case series with ≥ 6 months of follow-up in ≥ 10 patients with peri-implantitis treated with lasers were included. Additionally, animal studies applying lasers for treating peri-implantitis were also included. The included studies had to report probing depth (PD) reduction after the therapy. Seven human prospective clinical trials and two animal studies were included. In four and three human studies, lasers were accompanied with surgical and non-surgical treatments, respectively. The meta-analyses showed an overall weighted mean difference of 0.00 mm (95% confidence interval = -0.18 to 0.19 mm) PD reduction between the laser and conventional treatment groups (P = 0.98) for non-surgical intervention. In animal studies, laser-treated rough-surface implants had a higher percentage of bone-to-implant contact than smooth-surface implants. In a short-term follow-up, lasers resulted in similar PD reduction when compared with conventional implant surface decontamination methods.

  4. Mercury-selenium relationships in liver of Guiana dolphin: the possible role of Kupffer cells in the detoxification process by tiemannite formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lailson-Brito

    Full Text Available Top marine predators present high mercury concentrations in their tissues as consequence of biomagnification of the most toxic form of this metal, methylmercury (MeHg. The present study concerns mercury accumulation by Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis, highlighting the selenium-mediated methylmercury detoxification process. Liver samples from 19 dolphins incidentally captured within Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil from 1994 to 2006 were analyzed for total mercury (THg, methylmercury (MeHg, total organic mercury (TOrgHg and selenium (Se. X-ray microanalyses were also performed. The specimens, including from fetuses to 30-year-old dolphins, comprising 8 females and 11 males, presented high THg (0.53-132 µg/g wet wt. and Se concentrations (0.17-74.8 µg/g wet wt.. Correlations between THg, MeHg, TOrgHg and Se were verified with age (p<0.05, as well as a high and positive correlation was observed between molar concentrations of Hg and Se (p<0.05. Negative correlations were observed between THg and the percentage of MeHg contribution to THg (p<0.05, which represents a consequence of the selenium-mediated methylmercury detoxification process. Accumulation of Se-Hg amorphous crystals in Kupffer Cells was demonstrated through ultra-structural analysis, which shows that Guiana dolphin is capable of carrying out the demethylation process via mercury selenide formation.

  5. Mercury-selenium relationships in liver of Guiana dolphin: the possible role of Kupffer cells in the detoxification process by tiemannite formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lailson-Brito, José; Cruz, Renato; Dorneles, Paulo Renato; Andrade, Leonardo; Azevedo, Alexandre de Freitas; Fragoso, Ana Bernadete; Vidal, Lara Gama; Costa, Marianna Badini; Bisi, Tatiana Lemos; Almeida, Ronaldo; Carvalho, Dario Pires; Bastos, Wanderley Rodrigues; Malm, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Top marine predators present high mercury concentrations in their tissues as consequence of biomagnification of the most toxic form of this metal, methylmercury (MeHg). The present study concerns mercury accumulation by Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis), highlighting the selenium-mediated methylmercury detoxification process. Liver samples from 19 dolphins incidentally captured within Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil) from 1994 to 2006 were analyzed for total mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), total organic mercury (TOrgHg) and selenium (Se). X-ray microanalyses were also performed. The specimens, including from fetuses to 30-year-old dolphins, comprising 8 females and 11 males, presented high THg (0.53-132 µg/g wet wt.) and Se concentrations (0.17-74.8 µg/g wet wt.). Correlations between THg, MeHg, TOrgHg and Se were verified with age (p<0.05), as well as a high and positive correlation was observed between molar concentrations of Hg and Se (p<0.05). Negative correlations were observed between THg and the percentage of MeHg contribution to THg (p<0.05), which represents a consequence of the selenium-mediated methylmercury detoxification process. Accumulation of Se-Hg amorphous crystals in Kupffer Cells was demonstrated through ultra-structural analysis, which shows that Guiana dolphin is capable of carrying out the demethylation process via mercury selenide formation.

  6. Geochemical prospect ion results of Mariscala aerial photo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, J.

    1989-01-01

    This report shows the geochemical prospect ion results carried out within the framework of the metalical mining prospect ion in Mariscala aerial photo. Lavalleja district belong to the Mining inventory programme of Uruguay.

  7. Alcohol Detoxification Completion, Acceptance of Referral to Substance Abuse Treatment, and Entry into Substance Abuse Treatment Among Alaska Native People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Ursula Running; Beals, Janette; Novins, Douglas K.; Manson, Spero M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about factors associated with detoxification treatment completion and the transition to substance abuse treatment following detoxification among Alaska Native people. This study examined 3 critical points on the substance abuse continuum of care (alcohol detoxification completion, acceptance of referral to substance abuse treatment, entry into substance abuse treatment following detoxification). Methods The retrospective cohort included 383 adult Alaska Native patients admitted to a tribally owned and managed inpatient detoxification unit. Three multiple logistic regression models estimated the adjusted associations of each outcome separately with demographic/psychosocial characteristics, clinical characteristics, use related behaviors, and health care utilization. Results Seventy-five percent completed detoxification treatment. Higher global assessment functioning scores, longer lengths of stay, and older ages of first alcohol use were associated with completing detoxification. A secondary drug diagnosis was associated with not completing detoxification. Thirty-six percent accepted a referral to substance abuse treatment following detoxification. Men, those with legal problems, and those with a longer length of stay were more likely to accept a referral to substance abuse treatment. Fifty-eight percent had a confirmed entry into a substance abuse treatment program at discharge. Length of stay was the only variable associated with substance abuse treatment entry. Conclusions Services like motivational interviewing, counseling, development of therapeutic alliance, monetary incentives, and contingency management are effective in linking patients to services after detoxification. These should be considered, along with the factors associated with each point on the continuum of care when linking patients to follow-up services. PMID:27705843

  8. Adsorption and photocatalytic detoxification of diazinon using iron and nanotitania modified activated carbons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hassan, A F.; Elhadidy, Hassan; Abdel-Mohsen, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 75, JUN (2017), s. 299-306 ISSN 1876-1070 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Detoxification * Diazinon * Flamboyant pods * Photocatalyst * Characterization Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 4.217, year: 2016

  9. Aflatoxin B1 detoxification by cell-free extracts of Rhodococcus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risa, Anita; Divinyi, Dalma Maja; Baka, Erzsébet; Krifaton, Csilla

    2017-12-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) produced by Aspergillus molds is a genotoxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin. For the elimination of mycotoxins from food and feed, biodetoxification can be a successful tool. The aim of this study was to reveal biodetoxification with the cell-free extracts of Rhodococcus erythropolis NI1 and Rhodococcus rhodochrous NI2, which have been already proved to detoxify AFB1. Extracellular matrices of cultures and also intracellular extracts were applied for detoxification. In both cases, media containing constitutively produced and AFB1-induced enzymes were tested, respectively. The pH tolerance of enzymes in the detoxification was examined at pH 7, 7.5, and 8. The remained genotoxicity was detected by SOS-Chromotest and the AFB1 concentration was measured by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. In the extracellular matrix, no reduction of genotoxicity was observed. However, detoxification was completed by intracellular enzymes. In intracellular extracts of both strains, genotoxicity was ceased by the constitutive enzymes within 6 h but induced and constitutive enzymes collectively achieved this result within minutes. Moreover, total biodetoxification was observed at every pH adjustment. Analytical results confirmed >84% degradation potential in each sample. Our results indicate a uniquely fast way for the detoxification of AFB1 with intracellular enzymes of R. erythropolis NI1 and R. rhodochrous NI2.

  10. Forager bees (Apis mellifera) highly express immune and detoxification genes in tissues associated with nectar processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannette, Rachel L; Mohamed, Abbas; Johnson, Brian R

    2015-11-09

    Pollinators, including honey bees, routinely encounter potentially harmful microorganisms and phytochemicals during foraging. However, the mechanisms by which honey bees manage these potential threats are poorly understood. In this study, we examine the expression of antimicrobial, immune and detoxification genes in Apis mellifera and compare between forager and nurse bees using tissue-specific RNA-seq and qPCR. Our analysis revealed extensive tissue-specific expression of antimicrobial, immune signaling, and detoxification genes. Variation in gene expression between worker stages was pronounced in the mandibular and hypopharyngeal gland (HPG), where foragers were enriched in transcripts that encode antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and immune response. Additionally, forager HPGs and mandibular glands were enriched in transcripts encoding detoxification enzymes, including some associated with xenobiotic metabolism. Using qPCR on an independent dataset, we verified differential expression of three AMP and three P450 genes between foragers and nurses. High expression of AMP genes in nectar-processing tissues suggests that these peptides may contribute to antimicrobial properties of honey or to honey bee defense against environmentally-acquired microorganisms. Together, these results suggest that worker role and tissue-specific expression of AMPs, and immune and detoxification enzymes may contribute to defense against microorganisms and xenobiotic compounds acquired while foraging.

  11. Growth characteristics of Dayak Borneo yam (Dioscorea hispida and detoxification techniques as alternative food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUDITO

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Rudito, Suwarto, Azkiyah L, Witono Y, Saragih B, Arung ET. 2017. Growth characteristics of Dayak Borneo yam (Dioscorea hispida and detoxification techniques as alternative food. Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 3: 99-103. Finding of local food sources to enhance food security areas. This study focuses on the characteristics of growth Dayak Borneo yam observation, toxic substances and detoxification techniques development of non nutritional. The objective of the research was to find out a more concrete picture, as well as comparing it with Java yam non nutritional components as a basis for further exploration of alternative food. Observations indicate that the plant growth of Dayak Borneo yam had specific characteristics, and can be grown in intercropping with other crops. Yam tubers have negative image due to the toxins contained by this commodity, as well as technology management (detoxification and processing of yam products that have not been controlled by the community. But based on the results of physical and chemical detoxification, indicates that the Dayak Borneo yam can be exploited further as food. Dayak Borneo yam need to be developed modification process in raw materials of Dayak Borneo yam as modified starch through fermentation techniques which also intended to obtain intermediate product from which Dayak Borneo yam has a larger functionality as a food ingredient.

  12. Reinstatement of serum pregnanolone isomers and progesterone during alcohol detoxification therapy in premenopausal women

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hill, M.; Popov, P.; Havlíková, H.; Kancheva, L.; Vrbíková, J.; Meloun, M.; Kancheva, R.; Cibula, D.; Pouzar, Vladimír; Černý, Ivan; Stárka, L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 6 (2005), s. 1010-1017 ISSN 0145-6008 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NB7070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : pregnanolone * progesterone * detoxification therapy Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.636, year: 2005

  13. Decolorization and detoxification of reactive industrial dyes by immobilized fungi Trametes pubescens and Pleurotus ostreatus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Caiseri, L.; Varese, G.C.; Anastasi, A.; Prigione, V.; Svobodová, Kateřina; Marchisio, V.F.; Novotný, Čeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2008), s. 44-52 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6020411 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : decolorization * detoxification * trametes pubescens Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.172, year: 2008

  14. Esterase detoxification of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors using human liver samples in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organophosphate (OP) and N-methylcarbamate pesticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), but differences in metabolism and detoxification can influence potency of these pesticides across and within species. Carboxylesterase (CaE) and A-esterase (paraoxonase, PON1) are consider...

  15. ASSESSING DETOXIFICATION AND DEGRADATION OF WOOD PRESERVING AND PETROLEUM WASTES IN CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was undertaken to evaluate in-situ soil bioremediation processes, including degradation and detoxification, for two types of wood preserving wastes and two types of petroleum refining wastes at high concentrations in an unacclimated soil. The soil solid phase, water so...

  16. Neuropsychological Impairment and Relapse Following Inpatient Detoxification in Severe Alcohol Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Fraser

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between neuropsychological impairment in severe alcohol dependence and relapse. This was assessed following inpatient detoxification over a period of three months. Participants were tested on measures of neuropsychological functioning at the end of a seven to ten day stay in an inpatient alcohol…

  17. Characterization of a Prototype Compact High Gradient Magnetic Separator Device for Blood Detoxification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, H.; Kaminski, M. D.; Stepp, Patricia Caviness; Holtzman, S.; Rosengart, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 9 (2009), s. 1954-1969 ISSN 0149-6395 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : magnetic separation * magnetic separator * detoxification * nanotechnology Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.028, year: 2009

  18. Genomic Analysis of Detoxification Supergene Families in the Mosquito Anopheles sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Liu, Xianmiao; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Changliang

    2015-01-01

    Anopheles sinensis is an important malaria vector in China and other Southeast Asian countries, and the emergence of insecticide resistance in this mosquito poses a serious threat to the efficacy of malaria control programs. The recently published An. sinensis genome and transcriptome provide an opportunity to understand the molecular mechanisms of insecticide resistance. Analysis of the An. sinensis genome revealed 174 detoxification genes, including 93 cytochrome P450s (P450s), 31 glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), and 50 choline/carboxylesterases (CCEs). The gene number was similar to that in An. gambiae, but represented a decrease of 29% and 42% compared with Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. The considerable contraction in gene number in Anopheles mosquitoes mainly occurred in two detoxification supergene families, P450s and CCEs. The available An. sinensis transcriptome was also re-analyzed to further identify key resistance-associated detoxification genes. Among 174 detoxification genes, 124 (71%) were detected. Several candidate genes overexpressed in a deltamethrin-resistant strain (DR-strain) were identified as belonging to the CYP4 or CYP6 family of P450s and the Delta GST class. These generated data provide a basis for identifying the resistance-associated genes of An. sinensis at the molecular level.

  19. Heroin refusal self-efficacy and preference for medication-assisted treatment after inpatient detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Shannon R; Bailey, Genie L; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2017-10-01

    An individual's self-efficacy to refuse using heroin in high-risk situations is believed to minimize the likelihood for relapse. However, among individuals completing inpatient heroin detoxification, perceived refusal self-efficacy may also reduce one's perceived need for medication-assisted treatment (MAT), an effective and recommended treatment for opioid use disorder. In the current study, we examined the relationship between heroin refusal self-efficacy and preference for MAT following inpatient detoxification. Participants (N=397) were interviewed at the start of brief inpatient opioid detoxification. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted association of background characteristics, depressed mood, and perceived heroin refusal self-efficacy with preference for MAT. Controlling for other covariates, depressed mood and lower perceived refusal self-efficacy were associated with a significantly greater likelihood of expressing preference for MAT (versus no MAT). Perceived ability to refuse heroin after leaving detox is inversely associated with a heroin user's desire for MAT. An effective continuum of care model may benefit from greater attention to patient's perceived refusal self-efficacy during detoxification which may impact preference for MAT and long-term recovery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Treatment outcome of alcohol use disorder outpatients with or without medically assisted detoxification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkx, Maarten J. M.; Schippers, Gerard M.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; de Wildt, Wencke A. J. M.; Vedel, Ellen; Goudriaan, Anna E.; van den Brink, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the incremental effects of medically assisted detoxification on outpatient treatment for alcohol use disorders. The objective of this study was to compare drinking outcomes in a psychosocial treatment program between two groups of heavy drinking patients who had an alcohol use

  1. Use of Ultra Rapid Opioid Detoxification in the Treatment of US Military Burn Casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    often extremely fragmented in patients with a chronic pain history and opioid addiction. Before hospital discharge, both nonopioid adjunct treat...116. 12. Collins ED, Kleber HD, Whittington RA, Heitler NE. Anesthesia- assisted vs buprenorphine - or clonidine-assisted heroin detoxification and

  2. Detoxification of Corncob Acid Hydrolysate with SAA Pretreatment and Xylitol Production by Immobilized Candida tropicalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li-Hong; Tang, Yong; Liu, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Xylitol fermentation production from corncob acid hydrolysate has become an attractive and promising process. However, corncob acid hydrolysate cannot be directly used as fermentation substrate owing to various inhibitors. In this work, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) pretreatment was employed to reduce the inhibitors in acid hydrolysate. After detoxification, the corncob acid hydrolysate was fermented by immobilized Candida tropicalis cell to produce xylitol. Results revealed that SAA pretreatment showed high delignification and efficient removal of acetyl group compounds without effect on cellulose and xylan content. Acetic acid was completely removed, and the content of phenolic compounds was reduced by 80%. Furthermore, kinetic behaviors of xylitol production by immobilized C. tropicalis cell were elucidated from corncob acid hydrolysate detoxified with SAA pretreatment and two-step adsorption method, respectively. The immobilized C. tropicalis cell showed higher productivity efficiency using the corncob acid hydrolysate as fermentation substrate after detoxification with SAA pretreatment than by two-step adsorption method in the five successive batch fermentation rounds. After the fifth round fermentation, about 60 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for SAA pretreatment detoxification, while about 30 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for two-step adsorption detoxification. PMID:25133211

  3. Detoxification of Corncob Acid Hydrolysate with SAA Pretreatment and Xylitol Production by Immobilized Candida tropicalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hong Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol fermentation production from corncob acid hydrolysate has become an attractive and promising process. However, corncob acid hydrolysate cannot be directly used as fermentation substrate owing to various inhibitors. In this work, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA pretreatment was employed to reduce the inhibitors in acid hydrolysate. After detoxification, the corncob acid hydrolysate was fermented by immobilized Candida tropicalis cell to produce xylitol. Results revealed that SAA pretreatment showed high delignification and efficient removal of acetyl group compounds without effect on cellulose and xylan content. Acetic acid was completely removed, and the content of phenolic compounds was reduced by 80%. Furthermore, kinetic behaviors of xylitol production by immobilized C. tropicalis cell were elucidated from corncob acid hydrolysate detoxified with SAA pretreatment and two-step adsorption method, respectively. The immobilized C. tropicalis cell showed higher productivity efficiency using the corncob acid hydrolysate as fermentation substrate after detoxification with SAA pretreatment than by two-step adsorption method in the five successive batch fermentation rounds. After the fifth round fermentation, about 60 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for SAA pretreatment detoxification, while about 30 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for two-step adsorption detoxification.

  4. Detoxification of selenite and mercury by reduction and mutual protection in the assimilation of both elements by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzile, Nelson [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6 (Canada)]. E-mail: nbelzile@laurentian.ca; Wu Gaojun [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6 (Canada); Chen, Yu-Wei [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6 (Canada); Appanna, Vasu D. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6 (Canada)

    2006-08-31

    A study on the assimilation and detoxification of selenium and mercury and on the interaction between these two elements was conducted on Pseudomonas fluorescens. P. fluorescens was able to convert separately both elements to their elemental forms, which are less toxic and biologically less available. To study the converting mechanism of selenite to elemental Se, cells were grown in the presence of various selenite concentrations and several parameters such as extracellular protein concentrations, pH, carbohydrate concentrations, isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) and malic enzyme were monitored. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and various analytical methods were applied to confirm the interaction between selenium and cell. The former appeared as a red precipitate localized predominantly in the consumed culture medium. P. fluorescens also resisted to the toxic effect of mercury by converting Hg{sup 2+} to the volatile and less toxic form Hg . Mercury reductase was likely responsible for the conversion of Hg{sup 2+} to Hg . More importantly, the interaction between mercury and selenium was also studied. The presence of selenite significantly reduced the accumulation of mercury in P. fluorescens. It was also interesting to note that mercury appeared to behave as a protecting agent against selenium intoxication as the bioaccumulation of Se was also inhibited by this metal. The formation of Se-Hg complexes could explain this mutual protective effect. No precipitate of elemental Se could be detected when Hg was present in the cultures.

  5. Detoxification of selenite and mercury by reduction and mutual protection in the assimilation of both elements by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belzile, Nelson; Wu Gaojun; Chen, Yu-Wei; Appanna, Vasu D.

    2006-01-01

    A study on the assimilation and detoxification of selenium and mercury and on the interaction between these two elements was conducted on Pseudomonas fluorescens. P. fluorescens was able to convert separately both elements to their elemental forms, which are less toxic and biologically less available. To study the converting mechanism of selenite to elemental Se, cells were grown in the presence of various selenite concentrations and several parameters such as extracellular protein concentrations, pH, carbohydrate concentrations, isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) and malic enzyme were monitored. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and various analytical methods were applied to confirm the interaction between selenium and cell. The former appeared as a red precipitate localized predominantly in the consumed culture medium. P. fluorescens also resisted to the toxic effect of mercury by converting Hg 2+ to the volatile and less toxic form Hg . Mercury reductase was likely responsible for the conversion of Hg 2+ to Hg . More importantly, the interaction between mercury and selenium was also studied. The presence of selenite significantly reduced the accumulation of mercury in P. fluorescens. It was also interesting to note that mercury appeared to behave as a protecting agent against selenium intoxication as the bioaccumulation of Se was also inhibited by this metal. The formation of Se-Hg complexes could explain this mutual protective effect. No precipitate of elemental Se could be detected when Hg was present in the cultures

  6. The response and detoxification strategies of three freshwater phytoplankton species, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Pediastrum simplex, and Synedra acus, to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Xiaofei; Yue, Hong; Fu, Xiaoli; Kang, Yuanhao; Xu, Sha; Yang, Yanjun; Xu, Jinzhu; Shi, Junqiong; Wu, Zhongxing

    2015-12-01

    The response and detoxification mechanisms of three freshwater phytoplankton species (the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, the green alga Pediastrum simplex, and the diatom Synedra acus) to cadmium (Cd) were investigated. The cell growth of each species was measured over 10 days, and chlorophyll a fluorescence, Cd bioaccumulation (including surface-adsorbed and intracellular Cd), and phytochelatin (PC) synthesis were determined after 96-h exposures. The growth of the three phytoplankton species was significantly inhibited when Cd concentrations were ≥5 mg L(-1). Compared with P. simplex, greater growth inhibition in S. acus and A. flos-aquae occurred. The changes in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters including the maximal quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) and relative variable fluorescence of the J point (Vj) demonstrated that the increase in Cd concentration damaged PSII in all three species. After 96-h exposures, the accumulation of surface-adsorbed Cd and intracellular Cd increased significantly in all three species, with the increase of Cd concentrations in the media; total cadmium accumulation was 245, 658, and 1670 times greater than that of the control in A. flos-aquae, P. simplex, and S. acus, respectively, after exposure to 10 mg L(-1). Total thiols exhibited a similar trend to that of Cd accumulation. PC3 was found in A. flos-aquae and P. simplex in all Cd treatments. Glutathione (GSH) and PC2 were also produced in response to exposure to high concentrations of Cd. PC4 was only discovered at exposure concentrations of 10 mg L(-1) Cd and only in S. acus. The intracellular Cd/PCs ratio increased in all three phytoplankton with an increase in Cd concentrations, and a linear relationship between the ratio and the growth inhibition rates was observed with P. simplex and S. acus. Our results have demonstrated that metal detoxification mechanisms were dependent on the species. This study suggested that the variance of metal detoxification strategies, such

  7. Patterns of co-occurring addictions, posttraumatic stress disorder, and major depressive disorder in detoxification treatment seekers: Implications for improving detoxification treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, RaeAnn E; Hruska, Bryce; Boros, Alec P; Richardson, Christopher J; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2018-03-01

    Poly-substance use and psychiatric comorbidity are common among individuals receiving substance detoxification services. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are the most common co-occurring psychiatric disorders with substance use disorder (SUD). Current treatment favors a one-size-fits-all approach to treating addiction focusing on one substance or one comorbidity. Research examining patterns of substance use and comorbidities can inform efforts to effectively identify and differentially treat individuals with co-occurring conditions. Using latent class analysis, the current study identified four patterns of PTSD, MDD, and substance use among 375 addiction treatment seekers receiving medically supervised detoxification. The four identified classes were: 1) a PTSD-MDD-Poly SUD class characterized by PTSD and MDD occurring in the context of opioid, cannabis, and tobacco use disorders; 2) an MDD-Poly SUD class characterized by MDD and alcohol, opioid, tobacco, and cannabis use disorders; 3) an alcohol-tobacco class characterized by alcohol and tobacco use disorders; and 4) an opioid-tobacco use disorder class characterized by opioid and tobacco use disorders. The observed classes differed on gender and clinical characteristics including addiction severity, trauma history, and PTSD/MDD symptom severity. The observed classes likely require differing treatment approaches. For example, people in the PTSD-MDD-Poly SUD class would likely benefit from treatment approaches targeting anxiety sensitivity and distress tolerance, while the opioid-tobacco class would benefit from treatments that incorporate motivational interviewing. Appropriate matching of treatment to class could optimize treatment outcomes for polysubstance and comorbid psychiatric treatment seekers. These findings also underscore the importance of well-developed referral networks to optimize outpatient psychotherapy for detoxification treatment-seekers to enhance long

  8. Long-term behavior of double crown retained dentures with metal and metal-free secondary crowns and frameworks made of Vectris(©) on all-ceramic primary crowns: a prospective, randomized clinical trial up to 14 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, T; Zahn, B; Janko, S; Weigl, P; Gerhardt-Szép, S; Lauer, H C

    2016-06-01

    This prospective randomized clinical trial aimed to evaluate the long-term behavior of metal-free double crown retained dentures with secondary crowns and dental frameworks made of the fiber-reinforced composite Vectris(©) on all-ceramic primary crowns (IPS Empress 2(©)) over a period of up to 14 years and to subsequently evaluate patient satisfaction. For the control group, electroplated gold copings and metal frameworks were used. A total of 29 patients were treated with a total of 37 prostheses on 165 primary crowns. Of these 37 prostheses, 27 were allotted to the control group and 10 to the test group. The mean observation time was 91 ± 57 months; patient satisfaction surveys were conducted over 77 ± 59 months. Success rates in both groups were compared using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and log-rank test. Up to about 3 years, both types of prostheses exhibited similar success rates. Afterwards, a massive decrease in the Vectris(©) curve could be noted, whereas the metal curve dropped only slightly. This difference was also statistically significant (p = 0.032361). There was a comparable susceptibility to damages in both groups: 88.9 % (control) and 90 % (test), respectively, of the prostheses had to be repaired within the period of investigation (p = 0,121). Damages of the Vectris(©) secondary crowns could be detected significantly more often compared to the electroformed gold copings (p comparably high in both groups. Metal-free secondary crowns and denture frameworks made with the glass fiber-reinforced composite material Vectris(©) showed a lower survival rate than the electroplated gold copings and metal frameworks. Primary crowns made of IPS Empress 2(©) had insufficient stability. Exclusively high-strength zirconia ceramics should be recommended for this indication. Both clinical and statistical data indicated the superiority of the restorations made with electroplated secondary crowns and metal framework. Therefore, the

  9. Transcriptomic and phylogenetic analysis of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus for three detoxification gene families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The genomes of three major mosquito vectors of human diseases, Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti, and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, have been previously sequenced. C. p. quinquefasciatus has the largest number of predicted protein-coding genes, which partially results from the expansion of three detoxification gene families: cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450), glutathione S-transferases (GST), and carboxyl/cholinesterases (CCE). However, unlike An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti, which have large amounts of gene expression data, C. p. quinquefasciatus has limited transcriptomic resources. Knowledge of complete gene expression information is very important for the exploration of the functions of genes involved in specific biological processes. In the present study, the three detoxification gene families of C. p. quinquefasciatus were analyzed for phylogenetic classification and compared with those of three other dipteran insects. Gene expression during various developmental stages and the differential expression responsible for parathion resistance were profiled using the digital gene expression (DGE) technique. Results A total of 302 detoxification genes were found in C. p. quinquefasciatus, including 71 CCE, 196 P450, and 35 cytosolic GST genes. Compared with three other dipteran species, gene expansion in Culex mainly occurred in the CCE and P450 families, where the genes of α-esterases, juvenile hormone esterases, and CYP325 of the CYP4 subfamily showed the most pronounced expansion on the genome. For the five DGE libraries, 3.5-3.8 million raw tags were generated and mapped to 13314 reference genes. Among 302 detoxification genes, 225 (75%) were detected for expression in at least one DGE library. One fourth of the CCE and P450 genes were detected uniquely in one stage, indicating potential developmentally regulated expression. A total of 1511 genes showed different expression levels between a parathion-resistant and a susceptible strain. Fifteen

  10. A model framework for actuation and sensing of ionic polymer-metal composites: prospective on frequency and shear response through simulation tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalbaum, Tyler; Shen, Qi; Kim, Kwang J.

    2017-04-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) is a promising material for soft-robotic actuator and sensor applications. This material system offers large deformation response for low input voltage and has an aptitude for operation in hydrated environments. Researchers have been developing IPMC actuators and sensors for applications with examples of self-sensing actuators, artificial fish fins and biomimicry of other aquatic lifeforms, and in medical operations such as in guided catheter devices. IPMCs have been developed in a range of geometric configurations, with tube or cylindrical and flat-plate rectangular as the most common shapes. Several mathematical and physics-based models have been developed for describing the transduction effects of IPMCs. In this work, the underlying theories of electromechanical and mechanoelectrical transduction in IPMCs are discussed, and simulated results of frequency response and shear response are presented. A model backbone is utilized which is primarily based on ion-transport and charge dynamics within the polymer membrane. The electromechanical model, that is with an IPMC as an actuator, is caused when an electric field is applied across the membrane causing ionic migration and swelling in the polymer membrane, which is based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations and solid mechanics models. The mechanoelectric model is similar in underlying physics; however, the primary mechanisms of transduction are of different significance, where anion concentrations are as important as cations. COMSOL Multiphysics is utilized for simulations. Example applications of the modeling framework are presented. The simulated results provide additional support for the underlying physics theories discussed.

  11. Immediate loading of mandibular overdentures supported by one-piece, direct metal laser sintering mini-implants: a short-term prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Francesco G; Caprioglio, Alberto; Levrini, Luca; Farronato, Davide; Zecca, Piero A; Mangano, Carlo

    2015-02-01

    Only a few studies have dealt with immediately loaded, unsplinted mini-implants supporting ball attachment-retained mandibular overdentures (ODs). The aim of this study is to evaluate treatment outcomes of ball attachment-retained mandibular ODs supported by one-piece, unsplinted, immediately loaded, direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) mini-implants. Over a 4-year period (2009 to 2012), all patients referred to the Dental Clinic, University of Varese, and to a private practice for treatment with mandibular ODs were considered for inclusion in this study. Each patient received three or four DMLS mini-implants. Immediately after implant placement, a mandibular OD was connected to the implants. At each annual follow-up session, clinical and radiographic parameters were assessed, including the following outcome measures: 1) implant failures; 2) peri-implant marginal bone loss; and 3) complications. Statistical analysis was conducted using a life-table analysis. A total of 231 one-piece DMLS mini-implants were inserted in 62 patients. After 4 years of loading, six implants failed, giving an overall cumulative survival rate of 96.9%. The mean distance between the implant shoulder and the first visible bone-to-implant contact was 0.38 ± 0.25 and 0.62 ± 0.20 mm at the 1- and 4-year follow-up examinations, respectively. An incidence of 6.0% of biologic complications was reported; prosthetic complications were more frequent (12.9%). Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that the immediate loading of one-piece, unsplinted, DMLS titanium mini-implants by means of ball attachment-supported mandibular ODs is a successful treatment procedure. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to confirm these results.

  12. The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS project: An open-label pragmatic randomised control trial comparing the efficacy of differing therapeutic agents for primary care detoxification from either street heroin or methadone [ISRCTN07752728

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheard Laura

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heroin is a synthetic opioid with an extensive illicit market leading to large numbers of people becoming addicted. Heroin users often present to community treatment services requesting detoxification and in the UK various agents are used to control symptoms of withdrawal. Dissatisfaction with methadone detoxification 8 has lead to the use of clonidine, lofexidine, buprenorphine and dihydrocodeine; however, there remains limited evaluative research. In Leeds, a city of 700,000 people in the North of England, dihydrocodeine is the detoxification agent of choice. Sublingual buprenorphine, however, is being introduced. The comparative value of these two drugs for helping people successfully and comfortably withdraw from heroin has never been compared in a randomised trial. Additionally, there is a paucity of research evaluating interventions among drug users in the primary care setting. This study seeks to address this by randomising drug users presenting in primary care to receive either dihydrocodeine or buprenorphine. Methods/design The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS project is a pragmatic randomised trial which will compare the open use of buprenorphine with dihydrocodeine for illicit opiate detoxification, in the UK primary care setting. The LEEDS project will involve consenting adults and will be run in specialist general practice surgeries throughout Leeds. The primary outcome will be the results of a urine opiate screening at the end of the detoxification regimen. Adverse effects and limited data to three and six months will be acquired.

  13. Evaluation of white-rot fungi for detoxification and decolorization of effluents from the green olive debittering process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aggelis, G.; Ehaliotis, C.; Nerud, František; Stoychev, I.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 59, - (2002), s. 353-360 ISSN 0175-7598 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : white * rot * detoxification Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.744, year: 2002

  14. Complications related to osteopenia in the thoracic spine on admission chest radiographs of substance abuse detoxification patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haramati, L.B.; Alterman, D.D.; Israel, G.M.; Haramati, N.; Mallavurapu, R.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To assess the prevalence of complications related to osteopenia in the thoracic spine (anterior wedging and fish vertebrae) of patients admitted for substance abuse detoxification. Design and patients. We retrospectively identified 150 sequential patients admitted to our drug and alcohol detoxification ward in whom posteroanterior and lateral admission chest radiographs and clinical charts were available for review. There were 116 men and 34 women with a mean age of 37 years (range 19-67 years). Thirty-eight patients were admitted for drug detoxification, 37 for alcohol detoxification, and 75 for drug and alcohol detoxification. These patients were compared with 66 age- and sex-matched controls from our hospital's employee health service. Two radiologists reviewed all chest radiographs for the presence of anterior wedging and fish vertebrae in the thoracic spine and other nonspinal fractures. Serum calcium and inorganic phosphorus levels were recorded for the substance abuse detoxification patients. Results. Forty-nine percent (n=73) of detoxification patients had complications of osteopenia in the thoracic spine including: anterior wedging (n=47), fish vertebrae (n=21), or both (n=5). Twenty-four percent (n=36) of patients had an elevated serum inorganic phosphorus level and one patient had an elevated serum calcium level. Patients with anterior wedging or fish vertebrae included: 45% (n=45) of patients below age 40 years, 35% (n=12) of women, 41% (n=15) of drug detoxification patients, 58% (n=22) of alcohol detoxification patients, 48% (n=36) of drug and alcohol detoxification patients, and 47% (n=17) of patients with elevated serum inorganic phosphorus (P=NS). Six percent (n=9) of our study population had nonspinal fractures on their chest radiographs. Twenty-one percent (n=14) of controls had complications of osteopenia in the thoracic spine (all anterior wedging). This prevalence differed significantly (P<0.05, chi-squared) from the study population

  15. Complications related to osteopenia in the thoracic spine on admission chest radiographs of substance abuse detoxification patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haramati, L.B.; Alterman, D.D.; Israel, G.M.; Haramati, N. [Department of Radiology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Mallavurapu, R. [Department of Psychiatry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Objective. To assess the prevalence of complications related to osteopenia in the thoracic spine (anterior wedging and fish vertebrae) of patients admitted for substance abuse detoxification. Design and patients. We retrospectively identified 150 sequential patients admitted to our drug and alcohol detoxification ward in whom posteroanterior and lateral admission chest radiographs and clinical charts were available for review. There were 116 men and 34 women with a mean age of 37 years (range 19-67 years). Thirty-eight patients were admitted for drug detoxification, 37 for alcohol detoxification, and 75 for drug and alcohol detoxification. These patients were compared with 66 age- and sex-matched controls from our hospital`s employee health service. Two radiologists reviewed all chest radiographs for the presence of anterior wedging and fish vertebrae in the thoracic spine and other nonspinal fractures. Serum calcium and inorganic phosphorus levels were recorded for the substance abuse detoxification patients. Results. Forty-nine percent (n=73) of detoxification patients had complications of osteopenia in the thoracic spine including: anterior wedging (n=47), fish vertebrae (n=21), or both (n=5). Twenty-four percent (n=36) of patients had an elevated serum inorganic phosphorus level and one patient had an elevated serum calcium level. Patients with anterior wedging or fish vertebrae included: 45% (n=45) of patients below age 40 years, 35% (n=12) of women, 41% (n=15) of drug detoxification patients, 58% (n=22) of alcohol detoxification patients, 48% (n=36) of drug and alcohol detoxification patients, and 47% (n=17) of patients with elevated serum inorganic phosphorus (P=NS). Six percent (n=9) of our study population had nonspinal fractures on their chest radiographs. Twenty-one percent (n=14) of controls had complications of osteopenia in the thoracic spine (all anterior wedging). This prevalence differed significantly (P<0.05, chi-squared) from the study population

  16. High efficient detoxification of mustard gas surrogate based on nanofibrous fabric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuebo; Du, Xinyu; Wang, Jiaona; Yin, Yingying; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Shuyu; Li, Nianwu; Li, Congju

    2018-04-05

    In recent years, people pay more attention to the protection against chemical warfare agents, due to the increase in the probability of usage of these chemical warfare agents in wars or terrorist attacks. In this work, MgO nanoparticles were in-situ growth on the surface of poly(m-phenylene Isophthalamide) (PMIA) forming a flexible and breathable fabric for the detoxification of mustard gas surrogate. The as-prepared nanofibrous membrane possesses a "flower-like" structure of which endows not only increase the specific surface area of the composite but also prevent the agglomeration of the MgO nanoparticles. The detoxification ability of the PMIA@MgO nanofibrous fabric was demonstrated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). It is found that after 20 h of reaction time, 70.56% of the mustard gas surrogate have been decomposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Detoxification of zearalenone from corn oil by adsorption of functionalized GO systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaojuan; Sun, Changpo; Xu, Jing; Liu, Di; Han, Yangying; Wu, Songling; Luo, Xiaohong

    2018-02-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) and its functionalized systems have very unique structural advantages as excellent adsorbent or substrate material in the removal of organic contaminants. Herein, we reported a strategy to establish functionalized GO system (FGO) using amphiphilic molecules didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) as a modifier for the detoxification of zearalenone (ZEN) from corn oil. The adsorption property for the removal of ZEN from edible corn oils under different experimental conditions such as pH, amphiphilic molecules, time and temperature was investigated in detail. The morphology structure, adsorption isotherm, adsorption kinetics and the recyclability of FGO systems have also been researched, systematically. The FGO systems exhibit a higher adsorption efficiency, recyclability and thermostability in comparison with the traditional adsorbent materials. It provides an insight into the detoxification of mycotoxin from edible oils by graphene-based new materials.

  18. Long-Acting Injectable Naltrexone Induction: A Randomized Trial of Outpatient Opioid Detoxification With Naltrexone Versus Buprenorphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Maria; Bisaga, Adam; Pavlicova, Martina; Choi, C Jean; Mishlen, Kaitlyn; Carpenter, Kenneth M; Levin, Frances R; Dakwar, Elias; Mariani, John J; Nunes, Edward V

    2017-05-01

    At present there is no established optimal approach for transitioning opioid-dependent adults to extended-release injection naltrexone (XR-naltrexone) while preventing relapse. The authors conducted a trial examining the efficacy of two methods of outpatient opioid detoxification for induction to XR-naltrexone. Participants were 150 opioid-dependent adults randomly assigned 2:1 to one of two outpatient detoxification regimens, naltrexone-assisted detoxification or buprenorphine-assisted detoxification, followed by an injection of XR-naltrexone. Naltrexone-assisted detoxification lasted 7 days and included a single day of buprenorphine followed by ascending doses of oral naltrexone along with clonidine and other adjunctive medications. Buprenorphine-assisted detoxification included a 7-day buprenorphine taper followed by a week-long delay before administration of XR-naltrexone, consistent with official prescribing information for XR-naltrexone. Participants from both groups received behavioral therapy focused on medication adherence and a second dose of XR-naltrexone. Compared with participants in the buprenorphine-assisted detoxification condition, participants assigned to naltrexone-assisted detoxification were significantly more likely to be successfully inducted to XR-naltrexone (56.1% compared with 32.7%) and to receive the second injection at week 5 (50.0% compared with 26.9%). Both models adjusted for primary type of opioid use, route of opioid administration, and morphine equivalents at baseline. These results demonstrate the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of low-dose naltrexone, in conjunction with single-day buprenorphine dosing and adjunctive nonopioid medications, for initiating adults with opioid dependence to XR-naltrexone. This strategy offers a promising alternative to the high rates of attrition and relapse currently observed with agonist tapers in both inpatient and outpatient settings.

  19. Biotic interaction between earthworms and pesticide degrading bacteria - Impact on the detoxification service of soil

    OpenAIRE

    Monard, Cécile; Vandenkoornhuyse, Philippe; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Binet, Françoise

    2010-01-01

    Earthworms are efficient soil engineers that change the physical and chemical properties of soil and act in turn on soil microbial communities. Earthworm bioturbation will thus impact microbial processes in soil and also the generated ecosystemic services such as detoxification function. By using RNA based Stable Isotope Probing we demonstrated that the bacterial communities responsive to 13 C enrichments in earthworm casts were different from those in bulk soil resulting in different degrada...

  20. Climate change increases the risk of herbicide-resistant weeds due to enhanced detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzrafi, Maor; Seiwert, Bettina; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Rubin, Baruch; Peleg, Zvi

    2016-12-01

    Global warming will increase the incidence of metabolism-based reduced herbicide efficacy on weeds and, therefore, the risk for evolution of non-target site herbicide resistance. Climate changes affect food security both directly and indirectly. Weeds are the major biotic factor limiting crop production worldwide, and herbicides are the most cost-effective way for weed management. Processes associated with climatic changes, such as elevated temperatures, can strongly affect weed control efficiency. Responses of several grass weed populations to herbicides that inhibit acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) were examined under different temperature regimes. We characterized the mechanism of temperature-dependent sensitivity and the kinetics of pinoxaden detoxification. The products of pinoxaden detoxification were quantified. Decreased sensitivity to ACCase inhibitors was observed under elevated temperatures. Pre-treatment with the cytochrome-P450 inhibitor malathion supports a non-target site metabolism-based mechanism of herbicide resistance. The first 48 h after herbicide application were crucial for pinoxaden detoxification. The levels of the inactive glucose-conjugated pinoxaden product (M5) were found significantly higher under high- than low-temperature regime. Under high temperature, a rapid elevation in the level of the intermediate metabolite (M4) was found only in pinoxaden-resistant plants. Our results highlight the quantitative nature of non-target-site resistance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence for temperature-dependent herbicide sensitivity based on metabolic detoxification. These findings suggest an increased risk for the evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds under predicted climatic conditions.

  1. Overexpression of multiple detoxification genes in deltamethrin resistant Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The small brown planthopper (SBPH, Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén, is one of the major rice pests in Asia and has developed resistance to multiple classes of insecticides. Understanding resistance mechanisms is essential to the management of this pest. Biochemical and molecular assays were performed in this study to systematically characterize deltamethrin resistance mechanisms with laboratory-selected resistant and susceptible strains of SBPH. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Deltamethrin resistant strains of SBPH (JH-del were derived from a field population by continuously selections (up to 30 generations in the laboratory, while a susceptible strain (JHS was obtained from the same population by removing insecticide pressure for 30 generations. The role of detoxification enzymes in the resistance was investigated using synergism and enzyme activity assays with strains of different resistant levels. Furthermore, 71 cytochrome P450, 93 esterases and 12 glutathione-S-transferases cDNAs were cloned based on transcriptome data of a field collected population. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR screening analysis of 176 identified detoxification genes demonstrated that multiple P450 and esterase genes were overexpressed (>2-fold in JH-del strains (G4 and G30 when compared to that in JHS, and the results of quantitative PCR coincided with the semi-quantitative RT-PCR results. Target mutation at IIS3-IIS6 regions encoded by the voltage-gated sodium channel gene was ruled out for conferring the observed resistance. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: As the first attempt to discover genes potentially involved in SBPH pyrethroid resistance, this study putatively identified several candidate genes of detoxification enzymes that were significantly overexpressed in the resistant strain, which matched the synergism and enzyme activity testing. The biochemical and molecular evidences suggest that the high level pyrethroid resistance in L. striatellus could be due to

  2. Evidence of species-specific detoxification processes for trace elements in shorebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Magali; Bocher, Pierrick; Cosson, Richard P; Churlaud, Carine; Bustamante, Paco

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated sub-lethal effects and detoxification processes activated in free-ranging Red Knots (RKs) (Calidris canutus) from the Pertuis Charentais on the Atlantic coast of France, and compared the results with previous data obtained on another shorebird species, the Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa). The concentrations of 13 trace elements (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) were assessed in the liver, kidneys, muscle and feathers. Stable isotope analyses of carbon and nitrogen were carried out to determine whether differences in diet explained variations in elemental uptake. The mRNA expression of relevant genes (cytochrome c oxidase 1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, Cu/Zn and Mn superoxide dismutase, catalase, metallothionein, malic enzyme), antioxidant enzyme activities (catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase), and metallothionein (MT) levels were investigated to shed light on trace element detoxification and toxic effects. Although Red Knots were characterized by elevated As and Se concentrations which were potentially toxic, most elements were usually below toxicity threshold levels. The results strongly suggested a dietary specialization of Red Knots, with individuals feeding on higher trophic status prey experiencing higher As, Hg and Se burdens. Red Knots and Godwits also showed discrepancies in elemental accumulation and detoxification processes. Higher As and Se concentrations in Red Knots enhanced catalase gene expression and enzyme activity, while Godwits had higher Ag, Cu, Fe and Zn levels and showed higher MT production and GPx activity. The results strongly suggest that detoxification pathways are essentially trace element- and species-specific.

  3. Toxicity of Plant Secondary Metabolites Modulating Detoxification Genes Expression for Natural Red Palm Weevil Pesticide Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohammed AlJabr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the larvicidal and growth-inhibiting activities, and underlying detoxification mechanism of red palm weevil against phenylpropanoids, an important class of plant secondary metabolites. Toxicity of α-asarone, eugenol, isoeugenol, methyl eugenol, methyl isoeugenol, coumarin, coumarin 6, coniferyl aldehyde, diniconazole, ethyl cinnamate, and rosmarinic acid was evaluated by incorporation into the artificial diet. All of the phenylpropanoids exhibited dose- and time-dependent insecticidal activity. Among all the tested phenylpropanoids, coumarin exhibited the highest toxicity by revealing the least LD50 value (0.672 g/L. In addition, the most toxic compound (coumarin observed in the current study, deteriorated the growth resulting tremendous reduction (78.39% in efficacy of conversion of digested food (ECD, and (ECI efficacy of conversion of ingested food (70.04% of tenth-instar red palm weevil larvae. The energy-deficient red palm weevil larvae through their intrinsic abilities showed enhanced response to their digestibility resulting 27.78% increase in approximate digestibility (AD compared to control larvae. The detoxification response of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus larvae determined by the quantitative expression of cytochrome P450, esterases, and glutathione S-transferase revealed enhanced expression among moderately toxic and ineffective compounds. These genes especially cytochrome P450 and GST detoxify the target compounds by enhancing their solubility that leads rapid excretion and degradation resulting low toxicity towards red palm weevil larvae. On the other hand, the most toxic (coumarin silenced the genes involved in the red palm weevil detoxification mechanism. Based on the toxicity, growth retarding, and masking detoxification activities, coumarin could be a useful future natural red palm weevil-controlling agent.

  4. Toxicity of Plant Secondary Metabolites Modulating Detoxification Genes Expression for Natural Red Palm Weevil Pesticide Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlJabr, Ahmed Mohammed; Hussain, Abid; Rizwan-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Al-Ayedh, Hassan

    2017-01-20

    This study aimed to explore the larvicidal and growth-inhibiting activities, and underlying detoxification mechanism of red palm weevil against phenylpropanoids, an important class of plant secondary metabolites. Toxicity of α-asarone, eugenol, isoeugenol, methyl eugenol, methyl isoeugenol, coumarin, coumarin 6, coniferyl aldehyde, diniconazole, ethyl cinnamate, and rosmarinic acid was evaluated by incorporation into the artificial diet. All of the phenylpropanoids exhibited dose- and time-dependent insecticidal activity. Among all the tested phenylpropanoids, coumarin exhibited the highest toxicity by revealing the least LD 50 value (0.672 g/L). In addition, the most toxic compound (coumarin) observed in the current study, deteriorated the growth resulting tremendous reduction (78.39%) in efficacy of conversion of digested food (ECD), and (ECI) efficacy of conversion of ingested food (70.04%) of tenth-instar red palm weevil larvae. The energy-deficient red palm weevil larvae through their intrinsic abilities showed enhanced response to their digestibility resulting 27.78% increase in approximate digestibility (AD) compared to control larvae. The detoxification response of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus larvae determined by the quantitative expression of cytochrome P450 , esterases , and glutathione S-transferase revealed enhanced expression among moderately toxic and ineffective compounds. These genes especially cytochrome P450 and GST detoxify the target compounds by enhancing their solubility that leads rapid excretion and degradation resulting low toxicity towards red palm weevil larvae. On the other hand, the most toxic (coumarin) silenced the genes involved in the red palm weevil detoxification mechanism. Based on the toxicity, growth retarding, and masking detoxification activities, coumarin could be a useful future natural red palm weevil-controlling agent.

  5. RNA interference revealed the roles of two carboxylesterase genes in insecticide detoxification in Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianqin; Li, Daqi; Ge, Pingting; Yang, Meiling; Guo, Yaping; Zhu, Kun Yan; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2013-10-01

    Carboxylesterases (CarEs) play key roles in metabolism of specific hormones and detoxification of dietary and environmental xenobiotics in insects. We sequenced and characterized CarE cDNAs putatively derived from two different genes named LmCesA1 and LmCesA2 from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, one of the most important agricultural pests in the world. The full-length cDNAs of LmCesA1 (1892 bp) and LmCesA2 (1643 bp) encode 543 and 501 amino acid residues, respectively. The two deduced CarEs share a characteristic α/β-hydrolase structure, including a catalytic triad composed of Ser-Glu (Asp)-His and a consensus sequence GQSAG, which suggests that both CarEs are biologically active. Phylogenetic analysis grouped both LmCesA1 and LmCesA2 into clade A which has been suggested to be involved in dietary detoxification. Both transcripts were highly expressed in all the nymphal and adult stages, but only slightly expressed in eggs. Analyses of tissue-dependent expression and in situ hybridization revealed that both transcripts were primarily expressed in gastric caeca. RNA interference (RNAi) of LmCesA1 and LmCesA2 followed by a topical application of carbaryl or deltamethrin did not lead to a significantly increased mortality with either insecticide. However, RNAi of LmCesA1 and LmCesA2 increased insect mortalities by 20.9% and 14.5%, respectively, when chlorpyrifos was applied. These results suggest that these genes might not play a significant role in detoxification of carbaryl and deltamethrin but are most likely to be involved in detoxification of chlorpyrifos in L. migratoria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Toxicokinetic Profiles of Alpha-ketoglutarate Cyanohydrin, a Cyanide Detoxification Product, following Exposure to Potassium Cyanide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    cyanide poisoning with cobinamide renders -KgCN an ineffective diagnostic marker. a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 6 May...Toxicokinetics -Ketoglutarate a b s t r a c t Poisoning by cyanide can be verified by analysis of the cyanide detoxification product...potentially be used to verify cyanide exposure, limited toxicokinetic data in cyanide - poisoned animals are available. We, therefore

  7. Benzo(a)pyrene activation and detoxification by human pulmonary alveolar macrophages and lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, M.V.; McLemore, T.L.; Martin, R.R.; Marshall, M.H.; Wray, N.P.; Busbee, D.L.; Cantrell, E.T.; Arnott, M.S.; Griffin, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    Comparisons of pulmonary alveolar macrophages and circulating lymphocytes from five smokers and five nonsmokers for their ability to metabolize benzo(a)pyrene as determined by high pressure liquid chromatography were carried out. Utilizing this approach, further investigation of activation and detoxification by several human cell types could provide the basis for more precise and comprehensive studies of carcinogen and drug metabolism in the human lung, and for a better assessment of cancer risk in selected populations

  8. Bacterial epimerization as a route for deoxynivalenol detoxification: the influence of growth and environmental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wei eHe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by several Fusarium species that infest wheat and corn. Food and feed contaminated with DON pose a health risk to both humans and livestock and form a major barrier for international trade. Microbial detoxification represents an alternative approach to the physical and chemical detoxification methods of DON-contaminated grains. The present study details the characterization of a novel bacterium, Devosia mutans 17-2-E-8, that is capable of transforming DON to a non-toxic stereoisomer, 3-epi-deoxynivalenol under aerobic conditions, mild temperature (25-30 oC, and neutral pH. The biotransformation takes place in the presence of rich sources of organic nitrogen and carbon without the need of DON to be the sole carbon source. The process is enzymatic in nature and endures a high detoxification capacity (3 µg DON/h/108 cells. The above conditions collectively suggest the possibility of utilizing the isolated bacterium as a feed treatment to address DON contamination under empirical field conditions.

  9. Honey constituents up-regulate detoxification and immunity genes in the western honey bee Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wenfu; Schuler, Mary A; Berenbaum, May R

    2013-05-28

    As a managed pollinator, the honey bee Apis mellifera is critical to the American agricultural enterprise. Recent colony losses have thus raised concerns; possible explanations for bee decline include nutritional deficiencies and exposures to pesticides and pathogens. We determined that constituents found in honey, including p-coumaric acid, pinocembrin, and pinobanksin 5-methyl ether, specifically induce detoxification genes. These inducers are primarily found not in nectar but in pollen in the case of p-coumaric acid (a monomer of sporopollenin, the principal constituent of pollen cell walls) and propolis, a resinous material gathered and processed by bees to line wax cells. RNA-seq analysis (massively parallel RNA sequencing) revealed that p-coumaric acid specifically up-regulates all classes of detoxification genes as well as select antimicrobial peptide genes. This up-regulation has functional significance in that that adding p-coumaric acid to a diet of sucrose increases midgut metabolism of coumaphos, a widely used in-hive acaricide, by ∼60%. As a major component of pollen grains, p-coumaric acid is ubiquitous in the natural diet of honey bees and may function as a nutraceutical regulating immune and detoxification processes. The widespread apicultural use of honey substitutes, including high-fructose corn syrup, may thus compromise the ability of honey bees to cope with pesticides and pathogens and contribute to colony losses.

  10. Detoxification of wood preserving waste under ambient, enhanced and chemical pretreatment conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, M.S.; Brown, K.W.; Dale, B.E.; Donnelly, K.C.; He, L.Y.; Markiewicz, K.V. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Detoxification of pentachlorophenol-containing wood preserving waste was monitored under ambient, enhanced and chemical pretreatment conditions for genotoxicity and parent compound removal. Samples were collected throughout the treatment periods and sequentially extracted with dichloromethane and methanol with the Tecator Soxtec apparatus. The organic extracts were analyzed on GC/ECD and GC/MS. The extract mutagenic and genotoxic potentials were evaluated with and without metabolic activation with the Salmonella Microsomal and E. coli Prophage Induction assays. The Salmonella mutagenic responses of extracts from Weswood soil amended with wood preserving waste and treated under ambient conditions were 2.0, 34.6 and 2.4 times greater than the solvent control on days 0, 540 and 1,200 respectively. Organic extracts of soil amended with wood preserving waste and treated under enhanced conditions in a solid-phase rotating drum bioreactor had mutagenic potentials of 3.4, 4.9 and 3.5 on days 0, 14 and 30, respectively. Extracts from wood preserving waste sludge treated with potassium polyethylene glycol were shown to have mutagenic potentials of 2.8, 6.1 and 3.8 at 0, 10 and 30 minutes. The results indicate that the initial products of the wood preserving waste detoxification under all treatment conditions appear to have greater genotoxic potentials than the starting material. The results also suggest that a more rapid detoxification occurs under enhanced and chemical pretreatment conditions.

  11. Home-based detoxification for neonatal abstinence syndrome reduces length of hospital admission without prolonging treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirk, Cameron L; Bowman, Ellen; Doyle, Lex W; Kamlin, Omar

    2014-06-01

    Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a drug withdrawal syndrome, secondary to in utero chemical exposure and characterised by tremor, irritability and feed intolerance. It often requires prolonged hospital treatment and separation of families. Outpatient therapy may reduce this burden, but current literature is sparse. This review aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of our home-based detoxification programme and compare it with standard inpatient care. Infants requiring treatment for NAS between January 2004 and December 2010 were reviewed. Data on demographics, drug exposure, length of stay and type of therapy were compared between infants selected for home-based therapy and those treated conventionally. Of the 118 infants who were admitted for treatment of NAS, 38 (32%) were managed at home. Infants receiving home-based detoxification had shorter hospital stays (mean 19 days vs. 39 days), with no increase in total duration of treatment (mean 36 days vs. 41 days), and were more likely to be breastfeeding on discharge from hospital care (45% vs. 22%). In selected infants, home-based detoxification is associated with reduced hospital stays and increased rates of breastfeeding, without prolonging therapy. Safety of the infants remains paramount, which precludes many from entering such a programme. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Novel metabolic biomarkers related to sulfur-dependent detoxification pathways in autistic patients of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yafee, Yusra A; Al-Ayadhi, Laila Y; Haq, Samina H; El-Ansary, Afaf K

    2011-11-04

    Xenobiotics are neurotoxins that dramatically alter the health of the child. In addition, an inefficient detoxification system leads to oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and immune dysfunction. The consensus among physicians who treat autism with a biomedical approach is that those on the spectrum are burdened with oxidative stress and immune problems. In a trial to understand the role of detoxification in the etiology of autism, selected parameters related to sulfur-dependent detoxification mechanisms in plasma of autistic children from Saudi Arabia will be investigated compared to control subjects. 20 males autistic children aged 3-15 years and 20 age and gender matching healthy children as control group were included in this study. Levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), total (GSH+GSSG), glutathione status (GSH/GSSG), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione- s-transferase (GST), thioredoxin (Trx), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and peroxidoxins (Prxs I and III) were determined. Reduced glutathione, total glutathione, GSH/GSSG and activity levels of GST were significantly lower, GR shows non-significant differences, while, Trx, TrxR and both Prx I and III recorded a remarkably higher values in autistics compared to control subjects. The impaired glutathione status together with the elevated Trx and TrxR and the remarkable over expression of both Prx I and Prx III, could be used as diagnostic biomarkers of autism.

  13. Diurnal variation of apoplastic ascorbate in winter wheat leaves in relation to ozone detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Pang, Jing; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhu, Jianguo; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko

    2015-12-01

    Besides stomatal closure, biological detoxification is an important protection mechanism for plants against ozone (O3). This study investigated the diurnal changes of ascorbate (a major detoxification agent) in the apoplast and leaf tissues of winter wheat grown under ambient air field conditions. Results showed the reduced ascorbate in the apoplast (ASCapo) exhibited a peak in late morning or midday, mismatching with either the maximum external O3 concentrations in mid-afternoon or the maximum stomatal O3 uptake between late morning and mid-afternoon. In contrast, the ASC in leaf tissues remained stable throughout the day. The investigations conducted in a Free-Air Concentration Elevation of O3 system confirmed that the diurnal variations of the ASCapo were induced more by the daily variations of O3 concentrations rather than the cumulative O3 effects. In conclusion, the O3-stress detoxification should be a dynamic variable rather than a fixed threshold as assumed in the stomatal flux-based O3 dose metrics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, K.V.; Deus-de-Oliveira, N.; Godoy, M.G.; Guimarães, Z.A.S.; Nascimento, V.V.; Melo, E.J.T. de; Freire, D.M.G.; Dansa-Petretski, M.; Machado, O.L.T.

    2012-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 × 10 5 cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH) 2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained

  15. Cadmium transfer and detoxification mechanisms in a soil-mulberry-silkworm system: phytoremediation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lingyun; Zhao, Ye; Wang, Shuifeng

    2015-11-01

    Phytoremediation has been proven to be an environmentally sound alternative for the recovery of contaminated soils, and the economic profit that comes along with the process might stimulate its field use. This study investigated cadmium (Cd) transfer and detoxification mechanisms in a soil-mulberry-silkworm system to estimate the suitability of the mulberry and silkworm as an alternative method for the remediation of Cd-polluted soil; it also explored the underlying mechanisms regulating the trophic transfer of Cd. The results show that both the mulberry and silkworm have high Cd tolerance. The transfer factor suggests that the mulberry has high potential for Cd extraction from polluted soil. The subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cd in mulberry leaves show that cell wall deposition and vacuolar compartmentalization play important role in Cd tolerance. In the presence of increasing Cd concentrations in silkworm food, detoxification mechanisms (excretion and homeostasis) were activated so that excess Cd was excreted in fecal balls, and metallothionein levels in the mid-gut, the posterior of the silk gland, and the fat body of silkworms were enhanced. And, the Cd concentrations in silk are at a low level, ranging from 0.02 to 0.21 mg kg(-1). Therefore, these mechanisms of detoxification can regulate Cd trophic transfer, and mulberry planting and silkworm breeding has high phytoremediation potential for Cd-contaminated soil.

  16. Subcellular partitioning of non-essential trace metals (Ag, As, Cd, Ni, Pb, and Tl) in livers of American (Anguilla rostrata) and European (Anguilla anguilla) yellow eels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosabal, Maikel [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Centre Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS–ETE), 490 de la Couronne, Québec (Québec) G1K 9A9 (Canada); Pierron, Fabien [Université de Bordeaux, UMR EPOC CNRS 5805, F-33400 Talence (France); CNRS, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33400 Talence (France); Couture, Patrice [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Centre Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS–ETE), 490 de la Couronne, Québec (Québec) G1K 9A9 (Canada); Baudrimont, Magalie [Université de Bordeaux, UMR EPOC CNRS 5805, F-33400 Talence (France); CNRS, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33400 Talence (France); Hare, Landis [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Centre Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS–ETE), 490 de la Couronne, Québec (Québec) G1K 9A9 (Canada); Campbell, Peter G.C., E-mail: peter.campbell@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Centre Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS–ETE), 490 de la Couronne, Québec (Québec) G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Handling of hepatic metals consistently involved cytosolic, thermostable ligands. • Granule-like fractions are also involved in the detoxification of Ni, Pb, and Tl. • Despite these sequestration mechanisms, metal detoxification is incomplete. • Along the metal gradient, concentrations increase in metal-sensitive fractions. • This increase could represent a toxicological risk for the yellow eels. - Abstract: We determined the intracellular compartmentalization of the trace metals Ag, As, Cd, Ni, Pb, and Tl in the livers of yellow eels collected from the Saint Lawrence River system in Canada (Anguilla rostrata) and in the area of the Gironde estuary in France (Anguilla anguilla). Differential centrifugation, NaOH digestion and thermal shock were used to separate eel livers into putative “sensitive” fractions (heat-denatured proteins, mitochondria and microsomes + lysosomes) and detoxified metal fractions (heat-stable peptides/proteins and granules). The cytosolic heat-stable fraction (HSP) was consistently involved in the detoxification of all trace metals. In addition, granule-like structures played a complementary role in the detoxification of Ni, Pb, and Tl in both eel species. However, these detoxification mechanisms were not completely effective because increasing trace metal concentrations in whole livers were accompanied by significant increases in the concentrations of most trace metals in “sensitive” subcellular fractions, that is, mitochondria, heat-denatured cytosolic proteins and microsomes + lysosomes. Among these “sensitive” fractions, mitochondria were the major binding sites for As, Cd, Pb, and Tl. This accumulation of non-essential metals in “sensitive” fractions likely represents a health risk for eels inhabiting the Saint Lawrence and Gironde environments.

  17. Differential spontaneous recovery across cognitive abilities during detoxification period in alcohol-dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Petit

    Full Text Available There is a lack of consensus regarding the extent to which cognitive dysfunctions may recover upon cessation of alcohol intake by alcohol-dependents (AD, and the divergent findings are most likely due to methodological differences between the various studies. The present study was aimed at conducting a very strict longitudinal study of cognitive recovery in terms of assessment points, the duration of abstinence, control of age and duration of the addiction, and by use of individual analyses in addition to mean group comparisons. Our study further focused on the 2-3 week phase of alcohol detoxification that is already known to positively affect many biological, emotional, motivational, as well as neural variables, followed by longer-term therapies for which good cognitive functioning is needed.41 AD inpatients undergoing a detoxification program, and 41 matched controls, were evaluated twice in terms of five cognitive functions (i.e., short-term memory, working memory, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and verbal fluency within a three-week interval [on the first day (T1 and the 18th day (T2 of abstinence for AD patients]. Emotional (positive and negative affectivity and depression and motivational (craving variables were also measured at both evaluation times.Although verbal fluency, short-term memory, and cognitive flexibility did not appear to be affected, the patients exhibited impaired inhibition and working memory at T1. While no recovery of inhibition was found to occur, the average working memory performance of the patients was comparable to that of the controls at T2. Improvements in emotional and motivational dimensions were also observed, although they did not correlate with the ones in working memory. Individual analysis showed that not all participants were impaired or recover the same functions.While inhibition deficits appear to persist after 18 days of detoxification, deficits in working memory, which is a central component of

  18. Using benzodiazepine detoxification and cognitive behavioral psychotherapy in the treatment of a patient with generalized anxiety disorder comorbid with high-dose zolpidem dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Hua Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, literature has shown that zolpidem dependence is not uncommon in the clinical practice, but there is no standard guideline for treatment of zolpidem dependence. Benzodiazepine detoxification has been widely used for alcohol detoxification, which is also an inhibitory substance. We would like to share the experience of benzodiazepine detoxification and cognitive behavioral psychotherapy in a patient with high-dose zolpidem dependence comorbid with generalized anxiety disorder.

  19. A prospective treatment for sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidi Bonjar MR

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Rashid Shahidi Bonjar,1 Leyla Shahidi Bonjar2 1School of Dentistry, 2College of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran Abstract: The present paper proposes a prospective auxiliary treatment for sepsis. There exists no record in the published media on the subject. As an auxiliary therapy, efficacious extracorporeal removal of sepsis-causing bacterial antigens and their toxins (BATs from the blood of septic patients is discussed. The principal component to this approach is a bacterial polyvalent antibody-column (BPVAC, which selectively traps wide spectrum of BATs from blood in an extracorporeal circuit, and detoxified blood returns back to the patient’s body. BPVAC treatment would be a device of targeted medicine. Detoxification is performed under supervision of trained personnel using simple blood-circulating machines in which blood circulates from the patient to BPVAC and back to the patient aseptically. BPVACs’ reactive sites consist of carbon nanotubes on which a vast spectra of polyvalent BATs-antibodies are bond to. The devise acts as a biological filter that selectively immobilizes harmful BATs from intoxicated blood; however, no dialysis is involved. For effective neutralization, BPVAC provides large contact surface area with blood. BPVAC approach would have advantages of: 1 urgent neutralization of notorious BATs from blood of septic patients; 2 applicability in parallel with conventional treatments; 3 potential to minimize side effects of the malady; 4 applicability for a vast range of BATs; 5 potential to eliminate contact of BATs with internal tissues and organs; 6 tolerability by patients sensitive to antiserum injections; 7 capability for universal application; 8 affectivity when antibiotic-resistant bacteria are involved and the physician has no or limited access to appropriate antibiotics; and 10 being a single-use, disposable, and stand-alone device. Before using it for clinical trials in

  20. Differences in metal sequestration between zebra mussels from clean and polluted field locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voets, Judith; Redeker, Erik Steen; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2009-06-04

    Organisms are able to detoxify accumulated metals by, e.g. binding them to metallothionein (MT) and/or sequestering them in metal-rich granules (MRG). The different factors involved in determining the capacity or efficiency with which metals are detoxified are not yet known. In this work we studied how the sub-cellular distribution pattern of cadmium, copper and zinc in whole tissue of zebra mussels from clean and polluted surface waters is influenced by the total accumulated metal concentration and by its physiological condition. Additionally we measured the metallothionein concentration in the mussel tissue. Metal concentration increased gradually in the metal-sensitive and detoxified sub-cellular fractions with increasing whole tissue concentrations. However, metal concentrations in the sensitive fractions did not increase to the same extent as metal concentrations in whole tissues. In more polluted mussels the contribution of MRG and MT became more important. Nevertheless, metal detoxification was not sufficient to prevent metal binding to heat-sensitive low molecular weight proteins (HDP fraction). Finally we found an indication that metal detoxification was influenced by the condition of the zebra mussels. MT content could be explained for up to 83% by variations in Zn concentration and physiological condition of the mussels.

  1. Differences in metal sequestration between zebra mussels from clean and polluted field locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voets, Judith; Redeker, Erik Steen; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2009-01-01

    Organisms are able to detoxify accumulated metals by, e.g. binding them to metallothionein (MT) and/or sequestering them in metal-rich granules (MRG). The different factors involved in determining the capacity or efficiency with which metals are detoxified are not yet known. In this work we studied how the sub-cellular distribution pattern of cadmium, copper and zinc in whole tissue of zebra mussels from clean and polluted surface waters is influenced by the total accumulated metal concentration and by its physiological condition. Additionally we measured the metallothionein concentration in the mussel tissue. Metal concentration increased gradually in the metal-sensitive and detoxified sub-cellular fractions with increasing whole tissue concentrations. However, metal concentrations in the sensitive fractions did not increase to the same extent as metal concentrations in whole tissues. In more polluted mussels the contribution of MRG and MT became more important. Nevertheless, metal detoxification was not sufficient to prevent metal binding to heat-sensitive low molecular weight proteins (HDP fraction). Finally we found an indication that metal detoxification was influenced by the condition of the zebra mussels. MT content could be explained for up to 83% by variations in Zn concentration and physiological condition of the mussels.

  2. Differences in metal sequestration between zebra mussels from clean and polluted field locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voets, Judith [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Redeker, Erik Steen [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Institute for Materials Research, Chemistry Division, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Building D G1-36, B 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Blust, Ronny [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Bervoets, Lieven, E-mail: Lieven.bervoets@ua.ac.be [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2009-06-04

    Organisms are able to detoxify accumulated metals by, e.g. binding them to metallothionein (MT) and/or sequestering them in metal-rich granules (MRG). The different factors involved in determining the capacity or efficiency with which metals are detoxified are not yet known. In this work we studied how the sub-cellular distribution pattern of cadmium, copper and zinc in whole tissue of zebra mussels from clean and polluted surface waters is influenced by the total accumulated metal concentration and by its physiological condition. Additionally we measured the metallothionein concentration in the mussel tissue. Metal concentration increased gradually in the metal-sensitive and detoxified sub-cellular fractions with increasing whole tissue concentrations. However, metal concentrations in the sensitive fractions did not increase to the same extent as metal concentrations in whole tissues. In more polluted mussels the contribution of MRG and MT became more important. Nevertheless, metal detoxification was not sufficient to prevent metal binding to heat-sensitive low molecular weight proteins (HDP fraction). Finally we found an indication that metal detoxification was influenced by the condition of the zebra mussels. MT content could be explained for up to 83% by variations in Zn concentration and physiological condition of the mussels.

  3. Intestinal detoxification time of hand-foot-and-mouth disease in children with EV71 infection and the related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Shu; Wei, Yi; Zhao, Shi-Yong; Lin, Xian-Yao; Shao, Qi-Min; Wang, Juan

    2015-11-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is a common pediatric infectious disease caused by a variety of intestinal viruses. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the primary pathogen that might cause severe symptoms and even death in children with HFMD. This study aimed to investigate the intestinal detoxification time of HFMD children with EV71 infection and its related factors. Sixty-five HFMD children with EV71 infection were followed up. Their stool samples were collected once every 4 to 7 days. Viral nucleic acids were detected by fluorescent polymerase chain reaction until the results became negative. The positive rates of viral nucleic acids were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. The Log-rank test and Cox-Mantel test were used to analyze factors affecting the HFMD children with EV71 infection. On the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 10th week, the positive rates of viral nucleic acids in stool samples of the 65 children were 94.6%, 48.1%, 17.2% and 0, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that the intestinal detoxification time of the children were related to gender, pre-admission disease course, severity of disease, and use of steroids or gamma globulin (Pdisease was an independent factor affecting the intestinal detoxification time (Pdisease was an important factor affecting the intestinal detoxification time of HFMD children with EV71 infection. Severe HFMD children with EV71 infection had a longer intestinal detoxification time.

  4. Detoxification of alkyl methylphosphonofluoridates by an oxime-substituted β-cyclodextrin--an in vitro structure-activity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierwisch, Anne; Zengerle, Michael; Thiermann, Horst; Kubik, Stefan; Worek, Franz

    2014-01-13

    Detoxification rates of a series of alkyl methylphosphonofluoridates by an oxime-substituted β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) were assessed quantitatively by using an AChE inhibition assay. The cyclodextrin (CD) derivative was identified in previous work as a highly active cyclosarin scavenger. Here, a structure-activity relationship was established by investigating the effect of this CD on the detoxification of sarin derivatives differing in the structure of the alkoxy residue. The results show that detoxification rates correlate with the steric bulk and chain length of the alkoxy group in the organophosphonate (OP). OPs with larger, more bulky residues are detoxified more rapidly, with the exception of soman, which is bearing a pinacolyloxy side chain. In addition, the substituted CD was in every case more active than unsubstituted, native β-CD with up to a 400-fold difference. Comparing the kinetic results obtained with the known thermodynamic stabilities of related β-CD complexes indicate that detoxification rates generally increase when the alkoxy residue on the OP is exchanged by a residue, which forms a more stable complex with β-CD. This correlation lends support to the proposed mode of action of the substituted CD, involving initial complexation of the OP followed by reaction between the CD and the OP. The moderate to high efficacy on the detoxification of sarin derivatives suggests the potential applicability of this CD as a small molecule scavenger for G-type nerve agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Unique structure and regulation of the nematode detoxification gene regulator SKN-1: implications to understanding and controlling drug resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Keith P.; Leung, Chi K.; Miyamoto, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    Nematodes parasitize an alarming number of people and agricultural animals globally and cause debilitating morbidity and mortality. Anthelmintics have been the primary tools used to control parasitic nematodes for the past several decades, but drug resistance is becoming a major obstacle. Xenobiotic detoxification pathways defend against drugs and other foreign chemicals in diverse organisms, and evidence is accumulating that they play a role in mediating resistance to anthelmintics in nematodes. Related anti-oxidation pathways may also provide filarial parasites protection against host free radical-mediated immune responses. Upstream regulatory pathways have received almost no attention in nematode parasites despite their potential to co-regulate multiple detoxification and anti-oxidation genes. The NRF2 transcription factor mediates inducible detoxification and anti-oxidation defenses in mammals and recent studies have demonstrated that it promotes multidrug resistance in some human tumors. Recent studies in the free-living model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have defined the homologous transcription factor SKN-1 as a master regulator of detoxification and anti-oxidation genes. Despite similar functions, SKN-1 and NRF2 have important differences in structure and regulatory pathways. Protein alignment and phylogenetic analyses indicate that these differences are shared among many nematodes making SKN-1 a candidate for specifically targeting nematode detoxification and anti-oxidation. PMID:22656429

  6. Only a minority of broad-range detoxification genes respond to a variety of phytotoxins in generalist Bemisia tabaci species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halon, Eyal; Eakteiman, Galit; Moshitzky, Pnina; Elbaz, Moshe; Alon, Michal; Pavlidi, Nena; Vontas, John; Morin, Shai

    2015-12-10

    Generalist insect can utilize two different modes for regulating their detoxification genes, the constitutive mode and the induced mode. Here, we used the Bemisia tabaci sibling species MEAM1 and MED, as a model system for studying constitutive and induced detoxification resistance and their associated tradeoffs. B. tabaci adults were allowed to feed through membranes for 24 h on diet containing only sucrose or sucrose with various phytotoxins. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses of 18 detoxification genes, indicated that relatively few transcripts were changed in both the MEAM1 and MED species, in response to the addition of phytotoxins to the diet. Induced transcription of detoxification genes only in the MED species, in response to the presence of indole-3-carbinol in the insect's diet, was correlated with maintenance of reproductive performance in comparison to significant reduction in performance of the MEAM1 species. Three genes, COE2, CYP6-like 5 and BtGST2, responded to more than one compound and were highly transcribed in the insect gut. Furthermore, functional assays showed that the BtGST2 gene encodes a protein capable of interacting with both flavonoids and glucosinolates. In conclusion, several detoxification genes were identified that could potentially be involved in the adaptation of B. tabaci to its host plants.

  7. Biological detoxification of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol and its use in genetically engineered crops and feed additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlovsky, Petr

    2011-08-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the major mycotoxin produced by Fusarium fungi in grains. Food and feed contaminated with DON pose a health risk to humans and livestock. The risk can be reduced by enzymatic detoxification. Complete mineralization of DON by microbial cultures has rarely been observed and the activities turned out to be unstable. The detoxification of DON by reactions targeting its epoxide group or hydroxyl on carbon 3 is more feasible. Microbial strains that de-epoxidize DON under anaerobic conditions have been isolated from animal digestive system. Feed additives claimed to de-epoxidize trichothecenes enzymatically are on the market but their efficacy has been disputed. A new detoxification pathway leading to 3-oxo-DON and 3-epi-DON was discovered in taxonomically unrelated soil bacteria from three continents; the enzymes involved remain to be identified. Arabidopsis, tobacco, wheat, barley, and rice were engineered to acetylate DON on carbon 3. In wheat expressing DON acetylation activity, the increase in resistance against Fusarium head blight was only moderate. The Tri101 gene from Fusarium sporotrichioides was used; Fusarium graminearum enzyme which possesses higher activity towards DON would presumably be a better choice. Glycosylation of trichothecenes occurs in plants, contributing to the resistance of wheat to F. graminearum infection. Marker-assisted selection based on the trichothecene-3-O-glucosyltransferase gene can be used in breeding for resistance. Fungal acetyltransferases and plant glucosyltransferases targeting carbon 3 of trichothecenes remain promising candidates for engineering resistance against Fusarium head blight. Bacterial enzymes catalyzing oxidation, epimerization, and less likely de-epoxidation of DON may extend this list in future.

  8. Can Chlorella pyrenoidosa be a bioindicator for hazardous solid waste detoxification?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Li-Fang, E-mail: hulif127@163.com [College of Quality and Safety Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Long, Yu-Yang; Shen, Dong-Sheng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310012 (China); Jiang, Chen-Jing [The Second Institute of Oceanography, SOA, Hangzhou 310012 (China)

    2012-02-01

    Four kinds of solid waste residue (SWR, S1 to S4) from different stages in a sequential detoxification process were chosen. The biotoxicity of the leachates from S1 to S4 was tested by Chlorella pyrenoidosa. The growth inhibition, the chlorophyll a (chla) and chlorophyll b (chlb) concentrations, and the ultrastructural morphology of cells of C. pyrenoidosa were studied. It shows that the growth inhibition of C. pyrenoidosa significantly increased with increasing leachate concentration when exposed to the leachates from S1, S2, S3, and S4, respectively. It well reflects the toxicity difference of leachate from SWR at different treatment stages, namely S1 > S2 > S3 > S4. Correspondingly, the chla and chlb concentrations of C. pyrenoidosa increased gradually as SWR was treated deeply. Leachate disrupted chlorophyll synthesis and inhibited cell growth. The changing of the ultrastructural morphology of cells under different leachate exposures, such as volume of chloroplasts and quantity of thylakoids reducing, confirmed the toxicity decrease of leachates from different stages. C. pyrenoidosa is a good bioindicator for hazardous solid waste detoxification. The EC{sub 50} at difference scenarios also suggests that it was feasible to estimate ecological toxicity of leachates to C. pyrenoidosa after exposure times of 72 h. C. pyrenoidosa can be introduced to evaluate the effect of hazardous solid waste disposal by biotoxicity assessment. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The detoxification process of hazardous solid waste was evaluated by Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The best exposure time of ecological toxicity assessment of Chlorella pyrenoidosa was presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The possible toxicity of the hazardous solid waste at different disposal stage on Chlorella pyrenoidosa was explored from cell tissue.

  9. Accumulation and detoxification dynamics of Chromium and antioxidant responses in juvenile rare minnow, Gobiocypris rarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Cong; Li, Meng; Zheng, Yao; Zhou, Ying; Wu, Feili; Wang, Zaizhao

    2017-09-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr 6+ ) compounds are hazardous via all exposure routes. To explore the dynamics of Cr accumulation and elimination and to reveal the mechanisms underlying detoxification and antioxidation in juvenile Gobiocypris rarus, one-month old G. rarus larvae were exposed to 0.1mgL -1 Cr 6+ for four weeks for accumulation and subsequently placed to clean water for another week for depuration. The contents of Cr were measured weekly in the whole body of G. rarus juveniles. The activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR), and contents of glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA), and transcripts of cat, Cu/Zn-sod, Mn-sod, gpx1, gstpi, gr, mt1, nrf2 and uba52 were determined. The results indicated that G. rarus juveniles had a strong ability to resist the Cr accumulation by Cr 6+ exposure and to remove Cr from the body in clean water. In addition, GST and MT proteins may be involved in the detoxification of Cr 6+ . Moreover, Cr 6+ -induced GST detoxification in G. rarus juveniles might be accomplished through the Nrf2-mediated regulation of gene expressions. The antioxidant enzyme systems exhibited a response mechanism of the protective enzymes in organisms when they are subjected to external environmental stress. Two weeks of Cr 6+ treatments could have led to the damage and consecutive degradation of antioxidant enzymes via ubiquitination, and MT proteins could be involved in protecting the activity of these enzymes. The capability of antioxidant enzyme systems to recover from the Cr 6+ -induced damage was strong in G. rarus juveniles after Cr 6+ was removed from the water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. CYP9Q-mediated detoxification of acaricides in the honey bee (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wenfu; Schuler, Mary A; Berenbaum, May R

    2011-08-02

    Although Apis mellifera, the western honey bee, has long encountered pesticides when foraging in agricultural fields, for two decades it has encountered pesticides in-hive in the form of acaricides to control Varroa destructor, a devastating parasitic mite. The pyrethroid tau-fluvalinate and the organophosphate coumaphos have been used for Varroa control, with little knowledge of honey bee detoxification mechanisms. Cytochrome P450-mediated detoxification contributes to pyrethroid tolerance in many insects, but specific P450s responsible for pesticide detoxification in honey bees (indeed, in any hymenopteran pollinator) have not been defined. We expressed and assayed CYP3 clan midgut P450s and demonstrated that CYP9Q1, CYP9Q2, and CYP9Q3 metabolize tau-fluvalinate to a form suitable for further cleavage by the carboxylesterases that also contribute to tau-fluvalinate tolerance. These in vitro assays indicated that all of the three CYP9Q enzymes also detoxify coumaphos. Molecular models demonstrate that coumaphos and tau-fluvalinate fit into the same catalytic pocket, providing a possible explanation for the synergism observed between these two compounds. Induction of CYP9Q2 and CYP9Q3 transcripts by honey extracts suggested that diet-derived phytochemicals may be natural substrates and heterologous expression of CYP9Q3 confirmed activity against quercetin, a flavonoid ubiquitous in honey. Up-regulation by honey constituents suggests that diet may influence the ability of honey bees to detoxify pesticides. Quantitative RT-PCR assays demonstrated that tau-fluvalinate enhances CYP9Q3 transcripts, whereas the pyrethroid bifenthrin enhances CYP9Q1 and CYP9Q2 transcripts and represses CYP9Q3 transcripts. The independent regulation of these P450s can be useful for monitoring and differentiating between pesticide exposures in-hive and in agricultural fields.

  11. Heterologous Expression of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase in Lactococcus lactis for Acetaldehyde Detoxification at Low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yunbin; LaPointe, Gisèle; Zhong, Lei; Lu, Jing; Zhang, Chong; Lu, Zhaoxin

    2018-02-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.2.1.x) can catalyze detoxification of acetaldehydes. A novel acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (istALDH) from the non-Saccharomyces yeast Issatchenkia terricola strain XJ-2 has been previously characterized. In this work, Lactococcus lactis with the NIsin Controlled Expression (NICE) System was applied to express the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (istALDH) in order to catalyze oxidation of acetaldehyde at low pH. A recombinant L. lactis NZ3900 was obtained and applied for the detoxification of acetaldehyde as whole-cell biocatalysts. The activity of IstALDH in L. lactis NZ3900 (pNZ8148-istALDH) reached 36.4 U mL -1 when the recombinant cells were induced with 50 ng mL -1 nisin at 20 °C for 2 h. The IstALDH activity of recombinant L. lactis cells showed higher stability at 37 °C and pH 4.0 compared with the crude enzyme. L. lactis NZ3900 (pNZ8148-istALDH) could convert acetaldehyde at pH 2.0 while the crude enzyme could not. Moreover, the resting cells of L. lactis NZ3900 (pNZ8148-istALDH) showed a 2.5-fold higher activity and better stability in catalyzing oxidation of acetaldehyde at pH 2.0 compared with that of Escherichia coli expressing the IstALDH. Taken together, the L. lactis cells expressing recombinant IstALDH are potential whole-cell biocatalysts that can be applied in the detoxification of aldehydes.

  12. Transcriptional activity of detoxification genes is altered by ultraviolet filters in Chironomus riparius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis

    2018-03-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) filters are compounds used to prevent the damage produced by UV radiation in personal care products, plastics, etc. They have been associated with endocrine disruption, showing anti-estrogen activity in vertebrates and altering the ecdysone pathway in invertebrates. Although they have attracted the attention of multiple research teams there is a lack of data about how animals activate detoxification systems, especially in invertebrates. Here, analysis of the effects of two UV filters, benzophenone-3 (BP3) and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC), on the transcriptional activity of nine genes covering the three steps of the detoxification process has been performed. Four cytochrome P450 genes belonging to different members of this family, five GST genes, and the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) gene were studied by RT-PCR to analyze their transcriptional activity in fourth instar larvae exposed to the UV filters for 8 and 24h. The obtained results show a differential response with downregulation of the different Cyp450s tested by 4MBC while BP3 seems not to modify their expression. On the other hand, some of the GST genes were affected by one or other of the filters, showing a less homogenous response. Finally, MRP1 was activated by both filters but at different times. These results demonstrate for first time that UV filters alter the expression of genes involved in the different steps of the detoxification process and that they can be processed by phase I enzymes other than Cyp450s. They also suggest that UV filters affect biotransformation processes, compromising the ability of the individual to respond to chemical stress, so further research is needed to know the extent of the damage that they can produce in the resistance of the cell to chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, K V; Deus-de-Oliveira, N; Godoy, M G; Guimarães, Z A S; Nascimento, V V; Melo, E J T de; Freire, D M G; Dansa-Petretski, M; Machado, O L T

    2012-11-01

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 x 10(5) cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH)2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained.

  14. Biotransformation and detoxification of inorganic arsenic in Bombay oyster Saccostrea cucullata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Guo, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Yanyan; Liu, Huaxue; Zhang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) exists as the toxic inorganic forms in marine water and sediment, while marine oysters usually accumulate high As contents mostly as the less toxic organic forms. It has not yet been clear that how As is biotransformed in marine oysters. This study therefore investigated the biotransformation and detoxification of two inorganic As forms (As(III) and As(V)) in Bombay oyster Saccostrea cucullata after waterborne exposures for 30 days. Seven treatments of dissolved As exposure (clean seawater, 1, 5, 20 mg/L As(III), and 1, 5, 20 mg/L As(V)) were performed. Body As concentration increased significantly after all As exposure treatments except 1mg/L As(V). Total As, As(III), and As(V) concentration were positive correlated with glutathione-S-transferases (GST) activities, suggesting GST might play an important role in the As biotransformation and detoxification process. Organic As species were predominant in control and the low As exposed oysters, whereas a large fraction of As was remained as the inorganic forms in the high As exposed oysters, suggesting As could be biotransformed efficiently in the oysters in clean or light contaminated environment. The results of As speciation demonstrated the As biotransformation in the oysters included As(V) reduction, methylation to monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and subsequent conversion to arsenobetaine (AsB). More As was distributed in the subcellular metallothionein-like proteins fraction (MTLP) functioning sequestration and detoxification in the inorganic As exposed oysters, suggesting it was also a strategy for oysters against As stress. In summary, this study elucidated that marine oysters had high ability to accumulate, biotransform, and detoxify inorganic As. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Metabolic detoxification of bakuchiol is mediated by cytochrome P450 enzymes in human liver microsomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai-fang; Shen, Guo-lin; Jiao, Shi-yong; Li, Hua; Wang, Qi

    2012-06-18

    To analyze cytochrome P450 (CYP) phenotyping for bakuchiol metabolism and study the mechanism of detoxification of bakuchiol by human liver microsomes (HLM) in vitro. The CYP phenotyping for bakuchiol metabolism was determined using HLM combined with CYP specific inhibitors and recombinant human CYP isoforms. The relative activities of CYP isoforms were determined by analyzing the formation of the substrate metabolites using HPLC-MS/MS, in presence or absence of 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT) which was CYP enzymes' broad spectrum inhibitor. The residual concentrations of bakuchiol in microsomal incubates were determined using HPLC to investigate ABT's effect on the metabolism of bakuchiol. The effects of CYP enzymes on the nephrotoxicity of bakuchiol were investigated using human kidney-2(HK-2) by MTT assay, in presence or absence of ABT. CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 in HLM were involved in bakuchiol metabolism, among which CYP2C19 showed the highest metabolic rate. Co-incubation with ABT (2.5 mmol/L) could inhibit more than 90% of the enzyme activities for CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. ABT (2.5 mmol/L) could inhibit the HLM metabolism of bakuchiol with inhibition ratio 83.24%±2.13%. When preincubated with ABT, the metabolic detoxification of bakuchiol by HLM was significantly reduced (Pdetoxification of bakuchiol by HLM is associated with bakuchiol metabolism by CYP enzymes to form non toxic or lower toxic metabolites. The broad spectrum inhibitor of CYP could inverse the detoxification of HLM.

  16. Evaluation of Efficacy and Toxicity of Exfoliated Silicate Nanoclays as a Feed Additive for Fumonisin Detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chiao-Wei; Huang, Jie-Ting; Chen, Ching-Chin; Tang, Pin-Chi; Huang, Jenn-Wen; Lin, Jiang-Jen; Huang, San-Yuan; Chen, Shuen-Ei

    2017-08-09

    The efficacy of nanosilicate clay platelets (NSCP), exfoliated silicates from natural montmorillonites, as a feed additive for ameliorating fumonisin B1 (FB1) toxicosis was evaluated. Toxicological mechanisms by NSCP were examined through proteomic and biochemical analyses. Dietary supplementation with NSCP at a low level of 40 mg/kg of feed improved growth performances in chickens with respect to FB1 toxicosis. Other issues of ameliorated symptoms including serum and/or hepatic aspartate aminotransferase activity, oxidative stress indicators, and sphinganine/sphingosine ratio, a hallmark of FB1 toxicosis, were considered. Chickens with NSCP inclusion alone at 1000 mg/kg of feed exhibited no changes in hepatic histology, oxidative status, and serum parameters and even had a higher feed intake. Proteomic analysis with liver tissues identified 45 distinct proteins differentially affected by FB1 and/or NSCP, in which proteins involved in thiol metabolism and redox regulation, glycolysis, carcinogenesis, and detoxification by glutathione S-transferase were promoted by FB1, whereas NSCP caused differential changes of protein abundances related to methionine/cysteine and choline/glycine interconversion for glutathione synthesis, redox regulation by peroxiredoxin, toxin/metabolite delivery by albumin, glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, and chaperon escort for endoplasmic reticulum stress relief. Functional analyses confirmed the enhancement of hepatic metabolic processes for ATP and NAD(P)H production to meet the need for detoxification, antioxidative defense, and toxin/metabolite clearance by FB1 or NSCP ingestion. On the basis of the amelioration of FB1 toxicosis, global profile of hepatic protein expressions, and validated toxicological mechanisms, NSCP were concluded as a safe and effective agent for FB1 detoxification.

  17. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Fernandes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin and allergenic (2S albumin proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 x 10(5 cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained.

  18. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, K.V.; Deus-de-Oliveira, N. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Godoy, M.G. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Guimarães, Z.A.S. [Laboratório de Biologia Celular e Tecidual, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nascimento, V.V. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Melo, E.J.T. de [Laboratório de Biologia Celular e Tecidual, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freire, D.M.G. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Dansa-Petretski, M.; Machado, O.L.T. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-08-24

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 × 10{sup 5} cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH){sub 2} or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained.

  19. Midgut Transcriptome of the Cockroach Periplaneta americana and Its Microbiota: Digestion, Detoxification and Oxidative Stress Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhang

    Full Text Available The cockroach, Periplaneta americana, is an obnoxious and notorious pest of the world, with a strong ability to adapt to a variety of complex environments. However, the molecular mechanism of this adaptability is mostly unknown. In this study, the genes and microbiota composition associated with the adaptation mechanism were studied by analyzing the transcriptome and 16S rDNA pyrosequencing of the P. americana midgut, respectively. Midgut transcriptome analysis identified 82,905 unigenes, among which 64 genes putatively involved in digestion (11 genes, detoxification (37 genes and oxidative stress response (16 genes were found. Evaluation of gene expression following treatment with cycloxaprid further revealed that the selected genes (CYP6J1, CYP4C1, CYP6K1, Delta GST, alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase and aminopeptidase were upregulated at least 2.0-fold at the transcriptional level, and four genes were upregulated more than 10.0-fold. An interesting finding was that three digestive enzymes positively responded to cycloxaprid application. Tissue expression profiles further showed that most of the selected genes were midgut-biased, with the exception of CYP6K1. The midgut microbiota composition was obtained via 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and was found to be mainly dominated by organisms from the Firmicutes phylum, among which Clostridiales, Lactobacillales and Burkholderiales were the main orders which might assist the host in the food digestion or detoxification of noxious compounds. The preponderant species, Clostridium cellulovorans, was previously reported to degrade lignocellulose efficiently in insects. The abundance of genes involved in digestion, detoxification and response to oxidative stress, and the diversity of microbiota in the midgut might provide P. americana high capacity to adapt to complex environments.

  20. Targeting of detoxification potential of microorganisms and plants for cleaning environment polluted by organochlorine pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Kurashvili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of presented work is the development phytoremediation method targeted to cleaning environment polluted with organochlorine pesticides, based on joint application of specially selected plants and microorganisms. Initial degradation of pesticides carry out by microorganisms; the forming dehalogenated products easily uptake by the plants and undergo oxidative degradation via plant detoxification enzymes. This approach can complete degradation of toxicants and their mineralization into nontoxic compounds. In the presented work the results of using selected strains from genera Pseudomonas and plants phytoremediators in the model experiments are given. It has been shown that the using developed technological approach effectively decreased degree of pollution in artificially polluted soil samples.

  1. Preparation of Hierarchical BiOBr Microspheres for Visible Light-Induced Photocatalytic Detoxification and Disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic degradation is a promising alternative to traditional wastewater treatment methods. Recently developed visible light-responsive photocatalyst, BiOBr, has attracted extensive attentions. Hereby, a detailed investigation of application of BiOBr to bacterial inactivation and organic pollutants degradation is reported. Hydrothermal catalyst was prepared using template-free method. While, for solvothermal synthesis, CTAB was used as a template. Results indicate a higher photocatalytic activity by the solvothermally prepared catalyst. Solvothermally prepared BiOBr exhibited high photocatalytic activities in both water detoxification and disinfection.

  2. Danio rerio embryos on Prozac - Effects on the detoxification mechanism and embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, V; Rodrigues, P; Santos, M M; Moradas-Ferreira, P; Ferreira, M

    2016-09-01

    In the past decade the presence of psychopharmaceuticals, including fluoxetine (FLU), in the aquatic environment has been associated with the increasing trend in human consumption of these substances. Aquatic organisms are usually exposed to chronic low doses and, therefore, risk assessments should evaluate the effects of these compounds in non-target organisms. Teleost fish possess an array of active defence mechanisms to cope with the deleterious effects of xenobiotics. These include ABC transporters, phase I and II of cellular detoxification and oxidative stress enzymes. Hence, the present study aimed at characterising the effect of FLU on embryo development of the model teleost zebrafish (Danio rerio) concomitantly with changes in the detoxification mechanisms during early developmental phases. Embryos were exposed to different concentrations of FLU (0.0015, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 0.8μM) for 80hours post fertilization. Development was screened and the impact in the transcription of key genes, i.e., abcb4, abcc1, abcc2, abcg2, cyp1a, cyp3a65, gst, sod, cat, ahr, pxr, pparα, pparβ, pparγ, rxraa, rxrab, rxrbb, rxrga, rxrgb, raraa, rarab, rarga evaluated. In addition, accumulation assays were performed to measure the activity of ABC proteins and antioxidant enzymes (CAT and Cu/ZnSOD) after exposure to FLU. Embryo development was disrupted at the lowest FLU concentration tested (0.0015μM), which is in the range of concentrations found in WWTP effluents. Embryos exposed to higher concentrations of FLU decreased Cu/Zn SOD, and increased CAT (0.0015 and 0.5μM) enzymatic activity. Exposure to higher concentrations of FLU decreased the expression of most genes belonging to the detoxification system and upregulated cat at 0.0015μM of FLU. Most of the tested concentrations downregulated pparα, pparβ, pparγ, and raraa, rxraa, rxrab, rxrbb rxrgb and ahr gene expression while pxr was significantly up regulated at all tested concentrations. In conclusion, this study

  3. Fungal Biosorption, An Innovative Treatment for the Decolourisation and Detoxification of Textile Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Pannocchia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Textile effluents are among the most difficult-to-treat wastewaters, due to their considerable amount of recalcitrant and toxic substances. Fungal biosorption is viewed as a valuable additional treatment for removing pollutants from textile wastewaters. In this study the efficiency of Cunninghamella elegans biomass in terms of contaminants, COD and toxicity reduction was tested against textile effluents sampled in different points of wastewater treatment plants. The results showed that C. elegans is a promising candidate for the decolourisation and detoxification of textile wastewaters and its versatility makes it very competitive compared with conventional sorbents adopted in industrial processes.

  4. Implementing an evidence-based detoxification protocol for alcoholism in a residential addictions treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundio, Albert

    2013-09-01

    Chemical dependency, commonly known as substance abuse and use disorders, continues to plague residents of the United States. Because treatment has expanded beyond the walls of the acute care hospital, advanced practice nurses play a pivotal role in caring for clients addicted to various substances. This article describes how an advanced practice nurse in collaboration with the medical director and a director of nursing at a residential treatment center in southern New Jersey oversaw the development of an evidence-based detoxification treatment protocol for alcohol dependency, emphasizing the critical role of nurses in assuring that clinical practice is rooted in current evidence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Detoxification of textile effluent by fungal treatment and its performance in agronomic usages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Abul Hossain; Khan, Haider Iqbal

    2018-02-03

    Globally, scarcity of contaminant free water usages is increasing gradually; it might be solved after generation of any sustainable technology to detoxify contaminated waters. An attempt was undertaken to detoxify textile effluent with fungal strains Trichoderma harzianum and Mucor hiemalis. Fungal detoxified effluent and its performance on three crops (wheat, mungbean, and mustard) seed germination in petri dishes and seedlings establishment of mustard in polythene bag were evaluated. Fungal strains significantly detoxified textile effluent by removal of 76% total solids, 91.35% COD, 77.34% absorbance against optical density, and increased 87.31% DO. Studied heavy metals were reduced significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in treated effluent by both fungal strains but superior performance was achieved by Mucor hiemalis. Maximum 92.5, 88.7, 83, and 100% removal of Mn, Zn, Cu, and Fe were monitored in fungal-treated effluent, respectively. Seeds germination and seedling growth by fungal treated effluents were similar and insignificant with the results achieved in tap water but which was significant over raw textile effluent. Eighty and above percent seed germination in petri dishes was recorded at 48 h by Mucor hiemalis-treated textile effluent but conversely at the same period it was below 10% in raw effluent. Significant achievement of seedling establishment was noticed in poly bag with fungal-treated effluent. The applied technique might be a prospective way to detoxify and recycle the industrial effluents for beneficial purpose in the future.

  6. Subcellular partitioning profiles and metallothionein levels in indigenous clams Moerella iridescens from a metal-impacted coastal bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zaosheng, E-mail: zswang@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Boulevard, Xiamen 361021 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Feng, Chenglian; Ye, Chun [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Wang, Youshao [State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301 (China); Yan, Changzhou, E-mail: czyan@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Boulevard, Xiamen 361021 (China); Li, Rui; Yan, Yijun; Chi, Qiaoqiao [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Boulevard, Xiamen 361021 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Subcellular partitioning profile of metals were investigated in biomonitor organism. • Cu, Zn and Cd levels in main fraction of HSP increase along accumulation gradients. • Despite MTs as the major binding pool, detoxification of Cd and Pb was incomplete. • Induced MTs were sequentially correlated with Cu, Zn and Cd levels in HSP fraction. • Intracellular metal fates highlighted the metabolic availability within organism. - Abstract: In this study, the effect of environmental metal exposure on the accumulation and subcellular distribution of metals in the digestive gland of clams with special emphasis on metallothioneins (MTs) was investigated. Specimens of indigenous Moerella iridescens were collected from different natural habitats in Maluan Bay (China), characterized by varying levels of metal contamination. The digestive glands were excised, homogenized and six subcellular fractions were separated by differential centrifugation procedures and analyzed for their Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb contents. MTs were quantified independently by spectrophotometric measurements of thiols. Site-specific differences were observed in total metal concentrations in the tissues, correlating well with variable environmental metal concentrations and reflecting the gradient trends in metal contamination. Concentrations of the non-essential Cd and Pb were more responsive to environmental exposure gradients than were tissue concentrations of the essential metals, Cu and Zn. Subcellular partitioning profiles for Cu, Zn and Cd were relatively similar, with the heat-stable protein (HSP) fraction as the dominant metal-binding compartment, whereas for Pb this fraction was much less important. The variations in proportions and concentrations of metals in this fraction along with the metal bioaccumulation gradients suggested that the induced MTs play an important role in metal homeostasis and detoxification for M. iridescens in the metal-contaminated bay. Nevertheless

  7. Body metal concentrations and glycogen reserves in earthworms (Dendrobaena octaedra) from contaminated and uncontaminated forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Sørensen, Jesper G; Overgaard, Johannes; Bayley, Mark; Bindesbøl, Anne-Mette; Slotsbo, Stine; Fisker, Karina V; Maraldo, Kristine; Waagner, Dorthe; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Asmund, Gert

    2011-01-01

    Stress originating from toxicants such as heavy metals can induce compensatory changes in the energy metabolism of organisms due to increased energy expenses associated with detoxification and excretion processes. These energy expenses may be reflected in the available energy reserves such as glycogen. In a field study the earthworm, Dendrobaena octaedra, was collected from polluted areas, and from unpolluted reference areas. If present in the environment, cadmium, lead and copper accumulated to high concentrations in D. octaedra. In contrast, other toxic metals such as aluminium, nickel and zinc appeared to be regulated and kept at low internal concentrations compared to soil concentrations. Lead, cadmium and copper accumulation did not correlate with glycogen reserves of individual worms. In contrast, aluminium, nickel and zinc were negatively correlated with glycogen reserves. These results suggest that coping with different metals in earthworms is associated with differential energy demands depending on the associated detoxification strategy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Phytochelatin-metal(loid) transport into vacuoles shows different substrate preferences in barley and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Yong; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G; Lee, Youngsook; Schroeder, Julian I; Ahn, Sang-Nag; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Wicker, Thomas; Martinoia, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) are toxic to all living organisms, including plants and humans. In plants, Cd and As are detoxified by phytochelatins (PCs) and metal(loid)-chelating peptides and by sequestering PC-metal(loid) complexes in vacuoles. Consistent differences have been observed between As and Cd detoxification. Whereas chelation of Cd by PCs is largely sufficient to detoxify Cd, As-PC complexes must be sequestered into vacuoles to be fully detoxified. It is not clear whether this difference in detoxification pathways is ubiquitous among plants or varies across species. Here, we have conducted a PC transport study using vacuoles isolated from Arabidopsis and barley. Arabidopsis vacuoles accumulated low levels of PC2 -Cd, and vesicles from yeast cells expressing either AtABCC1 or AtABCC2 exhibited negligible PC2 -Cd transport activity compared with PC2 -As. In contrast, barley vacuoles readily accumulated comparable levels of PC2 -Cd and PC2 -As. PC transport in barley vacuoles was inhibited by vanadate, but not by ammonium, suggesting the involvement of ABC-type transporters. Interestingly, barley vacuoles exhibited enhanced PC2 transport activity when essential metal ions, such as Zn(II), Cu(II) and Mn(II), were added to the transport assay, suggesting that PCs might contribute to the homeostasis of essential metals and detoxification of non-essential toxic metal(loid)s. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Phytochelatin–metal(loid) transport into vacuoles shows different substrate preferences in barley and Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Yong; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G.; Lee, Youngsook; Schroeder, Julian I.; Ahn, Sang-Nag; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Wicker, Thomas; Martinoia, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) are toxic to all living organisms, including plants and humans. In plants, Cd and As are detoxified by phytochelatins (PCs) and metal(loid)-chelating peptides and by sequestering PC–metal(loid) complexes in vacuoles. Consistent differences have been observed between As and Cd detoxification. Whereas chelation of Cd by PCs is largely sufficient to detoxify Cd, As–PC complexes must be sequestered into vacuoles to be fully detoxified. It is not clear whether this difference in detoxification pathways is ubiquitous among plants or varies across species. Here, we have conducted a PC transport study using vacuoles isolated from Arabidopsis and barley. Arabidopsis vacuoles accumulated low levels of PC2–Cd, and vesicles from yeast cells expressing either AtABCC1 or AtABCC2 exhibited negligible PC2–Cd transport activity compared with PC2–As. In contrast, barley vacuoles readily accumulated comparable levels of PC2–Cd and PC2–As. PC transport in barley vacuoles was inhibited by vanadate, but not by ammonium, suggesting the involvement of ABC-type transporters. Interestingly, barley vacuoles exhibited enhanced PC2 transport activity when essential metal ions, such as Zn(II), Cu(II) and Mn(II), were added to the transport assay, suggesting that PCs might contribute to the homeostasis of essential metals and detoxification of non-essential toxic metal(loid)s. PMID:24313707

  10. [Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) on detoxification enzyme activity of larvae of Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes aegypti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guang-jie; Li, Chuan-ming; Sun, Jun; Liu, Qin; Zhao, Song; Qi, Jian-hang; Xu, Jian

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the effect of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) on the activities of three detoxification enzymes of Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes aegypti larvae. The activities of glutathione transferase, acetyl cholinesterase and carboxyl esterase, were detected after two kinds of mosquito larvae were treated by Bti at different time and concentrations. The activities of three detoxification enzymes of the two kinds of mosquito larvae were influenced by Bti treatment. The activity of glutathione transferase was increased after the Bti treatment, but declined significantly and inhibited at a low level sustainably. The activity of carboxyl esterase was increased after the Bti treatment, but recovered to normal level quickly. Acetyl cholinesterase was affected slightly by the Bti treatment, shortly inhibited in the first time and then recovered. The active effects of the three detoxification enzymes were positively related to the concentration of Bti. The enzyme activities of glutathione transferase, acetyl cholinesterase and carboxyl esterase could be affected by Bti significantly.

  11. Metal-metal-hofteproteser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Michael; Overgaard, Søren; Penny, Jeannette

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark 4,456 metal-on-metal (MoM) hip prostheses have been implanted. Evidence demonstrates that some patients develope adverse biological reactions causing failures of MoM hip arthroplasty. Some reactions might be systemic. Failure rates are associated with the type and the design of the Mo...

  12. Role of pCeMT, a putative metallothionein from Colocasia esculenta, in response to metal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Ok; Jung, Sera; Kim, Kyounghyoun; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2013-03-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) play a major role in metal homeostasis and/or detoxification in plants. In this study, a novel gene, pCeMT, was isolated from Colocasia esculenta and characterized. Our results indicate that Escherichia coli cells expressing pCeMT exhibited enhanced Cd, Cu, and Zn tolerance and accumulation compared with control cells. Furthermore, pCeMT-overexpressing tobacco seedlings displayed better growth under Cd, Cu, and Zn stresses and accumulated more Cd and Zn compared with the wild type. Interestingly, transgenic tobacco displayed markedly decreased hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and lipid peroxidation levels under Cd, Cu, and Zn treatments. These results suggest that pCeMT could play an important role in the protection of plant cells from oxidative stress by reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and in the detoxification of free metals by metal binding, leading to improved plant metal tolerance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Stress-related phenomena and detoxification mechanisms induced by common pharmaceuticals in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christou, Anastasis; Antoniou, Chrystalla; Christodoulou, Charalampia; Hapeshi, Evroula; Stavrou, Ioannis; Michael, Costas; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) have been recently shown to exert phytotoxic effects. The present study explores the uptake, systemic translocation, and abiotic stress responses and detoxification mechanisms induced by the exposure of alfalfa plants grown in sand under greenhouse conditions to four common, individually applied PhACs (10 μg L −1 ) (diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, 17a-ethinylestradiol) and their mixture. Stress physiology markers (lipid peroxidation, proline, H 2 O 2 and NO content, antioxidant activity assays) and gene expression levels of key plant detoxification components (including glutathione S-transferases, GST7, GST17; superoxide dismutases, CuZnSOD, FeSOD; proton pump, H + -ATP, and cytochrome c oxidase, CytcOx), were evaluated. PhACs were detected in significantly higher concentrations in roots compared with leaves. Stress related effects, manifested via membrane lipid peroxidation and oxidative burst, were local (roots) rather than systemic (leaves), and exacerbated when the tested PhACs were applied in mixture. Systemic accumulation of H 2 O 2 in leaves suggests its involvement in signal transduction and detoxification responses. Increased antioxidant enzymatic activities, as well as upregulated transcript levels of GST7, GST17, H + -ATPase and CytcOx, propose their role in the detoxification of the selected PhACs in plants. The current findings provide novel biochemical and molecular evidence highlighting the studied PhACs as an emerging abiotic stress factor, and point the need for further research on wastewater flows under natural agricultural environments. - Highlights: • PhACs were detected in higher concentrations in roots compared with leaves. • Stress effects were local and exacerbated when PhACs were applied in mixture. • H 2 O 2 may be involved in signal transduction and detoxification responses. • GSTs, H + -ATPase and CytcOx contribute to the detoxification of PhACs in plants. • Results

  14. A modeling approach to evaluate the balance between bioactivation and detoxification of MeIQx in human hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victorien Delannée

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA are environmental and food contaminants that are potentially carcinogenic for humans. 2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx is one of the most abundant HAA formed in cooked meat. MeIQx is metabolized by cytochrome P450 1A2 in the human liver into detoxificated and bioactivated products. Once bioactivated, MeIQx metabolites can lead to DNA adduct formation responsible for further genome instability. Methods Using a computational approach, we developed a numerical model for MeIQx metabolism in the liver that predicts the MeIQx biotransformation into detoxification or bioactivation pathways according to the concentration of MeIQx. Results Our results demonstrate that (1 the detoxification pathway predominates, (2 the ratio between detoxification and bioactivation pathways is not linear and shows a maximum at 10 µM of MeIQx in hepatocyte cell models, and (3 CYP1A2 is a key enzyme in the system that regulates the balance between bioactivation and detoxification. Our analysis suggests that such a ratio could be considered as an indicator of MeIQx genotoxicity at a low concentration of MeIQx. Conclusions Our model permits the investigation of the balance between bioactivation (i.e., DNA adduct formation pathway through the prediction of potential genotoxic compounds and detoxification of MeIQx in order to predict the behaviour of this environmental contaminant in the human liver. It highlights the importance of complex regulations of enzyme competitions that should be taken into account in any further multi-organ models.

  15. Shortening Anesthesia Duration does not Affect Severity of Withdrawal Syndrome in Patients Undergoing Ultra Rapid Opioid Detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaleh Shami

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Ultra rapid opioid detoxification (UROD is one of the new methods of detoxification. This method of detoxification involves putting patients under general anesthesia and actively giving them opioid antagonists. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of anesthesia duration in UROD on severity of withdrawal syndrome. Sixty addicted patients seeking UROD procedure assigned randomly to one of the 2hr, 4hr or 6hr anesthesia duration groups. Premedication and anesthesia procedure (induction and maintenance were the same for three groups. Detoxification was done for all patients with 50 mg oral naltroxane (prior to induction and 20 mg intravenous naloxane (8 mg/bolus and 12 mg/infusion. Blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate were automatically measured and recorded every 5 minutes. The severity of withdrawal syndrome was measured and recorded every one hour during anesthesia, 2hours post-anesthesia, and 12 and 24 hours following the induction of anesthesia according to the Wang Scale modified by Lomier (WSMBL. Patients aged 20-58 in three groups. Three cases experienced delirium after detoxification that lasted 24 hours in one. Severity of withdrawal syndrome in patients of groups 2, 4 and 6 hour were 8.7, 7.4 and 5.1 respectively during anesthesia and 12.3, 11.1 and 13.9 after 18 hours of anesthesia. Results of this study showed that, in standard settings, UROD is a safe method for detoxification and has low complications. The withdrawal symptoms during and after anesthesia are low. Shortening the duration of anesthesia has no affect on severity of withdrawal syndrome during and after anesthesia.

  16. Conversion of steam-exploded cedar into ethanol using simultaneous saccharification, fermentation and detoxification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Chikako; Sasaki, Chizuru; Takamatsu, Tomoki; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the simultaneous saccharification, fermentation and detoxification SSDF process of steam-exploded cedar using a detoxification microorganism, Ureibacillus thermosphaericus A1, to facilitate efficient ethanol production. Steam explosion was applied as a pretreatment before enzymatic saccharification followed by alcohol fermentation. The highest glucose conversion rate was observed in the sample pretreated with a steam pressure of 45atm for 5min. Alcohol production by a heat-tolerant yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae BA11, was inhibited strongly by inhibitory materials present in the steam-exploded cedar, such as formic acid, furfural, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. The maximum amount of ethanol, i.e., 0.155g ethanol/g dry steam-exploded cedar, which corresponded to 74% of the theoretical ethanol yield, was obtained using the SSDF when U. thermosphaericus A1 degraded the inhibitory materials. A fed batch SSDF culture, in which U. thermosphaericus A1 was used to maintain low concentrations of inhibitory materials, was effective for increasing the ethanol concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lipid peroxidation, detoxification capacity, and genome damage in mice after transplacental exposure to pharmaceutical drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Markovic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on genome damage, lipid peroxidation, and levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPX in newborns after transplacental exposure to xenobiotics are rare and insufficient for risk assessment. The aim of the current study was to analyze, in an animal model, transplacental genotoxicity, lipid peroxidation, and detoxification disturbances caused by the following drugs commonly prescribed to pregnant women: paracetamol, fluconazole, 5-nitrofurantoin, and sodium valproate. Genome damage in dams and their newborn pups transplacentally exposed to these drugs was investigated using the in vivo micronucleus (MN assay. The drugs were administered to dams intraperitoneally in three consecutive daily doses between days 12 and 14 of pregnancy. The results were correlated, with detoxification capacity of the newborn pups measured by the levels of GPX in blood and lipid peroxidation in liver measured by malondialdehyde (HPLC-MDA levels. Sodium valproate and 5-nitrofurantoin significantly increased MN frequency in pregnant dams. A significant increase in the MN frequency of newborn pups was detected for all drugs tested. This paper also provides reference levels of MDA in newborn pups, according to which all drugs tested significantly lowered MDA levels of newborn pups, while blood GPX activity dropped significantly only after exposure to paracetamol. The GPX reduction reflected systemic oxidative stress, which is known to occur with paracetamol treatment. The reduction of MDA in the liver is suggested to be an unspecific metabolic reaction to the drugs that express cytotoxic, in particular hepatotoxic, effects associated with oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation.

  18. Electrochemical detoxification of phenolic compounds in lignocellulosic hydrolysate for Clostridium fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Min; Min, Kyoungseon; Choi, Okkyoung; Kim, Ki-Yeon; Woo, Han Min; Kim, Yunje; Han, Sung Ok; Um, Youngsoon

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is being preferred as a feedstock in the biorefinery, but lignocellulosic hydrolysate usually contains inhibitors against microbial fermentation. Among these inhibitors, phenolics are highly toxic to butyric acid-producing and butanol-producing Clostridium even at a low concentration. Herein, we developed an electrochemical polymerization method to detoxify phenolic compounds in lignocellulosic hydrolysate for efficient Clostridium fermentation. After the electrochemical detoxification for 10h, 78%, 77%, 82%, and 94% of p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, vanillin, and syringaldehyde were removed, respectively. Furthermore, 71% of total phenolics in rice straw hydrolysate were removed without any sugar-loss. Whereas the cell growth and metabolite production of Clostridium tyrobutyricum and Clostridium beijerinckii were completely inhibited in un-detoxified hydrolysate, those in detoxifying rice straw hydrolysate were recovered to 70-100% of the control cultures. The electrochemical detoxification method described herein provides an efficient strategy for producing butanol and butyric acid through Clostridium fermentation with lignocellulosic hydrolysate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Designer phytoalexins: probing camalexin detoxification pathways in the phytopathogen Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedras, M Soledade C; Liu, Jun

    2004-04-07

    To probe the specificity of a camalexin detoxifying enzyme(s) produced by Rhizoctonia solani, the putative 5-camalexin hydroxylase (5-CAHY), the naturally occurring phytoalexin 1-methylcamalexin and designer phytoalexins in which the H-5 of camalexin was replaced with either a methyl group or a fluorine atom were synthesised. This investigation showed that biotransformation of 5-fluorocamalexin by R. solani was substantially slower than that of camalexin (12 days vs. six to eight hours), 5-methylcamalexin (5-6 days) or 1-methylcamalexin (5-6 days). Antifungal bioassays showed that 5-fluorocamalexin, 5-methylcamalexin and 1-methylcamalexin were more inhibitory to R. solani than camalexin, whereas their metabolic products displayed substantially lower inhibitory activity. It was concluded that detoxification via oxidation of the indole moiety of camalexins is predominant in the biotransformation of both camalexin and 5-methylcamalexin and likely catalysed by a specific 5-CAHY. By contrast, the pathways for detoxification of 1-methylcamalexin and 5-fluorocamalexin are likely catalysed by non-specific "house-keeping" enzymes. Most importantly, because 1- methylcamalexin showed stronger antifungal activity and was metabolised at substantially slower rate than camalexin this work suggested that, from a plant's perspective 1-methylcamalexin could be a more effective antifungal defence than camalexin.

  20. Camalexin induces detoxification of the phytoalexin brassinin in the plant pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedras, M Soledade C; Jha, Mukund; Okeola, Oladapo G

    2005-11-01

    The impact of the phytoalexins camalexin and spirobrassinin on brassinin detoxification by Leptosphaeria maculans (Desm.) Ces. et de Not. [asexual stage Phoma lingam (Tode ex Fr.) Desm.], a pathogenic fungus prevalent on crucifers, was investigated. Brassinin is a plant metabolite of great significance due to its dual role both as an effective phytoalexin and as an early biosynthetic precursor of the majority of the phytoalexins produced by plants of the family Brassicaceae (Cruciferae). The rate of detoxification of brassinin in cultures of L. maculans increased substantially in the presence of camalexin, whereas spirobrassinin did not appear to have a detectable effect. In addition, the brassinin detoxifying activity of cell-free extracts obtained from cultures incubated with camalexin was substantially higher than that of control cell-free extracts or cultures incubated with spirobrassinin, and correlated positively with brassinin oxidase activity. The discovery of a potent synthetic modulator of brassinin oxidase activity, 3-phenylindole, and comparison with the commercial fungicide thiabendazole is also reported. The overall results indicate that brassinin oxidase production is induced by camalexin and 3-phenylindole but not by spirobrassinin or thiabendazole. Importantly, our work suggests that introduction of the camalexin pathway into plants that produce brassinin might make these plants more susceptible to L. maculans.

  1. Kinetics of Natural Detoxification of Hydrogen Cyanide Contained In Retted Cassava Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the kinetics of natural detoxification of hydrogen cyanide contained in retted cassava roots. Retting is traditional fermentation of cassava, performed to soften the roots. During retting, cyanide diffuses into water used for the retting. The fresh cassava roots (bitter and sweet varieties used for this experiment were separately retted at ambient 0 temperature of 30 C. The cyanide content and pH were monitored daily. From the analysis of the experimental results, a first order consecutive rate equation is an adequate tool for explaining the mechanism of HCN reduction (or decay in retted cassava roots. The detoxification constants for the bound cyanide in the bitter and sweet cassava roots were 0.378/day and 0.438/day respectively, while that of the free hydrogen cyanide were 0.63/day and 0.74/day for the bitter and sweet varieties respectively. Cassava tubers from different species cannot be fermented with the same retting condition unless they have same or close functional properties.

  2. Structure Characterization and Lead Detoxification Effect of Carboxymethylated Melanin Derived from Lachnum Sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Shuai; Li, Lan; Li, Jinglei; Shaikh, Farnaz; Yang, Liu; Ye, Ming

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, an intracellular melanin, named LIM205, was separated from Lachnum YM205 mycelia and was purified on a Sephadex G-15 column. The molecular weight of LIM205 was determined as 522 Da, and its molecular formula was speculated as C 28 H 14 N 2 O 7 S. The possible chemical structure of LIM205 was determined according to the results of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, and pyrolysis/GC-MS analysis. With the aim to increase its water solubility, its carboxymethylated derivative, named CLIM205, was formed by the substitution of hydrogen atoms in LIM205 with one, two, and three carboxymethylate groups. FT-IR, UV, and ESI-MS analysis demonstrated that the carboxymethylate groups were conjugated onto LIM205. The lead detoxification activities of LIM205 and CLIM205 had also been investigated. In vivo test showed that both LIM205 and CLIM205 reduced the tissue lead concentration, enhanced lead excretion, and reversed lead-induced alterations in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in mice, with CLIM205 showed better efficacy. The study indicates that LIM205 and CLIM205 have significant lead detoxification effect which will contribute to solve related problems.

  3. Natural Detoxification Capacity to Inactivate Nerve Agents Sarin and VX in the Rat Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Bajgar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The method of continual determination of the rat blood cholinesterase activity was developed to study the changes of the blood cholinesterases following different intervetions. Aims: The aim of this study is registration of cholinesterase activity in the rat blood and its changes to demonstrate detoxification capacity of rats to inactivate sarin or VX in vivo. Methods: The groups of female rats were premedicated (ketamine and xylazine and cannulated to a. femoralis. Continual blood sampling (0.02 ml/min and monitoring of the circulating blood cholinesterase activity were performed. Normal activity was monitored 1–2 min and then the nerve agent was administered i.m. (2× LD50. Using different time intervals of the leg compression and relaxation following the agent injection, cholinesterase activity was monitored and according to the inhibition obtained, detoxification capacity was assessed. Results: Administration of sarin to the leg, then 1 and 5 min compression and 20 min later relaxation showed that further inhibition in the blood was not observed. On the other hand, VX was able to inhibit blood cholinesterases after this intervention. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that sarin can be naturally detoxified on the contrary to VX. Described method can be used as model for other studies dealing with changes of cholinesterases in the blood following different factors.

  4. A case report of inpatient detoxification after kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Laura; Morris, Siobhan

    2010-01-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) has been used for medicinal and recreational purposes. It has reported analgesic, euphoric and antitussive effects via its action as an agonist at opioid receptors. It is illegal in many countries including Thailand, Malaysia, Myanmar, South Korea and Australia; however, it remains legal or uncontrolled in the UK and USA, where it is easily available over the Internet. We describe a case of kratom dependence in a 44-year-old man with a history of alcohol dependence and anxiety disorder. He demonstrated dependence on kratom with withdrawal symptoms consisting of anxiety, restlessness, tremor, sweating and cravings for the substance. A reducing regime of dihydrocodeine and lofexidine proved effective in treating subjective and objective measures of opioid-like withdrawal phenomena, and withdrawal was relatively short and benign. There are only few reports in the literature of supervised detoxification and drug treatment for kratom dependence. Our observations support the idea that kratom dependence syndrome is due to short-acting opioid receptor agonist activity, and suggest that dihydrocodeine and lofexidine are effective in supporting detoxification. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Detoxification function of the Arabidopsis sulphotransferase AtSOT12 by sulphonation of xenobiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinhua; Gao, Liqiong; Baek, Dongwon; Liu, Chunlin; Ruan, Ying; Shi, Huazhong

    2015-08-01

    Cytosolic sulphotransferases have been implicated in inactivation of endogenous steroid hormones and detoxification of xenobiotics in human and animals. Yet, the function of plant sulphotransferases in xenobiotic sulphonation and detoxification has not been reported. In this study, we show that the Arabidopsis sulphotransferase AtSOT12 could sulphonate the bacterial-produced toxin cycloheximide. Loss-of-function mutant sot12 exhibited hypersensitive phenotype to cycloheximide, and expression of AtSOT12 protein in yeast cells conferred resistance to this toxic compound. AtSOT12 exhibited broad specificity and could sulphonate a variety of xenobiotics including phenolic and polycyclic compounds. Enzyme kinetics analysis indicated that AtSOT12 has different selectivity for simple phenolics with different side chains, and the position of the side chain in the simple phenolic compounds affects substrate binding affinity and catalytic efficiency. We proposed that the broad specificity and induced production of AtSOT12 may have rendered this enzyme to not only modify endogenous molecules such as salicylic acid as we previously reported, but also sulphonate pathogen-produced toxic small molecules to protect them from infection. Sulphonation of small molecules in plants may constitute a rapid way to inactivate or change the physiochemical properties of biologically active molecules that could have profound effects on plant growth, development and defence. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Skin cornification proteins provide global link between ROS detoxification and cell migration during wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Wilbert P; Backendorf, Claude

    2010-08-03

    Wound healing is a complex dynamic process characterised by a uniform flow of events in nearly all types of tissue damage, from a small skin scratch to myocardial infarction. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential during the healing process at multiple stages, ranging from the initial signal that instigates the immune response, to the triggering of intracellular redox-dependent signalling pathways and the defence against invading bacteria. Excessive ROS in the wound milieu nevertheless impedes new tissue formation. Here we identify small proline-rich (SPRR) proteins as essential players in this latter process, as they directly link ROS detoxification with cell migration. A literature-based meta-analysis revealed their up-regulation in various forms of tissue injury, ranging from heart infarction and commensal-induced gut responses to nerve regeneration and burn injury. Apparently, SPRR proteins have a far more widespread role in wound healing and tissue remodelling than their established function in skin cornification. It is inferred that SPRR proteins provide injured tissue with an efficient, finely tuneable antioxidant barrier specifically adapted to the tissue involved and the damage inflicted. Their recognition as novel cell protective proteins combining ROS detoxification with cell migration will provide new venues to study and manage tissue repair and wound healing at a molecular level.

  7. Herbicide targets and detoxification proteins in sugarcane: from gene assembly to structure modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd Evans, Dyfed; Joshi, Shailesh Vinay

    2017-07-01

    In a genome context, sugarcane is a classic orphan crop, in that no genome and only very few genes have been assembled. We have devised a novel exome assembly methodology that has allowed us to assemble and characterize 49 genes that serve as herbicide targets, safener interacting proteins, and members of herbicide detoxification pathways within the sugarcane genome. We have structurally modelled the products of each of these genes, as well as determining allelic, genomic, and RNA-Seq based polymorphisms for each gene. This study provides the largest collection of sugarcane structures modelled to date. We demonstrate that sugarcane genes are highly polymorphic, revealing that each genotype is evolving both uniquely and independently. In addition, we present an exome assembly system for orphan crops that can be executed on commodity infrastructure, making exome assembly practical for any group. In terms of knowledge about herbicide modes of action and detoxification, we have advanced sugarcane from a crop where no information about any herbicide-associated gene was available to the situation where sugarcane is now a species with the single largest collection of known and annotated herbicide-associated genes.

  8. Molecular analysis of pyrethroid resistance conferred by target insensitivity and increased metabolic detoxification in Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Shoji

    2010-05-01

    The pyrethroid resistance of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L.) is conferred by increased gene expression of cytochrome P450 to detoxify the insecticide and/or through gene mutation of the sodium channel, which makes the individual insensitive to pyrethroids. However, no information is available about the correlation between the increased metabolic detoxification and the target insensitivity in pyrethroid resistance. Frequencies of pyrethroid-resistant alleles (L1014F, T929I and M918I) and two resistance-related mutations (A1101T and P1879S) at the sodium channel and expression levels of the cytochrome P450 gene CYP6BG1 were examined individually using laboratory and field strains of P. xylostella. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis using the laboratory strains revealed that levels of larval expression of the resistant strain, homozygous for the pyrethroid-resistant alleles other than the M918I, are significantly higher than those of the susceptible strain. In the field strains, the expression levels in insects having the same resistant alleles as those of the resistant strains varied greatly among individuals. The expression levels were not significantly higher than those in the heterozygotes. Significant correlation between the target insensitivity and the increased metabolic detoxification in pyrethroid resistance of P. xylostella was observed in the laboratory but not in the field.

  9. Reductive detoxification of acrolein as a potential role for aldehyde reductase (AKR1A) in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurahashi, Toshihiro; Kwon, Myoungsu; Homma, Takujiro; Saito, Yuka; Lee, Jaeyong; Takahashi, Motoko; Yamada, Ken-Ichi; Miyata, Satoshi; Fujii, Junichi

    2014-09-12

    Aldehyde reductase (AKR1A), a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily, suppresses diabetic complications via a reduction in metabolic intermediates; it also plays a role in ascorbic acid biosynthesis in mice. Because primates cannot synthesize ascorbic acid, a principle role of AKR1A appears to be the reductive detoxification of aldehydes. In this study, we isolated and immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from wild-type (WT) and human Akr1a-transgenic (Tg) mice and used them to investigate the potential roles of AKR1A under culture conditions. Tg MEFs showed higher methylglyoxal- and acrolein-reducing activities than WT MEFs and also were more resistant to cytotoxicity. Enzymatic analyses of purified rat AKR1A showed that the efficiency of the acrolein reduction was about 20% that of glyceraldehyde. Ascorbic acid levels were quite low in the MEFs, and while the administration of ascorbic acid to the cells increased the intracellular levels of ascorbic acid, it had no affect on the resistance to acrolein. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and protein carbonylation induced by acrolein treatment were less evident in Tg MEFs than in WT MEFs. These data collectively indicate that one of the principle roles of AKR1A in primates is the reductive detoxification of aldehydes, notably acrolein, and protection from its detrimental effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Coordinating Role of RXRα in Downregulating Hepatic Detoxification during Inflammation Revealed by Fuzzy-Logic Modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Keller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During various inflammatory processes circulating cytokines including IL-6, IL-1β, and TNFα elicit a broad and clinically relevant impairment of hepatic detoxification that is based on the simultaneous downregulation of many drug metabolizing enzymes and transporter genes. To address the question whether a common mechanism is involved we treated human primary hepatocytes with IL-6, the major mediator of the acute phase response in liver, and characterized acute phase and detoxification responses in quantitative gene expression and (phospho-proteomics data sets. Selective inhibitors were used to disentangle the roles of JAK/STAT, MAPK, and PI3K signaling pathways. A prior knowledge-based fuzzy logic model comprising signal transduction and gene regulation was established and trained with perturbation-derived gene expression data from five hepatocyte donors. Our model suggests a greater role of MAPK/PI3K compared to JAK/STAT with the orphan nuclear receptor RXRα playing a central role in mediating transcriptional downregulation. Validation experiments revealed a striking similarity of RXRα gene silencing versus IL-6 induced negative gene regulation (rs = 0.79; P<0.0001. These results concur with RXRα functioning as obligatory heterodimerization partner for several nuclear receptors that regulate drug and lipid metabolism.

  11. Pharmaceutical and personal care products-induced stress symptoms and detoxification mechanisms in cucumber plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chengliang; Dudley, Stacia; Trumble, John; Gan, Jay

    2018-03-01

    Contamination of agricultural soils by pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) resulting from the application of treated wastewater, biosolids and animal wastes constitutes a potential environmental risk in many countries. To date a handful of studies have considered the phytotoxicity of individual PPCPs in crop plants, however, little is known about the effect of PPCPs as mixtures at environmentally relevant levels. This study investigated the uptake and transport, physiological responses and detoxification of a mixture of 17 PPCPs in cucumber seedlings. All PPCPs were detected at higher concentrations in roots compared to leaves, with root activity inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. At 5-50 μg/L, the mature leaves exhibited burnt edges as well as a reduction in photosynthesis pigments. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lipid peroxidation increased with increasing PPCP concentrations; and their contents were greater in roots than in leaves for all PPCP treatments. Enzymes involved in various functions, including oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase) and xenobiotic metabolism (peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase), were elevated to different levels depending on the PPCP concentration. Glutathione content gradually increased in leaves, while a maxima occurred at 0.5 μg L -1 PPCPs in roots, followed by a decrease thereafter. This study illustrated the complexity of phytotoxicity after exposure to PPCP mixtures, and provided insights into the molecular mechanisms likely responsible for the detoxification of PPCPs in higher plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Strategies and Methodologies for Developing Microbial Detoxification Systems to Mitigate Mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins, the secondary metabolites of mycotoxigenic fungi, have been found in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide, causing enormous economic losses in livestock production and severe human health problems. Compared to traditional physical adsorption and chemical reactions, interest in biological detoxification methods that are environmentally sound, safe and highly efficient has seen a significant increase in recent years. However, researchers in this field have been facing tremendous unexpected challenges and are eager to find solutions. This review summarizes and assesses the research strategies and methodologies in each phase of the development of microbiological solutions for mycotoxin mitigation. These include screening of functional microbial consortia from natural samples, isolation and identification of single colonies with biotransformation activity, investigation of the physiological characteristics of isolated strains, identification and assessment of the toxicities of biotransformation products, purification of functional enzymes and the application of mycotoxin decontamination to feed/food production. A full understanding and appropriate application of this tool box should be helpful towards the development of novel microbiological solutions on mycotoxin detoxification.

  13. Dexmedetomidine infusion to facilitate opioid detoxification and withdrawal in a patient with chronic opioid abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surjya Prasad Upadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many patients are admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU for acute intoxication, serious complication of overdose, or withdrawal symptoms of illicit drugs. An acute withdrawal of drugs with addiction potential is associated with a sympathetic overactivity leading to marked psychomimetic disturbances. Acute intoxication or withdrawal of such drugs is often associated with life-threatening complications which require ICU admission and necessitate prolonged sedative analgesic medications, weaning from which is often complicated by withdrawal and other psychomimetic symptoms. Dexmedetomidine, an alpha-2 (α2 agonist, has been used successfully to facilitate withdrawal and detoxification of various drugs and also to control delirium in ICU patients. Herein, we report a case of a chronic opioid abuse (heroin patient admitted with acute overdose complications leading to a prolonged ICU course requiring sedative-analgesic medication; the drug withdrawal-related symptoms further complicated the weaning process. Dexmedetomidine infusion was successfully used as a sedative-analgesic to control the withdrawal-related psychomimetic symptoms and to facilitate smooth detoxification and weaning from opioid and other sedatives.

  14. Tc-99m-DTPA--a new test substance for detoxification devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrenholz, P; Falkenhagen, D; Roy, T; Esther, G; Klinkmann, H

    1982-05-01

    Tc99m labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Tc-99m-DTPA) is an appropriate in vivo test solute for all extracorporeal detoxification procedures. The molecular weight of the Tc-99m-DTPA complex is within the biologically relevant middle molecular range of 400 to 700 daltons. Tc-99m-DTPA is distributed in the extracellular space in the same way as inulin. Regarding its localization in the gel filtration spectra and plasma clearance, Tc-99m-DTPA corresponds to middle molecule peak 2. The evaluation of elimination rate and plasma clearance CP of Tc-99m-DTPA is possible by measuring the pulse rates before and after the detoxification device. Taking into account the corrections for Ht and UFR, the Tc-99m-DTPA plasma clearances were calculated for different dialyzers, high flux dialyzers, hemofilters and a hemoperfusion device. The continuous measurement of pulse rates and the use of a UFR-controller (A2008) allow an exact tracking of CP vs. time, the estimation of CP (QB), CP(UFR) and of the sieving coefficient. Examples are given for these cases. It was shown that an increase in plasma clearance to more than about 100 ml/min does not greatly increase the Tc-99m-DTPA elimination rate.

  15. Half-metallic magnetism in the 1990s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, Robert A. de

    1991-01-01

    The possibility of designing half-metallic magnetic multilayer systems is investigated. In part two the prospects of realizing a half-metallic antiferromagnet with emphasis on applications in scanning-tunneling microscopy is discussed.

  16. Metallated metal-organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bury, Wojciech; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Mondloch, Joseph E.

    2017-02-07

    Porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and metallated porous MOFs are provided. Also provided are methods of metallating porous MOFs using atomic layer deposition and methods of using the metallated MOFs as catalysts and in remediation applications.

  17. Metallated metal-organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bury, Wojciech; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Mondloch, Joseph E.

    2017-08-22

    Porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and metallated porous MOFs are provided. Also provided are methods of metallating porous MOFs using atomic layer deposition and methods of using the metallated MOFs as catalysts and in remediation applications.

  18. Detoxification and stress response genes expressed in a western North American bumble bee, Bombus huntii (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junhuan; Strange, James P; Welker, Dennis L; James, Rosalind R

    2013-12-12

    The Hunt bumble bee (Bombus huntii Greene, Hymenoptera: Apidae) is a holometabolous, social insect important as a pollinator in natural and agricultural ecosystems in western North America. Bumble bees spend a significant amount of time foraging on a wide variety of flowering plants, and this activity exposes them to both plant toxins and pesticides, posing a threat to individual and colony survival. Little is known about what detoxification pathways are active in bumble bees, how the expression of detoxification genes changes across life stages, or how the number of detoxification genes expressed in B. huntii compares to other insects. We found B. huntii expressed at least 584 genes associated with detoxification and stress responses. The expression levels of some of these genes, such as those encoding the cytochrome P450s, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and glycosidases, vary among different life stages to a greater extent than do other genes. We also found that the number of P450s, GSTs and esterase genes expressed by B. huntii is similar to the number of these genes found in the genomes of other bees, namely Bombus terrestris, Bombus impatiens, Apis mellifera and Megachile rotundata, but many fewer than are found in the fly Drosophila melanogaster. Bombus huntii has transcripts for a large number of detoxification and stress related proteins, including oxidation and reduction enzymes, conjugation enzymes, hydrolytic enzymes, ABC transporters, cadherins, and heat shock proteins. The diversity of genes expressed within some detoxification pathways varies among the life stages and castes, and we typically identified more genes in the adult females than in larvae, pupae, or adult males, for most pathways. Meanwhile, we found the numbers of detoxification and stress genes expressed by B. huntii to be more similar to other bees than to the fruit fly. The low number of detoxification genes, first noted in the honey bee, appears to be a common phenomenon among bees

  19. Bioaccumulation and glutathione-mediated detoxification of copper and cadmium in Sphagnum squarrosum Crome Samml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Anuj; Saxena, Anjali

    2012-07-01

    Physiological and biochemical responses, metal bioaccumulation and tolerance potential of Sphagnum squarrosum Crome Samml. to Cu and Cd were studied to determine its bioindication and bioremediation potential. Results suggest that glutathione treatment increases the metal accumulation potential and plays a definite role in heavy metal scavenging. High abundance of Sphagnum in metal-rich sites strongly suggests its high metal tolerance capabilities. This experiment demonstrates that S. squarrosum is able to accumulate and tolerate a high amount of metals and feasibility of its application as bioindicator and remediator test species of metal-contaminated environment.

  20. Metal-metal-hofteproteser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Michael; Overgaard, Søren; Penny, Jeannette

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark 4,456 metal-on-metal (MoM) hip prostheses have been implanted. Evidence demonstrates that some patients develope adverse biological reactions causing failures of MoM hip arthroplasty. Some reactions might be systemic. Failure rates are associated with the type and the design of the Mo......M hip implant. A Danish surveillance programme has been initiated addressing these problems....

  1. Metabolism of Zearalenone by Genetically Modified Organisms Expressing the Detoxification Gene from Clonostachys rosea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi-Ando, Naoko; Ohsato, Shuichi; Shibata, Takehiko; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Isamu; Kimura, Makoto

    2004-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is converted to a nontoxic product by a lactonohydololase encoded by zhd101. An enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene was fused to zhd101 (i.e., egfp::zhd101) and expressed in Escherichia coli. Both recombinant ZHD101 and EGFP::ZHD101 were purified to homogeneity and characterized. Maximal activity of ZHD101 toward ZEN was measured at approximately 37 to 45°C and pH 10.5 (kcat at 30°C, 0.51 s−1). The enzyme was irreversibly inactivated at pH values below 4.5 or by treatment with serine protease inhibitors. ZHD101 was also active against five ZEN cognates, although the efficiencies were generally low; e.g., the kcat was highest with zearalanone (1.5 s−1) and lowest with β-zearalenol (0.075 s−1). EGFP::ZHD101 had properties similar to those of the individual proteins with regard to the EGFP fluorescence and lactonohydrolase activity. Fortuitously, EGFP::ZHD101 exhibited a good correlation between the fluorescence intensity and reaction velocity under various pH conditions. We therefore used egfp::zhd101 to visually monitor the lactonohydrolase activity in genetically modified organisms and evaluated the usefulness of zhd101 for in vivo detoxification of ZEN. While recombinant E. coli and transgenic rice calluses exhibited strong EGFP fluorescence and completely degraded ZEN in liquid media, recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae gave poor fluorescence and did not eliminate all the toxicity of the mycotoxin in the medium; i.e., the rest of ZEN was transformed into an unfavorable substrate, β-zearalenol, by an as-yet-unidentified reductase and remained in the medium. Even so, as much as 75% of ZEN was detoxified by the yeast transformant, which is better than the detoxification system in which food-grade Lactobacillus strains are used (H. El-Nezami, N. Polychronaki, S. Salminen, and H. Mykkuäne, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:3545-3549, 2002). An appropriate combination of a candidate host microbe and the codon-optimized synthetic gene

  2. Metabolism of zearalenone by genetically modified organisms expressing the detoxification gene from Clonostachys rosea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi-Ando, Naoko; Ohsato, Shuichi; Shibata, Takehiko; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Isamu; Kimura, Makoto

    2004-06-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is converted to a nontoxic product by a lactonohydololase encoded by zhd101. An enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene was fused to zhd101 (i.e., egfp::zhd101) and expressed in Escherichia coli. Both recombinant ZHD101 and EGFP::ZHD101 were purified to homogeneity and characterized. Maximal activity of ZHD101 toward ZEN was measured at approximately 37 to 45 degrees C and pH 10.5 (k(cat) at 30 degrees C, 0.51 s(-1)). The enzyme was irreversibly inactivated at pH values below 4.5 or by treatment with serine protease inhibitors. ZHD101 was also active against five ZEN cognates, although the efficiencies were generally low; e.g., the k(cat) was highest with zearalanone (1.5 s(-1)) and lowest with beta-zearalenol (0.075 s(-1)). EGFP::ZHD101 had properties similar to those of the individual proteins with regard to the EGFP fluorescence and lactonohydrolase activity. Fortuitously, EGFP::ZHD101 exhibited a good correlation between the fluorescence intensity and reaction velocity under various pH conditions. We therefore used egfp::zhd101 to visually monitor the lactonohydrolase activity in genetically modified organisms and evaluated the usefulness of zhd101 for in vivo detoxification of ZEN. While recombinant E. coli and transgenic rice calluses exhibited strong EGFP fluorescence and completely degraded ZEN in liquid media, recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae gave poor fluorescence and did not eliminate all the toxicity of the mycotoxin in the medium; i.e., the rest of ZEN was transformed into an unfavorable substrate, beta-zearalenol, by an as-yet-unidentified reductase and remained in the medium. Even so, as much as 75% of ZEN was detoxified by the yeast transformant, which is better than the detoxification system in which food-grade Lactobacillus strains are used (H. El-Nezami, N. Polychronaki, S. Salminen, and H. Mykkuäne, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:3545-3549, 2002). An appropriate combination of a candidate host microbe and the codon

  3. Detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue in spinel-based glass-ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Chang-Zhong [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Tang, Yuanyuan [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Lee, Po-Heng [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Liu, Chengshuai, E-mail: csliu@soil.gd.cn [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550009 (China); Shih, Kaimin, E-mail: kshih@hku.hk [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Li, Fangbai [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China)

    2017-01-05

    Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue in spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix. All Cr(VI) species is reduced to Cr(III) and most chromium contents are incorporated into spinel structure where the residual chromium are resided in the glass networks. - Highlights: • COPR was detoxified and immobilized in a spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix. • Cr-rich crystalline phase was determined to be MgCr{sub 1.32}Fe{sub 0.19}Al{sub 0.49}O{sub 4} spinel. • The partitioning ratio of Cr into spinel in the glass-ceramic can be up to 77%. • No Cr(VI) was observed after conversion of COPR into a glass-ceramic. • TCLP results demonstrate the superiority of the final product in immobilizing Cr. - Abstract: A promising strategy for the detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) in a spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix is reported in this study. In the search for a more chemically durable matrix for COPR, the most critical crystalline phase for Cr immobilization was found to be a spinel solid solution with a chemical composition of MgCr{sub 1.32}Fe{sub 0.19}Al{sub 0.49}O{sub 4}. Using Rietveld quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis, we identified this final product is with the phases of spinel (3.5 wt.%), diopside (5.2 wt.%), and some amorphous contents (91.2 wt.%). The partitioning ratio of Cr reveals that about 77% of the Cr was incorporated into the more chemically durable spinel phase. The results of Cr K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy show that no Cr(VI) was observed after conversion of COPR into a glass-ceramic, which indicates successful detoxification of Cr(VI) into Cr(III) in the COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic. The leaching performances of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic were compared with a prolonged acid-leaching test, and the results demonstrate the superiority of the COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic matrix in the

  4. Influence of a step-change in metal exposure (Cd, Cu, Zn) on metal accumulation and subcellular partitioning in a freshwater bivalve, Pyganodon grandis: A long-term transplantation experiment between lakes with contrasting ambient metal levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Sophie [INRS-Eau, Terre et Environnement, Université du Québec, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada); Bonneris, Emmanuelle [INRS-Eau, Terre et Environnement, Université du Québec, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada) and Bayer S.A.S., Bayer CropScience, 16 Rue Jean-Marie Leclair, CP 90106, F 69266 Lyon Cedex 09 (France); Michaud, Annick [INRS-Eau, Terre et Environnement, Université du Québec, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada) and Direction des Évaluations environnementales, Ministère du Développement durable, de l’Environnement et des Parcs, 675, boul. René-Lévesque Est, 6e étage, Québec, QC G1R 5V7 (Canada); Pinel-Alloul, Bernadette [Groupe de Recherche Interuniversitaire en Limnologie et Environnement Aquatique (GRIL), Département de Sciences Biologiques, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Campbell, Peter G.C., E-mail: peter.campbell@ete.inrs.ca [INRS-Eau, Terre et Environnement, Université du Québec, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? We transferred freshwater bivalves from a reference lake to a Cd and Zn contaminated lake. ? Changes in metal accumulation and subcellular partitioning were followed over time (up to 860 d). ? Metal detoxification strategies differed between target organs (gills vs. digestive gland). ? The ability to handle Cd is inherent in P. grandis, not a trait acquired after long-term adaptation. -- Abstract: The objective of the present field experiment was to identify detoxification responses in the gills and digestive gland of a freshwater unionid bivalve, Pyganodon grandis, subjected to a step-change in metal exposure. Adult bivalves were transferred from a reference site (Lake Opasatica) and a metal-contaminated lake (Lake Héva) to a second contaminated lake (Lake Vaudray) in northwestern Quebec, Canada. Changes in organ metal concentrations, in the subcellular distribution of metals and in metallothionein concentrations were followed over time (t = 0, 132, (400) and 860 days). At each collection time and for each bivalve, the gills and digestive gland were excised and gently homogenized; six sub-cellular fractions were separated by differential centrifugation and analyzed for their Cd, Cu and Zn content, and metallothionein was quantified independently. Metal detoxification strategies were shown to differ between target organs: in the gills, incoming metals were sequestered largely in the granules, whereas in the digestive gland the same metals primarily accumulated in the cytosol, in the metallothionein-like protein fraction. These metal-handling strategies, as employed by the metal-naïve bivalves originating in the reference lake, closely resemble those identified in free-living P. grandis chronically exposed in the metal-contaminated lake, suggesting that the ability to handle incoming metals (Cd in particular) is inherent in P. grandis and is not a trait acquired after long-term adaptation of the bivalve to metal-contaminated environments. The

  5. Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates Using Hydrolyzates of Spruce Sawdust: Comparison of Hydrolyzates Detoxification by Application of Overliming, Active Carbon, and Lignite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Kucera

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are bacterial polyesters which are considered biodegradable alternatives to petrochemical plastics. PHAs have a wide range of potential applications, however, the production cost of this bioplastic is several times higher. A major percentage of the final cost is represented by the price of the carbon source used in the fermentation. Burkholderia cepacia and Burkholderia sacchari are generally considered promising candidates for PHA production from lignocellulosic hydrolyzates. The wood waste biomass has been subjected to hydrolysis. The resulting hydrolyzate contained a sufficient amount of fermentable sugars. Growth experiments indicated a strong inhibition by the wood hydrolyzate. Over-liming and activated carbon as an adsorbent of inhibitors were employed for detoxification. All methods of detoxification had a positive influence on the growth of biomass and PHB production. Furthermore, lignite was identified as a promising alternative sorbent which can be used for detoxification of lignocellulose hydrolyzates. Detoxification using lignite instead of activated carbon had lower inhibitor removal efficiency, but greater positive impact on growth of the bacterial culture and overall PHA productivity. Moreover, lignite is a significantly less expensive adsorbent in comparison with activated charcoal and; moreover, used lignite can be simply utilized as a fuel to, at least partially, cover heat and energetic demands of fermentation, which should improve the economic feasibility of the process.

  6. Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates Using Hydrolyzates of Spruce Sawdust: Comparison of Hydrolyzates Detoxification by Application of Overliming, Active Carbon, and Lignite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Dan; Benesova, Pavla; Ladicky, Peter; Pekar, Miloslav; Sedlacek, Petr; Obruca, Stanislav

    2017-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are bacterial polyesters which are considered biodegradable alternatives to petrochemical plastics. PHAs have a wide range of potential applications, however, the production cost of this bioplastic is several times higher. A major percentage of the final cost is represented by the price of the carbon source used in the fermentation. Burkholderia cepacia and Burkholderia sacchari are generally considered promising candidates for PHA production from lignocellulosic hydrolyzates. The wood waste biomass has been subjected to hydrolysis. The resulting hydrolyzate contained a sufficient amount of fermentable sugars. Growth experiments indicated a strong inhibition by the wood hydrolyzate. Over-liming and activated carbon as an adsorbent of inhibitors were employed for detoxification. All methods of detoxification had a positive influence on the growth of biomass and PHB production. Furthermore, lignite was identified as a promising alternative sorbent which can be used for detoxification of lignocellulose hydrolyzates. Detoxification using lignite instead of activated carbon had lower inhibitor removal efficiency, but greater positive impact on growth of the bacterial culture and overall PHA productivity. Moreover, lignite is a significantly less expensive adsorbent in comparison with activated charcoal and; moreover, used lignite can be simply utilized as a fuel to, at least partially, cover heat and energetic demands of fermentation, which should improve the economic feasibility of the process. PMID:28952532

  7. Effects of ethanol consumption and alcohol detoxification on the biomechanics and morphology the bone in rat femurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. D. Garcia

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to verify the effects of ethanol consumption and alcohol detoxification on the biomechanics, area and thickness of cortical and trabecular bone in rat femur. This was an experimental study in which 18 male Wistar rats were used, with 40 days of age, weighing 179±2.5 g. The rats were divided into three groups (n=06: CT (control, AC (chronic alcoholic, DT (detoxification. After experimental procedures, the animals were euthanized by an overdose of the anesthetic and their femurs were collected for mechanical testing and histological processing. All animals did not present malnutrition or dehydration during experimentation period. Morphometric analysis of cortical and trabecular bones in rat femurs demonstrated that AC animals showed inferior dimensions and alcohol detoxification (DT allowed an enhancement in area and thickness of cortical and trabecular bone. Material and structural properties data of AC group highlighted the harmful effects of ethanol on bone mechanical properties. The results of this study demonstrated that chronic alcoholic rats (AC presented major bone damage in all analyzed variables. Those findings suggested that alcohol detoxification is highly suggested in pre-operative planning and this corroborates to the success of bone surgery and bone tissue repair. Thanks to the financial support offered by PROBIC – UNIFENAS.

  8. The evolutionarily conserved mediator subunit MDT-15/MED15 links protective innate immune responses and xenobiotic detoxification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Read Pukkila-Worley

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Metazoans protect themselves from environmental toxins and virulent pathogens through detoxification and immune responses. We previously identified a small molecule xenobiotic toxin that extends survival of Caenorhabditis elegans infected with human bacterial pathogens by activating the conserved p38 MAP kinase PMK-1 host defense pathway. Here we investigate the cellular mechanisms that couple activation of a detoxification response to innate immunity. From an RNAi screen of 1,420 genes expressed in the C. elegans intestine, we identified the conserved Mediator subunit MDT-15/MED15 and 28 other gene inactivations that abrogate the induction of PMK-1-dependent immune effectors by this small molecule. We demonstrate that MDT-15/MED15 is required for the xenobiotic-induced expression of p38 MAP kinase PMK-1-dependent immune genes and protection from Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. We also show that MDT-15 controls the induction of detoxification genes and functions to protect the host from bacteria-derived phenazine toxins. These data define a central role for MDT-15/MED15 in the coordination of xenobiotic detoxification and innate immune responses.

  9. The evolutionarily conserved mediator subunit MDT-15/MED15 links protective innate immune responses and xenobiotic detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukkila-Worley, Read; Feinbaum, Rhonda L; McEwan, Deborah L; Conery, Annie L; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2014-05-01

    Metazoans protect themselves from environmental toxins and virulent pathogens through detoxification and immune responses. We previously identified a small molecule xenobiotic toxin that extends survival of Caenorhabditis elegans infected with human bacterial pathogens by activating the conserved p38 MAP kinase PMK-1 host defense pathway. Here we investigate the cellular mechanisms that couple activation of a detoxification response to innate immunity. From an RNAi screen of 1,420 genes expressed in the C. elegans intestine, we identified the conserved Mediator subunit MDT-15/MED15 and 28 other gene inactivations that abrogate the induction of PMK-1-dependent immune effectors by this small molecule. We demonstrate that MDT-15/MED15 is required for the xenobiotic-induced expression of p38 MAP kinase PMK-1-dependent immune genes and protection from Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. We also show that MDT-15 controls the induction of detoxification genes and functions to protect the host from bacteria-derived phenazine toxins. These data define a central role for MDT-15/MED15 in the coordination of xenobiotic detoxification and innate immune responses.

  10. Physiologically based kinetic modeling of bioactivation and detoxification of the alkenylbenzene methyleugenol in human as compared with rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Subeihi, A.A.; Spenkelink, A.; Punt, A.; Boersma, M.G.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Rietjens, I.

    2012-01-01

    This study defines a physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model for methyleugenol (ME) in human based on in vitro and in silico derived parameters. With the model obtained, bioactivation and detoxification of methyleugenol (ME) at different doses levels could be investigated. The outcomes of the

  11. Perception of Problem Severity, Treatment Motivations, Experiences, and Long-Term Plans among Pregnant Women in a Detoxification Inpatient Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Afton; Shannon, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine pregnant women's substance use from initial use, to recognition of problem severity, motivations for treatment, and ultimately to treatment entry. The sample consisted of 114 pregnant women receiving inpatient detoxification treatment at the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center. Qualitative and…

  12. Robust cellulosic ethanol production from SPORL-pretreated lodgepole pine using an adapted strain Saccharomyces cervisiae without detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Tian; X.L. Luo; X.S. Yang; J.Y. Zhu

    2010-01-01

    This study reports an ethanol yield of 270 L/ton wood from lodgepole pine pretreated with sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) using an adapted strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y5, without detoxification. The enzymatic hydrolysate produced from pretreated cellulosic solids substrate was combined with pretreatment hydrolysate before...

  13. Efficient ethanol production from beetle-killed lodgepole pine using SPORL technology and Saccharomyces cerevisiae without detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junyong Zhu; Xiaolin Luo; Shen Tian; Roland Gleisner; Jose Negron; Eric Horn

    2011-01-01

    This study applied Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome Recalcitrance of Lignocelluloses (SPORL) to evaluate the potential of mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine for ethanol production using conventional Saccharomyces cerevisiae without hydrolysate detoxification. The results indicate that the beetle-killed trees are more susceptible to SPORL pretreatment than live...

  14. Implicit and Explicit Drug-Related Cognitions during Detoxification Treatment Are Associated with Drug Relapse: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhe, Reshmi; Waters, Andrew J.; van de Wetering, Ben J. M.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Relapse is a major problem in drug addiction treatment. Both drug craving and drug-related cognitions (e.g., attentional bias and implicit attitudes to drugs) may contribute to relapse. Using ecological momentary assessments, we examined whether craving and cognitions assessed during drug detoxification treatment were associated with…

  15. Effects of ethanol consumption and alcohol detoxification on the biomechanics and morphology the bone in rat femurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J A D; Souza, A L T; Cruz, L H C; Marques, P P; Camilli, J A; Nakagaki, W R; Esteves, A; Rossi-Junior, W C; Fernandes, G J M; Guerra, F D; Soares, E A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the effects of ethanol consumption and alcohol detoxification on the biomechanics, area and thickness of cortical and trabecular bone in rat femur. This was an experimental study in which 18 male Wistar rats were used, with 40 days of age, weighing 179 ± 2.5 g. The rats were divided into three groups (n=06): CT (control), AC (chronic alcoholic), DT (detoxification). After experimental procedures, the animals were euthanized by an overdose of the anesthetic and their femurs were collected for mechanical testing and histological processing. All animals did not present malnutrition or dehydration during experimentation period. Morphometric analysis of cortical and trabecular bones in rat femurs demonstrated that AC animals showed inferior dimensions and alcohol detoxification (DT) allowed an enhancement in area and thickness of cortical and trabecular bone. Material and structural properties data of AC group highlighted the harmful effects of ethanol on bone mechanical properties. The results of this study demonstrated that chronic alcoholic rats (AC) presented major bone damage in all analyzed variables. Those findings suggested that alcohol detoxification is highly suggested in pre-operative planning and this corroborates to the success of bone surgery and bone tissue repair. Thanks to the financial support offered by PROBIC - UNIFENAS.

  16. Detoxification and color removal of Congo red by a novel Dietzia sp. (DTS26) – A microcosm approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SatheeshBabu, S.; Mohandass, C; VijayRaj, A; Dhale, M.A

    The present study deals with the decolorization and detoxification of Congo red (CR) by a novel marine bacterium Dietzia sp. (DTS26) isolated from Divar Island, Goa, India. The maximum decolorization of 94.5% (100 mg L-1) was observed...

  17. Study on inter-ethnic human differences in bioactivation and detoxification of estragole using physiologically based kinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Jia; Louisse, Jochem; Spenkelink, Bert; Wesseling, Sebastiaan; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2017-09-01

    Considering the rapid developments in food safety in the past decade in China, it is of importance to obtain insight into what extent safety and risk assessments of chemicals performed for the Caucasian population apply to the Chinese population. The aim of the present study was to determine physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modeling-based predictions for differences between Chinese and Caucasians in terms of metabolic bioactivation and detoxification of the food-borne genotoxic carcinogen estragole. The PBK models were defined based on kinetic constants for hepatic metabolism derived from in vitro incubations using liver fractions of the two ethnic groups, and used to evaluate the inter-ethnic differences in metabolic activation and detoxification of estragole. The models predicted that at realistic dietary intake levels, only 0.02% of the dose was converted to the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite 1'-sulfooxyestragole in Chinese subjects, whereas this amounted to 0.09% of the dose in Caucasian subjects. Detoxification of 1'-hydroxyestragole, mainly via conversion to 1'-oxoestragole, was similar within the two ethnic groups. The 4.5-fold variation in formation of the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of estragole accompanied by similar rates of detoxification may indicate a lower risk of estragole for the Chinese population at similar levels of exposure. The study provides a proof of principle for how PBK modeling can identify differences in ethnic sensitivity and provide a more refined risk assessment for a specific ethnic group for a compound of concern.

  18. Structure of a tau class glutathione S-transferase from wheat active in herbicide detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Russell; Cummins, Ian; Dixon, David P; Edwards, Robert; Cole, David J; Lapthorn, Adrian J

    2002-06-04

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) from the phi (GSTF) and tau (GSTU) classes are unique to plants and play important roles in stress tolerance and secondary metabolism as well as catalyzing the detoxification of herbicides in crops and weeds. We have cloned and functionally characterized a group of GSTUs from wheat treated with fenchlorazole-ethyl, a herbicide safener. One of these enzymes, TaGSTU4-4, was highly active in conjugating the chemically distinct wheat herbicides fenoxaprop and dimethenamid. The structure of TaGSTU4-4 has been determined at 2.2 A resolution in complex with S-hexylglutathione. This enzyme is the first tau class GST structure to be determined and most closely resembles the omega class GSTs, but without the unique N-terminal extension or active site cysteine. The X-ray structure identifies key amino acid residues in the hydrophobic binding site and provides insights into the substrate specificity of these enzymes.

  19. Detoxification of Echis ocellatus venom-induced toxicity by Annona senegalensis Pers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, Amlabu; Ebinbin, Ajagun; Amlabu, Wandayi

    2014-06-01

    Different fractions (I-V) of the methanolic leaf extracts of Annona senegalensis were assessed for their anti-snake venom activities. Fractions III neutralized lethal toxicity induced by Echis ocellatus venom and manifested the same potency as the crude extracts against the venom. The anti-snake venom activity of fraction III was clearly shown by the complete abrogation of venom-induced haemorrhage and the 75% record of surviving mice which were injected with a pre-incubate of venom and extract in the ratio 1:30 w/w after a 24 h. Also, fraction III exhibited a weak inhibitory effect on fibrinogen clotting activity of this venom. The key phytochemicals mediating the activity of this fraction are flavonoids and tannins. The detoxification of this venom by fraction III and the possible mode of action in the pathology of snake envenoming is discussed in this report.

  20. A novel role of catalase in detoxification of peroxynitrite in S. cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Rupam; Bhattacharjee, Arindam; Majumdar, Uddalak; Ray, Sougata Sinha; Dutta, Tanmay; Ghosh, Sanjay

    2009-08-07

    The biological targets of peroxynitrite toxicity include wide array of biomolecules. Although several enzymes are found to be important components of cellular defense against peroxynitrite, the complete scenario is not totally understood. Yeast flavohemoglobin (YHB) and glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (GS-FDH) confers resistance against nitric oxide and related reactive nitrogen species. In the present study, when subtoxic dose of peroxynitrite was applied to wild type, Deltayhb1 and Deltasfa1 strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, induction of cytosolic catalase was found at activity as well as gene expression level in mutants but not in wild type. Such induction was not due to intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Our in vitro studies confirmed the role of catalase in protection against peroxynitrite-mediated oxidation and nitration and also in peroxynitrite catabolism. This report is first of its kind regarding the novel role of catalase in peroxynitrite detoxification in Deltayhb1 and Deltasfa1 strains of S. cerevisiae.

  1. Microbial decolorization and detoxification of emerging environmental pollutant: Cosmetic hair dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Swati; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Singh, Mukesh

    2017-09-15

    Since the usage of hair dyes has increased in recent time, the removal of residual dye from environment is also an emerging issue. Hair dye contains mixture of chemicals including genotoxic chemical, p-phenylenediamine (p-PD or PPD). The present study reports bioremediation of hair dye using bacteria isolated from saloon effluent. Sugarcane bagasse powder (SBP) was used as a source of nutrient and surface for bacterial growth. The 16S rDNA sequencing confirmed the isolate as Enterobacter cloacae which was designated as DDB I. The decolourization of dye was studied using UV-vis spectrophotometer. The detoxification study was conducted on microbes isolated from fresh ponds using well diffusion assay. The 1mg/ml of dye was effectively decolourised within 18h of DDB I treatment in the minimal medium containing 30mg/ml of SBP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Orofacial cleft risk is increased with maternal smoking and specific detoxification-gene variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Min; Christensen, Kaare; Weinberg, Clarice R

    2007-01-01

    Maternal smoking is a recognized risk factor for orofacial clefts. Maternal or fetal pharmacogenetic variants are plausible modulators of this risk. In this work, we studied 5,427 DNA samples, including 1,244 from subjects in Denmark and Iowa with facial clefting and 4,183 from parents, siblings......, or unrelated population controls. We examined 25 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 16 genes in pathways for detoxification of components of cigarette smoke, to look for evidence of gene-environment interactions. For genes identified as related to oral clefting, we studied gene-expression profiles in fetal...... development in the relevant tissues and time intervals. Maternal smoking was a significant risk factor for clefting and showed dosage effects, in both the Danish and Iowan data. Suggestive effects of variants in the fetal NAT2 and CYP1A1 genes were observed in both the Iowan and the Danish participants...

  3. Detoxification of hazardous waste streams using microwave-assisted fluid-bed oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, R.; Nandi, S.P. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Katz, J.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Microwave-assisted oxidation of trichloroethane (TCE) performed at 500-580{degree}C has been found to be significantly more efficient than conventional oxidation methods. Experiments were conducted using a 6 kilowatt, 2.45 gigohertz power supply and a 6 inch bed of silicon carbide granules in a 1 inch diameter quartz reactor tube which in turn was placed in a microwave cavity. After heating the reactor to a given temperature a TCE-air stream was passed through the silicon carbide bed. TCE was almost completely detoxified (98--99%) in a single pass through the silicon carbide bed at 500--580{degree}C. The oxidation products are HCl, CO{sub 2} and CO. By comparison the corresponding single-pass detoxification using conventional thermal methods results in only partial conversion. The principal products being dichloroethylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) and HCl. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Reduction of Medication Costs After Detoxification for Medication-Overuse Headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Asif M; Bendtsen, Lars; Zeeberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether detoxifying patients with medication-overuse headache can reduce long-term medication costs. BACKGROUND: Direct costs of medications in medication-overuse headache have been reported to be very high but have never been calculated on the basis of exact register data....... Long-term economic savings obtained by detoxification have never been investigated. METHODS: We conducted a registry-based observational retrospective follow-up study on 336 medication-overuse headache patients treated and discharged from the Danish Headache Center over a 2-year period. By means...... of the Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics, we collected information on the costs and use of prescription-only medication 1 year before admission and 1 year after discharge from Danish Headache Center. RESULTS: The average medication costs per patient per year decreased with 24%, from US$971 before...

  5. Simultaneous concentration and detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates by vacuum membrane distillation coupled with adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqin; Li, Ming; Wang, Yafei; Ji, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Lin; Hou, Lian

    2015-12-01

    Low sugar concentration and the presence of various inhibitors are the major challenges associated with lignocellulosic hydrolyzates as a fermentation broth. Vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) process can be used to concentrate sugars and remove inhibitors (furans) efficiently, but it's not desirable for the removal of less volatile inhibitors such as acetic acid. In this study, a VMD-adsorption process was proposed to improve the removal of acetic acid, achieving simultaneous concentration and detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates by one step process. Results showed that sugars were concentrated with high rejections (>98%) and little sugar loss (<2%), with the significant reduction in nearly total furans (99.7%) and acetic acid (83.5%) under optimal operation conditions. Fermentation results showed the ethanol production of hydrolyzates concentrated and detoxified using the VMD-adsorption method were approximately 10-fold greater than from untreated hydrolyzates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Overexpression of AtPCS1 in tobacco increases arsenic and arsenic plus cadmium accumulation and detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanella, Letizia; Fattorini, Laura; Brunetti, Patrizia; Roccotiello, Enrica; Cornara, Laura; D'Angeli, Simone; Della Rovere, Federica; Cardarelli, Maura; Barbieri, Maurizio; Sanità di Toppi, Luigi; Degola, Francesca; Lindberg, Sylvia; Altamura, Maria Maddalena; Falasca, Giuseppina

    2016-03-01

    The heterologous expression of AtPCS1 in tobacco plants exposed to arsenic plus cadmium enhances phytochelatin levels, root As/Cd accumulation and pollutants detoxification, but does not prevent root cyto-histological damages. High phytochelatin (PC) levels may be involved in accumulation and detoxification of both cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) in numerous plants. Although polluted environments are frequently characterized by As and Cd coexistence, how increased PC levels affect the adaptation of the entire plant and the response of its cells/tissues to a combined contamination by As and Cd needs investigation. Consequently, we analyzed tobacco seedlings overexpressing Arabidopsis phytochelatin synthase1 gene (AtPCS1) exposed to As and/or Cd, to evaluate the levels of PCs and As/Cd, the cyto-histological modifications of the roots and the Cd/As leaf extrusion ability. When exposed to As and/or Cd the plants overexpressing AtPCS1 showed higher PC levels, As plus Cd root accumulation, and detoxification ability than the non-overexpressing plants, but a blocked Cd-extrusion from the leaf trichomes. In all genotypes, As, and Cd in particular, damaged lateral root apices, enhancing cell-vacuolization, causing thinning and stretching of endodermis initial cells. Alterations also occurred in the primary structure region of the lateral roots, i.e., cell wall lignification in the external cortex, cell hypertrophy in the inner cortex, crushing of endodermis and stele, and nuclear hypertrophy. Altogether, As and/or Cd caused damage to the lateral roots (and not to the primary one), with such damage not counteracted by AtPCS1 overexpression. The latter, however, positively affected accumulation and detoxification to both pollutants, highlighting that Cd/As accumulation and detoxification due to PCS1 activity do not reduce the cyto-histological damage.

  7. Detoxification of organophosphate nerve agents by immobilized dual functional biocatalysts in a cellulose hollow fiber bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aijun A; Chen, Wilfred; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2005-08-05

    A whole-cell technology for detoxification of organophosphates based on genetically engineered Escherichia coli cell expressing both cellulose-binding domain (CBD) and organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) onto cell surface was reported recently (Wang et al., 2002). This study reports the application of these biocatalysts when immobilized in a cellulose hollow fiber bioreactor (HFB) for the biodetoxification of a model organophosphate, paraoxon, in a continuous flow mode. In 24 h, 0.79 mg wet cell/cm2 fiber surface were immobilized onto cellulose fibers specifically and strongly through the cellulose binding domain, forming a monolayer demonstrated by Scanning Electronic Micrograph, and essentially no cell was washed away by washing buffer. The immobilized biocatalyst had a high performance of detoxifying paraoxon solution of 5,220 mumol/h x L reactor or 990 mumol/h x m2 reactor. The immobilized biocatalysts maintained a stable degradation capacity for 15 uses over a period of 48 days with only 10% decline in degradation efficiency under operating and storage conditions. In addition, the bioreactor was easily regenerated by washing with 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), with 86.7% immobilization capacity and 93.9% degradation efficiency recovery. This is the first report using the HFB in a non-traditional way, immobilizing whole-cell biocatalysts by specific adhesion thus rendering the catalysis operation the advantages of low pressure drop, low shear force, and low energy requirement. The successful application of this genetically engineered dual functional E. coli strain in a model bioreactor shows its promise in large-scale detoxification of organophosphate nerve agents in bulk liquid phase. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A physiologically based biokinetic (PBBK) model for estragole bioactivation and detoxification in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punt, Ans; Freidig, Andreas P.; Delatour, Thierry; Scholz, Gabriele; Boersma, Marelle G.; Schilter, Benoit; Bladeren, Peter J. van; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study defines a physiologically based biokinetic (PBBK) model for the alkenylbenzene estragole in rat based on in vitro metabolic parameters determined using relevant tissue fractions, in silico derived partition coefficients, and physiological parameters derived from the literature. The model consists of eight compartments including liver, lung and kidney as metabolizing compartments, and additional compartments for fat, arterial blood, venous blood, rapidly perfused tissue and slowly perfused tissue. Evaluation of the model was performed by comparing the PBBK predicted dose-dependent formation of the estragole metabolites 4-allylphenol and 1'-hydroxyestragole glucuronide to literature reported levels of these metabolites, which were demonstrated to be in the same order of magnitude. With the model obtained the relative extent of bioactivation and detoxification of estragole at different oral doses was examined. At low doses formation of 4-allylphenol, leading to detoxification, is observed to be the major metabolic pathway, occurring mainly in the lung and kidney due to formation of this metabolite with high affinity in these organs. Saturation of this metabolic pathway in the lung and kidney leads to a relative increase in formation of the proximate carcinogenic metabolite 1'-hydroxyestragole, occurring mainly in the liver. This relative increase in formation of 1'-hydroxyestragole leads to a relative increase in formation of 1'-hydroxyestragole glucuronide and 1'-sulfooxyestragole the latter being the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of estragole. These results indicate that the relative importance of different metabolic pathways of estragole may vary in a dose-dependent way, leading to a relative increase in bioactiviation of estragole at higher doses

  9. Arsenic Uptake, Toxicity, Detoxification, and Speciation in Plants: Physiological, Biochemical, and Molecular Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ghulam; Murtaza, Behzad; Bibi, Irshad; Shahid, Muhammad; Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Amjad, Muhammad; Hussain, Munawar

    2018-01-02

    Environmental contamination with arsenic (As) is a global environmental, agricultural and health issue due to the highly toxic and carcinogenic nature of As. Exposure of plants to As, even at very low concentration, can cause many morphological, physiological, and biochemical changes. The recent research on As in the soil-plant system indicates that As toxicity to plants varies with its speciation in plants (e.g., arsenite, As(III); arsenate, As(V)), with the type of plant species, and with other soil factors controlling As accumulation in plants. Various plant species have different mechanisms of As(III) or As(V) uptake, toxicity, and detoxification. This review briefly describes the sources and global extent of As contamination and As speciation in soil. We discuss different mechanisms responsible for As(III) and As(V) uptake, toxicity, and detoxification in plants, at physiological, biochemical, and molecular levels. This review highlights the importance of the As-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as their damaging impacts on plants at biochemical, genetic, and molecular levels. The role of different enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase) and non-enzymatic (salicylic acid, proline, phytochelatins, glutathione, nitric oxide, and phosphorous) substances under As(III/V) stress have been delineated via conceptual models showing As translocation and toxicity pathways in plant species. Significantly, this review addresses the current, albeit partially understood, emerging aspects on (i) As-induced physiological, biochemical, and genotoxic mechanisms and responses in plants and (ii) the roles of different molecules in modulation of As-induced toxicities in plants. We also provide insight on some important research gaps that need to be filled to advance our scientific understanding in this area of research on As in soil-plant systems.

  10. The application of digestive tract lactic acid bacteria with high esterase activity for zearalenone detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiau-Wei; Hsu, Jih-Tay; Chou, Yan-An; Wang, Han-Tsung

    2018-01-24

    Zearalenone (ZEA) is an estrogenic mycotoxin produced by several Fusarium species and frequently contaminates cereals used for food or animal feed. This study attempted to select lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with high esterase activity from the digestive tract, with the goal of using these bacteria for ZEA detoxification. No ZEA activity-related biotransformation products were observed in three isolates (B1, B2 and D10) during incubation in the presence of ZEA. All three LAB strains were Lactobacillus plantarum, but the API 50 CHL results suggested that the three isolates were different strains. Increased esterase activity was associated with an increase in cell growth, and the ZEA-detoxifying capabilities of isolates rely on the concentration of bacteria in the culture medium. The lipolytic activity and ZEA removal assay indicated that ZEA degradation by the supernatant fraction was dependent on esterase activity; the supernatant of B2 strain showed the highest ZEA degradation ability and did not release the binding ZEA back into the medium. The D10 strain showed fast ZEA binding ability during the late log phase but began to release the bound ZEA back into the medium after the early stationary phase. All isolates showed good acid and bile salt tolerance ability but all strains showed low adhesion ability to epithelial cells. Based on the ZEA removal characterization and ability of the isolates, it is suggested that the isolates could be applied to ZEA detoxification of contaminated feed, but the with the requirement of high cell number for ZEA binding and limited degradation time before absorption of ZEA in the digestive tract. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Coordination between Apoplastic and Symplastic Detoxification Confers Plant Aluminum Resistance1[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao Fang; Lei, Gui Jie; Wang, Zhi Wei; Shi, Yuan Zhi; Braam, Janet; Li, Gui Xin; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2013-01-01

    Whether aluminum toxicity is an apoplastic or symplastic phenomenon is still a matter of debate. Here, we found that three auxin overproducing mutants, yucca, the recessive mutant superroot2, and superroot1 had increased aluminum sensitivity, while a transfer DNA insertion mutant, xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases15 (xth15), showed enhanced aluminum resistance, accompanied by low endogenous indole-3-acetic acid levels, implying that auxin may be involved in plant responses to aluminum stress. We used yucca and xth15 mutants for further study. The two mutants accumulated similar total aluminum in roots and had significantly reduced cell wall aluminum and increased symplastic aluminum content relative to the wild-type ecotype Columbia, indicating that altered aluminum levels in the symplast or cell wall cannot fully explain the differential aluminum resistance of these two mutants. The expression of Al sensitive1 (ALS1), a gene that functions in aluminum redistribution between the cytoplasm and vacuole and contributes to symplastic aluminum detoxification, was less abundant in yucca and more abundant in xth15 than the wild type, consistent with possible ALS1 function conferring altered aluminum sensitivity in the two mutants. Consistent with the idea that xth15 can tolerate more symplastic aluminum because of possible ALS1 targeting to the vacuole, morin staining of yucca root tip sections showed more aluminum accumulation in the cytosol than in the wild type, and xth15 showed reduced morin staining of cytosolic aluminum, even though yucca and xth15 had similar overall symplastic aluminum content. Exogenous application of an active auxin analog, naphthylacetic acid, to the wild type mimicked the aluminum sensitivity and distribution phenotypes of yucca, verifying that auxin may regulate aluminum distribution in cells. Together, these data demonstrate that auxin negatively regulates aluminum tolerance through altering ALS1 expression and aluminum distribution

  12. Evolution in an ancient detoxification pathway is coupled with a transition to herbivory in the drosophilidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloss, Andrew D; Vassão, Daniel G; Hailey, Alexander L; Nelson Dittrich, Anna C; Schramm, Katharina; Reichelt, Michael; Rast, Timothy J; Weichsel, Andrzej; Cravens, Matthew G; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Montfort, William R; Whiteman, Noah K

    2014-09-01

    Chemically defended plant tissues present formidable barriers to herbivores. Although mechanisms to resist plant defenses have been identified in ancient herbivorous lineages, adaptations to overcome plant defenses during transitions to herbivory remain relatively unexplored. The fly genus Scaptomyza is nested within the genus Drosophila and includes species that feed on the living tissue of mustard plants (Brassicaceae), yet this lineage is derived from microbe-feeding ancestors. We found that mustard-feeding Scaptomyza species and microbe-feeding Drosophila melanogaster detoxify mustard oils, the primary chemical defenses in the Brassicaceae, using the widely conserved mercapturic acid pathway. This detoxification strategy differs from other specialist herbivores of mustard plants, which possess derived mechanisms to obviate mustard oil formation. To investigate whether mustard feeding is coupled with evolution in the mercapturic acid pathway, we profiled functional and molecular evolutionary changes in the enzyme glutathione S-transferase D1 (GSTD1), which catalyzes the first step of the mercapturic acid pathway and is induced by mustard defense products in Scaptomyza. GSTD1 acquired elevated activity against mustard oils in one mustard-feeding Scaptomyza species in which GstD1 was duplicated. Structural analysis and mutagenesis revealed that substitutions at conserved residues within and near the substrate-binding cleft account for most of this increase in activity against mustard oils. Functional evolution of GSTD1 was coupled with signatures of episodic positive selection in GstD1 after the evolution of herbivory. Overall, we found that preexisting functions of generalized detoxification systems, and their refinement by natural selection, could play a central role in the evolution of herbivory. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  13. Effective biotransformation and detoxification of anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 by using aerobic bacterial granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Ashvini U; Paul, Dhiraj; Dhotre, Dhiraj; Kodam, Kisan M

    2017-10-01

    Treatment of textile wastewater containing anthraquinone dye is quite a huge challenge due to its complex aromatic structure and toxicity. Present study deals with the degradation and detoxification of anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 using aerobic bacterial granules. Bacterial granules effectively decolorized reactive blue 4 at wide range of pH (4.0-11.0) and temperature (20-55 °C) as well as decolorized and tolerated high concentration of reactive blue 4 dye upto 1000 mg l -1 with V max 6.16 ± 0.82 mg l -1 h -1 and K m 227 ± 41 mg l -1 . Metagenomics study evaluates important role of Clostridia, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacterial members in biotransformation and tolerance of high concentrations of reactive blue 4 dye. Up-regulation of xenobiotic degradation and environmental information processing pathways during dye exposure signifies their noteworthy role in dye degradation. Biotransformation of dye was confirmed by significant decrease in the values of total suspended solids, biological and chemical oxygen demand. The metabolites formed after biotransformation was characterized by FT-IR and GC-MS analysis. The reactive blue 4 dye was found to be phytotoxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic whereas its biotransformed product were non-toxic. This study comprehensively illustrates that, bacterial aerobic granules can be used for eco-friendly remediation and detoxification of wastewater containing high organic load of anthraquinone dye. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Impact of Detoxification Costs and Predation Risk on Foraging: Implications for Mimicry Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelhorn, John; Rowe, Candy; Ruxton, Graeme D.; Higginson, Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    Prey often evolve defences to deter predators, such as noxious chemicals including toxins. Toxic species often advertise their defence to potential predators by distinctive sensory signals. Predators learn to associate toxicity with the signals of these so-called aposematic prey, and may avoid them in future. In turn, this selects for mildly toxic prey to mimic the appearance of more toxic prey. Empirical evidence shows that mimicry could be either beneficial (‘Mullerian’) or detrimental (‘quasi-Batesian’) to the highly toxic prey, but the factors determining which are unknown. Here, we use state-dependent models to explore how tri-trophic interactions could influence the evolution of prey defences. We consider how predation risk affects predators’ optimal foraging strategies on aposematic prey, and explore the resultant impact this has on mimicry dynamics between unequally defended species. In addition, we also investigate how the potential energetic cost of metabolising a toxin can alter the benefits to eating toxic prey and thus impact on predators’ foraging decisions. Our model predicts that both how predators perceive their own predation risk, and the cost of detoxification, can have significant, sometimes counterintuitive, effects on the foraging decisions of predators. For example, in some conditions predators should: (i) avoid prey they know to be undefended, (ii) eat more mildly toxic prey as detoxification costs increase, (iii) increase their intake of highly toxic prey as the abundance of undefended prey increases. These effects mean that the relationship between a mimic and its model can qualitatively depend on the density of alternative prey and the cost of metabolising toxins. In addition, these effects are mediated by the predators’ own predation risk, which demonstrates that, higher trophic levels than previously considered can have fundamental impacts on interactions among aposematic prey species. PMID:28045959

  15. Broccoli sprout extract induces detoxification-related gene expression and attenuates acute liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kazutaka; Ushida, Yusuke; Ishijima, Tomoko; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Inakuma, Takahiro; Yajima, Nobuhiro; Abe, Keiko; Nakai, Yuji

    2015-09-21

    To investigate the effects of broccoli sprout extract (BSEx) on liver gene expression and acute liver injury in the rat. First, the effects of BSEx on liver gene expression were examined. Male rats were divided into two groups. The Control group was fed the AIN-76 diet, and the BSEx group was fed the AIN-76 diet containing BSEx. After a 10-d feeding period, rats were sacrificed and their livers were used for DNA microarray and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses. Next, the effects of BSEx on acute liver injury were examined. In experiments using acute liver injury models, 1000 mg/kg acetaminophen (APAP) or 350 mg/kg D-galactosamine (D-GalN) was used to induce injury. These male rats were divided into four groups: Control, BSEx, Inducer (APAP or D-GalN), and Inducer+BSEx. The feeding regimens were identical for the two analyses. Twenty-four hours following APAP administration via p.o. or D-GalN administration via i.p., rats were sacrificed to determine serum aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels, hepatic glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances accumulation and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity. Microarray and real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed that BSEx upregulated the expression of genes related to detoxification and glutathione synthesis in normal rat liver. The levels of AST (70.91 ± 15.74 IU/mL vs 5614.41 ± 1997.83 IU/mL, P detoxification enzymes and glutathione synthesis.

  16. Detoxification of Atrazine by Low Molecular Weight Thiols in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing Jing; Xu, Jiang Yan; Lu, Feng Fan; Jin, She Feng; Yang, Hong

    2017-10-16

    Low molecular weight (LMW) thiols in higher plants are a group of sulfur-rich nonprotein compounds and play primary and multiple roles in cellular redox homeostasis, enzyme activities, and xenobiotics detoxification. This study focused on identifying thiols-related protein genes from the legume alfalfa exposed to the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) residues in environment. Using high-throughput RNA-sequencing, a set of ATZ-responsive thiols-related protein genes highly up-regulated and differentially expressed in alfalfa was identified. Most of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were involved in regulation of biotic and abiotic stress responses. By analyzing the genes involved in thiols-mediated redox homeostasis, we found that many of them were thiols-synthetic enzymes such as γ-glutamylcysteine synthase (γECS), homoglutathione synthetase (hGSHS), and glutathione synthetase (GSHS). Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we further characterized a group of ATZ-thiols conjugates, which are the detoxified forms of ATZ in plants. Cysteine S-conjugate ATZ-HCl+Cys was the most important metabolite detected by MS. Several other ATZ-conjugates were also examined as ATZ-detoxified metabolites. Such results were validated by characterizing their analogs in rice. Our data showed that some conjugates under ATZ stress were detected in both plants, indicating that some detoxified mechanisms and pathways can be shared by the two plant species. Overall, these results indicate that LMW thiols play critical roles in detoxification of ATZ in the plants.

  17. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases as a detoxification mechanism in insects: new insights from the arctiids (lepidoptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Sehlmeyer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Insects experience a wide array of chemical pressures from plant allelochemicals and pesticides and have developed several effective counterstrategies to cope with such toxins. Among these, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are crucial in plant-insect interactions. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs seem not to play a central role in xenobiotic detoxification in insects, in contrast to mammals. However, the previously identified senecionine N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Tyria jacobaeae (Lepidoptera indicates that FMOs have been recruited during the adaptation of this insect to plants that accumulate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Identification of related FMO-like sequences of various arctiids and other Lepidoptera and their combination with expressed sequence tag (EST data and sequences emerging from the Bombyx mori genome project show that FMOs in Lepidoptera form a gene family with three members (FMO1 to FMO3. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that FMO3 is only distantly related to lepidopteran FMO1 and FMO2 that originated from a more recent gene duplication event. Within the FMO1 gene cluster, an additional gene duplication early in the arctiid lineage provided the basis for the evolution of the highly specific biochemical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations of these butterflies to pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-producing plants. The genes encoding pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-N-oxygenizing enzymes (PNOs are transcribed in the fat body and the head of the larvae. An N-terminal signal peptide mediates the transport of the soluble proteins into the hemolymph where PNOs efficiently convert pro-toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids into their non-toxic N-oxide derivatives. Heterologous expression of a PNO of the generalist arctiid Grammia geneura produced an N-oxygenizing enzyme that shows noticeably expanded substrate specificity compared with the related enzyme of the specialist Tyria jacobaeae. The data about the evolution of FMOs within lepidopteran insects

  18. Impact of Acute Metal Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg-Fraté, Hella; Glaser, Walter; Schüller, Christoph; Klipp, Edda

    2014-01-01

    Although considered as essential cofactors for a variety of enzymatic reactions and for important structural and functional roles in cell metabolism, metals at high concentrations are potent toxic pollutants and pose complex biochemical problems for cells. We report results of single dose acute toxicity testing in the model organism S. cerevisiae. The effects of moderate toxic concentrations of 10 different human health relevant metals, Ag+, Al3+, As3+, Cd2+, Co2+, Hg2+, Mn2+, Ni2+, V3+, and Zn2+, following short-term exposure were analyzed by transcription profiling to provide the identification of early-on target genes or pathways. In contrast to common acute toxicity tests where defined endpoints are monitored we focused on the entire genomic response. We provide evidence that the induction of central elements of the oxidative stress response by the majority of investigated metals is the basic detoxification process against short-term metal exposure. General detoxification mechanisms also comprised the induction of genes coding for chaperones and those for chelation of metal ions via siderophores and amino acids. Hierarchical clustering, transcription factor analyses, and gene ontology data further revealed activation of genes involved in metal-specific protein catabolism along with repression of growth-related processes such as protein synthesis. Metal ion group specific differences in the expression responses with shared transcriptional regulators for both, up-regulation and repression were also observed. Additionally, some processes unique for individual metals were evident as well. In view of current concerns regarding environmental pollution our results may support ongoing attempts to develop methods to monitor potentially hazardous areas or liquids and to establish standardized tests using suitable eukaryotic a model organism. PMID:24416162

  19. Stress-related phenomena and detoxification mechanisms induced by common pharmaceuticals in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christou, Anastasis [Agricultural Research Institute, P.O. Box 22016, 1516 Nicosia (Cyprus); Antoniou, Chrystalla; Christodoulou, Charalampia [Department of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology and Food Science, Cyprus University of Technology, 3603 Lemesos (Cyprus); Hapeshi, Evroula; Stavrou, Ioannis; Michael, Costas [NIREAS-International Water Research Center, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Fatta-Kassinos, Despo [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); NIREAS-International Water Research Center, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Fotopoulos, Vasileios, E-mail: vassilis.fotopoulos@cut.ac.cy [Department of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology and Food Science, Cyprus University of Technology, 3603 Lemesos (Cyprus)

    2016-07-01

    Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) have been recently shown to exert phytotoxic effects. The present study explores the uptake, systemic translocation, and abiotic stress responses and detoxification mechanisms induced by the exposure of alfalfa plants grown in sand under greenhouse conditions to four common, individually applied PhACs (10 μg L{sup −1}) (diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, 17a-ethinylestradiol) and their mixture. Stress physiology markers (lipid peroxidation, proline, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and NO content, antioxidant activity assays) and gene expression levels of key plant detoxification components (including glutathione S-transferases, GST7, GST17; superoxide dismutases, CuZnSOD, FeSOD; proton pump, H{sup +}-ATP, and cytochrome c oxidase, CytcOx), were evaluated. PhACs were detected in significantly higher concentrations in roots compared with leaves. Stress related effects, manifested via membrane lipid peroxidation and oxidative burst, were local (roots) rather than systemic (leaves), and exacerbated when the tested PhACs were applied in mixture. Systemic accumulation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in leaves suggests its involvement in signal transduction and detoxification responses. Increased antioxidant enzymatic activities, as well as upregulated transcript levels of GST7, GST17, H{sup +}-ATPase and CytcOx, propose their role in the detoxification of the selected PhACs in plants. The current findings provide novel biochemical and molecular evidence highlighting the studied PhACs as an emerging abiotic stress factor, and point the need for further research on wastewater flows under natural agricultural environments. - Highlights: • PhACs were detected in higher concentrations in roots compared with leaves. • Stress effects were local and exacerbated when PhACs were applied in mixture. • H{sub 2}O{sub 2} may be involved in signal transduction and detoxification responses. • GSTs, H{sup +}-ATPase and CytcOx contribute to the

  20. Body metal concentrations and glycogen reserves in earthworms (Dendrobaena octaedra) from contaminated and uncontaminated forest soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmstrup, Martin, E-mail: martin.holmstrup@dmu.d [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Sorensen, Jesper G. [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Overgaard, Johannes; Bayley, Mark [Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Building 131, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Bindesbol, Anne-Mette [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Building 131, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Slotsbo, Stine; Fisker, Karina V.; Maraldo, Kristine [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Waagner, Dorthe [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Building 131, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Labouriau, Rodrigo [Aarhus University, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark); Asmund, Gert [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Arctic Environment, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2011-01-15

    Stress originating from toxicants such as heavy metals can induce compensatory changes in the energy metabolism of organisms due to increased energy expenses associated with detoxification and excretion processes. These energy expenses may be reflected in the available energy reserves such as glycogen. In a field study the earthworm, Dendrobaena octaedra, was collected from polluted areas, and from unpolluted reference areas. If present in the environment, cadmium, lead and copper accumulated to high concentrations in D. octaedra. In contrast, other toxic metals such as aluminium, nickel and zinc appeared to be regulated and kept at low internal concentrations compared to soil concentrations. Lead, cadmium and copper accumulation did not correlate with glycogen reserves of individual worms. In contrast, aluminium, nickel and zinc were negatively correlated with glycogen reserves. These results suggest that coping with different metals in earthworms is associated with differential energy demands depending on the associated detoxification strategy. - Detoxification and accumulation of cadmium and lead by earthworms carries little energetic expenses whereas strict internal regulation of aluminium and nickel has energetic costs.

  1. Uranium project. Geochemistry prospection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, J.

    1983-01-01

    Geochemistry studies the distribution of the chemicals elements in the terrestrial crust and its ways to migrate. The terminology used in this report is the following one: 1) Principles of the prospection geochemistry 2) Stages of the prospection geochemistry 3)utility of the prospection geochemistry 4) geochemistry of uranium 5) procedures used within the framework of uranium project 6) Average available 7) Selection of the zones of prospection geochemistry 8) Stages of the prospection, Sample preparation and analisis 9) Presentation of the results

  2. Acute detoxification of opioid-addicted patients with naloxone during propofol or methohexital anesthesia: a comparison of withdrawal symptoms, neuroendocrine, metabolic, and cardiovascular patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienbaum, P.; Scherbaum, N.; Thürauf, N.; Michel, M. C.; Gastpar, M.; Peters, J.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mu-Opioid receptor blockade during general anesthesia is a new treatment for detoxification of opioid addicted patients. We assessed catecholamine plasma concentrations, oxygen consumption, cardiovascular variables, and withdrawal symptoms after naloxone and tested the hypothesis that

  3. Characterization of the Aspergillus fumigatus detoxification systems for reactive nitrogen intermediates and their impact on virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eLapp

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprophytic mold that can cause life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. In the lung, inhaled conidia are confronted with immune effector cells that attack the fungus by various mechanisms such as phagocytosis, production of antimicrobial proteins or generation of reactive oxygen intermediates. Macrophages and neutrophils can also form nitric oxide (NO and reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI that potentially also contribute to killing of the fungus. However, fungi can produce several enzymes involved in RNI detoxification. Based on genome analysis of A. fumigatus, we identified two genes encoding flavohemoglobins, FhpA and FhpB, which have been shown for other fungi to convert NO to nitrate, and a gene encoding S-nitrosoglutathione reductase GnoA reducing S-nitrosoglutathione to ammonium and glutathione disulphide. To elucidate the role of these enzymes in detoxification of RNI, single and double deletion mutants of FhpA, FhpB and GnoA encoding genes were generated. The analysis of mutant strains using the NO donor DETA-NO indicated that FhpA and GnoA play the major role in defense against RNI. By generating fusions with the green fluorescence protein, we showed that both FhpA-eGFP and GnoA-eGFP were located in the cytoplasm of all A. fumigatus morphotypes, from conidia to hyphae, whereas FhpB-eGFP was localized in mitochondria. Because fhpA and gnoA mRNA was also detected in the lungs of infected mice, we investigated the role of these genes in fungal pathogenicity by using a murine infection model for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Remarkably, all mutant strains tested displayed wild-type pathogenicity, indicating that the ability to detoxify host-derived RNI is not essential for virulence of A. fumigatus in the applied mouse infection model. Consistently, no significant differences in killing of ΔfhpA, ΔfhpB or ΔgnoA conidia by cells of the macrophage cell line MH-S were observed when

  4. Dye decolorization and detoxification potential of Ca-alginate beads immobilized manganese peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Asgher, Muhammad

    2015-12-10

    In view of compliance with increasingly stringent environmental legislation, an eco-friendly treatment technology of industrial dyes and effluents is a major environmental challenge in the color industry. In present study, a promising and eco-friendly entrapment approach was adopted to immobilize purified manganese peroxidase (MnP) produced from an indigenous strain of Ganoderma lucidum IBL-05 on Ca-alginate beads. The immobilized MnP was subsequently used for enhanced decolorization and detoxification of textile reactive dyes). MnP isolated from solid-state culture of G. lucidum IBL-05, presented highest immobilization yield (83.9 %) using alginate beads prepared at optimized conditions of 4 % (w/v) sodium alginate, 2 % (w/v) Calcium chloride (CaCl2) and 0.5 mg/ml enzyme concentration. Immobilization of MnP enhanced optimum temperature but caused acidic shift in optimum pH of the enzyme. The immobilized MnP showed optimum activity at pH 4.0 and 60 °C as compared to pH 5.0 and 35 °C for free enzyme. The kinetic parameters K(m) and V(max) of MnP were significantly improved by immobilization. The enhanced catalytic potential of immobilized MnP led to 87.5 %, 82.1 %, 89.4 %, 95.7 % and 83 % decolorization of Sandal-fix Red C4BLN, Sandal-fix Turq Blue GWF, Sandal-fix Foron Blue E2BLN, Sandal-fix Black CKF and Sandal-fix Golden Yellow CRL dyes, respectively. The insolubilized MnP was reusable for 7 repeated cycles in dye color removal. Furthermore, immobilized MnP also caused a significant reduction in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (94.61-95.47 %), chemical oxygen demand (COD) (91.18-94.85 %), and total organic carbon (TOC) (89.58-95 %) of aqueous dye solutions. G. lucidum MnP was immobilized in Ca-alginate beads by entrapment method to improve its practical effectiveness. Ca-alginate bound MnP was catalytically more vigorous, thermo-stable, reusable and worked over wider ranges of pH and temperature as compared to its free counterpart. Results of cytotoxicity like

  5. Characterization of the Aspergillus fumigatus detoxification systems for reactive nitrogen intermediates and their impact on virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapp, Katrin; Vödisch, Martin; Kroll, Kristin; Strassburger, Maria; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Brakhage, Axel A

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprophytic mold that can cause life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. In the lung, inhaled conidia are confronted with immune effector cells that attack the fungus by various mechanisms such as phagocytosis, production of antimicrobial proteins or generation of reactive oxygen intermediates. Macrophages and neutrophils can also form nitric oxide (NO) and other reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) that potentially also contribute to killing of the fungus. However, fungi can produce several enzymes involved in RNI detoxification. Based on genome analysis of A. fumigatus, we identified two genes encoding flavohemoglobins, FhpA, and FhpB, which have been shown to convert NO to nitrate in other fungi, and a gene encoding S-nitrosoglutathione reductase GnoA reducing S-nitrosoglutathione to ammonium and glutathione disulphide. To elucidate the role of these enzymes in detoxification of RNI, single and double deletion mutants of FhpA, FhpB, and GnoA encoding genes were generated. The analysis of mutant strains using the NO donor DETA-NO indicated that FhpA and GnoA play the major role in defense against RNI. By generating fusions with the green fluorescence protein, we showed that both FhpA-eGFP and GnoA-eGFP were located in the cytoplasm of all A. fumigatus morphotypes, from conidia to hyphae, whereas FhpB-eGFP was localized in mitochondria. Because fhpA and gnoA mRNA was also detected in the lungs of infected mice, we investigated the role of these genes in fungal pathogenicity by using a murine infection model for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Remarkably, all mutant strains tested displayed wild-type pathogenicity, indicating that the ability to detoxify host-derived RNI is not essential for virulence of A. fumigatus in the applied mouse infection model. Consistently, no significant differences in killing of ΔfhpA, ΔfhpB, or ΔgnoA conidia by cells of the macrophage cell line MH-S were observed when compared to the

  6. Effect of organic and inorganic supply on Al detoxification and sorghum crop yield in ferralitic soils from Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van den Berghe, C.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A methodology has been tested to evaluate the agronomic effectiveness of organic fertilizers in combination or not with chemical fertilizers and lime on a ferralitic soil in Burundi. The experiments have shown that the samples obtained by weighing the mixed organic matter with water to obtain a paste are representative and the method by comparison of the regression coefficients after linear transformation of the response curve can also be applied on organic sources, when freshly applied. There were no significant differences at the 5 % level at 1 or 3 months between the sources for dry matter production of sorghum with and without fertilizer. Only when lime was applied these differences existed. For farmyard manure the effects of farmyard manure and farmyard manure * fertilizer on Al detoxification were significantly different at the 10 % level. All sources showed only differences on Al detoxification at the 5 % level when lime was applied.

  7. Disability, anxiety and depression associated with medication-overuse headache can be considerably reduced by detoxification and prophylactic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, L; Munksgaard, Sb; Tassorelli, C

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to investigate whether headache-related disability, depression and anxiety can be reduced by detoxification and prophylactic treatment in patients with medication-overuse headache (MOH). METHODS: Patients with MOH were included from six centres in Europ...... avoiding overuse of headache medications and demonstrates that not only headache frequency but also disability are remarkably improved by adequate intervention.......OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to investigate whether headache-related disability, depression and anxiety can be reduced by detoxification and prophylactic treatment in patients with medication-overuse headache (MOH). METHODS: Patients with MOH were included from six centres in Europe...... and Latin America in a seven-month cohort study. Before and six months after treatment, the degree of disability was measured by the Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) questionnaire, while anxiety and depression were measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). RESULTS: A total of 694...

  8. Sulfuric acid hydrolysis and detoxification of red alga Pterocladiella capillacea for bioethanol fermentation with thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chien-Hui; Chien, Wei-Chen; Chou, Han-Kai; Yang, Jungwoo; Lin, Hong-Ting Victor

    2014-09-01

    One-step sulfuric acid saccharification of the red alga Pterocladiella capillacea was optimized, and various detoxification methods (neutralization, overliming, and electrodialysis) of the acid hydrolysate were evaluated for fermentation with the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. A proximate composition analysis indicated that P. capillacea was rich in carbohydrates. A significant galactose recovery of 81.1 ± 5% was also achieved under the conditions of a 12% (w/v) biomass load, 5% (v/v) sulfuric acid, 121°C, and hydrolysis for 30 min. Among the various detoxification methods, electrodialysis was identified as the most suitable for fermentable sugar recovery and organic acid removal (100% reduction of formic and levulinic acids), even though it failed to reduce the amount of the inhibitor 5-HMF. As a result, K. marxianus fermentation with the electrodialyzed acid hydrolysate of P. capillacea resulted in the best ethanol levels and fermentation efficiency.

  9. Differential antioxidant defense and detoxification mechanisms in photodynamically stressed rice plants treated with the deregulators of porphyrin biosynthesis, 5-aminolevulinic acid and oxyfluorfen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phung, Thu-Ha; Jung, Sunyo, E-mail: sjung@knu.ac.kr

    2015-04-03

    This study focuses on differential molecular mechanisms of antioxidant and detoxification systems in rice plants under two different types of photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and oxyfluorfen (OF). The ALA-treated plants with white necrosis exhibited a greater decrease in photochemical quantum efficiency, F{sub v}/F{sub m}, as well as a greater increase in activity of superoxide dismutase, compared to the OF-treated plants. By contrast, the brown necrosis in OF-treated plants resulted in not only more widely dispersed H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production and greater increases in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-decomposing enzymes, catalase and peroxidase, but also lower ascorbate redox state. In addition, ALA- and OF-treated plants markedly up-regulated transcript levels of genes involved in detoxification processes including transport and movement, cellular homeostasis, and xenobiotic conjugation, with prominent up-regulation of serine/threonine kinase and chaperone only in ALA-treated plants. Our results demonstrate that different photodynamic stress imposed by ALA and OF developed differential actions of antioxidant enzymes and detoxification. Particularly, detoxification system may play potential roles in plant protection against photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, thereby contributing to alleviation of photodynamic damage. - Highlights: • We employ two different types of photodynamic stress, white and brown necrosis. • We examine molecular mechanisms of antioxidative and detoxification systems. • ALA and OF develop differential actions of antioxidant and detoxification systems. • Coordinated mechanism of antioxidants and detoxification works against toxic ROS. • Detoxification system plays critical roles in protection against photodynamic stress.

  10. Differential antioxidant defense and detoxification mechanisms in photodynamically stressed rice plants treated with the deregulators of porphyrin biosynthesis, 5-aminolevulinic acid and oxyfluorfen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phung, Thu-Ha; Jung, Sunyo

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on differential molecular mechanisms of antioxidant and detoxification systems in rice plants under two different types of photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and oxyfluorfen (OF). The ALA-treated plants with white necrosis exhibited a greater decrease in photochemical quantum efficiency, F v /F m , as well as a greater increase in activity of superoxide dismutase, compared to the OF-treated plants. By contrast, the brown necrosis in OF-treated plants resulted in not only more widely dispersed H 2 O 2 production and greater increases in H 2 O 2 -decomposing enzymes, catalase and peroxidase, but also lower ascorbate redox state. In addition, ALA- and OF-treated plants markedly up-regulated transcript levels of genes involved in detoxification processes including transport and movement, cellular homeostasis, and xenobiotic conjugation, with prominent up-regulation of serine/threonine kinase and chaperone only in ALA-treated plants. Our results demonstrate that different photodynamic stress imposed by ALA and OF developed differential actions of antioxidant enzymes and detoxification. Particularly, detoxification system may play potential roles in plant protection against photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, thereby contributing to alleviation of photodynamic damage. - Highlights: • We employ two different types of photodynamic stress, white and brown necrosis. • We examine molecular mechanisms of antioxidative and detoxification systems. • ALA and OF develop differential actions of antioxidant and detoxification systems. • Coordinated mechanism of antioxidants and detoxification works against toxic ROS. • Detoxification system plays critical roles in protection against photodynamic stress

  11. Resistance to coumaphos and diazinon in Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) and evidence for the involvement of an oxidative detoxification mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Andrew Y; Davey, Ronald B; Miller, Robert J; George, John E

    2003-07-01

    The levels of resistance to two organophosphate acaricides, coumaphos and diazinon, in several Mexican strains of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) were evaluated using the FAO larval packet test. Regression analysis of LC50 data revealed a significant cross-resistance pattern between those two acaricides. Metabolic mechanisms of resistance were investigated with synergist bioassays. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) reduced coumaphos toxicity in susceptible strains, but synergized coumaphos toxicity in resistant strains. There was a significant correlation between PBO synergism ratios and the coumaphos resistance ratios. The results suggest that an enhanced cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (cytP450)-mediated detoxification mechanism may exist in the resistant strains, in addition to the cytP450-mediated metabolic pathway that activates coumaphos. PBO failed to synergize diazinon toxicity in resistant strains, suggesting the cytP450 involved in detoxification were specific. Triphenylphosphate (TPP) synergized toxicity of both acaricides in both susceptible and resistant strains, and there was no correlation between TPP synergism ratios and the LC50 estimates for either acaricide. Esterases may not play a major role in resistance to coumaphos and diazinon in those strains. Bioassays with diethyl maleate (DEM) revealed a significant correlation between DEM synergism ratios and LC50 estimates for diazinon, suggesting a possible role for glutathione S-transferases in diazinon detoxification. Resistance to coumaphos in the Mexican strains of B. microplus was likely to be conferred by both a cytP450-mediated detoxification mechanism described here and the mechanism of insensitive acetylcholinesterases reported elsewhere. The results of this study also underscore the potential risk of coumaphos resistance in B. microplus from Mexico to the U.S. cattle fever tick eradication program.

  12. Zearalenone detoxification by zearalenone hydrolase is important for the antagonistic ability of Clonostachys rosea against mycotoxigenic Fusarium graminearum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosawang, Chatchai; Karlsson, Magnus; Vélëz, Heriberto

    2014-01-01

    The fungus Clonostachys rosea is antagonistic against plant pathogens, including Fusarium graminearum, which produces the oestrogenic mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEA). ZEA inhibits other fungi, and C. rosea can detoxify ZEA through the enzyme zearalenone lactonohydrolase (ZHD101). As the relevance...... wheat seedlings against foot rot caused by the ZEA-producing F. graminearum. These data show that ZEA detoxification by ZHD101 is important for the biocontrol ability of C. rosea against F. graminearum....

  13. Rice (Oryza sativa) Laccases Involved in Modification and Detoxification of Herbicides Atrazine and Isoproturon Residues in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meng Tian; Lu, Yi Chen; Zhang, Shuang; Luo, Fang; Yang, Hong

    2016-08-24

    Atrazine (ATR) and isoproturon (IPU) as herbicides have become serious environmental contaminants due to their overuse in crop production. Although ATR and IPU in soils are easily absorbed by many crops, the mechanisms for their degradation or detoxification in plants are poorly understood. This study identified a group of novel genes encoding laccases (EC 1.10.3.2) that are possibly involved in catabolism or detoxification of ATR and IPU residues in rice. Transcriptome profiling shows at least 22 differentially expressed laccase genes in ATR/IPU-exposed rice. Some of the laccase genes were validated by RT-PCR analysis. The biochemical properties of the laccases were analyzed, and their activities in rice were induced under ATR/IPU exposure. To investigate the roles of laccases in degrading or detoxifying ATR/IPU in rice, transgenic yeast cells (Pichia pastoris X-33) expressing two rice laccase genes (LOC_Os01g63180 and LOC_Os12g15680) were generated. Both transformants were found to accumulate less ATR/IPU compared to the control. The ATR/IPU-degraded products in the transformed yeast cells using UPLC-TOF-MS/MS were further characterized. Two metabolites, hydroxy-dehydrogenated atrazine (HDHA) and 2-OH-isopropyl-IPU, catalyzed by laccases were detected in the eukaryotic cells. These results indicate that the laccase-coding genes identified here could confer degradation or detoxification of the herbicides and suggest that the laccases could be one of the important enzymatic pathways responsible for ATR/IPU degradation/detoxification in rice.

  14. Evaluation of detoxification methods on toxic and antinutritional composition and nutritional quality of proteins in Jatropha curcas meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianhui; Zhang, Hui; Niu, Liya; Wang, Xingguo; Lu, Xia

    2011-04-27

    The Jatropha curcas meal was detoxified by different methods, and the effect of detoxification was evaluated in this study. The method that hydrolysis of enzymes (cellulase plus pectinase) followed by washing with ethanol (65%) had a significant (p PDCAAS) of the meal was 0.75. The results showed that this treatment was a promising way to detoxify J. curcas meal, and the nutritional quality of detoxified meal can be simultaneously enriched and improved.

  15. Agency-level financial incentives and electronic reminders to improve continuity of care after discharge from residential treatment and detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Andrea; Lee, Margaret T; Garnick, Deborah W; Horgan, Constance M; Ritter, Grant A; Panas, Lee; Campbell, Kevin; Bean-Mortinson, Jason

    2018-02-01

    Despite the importance of continuity of care after detoxification and residential treatment, many clients do not receive further treatment services after discharged. This study examined whether offering financial incentives and providing client-specific electronic reminders to treatment agencies lead to improved continuity of care after detoxification or residential treatment. Residential (N = 33) and detoxification agencies (N = 12) receiving public funding in Washington State were randomized into receiving one, both, or none (control group) of the interventions. Agencies assigned to incentives arms could earn financial rewards based on their continuity of care rates relative to a benchmark or based on improvement. Agencies assigned to electronic reminders arms received weekly information on recently discharged clients who had not yet received follow-up treatment. Difference-in-difference regressions controlling for client and agency characteristics tested the effectiveness of these interventions on continuity of care. During the intervention period, 24,347 clients received detoxification services and 20,685 received residential treatment. Overall, neither financial incentives nor electronic reminders had an effect on the likelihood of continuity of care. The interventions did have an effect among residential treatment agencies which had higher continuity of care rates at baseline. Implementation of agency-level financial incentives and electronic reminders did not result in improvements in continuity of care, except among higher performing agencies. Alternative strategies at the facility and systems levels should be explored to identify ways to increase continuity of care rates in specialty settings, especially for low performing agencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of the Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae Transcriptome and Phylogenetic Classification of the Major Detoxification Gene Families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nena Pavlidi

    Full Text Available The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae has a unique ability to cope with olive flesh, and is the most destructive pest of olives worldwide. Its control has been largely based on the use of chemical insecticides, however, the selection of insecticide resistance against several insecticides has evolved. The study of detoxification mechanisms, which allow the olive fruit fly to defend against insecticides, and/or phytotoxins possibly present in the mesocarp, has been hampered by the lack of genomic information in this species. In the NCBI database less than 1,000 nucleotide sequences have been deposited, with less than 10 detoxification gene homologues in total. We used 454 pyrosequencing to produce, for the first time, a large transcriptome dataset for B. oleae. A total of 482,790 reads were assembled into 14,204 contigs. More than 60% of those contigs (8,630 were larger than 500 base pairs, and almost half of them matched with genes of the order of the Diptera. Analysis of the Gene Ontology (GO distribution of unique contigs, suggests that, compared to other insects, the assembly is broadly representative for the B. oleae transcriptome. Furthermore, the transcriptome was found to contain 55 P450, 43 GST-, 15 CCE- and 18 ABC transporter-genes. Several of those detoxification genes, may putatively be involved in the ability of the olive fruit fly to deal with xenobiotics, such as plant phytotoxins and insecticides. In summary, our study has generated new data and genomic resources, which will substantially facilitate molecular studies in B. oleae, including elucidation of detoxification mechanisms of xenobiotic, as well as other important aspects of olive fruit fly biology.

  17. Quantitatively evaluating detoxification of the hepatotoxic microcystin-LR through the glutathione (GSH) pathway in SD rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaochun; Chen, Liang; Chen, Jun; Xie, Ping; Li, Shangchun; He, Jun; Li, Wei; Fan, Huihui; Yu, Dezhao; Zeng, Cheng

    2015-12-01

    Glutathione (GSH) plays crucial roles in antioxidant defense and detoxification metabolism of microcystin-LR (MC-LR). However, the detoxification process of MC-LR in mammals remains largely unknown. This paper, for the first time, quantitatively analyzes MC-LR and its GSH pathway metabolites (MC-LR-GSH and MC-LR-Cys) in the liver of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat after MC-LR exposure. Rats received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 0.25 and 0.5 lethal dose 50 (LD50) of MC-LR with or without pretreatment of buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of GSH synthesis. The contents of MC-LR-GSH were relatively low during the experiment; however, the ratio of MC-LR-Cys to MC-LR reached as high as 6.65 in 0.5 LD50 group. These results demonstrated that MC-LR-GSH could be converted to MC-LR-Cys efficiently, and this metabolic rule was in agreement with the data of aquatic animals previously reported. MC-LR contents were much higher in BSO + MC-LR-treated groups than in the single MC-LR-treated groups. Moreover, the ratio of MC-LR-Cys to MC-LR decreased significantly after BSO pretreatment, suggesting that the depletion of GSH induced by BSO reduced the detoxification of MCs. Moreover, MC-LR remarkably induced liver damage, and the effects were more pronounced in BSO pretreatment groups. In conclusion, this study verifies the role of GSH in the detoxification of MC-LR and furthers our understanding of the biochemical mechanism for SD rats to counteract toxic cyanobacteria.

  18. Integrated metabolic spatial-temporal model for the prediction of ammonia detoxification during liver damage and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliess, Freimut; Hoehme, Stefan; Henkel, Sebastian G; Ghallab, Ahmed; Driesch, Dominik; Böttger, Jan; Guthke, Reinhard; Pfaff, Michael; Hengstler, Jan G; Gebhardt, Rolf; Häussinger, Dieter; Drasdo, Dirk; Zellmer, Sebastian

    2014-12-01

    The impairment of hepatic metabolism due to liver injury has high systemic relevance. However, it is difficult to calculate the impairment of metabolic capacity from a specific pattern of liver damage with conventional techniques. We established an integrated metabolic spatial-temporal model (IM) using hepatic ammonia detoxification as a paradigm. First, a metabolic model (MM) based on mass balancing and mouse liver perfusion data was established to describe ammonia detoxification and its zonation. Next, the MM was combined with a spatial-temporal model simulating liver tissue damage and regeneration after CCl4 intoxication. The resulting IM simulated and visualized whether, where, and to what extent liver damage compromised ammonia detoxification. It allowed us to enter the extent and spatial patterns of liver damage and then calculate the outflow concentrations of ammonia, glutamine, and urea in the hepatic vein. The model was validated through comparisons with (1) published data for isolated, perfused livers with and without CCl4 intoxication and (2) a set of in vivo experiments. Using the experimentally determined portal concentrations of ammonia, the model adequately predicted metabolite concentrations over time in the hepatic vein during toxin-induced liver damage and regeneration in rodents. Further simulations, especially in combination with a simplified model of blood circulation with three ammonia-detoxifying compartments, indicated a yet unidentified process of ammonia consumption during liver regeneration and revealed unexpected concomitant changes in amino acid metabolism in the liver and at extrahepatic sites. The IM of hepatic ammonia detoxification considerably improves our understanding of the metabolic impact of liver disease and highlights the importance of integrated modeling approaches on the way toward virtual organisms. © 2014 The Authors. Hepatology published by Wiley on behalf of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  19. Stress-related phenomena and detoxification mechanisms induced by common pharmaceuticals in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Anastasis; Antoniou, Chrystalla; Christodoulou, Charalampia; Hapeshi, Evroula; Stavrou, Ioannis; Michael, Costas; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2016-07-01

    Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) have been recently shown to exert phytotoxic effects. The present study explores the uptake, systemic translocation, and abiotic stress responses and detoxification mechanisms induced by the exposure of alfalfa plants grown in sand under greenhouse conditions to four common, individually applied PhACs (10μgL(-1)) (diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, 17a-ethinylestradiol) and their mixture. Stress physiology markers (lipid peroxidation, proline, H2O2 and NO content, antioxidant activity assays) and gene expression levels of key plant detoxification components (including glutathione S-transferases, GST7, GST17; superoxide dismutases, CuZnSOD, FeSOD; proton pump, H(+)-ATP, and cytochrome c oxidase, CytcOx), were evaluated. PhACs were detected in significantly higher concentrations in roots compared with leaves. Stress related effects, manifested via membrane lipid peroxidation and oxidative burst, were local (roots) rather than systemic (leaves), and exacerbated when the tested PhACs were applied in mixture. Systemic accumulation of H2O2 in leaves suggests its involvement in signal transduction and detoxification responses. Increased antioxidant enzymatic activities, as well as upregulated transcript levels of GST7, GST17, H(+)-ATPase and CytcOx, propose their role in the detoxification of the selected PhACs in plants. The current findings provide novel biochemical and molecular evidence highlighting the studied PhACs as an emerging abiotic stress factor, and point the need for further research on wastewater flows under natural agricultural environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Detoxification Treatments of Free Gossypol in Cottonseed Meal by Microbial Treatment of Mixed Cultures and Biochemical Evaluation on Rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atia, A.I.; Abdel- Rahim, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Detoxification of ti-ee gossypol (FG) in cottonseed meal (CSM) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger, as a mixed culture, was carried out in solid state fermentation (SSF). Experiments were adopted to optimize the fermentation conditions. Maximum detoxification efficiency (90.2%) occurred after 48 h of incubation at 30 degree C in a 250 ml conical flask containing 15 g of CSM supplemented with 1 % (w/w) (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 at the optimal conditions including the initial moisture content 55% (w/w) and inoculum level at 5% (v/w). The detoxification of FG was a growth-associated process, which was highly correlated with the dry matter weight loss. Moreover, high activities of hydrolytic enzymes were also produced in solid state fermentation, which enhanced the nutritive value of the detoxified cottonseed powder. A total number of 48 white New Zealand male rabbits were used to biologically examine the feeding of treated (detoxified) CSM without any adverse effects. Hematological and biochemical relevant parameters of white New Zealand male rabbits as affected by feeding treated meal were in the normal physiological range without no obvious change. No significant changes in liver and kidney functions of the rabbits weight gain, feed conversion and efficiency did not significantly change among experimental groups. The study showed that the feeding of the detoxified CSM by S. cerevisiae and A. niger as a mixed culture in this research without any adverse effects on rabbits

  1. Robust cellulosic ethanol production from SPORL-pretreated lodgepole pine using an adapted strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae without detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, S; Luo, X L; Yang, X S; Zhu, J Y

    2010-11-01

    This study reports an ethanol yield of 270L/ton wood from lodgepole pine pretreated with sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) using an adapted strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y5, without detoxification. The enzymatic hydrolysate produced from pretreated cellulosic solids substrate was combined with pretreatment hydrolysate before fermentation. Detoxification of the pretreatment hydrolysate using overliming or XAD-4 resin before being combined with enzymatic hydrolysate improved ethanol productivity in the first 4h of fermentation and overall fermentation efficiency. However, detoxification did not improve final ethanol yield because of sugar losses. The Y5 strain showed excellent ethanol productivities of 2.0 and 0.8g/L/h averaged over a period of 4 and 24h, respectively, in the undetoxified run. The furan metabolization rates of the Y5 strain were significantly higher for the undetoxified run than those for the detoxidfied runs, suggesting it can tolerate even higher furan concentrations than those studied. Preliminary mass and energy balances were conducted. SPORL produced an excellent monomeric sugar recovery value of about 85% theoretical and a net energy output of 4.05GJ/ton wood with an ethanol energy production efficiency of 178% before distillation.

  2. Molecular characterisation of two α-esterase genes involving chlorpyrifos detoxification in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Miao; Ren, Na-Na; You, Yan-Chun; Chen, Wei-Jun; Song, Qi-Sheng; You, Min-Sheng

    2017-06-01

    Carboxylesterases (CarEs) are involved in metabolic detoxification of dietary and environmental xenobiotics in insects. However, owing to the complexity of the protein family, the involvement of CarEs in insecticide metabolism in Plutella xylostella has not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to characterise two CarE genes and assess their potential roles in response to chlorpyrifos in P. xylostella. Synergistic tests showed that triphenyl phosphate decreased the resistance of the third-instar larvae to chlorpyrifos. The treatment of the third-instar larvae with chlorpyrifos at the LC 30 dose led to a significant increase in CarE activity. Two CarE cDNAs (Pxae18 and Pxae28) were subsequently sequenced and characterised. Both genes were expressed predominantly in the larval midgut. Most importantly, two CarE genes showed significantly higher expression in the chlorpyrifos-resistant strain than in the susceptible strain. RNAi knockdown of Pxae18 and Pxae28 significantly increased the mortality to chlorpyrifos from 40% in the control to 73.8 and 63.3% respectively. RNAi knockdown of Pxae18 and Pxae28 significantly inhibited detoxification ability and increased the mortality in P. xylostella. The results indicate that these two CarE genes play important roles in the detoxification of chlorpyrifos in P. xylostella. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. New metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergqvist, U.

    1983-12-01

    The aim of this report is to estimate the exposure to various metals and metal compounds and discuss the available information of the possible toxic effects of these metals and compounds. In the first section, some metals are defined as those with either a large or a fast increasing exposure to living organisms. The available information on toxicity is discussed in the second section. In the third section interesting metals are defined as compounds having a large exposure and an apparent insufficient knowledge of their possible toxic effects. Comments on each of these metals are also to be found in the third section. (G.B.)

  4. Bioremediation and Detoxification of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Triarylmethane Dyes by Aeromonas hydrophila Isolated from Industrial Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimezie Jason Ogugbue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Economical and bio-friendly approaches are needed to remediate dye-contaminated wastewater from various industries. In this study, a novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing triarylmethane dyes was isolated from a textile wastewater treatment plant in Greece. The bacterial isolate was identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and was shown to decolorize three triarylmethane dyes tested within 24 h with color removal in the range of 72% to 96%. Decolorization efficiency of the bacterium was a function of operational parameters (aeration, dye concentration, temperature, and pH and the optimal operational conditions obtained for decolorization of the dyes were: pH 7-8, 35∘C and culture agitation. Effective color removal within 24 h was obtained at a maximum dye concentration of 50 mg/L. Dye decolorization was monitored using a scanning UV/visible spectrophotometer which indicated that decolorization was due to the degradation of dyes into non-colored intermediates. Phytotoxicity studies carried out using Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, and Lens esculenta revealed the triarylmethane dyes exerted toxic effects on plant growth parameters monitored. However, significant reduction in toxicity was obtained with the decolorized dye metabolites thus, indicating the detoxification of the dyes following degradation by Aeromonas hydrophila.

  5. Importance of phytoalexin tolerance and detoxification for pathogenicity. Progress report, June 1983-June 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanEtten, H.; Matthews, D.

    1985-01-01

    This study focuses on the biochemistry of phytoalexin detoxifying enzymes. Progress is reported on purification, substrate specificity, and mechanism of several enzymes involved. Some aspects of the regulation of pisatin demethylase were studied since parallel genetic studies suggest its regulation is an important factor in the pathogenicity of Nectria haematococca. We have established that the detoxification of pisatin requires two components: NADPH-cytochrome c reductase and cytochrome P-450. The ability to separate and reconstitute these two components has allowed us to demonstrate that the reductase from a non-demethylating isolate of N. haematococca will support demethylating activity when combined with the cytochrome P-450 from a demethylating isolate. The finding that the critical genetic factor here is the cytochrome P-450 fraction reinforces the hypothesis that the multiple pda genes of this fungus encode different cytochrome P-450 isozymes. The evidence for monooxygenase catalyzed metabolism of maackiain suggests the existence of additional members of a phytoalexin detoxifying cytochrome P-450 family. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. DNA damage induced by hydroquinone can be prevented by fungal detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroquinone is a benzene metabolite with a wide range of industrial applications, which has potential for widespread human exposure; however, the toxicity of hydroquinone on human cells remains unclear. The aims of this study are to investigate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hydroquinone in human primary fibroblasts and human colon cancer cells (HCT116. Low doses of hydroquinone (227-454 μM reduce the viability of fibroblasts and HCT116 cells, determined by resazurin conversion, and induce genotoxic damage (DNA strand breaks, as assessed by alkaline comet assays. Bioremediation may provide an excellent alternative to promote the degradation of hydroquinone, however few microorganisms are known that efficiently degrade it. Here we also investigate the capacity of a halotolerant fungus, Penicillium chrysogenum var. halophenolicum, to remove hydroquinone toxicity under hypersaline condition. The fungus is able to tolerate high concentrations of hydroquinone and can reverse these noxious effects via degradation of hydroquinone to completion, even when the initial concentration of this compound is as high as 7265 μM. Our findings reveal that P. chrysogenum var. halophenolicum efficiently degrade hydroquinone under hypersaline conditions, placing this fungus among the best candidates for the detoxification of habitats contaminated with this aromatic compound.

  7. Cypermethrin resistance conferred by increased target insensitivity and metabolic detoxification in Culex pipiens pallens Coq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenping; Liu, Songlin; Zhang, Yang; Gao, Jufang; Yang, Mingjun; Liu, Xiao; Tao, Liming

    2017-10-01

    In order to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of cypermethrin resistance in Culex pipiens pallens Coq, the susceptible strain (SS strain) and cypermethrin resistant strain (CR strain) of Cx. p. pallens were investigated in this paper. The cypermethrin resistance ratio of CR strain to SS strain was measured by biological assays method, the cDNA sequence of sodium channel was cloned and analyzed. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR was used to detect the expression levels of the detoxification-related genes across between CR strain and SS strain of Cx. p. pallens. Bioassays indicated that CR strain was 283.06 and 80.68-fold resistance to cypermethrin and permethrin as compared to the susceptible strain, respectively. The sequence variability analysis of sodium channel gene between SS strain and CR strain shows that 4 point mutations (R954Q, L1023F, S1775G and A1989E) appear on the amino acid sequence of sodium channel of CR strain. The transcriptional levels of CYP6Z10, CYP9M10, CPGSTd1 and CPGSTd2 in the resistant strain are significantly higher than it is in the susceptible. The transcripts of CYP4H34 and E4 esterase have no significant difference between the CR strain and SS strain. The results indicated that sodium channel mutations, combined with elevated levels of P450s and GSTs, are associated with cypermethrin resistance in CR strain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Phenolic extract of Dialium guineense pulp enhances reactive oxygen species detoxification in aflatoxin B₁ hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleye, Abdulwasiu O; Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Iliasu, Ganiyat A; Abdussalam, Folakemi A; Balogun, Abdulazeez; Ojewuyi, Oluwayemisi B; Yakubu, Musa T

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of Dialium guineense pulp phenolic extract on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced oxidative imbalance in rat liver. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging potentials of free and bound phenolic extract of D. guineense (0.2-1.0 mg/mL) were investigated in vitro using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide ion (O2(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radical, and ferric ion reducing system. In the in vivo study, 35 animals were randomized into seven groups of five rats each. Free and bound phenolic extract (1 mg/mL) produced 66.42% and 93.08%, 57.1% and 86.0%, 62.0% and 90.05%, and 60.11% and 72.37% scavenging effect on DPPH radical, O2(-) radical, H2O2, and hydroxyl radical, while ferric ion was significantly reduced. An AFB1-mediated decrease in the activities of ROS detoxifying enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase) was significantly attenuated (P<.05). AFB1-mediated elevation in the concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers; malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl, and percentage DNA fragmentation were significantly lowered by D. guineense phenolic extract (P<.05). Overall, the in vitro and in vivo effects suggest that D. guineense phenolic extract elicited ROS scavenging and detoxification potentials, as well as the capability of preventing lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and DNA fragmentation.

  9. First and second line mechanisms of cadmium detoxification in the lichen photobiont Trebouxia impressa (Chlorophyta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanita di Toppi, L.; Pawlik-Skowronska, B.; Vurro, E.; Vattuone, Z.; Kalinowska, R.; Restivo, F.M.; Musetti, R.; Skowronski, T.

    2008-01-01

    'First line' defence mechanisms, such as phytochelatin biosynthesis, and 'second line' mechanisms, such as stress protein induction, were investigated in cadmium-exposed cells of Trebouxia impressa Ahmadjian, a green microalgal species that is a common photobiont of the lichen Physcia adscendens (Fr.) H. Olivier. When T. impressa cells were exposed to 0, 9 and 18 μM Cd for 6, 18 and 48 h, glutathione and phytochelatins efficiently protected the cells against Cd damage. By contrast, the highest Cd concentration (36 μM) at the longest exposure-time (48 h) caused marked drops in glutathione and phytochelatin content, several types of ultrastructural damage, and decreases in cell density and total chlorophyll concentration. In this case, induction of stress proteins was observed, but only long after the induction of phytochelatins. Thus, stress proteins could represent a 'second line' mechanism to counteract Cd stress, activated when there is a decline in the 'first line' mechanism of Cd detoxification given by phytochelatins. - Trebouxia impressa photobionts protect themselves against cadmium stress by means of phytochelatins and stress proteins

  10. Effect of carbonyl inhibitors and their H₂O₂ detoxification on lactic acid fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhu, Caiqing; Tu, Maobing; Han, Pingping; Wu, Yonnie

    2015-04-01

    Biomass degradation compounds significantly inhibit biochemical conversion of biomass prehydrolysates to biofuels and chemicals, such as lactic acid. To characterize the structure-activity relationship of carbonyl inhibition on lactic acid fermentation, we examined effects of eight carbonyl compounds (furfural, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, vanillin, syringaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, phthalaldehyde, benzoic acid, and pyrogallol aldehyde) and creosol on lactic acid production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii. Pyrogallol aldehyde reduced the cell growth rate by 35 % at 1.0 mM and inhibited lactic acid production completely at 2.0 mM. By correlating the molecular descriptors to the inhibition constants in lactic acid fermentation, we found a good relationship between the hydrophobicity (Log P) of aldehydes and their inhibition constants in fermentation. The inhibitory effect of carbonyl inhibitors appeared to correlate with their thiol reactivity as well. In addition, we found that H2O2 detoxified pyrogallol aldehyde and phthalaldehyde inhibitory activity. H2O2 detoxification was applied to real biomass prehydrolysates in lactic acid fermentation.

  11. Detoxification of Aflatoxin-Contaminated Maize by Neutral Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardon-Xicotencatl, Samantha; Díaz-Torres, Roberto; Marroquín-Cardona, Alicia; Villarreal-Barajas, Tania; Méndez-Albores, Abraham

    2015-10-23

    Aflatoxins, a group of extremely toxic mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius, can occur as natural contaminants of certain agricultural commodities, particularly maize. These toxins have been shown to be hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and cause severe human and animal diseases. The effectiveness of neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (NEW) on aflatoxin detoxification was investigated in HepG2 cells using several validation methodologies such as the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, the induction of lipid peroxidation, the oxidative damage by means of glutathione modulation, the Ames test and the alkaline Comet assay. Our results showed that, after the aflatoxin-contaminated maize containing 360 ng/g was soaked in NEW (60 mg/L available chlorine, pH 7.01) during 15 min at room temperature, the aflatoxin content did not decrease as confirmed by the immunoaffinity column and ultra performance liquid chromatography methods. Aflatoxin fluorescence strength of detoxified samples was similar to untreated samples. However, aflatoxin-associated cytotoxicity and OPEN ACCESS Toxins 2015, 7 4295 genotoxicity effects were markedly reduced upon treatment. According to these results, NEW can be effectively used to detoxify aflatoxin-contaminated maize.

  12. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 regulates genes responsible for detoxification in intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutuzova, Galina D.; DeLuca, Hector F.

    2007-01-01

    1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25-(OH) 2 D 3 ), the biologically active form of vitamin D 3 , not only plays a major role in mammalian calcium and phosphorous homeostasis but also exerts pleiotropic effects on cell proliferation, differentiation and the immune system. Further, vitamin D is believed to play a significant role in the prevention of colon, prostate, and breast cancer and in reducing the risk of autoimmune diseases. To gain insight into the mechanism whereby vitamin D can have such diverse actions, we have employed microarray technology. We studied the effect of a single dose of 1,25-(OH) 2 D 3 on gene expression in the intestine of vitamin D-deficient rats. Within 6 h, 1,25-(OH) 2 D 3 stimulates the expression of several phase I and phase II biotransformation genes. There is also an increased expression of antioxidant genes. These results support the idea that vitamin D is a significant factor in detoxification and protection against environmental toxins

  13. Detoxification of Aflatoxin B1 by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii with Solid State Fermentation in Peanut Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghui Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic, teratogenetic, and morbigenous secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus that can contaminate multiple staple foods, such as peanut, maize, and tree nuts. In this study, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii was screened out and identified from fermented soy paste—one kind of traditional Chinese food—to detoxify aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 by aerobic solid state fermentation in peanut meal. The optimal degradation condition was chosen from single factor experiment, and the most effective detoxification rate was about 97%. As for liquid fermentation, we tested the binding ability of Z. rouxii, and the highest binding rate reached was 74.3% (nonviable cells of Z. rouxii in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS. Moreover, the biotransformation of AFB1 through fermentation of Z. rouxii in peanut meal was further verified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS. According to TIC scan, after fermentation by Z. rouxii, the AFB1 in peanut meal was prominently degraded to the lowering peaks of AFB1. Additionally, m/s statistics demonstrated that AFB1 may be degraded to some new products whose structural properties may be different from AFB1, or the degradation products may be dissolved in the aqueous phase rather than the organic phase. As far as we know, this is the first report indicating that the safe strain of Z. rouxii has the ability to detoxify AFB1.

  14. Reduction of medication costs after detoxification for medication-overuse headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Asif M; Bendtsen, Lars; Zeeberg, Peter; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2013-04-01

    To examine whether detoxifying patients with medication-overuse headache can reduce long-term medication costs. Direct costs of medications in medication-overuse headache have been reported to be very high but have never been calculated on the basis of exact register data. Long-term economic savings obtained by detoxification have never been investigated. We conducted a registry-based observational retrospective follow-up study on 336 medication-overuse headache patients treated and discharged from the Danish Headache Center over a 2-year period. By means of the Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics, we collected information on the costs and use of prescription-only medication 1 year before admission and 1 year after discharge from Danish Headache Center. The average medication costs per patient per year decreased with 24%, from US$971 before treatment to US$737 after (P = .001), and the average medication use decreased with 14.4% (P = .02). Savings were most pronounced for patients overusing triptans. In this group, the average medication costs per patient per year decreased with 43% (P headache at a tertiary headache center has a long-lasting effect on the medication costs and use, in particular among patients overusing triptans. The results may not be generalizable to all countries and may be sensitive to the costs of triptans. © 2012 American Headache Society.

  15. Detoxification of sulfur mustard by enzyme-catalyzed oxidation using chloroperoxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiel, S; Nawała, J

    2013-10-10

    One of the most interesting methods for the detoxification of sulfur mustard is enzyme-catalyzed oxidation. This study examined the oxidative destruction of a sulfur mustard by the enzyme chloroperoxidase (EC 1.11.1.10). Chloroperoxidase (CPO) belongs to a group of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of various organic compounds by peroxide in the presence of a halide ion. The enzymatic oxidation reaction is affected by several factors: pH, presence or absence of chloride ion, temperature, the concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and enzyme and aqueous solubility of the substrate. The optimum reaction conditions were determined by analyzing the effects of all factors, and the following conditions were selected: solvent, Britton-Robinson buffer (pH=3) with tert-butanol (70:30 v/v); CPO concentration, 16U/mL; hydrogen peroxide concentration, 40mmol/L; sodium chloride concentration, 20mmol/L. Under these reaction conditions, the rate constant for the reaction is 0.006s(-1). The Michaelis constant, a measure of the affinity of an enzyme for a particular substrate, is 1.87×10(-3)M for this system. The Michaelis constant for enzymes with a high affinity for their substrate is in the range of 10(-5) to 10(-4)M, so this value indicates that CPO does not have a very high affinity for sulfur mustard. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. First and second line mechanisms of cadmium detoxification in the lichen photobiont Trebouxia impressa (Chlorophyta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanita di Toppi, L. [Dipartimento di Biologia Evolutiva e Funzionale, viale G.P. Usberti 11/A, Universita di Parma, 43100 Parma (Italy)], E-mail: luigi.sanitaditoppi@unipr.it; Pawlik-Skowronska, B. [Centre for Ecological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Experimental Station, Niecala 18/3, 20080 Lublin (Poland); Vurro, E. [Dipartimento di Biologia Evolutiva e Funzionale, viale G.P. Usberti 11/A, Universita di Parma, 43100 Parma (Italy); Vattuone, Z. [Dipartimento di Biologia Evolutiva e Funzionale, viale G.P. Usberti 11/A, Universita di Parma, 43100 Parma (Italy); Centre for Ecological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Experimental Station, Niecala 18/3, 20080 Lublin (Poland); Kalinowska, R. [Centre for Ecological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Experimental Station, Niecala 18/3, 20080 Lublin (Poland); Restivo, F.M. [Dipartimento di Genetica, Biologia dei Microrganismi, Antropologia, Evoluzione, viale G.P. Usberti 11/A, Universita di Parma, 43100 Parma (Italy); Musetti, R. [Dipartimento di Biologia Applicata alla Difesa delle Piante, via delle Scienze 208, Universita di Udine, 33100 Udine (Italy); Skowronski, T. [Centre for Ecological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Experimental Station, Niecala 18/3, 20080 Lublin (Poland)

    2008-01-15

    'First line' defence mechanisms, such as phytochelatin biosynthesis, and 'second line' mechanisms, such as stress protein induction, were investigated in cadmium-exposed cells of Trebouxia impressa Ahmadjian, a green microalgal species that is a common photobiont of the lichen Physcia adscendens (Fr.) H. Olivier. When T. impressa cells were exposed to 0, 9 and 18 {mu}M Cd for 6, 18 and 48 h, glutathione and phytochelatins efficiently protected the cells against Cd damage. By contrast, the highest Cd concentration (36 {mu}M) at the longest exposure-time (48 h) caused marked drops in glutathione and phytochelatin content, several types of ultrastructural damage, and decreases in cell density and total chlorophyll concentration. In this case, induction of stress proteins was observed, but only long after the induction of phytochelatins. Thus, stress proteins could represent a 'second line' mechanism to counteract Cd stress, activated when there is a decline in the 'first line' mechanism of Cd detoxification given by phytochelatins. - Trebouxia impressa photobionts protect themselves against cadmium stress by means of phytochelatins and stress proteins.

  17. Colonization of Alcaligenes faecalis strain JBW4 in natural soils and its detoxification of endosulfan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingfen; Zhu, Shaoyuan; Zhu, Lusheng; Xie, Hui; Wei, Kai; Yan, Tongxiang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Fenghua; Sun, Fengxia

    2014-02-01

    Alcaligenes faecalis strain JBW4, a strain of bacteria that is capable of degrading endosulfan, was inoculated into sterilized and natural soils spiked with endosulfan. JBW4 degraded 75.8 and 87.0 % of α-endosulfan and 58.5 and 69.5 % of β-endosulfan in sterilized and natural soils, respectively, after 77 days. Endosulfan ether and endosulfan lactone were the major metabolites that were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This result suggested that A. faecalis strain JBW4 degrades endosulfan using a non-oxidative pathway in soils. The ability of strain JBW4 to colonize endosulfan-contaminated soils was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. This result suggested that strain JBW4 competed with the original inhabitants in the soil to establish a balance and successfully colonize the soils. In addition, the detoxification of endosulfan by strain JBW4 was evaluated using single-cell gel electrophoresis and by determining the soil microbial biomass carbon and enzymatic activities. The results showed that the genotoxicity and ecotoxicity of endosulfan in soil were reduced after degradation. The natural degradation of endosulfan in soil is inadequate; therefore, JBW4 shows potential for the bioremediation of industrial soils that are contaminated with endosulfan residues.

  18. Efficient chemo-enzymatic gluten detoxification: reducing toxic epitopes for celiac patients improving functional properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Miguel; Nunes, Fernando M.; Guedes, Sofia; Domingues, Pedro; Silva, Amélia M.; Carrillo, Jose Maria; Rodriguez-Quijano, Marta; Branlard, Gérard; Igrejas, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    Protein engineering of gluten, the exogenous effector in celiac disease, seeking its detoxification by selective chemical modification of toxic epitopes is a very attractive strategy and promising technology when compared to pharmacological treatment or genetic engineering of wheat. Here we present a simple and efficient chemo-enzymatic methodology that decreases celiac disease toxic epitopes of gluten proteins improving its technological value through microbial transglutaminase-mediated transamidation of glutamine with n-butylamine under reducing conditions. First, we found that using low concentrations of amine-nucleophile under non-reducing conditions, the decrease in toxic epitopes is mainly due to transglutaminase-mediated cross-linking. Second, using high amine nucleophile concentrations protein cross-linking is substantially reduced. Third, reducing conditions increase 7-fold the transamidation reaction further decreasing toxic epitopes amount. Fourth, using n-butylamine improves gluten hydrophobicity that strengthens the gluten network. These results open the possibility of tailoring gluten for producing hypoallergenic flours while still taking advantage of the unique viscoelastic properties of gluten. PMID:26691232

  19. Rates of undiagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in London drug and alcohol detoxification units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huntley Zoe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ADHD is a common childhood onset mental health disorder that persists into adulthood in two-thirds of cases. One of the most prevalent and impairing comorbidities of ADHD in adults are substance use disorders. We estimate rates of ADHD in patients with substance abuse disorders and delineate impairment in the co-morbid group. Method Screening for ADHD followed by a research diagnostic interview in people attending in-patient drug and alcohol detoxification units. Results We estimated prevalence of undiagnosed ADHD within substance use disorder in-patients in South London around 12%. Those individuals with substance use disorders and ADHD had significantly higher self-rated impairments across several domains of daily life; and higher rates of substance abuse and alcohol consumption, suicide attempts, and depression recorded in their case records. Conclusions This study demonstrates the high rates of untreated ADHD within substance use disorder populations and the association of ADHD in such patients with greater levels of impairment. These are likely to be a source of additional impairment to patients and represent an increased burden on clinical services.

  20. Detoxification of Aflatoxin B₁ by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii with Solid State Fermentation in Peanut Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guanghui; Chen, Yujie; Kong, Qing; Ma, Yunxiao; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-20

    Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic, teratogenetic, and morbigenous secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus that can contaminate multiple staple foods, such as peanut, maize, and tree nuts. In this study, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii was screened out and identified from fermented soy paste-one kind of traditional Chinese food-to detoxify aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) by aerobic solid state fermentation in peanut meal. The optimal degradation condition was chosen from single factor experiment, and the most effective detoxification rate was about 97%. As for liquid fermentation, we tested the binding ability of Z. rouxii , and the highest binding rate reached was 74.3% (nonviable cells of Z. rouxii ) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Moreover, the biotransformation of AFB₁ through fermentation of Z. rouxii in peanut meal was further verified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). According to TIC scan, after fermentation by Z. rouxii, the AFB₁ in peanut meal was prominently degraded to the lowering peaks of AFB₁. Additionally, m / s statistics demonstrated that AFB₁ may be degraded to some new products whose structural properties may be different from AFB₁, or the degradation products may be dissolved in the aqueous phase rather than the organic phase. As far as we know, this is the first report indicating that the safe strain of Z. rouxii has the ability to detoxify AFB₁.

  1. Detoxification of Aflatoxin B1 by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii with Solid State Fermentation in Peanut Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guanghui; Chen, Yujie; Kong, Qing; Ma, Yunxiao; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic, teratogenetic, and morbigenous secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus that can contaminate multiple staple foods, such as peanut, maize, and tree nuts. In this study, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii was screened out and identified from fermented soy paste—one kind of traditional Chinese food—to detoxify aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by aerobic solid state fermentation in peanut meal. The optimal degradation condition was chosen from single factor experiment, and the most effective detoxification rate was about 97%. As for liquid fermentation, we tested the binding ability of Z. rouxii, and the highest binding rate reached was 74.3% (nonviable cells of Z. rouxii) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Moreover, the biotransformation of AFB1 through fermentation of Z. rouxii in peanut meal was further verified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). According to TIC scan, after fermentation by Z. rouxii, the AFB1 in peanut meal was prominently degraded to the lowering peaks of AFB1. Additionally, m/s statistics demonstrated that AFB1 may be degraded to some new products whose structural properties may be different from AFB1, or the degradation products may be dissolved in the aqueous phase rather than the organic phase. As far as we know, this is the first report indicating that the safe strain of Z. rouxii has the ability to detoxify AFB1. PMID:28117705

  2. Immobilization of organophosphate hydrolase on an amyloid fibril nanoscaffold: towards bioremediation and chemical detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynes, Jared K; Pearce, F Grant; Meade, Susie J; Gerrard, Juliet A

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphate hydrolase has potential as a bioremediation and chemical detoxification enzyme, but the problems of reusability and stability need to be addressed to use this enzyme on an industrial scale. Immobilizing the enzyme to a nanoscaffold may help to solve these problems. Amyloid fibrils generated from insulin and crystallin provided a novel nanoscaffold for the immobilization of organophosphate hydrolase, using glutaraldehyde as the crosslinking reagent. Electrophoretic, centrifugation, and temperature stability experiments, together with transmission electron microscopy were undertaken to verify that crosslinking had successfully occurred. The resulting fibrils remained active towards the substrate paraoxon and when immobilized to the insulin amyloid fibrils, the enzyme exhibited a significant (∼ 300%) increase in the relative temperature stability at 40, 45, and 50°C (as measured by comparing the initial enzyme activity to the activity remaining after heating), compared to free enzyme. This confirms that amyloid fibrils could provide a new type of nanoscaffold for enzyme immobilization. Copyright © 2010 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  3. A review of biological delignification and detoxification methods for lignocellulosic bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Antonio D; Ibarra, David; Alvira, Pablo; Tomás-Pejó, Elia; Ballesteros, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Future biorefineries will integrate biomass conversion processes to produce fuels, power, heat and value-added chemicals. Due to its low price and wide distribution, lignocellulosic biomass is expected to play an important role toward this goal. Regarding renewable biofuel production, bioethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks is considered the most feasible option for fossil fuels replacement since these raw materials do not compete with food or feed crops. In the overall process, lignin, the natural barrier of the lignocellulosic biomass, represents an important limiting factor in biomass digestibility. In order to reduce the recalcitrant structure of lignocellulose, biological pretreatments have been promoted as sustainable and environmentally friendly alternatives to traditional physico-chemical technologies, which are expensive and pollute the environment. These approaches include the use of diverse white-rot fungi and/or ligninolytic enzymes, which disrupt lignin polymers and facilitate the bioconversion of the sugar fraction into ethanol. As there is still no suitable biological pretreatment technology ready to scale up in an industrial context, white-rot fungi and/or ligninolytic enzymes have also been proposed to overcome, in a separated or in situ biodetoxification step, the effect of the inhibitors produced by non-biological pretreatments. The present work reviews the latest studies regarding the application of different microorganisms or enzymes as useful and environmentally friendly delignification and detoxification technologies for lignocellulosic biofuel production. This review also points out the main challenges and possible ways to make these technologies a reality for the bioethanol industry.

  4. Sociodemographic And Clinical Profile Of Men Assisted In A Psychiatric Detoxification Service In Natal, Rn, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeika Carla Ferreira de Sena

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The male population has a high probability of abandoning treatment, avoidance of health services, great exposure to violence, mainly due to abusive use of alcohol and other drugs, and high crime rates also associated with this problem. Objective: To characterize the sociodemographic and clinical profile of men admitted to a Psychiatric Detoxification Hospital Unit for alcohol and drug abuse. Method: It is a cross-sectional and retrospective study, with data collection in 2015, with a temporal cut in patients´ records between 2008 and 2014, reaching a sample of 1,152 medical records. The data collection instrument was composed of a structured form. The data were analyzed in a descriptive way. Results: Regarding the age, the age group between 21 and 50 years old had 30.73% between six and ten days hospitalized, and 11.98% had readmissions. The main diagnoses for this disorders were linked to the use of opiates, cannabinoids, sedatives and hypnotics. Conclusion: The profile of internal and assisted men was characterized such as adults of productive age, residents of the metropolitan area of the city, with long periods of hospitalization, generally with improved type discharge, low readmission and diagnoses of mental disorders related to the excessive use of alcohol and other drugs.

  5. The algal toxicity of silver engineered nanoparticles and detoxification by exopolymeric substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao Aijun, E-mail: aijunm@tamug.ed [Dept. of Marine Science, Texas A and M University at Galveston, Galveston, TX 77551 (United States); Dept. of Marine Biology, Texas A and M University at Galveston, Galveston, TX 77551 (United States); Schwehr, Kathy A., E-mail: schwerhk@tamug.ed [Dept. of Marine Science, Texas A and M University at Galveston, Galveston, TX 77551 (United States); Xu Chen, E-mail: xuchen66@hotmail.co [Dept. of Oceanography, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Zhang Saijin, E-mail: saijinzhang@neo.tamu.ed [Dept. of Oceanography, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Luo Zhiping, E-mail: luo@mic.tamu.ed [Microscopy and Imaging Center, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Quigg, Antonietta, E-mail: quigga@tamug.ed [Dept. of Marine Biology, Texas A and M University at Galveston, Galveston, TX 77551 (United States); Dept. of Oceanography, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Santschi, Peter H., E-mail: santschi@tamug.ed [Dept. of Marine Science, Texas A and M University at Galveston, Galveston, TX 77551 (United States); Dept. of Oceanography, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    In this study, we report that silver ions (Ag{sup +}) from the oxidative dissolution of silver engineered nanoparticles (Ag-ENs) determined the EN toxicity to the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii. Most of the Ag-ENs formed non-toxic aggregates (>0.22 mum) in seawater. When the free Ag{sup +} concentration ([Ag{sup +}]{sub F}) was greatly reduced by diafiltration or thiol complexation, no toxicity was observed, even though the Ag-ENs were better dispersed in the presence of thiols with up to 1.08 x 10{sup -5} M Ag-ENs found in the <0.22 mum fraction, which are orders of magnitude higher than predicted for the natural aquatic environment. The secretion of polysaccharide-rich algal exopolymeric substances (EPS) significantly increased at increasing [Ag{sup +}]{sub F}. Both dissolved and particulate polysaccharide concentrations were higher for nutrient-limited cells, coinciding with their higher Ag{sup +} tolerance, suggesting that EPS may be involved in Ag{sup +} detoxification. - Ag-ENs were found to only have indirect toxic effects on marine phytoplankton as a result of their rapid Ag{sup +} release.

  6. Impact of Dietary Fibers on Nutrient Management and Detoxification Organs: Gut, Liver, and Kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Dorothy A; Martin, Roy J; Adams, Sean H

    2016-11-01

    Increased dietary fiber (DF) intake elicits a wide range of physiologic effects, not just locally in the gut, but systemically. DFs can greatly alter the gut milieu by affecting the gut microbiome, which in turn influences the gut barrier, gastrointestinal immune and endocrine responses, and nitrogen cycling and microbial metabolism. These gut-associated changes can then alter the physiology and biochemistry of the body's other main nutrient management and detoxification organs, the liver and kidneys. The molecular mechanisms by which DF alters the physiology of the gut, liver, and kidneys is likely through gut-localized events (i.e., bacterial nitrogen metabolism, microbe-microbe, and microbe-host cell interactions) coupled with specific factors that emanate from the gut in response to DF, which signal to or affect the physiology of the liver and kidneys. The latter may include microbe-derived xenometabolites, peptides, or bioactive food components made available by gut microbes, inflammation signals, and gut hormones. The intent of this review is to summarize how DF alters the gut milieu to specifically affect intestinal, liver, and kidney functions and to discuss the potential local and systemic signaling networks that are involved. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Impact of Dietary Fibers on Nutrient Management and Detoxification Organs: Gut, Liver, and Kidneys12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Dorothy A; Martin, Roy J; Adams, Sean H

    2016-01-01

    Increased dietary fiber (DF) intake elicits a wide range of physiologic effects, not just locally in the gut, but systemically. DFs can greatly alter the gut milieu by affecting the gut microbiome, which in turn influences the gut barrier, gastrointestinal immune and endocrine responses, and nitrogen cycling and microbial metabolism. These gut-associated changes can then alter the physiology and biochemistry of the body’s other main nutrient management and detoxification organs, the liver and kidneys. The molecular mechanisms by which DF alters the physiology of the gut, liver, and kidneys is likely through gut-localized events (i.e., bacterial nitrogen metabolism, microbe-microbe, and microbe–host cell interactions) coupled with specific factors that emanate from the gut in response to DF, which signal to or affect the physiology of the liver and kidneys. The latter may include microbe-derived xenometabolites, peptides, or bioactive food components made available by gut microbes, inflammation signals, and gut hormones. The intent of this review is to summarize how DF alters the gut milieu to specifically affect intestinal, liver, and kidney functions and to discuss the potential local and systemic signaling networks that are involved. PMID:28140328

  8. Cyanide detoxification in an insect herbivore: Molecular identification of β-cyanoalanine synthases from Pieris rapae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ohlen, Maike; Herfurth, Anna-Maria; Kerbstadt, Henrike; Wittstock, Ute

    2016-03-01

    Cyanogenic compounds occur widely in the plant kingdom. Therefore, many herbivores are adapted to the presence of these compounds in their diet by either avoiding cyanide release or by efficient cyanide detoxification mechanisms. The mechanisms of adaptation are not fully understood. Larvae of Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) are specialist herbivores on glucosinolate-containing plants. They are exposed to cyanide during metabolism of phenylacetonitrile, a product of benzylglucosinolate breakdown catalyzed by plant myrosinases and larval nitrile-specifier protein (NSP) in the gut. Cyanide is metabolized to β-cyanoalanine and thiocyanate in the larvae. Here, we demonstrate that larvae of P. rapae possess β-cyanoalanine activity in their gut. We have identified three gut-expressed cDNAs designated PrBSAS1-PrBSAS3 which encode proteins with similarity to β-substituted alanine synthases (BSAS). Characterization of recombinant PrBSAS1-PrBSAS3 shows that they possess β-cyanoalanine activity. In phylogenetic trees, PrBSAS1-PrBSAS3, the first characterized insect BSAS, group together with a characterized mite β-cyanoalanine synthase and bacterial enzymes indicating a similar evolutionary history. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary resources shape the adaptive changes of cyanide detoxification function in giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He; Yie, Shangmian; Liu, Yuliang; Wang, Chengdong; Cai, Zhigang; Zhang, Wenping; Lan, Jingchao; Huang, Xiangming; Luo, Li; Cai, Kailai; Hou, Rong; Zhang, Zhihe

    2016-10-05

    The functional adaptive changes in cyanide detoxification in giant panda appear to be response to dietary transition from typical carnivore to herbivorous bear. We tested the absorption of cyanide contained in bamboo/bamboo shoots with a feeding trial in 20 adult giant pandas. We determined total cyanide content in bamboo shoots and giant panda's feces, levels of urinary thiocyanate and tissue rhodanese activity using color reactions with a spectrophotometer. Rhodanese expression in liver and kidney at transcription and translation levels were measured using real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. We compared differences of rhodanese activity and gene expressions among giant panda, rabbit (herbivore) and cat (carnivore), and between newborn and adult giant pandas. Bamboo shoots contained 3.2 mg/kg of cyanide and giant pandas absorbed more than 65% of cyanide. However, approximately 80% of absorbed cyanide was metabolized to less toxic thiocyanate that was discharged in urine. Rhodanese expression and activity in liver and kidney of giant panda were significantly higher than in cat, but lower than in rabbit (all P pandas were higher than that in newborn cub. Phylogenetic analysis of both nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the rhodanese gene supported a closer relationship of giant panda with carnivores than with herbivores.

  10. Cryptic indole hydroxylation by a non-canonical terpenoid cyclase parallels bacterial xenobiotic detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugel, Susann; Baunach, Martin; Baer, Philipp; Ishida-Ito, Mie; Sundaram, Srividhya; Xu, Zhongli; Groll, Michael; Hertweck, Christian

    2017-06-01

    Terpenoid natural products comprise a wide range of molecular architectures that typically result from C-C bond formations catalysed by classical type I/II terpene cyclases. However, the molecular diversity of biologically active terpenoids is substantially increased by fully unrelated, non-canonical terpenoid cyclases. Their evolutionary origin has remained enigmatic. Here we report the in vitro reconstitution of an unusual flavin-dependent bacterial indoloterpenoid cyclase, XiaF, together with a designated flavoenzyme-reductase (XiaP) that mediates a key step in xiamycin biosynthesis. The crystal structure of XiaF with bound FADH2 (at 2.4 Å resolution) and phylogenetic analyses reveal that XiaF is, surprisingly, most closely related to xenobiotic-degrading enzymes. Biotransformation assays show that XiaF is a designated indole hydroxylase that can be used for the production of indigo and indirubin. We unveil a cryptic hydroxylation step that sets the basis for terpenoid cyclization and suggest that the cyclase has evolved from xenobiotics detoxification enzymes.

  11. Phytoremediation of water bodies contaminated with radioactive heavy metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhen; Yuan Shichao; Ling Hui; Xie Shuibo

    2012-01-01

    The sources of the radioactive heavy metal in the water bodies were analyzed. The factors that affect phyto remediation of water contaminated with radioactive heavy metal were discussed. The plant species, mechanism and major technology of phyto remediation of water contaminated with radioactive heavy metal were particularly introduced. The prospective study was remarked. (authors)

  12. Time-of-day specific changes in metabolic detoxification and insecticide resistance in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmert, Nathaniel J; Rund, Samuel S C; Ghazi, John P; Zhou, Peng; Duffield, Giles E

    2014-05-01

    Mosquitoes exhibit ∼24 h rhythms in physiology and behavior, regulated by the cooperative action of an endogenous circadian clock and the environmental light:dark cycle. Here, we characterize diel (observed under light:dark conditions) time-of-day changes in metabolic detoxification and resistance to insecticide challenge in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. A better understanding of mosquito chronobiology will yield insights into developing novel control strategies for this important disease vector. We have previously identified >2000 rhythmically expressed An. gambiae genes. These include metabolic detoxification enzymes peaking at various times throughout the day. Especially interesting was the identification of rhythmic genes encoding enzymes capable of pyrethroid and/or DDT metabolism (CYP6M2, CYP6P3, CYP6Z1, and GSTE2). We hypothesized that these temporal changes in gene expression would confer time-of-day specific changes in metabolic detoxification and responses to insecticide challenge. An. gambiae mosquitoes (adult female Pimperena and Mali-NIH strains) were tested by gene expression analysis for diel rhythms in key genes associated with insecticidal resistance. Biochemical assays for total GST, esterase, and oxidase enzymatic activities were undertaken on time-specific mosquito head and body protein lysates. To determine for rhythmic susceptibility to insecticides by survivorship, mosquitoes were exposed to DDT or deltamethrin across the diel cycle. We report the occurrence of temporal changes in GST activity in samples extracted from the body and head with a single peak at late-night to dawn, but no rhythms were detected in oxidase or esterase activity. The Pimperena strain was found to be resistant to insecticidal challenge, and subsequent genomic analysis revealed the presence of the resistance-conferring kdr mutation. We observed diel rhythmicity in key insecticide detoxification genes in the Mali-NIH strain, with peak phases as previously reported in

  13. Differences in depression severity and frequency of relapses in opiate addicts treated with methadone or opiate blocker after detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Relapse of opiate dependence is a common occurrence after detoxification and introduction of opiate addicts in abstinence from opiates. Clinical evaluation showed that over 90% of opiate addicts exhibit depressive manifestations during detoxification, or develop post-detoxification depression. The aim of this study was to determine differences in the frequency of relapses, severity and course of depression during a of 6-month period, and previous patterns of use of opioids in the two groups of opiate addicts treated by two different therapeutic modalities. Methods. The results of the two groups of opiate addicts were compared: the patients on substitution methadone treatment (M and the patients treated with opiate blocker naltrexone (B. In all the patients, clinical and instrumental evaluations confirmed depressive syndrome. Opioid relapses were diagnosed by the panel test for rapid detection of metabolites of opiates in urine. Then they were brought in connection with scores of depression and addiction variables. The Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD and Zunge Depression Scale were the applied instruments for measuring the level of depression. All the subjects completed a questionnaire Pompidou (short version. Psychological measurements were carried out during a 6-month follow-up on three occasions. The presence of opiate metabolites in urine was controlled every two weeks. Results. Both groups of patients (M and B had high scores on HAMD during the study. The group on methadone had a strong depression in all three measurements. There was a drop in the level of depression in both experimental groups over time, which was accompanied by a decrease in the incidence of recurrence. In both tested groups the frequency of relapses was positively correlated with earlier addiction variables - intravenous application of opioids, the experience of overdose, the absence of immunization against hepatitis C and hepatitis C virus carriers

  14. Metal lagging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemercier, Guy.

    1974-01-01

    The metal lagging described is characterized by the fact that it is formed of closed sacks composed of an elastic metal mass, compressed in an outer envelope made of a fine mesh metal fabric. The metal mass is composed of stainless steel wool stuffed into the envelope. This lagging is particularly intended for the thermal protection of the end slab of LMFBR type reactors [fr

  15. Temporal variations in metallothionein concentration and subcellular distribution of metals in gills and digestive glands of the oyster Crassostrea angulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Trombini

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The metallothionein levels and metal concentrations in whole body, digestive gland and gills of Crassostrea angulata were analyzed in field samples collected from the River Guadalquivir estuary over several years following a mining waste spill upstream. The subcellular distribution of metals was analyzed to determine the mechanisms involved in the detoxification process. The highest metallothionein levels were reported in the digestive gland shortly after the mining contamination event. In this organ, metals are stored preferentially in the non-cytosolic fraction when increased bioaccumulation takes place. In the cytosol of the gills, metals are associated with metallothionein, whereas in the digestive gland, the distribution of metals between metallothioneins and high molecular weight proteins is similar. Metallothionein variation cannot be explained by metals alone; other abiotic factors must be taken into account. In order to use metallothionein as a metal exposure biomarker in field studies, natural variability needs to be taken into account for the correct interpretation of results.

  16. Silicone metalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

    2008-12-09

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  17. Imaging of intracellular metal partitioning in marine diatoms exposed to metal pollution: consequences to cellular toxicity and metal fate in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Rita M; Cabrita, Maria Teresa; Alves, Luís C; Pinheiro, Teresa

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates the metal content and compartmentalization changes in whole cells of diatom Coscinodiscus eccentricus exposed to metal overload, examining consequences to cellular toxicity, tolerance mechanisms, and metal fate in the environment. Cells exposed to Ni, Cu and Zn were analysed using nuclear microprobe techniques. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), and scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) were used simultaneously to obtain high-resolution imaging of morphological and quantitative elemental distribution data. Elemental partitioning within cell compartments, such as cell wall, cytoplasm and major organelles, was assessed. Diatoms clearly responded to excess metal levels, by changing cytoplasm morphology, concentrating added metals, and altering Fe transport mechanisms. Different metal accumulation patterns indicated high susceptibility to Cu, retained in the cytoplasm, and detoxification capability for Ni and Zn, mobilized to the vacuole. Iron and Zn were accumulated in the siliceous wall. Different metal distributions within the cell imply distinct environmental fates, Cu and Ni remain available with potential for biomagnification through the food web, whereas Fe and Zn are deposited at the bottom through frustule sedimentation.

  18. Chronic oral administration of rhamnogalacturonan-II dimer, a pectic polysaccharide, failed to accelerate body lead detoxification after chronic lead exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiri, Maha; Tressol, Jean Claude; Doco, Thierry; Rayssiguier, Yves; Coudray, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Lead is a ubiquitous heavy metal and its toxicity remains an important public health issue. In previous work, we reported that ingestion of rhamnogalacturonan-II dimer (dRGII), a pectic polysaccharide, may decrease intestinal absorption and status of Pb in rats. Here, we evaluated the potential detoxifying effect of different doses of dRGII after chronic oral Pb exposure in rats. For this purpose, six groups of ten male Wistar rats weighing 150g were treated as follows: group A received a semi-purified control diet for 6 weeks; groups B, C, D, E and F received the same diet plus 3 mg Pb (as acetate) for 3 weeks. Group B was then killed. Groups C, D, E, and F continued to receive the semi-purified control diet containing 0, 2, 6 or 18g dRGII/kg diet for 3 additional weeks. During the last 5 d, a Pb conventional balance study was performed. Rats were then anaesthetized and tissues were sampled for Pb and essential minerals assay. The results showed that residual Pb in the added dRGII was not available for absorption. However, the added dRGII failed to induce any significant increase in faecal or urinary Pb excretion. Consequently, at the end of the study the intestinal Pb absorption and balance remained unchanged in the animals receiving the different doses of dRGII. In line with this, we showed that dRGII administration was not effective in decreasing tibia or kidney Pb levels in rats. In conclusion, Pb complexed by dRGII in fruits and vegetables and fruit juice is thus mostly unavailable for intestinal absorption. However, the addition of dRGII after chronic Pb exposure does not help Pb detoxification.

  19. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation: Phase 1, Project planning and concept development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, T.L.; Brouns, T.M.

    1988-02-01

    The objectives of this project are to develop processes for reducing the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids. The primary incentives for implemeting these types of waste minimization processes are regulatory and economic in that they meet requirements in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and reduce the cost for treatment, storage, and disposal. Two precipitation processes and a distillation process are being developed to minimize waste from fuel fabrication operations, which comprise a series of metal-finishing operations. Waste process acids, such as HF/--/HNO 3 etch solutions contianing Zr as a major metal impurity and HNO 3 strip solutions containing Cu as a major metal impurity, are detoxified and reclaimed by concurrently precipitating heavy metals and regenerating acid for recycle. Acid from a third waste acid stream generated from chemical milling operations will be reclaimed using distillation. This stream comprises HNO 3 and H 2 SO 4 which contains U as the major metal impurity. Distillation allows NO 3 /sup /minus// to be displaced by SO 4 /sup /minus/2/ in metal salts; free HNO 3 is then vaporized from the U-bearing sulfate stream. Uranium can be recovered from the sulfate stream in downstream precipitation step. These waste minimization processes were developed to meet Hanford's fuel fabrication process needs. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  20. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation: Phase 1, Project planning and concept development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, T.L.; Brouns, T.M.

    1988-02-01

    The objectives of this project are to develop processes for reducing the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids. The primary incentives for implemeting these types of waste minimization processes are regulatory and economic in that they meet requirements in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and reduce the cost for treatment, storage, and disposal. Two precipitation processes and a distillation process are being developed to minimize waste from fuel fabrication operations, which comprise a series of metal-finishing operations. Waste process acids, such as HF/--/HNO/sub 3/ etch solutions contianing Zr as a major metal impurity and HNO/sub 3/ strip solutions containing Cu as a major metal impurity, are detoxified and reclaimed by concurrently precipitating heavy metals and regenerating acid for recycle. Acid from a third waste acid stream generated from chemical milling operations will be reclaimed using distillation. This stream comprises HNO/sub 3/ and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ which contains U as the major metal impurity. Distillation allows NO/sub 3//sup /minus// to be displaced by SO/sub 4//sup /minus/2/ in metal salts; free HNO/sub 3/ is then vaporized from the U-bearing sulfate stream. Uranium can be recovered from the sulfate stream in downstream precipitation step. These waste minimization processes were developed to meet Hanford's fuel fabrication process needs. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Geochemical prospecting in Guiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulomb, R.

    1957-01-01

    During the last few years geochemical prospecting techniques have become common usage in the field of mineral deposit prospecting. The real scope of these methods lies in their use in the prospecting of large areas. The most promising use of the geochemistry and hydro-geochemistry of uranium is in heavily forested tropical territories, with few outcrops, where radiometry is strongly handicapped. (author) [fr

  2. Endogenous Prospect Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Ulrich; Zank, Horst

    2010-01-01

    In previous models of (cumulative) prospect theory reference-dependence of preferences is imposed beforehand and the location of the reference point is exogenously determined. This paper provides an axiomatization of a new specification of cumulative prospect theory, termed endogenous prospect theory, where reference-dependence is derived from preference conditions and a unique reference point arises endogenously.

  3. Heavy metals and the origin of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nriagu, J.

    2003-05-01

    The functional value of heavy metals in proto-cells was immense and involved critical roles in catalysis of molecular synthesis, translation, electrical neutrality and conduction, energy capture, cross-linking and precipitation (stabilizers of protective cell walls), and to a limited extent, osmotic pressure control. Metals must have modulated the evolutionary choices of the types of building blocks, such as ribose sugars as a constituent of RNA, or the the chirality and enantiopurity of many biomolecules. The formation of an enclosing membrane led to intracellular prokaryotic life (believed to have originated in an anaerobic environment) and much enhanced control over primary metabolism, the uptake and incorporation of heavy metals and the management of biomolecules (especially RNA, DNA and proteins) that were formed. Cells of the most primitive organisms (archaebacteria) reveal complex mechanisms designed specifically to deal with selective pressures from metal-containing environments including intra- and extra-cellular sequestration, exclusion by cell wall barrier, removal through active efflux pumps, enzymatic detoxification, and reduction in sensitivity of cellular targets to metal ions. Adaptation to metals using a variety of chromosomal, and transposon and plasmid-mediated systems began early in the evolution of life on Earth. Recent studies, however, show that the roles played by many heavy metals have changed over time. Divalent lead, for instance, has relinquished its unique catalytic role in the conversion of carbohydrates into ribose in the prebiotic world. The putative elements that dominated the primordial biochemistry were V, Mo, W, Co, Fe(II) and Ni; with the development of oxygenated atmosphere, these elements gave way to Zn, Cu and Fe(Ill) in their metabolic functions.

  4. Structural biology of the sequestration and transport of heavy metal toxins: NMR structure determination of proteins containing the -Cys-X-Y-Cys-metal binding motifs. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opella, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    'The overall goal of the research is to apply the methods of structural biology, which have been previously used primarily in biomedical applications, to bioremediation. The authors are doing this by using NMR spectroscopy to determine the structures of proteins involved in the bacterial mercury detoxification system. The research is based on the premise that the proteins encoded in the genes of the bacterial detoxification system are an untapped source of reagents and, more fundamentally, chemical strategies that can be used to remove heavy metal toxins from the environment. The initial goals are to determine the structures of the proteins of the bacterial mercury detoxification systems responsible for the sequestration and transport of the Hg(II) ions in to the cell where reduction to Hg(O) occurs. These proteins are meP, which is water soluble and can be investigated with multidimensional solution NMR methods, and merT, the transport protein in the membrane that requires solid-state NMR methods. As of June 1998, this report summarizes work after about one and half years of the three-year award. The authors have made significant accomplishments in three aspects of the NMR studies of the proteins of the bacterial mercury detoxification system.'

  5. Neurocognitive Functioning and Treatment Outcome Following Detoxification Among Asian Alcohol-Dependent Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Victoria; Teo, Hui Chin; Guo, Song; Wong, Kim Eng; Li, Ting-Kai

    2016-01-28

    The prevalence of alcohol use disorders in Asia is increasing and relapse among treated populations remains the norm, not the exception. The extent to which cognitive impairment influences clinical outcome remains unclear, with research dominated by studies of Caucasian populations. This study examines behavioral and self-reported cognitive functioning in detoxified alcohol-dependent (AD) patients in Singapore and its association with outcome. The cognitive performance of 30 recently-detoxified AD inpatients and 30 demographically-matched controls was compared using visuospatial memory, working memory, set-shifting, planning and reflection impulsivity tests of the CANTAB®, and self-reported dysexecutive symptoms and everyday cognitive difficulties. Patients' alcohol use and self-reported cognitive functioning were reassessed 3-months post-discharge. Compared to matched controls, AD inpatients exhibited significantly poorer fluid intelligence, visuospatial memory, working memory, set-shifting flexibility and planning/organization, but not reflection impulsivity. In support of Western studies, a significant proportion (three-quarters) were "clinically impaired" on subtests. Significant reductions were observed in alcohol units, frequency and dependency scores at follow-up, though improvements in self-reported cognitive functioning were limited to abstainers. Baseline cognitive performance did not differentiate those who had abstained from alcohol and relapsed at follow-up. Memory and executive functioning impairments were evident among Asian AD patients alongside self-reported cognitive difficulties, thus cognitively demanding psychological interventions may have limited impact during early detoxification. Future studies can build on these findings, with larger samples and measurement of moderating and mediating factors to extend our understanding of how cognitive impairment influences outcome.

  6. Inhibition test of heme detoxification (ITHD as an approach for detecting antimalarial agents in medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mosaddegh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: There are several methods to assess the in vitro capability of heme inhibitory activity of antimalarial compounds; most of them require some specific equipment or toxic substances and sometimes the needed materials are not accessible. Regarding the necessity and importance of optimizing and standardizing experimental conditions, the present study has intended to improve the in vitro assessment conditions of the β-hematin formation inhibitory activity for screening herbal samples. Methods: Hemin, tween 20, and samples (9:9:2 were incubated in different conditions including: hemin concentration (30, 60, and 120 µg/mL, duration (4, 24, 48, and 72 h, pH of buffer (3.6, 4, 4.4, 4.8, and 5, and temperature (37 and 60 °C in 96-well plates. Also, a total of 165 plant extracts and fractions were tested in the most suitable conditions. Results: The reaction time and the incubation temperature were determined as the critical factors. The effective conditions for β-hematin formation were found to be 60 °C after 24 h incubation. In this method, proper correlations with respect to negative (69% and positive (67% predictive values were obtained in comparison with the anti-plasmodial assay. Antimalarial activities of Pistacia atlantica, Myrtus communis, Pterocarya fraxinifolia, and Satureja mutica were found to correlate significantly with inhibition of the heme detoxification assay. Conclusion: These results support a rapid, simple and reliable approach for selecting and identifying a number of herbs for further related antimalaria investigations.

  7. Role of glucuronidation for hepatic detoxification and urinary elimination of toxic bile acids during biliary obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, Martin; Białek, Andrzej; Trottier, Jocelyn; Verreault, Mélanie; Caron, Patrick; Milkiewicz, Piotr; Barbier, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Biliary obstruction, a severe cholestatic condition, results in a huge accumulation of toxic bile acids (BA) in the liver. Glucuronidation, a conjugation reaction, is thought to protect the liver by both reducing hepatic BA toxicity and increasing their urinary elimination. The present study evaluates the contribution of each process in the overall BA detoxification by glucuronidation. Glucuronide (G), glycine, taurine conjugates, and unconjugated BAs were quantified in pre- and post-biliary stenting urine samples from 12 patients with biliary obstruction, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The same LC-MS/MS procedure was used to quantify intra- and extracellular BA-G in Hepatoma HepG2 cells. Bile acid-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells was evaluated using MTS reduction, caspase-3 and flow cytometry assays. When compared to post-treatment samples, pre-stenting urines were enriched in glucuronide-, taurine- and glycine-conjugated BAs. Biliary stenting increased the relative BA-G abundance in the urinary BA pool, and reduced the proportion of taurine- and glycine-conjugates. Lithocholic, deoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids were the most cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic/necrotic BAs for HepG2 cells. Other species, such as the cholic, hyocholic and hyodeoxycholic acids were nontoxic. All BA-G assayed were less toxic and displayed lower pro-apoptotic/necrotic effects than their unconjugated precursors, even if they were able to penetrate into HepG2 cells. Under severe cholestatic conditions, urinary excretion favors the elimination of amidated BAs, while glucuronidation allows the conversion of cytotoxic BAs into nontoxic derivatives.

  8. Role of glucuronidation for hepatic detoxification and urinary elimination of toxic bile acids during biliary obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Perreault

    Full Text Available Biliary obstruction, a severe cholestatic condition, results in a huge accumulation of toxic bile acids (BA in the liver. Glucuronidation, a conjugation reaction, is thought to protect the liver by both reducing hepatic BA toxicity and increasing their urinary elimination. The present study evaluates the contribution of each process in the overall BA detoxification by glucuronidation. Glucuronide (G, glycine, taurine conjugates, and unconjugated BAs were quantified in pre- and post-biliary stenting urine samples from 12 patients with biliary obstruction, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. The same LC-MS/MS procedure was used to quantify intra- and extracellular BA-G in Hepatoma HepG2 cells. Bile acid-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells was evaluated using MTS reduction, caspase-3 and flow cytometry assays. When compared to post-treatment samples, pre-stenting urines were enriched in glucuronide-, taurine- and glycine-conjugated BAs. Biliary stenting increased the relative BA-G abundance in the urinary BA pool, and reduced the proportion of taurine- and glycine-conjugates. Lithocholic, deoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids were the most cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic/necrotic BAs for HepG2 cells. Other species, such as the cholic, hyocholic and hyodeoxycholic acids were nontoxic. All BA-G assayed were less toxic and displayed lower pro-apoptotic/necrotic effects than their unconjugated precursors, even if they were able to penetrate into HepG2 cells. Under severe cholestatic conditions, urinary excretion favors the elimination of amidated BAs, while glucuronidation allows the conversion of cytotoxic BAs into nontoxic derivatives.

  9. Impact of morphine dependency and detoxification by methadone on male’s rat reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Ghowsi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the problems that addicts suffer from is decreased libido. Erectile dysfunction has been reported in men using opioids for treatment of heroin addiction. Objective: The study was performed to investigate the effects of morphine and detoxification with methadone as causes of sexual dysfunction in addiction. Methods and Methods: A total of 40 adult male rats (Wistar were used. Animals were divided in to 4 groups. Control groups received saline for 30 days. Other 2 groups received 10 mg/kg morphine on day 1 and the morphine doses increased daily by 2 mg/kg increments per day until in day 30 a maximum of 68 mg/kg twice daily was achieved. Withdrawal syndrome sings were evaluated. At the end of period, one group of 2 morphine dependent groups was treated with methadone during 14 days. Animals in group 4 (saline solution+ methadone received saline for 30 consecutive days and then detoxified with methadone during 14 days. Partial weights of seminal vesicles, testes, prostates, seminal vesicles content, concentrations of luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, and testosterone in serum were determined. Results: In the dependent group serum levels of testosterone (p<0.001, folicle stimulating hormone (p=0.0097 and luteinizing hormone (p=0.0031 as well as the weights of testes (p=0.0051, partial weights of prostates, seminal vesicles and seminal vesicles contents (p<0.001 were reduced as compared with control group. In the morphine dependent animals detoxified with methadone, testosterone concentrations and seminal vesicles contents remained lower than levels in the control group (p<0.001. Conclusion: The results suggest that morphine dependence may impair the reproductive function in male rats.

  10. Toxicity and detoxification of lipid-derived aldehydes in cultured retinal pigmented epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhary, S.; Xiao, T.; Srivastava, S.; Zhang, W.; Chan, L.L.; Vergara, L.A.; Van Kuijk, F.J.G.M.; Ansari, N.H.

    2005-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world and yet its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Retina has high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and functions under conditions of oxidative stress. To investigate whether peroxidative products of PUFAs induce apoptosis in retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells and possibly contribute to ARMD, human retinal pigmented epithelial cells (ARPE-19) were exposed to micromolar concentrations of H 2 O 2 , 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) and 4-hydroxyhexenal (HHE). A concentration- and time-dependent increase in H 2 O 2 -, HNE-, and HHE-induced apoptosis was observed when monitored by quantifying DNA fragmentation as determined by ELISA, flow cytometry, and Hoechst staining. The broad-spectrum inhibitor of apoptosis Z-VAD inhibited apoptosis. Treatment of RPE cells with a thionein peptide prior to exposure to H 2 O 2 or HNE reduced the formation of protein-HNE adducts as well as alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis. Using 3 H-HNE, various metabolic pathways to detoxify HNE by ARPE-19 cells were studied. The metabolites were separated by HPLC and characterized by ElectroSpray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS) and gas chromatography-MS. Three main metabolic routes of HNE detoxification were detected: (1) conjugation with glutathione (GSH) to form GS-HNE, catalyzed by glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (2) reduction of GS-HNE catalyzed by aldose reductase, and (3) oxidation of HNE catalyzed by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Preventing HNE formation by a combined strategy of antioxidants, scavenging HNE by thionein peptide, and inhibiting apoptosis by caspase inhibitors may offer a potential therapy to limit retinal degeneration in ARMD

  11. ATP Binding Cassette Transporter Mediates Both Heme and Pesticide Detoxification in Tick Midgut Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Alves Lara

    Full Text Available In ticks, the digestion of blood occurs intracellularly and proteolytic digestion of hemoglobin takes place in a dedicated type of lysosome, the digest vesicle, followed by transfer of the heme moiety of hemoglobin to a specialized organelle that accumulates large heme aggregates, called hemosomes. In the present work, we studied the uptake of fluorescent metalloporphyrins, used as heme analogs, and amitraz, one of the most regularly used acaricides to control cattle tick infestations, by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus midgut cells. Both compounds were taken up by midgut cells in vitro and accumulated inside the hemosomes. Transport of both molecules was sensitive to cyclosporine A (CsA, a well-known inhibitor of ATP binding cassette (ABC transporters. Rhodamine 123, a fluorescent probe that is also a recognized ABC substrate, was similarly directed to the hemosome in a CsA-sensitive manner. Using an antibody against conserved domain of PgP-1-type ABC transporter, we were able to immunolocalize PgP-1 in the digest vesicle membranes. Comparison between two R. microplus strains that were resistant and susceptible to amitraz revealed that the resistant strain detoxified both amitraz and Sn-Pp IX more efficiently than the susceptible strain, a process that was also sensitive to CsA. A transcript containing an ABC transporter signature exhibited 2.5-fold increased expression in the amitraz-resistant strain when compared with the susceptible strain. RNAi-induced down-regulation of this ABC transporter led to the accumulation of metalloporphyrin in the digestive vacuole, interrupting heme traffic to the hemosome. This evidence further confirms that this transcript codes for a heme transporter. This is the first report of heme transport in a blood-feeding organism. While the primary physiological function of the hemosome is to detoxify heme and attenuate its toxicity, we suggest that the use of this acaricide detoxification pathway by ticks may

  12. Excretion pattern and dynamics of glutathione detoxification of microcystins in Sprague Dawley rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; He, Jun; Chen, Jun; Xie, Ping

    2018-01-01

    The excretion route and dynamics of the glutathione (GSH) conjugate of microcystin-RR (MCRR), MCRR-GSH, were quantitatively studied in Sprague Dawley rat exposed with MCRR-GSH via liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). In the MCRR-GSH-treated rat, the average MCRR-Cysteine (MCRR-Cys)/MCRR-GSH ratio reached as high as 105.3, which indicated that the intermediate conjugate MCRR-GSH was rapidly converted to the product compound MCRR-Cys. Besides, MCRR was consistently detected in MCRR-GSH-treated rat, which suggested that MCRR can be dissociated from the MCRR-GSH conjugate and the reversibility of the MC-GSH conjugate. Results of total MC contents analysis in excrement showed that the total MC contents in urine were significantly higher than those in feces. The ratio of the total MC content in urine to feces was as high as 129.3, which demonstrates that the urine is the main route of excretion after MCRR-GSH-treatment. In urine, the MCRR-Cys concentration was 27.8-fold, 19.4-fold higher than MCRR-GSH and MCRR, respectively. Our results, for the first time, quantitatively found that MCRR-GSH was rapidly converted to MCRR-Cys after exposed to rat, and was excreted mainly through urine in the form of the MCRR-Cys conjugate. This study suggests that the GSH detoxification pathway of MCs could help to explain the greater sensitivity of mammals to MCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Benzoxazolinone detoxification by N-Glucosylation: The multi-compartment-network of Zea mays L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Margot; Filary, Barbara; Kühn, Sabine; Colby, Thomas; Harzen, Anne; Schmidt, Jürgen; Sicker, Dieter; Hennig, Lothar; Hofmann, Diana; Disko, Ulrich; Anders, Nico

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The major detoxification product in maize roots after 24 h benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (BOA) exposure was identified as glucoside carbamate resulting from rearrangement of BOA-N-glucoside, but the pathway of N-glucosylation, enzymes involved and the site of synthesis were previously unknown. Assaying whole cell proteins revealed the necessity of H2O2 and Fe2+ ions for glucoside carbamate production. Peroxidase produced BOA radicals are apparently formed within the extraplastic space of the young maize root. Radicals seem to be the preferred substrate for N-glucosylation, either by direct reaction with glucose or, more likely, the N-glucoside is released by glucanase/glucosidase catalyzed hydrolysis from cell wall components harboring fixed BOA. The processes are accompanied by alterations of cell wall polymers. Glucoside carbamate accumulation could be suppressed by the oxireductase inhibitor 2-bromo-4´-nitroacetophenone and by peroxidase inhibitor 2,3-butanedione. Alternatively, activated BOA molecules with an open heterocycle may be produced by microorganisms (e.g., endophyte Fusarium verticillioides) and channeled for enzymatic N-glucosylation. Experiments with transgenic Arabidopsis lines indicate a role of maize glucosyltransferase BX9 in BOA-N-glycosylation. Western blots with BX9 antibody demonstrate the presence of BX9 in the extraplastic space. Proteomic analyses verified a high BOA responsiveness of multiple peroxidases in the apoplast/cell wall. BOA incubations led to shifting, altered abundances and identities of the apoplast and cell wall located peroxidases, glucanases, glucosidases and glutathione transferases (GSTs). GSTs could function as glucoside carbamate transporters. The highly complex, compartment spanning and redox-regulated glucoside carbamate pathway seems to be mainly realized in Poaceae. In maize, carbamate production is independent from benzoxazinone synthesis. PMID:26645909

  14. Mechanism of oxygen detoxification by the surprisingly oxygen-tolerant hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorgersen, Michael P.; Stirrett, Karen; Scott, Robert A.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2012-01-01

    The anaerobic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus grows by fermenting carbohydrates producing H2, CO2, and acetate. We show here that it is surprisingly tolerant to oxygen, growing well in the presence of 8% (vol/vol) O2. Although cell growth and acetate production were not significantly affected by O2, H2 production was reduced by 50% (using 8% O2). The amount of H2 produced decreased in a linear manner with increasing concentrations of O2 over the range 2–12% (vol/vol), and for each mole of O2 consumed, the amount of H2 produced decreased by approximately 2 mol. The recycling of H2 by the two cytoplasmic hydrogenases appeared not to play a role in O2 resistance because a mutant strain lacking both enzymes was not more sensitive to O2 than the parent strain. Decreased H2 production was also not due to inactivation of the H2-producing, ferredoxin-dependent membrane-bound hydrogenase because its activity was unaffected by O2 exposure. Electrons from carbohydrate oxidation must therefore be diverted to relieve O2 stress at the level of reduced ferredoxin before H2 production. Deletion strains lacking superoxide reductase (SOR) and putative flavodiiron protein A showed increased sensitivity to O2, indicating that these enzymes play primary roles in resisting O2. However, a mutant strain lacking the proposed electron donor to SOR, rubredoxin, was unaffected in response to O2. Hence, electrons from sugar oxidation normally used to produce H2 are diverted to O2 detoxification by SOR and putative flavodiiron protein A, but the electron flow pathway from ferredoxin does not necessarily involve rubredoxin.| PMID:23093671

  15. Toxicokinetic profiles of α-ketoglutarate cyanohydrin, a cyanide detoxification product, following exposure to potassium cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Brendan L; Bhandari, Raj K; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Rockwood, Gary A; Boss, Gerry R; Logue, Brian A

    2013-09-12

    Poisoning by cyanide can be verified by analysis of the cyanide detoxification product, α-ketoglutarate cyanohydrin (α-KgCN), which is produced from the reaction of cyanide and endogenous α-ketoglutarate. Although α-KgCN can potentially be used to verify cyanide exposure, limited toxicokinetic data in cyanide-poisoned animals are available. We, therefore, studied the toxicokinetics of α-KgCN and compared its behavior to other cyanide metabolites, thiocyanate and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA), in the plasma of 31 Yorkshire pigs that received KCN (4mg/mL) intravenously (IV) (0.17 mg/kg/min). α-KgCN concentrations rose rapidly during KCN administration until the onset of apnea, and then decreased over time in all groups with a half-life of 15 min. The maximum concentrations of α-KgCN and cyanide were 2.35 and 30.18 μM, respectively, suggesting that only a small fraction of the administered cyanide is converted to α-KgCN. Although this is the case, the α-KgCN concentration increased >100-fold over endogenous concentrations compared to only a three-fold increase for cyanide and ATCA. The plasma profile of α-KgCN was similar to that of cyanide, ATCA, and thiocyanate. The results of this study suggest that the use of α-KgCN as a biomarker for cyanide exposure is best suited immediately following exposure for instances of acute, high-dose cyanide poisoning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrogen peroxide priming modulates abiotic oxidative stress tolerance: insights from ROS detoxification and scavenging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Hossain

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants are constantly challenged by various abiotic stresses that negatively affect growth and productivity worldwide. During the course of their evolution, plants have developed sophisticated mechanisms to recognize external signals allowing them to respond appropriately to environmental conditions, although the degree of adjustability or tolerance to specific stresses differs from species to species. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS (hydrogen peroxide, H2O2; superoxide, O2ˉ˙; hydroxyl radical, OH. and singlet oxygen, 1O2 is enhanced under abiotic and/or biotic stresses, which can cause oxidative damage to plant macromolecules and cell structures, leading to inhibition of plant growth and development, or to death. Among the various ROS, freely diffusible and relatively long-lived H2O2 acts as a central player in stress signal transduction pathways. These pathways can then activate multiple acclamatory responses that reinforce resistance to various abiotic and biotic stressors. To utilize H2O2 as a signaling molecule, non-toxic levels must be maintained in a delicate balancing act between H2O2 production and scavenging. Several recent studies have demonstrated that the H2O2-priming can enhance abiotic stress tolerance by modulating ROS detoxification and by regulating multiple stress-responsive pathways and gene expression. Despite the importance of the H2O2-priming, little is known about how this process improves the tolerance of plants to stress. Understanding the mechanisms of H2O2-priming-induced abiotic stress tolerance will be valuable for identifying biotechnological strategies to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. This review is an overview of our current knowledge of the possible mechanisms associated with H2O2-induced abiotic oxidative stress tolerance in plants, with special reference to antioxidant metabolism.

  17. Hydrogen peroxide priming modulates abiotic oxidative stress tolerance: insights from ROS detoxification and scavenging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad A; Bhattacharjee, Soumen; Armin, Saed-Moucheshi; Qian, Pingping; Xin, Wang; Li, Hong-Yu; Burritt, David J; Fujita, Masayuki; Tran, Lam-Son P

    2015-01-01

    Plants are constantly challenged by various abiotic stresses that negatively affect growth and productivity worldwide. During the course of their evolution, plants have developed sophisticated mechanisms to recognize external signals allowing them to respond appropriately to environmental conditions, although the degree of adjustability or tolerance to specific stresses differs from species to species. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS; hydrogen peroxide, H2O2; superoxide, [Formula: see text]; hydroxyl radical, OH(⋅) and singlet oxygen, (1)O2) is enhanced under abiotic and/or biotic stresses, which can cause oxidative damage to plant macromolecules and cell structures, leading to inhibition of plant growth and development, or to death. Among the various ROS, freely diffusible and relatively long-lived H2O2 acts as a central player in stress signal transduction pathways. These pathways can then activate multiple acclamatory responses that reinforce resistance to various abiotic and biotic stressors. To utilize H2O2 as a signaling molecule, non-toxic levels must be maintained in a delicate balancing act between H2O2 production and scavenging. Several recent studies have demonstrated that the H2O2-priming can enhance abiotic stress tolerance by modulating ROS detoxification and by regulating multiple stress-responsive pathways and gene expression. Despite the importance of the H2O2-priming, little is known about how this process improves the tolerance of plants to stress. Understanding the mechanisms of H2O2-priming-induced abiotic stress tolerance will be valuable for identifying biotechnological strategies to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. This review is an overview of our current knowledge of the possible mechanisms associated with H2O2-induced abiotic oxidative stress tolerance in plants, with special reference to antioxidant metabolism.

  18. Detoxification of Hg(II) from aqueous and enzyme media: Pristine vs. tailored calcium alginate hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Kangkana; Ansari, Zarina; Sen, Kamalika

    2016-10-01

    Calcium alginate (CA) hydrogels were tailored using phenolic compounds (PC) like, thymol, morin, catechin, hesperidin, during their preparation. The PC incorporated gels show modified surface features as indicated by scanning electron microscopic images (SEM). The rheological studies show that excepting the hesperidin incorporated gels all the other kinds including calcium alginate pristine have similar mechanical strength. The hesperidine incorporated CA gels had the maximum capacity to adsorb Hg. The Freundlich adsorption isotherms show higher values of adsorption capacity for all PC incorporated CA beads than the pristine CA (PCA). The hesperidin incorporated CA gels were found to show the best adsorption condition at neutral pH and an optimum contact time of 2.5h at 25°C. Considering the possibility of ingested Hg detoxification from human alimentary tract, the hesperidin and morin incorporated CA beads were further modified through incorporation of cod liver oil as the digestion time of fat in stomach is higher. In vitro uptake capacities of Hg in pepsin and pancreatin containing enzyme media were studied with hesperidin and morin incorporated beads and their corresponding fat incorporated beads also. In the pepsin medium, there was no uptake by hesperidin and fat-hesperidin incorporated beads, which is possibly due to the higher acidity of the medium. But in pancreatin medium Hg was taken up by both kinds of beads. Morin and morin-fat incorporated beads were efficient to uptake Hg from both the pepsin and pancreatin medium. The tailored CA beads may therefore serve as efficient scaffolds to rescue Hg ingested individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.